WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-activity icp-aes measurements

  1. High-Activity ICP-AES Measurements in the ATALANTE Facility Applied to Analytical Monitoring of an Extraction Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbelin, E.; Boyer-Deslys, V.; Beres, A.; Viallesoubranne, C. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DRCP/SE2A/LAMM, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Material Analysis and Metrology Laboratory (LAMM) of the Cea's Atalante complex ensures analytical monitoring of enhanced separation tests. Certain fission products, actinides and lanthanides were assayed by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) in the CBA shielded analysis line. These analyses were particularly effective for controlling the Diamex test, and contributed to its success. The Diamex process consists in extracting the actinides and lanthanides from a Purex raffinate using a diamide, DMDOHEMA, followed by stripping at low acidity. The major elements analyzed during the test were Am, Nd, Mo, Fe, and Zr.

  2. High-Activity ICP-AES Measurements in the ATALANTE Facility Applied to Analytical Monitoring of an Extraction Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbelin, E.; Boyer-Deslys, V.; Beres, A.; Viallesoubranne, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Material Analysis and Metrology Laboratory (LAMM) of the Cea's Atalante complex ensures analytical monitoring of enhanced separation tests. Certain fission products, actinides and lanthanides were assayed by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) in the CBA shielded analysis line. These analyses were particularly effective for controlling the Diamex test, and contributed to its success. The Diamex process consists in extracting the actinides and lanthanides from a Purex raffinate using a diamide, DMDOHEMA, followed by stripping at low acidity. The major elements analyzed during the test were Am, Nd, Mo, Fe, and Zr

  3. Uncertainty assessing of measure result of tungsten in U3O8 by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Guirong; Nie Jie; Tang Lilei

    2011-01-01

    According as the determining method and the assessing criterion,the uncertainty assessing of measure result of tungsten in U 3 O 8 by ICP-AES is researched. With the assessment of each component in detail, the result shows that u rel (sc)> u rel (c)> u rel (F)> u rel (m) by uncertainty contribution. Other uncertainty is random, calculated by repetition. u rel (sc) is contributed to uncertainty mainly. So the general uncertainty is reduced with strict operation to reduce u rel (sc). (authors)

  4. A comparison between PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of metals in aerosol particulate collected in urban and marine sites in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S. [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and I.N.F.N., Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Lucarelli, F., E-mail: lucarelli@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and I.N.F.N., Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Nava, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and I.N.F.N., Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Rugi, F.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R. [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    PIXE and ICP-AES techniques are largely used in atmospheric aerosol studies. Since PIXE is able to provide the total elemental concentrations, while ICP-AES results depend on the extraction conditions, parallel PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr, Ni, V, As on PM10 and PM2.5 samples were compared. Two extraction procedures were applied to samples from 5 sites at different anthropization level in Italy: a “weak” extraction (HNO{sub 3} at pH = 1.5) and a “strong” extraction (micro-wave oven in HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} – following EU rules). The amount of the metal extracted in the different conditions resulted to be strongly dependent on the sampling site, on the main sources of the particle (crustal or anthropic) containing the metal and on the sampled size class.

  5. A determination method of Ru, Rh and Pd in high-level liquid waste (HLLW) by cation exchange separation and ICP-AES measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Desheng; Duan Shirong; Qin Fengzhou; Li Jinying; Zhang Huaili

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a determination method of Ru, Rh and Pd in HLLW with cation-exchange separation and ICP-AES measurement. A sample of HLLW was treated with the hydrochloride acid containing enough sodium chloride, then passed through a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column, the Ru, Rh and Pd as chloro-complexes go to the eluate while the interference elements are absorbed on the resins in the column. The Ru, Rh and Pd are collected and determined by ICP-AES. The obtained results show that the recovery is 90% and the relative standard deviation is 6% as the Ru content within the range (35-230) x 10 -6 ; the recovery is 106% and RSD is 10% as the Rh content within (2-20) x 10 -6 ; and the recovery of Pd is 72% as its content less than 2 x 10 -6

  6. Zinc, lead and copper in human teeth measured by induced coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, L.T.; Bradley, D.A. E-mail: D.A.Bradley@exeter.ac.uk; Mohd, Y.; Jamil, M

    2000-11-15

    Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) has been used to determine Pb, Zn and Cu levels in 47 exfoliated human teeth (all of which required extraction for orthodontic reasons). Lead concentrations for the group were 1.7 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} to 40.5 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}, with a median of 9.8 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}. A median lead level in excess of the group value was found for the teeth of six lorry drivers who were included in the study. A more significant enhancement was found for the seven subjects whose age was in excess of 60 years. The median values for Zn and Cu were 123.0 and 0.6 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} respectively. Present values for tooth-Zn are lower than published data for other ethnic groups.

  7. Toepassing ICP-AES op het RIKILT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruig, de W.G.

    1980-01-01

    Rapportage over de toepassing van ICP-AES op het RIKILT. Bij ICP-AES worden twee manieren van lichtemissie detectie toegepast nl. simultaan en sequentieel. De voor- en nadelen van ICP-AES t.o.v. AAS worden op een rij gezet.

  8. Determination of the performance characteristics of a method for the measurement of total phosphorus in groundwater with the PE Optima 3000 XL ICP-AES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlmeyer U; Breugem PM; Boer JLM de; LAC

    1996-01-01

    Dit rapport behandelt de prestatiekenmerken van een methode voor de bepaling van totaal-fosfor in grondwater met behulp van ICP-AES met een axiaal plasma (Perkin-Elmer Optima 3000 XL). Met de reeds bestaande methode 'TotP' werden de volgende prestatiekenmerken vastgesteld:

  9. ICP-AES determination of trace elements in carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Rajeswari, B.; Kadam, R.M.; Babu, Y.; Godbole, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Carbon steel, a combination of the elements iron and carbon, can be classified into four types as mild, medium, high and very high depending on the carbon content which varies from 0.05% to 2.1%. Carbon steel of different types finds application in medical devices, razor blades, cutlery and spring. In the nuclear industry, it is used in feeder pipes in the reactor. A strict quality control measure is required to monitor the trace elements, which have deleterious effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon steel. Thus, it becomes imperative to check the purity of carbon steel as a quality control measure before it is used in feeder pipes in the reactor. Several methods have been reported in literature for trace elemental determination in high purity iron. Some of these include neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is widely recognized as a sensitive technique for the determination of trace elements in various matrices, its major advantages being good accuracy and precision, high sensitivity, multi-element capability, large linear dynamic range and relative freedom from matrix effects. The present study mainly deals with the direct determination of trace elements in carbon steel using ICP-AES. An axially viewing ICP spectrometer having a polychromator with 35 fixed analytical channels and limited sequential facility to select any analytical line within 2.2 nm of a polychromator line was used in these studies. Iron, which forms one of the main constituents of carbon steel, has a multi electronic configuration with line rich emission spectrum and, therefore, tends to interfere in the determination of trace impurities in carbon steel matrix. Spectral interference in ICP-AES can be seriously detrimental to the accuracy and reliability of trace element determinations, particularly when they are performed in the presence of high

  10. Forensic discrimination of aluminum foil by SR-XRF and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Watanabe, Seiya; Shimoda, Osamu; Takatsu, Masahisa; Nakanishi, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The application of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) was investigated for the forensic discrimination of aluminum foil by comparisons of the elemental components. Small fragments (1 x 1 mm) were taken from 4 kinds of aluminum foils produced by different manufactures and used for measurements of the XRF spectrum at BL37XU of SPring-8. A comparison of the XRF spectra was effective for the discrimination of aluminum foils from different sources, because significant differences were observed in the X-ray peak intensities of Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr and Sn. These elements, except for Zr and Sn in the aluminum foils and NIST SRM1258 (Aluminium Alloy 6011), were also determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The observed values of Fe, Cu, Zn and Ga in NIST standard samples by ICP-AES showed satisfactorily good agreements with the certified or information values with relative standard deviations from 1.1% for Zn to 6.7% for Ga. The observed values for the aluminum foils by ICP-AES were compared with those by SR-XRF. Correlation coefficients from 0.997 for Cu/Fe to 0.999 for Zn/Fe and Ga/Fe were obtained between the ratio of the elemental concentration by ICP-AES and normalized the X-ray intensity by SR-XRF. This result demonstrates that a comparison of the normalized X-ray intensity is nearly as effective for the discrimination of aluminum foils as quantitative analysis by ICP-AES. Comparisons of the analytical results by SR-XRF allow the discrimination of all aluminum foils using only a 1 mm 2 fragment with no destruction of the samples. (author)

  11. ICP/AES radioactive sample analyses at Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, C.L.; Hara, F.T.

    1986-03-01

    Inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) analyses of radioactive materials at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began about three years ago upon completion of the installation of a modified Applied Research Laboratory (ARL) 3560. Funding for the purchase and installation of the ICP/AES was provided by the Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center (MCC) established at PNL by the Department of Energy in 1979. MCC's objective is to ensure that qualified materials data are available on waste materials. This paper is divided into the following topics: (1) Instrument selection considerations; (2) initial installation of the simultaneous system with the source stand enclosed in a 1/2'' lead-shielded glove box; (3) retrofit installation of the sequential spectrometer; and (4) a brief discussion on several types of samples analyzed. 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab

  12. Nutritional and environmental properties of algal products used in healthy diet by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avino, P.; Lepore, L.; Carconi, P.L.; Moauro, A.

    2000-01-01

    Spirulina platensis alga sampled in the Caribbean Sea and seven other commercial algal products available on the Italian market of different origin and aspect, have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). By neutron irradiation and γ-ray spectrometry (INAA), as many as 20 elements could be measured instrumentally without any chemical treatment. Cu, Mg, Mn and Pb were determined after dissolution of the sample by ICP-AES. The cross-checking of the data, specifically by comparing those of Ca, Cr, Fe and Zn, obtained by the two techniques was found to be in good agreement. Special attention from analytical and nutritional point of view has been devoted to the toxic metals. The measurements have been carried out employing the reference algal material prepared by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  13. Method for separation of Cs from acid solution dissolving radionuclides and microanalysis of solution with ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Akihide; Kudo, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Takehiko; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2004-06-01

    The VEGA (Verification Experiments of radionuclides Gas/Aerosol release) program is being performed at JAERI to understand mechanisms of radionuclides release from irradiated fuel during severe accidents. As a part of evaluation in the program, the mass balances of released and deposited FP (Fission Products) onto the test apparatus are estimated from gamma ray measurement for acid solution leached from the apparatus, but short-life nuclides are difficult to be measured because those in the VEGA fuel have been mostly depleted due to cooling for several years. Moreover, the radionuclides without emitting gamma rays and very small quantity of elements cannot be quantified by gamma ray measurement. Therefore, a microanalysis by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry) for the acid solution leached from VEGA apparatuses is being applied to evaluate the released and deposited masses for those elements. Since Cs-134 and -137, which are major FP dissolved in the solution, have high intensity of gamma ray spectrum, they have to be removed from the solution before the microanalysis in order to avoid contamination of ICP system and to decrease exposure to gamma ray. In this report, methods for separation of Cs from acid solution were reviewed and the applicability of them to the ICP-AES analysis was discussed. The method for Cs separation using the inorganic ion exchanger, AMP (Ammonium Molybdate Phosphate) was applied to the solutions of cold and hot test and the effectiveness was examined. The results showed that more than 99.9% of Cs could be removed from the test solutions, and once removed Sb by AMP was recovered by using a complexing agent such as citric acid. Next, the method was applied to an acid solution leached from VEGA-3 apparatus, and ICP-AES analysis was performed for it. The analysis showed that amount of U, Sr and Zr were successfully quantified. Most of elements to be analyzed were measurable except for Sb, Ag and Sn, although

  14. Multielemental analysis of Korean geological reference samples by INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoki Shirai; Hiroki Takahashi; Yuta Yokozuka; Mitsuru Ebihara; Meiramkhan Toktaganov; Shun Sekimoto

    2015-01-01

    Six Korean geological reference samples (KB-1, KGB-1, KT-1, KD-1, KG-1 and KG-2) prepared by Korea Institutes of Geoscience and Mineral Resources were analyzed by using INAA, ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Some elements could be determined by both INAA and non-INAA methods (ICP-AES and ICP-MS), and these data are consistent with each other. This study confirms that a combination of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is comparable to INAA in determining a wide range of major, minor and trace elements in geological materials. (author)

  15. PIXE and ICP-AES comparison in evaluating the efficiency of metal extraction and analysis in aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugi, F.; Becagli, S.; Ghedini, C.; Marconi, M.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R. [Dep. of Chemistry, University of Florence, Sesto F.no (Fl) (Italy); Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S. [Dep. of Physics and Astronomy , University of Florence and INFN, Sesto F. no (Fl) (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A recent EU regulation (EN 149022005) requests the quantification of selected metals in the atmospheric particulate by mineralization with H{sub 2}0{sub 2} and HN0{sub 3} in microwave oven.This method might possibly conflict with the determination of the total metal content. In fact, the more the aerosol is enriched in crustal elements the more the difference in the two methods are expected, since the H{sub 2}0{sub 2}+ HN0{sub 3}, extraction is not reliable for metals in silicate form. In order to evaluate the extracted fraction, PIXE and ICP-AES measurements were carried out on the two halves of a series of PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected on Teflon filters in an urban site in the surrounding of Florence (Italy). An ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma -Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) method was optimized by an ultrasound nebuliser (CETAC 5000 AT+), in order to improve reproducibility and detection limit. In these conditions, it was possible quantifying AI, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Vatsub-ppb levels. PIXE analysis using the external beam set-up at LABEC and a 3 MeV proton beam was carried out in order to measure the total elemental content of the metals. By comparing the ICP-AES and the PIXE results, a preliminary evaluation of the efficiency of the H{sub 2}0{sub 2} and HN0{sub 3} extraction method was performed. The obtained results (the mean values for the ICP-AES/PIXE ratio are reported in Table 1) show that the extraction procedure following the EN 14902 directive allows quantitative recoveries (80-120%, including the analytical uncertainties)for the majority of the analysed metals, especially for those mainly emitted by anthropic sources. This result points out that anthropic metals are present in the atmosphere as relatively available species (free metals, labile complexes, carbonates, oxides). On the contrary, lower recoveries were obtained for AI (mean value around 75%), a metal that has a relevant crustal fraction. Percentage of recovery of

  16. Chemical separation and ICP-AES determination of rare earths in Al2O3 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argekar, A.A.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Page, A.G.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    A chemical separation-ICP-AES method has been developed for determination of rare earths in alumina matrix. The quantitative separation of rare earths has also been confirmed using radiotracers. (author)

  17. PIXE analysis of human stones: comparison with data from ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pougnet, M.A.B.; Peisach, M.; Pineda, C.A.; Rodgers, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    25 human stone samples previously analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and the IAEA Animal Bone Standard Reference Material were used to evaluate trace element analysis by PIXE. Bombardment with 4 MeV protons was used for the determination of Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Br, Rb, Sr and Ca. PIXE and ICP-AES data gave correlation factors better than 0.97 for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn, Sr and Pb. (author) 9 refs.; 5 figs

  18. Environmental application of XRF, ICP-AES and INAA on biological matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zararsiz, A.; Dogangun, A.; Tuncel, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is very important to determine trace quantities of metals in different matrices with high accuracy since the metals are used as markers for different sources in air pollution studies. In this study, the analytical capabilities of XRF, ICP-AES and INM techniques on a biological matrix namely lichens, which are widely used as bio monitoring organisms for the pollutants mapping in the atmosphere, were tested. Lichen samples were collected in Aegean Region of Turkey where pollution is an important issue. 9 elements were determined by XRF, 14 elements by ICP-AES and 13 elements by INM. Quality assurance was achieved using lichen SRM (IAEA-336) and Orchard leaves SRM (NIST- 1571). Produced data are subjected to statistical tests, like t-test, Q-test in order to determine the accuracy and precision of each technique. A recommendation list of the proper analytical technique is obtained for determination of each specific element considering analytical capabilities of ICP-AES, XRF and INM. As a result we can recommend that the first choice for Cd, Cu, Mg is ICP-AES, for In, K, Rb is INAA, for Br is XRF, if the concentrations are not close to the detection limit of XRF. For V, Cr, AI, Na, Fe ICP-AES and INM are both well, for Pb ICP-AES and XRF are both well, if the concentrations are not close to the detection limit of XRF, for Mn and Ca INM, XRF and ICP-AES are all give similar results for this type of biological matrix

  19. Some aspects of ICP-AES analysis of high purity rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, P.S.; Biswas, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is a technique capable of giving high sensitivity in trace elemental analysis. While the technique possesses high sensitivity, it lacks high selectivity. Selectivity is important where substances emitting complex spectra are to be analysed for trace elements. Rare earths emit highly complex spectra in a plasma source and the determination of adjacent rare earths in a high purity rare earth matrix, with high sensitivity, is not possible due to the inadequate selectivity of ICP-AES. One approach that has yielded reasonably good spectral selectivity in the high purity rare earth analysis by ICP-AES is by employing a combination of wavelength modulation techniques and high resolution echelle grating. However, it was found that by using a high resolution monochromator senstitivities either comparable to or better than those reported by the wavelength modulation technique could be obtained. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Estimation of metal ions during the dissolution of corrosion product oxides by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Mittal, Vinit Kumar; Velmurugan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is one of the several techniques, which is being widely used for both qualitative and quantitative estimation of various elements. Determination of metals in wine, arsenic in food, trace elements in soil, nutrient levels in agricultural soils, trace elements bound to protein, motor oil analysis etc. are the examples of its application. ICP-AES utilizes plasma as the atomization and excitation source. The plasma temperature in the analytical zone ranges from 5000-8000 K. This high temperature assures that most of the compounds in the samples are completely atomized. Advantages of ICP-AES are high sensitivity and linear dynamic range, multi-element capability, low chemical interference and a stable and reproducible signal. The typical limits of detection for some of the elements like Mg, Sr, Ca, Li, Cu etc are well below 1 μg L -1

  1. Obsidian provenance studies in archaeology: A comparison between PIXE, ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; Poupeau, Gerard; Salomon, Joseph; Calligaro, Thomas; Moignard, Brice; Dran, Jean-Claude; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Pichon, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Elemental composition fingerprinting by PIXE technique is very attractive for obsidian provenance studies as it may proceed in a non-destructive mode, even if a more complete elemental characterization can be obtained by ICP-MS and/or ICP-AES. Only few studies have compared results obtained by both methods for solid rock samples. In this work, elemental compositions were determined by ICP-MS/-AES for international geochemical standards and by ICP-MS/-AES and PIXE for inter-laboratory reference obsidians. In addition 49 obsidian source samples and artefacts were analysed by both ICP-MS/-AES and PIXE. Instrumental work and measurement quality control performed for obsidian chemical characterization, underline that PIXE and ICP-MS/-AES provide reproducible, accurate and comparable measurements. In some volcanic districts the limited number of elements dosed by PIXE is sufficient for the discrimination of the potential raw sources of obsidians. Therefore, PIXE can be an advantageous substitute to ICP-MS/-AES techniques for provenance studies

  2. Microwave assisted extraction for trace element analysis of plant materials by ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowska-Burnecka, J. [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Chemii

    2000-11-01

    Application of microwave assisted extraction for the decomposition and dissolution of plant samples for trace metal determination by ICP-AES was examined. Dried onion, leaves of spinach beet and three reference materials CTA-OTL-1, CTA-VTL-2 and CL-1 were analyzed. Water, EDTA and hydrochloric acid (0.01, 0.10 and 1.0 M, respectively) were used as leaching solutions. The extraction efficiency was investigated by comparison of the results with those obtained after microwave wet digestion. HCl was found to be very suitable for quantitative extraction of B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn from the samples. For reference materials, the measured concentrations are well consistent with the certified values. The use of EDTA led to a complete extraction of B, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Water was found to be a good leaching solution for boron. For extraction with HCl and EDTA, the RSD values for the concentrations measured were below 8% for most of the elements. (orig.)

  3. Microwave assisted extraction for trace element analysis of plant materials by ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowska-Burnecka, J

    2000-11-01

    Application of microwave assisted extraction for the decomposition and dissolution of plant samples for trace metal determination by ICP-AES was examined. Dried onion, leaves of spinach beet and three reference materials CTA-OTL-1, CTA-VTL-2 and CL-1 were analyzed. Water, EDTA and hydrochloric acid (0.01, 0.10 and 1.0 M, respectively) were used as leaching solutions. The extraction efficiency was investigated by comparison of the results with those obtained after microwave wet digestion. HCl was found to be very suitable for quantitative extraction of B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn from the samples. For reference materials, the measured concentrations are well consistent with the certified values. The use of EDTA led to a complete extraction of B, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Water was found to be a good leaching solution for boron. For extraction with HCl and EDTA, the RSD values for the concentrations measured were below 8% for most of the elements.

  4. Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing team: An examination of LA-ICP-AES in a mobile configuration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified the need for field-deployable elemental analysis devices that are safer, faster, and less expensive than the fixed laboratory procedures now used to screen hazardous waste sites. As a response to this need, the Technology Integration Program (TIP) created a mobile, field-deployable laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) sampling and analysis prototype. Although the elemental. screening prototype has been successfully field-tested, continued marketing and technical development efforts are required to transfer LA-ICP-AES technology to the commercial sector. TIP established and supported a student research and design group called the Integrated Design for Marketing and Manufacturing (IDMM) team to advance the technology transfer of mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES. The IDMM team developed a conceptual design (which is detailed in this report) for a mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES sampling and analysis system, and reports the following findings: Mobile, field-deployable LA-ICP-AES is commercially viable. Eventual regulatory acceptance of field-deployable LA-ICP-AES, while not a simple process, is likely. Further refinement of certain processes and components of LA-ICP-AES will enhance the device's sensitivity and accuracy

  5. Development of ICP-AES based method for the characterization of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshagiri, T.K.; Thulsidas, S.K.; Adya, V.C.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Radhakrishnan, K.; Mary, G.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Bhalerao, Bharti; Pant, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    An Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) method was developed for the trace metal characterization of high level waste solutions (HLW) of different origin and the method was validated by analysis of synthetic samples of simulated high level waste solutions (SHLW) from spent fuels of varying composition. In this context, an inter-laboratory comparison exercise (ILCE) was carried out with the simulated HLW of different spent fuel types, viz., research reactor (RR), pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR). An over view of the ICP-AES determination of trace metallic constituents in such SHLW solutions is presented. The overall agreement between the various laboratories was good. (author)

  6. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  7. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) determination of boron and other trace impurities in aluminium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.S.; Patil, P.B.; Karanjikar, N.P.

    2002-01-01

    The optimisation and use of ICP-AES technique for the analysis of aluminium metal for B, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Si, Ti, V and Zn in the concentration range 5.0 to 50.0 ppm is described. The method involves the dissolution of aluminium metal in acqua-regia. The matrix aluminium solution (2mg/ml) is mixed with composite impurity solution in proper proportions, for getting the required set of standards. JY 1 metre Czerny-Turner Scanning monochromator is used to measure peak intensities corresponding to each analyte wavelength selected. The mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method for various elements is found to be 4.0% -2.0% in the concentration range studied. (author)

  8. Spectral interference of zirconium on 24 analyte elements using CCD based ICP-AES technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adya, V.C.; Sengupta, Arijit; Godbole, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    In the present studies, the spectral interference of zirconium on different analytical lines of 24 critical analytes using CCD based ICP-AES technique is described. Suitable analytical lines for zirconium were identified along with their detection limits. The sensitivity and the detection limits of analytical channels for different elements in presence of Zr matrix were calculated. Subsequently analytical lines with least interference from Zr and better detection limits were selected for their determinations. (author)

  9. Simultaneous multielement analysis of zirconium alloys by chlorination separation of matrix/ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kaneharu

    1990-01-01

    An analytical method combined chlorination separation of matrix with ICP-AES has been developed for reactor grade Zr alloys (Zircaloy-2). A sample (1 g) is taken into a Pt boat and chlorinated with HCl gas of 100 ml/min in a glass reaction tube at ca. 330degC. Matrix Zr of the sample is volatilized and separated as ZrCl 4 . The analytic elements remaining quantitatively as chlorination residue are dissolved in a mixture of mineral acids (6 M HCl 3 ml+conc. HNO 3 0.5 ml+conc. H 2 SO 4 0.2 ml) and diluted to 20 ml with distilled water after filtration. ICP-AES was used for simultaneous multielement determination using a calibration curve method. The present method has the following advantages: simple sample preparation procedure; applicability to any form of samples to determine multielements; simple ICP-AES calibration procedure. This method was successfully applied to the determination of Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, Mn and Pb in the Zr alloys of JAERI CRM's and NBS SRM's. (author)

  10. Separation techniques for the clean-up of radioactive mixed waste for ICP-AES/ICP-MS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swafford, A.M.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Two separation techniques were investigated for the clean-up of typical radioactive mixed waste samples requiring elemental analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). These measurements frequently involve regulatory or compliance criteria which include the determination of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List (TAL). These samples usually consist of both an aqueous phase and a solid phase which is mostly an inorganic sludge. Frequently, samples taken from the waste tanks contain high levels of uranium and thorium which can cause spectral interferences in ICP-AES or ICP-MS analysis. The removal of these interferences is necessary to determine the presence of the EPA TAL elements in the sample. Two clean-up methods were studied on simulated aqueous waste samples containing the EPA TAL elements. The first method studied was a classical procedure based upon liquid-liquid extraction using tri-n- octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) dissolved in cyclohexane. The second method investigated was based on more recently developed techniques using extraction chromatography; specifically the use of a commercially available Eichrom TRU·Spec trademark column. Literature on these two methods indicates the efficient removal of uranium and thorium from properly prepared samples and provides considerable qualitative information on the extraction behavior of many other elements. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the extraction behavior of elements on the EPA Target Analyte List. Experimental studies on these two methods consisted of determining whether any of the analytes were extracted by these methods and the recoveries obtained. Both methods produced similar results; the EPA target analytes were only slightly or not extracted. Advantages and disadvantages of each method were evaluated and found to be comparable

  11. Radiochemical separation and ICP-AES determination of some common metallic elements in ThO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adya, V.C.; Hon, N.S.; Bangia, T.R.; Sastry, M.D.; Iyer, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive tracer and also ICP-AES studies have been carried out to determine Al, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo and Pd in ThO 2 matrix after chemical separation. Di-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphoric acid/xylene/HNO 3 extraction system was used for quantitative separation of thorium. The recovery of elements as determined by tracers and ICP-AES was found to be quantitative within experimental error. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  12. Determination of Boron in Zircaloy by using ICP-AES and Colorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Goo; Pyo, Hyung-Ryul; Choi, Kwang-Soon; Han, Sun-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Zircaloy has been being widely used in the nuclear industry because of the low cross section of Zirconium against a thermal neutron. Accurate composition data of Zircaloy for Hf, B, and so on having a high cross section against thermal neutron is important to use it as a nuclear material. Accordingly proper determination methods of these elements in Zircaloy are needed. In this study, the application of two methods, ICP-AES and a colorimetry using methylene blue were investigated in order to establish a proper analysis method of Boron in the range from tens to hundreds ug B/g sample of Zircaloy.

  13. Determination of Boron in Zircaloy by using ICP-AES and Colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Goo; Pyo, Hyung-Ryul; Choi, Kwang-Soon; Han, Sun-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Zircaloy has been being widely used in the nuclear industry because of the low cross section of Zirconium against a thermal neutron. Accurate composition data of Zircaloy for Hf, B, and so on having a high cross section against thermal neutron is important to use it as a nuclear material. Accordingly proper determination methods of these elements in Zircaloy are needed. In this study, the application of two methods, ICP-AES and a colorimetry using methylene blue were investigated in order to establish a proper analysis method of Boron in the range from tens to hundreds ug B/g sample of Zircaloy

  14. Determination of traces of thorium in ammonium/sodium diuranate by ICP-AES method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, V.R.; Kartha, K.N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Alwaye, produces ammonium diuranate from the thorium concentrate, obtained during monazite processing. This process involves a series of steps. The final uranium product obtained always contains microgram amounts of thorium as impurity. An analytical procedure has been standardised for the estimation of microgram amounts of thorium in ammonium/sodium diuranate. The method involves solvent extraction of uranium by using a tertiary amine followed by the determination of thorium by ICP-AES method in the raffinate. The recoveries of thorium were checked by standard addition to the uranium matrix. Limit of detection is adequate for the analysis of nuclear grade material

  15. Determination of Nb and Zr in U-Nb-Zr alloys by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cuiping; Dong Shizhe; Li Lin; He Meiying

    2003-01-01

    The U-Nb-Zr alloy sample is dissolved by HNO 3 , H 2 O 2 and HF, and the contents of Nb and Zr in the sample are determined on the JY-70 II type ICP-AES by using the internal standard synchronous dilution method. The range of determination is 1%-10% and 0.33%-3.33%, respectively for Nb and Zr. The relative standard deviation is better than 3.2% for Nb, and 2.5% for Zr. The method is rapid and convenient for determining Nb and Zr in U-Nb-Zr alloy sample

  16. ICP-AES determination of rare earths in zirconium with prior chemical separation of the matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeswari, B.; Dhawale, B.A.; Page, A.G.; Sastry, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium being one of the most important material in nuclear industry used as a fuel cladding in reactors and an additive in advanced fuels necessitates its characterization for trace metallic contents. Zirconium, as refractory in nature as the rare earth elements, has a complex spectrum comprising of several emission lines. Rare earths, which are high neutron absorbers have to be analysed at very low limits. Hence, to achieve the desired limits, the major matrix has to be separated prior to rare earth determination. The present paper describes the method developed for the separation of rare earths from zirconium by solvent extraction using Trioctyl Phosphine Oxide (TOPO) as the extractant followed by their determination using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometric (ICP-AES) method. Initially, radiochemical studies were carried out using known amounts of gamma active tracers of 141 Ce, 152-154 Eu, 153 Gd and 95 Zr for optimisation of extraction conditions using Tl- activated NaI detector. The optimum conditions at 0.5 M TOPO/xylene in 6 M HCl so as to achieve a quantitative recovery of rare earth analytes alongwith a near total extraction of zirconium in the organic phase, was further extended to carry out the studies using ICP-AES method. The recovery of rare earths was found to be quantitative within experimental error with a precision better than 10% RSD. (author)

  17. A new approach for the beryl mineral decomposition: elemental characterisation using ICP-AES and FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, Usha; Premadas, A.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for the beryl mineral sample decomposition and solution preparation method suitable for the elemental analysis using ICP-AES and FAAS is described. For the complete sample decomposition four different decomposition procedures are employed such as with (i) ammonium bi-fluoride alone (ii) a mixture of ammonium bi-fluoride and ammonium sulphate (iii) powdered mixture of NaF and KHF 2 in 1: 3 ratio, and (iv) acid digestion treatment using hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid mixture, and the residue fused with a powdered mixture NaF and KHF 2 . Elements like Be, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Cr, Ca, Mg, and Nb are determined by ICP-AES and Na, K, Rb and Cs are determined by FAAS method. Fusion with 2g ammonium bifluoride flux alone is sufficient for the complete decomposition of 0.400 gram sample. The values obtained by this decomposition procedure are agreed well with the reported method. Accuracy of the proposed method was checked by analyzing synthetic samples prepared in the laboratory by mixing high purity oxides having a chemical composition similar to natural beryl mineral. It indicates that the accuracy of the method is very good, and the reproducibility is characterized by the RSD 1 to 4% for the elements studied. (author)

  18. A scheme for the complete elemental characterisation of brannerite mineral using ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premadas, A.; Bose, Roopa

    2013-01-01

    Brannerite occurs along with other refractory minerals in pegmatite veins. Literature survey indicates lack of systematic and detailed chemical analysis procedure for brannerites. This paper report suitable sample decomposition procedures, yielding stable sample solution, suitable for the ICP-AES determination of major, minor and certain trace elements normally associated with brannerite mineral. Three different simple decomposition procedures such as (i) acid digestion (ii) fusion with lithium metaborate (iii) fusion with mixture of tetra sodium pyrophosphate and monosodium dihydrogen phosphate are used to obtain the sample solution for elemental analysis. In presence of higher concentrations of uranium and titanium, the major elements in brannerite mineral, a detailed study of the influence of uranium and titanium on ICP-AES determination of other elements, three commonly used emission lines of each element was carried out. The REEs, Y, Sc and Th have been determined after the removal of major matrix elements using oxalate precipitation. The accuracy of the proposed procedures is established by analyzing synthetic brannerite samples prepared by mixing high purity oxides or chlorides in a proportion similar to natural brannerite samples. The results indicate the method is accurate. The reproducibility studies carried out on one sample shows the % RSD varied from 2 to 5%. (author)

  19. The calibration of XRF polyethylene reference materials with k 0-NAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swagten, Josefien; Bossus, Daniel; Vanwersch, Hanny

    2006-01-01

    Due to the lack of commercially available polyethylene reference materials for the calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF), DSM Resolve, in cooperation with PANalytical, prepared and calibrated such a set of standards in 2005. The reference materials were prepared based on the addition of additives to virgin polyethylene. The mentioned additives are added to improve the performance of the polymers. The elements present in additives are tracers for the used additives. The reference materials contain the following elements: F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti and Zn in the concentration range of 5 mg/kg for Ti, up to 600 mg/kg for Mg. The calibration of the reference materials, including a blank, was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -NAA). ICP-AES was used to determine the elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti and Zn whereas k 0 -NAA was used for F, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti and Zn. Over the complete concentration range, a good agreement of the results was found between the both techniques. This project has shown that within DSM Resolve, it is possible to develop and to calibrate homogenous reference materials for XRF

  20. Determination of some inorganic metals in edible vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen edible vegetable oils were analyzed spectrometrically for their metal (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn contents. Toxic metals in edible vegetable oils were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The highest metal concentrations were measured as 0.0850, 0.0352, 0.0220, 0.0040, 0.0010, 0.0074, 0.0045, 0.0254 and 0.2870 mg/kg for copper in almond oil, for iron in corn oil-(c, for manganese in soybean oil, for cobalt in sunflower oil-(b and almond oil, for chromium in almond oil, for lead in virgin olive oil, for cadmium in sunflower oil-(e, for nickel almond oil and for zinc in almond oil respectively. The method for determining toxic metals in edible vegetable oils by using ICP-AES is discussed. The metals were extracted from low quantities of oil (2-3 g with a 10% nitric acid solution. The extracted metal in acid solution can be injected into the ICPAES. The proposed method is simple and allows the metals to be determined in edible vegetable oils with a precision estimated below 10% relative standard deviation (RSD for Cu, 5% for Fe, 15% for Mn, 8% for Co, 10% for Cr, 20% for Pb, 5% for Cd, 16% for Ni and 11% for Zn.En este estudio se analizó espectrométricamente el contenido en metales (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn de 17 aceites vegetales comestibles mediante ICP-AES. Las concentaciones más elevadas se encontraron para el cobre en el aceite de almendra (0.0850 mg/kg, para el hierro en el aceite de maiz(c,(0.0352 mg/kg, para el manganeso en el aceite de soja (0.0220 mg/kg, para el cobalto en el aceite de girasol (b (0.0040 mg/kg, para el cromo en el aceite de almendra (0.0010 mg/kg, para el plomo en el aceite de oliva virgen (0.0074 mg/kg, para el cadmio en el aceite de girasol (e (0.0045 mg/kg, para el niquel en el aceite de almendra (0.0254 mg/kg y para el zincen el aceite de almendra (0.2870 mg/kg. Los metales se extrajeron a partir de bajas cantidades de aceite (2-3 g, con

  1. Transition metal analysis. A comparison between ICP-AES and deuteron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, A.E.; Williams, J.R.; Hassan, S.M.; Al-Hamdi, A.; El Mardi, M.O.

    2002-01-01

    The analytical capabilities of ICP-AES (ICP) and deuteron activation (associated with prompt gamma-rays and delayed X-rays) for the determination of certain transition metals, were investigated. The sensitivities of the three methods are given, and the general applicability of each technique is evaluated. In the case of ICP, numerical data were obtained from aqueous solutions containing digested plant material. These experimental results were assessed against minimum detectable limits attained in relevant solid matrices that were subjected to prompt gamma-ray and delayed X-ray spectrometry using 5 MeV 2 H + ions. The analytically useful lines originated mainly from (d,p) and (d,n) reactions. The potential of the three techniques for routine analysis is discussed and detailed methodologies are presented. (author)

  2. ICP-AES Determination of Mineral Content in Boletus tomentipes Collected from Different Sites of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-mei; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Li, Jie-qing; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Liu, Hong-gao

    2015-05-01

    P, Na, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr and Ni, contents have been examined in caps and stipes of Boletus tomentipes collected from different sites of Yunnan province, southwest China. The elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) with microwave digestion. P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu were the most abundant amongst elements determined in Boletus tomentipes. The caps were richer in P, Mg, Zn and Cd, and the stipes in Ca, Co and Ni. Cluster analysis showed a difference between Puer (BT7 and BT8) and other places. The PCA explained about 77% of the total variance, and the minerals differentiating these places were P (PC1) together with Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, As and Ni, Na (PC2) together with Cd, and Zn (PC3). The results of this study imply that element concentrations of a mushroom are mutative when collected from the different bedrock soil geochemistry.

  3. Elemental analysis of oum er rbia moroccan river-water Using icp-aes and chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Labraimi, M.; Moutte, J.; Bilal, E.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 22 elements has been performed utilizing ICP-AES and chromatography methods. MPS samples were dissolved in nitric acid. The element analyzed are : Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Ba and Pb. The detection limits are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for the accuracy by the analysis of a multi-elemental standard. The results for most of the elements obtained were accurate to about 2-15%. The objective of the analysis were to determine the geochemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanisms of sediment transport and nevertheless, to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 48 samples were collected along the river, between its source in meddle atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city

  4. Determination of platinum group metals by ICP-AES in environmental samples after preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasankova, R.; Sommer, L.

    1999-01-01

    Platinum group metal (PGM) may have toxic properties and their presence in the environment represent danger for human health. With the introduction of automobile catalytic converters containing PGM, the emission of these noble metals into atmosphere has increased. Platinum, palladium and rhodium are used in this catalytic converters to decrease toxic emissions of carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in vehicles exhaust gases. These catalysts are mobile sources of PGM into the environment. Thus, increased platinum concentrations have been found in various objects of environment because of the massive introduction of such catalytic converters are present. The preconcentration and separation of PGM and their determination by ICP-AES in environmental samples are described

  5. An ICP AES method for determination of dysprosium and terbium in high purity yttrium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupawate, V.H.; Hareendran, K.N.; Roy, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    High purity yttrium finds interesting application in astronavigation, luminescence, nuclear energy and metallurgical industries. Most of these applications require yttrium oxide of highest purity. Consequently there is a need for production of high purity yttrium oxide. Separation and purification of yttrium from other rare earths is a challenging task due to their close chemical properties. Liquid-liquid extraction and ion exchange have been widely used in the production of yttrium oxide of highest purity. Determination of impurities, especially other rare earths, in ppm level is required for process development and chemical characterization of the high purity Y 2 O 3 . Many methods have been described in literature. However since the advent of ICP AES much work in this area has been carried out by this technique. This paper describes the work done for determination of dysprosium (Dy) and terbium (Tb) in yttrium oxide using a high resolution sequential ICP AES. Emission spectra of rare earth elements are very complex and due to this complexity it is important to select spectral interference free analyte lines for determination of rare earths in rare earth matrix. For the determination of Dy and Tb in Y 2 O 3 , sensitive lines of Dy and Tb are selected from the instrument wavelength table and spectral interference free emission lines for the determination is selected by scanning around the selected wavelengths using 5 g/L Y solution and 5 mg/L standard solutions of Dy and Tb prepared in 4% nitric acid. It is found 353.170 nm line of Dy and 350.917 nm line Tb is suitable for quantitative determination. The signal to background ratio increases with increase in matrix concentration, i.e. from 1 to 5 mg/L. The optimum forward power is determined and it is found to be 1100W for Dy and 1000W for Tb. The instrument is calibrated using matrix matched standards containing 5g/L of Y matrix. Samples are dissolved in nitric acid and Y concentration is maintained at 5g/L. Two

  6. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  7. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Department of Technical Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Ma, B. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Q.H. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, P. [Xinjiang Institute of Archaeology, Urumchi 830011 (China); Gan, F.X. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-10-15

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} system, K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} system, Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} system and Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO{sub 2} glass and the K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-SiO{sub 2} glass (including the Na{sub 2}O-CaO-PbO-SiO{sub 2} glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  8. Trace level determination of precious metals in aqueous medium, U, Th and Zr based nuclear materials by ICP-AES and EDXRF - a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Thulasidas, S.K.; Natarajan, V.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out to determine Ag, Au and Pt in aqueous samples, uranium, zirconium, and thorium based nuclear fuels and associated materials by CCD based ICP-AES and EDXRF. In ICP-AES, the spectral interference of U, Th, Zr matrices on trace level determination of Ag, Au and Pt were studied for different analytical lines of these analytes. The analytical performance of different lines including detection limits, sensitivity, linear dynamic range etc were studied both by ICP-AES and EDXRF. Though EDXRF technique was known its non destructive nature, the overall analytical performance of ICP-AES technique was found to be superior to EDXRF. Based on the spectral contribution from emission rich matrix elements and the analytical performance of different analytical lines of these analytes, a method was developed for direct determination of these analytes by ICP-AES without chemical separation. The method was validated with synthetic samples and compared with EDXRF technique and conventional ICP-AES technique where the major matrix was chemically separated using suitable organic phase containing selective ligands. The ICP-AES method for direct determination of analytes without chemical separation was found to be simple, less time consuming, without generation of organic waste with acceptable analytical performance

  9. A study on the determination of phosphorus in Th-U matrix by a high resolution spectroanalyser (ICP-AES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Save, Neeta; Kumar, Neeraj; Jaiswal, Rajesh; Ghosh, Seema; Malav, R.K.; Das, D.K.; Prakash, Amrit; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is present as an impurity in Thoria and constitutes an important chemical specification of the Thoria based fuel. The present paper depicts the importance of determination of phosphorus, which forms an important quality control step during the fabrication of mixed oxide (Th-U)O 2 pellet. A high resolution spectroanalyser using ICP-AES has been used for the determination of Phosphorus in (ThO 2 -3.25%UO 2 ). (author)

  10. Comparison of elemental quantity by PIXE and ICP-MS and/or ICP-AES for NIST standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, K.; Sera, K.; Gotoh, T.; Nakamura, M.

    2002-01-01

    Urban particulate matter (SRM 1648), Buffalo River sediment (SRM 2704) and pine needle (SRM 1575) standard reference materials prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) were analyzed by three multi-element analysis methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES); values determined by those analysis methods were compared with certified and/or non-certified values of NIST samples. Values determined by PIXE were 70-120% relative to certified and/or non-certified values of NIST samples except for Co in the urban particulate matter, for V and Co in Buffalo River sediment and for Ni and Br in the pine needles samples. In particular, Al, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb were 85-110% in all samples. On the other hand, Na and Fe values determined by ICP-MS were very much different from the certified values in all samples, but the other elements were 70-120%. As for ICP-AES, all elements except for Na were 80-100% in all samples. Comparing the values determined by PIXE and those determined by ICP-MS and/or ICP-AES, there was a slight difference between the samples, but the range was 75-120% except for Na, V, Fe and Co determined by ICP-MS and Na determined by ICP-AES, which was generally consistent with PIXE

  11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of human nails to find correlation between nutrients and vitamin D deficiency using LIBS and ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almessiere, M A; Altuwiriqi, R; Gondal, M A; AlDakheel, R K; Alotaibi, H F

    2018-08-01

    In this work, we analysed human fingernails of people who suffer from vitamin D deficiency using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy(LIBS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)techniques. The measurements have been conducted on 71 nail samples collected randomly from volunteers of different genders and ages ranged between 20 and 50 years. The main aim of this study is to find the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and the intensity of some dominated lines in the LIBS spectra. A LIBS spectrum consists of dominant lines of fifteen elements including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium, iron, chloride, sulphur, copper, chromium, zinc, nitrogen, phosphor, and oxygen. By recording the spectrum in specific ranges and focusing on calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium, we found a correlation between the intensity of the potassium (K) lines at (766.5 and 769.9 nm)and vitamin D level in both age groups (20 and 25 years old), with weak correlation for the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sodium (Na) lines. To verify the validity of the LIBS results, we analysed the nail samples with ICP, a standard analytical technique. The elements detected with our LIBS technique are in a good agreement with those identified by ICP-AES. From the health and physiological perspectives, the LIBS system, which is used for spectral analysis in this work, is appropriate for diagnostic purposes such as to find the correlation between vitamin D deficiency and potassium content, especially for hypertensive patients who simultaneously take potassium-based medication and vitamin D supplement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Silvia S.; Di Santo, Norberto R.; Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Pucci, Gladys N.; Batistoni, Daniel A.; Schwint, Amanda E.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in 10 B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute samples

  13. Evaluation of Wet Chemical ICP-AES Elemental Analysis Methods using Simulated Hanford Waste Samples-Phase I Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Charles J.; Edwards, Thomas B.

    2005-01-01

    The wet chemistry digestion method development for providing process control elemental analyses of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Melter Feed Preparation Vessel (MFPV) samples is divided into two phases: Phase I consists of: (1) optimizing digestion methods as a precursor to elemental analyses by ICP-AES techniques; (2) selecting methods with the desired analytical reliability and speed to support the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement of the WTP; and (3) providing baseline comparison to the laser ablation (LA) sample introduction technique for ICP-AES elemental analyses that is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Phase II consists of: (1) Time-and-Motion study of the selected methods from Phase I with actual Hanford waste or waste simulants in shielded cell facilities to ensure that the methods can be performed remotely and maintain the desired characteristics; and (2) digestion of glass samples prepared from actual Hanford Waste tank sludge for providing comparative results to the LA Phase II study. Based on the Phase I testing discussed in this report, a tandem digestion approach consisting of sodium peroxide fusion digestions carried out in nickel crucibles and warm mixed-acid digestions carried out in plastic bottles has been selected for Time-and-Motion study in Phase II. SRNL experience with performing this analytical approach in laboratory hoods indicates that well-trained cell operator teams will be able to perform the tandem digestions in five hours or less. The selected approach will produce two sets of solutions for analysis by ICP-AES techniques. Four hours would then be allocated for performing the ICP-AES analyses and reporting results to meet the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement. The tandem digestion approach will need to be performed in two separate shielded analytical cells by two separate cell operator teams in order to achieve the nine-hour or less turnaround

  14. Estimation of boron, cadmium and cobalt at trace level in magnesium metal using ICP-AES method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, P.B.; Surya Prakash Rao, A.; Dixit, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    A method is established for the analysis of B, Cd and Co in the magnesium metal using ICP-AES technique in the range 1-50 ppm. Magnesium granules were dissolved in minimum amount of dilute nitric acid and the resultant solution is aspirated through ICP Nebulizer as nitrates Using various concentrations of matrix material 40, 20, 10 and 5 (mg/ml) were attempted to study the matrix effects on the above analytical elements. The optimum matrix concentration 20 mg/ml gave adequate detection limit of 1 ppm. The standard deviation of this method lies ∼ 1-3%. (author)

  15. Monitoring of some heavy metal in egypt using different spectroscopic technique ICP-AES and AAS-GF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals include both toxic and/or non toxic elements egyptian aquatic environment were monitored using inductivly coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy; ICP-AES and graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy; GF-AAS. Water and aquatic weeds (waterhyathins) are of different categories specified for such monitoring form the canals. The locations of sampling sites the river nile in egypt. These sites were chosen based on the industrial activity comparing to the cleansite and the other cultivated one. Bioavailability and related effects were defined so as to specify actually the higher concentration more contaminated areas

  16. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in salmon egg by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in salmon egg was carried out by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. First, salmon eggs (30 eggs used) were digested with conc. nitric acid and 60% perchloric acid by heating almost to dryness repeatedly. Finally, the residues of salmon eggs were dissolved in 1 M nitric acid and the sample solutions were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. About 40 elements could be determined over the concentration range in 9 orders of magnitude. The concentrations of bio-essential elements, such as Zn, Fe, and Cu, in salmon egg were 10-100 times higher than those in human blood serum. In addition, the major-to-ultratrace elements in cell cytoplasm and cell membrane were separately determined in a similar manner to those in whole egg cell. The concentrations of most bio-essential elements were higher in cell cytoplasm than in cell membrane, while those of Fe and Cu were higher in cell membrane than in cell cytoplasm of salmon egg. (author)

  17. Study on different pre-treatment procedures for metal determination in Orujo spirit samples by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barciela, Julia; Vilar, Manuela; Garcia-Martin, Sagrario; Pena, Rosa M.; Herrero, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    In this work several pre-treatment methods were studied for metal (Na, K, Mg, Cu and Ca) determination in Orujo spirit samples using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Dilution, digestion, evaporation, and cryogenic desolvatation techniques were comparatively evaluated. Because of their analytical characteristics, digestion and evaporation with nitrogen current were found to be appropriate procedures for the determination of metals in alcoholic spirit samples. Yet, if simplicity and application time are to be considered, the latter-evaporation in a water bath with a nitrogen current-stands out as the optimum procedure for any further determinations in Orujo samples by ICP-AES. Low detection levels and wide linear ranges (sufficient to determine these metals in the samples studied) were achieved for each metal. The recoveries (in the 97.5-100.5% range) and the precision (R.S.D. lower than 5.6%) obtained were also satisfactory. The selected procedure was applied to determine the content of metals in 80 representative Galician Orujo spirit samples with and without a Certified Brand of Origin (CBO) which had been produced using different distillation systems. The metal concentrations ranged between 0.37 and 79.7 mg L -1 for Na, -1 for K, 0.02-4.83 mg L -1 for Mg content, -1 for Cu and 0.03-13.10 mg L -1 for Ca

  18. Tandem on-line continuous separations for atomic spectroscopic indirect analysis: iodide determination by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.M.; Sanchez Uria, J.E.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Quintero Ortega, M.C.; Bautista, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A sensitive and selective indirect determination of iodide by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) based on the principle of tandem on-line continuous separations as an alternative means of introducing samples into plasmas is proposed. Iodide is continuously extracted as an ion-pair into xylene by mixing the sample with Hg(II) and dipyridil solutions. The organic phase (containing the analyte in [Hg(Dipy) 2 ]I 2 form) is on-line continuously mixed with NaBH 4 (in DMF) and acetic acid solutions. Mercury vapour continuously generated from this organic phase is separated in a classical U-type gas-liquid separation device. The system has been optimized for the continuous extraction of KI, for the direct generation of cold mercury vapour from xylene and for the final ICP-AES determination of mercury. The optimised method has been applied to the determination of iodide (detection limit 20 ng/ml of iodide) in table salt and in synthetic samples. Very good agreement between found and certified results was observed. The usefulness and convenience of such alternative sample chemical pretreatment/presentation to the ICP is thus demonstrated for indirect determinations to be carried out by atomic spectroscopy methods. (authors)

  19. ICP-AES method for metals in air. Pt 2 - analysis; final report on project R48113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Howe, A.

    2002-04-01

    An ICP-AES instrument operating procedure has been drafted and incorporated in ISO 15202-3 Workplace air - Determination of metals and metalloids in airborne particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: Part 3 - Analysis. It is expected that this International Standard will be published during 2003. The performance of the analytical method described ISO 15202-3 was evaluated by carrying out laboratory experiments to determine analytical precision. The uncertainty associated with analytical variability was then combined with other sources of uncertainty arising from the sampling method described in ISO 15202-1. A first draft of a proposed new MDHS on Metals and metalloids in workplace air by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry has been prepared based on ISO 15202-1, ISO 15202-2 and ISO 15202-3. It is expected that this will be published in late 2002 or early 2003

  20. Study on different pre-treatment procedures for metal determination in Orujo spirit samples by ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barciela, Julia; Vilar, Manuela; Garcia-Martin, Sagrario [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Pena, Rosa M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain)], E-mail: qarosa@lugo.usc.es; Herrero, Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain)], E-mail: cherrero@lugo.usc.es

    2008-10-17

    In this work several pre-treatment methods were studied for metal (Na, K, Mg, Cu and Ca) determination in Orujo spirit samples using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Dilution, digestion, evaporation, and cryogenic desolvatation techniques were comparatively evaluated. Because of their analytical characteristics, digestion and evaporation with nitrogen current were found to be appropriate procedures for the determination of metals in alcoholic spirit samples. Yet, if simplicity and application time are to be considered, the latter-evaporation in a water bath with a nitrogen current-stands out as the optimum procedure for any further determinations in Orujo samples by ICP-AES. Low detection levels and wide linear ranges (sufficient to determine these metals in the samples studied) were achieved for each metal. The recoveries (in the 97.5-100.5% range) and the precision (R.S.D. lower than 5.6%) obtained were also satisfactory. The selected procedure was applied to determine the content of metals in 80 representative Galician Orujo spirit samples with and without a Certified Brand of Origin (CBO) which had been produced using different distillation systems. The metal concentrations ranged between 0.37 and 79.7 mg L{sup -1} for Na,

  1. Chemical yield determination for 59Ni, 63Ni and 56Fe in low and intermediate nuclear wastes by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Milton B.; Santos Neto, Francisco C. dos; Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2011-01-01

    Iron and nickel are constituents of a wide range of metallic materials used in nuclear reactor construction and their corresponding activation products are often encountered in reactor-derived solid low and intermediate-level wastes. The most significant radioisotopes of iron and nickel, in terms of quantity and half life, are 55 Fe (t 1/2 =2.73y), 59 Ni (t 1/2 =7.6x10 4 y) and 63 Ni (t 1/2 =10 2 y) and they are activation products of stable iron and nickel. 59 Ni is an X-ray - emitting and 55 Fe and 63 Ni are β-particle-emitting radionuclides and so they are radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. For their determination in the radioactive wastes is necessary to know the chemical yield for the radiochemical separation procedures prior analytical measurements. In this work Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) technique was used for this aim. Total nickel and iron in waste samples from nuclear power plants were determined before and after the radiochemical separation at specific wavelengths, 231.604 nm and 259.940 nm respectively. The chemical yields for nickel and iron recovery were around 82 % for iron and 59 % for nickel according the analytical methodology adopted. (author)

  2. Neutron activation analysis and ICP-AES to determine metal traces in antarctic krill. CNEA laboratories participation in the certification of a reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smichowski, Patricia N.; Farias, Silvia S.; Resnizky, Sara M.; Marrero, Julieta G.

    1999-01-01

    For the international certification of a reference material based on krill, As and Hg were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis and Br, Co and Se by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Inductive coupling plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The results, which are in good agreement with those obtained by other laboratories, are discussed

  3. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES; Estudo comparativo na determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de produtos lacteos por AANI e ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Equipamentos Especializados; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  4. Sample introduction systems for the analysis of liquid microsamples by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoli, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es; Mermet, Jean M. [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2006-03-15

    There are many fields in which the available sample volume is the limiting factor for an elemental analysis. Over the last ten years, sample introduction systems used in plasma spectrometry (i.e., Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry, ICP-AES, and Mass Spectrometry, ICP-MS) have evolved in order to expand the field of applicability of these techniques to the analysis of micro- and nanosamples. A full understanding of the basic processes occurring throughout the sample introduction system is absolutely necessary to improve analytical performance. The first part of the present review deals with fundamental studies concerning the different phenomena taking place from aerosol production to analyte excitation/ionization when the liquid consumption rate does not exceed 100 {mu}l/min. Existing sample introduction systems are currently far from the ideal and a significant effort has been made to develop new and efficient devices. Different approaches for continuously introducing small sample volumes (i.e., microsamples) have been reviewed and compared in the present work. Finally, applications as well as basic guidelines to select the best sample introduction system according to the sample particularities are given at the end of this review.

  5. Sample introduction systems for the analysis of liquid microsamples by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoli, Jose L.; Mermet, Jean M.

    2006-01-01

    There are many fields in which the available sample volume is the limiting factor for an elemental analysis. Over the last ten years, sample introduction systems used in plasma spectrometry (i.e., Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry, ICP-AES, and Mass Spectrometry, ICP-MS) have evolved in order to expand the field of applicability of these techniques to the analysis of micro- and nanosamples. A full understanding of the basic processes occurring throughout the sample introduction system is absolutely necessary to improve analytical performance. The first part of the present review deals with fundamental studies concerning the different phenomena taking place from aerosol production to analyte excitation/ionization when the liquid consumption rate does not exceed 100 μl/min. Existing sample introduction systems are currently far from the ideal and a significant effort has been made to develop new and efficient devices. Different approaches for continuously introducing small sample volumes (i.e., microsamples) have been reviewed and compared in the present work. Finally, applications as well as basic guidelines to select the best sample introduction system according to the sample particularities are given at the end of this review

  6. A windows based automated quality control system for the ICP-AES analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerth, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    High sample volume analytical laboratories typically require automation of tasks to maximize efficiency and productivity. Typical approaches target instrument operation and data reporting (LIMS), but frequently ignore the data evaluation and run time QC aspects. Automation of these steps can save up to 50% of the time it takes to analyze, evaluate, and report data from a typical ICP-AES run. The program developed in this project addresses this need by performing a CLP-style evaluation of the run time QC data included in an instrument run. Written in Microcraft Visual Basic 3.0, it makes use of a Microsoft Access database to store method parameters and QC sample results for control charting. In operation, the analyst enters method background data (e.g., control samples types and acceptance criteria for each analyte), which is then stored in the method database. Once the method parameters are entered, instrument data files may be imported for review. Upon import, the run is automatically checked against desired QC criteria, QC sample data are added to the database, and failing samples flagged appropriately. Analytes passing all QC checks are flagged for upload to the laboratory LIMS. The analyst may then review the run sample by sample, and, if desired, override the computer upload flag. An exception report may be generated detailing samples that require reanalysis

  7. [Analysis of inorganic elements in hydroponic Taraxacum mongolicum grown under different spectrum combinations by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-li; Morewane, M B; Xue, Xu-zhang; Guo, Wen-zhong; Wang, Li-chun

    2015-02-01

    Dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) was hydroponically cultured in a completely enclosed plant factory, in which fluorescence and LED emitting spectra of different bands were used as the sole light source for plant growth. Effects of spectral component on the growth of dandelion were studied and the contents of ten inorganic elements such as K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B in dandelion were analyzed by ICP-AES technology. The results showed that: (1) Under the condition of similar photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), single R or combined spectrums of FLRB were beneficial for biomass accumulation, while single B was the contrary; (2) Macroelements content ratio in Taraxacum mongolicum grown under FLwas K:Ca:P:Mg : Na=79.74:32.39:24.32:10.55:1.00, microelements content ratio was Fe:Mn:B:Zn:Cu = 9.28:9.71:3.82:2.08:1.00; (3) Red light (peak at 660 nm) could promote the absorptions of Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn, while absorption of Cu was not closely related to spectral conditions; (4) Thehighest accumulation of Ca, Na, Mn and Zn were obtained in aerial parts of Taraxacum mongolicum plants grown under pure red spectrum R, while the accumulation of the rest six elements reached the highest level under the mixed spectrum FLRB.

  8. Preconcentration of uranium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum and vanadium with oxine supported on microcrystalline naphthalene and their determinations by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Vijay; Nandakishore, S.S.; Bangroo, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    As an effective technique for separation and preconcentration of trace elements, solid-liquid extraction with microcrystalline naphthalene has received great attention in recent years. The application of the adsorption of the metal complexes on microcrystalline naphthalene has greatly enhanced the utility of solid-liquid extraction in trace analysis. A survey of the literature revealed that single element detection techniques such as spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, and polarography were mostly combined with this separation method. However, multi-element simultaneous detection techniques, like ICP-AES and ICP-MS were seldom used as the detectors in this solid-liquid extraction method. The aim of this work was to attempt to adopt the reagent oxine for the separation and subsequent determination of U, Th, Zr, Ti, Mo and V by ICP-AES, after adsorption of their oxinate complexes on microcrystalline naphthalene

  9. Separation, preconcentration and estimation of rare earth and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) in thorium matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Prithwish; Kumar Vijay; Durani, Smeer; Satyanarayana, K.

    2007-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and efficient method is developed for the separation of Rare earth elements (REEs) La-Lu, and Y and some trace elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni,V, Zn from thorium matrix and their subsequent estimations by ICP-AES. In thorium-rich geological samples, the estimation of REE's by ICP-AES suffers from the spectral interferences due to the presence of excess of Th. In the proposed method, thorium is separated from the matrix by the solvent extraction. To optimize the separation, of REEs and trace elements from Th matrix, synthetic mixture solutions was prepared containing Th, REEs and trace elements maintaining different acidic conditions (1M, 2M, 4M, 6M, 8M and 10M HNO 3 and 2M, 4M, 6M and 8M HCl) and each solution was subjected to solvent extraction. The solvent extraction was carried out using a mixture of di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (in 30 % Toluene) and 1- pentanol in the ratio of 5:1. The aqueous phase containing the required elements was evaporated to dryness and an acidity of 5% HCl is maintained in final volume. Solutions were analysed by ICP-AES and the quantitative recovery of REEs and trace elements were obtained at 6M HNO 3 acidity. The developed method was applied to the certified standard reference material: IGS-36 and the values obtained were comparable with the certified values. The method was also applied to the real time monazite sample and the recovery was quantitative. Corrections have been applied for the REEs inter-elemental interferences in ICP-AES. (author)

  10. Investigation of ceramic materials using ICP-AES with external electrothermal vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisch, M.; Gartz, R.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Nickel, H.

    1989-01-01

    The evaporation and excitation processes for several trace elements in ceramic powders are studied. The advantages of an electrothermal vaporization are the easier preparation, no dilution and a shorter experiment duration. The investigated ceramic powders consist of synthetic mixtures including the systems Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 -MgO. The trace elements are bound as oxides. The evaporation is monitored by 59 Fe and 115 Cd. Since the evaporation rates are measured in addition to line intensities, the influence of various parameters on evaporation as well as on excitation processes can be individually examined. The influence of matrix composition is determined. It is found that melting and sintering processes of the matrix are of great importance for the evaporation of trace elements. Thus the best results are obtained when trace elements evaporate below the melting temperature of the matrix. Therefore the addition of thermochemical substances is necessary for several elements of low volatility. In the case of highly volatile elements, for example Cd, additives seemed to have only a small influence on the volatilization rate. Accordingly, only the excitation is affected. For example, the evaporation rate of Cd is constant through the whole Al 2 O 3 -MgO system. The measured line intensity of Cd is also constant within a large range of MgO content. The evaporation rate and line intensity of Fe decrease linearly with MgO concentration. (author)

  11. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in deep-seawater salts by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Itoh, Akihide; Ji, Shan; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2002-01-01

    Major-to-ultratrace elements in deep-seawater salts were determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, after they were separated into the water-soluble, acid-soluble, and insoluble particle components. Deep-seawater salts were prepared from seawater collected at 344 m deep near the off-shore of Cape Muroto in Kochi Prefecture. The major and minor elements in salts were determined by ICP-AES after appropriate dilution with pure water. Trace and ultratrace elements in the water-soluble and acid-soluble components were preconcentrated by a chelating resin preconcentration method. In addition, the major to-ultratrace elements in the insoluble particle component were determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, after acid-digestion using HNO 3 /HF/HClO 4 . As a result, 21-35 elements in deep-seawater salts could be determined over the wide concentration range. It was found that the elements, such as Al, V, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, and rare earth elements, were more abundant in the acid-soluble component of deep-seawater salts, which may play some essential roles in physiological effectiveness for intake of salt. (author)

  12. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the multi-elemental composition of green tea leaves as well as chemical species in tea infusions, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for elemental analysis and elemental speciation with the aid of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). As a result, the multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in green tea leaves and green tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. About 40 elements in these tea samples could be determined in a wide concentration range of over 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusion to that in tea leaves. It was found from the experimental results that the elements in tea leaves could be classified into three characteristic groups, depending on their extraction efficiencies. Furthermore, tea infusions were analyzed by a combined system of SEC, UV absorption detector, and ICP-AES (or ICP-MS) for the speciation of major-to-ultratrace elements. Most of the elements in tea infusions were found to be present as associated complexes with large organic molecules. (author)

  13. [Determination of Arsenic in Food Package Aluminum by Ultrasound Assisted Solid Phase Extraction/ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wen-xia; Gong, Qi; Li, Min; Deng, Li-xin; Mo, Li-shu; Li, Yan-lin

    2015-04-01

    Determination of arsenic in pure aluminum by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was interfered by aluminum matrix. The experiment showed that when the mass concentration of Al was greater than or equal to 5 000 times the As in the test solution, the measurement error was greater than 5%. In order to eliminate the interference, strong acid cation exchange fiber (SACEF) was used as solid phase extraction agent to adsorb Al(3+). The extraction conditions included amount of SACEF, extraction time, temperature and pH were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were that 0.9000 g SACEF was used to extract the aluminum from the sample solution of pH 2.0 at 55 °C for 5 min with the ultrasonic assist, and in this case, the arsenic in the form of arsenic acid was not extracted and left in the solution for the determination. The results showed that after treating 10. 00 mL test solution containing 1.00 µg arsenic and 20.0 mg aluminum, arsenic did not lose. The mass concentration of residual aluminum in the raffinate was about 2,000 times the As, which had not interfered the determination of arsenic. The detection limit (3 s) was 0.027 µg · mL(-1) and quantification limit (10 s) was 0.0091 µg · mL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the separation and determination of arsenic in the synthetic samples, the aluminum cans and the barbecue aluminum foil. Recovery was in the range of 98.3%-105% and RSD (n = 3) was in the range of 0.1%-4.3%. The results showed that the content of arsenic in the aluminum cans and the aluminum barbecue foil was below the limited value of national standard (GB/T 3190-2008).

  14. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokura, Akiko; Oguri, Sachiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spinach samples (0.5 g) were digested with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The decomposed samples were dissolved in a 1 M ( = mol dm -3 ) HNO 3 solution containing internal standard elements (Ge, In, and Re, 10 ppb each), and were subjected to multielement analyses by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. As a result, about 40 elements were successfully determined over a wide concentration range from % to ppb level. Spinach samples grown in different production areas were also analyzed in order to understand the influences of the environmental conditions on growth. Among the major and minor elements, the values of the coefficient of variance (CV) for B, Mg, P, and K were < 20%, and those for Ca, Na, Al, and Mn were higher than 50%. On the other hand, the values of CV for trace and ultratrace elements were significantly high. Furthermore, the present analytical method was also applied to the determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in various vegetable samples (23 species in 11 families); the similarities and differences of the elemental distributions in vegetables were found in the experimental results. (author)

  15. Geographical traceability of wild Boletus edulis based on data fusion of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with data mining methods (SVM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the data fusion strategy of Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used in combination with Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine the geographic origin of Boletus edulis collected from nine regions of Yunnan Province in China. Firstly, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was used for selecting an optimal combination of key wavenumbers of second derivative FT-MIR spectra, and thirteen elements were sorted with variable importance in projection (VIP) scores. Secondly, thirteen subsets of multi-elements with the best VIP score were generated and each subset was used to fuse with FT-MIR. Finally, the classification models were established by SVM, and the combination of parameter C and γ (gamma) of SVM models was calculated by the approaches of grid search (GS) and genetic algorithm (GA). The results showed that both GS-SVM and GA-SVM models achieved good performances based on the #9 subset and the prediction accuracy in calibration and validation sets of the two models were 81.40% and 90.91%, correspondingly. In conclusion, it indicated that the data fusion strategy of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with the algorithm of SVM can be used as a reliable tool for accurate identification of B. edulis, and it can provide a useful way of thinking for the quality control of edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Geographical traceability of wild Boletus edulis based on data fusion of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with data mining methods (SVM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Ji; Li, Tao; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the data fusion strategy of Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used in combination with Support Vector Machine (SVM) to determine the geographic origin of Boletus edulis collected from nine regions of Yunnan Province in China. Firstly, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was used for selecting an optimal combination of key wavenumbers of second derivative FT-MIR spectra, and thirteen elements were sorted with variable importance in projection (VIP) scores. Secondly, thirteen subsets of multi-elements with the best VIP score were generated and each subset was used to fuse with FT-MIR. Finally, the classification models were established by SVM, and the combination of parameter C and γ (gamma) of SVM models was calculated by the approaches of grid search (GS) and genetic algorithm (GA). The results showed that both GS-SVM and GA-SVM models achieved good performances based on the #9 subset and the prediction accuracy in calibration and validation sets of the two models were 81.40% and 90.91%, correspondingly. In conclusion, it indicated that the data fusion strategy of FT-MIR and ICP-AES coupled with the algorithm of SVM can be used as a reliable tool for accurate identification of B. edulis, and it can provide a useful way of thinking for the quality control of edible mushrooms.

  17. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokura, Akiko; Oguri, Sachiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Haraguchi, Hiroki [Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in vegetable samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spinach samples (0.5 g) were digested with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The decomposed samples were dissolved in a 1 M ( = mol dm{sup -3}) HNO{sub 3} solution containing internal standard elements (Ge, In, and Re, 10 ppb each), and were subjected to multielement analyses by ICP-AES and ICP-MS. As a result, about 40 elements were successfully determined over a wide concentration range from % to ppb level. Spinach samples grown in different production areas were also analyzed in order to understand the influences of the environmental conditions on growth. Among the major and minor elements, the values of the coefficient of variance (CV) for B, Mg, P, and K were < 20%, and those for Ca, Na, Al, and Mn were higher than 50%. On the other hand, the values of CV for trace and ultratrace elements were significantly high. Furthermore, the present analytical method was also applied to the determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in various vegetable samples (23 species in 11 families); the similarities and differences of the elemental distributions in vegetables were found in the experimental results. (author)

  18. ICP-AES determination of rare earth elements in coal fly ash samples of thermal power stations: assessment of possible recovery and environmental impact of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premadas, A.; Mary, Thomas Anitha; Chakrapani, G.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in ashes of thermal power plants is important in the current scenario due to its economic value, and the pollution caused if they are released in to the environment. Their toxicity to living organisms now gaining importance in international community, and some investigation shows it causes retardation in plant growth. In coal based thermal stations huge quantity of coal used annually as a fuel and lakhs of tones of waste is generated in the form of ashes. Therefore studies were carried out on three aspects - fairly rapid and accurate ICP-AES determination REEs in coal fly ash samples using addition technique, a preliminary acid leaching studies on coal received from three different fired thermal power stations using hydrochloric acid at pH 1 and 2, and quantify the REEs leached, and economic recovery of REEs using di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid solvent extraction process or precipitation hydroxides using dilute ammonia solution. The standard addition method of REEs determination using rate and reproducible values, besides the analysis is fast compared to the ion exchange separation of REEs followed by the ICP-AES determination. (author)

  19. Determination of 25 trace impurity elements in U3O8 by horizontal ICP-AES after separation with TBP levextrel resin chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Jingsu; Shi Youqing; Gao Binghua; Liu Yingmei

    1988-01-01

    A method for the determination of Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Ru, Sb, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, W and Zn 25 trace elements in U 3 O 8 is reported. The sample is dissolved in HNO 3 or HNO 3 -HCLO 4 -HF and the uranium is separated by TBP Levextrel resin chromatogyaphy. The impurity elements containing in the aquaous phase are determined by horizontal ICp-AES method. With a sample of 300 mg, the detection limit for all the 25 elements is in the range of 0.01∼5ppm, the recovery is in the range of 82∼ 121%, the determination precision (RSD) is less than ±13%. 18 trace elements in reference material of U 3 O 8 prepared in China are determined, the values obtained well with the values of overall median of accepted laboratory means

  20. Preconcentration and Determination of Copper and Zinc in Natural Water Samples by ICP-AES After Complexation and Sorption on Amberlite XAD-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Sérgio Luis Costa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a procedure for separation, preconcentration and sequential determination of trace amounts of copper and zinc in natural water samples, by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The proposed method is based on the complexation of copper(II and zinc(II ions by 1-(2-thiazolylazo-2-naphthol (TAN and sorption on to Amberlite XAD-2 resin. Parameters such as: TAN amount, pH effect on the complexation and sorption of TAN complexes, agitation time for complete sorption, concentration of metal ion, mass of Amberlite XAD-2, desorption of metal ions from XAD-2 resin and sample volume were studied. The results demonstrated that the copper(II and zinc(II ions, in the range of 0.10 to 100.00 mug, contained in a solution sample volume of 400 mL, in the pH range of 5.7 to 8.3, on the form of TAN complexes had been quantitatively retained on to XAD-2 resin. The shaking time required for sorption is 1 h using a resin mass of 1.4 g. The solution for determination of copper and zinc by ICP-AES is obtained, after desorption of the ions from the XAD-2 resin, using 5 mL of 2 mol L-1 hydrochloric acid and shaking the system for 5 min. The procedure was applied to the determination of copper and zinc in several natural water samples. The standard addition technique was applied and the obtained recoveries revealed that the proposed procedure has a good accuracy. A high enrichment factor (80 and simplicity are the main advantages in this analytical protocol.

  1. A rapid sample decomposition procedure for bromo-heavies containing ferruginous material: determination of REEs and thorium by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorge, C.R.; Murugesan, P.; Chakrapani, G.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid method of sample decomposition and dissolution for bromoform heavies is described for the determination of REEs and thorium by inductively coupled plasma- optical emission spectrometry. For application to geochemical exploration to achieve the high sample throughput; a simple and rapid analytical procedure is a prerequisite. In order to speed-up the existing methodology, phosphate fusion was introduced for decomposition of samples. In the proposed method, bromoform-heavies material are fused with 1:1 mixture of sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate and tetra-sodium pyrophosphate and dissolved in distilled water. After disintegration of melt, the solution was subjected to oxalate precipitation followed by R 2 O 3 separation for separating the REEs from major matrix interfering elements. The rare earth elements and thorium in the resultant solution were determined by ICP-OES. The results are compared with the results obtained by well-established existing dissolution procedures involving HF-HCl-HClO 4 acid treatment and NaF/KHF 2 fusion followed by H 2 SO 4 acid fuming. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by doping the phosphate blank with known amount of REEs and comparing the recoveries obtained using the present method. The method is simple, rapid and is suitable for the routine determination of REEs and Th in bromoform-heavies. The RSD of the method was found to be within 1-3% for Th and REEs by ICP-AES. (author)

  2. [Determination of ru, rh and Pd in 30% trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO)-kerosene by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrum (ICP-AES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Chen; Zhang, Lin

    2013-07-01

    The determination method of Ru, Rh and Pd in 30% TRPO-kerosene ICP-AES was studied by using aqueous calibration reference solution and choosing ethanol as diluent. The effects of the contents of 30% TRPO-kerosene and aqueous solution and the concentration of HNO3 in 30% TRPO-kerosene on the intensities of Ru, Rh and Pd were described. The optimized condition for preparing samples and calibration solutions was chosen as follows: The contents of 30% TRPO-kerosene and aqueous phase were 10% (V/V) and 5% (V/V) respectively and the concentration of HNO3 30% TRPO-kerosene was 0.20 mol x L(-1). The determination method of Au, Ru and Pd was set up according to the above condition. The detection limit, precision and recovery ratio of Ru, Rh and Pd are well. The method is not only used in determination of Au, Ru and Pd in 30% TRPO-kerosene, but also used in other organic phases.

  3. Feature Fusion of ICP-AES, UV-Vis and FT-MIR for Origin Traceability of Boletus edulis Mushrooms in Combination with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Luming; Liu, Honggao; Li, Jieqing; Li, Tao; Wang, Yuanzhong

    2018-01-15

    Origin traceability is an important step to control the nutritional and pharmacological quality of food products. Boletus edulis mushroom is a well-known food resource in the world. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are drastically varied depending on geographical origins. In this study, three sensor systems (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR)) were applied for the origin traceability of 192 mushroom samples (caps and stipes) in combination with chemometrics. The difference between cap and stipe was clearly illustrated based on a single sensor technique, respectively. Feature variables from three instruments were used for origin traceability. Two supervised classification methods, partial least square discriminant analysis (FLS-DA) and grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM), were applied to develop mathematical models. Two steps (internal cross-validation and external prediction for unknown samples) were used to evaluate the performance of a classification model. The result is satisfactory with high accuracies ranging from 90.625% to 100%. These models also have an excellent generalization ability with the optimal parameters. Based on the combination of three sensory systems, our study provides a multi-sensory and comprehensive origin traceability of B. edulis mushrooms.

  4. Feature Fusion of ICP-AES, UV-Vis and FT-MIR for Origin Traceability of Boletus edulis Mushrooms in Combination with Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luming Qi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Origin traceability is an important step to control the nutritional and pharmacological quality of food products. Boletus edulis mushroom is a well-known food resource in the world. Its nutritional and medicinal properties are drastically varied depending on geographical origins. In this study, three sensor systems (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR were applied for the origin traceability of 184 mushroom samples (caps and stipes in combination with chemometrics. The difference between cap and stipe was clearly illustrated based on a single sensor technique, respectively. Feature variables from three instruments were used for origin traceability. Two supervised classification methods, partial least square discriminant analysis (FLS-DA and grid search support vector machine (GS-SVM, were applied to develop mathematical models. Two steps (internal cross-validation and external prediction for unknown samples were used to evaluate the performance of a classification model. The result is satisfactory with high accuracies ranging from 90.625% to 100%. These models also have an excellent generalization ability with the optimal parameters. Based on the combination of three sensory systems, our study provides a multi-sensory and comprehensive origin traceability of B. edulis mushrooms.

  5. Comparison of digestion procedures used for the determination of boron in biological tissues by ICP-AES [inductively-coupled, plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.F.; Miller, D.L.; Steele, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was designed to identify the most accurate and reliable procedures for the digestion of biological tissues prior to the determination of boron by inductively-coupled, plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The four procedures used in this study were an acid bomb digestion and digestions performed in test tubes using perchloric acid and hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and nitric acid alone. Digestions using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid alone were performed in a manner analogous to the perchloric acid/hydrogen peroxide procedure. The tissues used in the study were from dogs that had been administered a boron compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH) and included two brain tissues, a liver and a tongue. These tissues were selected in order to eliminate results that may be due to surface spiking only. None of the test tube procedures were successful in completely dissolving the samples, as was evidenced by residual color and a coagulated precipitate. The amount of precipitate was much larger for the brain tissues in all cases. The acid bomb digestion and the perchloric acid/hydrogen peroxide procedures gave comparable boron concentrations for all of the tissues in this study. 2 refs., 1 tab

  6. [Analysis of mineral elements of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown on saline land in Hetao Irrigation District by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wen-Jie; Chen, Fu; Wen, Xin-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of ten mineral elements in four kinds of organs (root, steam, leaf and flower disc) in Helianthus annuus L. plants cultured in Hetao Irrigation District under different level of salinity stress were determined by ICP-AES with wet digestion (HNO3 + HClO4). The results showed that: (1) The contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Na were highest in roots, so was K in stems, B and Mg in leaves and P in flower discs, while no significant difference was detected in the content of Cu among these organs; (2) The cumulants of Ca, Mg, P, Cu, B and Zn were highest in flower discs, so were Na, Fe and Mn in roots and K in stems; (3) In sunflower plants, the proportion of mineral element cumulant for K : Ca : Mg : P : Na was 16.71 : 5.23 : 3.86 : 1.23 : 1.00, and for Zn : Fe : B : Mn: Cu was 56.28 : 27.75 : 1.93 : 1.17 : 1.00, respectively; (4) The effect of salinity stress on absorption of mineral elements differed according to the kind of organ and element, root was the most sensitive to soil salt content, followed by stem and leaf, and the effect on flower disc seemed complex.

  7. Chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter in ambient air of Nagoya, Japan, as studied by the multielement determination with ICP-AES and ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Taku; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Aoki, Masanori; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Fujimori, Eiji; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    The multielement determination of PM 10 (airborne particulate matter smaller than 10 μm) samples, which was collected by a high volume air sampler at the urban site of Nagoya City, was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The present analytical method was validated by analyzing urban particulate matter standard reference material of NIST SRM 1648. The analytical data for ca. 30 elements in PM 10 samples collected during a period from 8 September to 9 October, 2003, were obtained in the concentration range from sub-μg g -1 to several-10 mg g -1 , but the data for 18 elements among ca. 30 elements were available for the characterization of PM 10 samples in ambient air, because of problems caused by the filter blanks. Then, the trends concerning the distributions of diverse elements in PM 10 samples were analyzed based on the enrichment factors and size distribution factors. The lithophile and siderophile elements were distributed more than 50% in coarse particle fraction (>2.1 μm), which was derived mainly from natural sources, such as soils and crustal minerals. On the other hand, chalcophile elements were distributed more than 50% in fine particle fraction ( 10 samples as well as their mining influence factors (MIFs) suggested their wide use in industrial productions. (author)

  8. Determination of Al of Sucralfate in Stomachs by ICP-AES%ICP-AES测定大鼠胃内硫糖铝中的铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 朱照静

    2009-01-01

    采用干法灰化,电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)测定正常大鼠胃内硫糖铝中的铝量.结果表明,最佳分析波长为396.153nm,检出限为8ng·mL-1,各组内相对标准偏差均小于0.81%,组间相对标准偏差均小于13.4%,铝的回收率在96.0%-99.5%之间,表明ICP-AES测定大鼠胃内硫糖铝中铝的精密度、准确度良好,满足生物样品分析要求.大鼠灌服硫糖铝6h后胃内的铝基本排空,与正常胃排空时间一致,表明硫糖铝中的铝对正常胃粘膜无枯附作用.

  9. Flotation-separation and ICP-AES determination of ultra trace amounts of copper, cadmium, nickel and cobalt using 2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Omid Reza; Safavi, Afsaneh

    2005-09-01

    A rapid flotation method for separation and enrichment of ultra trace amounts of copper(II), cadmium(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions from water samples is established. At pH 6.5 and with sodium dodecylsulfate used as a foaming reagent, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ were separated simultaneously with 2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid (ACDA) added to 1 l of aqueous solution. The proposed procedure of preconcentration is applied prior to the determination of these four analytes using inductivity coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The effects of pH, concentration of ACDA, applicability of different surfactants and foreign ions on the separation efficiency were investigated. The preconcentration factor of the method is 1000 and the detection limits of copper(II), cadmium(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions are 0.078, 0.075, 0.072 and 0.080 ng ml(-1), respectively.

  10. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  11. Multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in plant reference materials by ICP-AES/ICP-MS and evaluation of their enrichment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokura, Akiko; Matsuura, Hirotaka; Katsuki, Fumie; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2000-01-01

    The multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements in plant reference materials (SRM Pine Needles, SRM Tomato Leaves, and NIES Tea Leaves) was carried out by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The plant sample was decomposed with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in a Teflon beaker on a hot plate. The digest was dissolved in 1 M HNO 3 solution, and then subjected to elemental analyses. As a consequence, the analytical data for about 40 elements including rare earth elements (REEs) were obtained over a wide concentration range, for example, from 49600 μg g -1 of Ca to 6.2 ng g -1 of Lu in Tomato Leaves. The enrichment factors, which were estimated by normalizing the observed concentrations of analyte elements in plant reference materials to their soil abundances, were evaluated in order to discuss the relative abundances of various elements between plants and soil. It was found that most of the elements, except for REEs in Pine Needles and Tea Leaves, were significantly accumulated in the plant reference materials. In particular, the essential elements (K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, B and P) for plant growth provided large enrichment factors. (author)

  12. Determination of organic phosphorous in oil production waters by ICP-AES and ICP-MS after preconcentration on silica immobilized C{sub 18}; Determinacao de fosforo organico em aguas de producao petrolifera por ICP-AES e ICP-MS apos pre-concentracao em coluna de silica C{sub 18}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Anderson Araujo; Miekeley, Norbert; Silveira, Carmem Lucia Porto da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Bezerra, Maria Carmem Moreira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1998-10-01

    Results on the optimization analytical methods for the determination of phosphorous in phosphino-poly carboxylate (PPCA), used frequently as scale inhibitor during oil production, by ICP-AES and ICP-MS are presented. Due to the complex matrix of production waters (brines) and their high concentration in inorganic phosphorus, the separation of organic phosphorus prior to its determination in necessary. In this work, mini columns of silica immobilized C{sub 18} were used. Optimization of the separation step resulted in the following working conditions: (1) pre washing of the column with methanol (80% v/v); (2) use of a flow rate of 5 m L/min and 10 m L/min, respectively, for the preconditioning step and for percolation of the water sample; (3) final elution of organic phosphorus with 7 m L of buffer of H{sub 3} BO{sub 3}/Na OH (0.05 M, p H 9) with a flow rate of 1 m L/min. Sample detection limits (3{sigma}) for different combinations of nebulizers and spectrometric methods, based on 10 m L water aliquots, are: ICP-AES-Cross flow (47 mg/L) and Ultrasonic (18 {mu}g/L); ICP-M S-Cross flow (1.2 {mu}g/L) and Ultrasonic (0.5 {mu}g/L). Typical recoveries of organic phosphorous are between 90 and 95% and the repeatability of the whole procedure is better than 10%. The developed methodology was applied successfully to samples from the oil-well N A 46, platform PNA 2, Campos basin, Brazil. Assessment of the PPCA inhibitor was possible at lower concentrations than achieved by current analytical methods., resulting in benefits such as reduced cost of chemicals, postponed oil production and lower environmental impacts. (author)

  13. Multielement analytical procedure coupling INAA, ICP-MS and ICP-AES: Application to the determination of major and trace elements in sediment samples of the Bouregreg river (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouira, H.; CEA - CNRS/UMR, Centre de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette; Choukri, A.; Hakam, O.K.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.; Delmas, R.; Mariet, C.; Chakiri, S.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were used for the determination of major and trace elements in sediment samples of the Bouregreg river (Morocco). The reliability of the results was checked, by using IAEA Soil-7 certified reference material. Results obtained by the three techniques were compared to control digestions efficiencies. A general good agreement was found between INAA and both ICP-MS and ICP-AES after alkaline fusion (ICPf). The ICP-MS technique used after acid attack (ICPa) was satisfactory for a few elements. A principal component analysis (PCA) has been used for analyzing the variability of concentrations, and defining the most influential sites with respect to the general variation trends. Three groups of elements could be distinguished. For these groups a normalization of concentrations to the central element concentration (that means Mn, Si or Al) is proposed. (author)

  14. Determination of the mineral compositions of some selected oil-bearing seeds and kernels using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, M.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to establish the mineral contents of oil-bearing seeds and kernels such as peanut, turpentine, walnut, hazelnut, sesame, corn, poppy, almond, sunflower etc., using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. Significant differences in mineral composition were observed among crops. All seeds and kernels contained high amounts of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P and Zn. B, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Sr, Ti while V contents of the crops were found to be very low. The levels of K and P of all crops in this study were found to be higher than those of other seeds and kernels. The results obtained from analyses of the crops showed that the mean levels of potassiumcontent ranged from 1701.08 mg/kg (corn to 20895.8 mg/kg (soybean, the average content of phosphorus ranged from 3076.9 mg/kg (turpentine to 12006,5 mg/kg to 2617.4 mg/kg (cotton seed, and Ca from 68.4 mg/kg (corn to 13195.7 mg/kg (poppy seed. The results show that these values may  be useful for the evaluation of dietary information. Particularly the obtained results provide evidence that soybean, pinestone and poppy seed are a good source of K, P and Ca, respectively. Whereas pinestone is a good source of zinc.La finalidad del trabajo es establecer el contenido en elementos minerales de semillas oleaginosas tales como cacahuetes, trementina, avellana, sesamo, maiz, almendras, girasol, utilizando ICP-AES. Se han observado diferencias significativas en la composición de minerales entre cosechas. Todas las semillas contienen cantidades elevadas de Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P y Zn. Los contenidos de B, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Sr, Ti y V, sin embargo, fueron bajos. Los contenidos de K y P en todas las semillas estudiadas fueron superiores a las de otras semillas. El contenido medio de K osciló entre 1.701,1 mg/kg (maiz a 20.895,8 mg/kg (soja, el P entre 3.076.9 mg/kg (trementina a 12.006.5 mg/kg o 2.617,4 mg/kg (semilla de algodón, y Ca de 68,4 mg/kg (maiz a 13.195,7 mg

  15. [Mineral elements analysis of Momordica charantiap seeds by ICP-AES and fatty acid profile identification of seed oil by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-ru; Deng, Ze-yuan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-han

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a special kind of Momordica charantia seeds produced in Hai Nan was selected and analyzed. Firstly, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the mineral elements. It was clear that the contents of K, Mg and P are the highest in the seeds; Cr and Zn takes up to 5.65% and 45.45% high, especially, which are rare in plant foods. These minerals, especially Cr and Zn might have a complex effect on those proteins or polysaccharides and form a stronger anticipation of hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and cholesterol. Secondly, seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction with a yield ratio of 36.89, and the fatty acids were treated by methylation in alkaline process and purified by thin-layer chromatography, then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) identification. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) take up 36.712, and mainly are stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) is only 3.33% which is dominantly linoleic acid (LA); Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) accounted for 59.96%, and the alpha-eleostearic acid takes up 54.26% as the main fatty acids in all. The plentiful alpha-eleostearic acid leads to strong effects of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, lowering blood fat, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and preventing cardiovascular diseases, and so on. Knowing clearly the mineral elements distribution and identifying the composition of fatty acid, especially the main fatty acids in the oil, are both of great guiding importance to further exploit the clinical and edible value in Momordica charantiap seeds.

  16. [Determination of total mass and morphology analysis of heavy metal in soil with potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiao; Yuan, Xing; Cong, Qiao; Wang, Shuang

    2008-11-01

    Blank soil was used as quality controlling samples, soil sample dealt by potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution was used as check sample, mixed acid HNO3-HF-HClO4 was chosen to nitrify soil samples, and plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) was used as detecting method. The authors determined the total metal mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the extracted and dealt soil samples, and determined the mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the three chemical morphologies, including acid extractable morphology, oxide associated morphology, and organics associated modality. The experimental results indicated that the different pH of potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution had obvious influence on the total mass of heavy metal and morphology transformation. Except for metal element Pb and Zn, the addition of different pH potassium dihydrogen phosphate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could accelerate the soil samples nitrification and the total mass determination of heavy metal in the soil samples. The potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could facilitate the acid extractable morphology of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb, oxidation associated morphology of As, Hg, Pb and Zn and the organic associated morphology transforming of As and Hg. At pH 5.8, the maximum acid extractable morphology contents of Cu and Hg were 2.180 and 0.632 mg x kg(-1), respectively; at pH 6.2, the maximal oxidation associated morphology content of Pb could achieve 27.792 mg x kg(-1); at pH 6.0, the maximum organic associated morphology content of heavy metal Hg was 4.715 mg x kg(-1).

  17. Eletrodissolução de ligas de latão empregando sistemas de análise em fluxo para a determinação de cobre, zinco e chumbo por ICP-AES Electrodissolution of brasses alloys employing flow systems for determination of copper, zinc and lead by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula G. Gervasio

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available An on-line electrodissolution procedure implemented in a flow injection system for determination of copper, zinc and lead in brasses alloys by ICP-AES is described. Sample dissolution procedure was carried out by using a PTFE chamber and a DC power supply with constant current. Solid sample was attached to chamber as anode and a gold tubing coupled in the chamber was used as cathode. An electrolytic solution flowing through the gold tubing closed the electric circuit with sample, in order to provide condition for electric dissolution when the DC power supply was switched on. The best results were achieved by using a 1.5 mol l-1 nitric acid solution as electrolyte and a 2.5 A current intensity. The procedure presented a good performance characterized by a relative standard deviation better than < 5% (n=5 and a sample throughput of 180 determinations per hour for Cu, Zn and Pb. Results were in agreement with those obtained by conventional acid dissolution (99% confidence level.

  18. Multielement determination and speciation of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves by ICP-AES and ICP-MS with the aid of size exclusion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Hirotaka; Hokura, Akiko; Katsuki, Fumie; Itoh, Akihide; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    2001-01-01

    A multielement determination of major-to-trace elements in black tea leaves and their tea infusions was carried out by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Tea infusions were prepared as usual tea beverage by brewing black tea leaves in boiling water for 5 min. About 40 elements in tea leaves and tea infusions could be determined over the wide concentration range in 8 orders of magnitude. The extraction efficiency of each element was estimated as the ratio of its concentration in tea infusions to that in tea leaves. From the experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in black tea leaves were classified into three characteristic groups: (i) highly-extractable elements (>55%): Na, K, Co, Ni, Rb, Cs and Tl, (ii) moderately-extractable elements (20-55%): Mg, Al, P, Mn and Zn, and (iii) poorly-extractable elements (<20%): Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sn, Ba and lanthanoid elements. Furthermore, speciation of major-to-trace elements in tea infusions was performed by using a combined system of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and ICP-MS (or ICP-AES). As a result, many diverse elements were found to be present as complexes associated with large organic molecules in tea infusions. (author)

  19. Determination of trace metals in TSP and PM2.5 materials collected in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Mexico: A characterization study by XPS, ICP-AES and SEM-EDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lucy T.; Longoria Rodríguez, F. E.; Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; Cavazos, Aleyda; Leyva-Porras, C.; Silva-Vidaurri, L. G.; Askar, Karim Acuña; Kharissov, B. I.; Villarreal Chiu, J. F.; Alfaro Barbosa, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    The concentration levels of trace metals of toxicological importance were evaluated in the total suspended particles (TSP) and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) collected in the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey (MAM) in Mexico. Samples were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy system (SEM-EDS). In addition, the data were statistically treated by the methodology of Pearson Correlation (PC) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to identify the possible emitting sources. Surface analysis of the particulate matter (PM) by XPS revealed that the most abundant elements were Ca, Al, Na, Zn, Cu and Mg. The deconvolution of the Ca2p, Zn2p and Cu2p signals showed that the main contributors were CaCO3, ZnO and Cu/Cu2O, respectively. The bulk analysis of the PM by ICP-AES showed Fe, Cu and Zn as the most abundant elements. Fe-rich particles presented two different morphologies: the prismatic particles were associated with a natural origin, while the spherical particles with anthropogenic sources. The Zn and Cu were predominantly observed in the sampling stations with high vehicular traffic, and the emitting sources were associated with the burning of fuels from automobiles and the wear of the tires and brakes. The highest concentration of Pb was detected in the sampling station located near the industrial zones, and its cause was associated with the ceramic and glass industries, the burning of fuel oil in power plants and the production of lead-based batteries for automobiles.

  20. Determinação de fósforo orgânico em águas de produção petrolífera por ICP- AES e ICP- MS após pré-concentração em coluna de sílica-C18 Determination of organic phosphorus in oil production waters by ICP-AES and ICP-MS after preconcentration on silica immobilized C18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Araújo Rocha

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Results on the optimization of analytical methods for the determination of phosphorus in phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA, used frequently as scale inhibitor during oil production, by ICP-AES and ICP-MS are presented. Due to the complex matrix of production waters (brines and their high concentration in inorganic phosphorus, the separation of organic phosphorus prior to its determination is necessary. In this work, minicolumns of silica immobilized C18 were used. Optimization of the separation step resulted in the following working conditions: (1 prewashing of the column with methanol (80% v/v; (2 use of a flow rate of 5 mL/min and 10 mL/min, respectively, for the preconditioning step and for percolation of the water sample; (3 final elution of organic phosphorus with 7 mL of buffer of H3BO3/NaOH (0.05 M, pH 9 with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Sample detection limits (3s for different combinations of nebulizers and spectrometric methods, based on 10 mL water aliquots, are: ICP-AES -Cross flow (47 mg/L and Ultrasonic (18 mug/L; ICP-MS -Cross flow (1.2 mug/L, Cyclonic (0.7 mug/L and Ultrasonic (0.5 mug/L. Typical recoveries of organic phosphorus are between 90 and 95% and the repeatability of the whole procedure is better than 10%. The developed methodology was applied successfully to samples from the oil-well NA 46, platform PNA 2, Campos basin, Brazil. Assessment of the PPCA inhibitor was possible at lower concentrations than achieved by current analytical methods, resulting in benefits such as reduced cost of chemicals, postponed oil production and lower environmental impacts.

  1. Measurement of highly active samples of ultrashort-lived radionuclides and its problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Baan, J.G.; Panek, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of highly active eluates obtained from the generators for ultrashort-lived radionuclides poses several problems which are briefly discussed by using the example of the /sup 195m/Hg→/sup 195m/Au generator. For overcoming some of the problems, the construction of a multiple single-channel analyzer that allows high count rates, is described, as well as the counting technique applicable for highly active eluates

  2. Targeted adhesion for sucralfate to impaired gastric mucosa of SD rats by ICP-AES method%ICP-AES法考察硫糖铝对SD大鼠胃溃疡粘膜的靶向粘附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 林凤云; 罗立骏; 曾令高; 朱照静

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立硫糖铝中铝离子(Al3+)在大鼠胃组织残留量的测定方法,考察硫糖铝对胃溃疡粘膜的靶向粘附作用.方法:采用干法灰化消解胃组织样品,电感耦合等离子体-原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)测定给药后不同时间点大鼠胃组织中Al3+的残留量.ICP-AES检测波长为396.153 nm,检测器为电感耦合阵列检测器,载气为氩气.结果:干法灰化大鼠胃溃疡组织,样品消解完全,可满足ICP-AES的检测要求;在选定的最佳条件下用ICP-AES检测Al3+的检出限为8 ng· mL-1,样品间Al3+残留量相对偏差小于13.4%,回收率在96.0%~99.5%之间;给药0.5~4 h时间段内,溃疡胃组织中的Al3+残留率为正常胃组织的2倍以上;给药6h后,正常胃组织中Al3+残留率显著下降,仅为0.84%,而溃疡胃组织在给药16 h后仍高达29%.结论:ICP-AES测定大鼠胃组织中Al3+的残留量准确可行;硫糖铝对胃溃疡粘膜的粘附性显著高于正常胃粘膜,具有良好的靶向性.

  3. Microwave digestion techniques applied to determination of boron by ICP-AES in BNCT program; Digestion de matrices biologicas asistida por microondas para el analisis espectrometrico de boro en BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Silvia S; Di Santo, Norberto R; Garavaglia, Ricardo N; Pucci, Gladys N; Batistoni, Daniel A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica; Schwint, Amanda E [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Radiobiologia

    1999-07-01

    Recently, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has merged as an interesting option for the treatment of some kind of tumors where established therapies show no success. A molecular boronated species, enriched in {sup 10}B is administrated to the subject; it localizes in malignant tissues depending the kind of tumor and localization. Therefore, a very important fact in BNCT research is the detection of boron at trace or ultra trace levels precisely and accurately. This is extremely necessary as boronated species do localize in tumoral tissue and also localize in liver, kidney, spleen, skin, membranes. By this way, before testing a boronated species, it is mandatory to determine its biodistribution in a statistically meaning population, that is related with managing of a great number of samples. In the other hand, it is necessary to exactly predict when to begin the irradiation and to determine the magnitude of radiation to obtain the desired radiological dose for a specified mean boron concentration. This involves the determination of boron in whole blood, which is related with boron concentration in the tumor object of treatment. The methodology selected for the analysis of boron in whole blood and tissues must join certain characteristics: it must not be dependant of the chemical form of boron, it has to be fast and capable to determine boron accurately and precisely in a wide range of concentrations. The design and validation of experimental models involving animals in BNCT studies and the determination of boron in blood of animals and subjects upon treatment require reliable analytical procedures to determine boron quantitatively in those biologic materials. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using pneumatic nebulization is one of the most promising methods for boron analysis, but the sample must be liquid and have low solid concentration. In our case, biological tissues and blood, it is mandatory to mineralize and/or dilute

  4. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities.

  5. The measurement of metallic uranium solubility in lithium chloride molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. K.; Choi, I. K.; Yeon, J. W.; Choi, K. S.; Park, Y. J.

    2002-01-01

    For the purpose of more precise solubility measurement of metallic uranium in lithium chloride melt, the effect of lithium chloride on uranium determination and and the change of oxidation state of metallic uranium in the media were investigated. Uranium of higher than 10 μg/g could be directly determined by ICP-AES. In the case of the lower concentration, the separation and concentration of uranium by anion exchanger was followed by ICP-AES, thereby extending the measurable concentration to 0.1 μg/g. The effects of lithium oxide, uranium oxides(UO 2 or U 3 O 8 ) and metallic lithium on the solubility of metallic uranium were individually investigated in glassy carbon or stainless steel crucibles under argon gas atmosphere. Since metallic uranium is oxidized to uranium(III) in the absence of metallic lithium, causing an increase in the solubility, metallic lithium as reducing agent should be present in the reaction media to obtain the more precise solubility. The metallic uranium solubilities measured at 660 and 690 .deg. C were both lower than 10 μg/g

  6. High activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  7. Quantification of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) using ICP-AES combined with Bradford method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, Paula; Lassalle, Verónica L; Ferreira, María L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this manuscript was to study the application of a new method of protein quantification in Candida antarctica lipase B commercial solutions. Error sources associated to the traditional Bradford technique were demonstrated. Eight biocatalysts based on C. antarctica lipase B (CALB) immobilized onto magnetite nanoparticles were used. Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with chitosan (CHIT) and modified with glutaraldehyde (GLUT) and aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS). Later, CALB was adsorbed on the modified support. The proposed novel protein quantification method included the determination of sulfur (from protein in CALB solution) by means of Atomic Emission by Inductive Coupling Plasma (AE-ICP). Four different protocols were applied combining AE-ICP and classical Bradford assays, besides Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen (CHN) analysis. The calculated error in protein content using the "classic" Bradford method with bovine serum albumin as standard ranged from 400 to 1200% when protein in CALB solution was quantified. These errors were calculated considering as "true protein content values" the results of the amount of immobilized protein obtained with the improved method. The optimum quantification procedure involved the combination of Bradford method, ICP and CHN analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of 11 trace elements in U3O8 CRMs by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Husheng

    1994-01-01

    The TBP extractant-containing resin and extraction chromatography technique were used to separate 11 trace elements in U 3 O 8 CRMs. The sample was separated at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min with 3 mol/L HNO 3 as medium. A model 975 ICP direct reading spectrometer was used to determine the trace elements of Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sn in U 3 O 8 CRMs. The lowest quantitatively determinable concentration of impurities in U 3 O 8 CRMs are 0.02-1.6 μg/g. The RSD is less than 10%. The proposed method provides excellent and accurate analytical data for the U 3 O 8 samples prepared as certified reference materials (CRMs)

  9. Determination of trace elements in ceramic uranium dioxide pellets powders CRMs by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Husheng; Li Jun

    1997-01-01

    The 237-quaternary ammonium extraction resin chromatography is used to the separation of 6 trace elements in ceramic uranium dioxide pellets powders, which are used as certified reference materials (CRMs). The sample is dissolved in 6.5 mol/L HNO 3 and uranium is separated by chromatographic column. the 6 trace elements Al, Ba, Co, Ta, Ti and V contained in the elutriant are determined by using ICP directly reading spectrometer. For a 300 mg sample, the lowest determinable concentration of impurities in ceramic UO 2 pellets powders CRMs is (0.016-0.250) x 10 -6 . The relative standard deviation is less than 7.5%. The proposed method provides excellent and accurate analytical data for the ceramic UO 2 pellets powders samples (CRMs)

  10. Comparative measurements of mineral elements in milk powders with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W Q; El Haddad, J; Motto-Ros, V; Gilon-Delepine, N; Stankova, A; Ma, Q L; Bai, X S; Zheng, L J; Zeng, H P; Yu, J

    2011-07-01

    Mineral elements contained in commercially available milk powders, including seven infant formulae and one adult milk, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The purpose of this work was, through a direct comparison of the analytical results, to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS, and especially of the procedure of calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), to deal with organic compounds such as milk powders. In our experiments, the matrix effect was clearly observed affecting the analytical results each time laser ablation was employed for sampling. Such effect was in addition directly observed by determining the physical parameters of the plasmas induced on the different samples. The CF-LIBS procedure was implemented to deduce the concentrations of Mg and K with Ca as the internal reference element. Quantitative analytical results with CF-LIBS were validated with ICP-AES measurements and nominal concentrations specified for commercial milks. The obtained good results with the CF-LIBS procedure demonstrate its capacity to take into account the difference in physical parameters of the plasma in the calculation of the concentrations of mineral elements, which allows a significant reduction of the matrix effect related to laser ablation. We finally discuss the way to optimize the implementation of the CF-LIBS procedure for the analysis of mineral elements in organic materials.

  11. Solidification of highly active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.B.

    1986-07-01

    This document contains the annual reports for the contracts: (A) Glass Technology; (B) Calcination of Highly Active Waste Liquors; (C) Formation and Trapping of Volatile Ruthenium; (D) Deposition of Ruthenium; (E) Enhancement of Off-Gas Aerosol Collection; (F) Volatilisation of Cs, Tc and Te in High Level Waste Vitrification. (author)

  12. Measurement of trace elements in drinking water of Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Mohammad, D.; Khan, K.; Orfi, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc and iron were determined in potable water, supplied from Rawal Lake and Simly Dam to residential areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, using AAS and ICP-AES techniques. Average measured concentration of these elements were 56.58 plus minus 15.21,18.02 plus minus 4.62, 24.27 plus minus 15.01, 0.15 plus minus 0.105 and 0.34 plus minus 0.11 ppm, respectively. Median contributions of Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and Zn were 13.29%, 12.13%, 1.14%, 5.38% and 2% to our daily intake and were found to be in the safe range for human consumption as per WHO standards. A comparison with previous estimates shows no significant change in trace element contents over the years. (author)

  13. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  14. Analysis of elemental concentration using ICP-AES and pathogen indicator in drinking water of Qasim Abad, District Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehar, Shama; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2013-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate drinking water quality (groundwater) from water samples taken from Qasim Abad, a locality of approximately 5,000 population, situated between twin cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug upto the depth of 250-280 ft in almost every house. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals, rare earth elements and microbiological quality of drinking water. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 6.75 to 8.70, electrical conductivity 540 to 855 μS/cm, total dissolved solids 325.46 to 515.23 ppm and dissolved oxygen 1.50 to 5.64 mg/L which are within the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. The water samples were analysed for 30 elements (aluminium, iron, magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, molybdenum, titanium, chromium, nickel, tungsten, silver, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, gallium, mercury, lanthanum, niobium, neodymium, lead, selenium, samarium, tin, vanadium and zirconium) by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) of faecal coliforms. Overall, elemental levels were lower than the recommended values but three water bores (B-1, B-6, B-7) had higher values of iron (1.6, 2.206, 0.65 ppm), two water bores (B-1, B-6) had higher values of aluminium (0.95, 1.92 ppm), respectively, and molybdenum was higher by 0.01 ppm only in one water bore (B-11). The total number of coliforms present in water samples was found to be within the prescribed limit of the WHO except for 5 out of 11 bore water samples (B-2, B-3, B-4, B-8, B-11), which were found in the range 5-35 MPN/100 mL, a consequence of infiltration of contaminated water (sewage) through cross connection, leakage points and back siphoning.

  15. An ICP-AES method for the determination of trace metals in uranium by solvent extraction using KSM-17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Mary; Radhakrishnan, K.; Dhami, P.S.; Kulkarni, V.T.; Joshi, M.V.; Patwardhan, A.B.; Ramanujam, A.; Mathur, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the studies carried out for the determination of trace metallic impurities in uranium solutions. Uranium matrix is separated from the impurity elements by its selective extraction using 2-ethylhexyl hydrogen 2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (KSM-17, equivalent to PC88A). The aqueous phase is analysed for trace impurities by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The studies also include recovery of impurities at various acidities and spectral interferences of uranium over the analyte element channels. Based on the above studies, a method has been standardised for the analysis of nineteen elements in uranium solutions. The relative standard deviation of the method for various elements is in the range of +- 1-5%. (author). 7 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Determination of boron by ICP-AES in normal and malignant cells incubated 'in vitro' with fructose 10BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garavaglia, Ricardo N.; Farias, Silvia S.; Rodriguez, Ruben E.; Servant, Roberto E.; Liberman, Sara; Pisarev, Mario A.; Batistoni, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the development and optimization of methodology for total boron concentration in cell cultures coming from fixation and accumulation of this element by normal and malignant cells. On account of sample mass and low volume resulting from dilution, generally about 1 mL, a procedure for automatic injection of micro volumes was designed, developed and optimized. Iron interference was carefully studied. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 50 to 2500 ng B/mL range. Determination limits were 10 and 20 ng B/mL for B 249.772 nm and 249.677 nm, respectively. Repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation was better than 5% for a 100 ng B/mL. Recovery of analyte added to real samples ranged between 95 and 103%. The method was applied to studies on F-98 cells (rat glioma) and normal glia in BNCT project frame. (author)

  17. High-active waste (HAW) data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement trans-ducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the period from July 1st, 1990 to December 31, 1990. (author). 4 refs.; 100 figs.; 8 tabs

  18. High activity gamma irradiators developed in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.

    1997-01-01

    The development of high activity Gamma irradiators began in Hungary already in the early years of 60s. The very first designs were serving research in irradiation chemistry, radiation physics, food and agricultural research, radiation sterilization, plastic radiation chemistry, radiobiology, cancer therapy, personal and high dose dosimetry, following the international trends. Domestic and new international demands forced us to design and construct High Activity Gamma Irradiators: Multipurpose Pilot, Portable and Large scale bulk, Multipurpose Industrial scale types

  19. Perceived stigma and highly active antiretroviral treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived stigma and highly active antiretroviral treatment adherence among persons living with HIV/AIDS in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. ... Data on socio-demographic characteristics, stigma and adherence to drug regimen were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Data were ...

  20. Disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the deep sea ocean disposal for high-activity nuclear wastes. The following topics are covered: effect of ionizing radiation on marine ecosystems; pathways by which radionuclides are transferred to man from the marine environment; information about releases of radioactivity to the sea; radiological protection; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes and information needs. (U.K.)

  1. High-activity liquid packaging design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions

  2. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  3. Enclosure for handling high activity materials abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.; Dominguez Rodriguez, G.; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Rodriguez Esteban, A.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With that purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. A description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (author) [es

  4. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  5. The secrets of highly active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thea; Tong, Catherine; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2013-12-01

    Although physical activity is a recognized component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age (Manini & Pahor, 2009; Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In this article we examine the key factors that facilitate physical activity in highly active community-dwelling older adults. Using a strengths based approach, we examined the factors that facilitated physical activity in our sample of highly active older adults. Twenty-seven older adults participated in face-to face interviews. We extracted a sub-sample of 10 highly active older adults to be included in the analyses. Based on a framework analysis of our transcripts we identified three factors that facilitate physical activity in our sample, these include: 1) resourcefulness: engagement in self-help strategies such as self-efficacy, self-control and adaptability; 2) social connections: the presence of relationships (friend, neighborhood, institutions) and social activities that support or facilitate high levels of physical activity; and 3) the role of the built and natural environments: features of places and spaces that support and facilitate high levels of physical activity. Findings provide insight into, and factors that facilitate older adults' physical activity. We discuss implications for programs (e.g., accessible community centers, with appropriate programming throughout the lifecourse) and policies geared towards the promotion of physical activity (e.g., the development of spaces that facilitate both physical and social activities). © 2013.

  6. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ''standard sites'' located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements

  7. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R.; Cheeseright, J.

    2016-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  8. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Cheeseright, J. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  9. Development of a protocol to measure iron-55 in solid matrices in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augeray, Céline; Magalie, Mouton; Nathalie, Broustet; Marie-France, Perdereau; Chloé, Laconici; Jeanne, Loyen; Corinne, Fayolle; Jean-Louis, Picolo

    2015-01-01

    The development of metrology of iron-55 in low-level radioactivity in environmental solid matrices was realised for conducting radioecological studies. A protocol was developed based on the adaptation of existing methods for the purification of iron-55 with selective chromatographic resin, which was then measured with liquid scintillation. The loss attached treatment chemical steps were quantified with elemental iron by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The tests were used to define the iron retention capacity of selective chromatographic resin, a key element in chemical treatment, and test sample size needed to reach the detection limit of 30 Bq kg −1  dry. The solid samples were analysed with the developed protocol. The activities obtained from iron-55 were below the detection limit of 30 Bq kg −1  dry. - Highlights: • To obtain the desired detection limit in environmental solid matrices, the choice of method was realised. • A protocol was thus developed with our resources to obtain a 30 Bq kg-1 dry detection limit. • The optimisation of the operating conditions is described and the activities obtained are presented

  10. Determination of rare earth elements by liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Haraguchi, H.

    1984-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) interfaced with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of rare earth elements. ICP-AES was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC. The separation of rare earth elements with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Fifteen rare earth elements (Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-AES system using a concentration gradient method. The detection limits with the present HPLC/ICP-AES system were about 0.001-0.3 μg/mL with a 100-μL sample injection. The calibration curves obtained by the peak height measurements showed linear relationships in the concentration range below 500 μg/mL for all rare earth elements. A USGS rock standard sample, rare earth ores, and high-purity lanthanide reagents (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences

  11. Underground disposal of high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the engineering aspects relating to the deep burial of high active waste in stable geological formations. The design of a repository depends upon a number of factors not least of which is the type of rock in which it is to be constructed. High level wastes must be isolated from man's environment for such periods that subsequent release will not result in an unacceptable hazard to human population. Design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual design are present in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Over long time periods the most probable mode of release of radionuclides is through groundwater contacting the waste. The proposed concepts therefore include the use of engineered and natural barriers to delay the eventual release of waterborne radionuclides into mans environment. In all cases the ultimate barrier will be the geological formation. Nevertheless, depending upon the type of host rock, use will be made of various additional engineered barriers to delay water contacting the high level waste for several hundreds of years. During this time the level of radiation and associated heat emitted by the waste, will fall by several orders of magnitude and the rock temperatures within a repository will be returning to ambient. Thereafter the residual activity will mainly arise from the actinides. Containment may be enhanced by surrounding the canisters with materials having high sorption capabilities for many of the radionuclides involved. The depth at which a repository is excavated must be sufficient to ensure that the overburden will withstand changes in environmental conditions. The depth of cover required in different rock types may vary. In clay excavating at depth of up to -250 m appears feasible, while in hard rocks and salts working at depth of up to -1000 m is entirely practicable. (orig./RW)

  12. Influence of the operating parameters and of the sample introduction system on time correlation of line intensities using an axially viewed CCD-based ICP-AES system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotti, Marco, E-mail: grotti@chimica.unige.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Todoli, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Mermet, Jean Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2010-02-15

    The influence of the acquisition and operating parameters on time correlation between emission line intensities was investigated using axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-multichannel-based emission spectrometry and various sample introduction systems. It was found that to obtain flicker-noise limited signals, necessary to compensate for time-correlated signal fluctuations by internal standardization, the flicker-noise magnitude of the sample introduction system, the integration time and the emission line intensity had to be considered. The highest correlation between lines was observed for ultrasonic nebulization with desolvatation, the noisiest system among those considered, for which the contribution of the uncorrelated shot-noise was negligible. In contrast, for sample introduction systems characterized by lower flicker-noise levels, shot-noise led to high, non-correlated RSD values, making the internal standard method to be much less efficient. To minimize shot-noise, time correlation was improved by increasing the emission line intensities and the integration time. Improvement in repeatability did not depend only on time correlation, but also on the ratio between the relative standard deviations of the analytical and reference lines. The best signal compensation was obtained when RSD values of the reference and analytical lines were similar, which is usually obtained when the system is flicker-noise limited, while departure from similarity can lead to a degradation of repeatability when using the internal standard method. Moreover, the use of so-called robust plasma conditions, i.e. a high power (1500 W) along with a low carrier gas flow rate (0.8 L/min) improved also the compensation. Finally, high correlation and consequent improvement in repeatability by internal standardization was observed also in the presence of complex matrices (sediment and soil samples), although a matrix-induced degradation of the correlation between lines was generally observed when using ultrasonic nebulization.

  13. Plants as biomarkers for monitoring heavy metal contaminants on landfill sites using sequential extraction and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A P; Coudert, M; Barker, J

    2000-12-01

    There have been a number of studies investigating metal uptake in plants on contaminated landfill sites, but little on their role as biomarkers to identify metal mobility for continuous monitoring purposes. Vegetation can be used as a biomonitor of site pollution, by identifying the mobilisation of heavy metals and by providing an understanding of their bioavailability. Plants selected were the common nettle (Uritica Dioica), bramble (Rubus Fruticosa) and sycamore (Acer Pseudoplatanus). A study of the soil fractionation was made to investigate the soil properties that are likely to influence metal mobility and a correlation exercise was undertaken to investigate if variations in concentration of metals in vegetation can reflect variations in concentration of the metals in soil. The soil was digested using aqua regia in a microwave closed vessel. The vegetation was digested using both microwave and a hydrogen peroxide-nitric acid mixture, refluxed on a heating block and a comparison made. The certified reference materials (CRMs) used were Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, peach leaves for vegetation (NIST) and for soil CRM 143R, sewage sludge-amended soil (BCR). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2-6% for the analyses. Our findings show evidence of phytoextraction by some plants, (especially bramble and nettle), with certain plants, (sycamore) exhibiting signs of phytostabilisation. The evidence suggests that there is a degree of selectivity in metal uptake and partitioning within the plant compartments. It was also possible to correlate mobility phases of certain metals (Pb, Cu and Zn) using the soil and plant record. Zn and Cu exhibited the greatest potential to migrate from the roots to the leaves, with Pb found principally in the roots of ground vegetation. Our results suggest that analysis of bramble leaves, nettle leaves and roots can be used to monitor the mobility of Pb in the soil with nettle, bramble and sycamore leaves to monitor Cu and Zn.

  14. Application of Solid Phase Extraction on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes of Some Heavy Metal Ions to Analysis of Skin Whitening Cosmetics Using ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Omer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and highly sensitive method for the determination of some heavy metals in skin whitening cosmetics creams using multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs as solid phase extraction sorbent for the preconcentration of these heavy metals prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. Different practical parameters have been thoroughly investigated and the optimum experimental conditions were employed. The developed method was then applied for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, mercury, lead and titanium in samples of skin whitening cosmetics. The detection limits under these conditions for As, Bi, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ti were 2.4, 4.08, 0.3, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 ng·mL−1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs were found to be less than 2.0%. For validation, a certified reference material of NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves was analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 89.6–104.4%.

  15. Application of XRF methods for multielemental analysis of lichen samples collected in Havana City. Comparison with ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero Fernandez, Zahily; Estevez Alvarez, Juan R.; Montero Alvarez, Alfredo; Pupo Gonzalez, Ivan; Ortueta Milan, Marvic; Mesa Perez, Guillermo; Leyva Bombuse, Dennys; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Maydel; Hernandez Torres, Debora; Padilla Alvarez, Roman; Quejido Cabezas, Alberto J.; Rucandio Saez, Maria I.; Fernandez Diaz, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of Ca, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in samples of lichens used as biomonitors of air pollution collecting in Havana City during 2009-2010. Two different X-Ray Fluorescence methods were used. First, a combination of Si (Li) detector with an annular 109Cd as primary excitation source was employed. The second system consisted in a Mo X-ray tube with a secondary target of Molybdenum and a X-PIPS detector. In both configurations, the correction of matrix effects was achieved by using the Compton scattering peak. The quantification was performed using calibration curves obtained from different biological Certified Reference Materials. The determination of elements by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry, Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was carried out in order to evaluate the reliability of XRF methods. No significant differences were found between the obtained results by the different techniques. The levels of concentration of the analyzed elements in the lichens in 2009 and 2010 respectively were similar. The elemental distribution patters obtained for each metal were associated with different sources of contamination. (Author)

  16. Following the evolution of morphology, composition and crystallography of alumina based catalysts after laser ablation: Implications for analysis by LA-ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloncle, G. [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Direction Physique et Analyses, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)-Lyon, BP3, F-69360 Solaize (France); Gilon, N., E-mail: gilon@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, Lyon1, Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, CNRS UMR 5180, bat CPE, 43, boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Legens, C.; Lienemann, C.-P.; Rebours, B.; Sorbier, L. [Direction Physique et Analyses, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)-Lyon, BP3, F-69360 Solaize (France); Morin, S.; Revel, R. [Direction Catalyse et Separation, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP)-Lyon, BP3, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2009-08-30

    Fundamental understanding of aerosol formation during laser ablation is important for the development of LA-ICP analysis of complex samples. Using a Lina Spark Atomizer{sup TM}, the application of this technique to the field of heterogeneous catalysis gave an accuracy of 5-15% while extreme values of +100% could be obtained in some cases. To improve understanding of laser ablation processes, particles generated during ablation of alumina based catalysts were collected and analysed using different microscopy and surface analysis techniques. Morphological study by scanning electron microscopy showed that most of the particles leaving the ablation cell were nanoparticle aggregates generated from vapor condensation. An XRD study of these aerosols revealed that the condensation converge on the formation of a spinel structure with large coherence domains. Elemental composition of the aerosol was also followed and exhibited differences between a catalyst containing large Mo concentration or low Pt concentration.

  17. Gas-phase sample introduction techniques for the determination of some non-metals by ICP-AES, MIP-AES AND ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-01-01

    Various gas-phase sample introduction methods in analytical atomic spectrometry have been documented for up to 30 elements, but only a few of these methods with less than one-third of the analytes exhibit adequate, competitive performance characteristics. Most attractive are the chemical systems based on (i) reactions in aqueous media, (ii) with fast kinetics of chemical vapor generation and easy stripping off of vapors from solution, (iii) reliable interference control, (iv) with high and reducible chemical yields of volatile products which are (v) readily atomized, excited or ionized in a plasma, so as to provide adequate sensitivity and low limits of detection (LOD). Some significant advantage of gas-phase sample introduction over the widely-used pneumatic nebulization of liquid (solution) samples are (1) high chemical yields and transport efficiency, (2) separation from troublesome matrices, (3) enrichment, (4) automation in flow injection and continuous flow mode, (5) good sample throughput rates, (6) competitive LODs and RSDs, (7) commercially available accessories, (8) economically affordable and (9) speciation potentialities. To the contrary, the major disadvantages and limitations are (1) complex, on line-chemistry involved, (2) specific sample pre-treatment required, (3) effect of oxidation and binding state of analyte, (4) chemical interferences, (5) foaming and aerosol formation, (6) numerous instrumental and chemical parameters for optimization, (7) applicability to a limited number of analytes, (8) limited linear ranges and (9) poor-multi-element capabilities.

  18. Application of Solid Phase Extraction on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes of Some Heavy Metal Ions to Analysis of Skin Whitening Cosmetics Using ICP-AES

    OpenAIRE

    ALqadami, Ayoub; Abdalla, Mohammad; ALOthman, Zeid; Omer, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    A novel and highly sensitive method for the determination of some heavy metals in skin whitening cosmetics creams using multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs as solid phase extraction sorbent for the preconcentration of these heavy metals prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. Different practical parameters have been thoroughly investigated and the optimum experimental conditions were employed. The developed method was then applied ...

  19. Multielement Determination of Major-to Ultratrace Elements in a Cabbage, Spinach, and the Japanese Radish by ICP-AES After Acid Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    畑山, 友紀; 奴田原, 杏奈; 藤井, 和美; 西島, 基弘; ハタヤマ, ユキ; ヌタハラ, アンナ; フジイ, カズミ; ニシジマ, モトヒロ; Yuki, Hatayama; anna, Nutahara; Kazumi, Fujii; Motohiro, Nishijima

    2011-01-01

    A multi-element determination in a cabbage, spinach, and the Japanese radish was carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP). We investigated whether there was a difference in content according to the part of the vegetables. The dried vegetables (0.5g) were digested with nitric acid and with hydrogen peroxide acid in a resolution device As a result, about 9 elements were successfully determined. The values of the coefficient of variance for part interval by ea...

  20. Application of solid phase extraction on multiwalled carbon nanotubes of some heavy metal ions to analysis of skin whitening cosmetics using ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadami, Ayoub A; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; AlOthman, Zeid A; Omer, Kamal

    2013-01-14

    A novel and highly sensitive method for the determination of some heavy metals in skin whitening cosmetics creams using multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNTs as solid phase extraction sorbent for the preconcentration of these heavy metals prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry is described. Different practical parameters have been thoroughly investigated and the optimum experimental conditions were employed. The developed method was then applied for the determination of arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, mercury, lead and titanium in samples of skin whitening cosmetics. The detection limits under these conditions for As, Bi, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ti were 2.4, 4.08, 0.3, 2.1, 1.8, and 1.8 ng·mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were found to be less than 2.0%. For validation, a certified reference material of NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves was analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 89.6-104.4%.

  1. Determination of carboxylic acids, carbohydrates and metals in different tomato cultivars by HPLC-ICP-AES in a single chromatographic run

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador E.; Prats Moya, Soledad; Todolí Torró, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Póster presentado en European Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry 2007, 18-23 February 2007, Taormina, Italy The determination of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and metals is a subject of great interest in the field of food science because their presence and concentration can influence on food quality. Besides the study of the profiles of these compounds can permit the discrimination between different varieties of a product. Unfortunately, the usually employed chromatograph...

  2. Standard test method for determination of impurities in plutonium: acid dissolution, ion exchange matrix separation, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP/AES) analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

  3. Determination of total Cr in wastewaters of Cr electroplating factories in the I.organize industry region (Kayseri, Turkey) by ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Selehattin; Türe, Melike; Sadikoglu, Murat; Duran, Ali

    2010-08-01

    The wastewater pollution in industrial areas is one of the most important environmental problems. Heavy metal pollution, especially chromium pollution in the wastewater sources from electroplating, dyeing, and tannery, has affected the life on earth. This pollution can affect on all ecosystems and human health directly or by food chain. Therefore, the determination of total chromium in this study is of great importance. In this study, accurate, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and low-cost technique for the direct determination of total Cr in wastewater samples collected from the some Cr electroplating factories in March 2008 by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been developed. The analysis of a given sample is completed in about 15 min by this technique applied. As the result of the chromium analysis, the limit of quantification for the total Cr were founded to be over the limit value (0.05 mg L(-1); WHO, EPA, TSE 266, and inland water quality classification) as 1,898.78+/-0.34 mg/L at station 1 and 3,189.02+/-0.56 mg/L at station 2. The found concentration of total Cr has been determined to be IV class quality water according to the inland water classification. In order to validate the applied method, recovery studies were performed.

  4. High active waste (HAW) data report January-June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijves, K.A.

    1992-04-01

    Data are presented from the High Active Waste (HAW) experiment, a large-scale, in situ test being performed underground at the Asse salt mine in Remlingen, FRG. These data include selected field information, the test configuration, instrumentation activities and comprehensive results from a large number of gauges. The results are measured data obtained from gap meters, thermocouples, linear displacement transducers, extensometers, inclinometers and pressure gauges. Data certification practices have been described together with the quality assurance of the data reduction and of the data base management system. The experiment began on November 8, 1988 and will continue for five years. Data in this report cover the period from January 1st, 1991 to June 30, 1991. (author). 4 refs.; 43 figs.; 8 tabs

  5. Scintillation camera for high activity sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arseneau, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The invention described relates to a scintillation camera used for clinical medical diagnosis. Advanced recognition of many unacceptable pulses allows the scintillation camera to discard such pulses at an early stage in processing. This frees the camera to process a greater number of pulses of interest within a given period of time. Temporary buffer storage allows the camera to accommodate pulses received at a rate in excess of its maximum rated capability due to statistical fluctuations in the level of radioactivity of the radiation source measured. (U.K.)

  6. Method for measuring deuterium in erbium deuteride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brangan, J.R.; Thornberg, S.M.; Keenan, M.R.

    1997-09-01

    Determining the quantity of deuterium in an erbium deuteride (ErD 2 ) film is essential for assessing the quality of the hydriding process but is a challenging measurement to make. First, the ideal gas law cannot be applied directly due to high temperature (950 degrees C) and low temperature (25 degrees C) regions in the same manifold. Additionally, the metal hydride does not release all of the deuterium rapidly upon heating and metal evaporation occurs during extended heating periods. Therefore, the method developed must provide a means to compensate for temperature inhomogeneities and the amount of deuterium retained in the metal film while heating for a minimal duration. This paper presents two thermal desorption methods used to evaluate the kinetics and equilibria of the deuterium desorption process at high temperatures (950 degrees C). Of primary concern is the evaluation of the quantity of deuterium remaining in these films at the high temperature. A multiple volume expansion technique provided insight into the kinetics of the deuterium evolution and metal evaporation from the film. Finally a repeated pump-down approach yielded data that indicated approximately 10% of the deuterium is retained in the metal film at 950 degrees C and approximately 1 Torr pressure. When the total moles of deuterium determined by this method were divided by the moles of erbium determined by ICP/AES, nearly stochiometric values of 2:1 were obtained for several erbium dideuteride films. Although this work presents data for erbium and deuterium, these methods are applicable to other metal hydrides as well

  7. What is a Beryllium Measurement? A Critical Look at Beryllium Quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Davis; Dan Field; John Hess; Dan Jensen

    2006-01-01

    DOE workplaces strive to comply with the 10 CFR 850.31(b)(1) surface concentration release criterion. The usual planning considerations for demonstrating compliance are these: how many swipes, and where; which sample preparation and analytical methods; what reporting limits; and what sample statistic to compare with the criterion. We have reviewed swipe samples from hundreds of Nevada Test Site workplaces: office buildings; experimental facilities; forward area field units; shops; and tunnels. Our experiences have led us to a critical examination of the inner workings of the measurement process itself, involving details generally taken for granted when those usual questions are asked. In this presentation we dissect the ICP-AES Be measurement process. We discuss calibration options and how they impact the distributions of analytical results. We look at distributions of blank results obtained from different labs, and discuss their relevance to determining reporting limits. We examine the way measurements are made from spectra, how that process impacts our understanding of the actual statistical distributions of Be measurements, and how interferences can affect Be measurements. Our objective is to gain sufficient confidence in the measurement process so that the usual questions will make sense and the survey results will be credible. Based on our observations, we offer these recommendations: prepare calibration samples in digested blank swipes; force the calibration line through (0,0); base reporting limits on field blank measurement distributions rather than 40 CFR 236 calculations; use, but do not believe, the usual lognormal distribution assumption; and avoid the 234.861 nm emission line

  8. Determination of boron by ICP-AES in normal and malignant cells incubated 'in vitro' with fructose {sup 10}BPA; Determinacion de boro por ICP-AES para el estudio de captacion por celulas malignas y normales incubadas 'in vitro' con fructosa-BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garavaglia, Ricardo N; Farias, Silvia S; Rodriguez, Ruben E; Servant, Roberto E; Liberman, Sara; Pisarev, Mario A; Batistoni, Daniel A [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the development and optimization of methodology for total boron concentration in cell cultures coming from fixation and accumulation of this element by normal and malignant cells. On account of sample mass and low volume resulting from dilution, generally about 1 mL, a procedure for automatic injection of micro volumes was designed, developed and optimized. Iron interference was carefully studied. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 50 to 2500 ng B/mL range. Determination limits were 10 and 20 ng B/mL for B 249.772 nm and 249.677 nm, respectively. Repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation was better than 5% for a 100 ng B/mL. Recovery of analyte added to real samples ranged between 95 and 103%. The method was applied to studies on F-98 cells (rat glioma) and normal glia in BNCT project frame. (author)

  9. Avaliação da salinização de açudes no semi-árido brasileiro por ICP-AES Evaluation of the salt accumulation process in water resources in the Brazilian semi - arid area by ICP-- AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soares dos Santos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The salt accumulation process in some reservoirs of regular and irregular use (from 10 to 50 years of constrution, located in the Southeast of Bahia State was evaluated. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was used to evaluate the concentrations of Na, K, Ca and Mg in water samples from inside and upstream of the reservoirs. The results showed that for reservoirs of irregular use, the salt accumulation, indicated by the tracer Na, increases with the age of the reservoirs, however for the reservoirs of regular use the hydraulic retention time is the main parameter.

  10. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven .... Table 1: Relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and HAART adherence among ... constraints (44%), stigma (15%), travel/migration.

  11. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ... the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was used to measure quality of life among patients on ... instrument for use in Ethiopia to assess the quality of life of people living with ...

  12. Development of cutting machine for disposal of highly activated equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Katumichi; Kitajima, Toshio; Hosokawa, Jinsaku; Abe, Shinichi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Mituhiro; Iwai, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) Project has developed a cutting machine which can cut a highly activated in-pile tube under water and its performance and safety have been confirmed. This machine is for the purpose of cutting a multiplet structure pipe and made possible to cut it under water by adopting under-water discharge method. Furthermore, contamination of canal water and atmosphere is prevented by combining a filter with this machine. This report describes the outline and performance of the developed cutting machine and also results of cutting highly activated in-pile tubes. (author)

  13. Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence among urban Ethiopian clients. ... clients' self-reported adherence to HAART medication, a descriptive, comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among adults receiving HAART medication at the Zewditu Memorial Hospital ART clinic in Addis Ababa.

  14. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University ...

  15. Roles of family dynamics on adherence to highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proven to be the only effective treatment for HIV/AIDS worldwide. Good adherence to HAART might require good family support. Objective: To determine the family dynamics and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its ...

  16. Influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report is part of the ongoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) trial, 167 patients were enlisted, but current analysis was restricted to 107 patients that were about a year old on the programme. The baseline weight, CD4+ cell count and serum albumin of 59 males and 48 females age 15-60 years, were ...

  17. Dyslipidemia in HIV Infected Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anirban; Mukherjee, Aparna; Lakshmy, R; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to determine the associated risk factors for the same. The present cross-sectional study was conducted at a Pediatric Clinic of a tertiary care teaching center in India, from May 2011 through December 2012. HIV infected children aged 5-15 y were enrolled if they did not have any severe disease or hospital admission within last 3 mo or receive any medications known to affect the lipid profile. Eighty-one children were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 6 mo and 16 were receiving no antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants' sociodemographic, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded in addition to anthropometry and evidence of lipodystrophy. Fasting lipid profile, apolipoprotein A1 and B levels were done for all the children. Among the children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 38.3 % had dyslipidemia and 80.2 % had lipodystrophy, while 25 % antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV infected children had dyslipidemia. No clinically significant risk factors could be identified that increased the risk of dyslipidemia or lipodystrophy in children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in Indian children with HIV infection with an imminent need to establish facilities for testing and treatment of these children for metabolic abnormalities.

  18. Designing a new highly active liquid evaporator - 16075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, Paul; Candy, Emma

    2009-01-01

    The Highly Active Liquid Effluent Storage (HALES) plant stores, concentrates and conditions Highly Active Liquor (HAL) in evaporators for buffer storage in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HAST). Highly Active (HA) evaporators play a pivotal role in the delivery of reprocessing, historic clean up and hazard reduction missions across the Sellafield site. In addition to the engineering projects implemented to extend the life expectation of the current evaporator fleet, the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Agency (NDA) is sponsoring the construction of a new HA evaporator (Evaporator D) on the Sellafield site. The design and operation of the new HA evaporator is based on existing/recent HA evaporator technology but learning from past operational experience. Operational experience has been a key area where the existing plant operators have influenced both the new design itself and the requirements for commissioning and training. Many of the learning experiences require relatively simple engineering design modifications such as a new internal washing provision and transfer line blockage recovery systems, they are never-the-less expected to significantly improve the flexibility and operational capability of the new evaporator. Issues that the project delivery team has addressed as part of the development of the design and construction have included: - Minimising interruptions and/or changes to the normal operations of interfacing plants during construction, commissioning and operation of the new facility. - Modularization of the plant, enabling fabrication of the majority of the plant equipment off-site within a workshop (as opposed to on-site) environment improving Quality Assurance and reducing on-Site testing needs. - Drawing out the balance between operational and corrosion resistance improvements with actual design and delivery needs. - Provision of a new facility reliant on the infrastructure of an existing and ageing facility and the competing demands of the related safety

  19. The denitration of simulated fast reactor highly active liquor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, C.J.; Ford, L.H.; Platts, N.

    1981-11-01

    Vitrification of the highly active arisings from PFR fuel reprocessing is proposed as the optimum long-term solution to the disposal problem. During vitrification ruthenium volatilises as the tetroxide. Evidence is presented which indicates that a substantial reduction in volatility can be effected by denitration of the liquid feed by treatment with formic acid. The kinetics and stoichiometry of the reactions involved in denitration are examined and empirical rate equations developed. The predictions of the empirical rate equation have been confirmed using a one-tenth scale continuous denitrator, thus giving confidence for the design of full-scale units. (author)

  20. Management of spent high activity radioactive sources (SHARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this report is to provide all people involved in the handling and management of high activity sources with sufficient information about processes that are required for the safe management of spent high activity radioactive sources (SHARS). This includes examples of spent source management that are already taking place and also a description of the range of appropriate options that are available for each stage in the management process. This report also aims to identify the important issues to be addressed in order to develop a waste management strategy as part of the integrated management strategy that takes account of international experience and the guidance and principles that have been learned from that experience. This report relates specifically to SHARS, which are spent sources that have the potential, with short exposures, to produce acute health effects if handled incorrectly. In addition, they may also incur significant economic costs in any retrieval or environmental remediation operation, following loss of or damage to such a source. The report provides guidance on the technical, administrative and economic issues associated with SHARS from the moment they cease to be in use through to disposal, including temporary storage, transport, conditioning and interim storage

  1. Analytic of elements for the determination of soil->plant transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liese, T.

    1985-02-01

    This article describes a part of the conventional analytical work, which was done to determine soil to plant transfer factors. The analytical methods, the experiments to find out the best way of sample digestion and the resulting analytical procedures are described. Analytical methods are graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In case of ICP-AES the necessity of right background correction and correction of the spectral interferences is shown. The reliability of the analytical procedure is demonstrated by measuring different kinds of standard reference materials and by comparison of AAS and AES. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-01-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life

  3. The safety of high activity long life nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    The article concerns the deep geological storage for managing high activity long life nuclear waste. He puts forward a context giving a structure to the discussions of those involved concerning an assessment of the safety of a deep geological deposit project. Three main aspects are put forward. The risks for future generations and the time scales to be considered: briefly, the deposit needs to satisfy two functions for protecting man and the environment, namely firstly isolating high activity radionuclides from the biosphere during the time required for their radioactive decay (about ten thousands years), and secondly delay and dilute long life radionuclides without any a priori time limit so as to reduce their effects in the biosphere to extremely low levels. The risks are linked to possible failures of the containment barriers whose causes need to be analysed and be provided against by suitable provisions concerning their design. The definition of these design provisions requires an in depth examination of uncertain elements. The main causes of uncertainty are listed according to the scale of time in question, that is O-10,000 years, 10,000-100,000 years and beyond 100,000 years, stressing the importance of selecting a stable geological site and more generally a solid concept that is not very sensitive in uncertainties. Beyond 100,000 years the extent of uncertainties no longer makes it possible to make realistic predictions. It is thus necessary to consider the alternative scenarios concerning geological and climatic changes and the corresponding increasing risks of radionuclides. The risks in question may be relativized by realizing that on this time scale, the residual activities of soluble and insoluble alpha and beta emitters are comparable to those of a storage centre located on the surface at the end of the monitoring period. Finally, the article considers the approach put forward concerning the safety of a deep geological storage advocated by the French

  4. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  5. Microbial fuel cells with highly active aerobic biocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Edward M.; Popescu, Dorin; Curtis, Tom; Head, Ian M.; Scott, Keith; Yu, Eileen H.

    2016-08-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which convert organic waste to electricity, could be used to make the wastewater infrastructure more energy efficient and sustainable. However, platinum and other non-platinum chemical catalysts used for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode of MFCs are unsustainable due to their high cost and long-term degradation. Aerobic biocathodes, which use microorganisms as the biocatalysts for cathode ORR, are a good alternative to chemical catalysts. In the current work, high-performing aerobic biocathodes with an onset potential for the ORR of +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl were enriched from activated sludge in electrochemical half-cells poised at -0.1 and + 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Gammaproteobacteria, distantly related to any known cultivated gammaproteobacterial lineage, were identified as dominant in these working electrode biofilms (23.3-44.3% of reads in 16S rRNA gene Ion Torrent libraries), and were in very low abundance in non-polarised control working electrode biofilms (0.5-0.7%). These Gammaproteobacteria were therefore most likely responsible for the high activity of biologically catalysed ORR. In MFC tests, a high-performing aerobic biocathode increased peak power 9-fold from 7 to 62 μW cm-2 in comparison to an unmodified carbon cathode, which was similar to peak power with a platinum-doped cathode at 70 μW cm-2.

  6. Lead corrosion evaluation in high activity nuclear waste container (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, R.; Lanzani, L.; Bruzzoni, P.; Cufre, W.; Semino, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a study of high activity nuclear waste canister corrosion in a deep geological disposal. In this canister design, the vitrified nuclear waste stainless steel container is shielded by a 100 mm thick lead wall. For mechanical resistance, the canister will also have a thin carbon steel external liner. Experimental and mathematical modeling studies are aimed to asses the corrosion kinetics of the carbon steel liner in first instance and then, once this liner has been corroded away, the corrosion kinetics of the main lead barrier. Being that oxygen reduction is the main cathodic reaction that supports the anodic oxidation of iron, a model is described predicting the rate of oxygen consumption in a sealed deep nuclear waste disposal vault as a result of the canister corrosion. Oxidation processes other than container corrosion, and that can account also for oxygen depletion, are not taken into consideration. Corrosion experimental studies on lead and its alloys in groundwater are also reported. These experiments are aimed to improve the corrosion resistance of commercial lead in groundwater. (author)

  7. Management of synchronized network activity by highly active neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shein, Mark; Raichman, Nadav; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Volman, Vladislav; Hanein, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the idea that spontaneous brain activity may have an important functional role. Cultured neuronal networks provide a suitable model system to search for the mechanisms by which neuronal spontaneous activity is maintained and regulated. This activity is marked by synchronized bursting events (SBEs)—short time windows (hundreds of milliseconds) of rapid neuronal firing separated by long quiescent periods (seconds). However, there exists a special subset of rapidly firing neurons whose activity also persists between SBEs. It has been proposed that these highly active (HA) neurons play an important role in the management (i.e. establishment, maintenance and regulation) of the synchronized network activity. Here, we studied the dynamical properties and the functional role of HA neurons in homogeneous and engineered networks, during early network development, upon recovery from chemical inhibition and in response to electrical stimulations. We found that their sequences of inter-spike intervals (ISI) exhibit long time correlations and a unimodal distribution. During the network's development and under intense inhibition, the observed activity follows a transition period during which mostly HA neurons are active. Studying networks with engineered geometry, we found that HA neurons are precursors (the first to fire) of the spontaneous SBEs and are more responsive to electrical stimulations

  8. Characterisation of airborne Ce, Th and Cd in workplace and their correlation with their concentrations in body fluids and excreta of occupational workers using NAA, ICP-AES and XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Maniyan, C.G.; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Nair, Madhua G.; Sawant, Pramilla; Negi, B.S.; Jha, S.K.; Kumar, Anil; Krishnan, Narayani

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the respirable airborne particulate matter (APM) from the occupational settings at the zinc smelting, mineral beneficiation and mineral processing industries using nuclear and related analytical techniques, indicates elemental distribution specific to individual process. While the concentrations and their ratios in the raw material were reflected in the APM at the initial stages, these underwent significant modifications at subsequent stages. Detailed size characterisation studies showed that up to 50% of APM was below 2 μm in some process areas. Studies on the solubilisation of APM in lung serum simulant demonstrated fast and slow components for both Cd and Zn. Cadmium showed preferential solubilisation. Detailed analysis of the urine excreta of occupational workers showed significant correlation with APM. The study revealed usefulness of urine sample as biological integrator for monitoring the work place. The rate of excretion of Th and Ce through urine was related to the physico-chemical form of their respective APM. Cerium showed faster elimination when it was present as halides or hydrates. The study has been able to identify different chemical species and their relevance in the uptake, retention and biological elimination. The influence of specific site environmental background in the population was nearly 25% of the occupational levels for Th as revealed by analysis of urine samples and thoron in the exhaled breath. Participated in the Agency's intercomparison programmes. Results of NAT-3 Air Filters have been sent. Samples of lyophilised urine and welding fumes are being analysed. (author)

  9. Characterisation of airborne Ce, Th and Cd in workplace and their co-relation with their concentrations in body fluids and excreta of occupational workers using NAA, ICP - AES and XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A C; Pillai, P M.B.; Radhakrishnan, S [Health Physics Unit, Environmental Radiological Laboratory (BARC), Indian Rare Earths Ltd., Udyogamandal, Kerala (India); Nair, M G; Sawant, P [Environmental Studies Section, Health Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai (India); Lakshmanan, A R [Health Physics Unit, Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad (India); Negi, B S [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai (India); Kumar, A; Krishnan, N [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai (India)

    1999-12-31

    Airborne Ce, Th and Cd in the occupational settings were studied at the monazite mineral beneficiation and zinc ore concentrate processing using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Air samples were collected using grab and size selective samplers simultaneously. The size selective sampler consisted of 8-stage Anderson cascade impactor with back-up filter. Size characterisation showed that the Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of the airborne dust at the monazite mineral beneficiation ranged from 3 to 10 {mu}m. The Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) for Th and Ce were also in the same range. Over 85% of the airborne dust associated with zinc concentrate ore handling was above 9 {mu}m however: the MMAD at the down stream processing was about 3 {mu}m. Composite air samples were subjected to leaching in simulated lung serum to find the solubility class. The urine samples of occupational workers engaged in mineral beneficiation showed Th levels ranging from 39 to 552 ng l{sup -1} with a geometric mean of 186 ng l{sup -1}. The results were obtained using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The observed levels of Th in the urine samples were lower than the predicted levels, due to resistance of the mineral to biochemical leaching. In a limited number of urine samples Ce ranged from 312 to 1587 ng l{sup -1} with a geometric mean of 700 ngl{sup -1}. These values, also determined by NAA, are unique in occupational settings. The Ce to Th ratio in the samples works out to 3.7 as against their ratio of 2.9 in the monazite mineral. The biological levels of Th and Ce observed in occupational settings need refinement on account of the possible environmental contribution due to uptake of these elements in the natural high radiation background areas. Detailed work on characterisation of dust, simulated leaching and analysis of biological samples is in progress in connection with the CRP. (author) 19 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  10. Characterisation of airborne Ce, Th and Cd in workplace and their co-relation with their concentrations in body fluids and excreta of occupational workers using NAA, ICP - AES and XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.C.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Nair, M.G.; Sawant, P.; Lakshmanan, A.R.; Negi, B.S.; Kumar, A.; Krishnan, N.

    1998-01-01

    Airborne Ce, Th and Cd in the occupational settings were studied at the monazite mineral beneficiation and zinc ore concentrate processing using nuclear and related analytical techniques. Air samples were collected using grab and size selective samplers simultaneously. The size selective sampler consisted of 8-stage Anderson cascade impactor with back-up filter. Size characterisation showed that the Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of the airborne dust at the monazite mineral beneficiation ranged from 3 to 10 μm. The Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD) for Th and Ce were also in the same range. Over 85% of the airborne dust associated with zinc concentrate ore handling was above 9 μm however: the MMAD at the down stream processing was about 3 μm. Composite air samples were subjected to leaching in simulated lung serum to find the solubility class. The urine samples of occupational workers engaged in mineral beneficiation showed Th levels ranging from 39 to 552 ng l -1 with a geometric mean of 186 ng l -1 . The results were obtained using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The observed levels of Th in the urine samples were lower than the predicted levels, due to resistance of the mineral to biochemical leaching. In a limited number of urine samples Ce ranged from 312 to 1587 ng l -1 with a geometric mean of 700 ngl -1 . These values, also determined by NAA, are unique in occupational settings. The Ce to Th ratio in the samples works out to 3.7 as against their ratio of 2.9 in the monazite mineral. The biological levels of Th and Ce observed in occupational settings need refinement on account of the possible environmental contribution due to uptake of these elements in the natural high radiation background areas. Detailed work on characterisation of dust, simulated leaching and analysis of biological samples is in progress in connection with the CRP. (author)

  11. HAART (Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praful Pande

    2014-01-01

    activation, restoration of lymph node architecture, clinical improvement, prolonged survival, fewer opportunistic infections and HIV - associated malignancies. Problem with therapy are pill burden, non-availability of drugs, food and storage restrictions, drug-drug interactions, severe side-effects, reduction in quality of life measures, emergence of multiple drug resistance mutations.

  12. Novel, high-activity hydroprocessing catalysts: Iron group phosphides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianqin

    A series of iron, cobalt and nickel transition metal phosphides was synthesized by means of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) of the corresponding phosphates. The same materials, Fe2P, CoP and NO, were also prepared on a silica (SiO2) support. The phase purity of these catalysts was established by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surface properties were determined by N2 BET specific surface area (Sg) measurements and CO chemisorption. The activities of the silica-supported catalysts were tested in a three-phase trickle bed reactor for the simultaneous hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene using a model liquid feed at realistic conditions (30 atm, 370°C). The reactivity studies showed that the nickel phosphide (Ni2P/SiO2) was the most active of the catalysts. Compared with a commercial Ni-Mo-S/gamma-Al 2O3 catalyst at the same conditions, Ni2P/silica had a substantially higher HDS activity (100% vs. 76%) and HDN activity (82% vs. 38%). Because of their good hydrotreating activity, an extensive study of the preparation of silica supported nickel phosphides, Ni2P/SiO 2, was carried out. The parameters investigated were the phosphorus content and the weight loading of the active phase. The most active composition was found to have a starting synthesis Ni/P ratio close to 1/2, and the best loading of this sample on silica was observed to be 18 wt.%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements were employed to determine the structures of the supported samples. The main phase before and after reaction was found to be Ni2P, but some sulfur was found to be retained after reaction. A comprehensive scrutiny of the HDN reaction mechanism was also made over the Ni2P/SiO2 sample (Ni/P = 1/2) by comparing the HDN activity of a series of piperidine derivatives of different structure. It was found that piperidine adsorption involved an alpha-H activation

  13. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwon Suh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data.

  14. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  15. Dynamic surface self-reconstruction is the key of highly active perovskite nano-electrocatalysts for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Emiliana; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Binninger, Tobias; Cheng, Xi; Kim, Bae-Jung; Durst, Julien; Bozza, Francesco; Graule, Thomas; Schäublin, Robin; Wiles, Luke; Pertoso, Morgan; Danilovic, Nemanja; Ayers, Katherine E.; Schmidt, Thomas J.

    2017-09-01

    The growing need to store increasing amounts of renewable energy has recently triggered substantial R&D efforts towards efficient and stable water electrolysis technologies. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring at the electrolyser anode is central to the development of a clean, reliable and emission-free hydrogen economy. The development of robust and highly active anode materials for OER is therefore a great challenge and has been the main focus of research. Among potential candidates, perovskites have emerged as promising OER electrocatalysts. In this study, by combining a scalable cutting-edge synthesis method with time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements, we were able to capture the dynamic local electronic and geometric structure during realistic operando conditions for highly active OER perovskite nanocatalysts. Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ as nano-powder displays unique features that allow a dynamic self-reconstruction of the material’s surface during OER, that is, the growth of a self-assembled metal oxy(hydroxide) active layer. Therefore, besides showing outstanding performance at both the laboratory and industrial scale, we provide a fundamental understanding of the operando OER mechanism for highly active perovskite catalysts. This understanding significantly differs from design principles based on ex situ characterization techniques.

  16. Well-Shaped Sulfonic Organosilica Nanotubes with High Activity for Hydrolysis of Cellobiose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic organosilica nanotubes with different acidity densities could be synthesized through the co-condensation of ethenyl- or phenylene-bridged organosilane and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane followed by sulfhydryl (–SH oxidation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiment clearly exhibit the hollow nanotube structures with the diameters of about 5 nm. The compositions of the nanotube frameworks are confirmed by solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS shows that about 60–80% of SH groups were oxidized to sulfonic acid (SO3H. The acid contents were measured by both elemental analysis (CHNS mode and acid-base titration experiment, which revealed that the acid density was in the range of 0.74 to 4.37 μmol·m−2 on the solid. These nanotube-based acid catalysts exhibited excellent performances in the hydrolysis of cellobiose with the highest conversion of 92% and glucose selectivity of 96%. In addition, the catalysts could maintain high activity (65% conversion with 92% selectivity even after six recycles.

  17. Examination Of Sulfur Measurements In DWPF Sludge Slurry And SRAT Product Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wiedenman, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to re-sample the received SB7b WAPS material for wt. % solids, perform an aqua regia digestion and analyze the digested material by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), as well as re-examine the supernate by ICP-AES. The new analyses were requested in order to provide confidence that the initial analytical subsample was representative of the Tank 40 sample received and to replicate the S results obtained on the initial subsample collected. The ICP-AES analyses for S were examined with both axial and radial detection of the sulfur ICP-AES spectroscopic emission lines to ascertain if there was any significant difference in the reported results. The outcome of this second subsample of the Tank 40 WAPS material is the first subject of this report. After examination of the data from the new subsample of the SB7b WAPS material, a team of DWPF and SRNL staff looked for ways to address the question of whether there was in fact insoluble S that was not being accounted for by ion chromatography (IC) analysis. The question of how much S is reaching the melter was thought best addressed by examining a DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Product sample, but the significant dilution of sludge material, containing the S species in question, that results from frit addition was believed to add additional uncertainty to the S analysis of SME Product material. At the time of these discussions it was believed that all S present in a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt sample would be converted to sulfate during the course of the SRAT cycle. A SRAT Product sample would not have the S dilution effect resulting from frit addition, and hence, it was decided that a DWPF SRAT Product sample would be obtained and submitted to SRNL for digestion and sample preparation followed by a round-robin analysis of the prepared samples by the DWPF Laboratory, F/H Laboratories, and SRNL for S and sulfate. The

  18. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  19. The Immune Pathogenesis of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Associated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huaying; He, Yan; Chen, Zi; He, Bo; He, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the immunological pathogenesis of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A total of 238 patients with AIDS who received initial HAART were included in this prospective cohort study. Blood samples were collected immediately, at baseline, at week 12, and at week 24 after initial HAART and at the onset of IRIS. Lymphocyte subsets, Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and interleukin (IL)-7 levels were measured by flow cytometry or ELISA. Among the 238 patients with AIDS who received HAART, 47 patients developed IRIS. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ naive, memory, and activated cells exhibited no significant differences between AIDS patients with and without IRIS 24 weeks after initial HAART. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells was lower in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients before HAART, 12 weeks after HAART, 24 weeks after HAART, and at the onset of IRIS. IL-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were significantly higher at week 4 and at the onset of IRIS in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients. In contrast, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly lower at week 4 and at the onset of IRIS in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients. Plasma IL-7 decreased gradually with the progression of HAART. The level of IL-7 was higher in IRIS patients than in non-IRIS patients at all follow-up time points. An imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines, a consistently low CD+CD25+Fox3+ percentage, and a high IL-7 level may be crucial in the pathogenesis of IRIS in AIDS patients who had received HAART. PMID:25131160

  20. Sex issues in HIV-1-infected persons during highly active antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastri, Emanuele; Leone, Sebastiano; Angeletti, Claudio; Palmisano, Lucia; Sarmati, Loredana; Chiesi, Antonio; Geraci, Andrea; Vella, Stefano; Narciso, Pasquale; Corpolongo, Angela; Andreoni, Massimo

    2007-10-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), morbidity and mortality rates have sharply decreased among HIV-infected patients. Studies of possible differences between men and women in the course of HIV infection give conflicting results. The objective of this study was to assess sex differences during HAART. A literature search by using the MEDLINE database between March 2002 and February 2007 was performed to identify all published studies on the sex-specific differences on the impact of HAART. All articles with measures of effect (preferably adjusted odds ratio, relative risk or hazard ratio with 95% CI) of sex on viroimmunological and clinical parameters during HAART were included. Five different topics of interest in our research were selected: time of initiation of HAART, adherence, viroimmunological response, clinical response and adverse reactions during HAART. US data report an initiation of HAART at an earlier disease stage in men compared with women. After initiation of HAART, most authors do not report any viroimmunological difference, although a few clinical studies showed a significantly better virological response in women compared with men. Nevertheless, women were more likely to be less adherent to antiretrovirals and to have non-structured treatment interruptions than men. This is likely to be related to the higher number of adverse reactions they experience during HAART. Finally, discordant opinions with regard to clinical benefits during HAART exist, but recent clinical and observational trials suggest a better clinical outcome for women. We found little evidence of sex differences during antiretroviral treatment. Nevertheless, most of these studies were underpowered to detect sex differences and had limited follow-up at 6 or 12 months. Design of new gender-sensitive clinical trials with both prolonged follow-up and sample size representative of the current HIV prevalence among women are strongly needed to detect the

  1. The decommissioning and demolition of four suites of high active chemical analysis cells at DNPDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.M.; Spence, B.W.; Stewart, C.W.

    1987-11-01

    The decommissioning and demolition of four laboratory suites of high active cells at DNPDE is described. All four suites had suffered drain leaks of high active liquor into underfloor ducts; the options available at the time and current policy for dealing with the resultant activity deposits are given. The decommissioning procedures are detailed to provide information for future similar exercises. Features to ease demolition of such facilities and to eliminate the possibility of long term activity deposition from drain leaks are highlighted for incorporation in future designs. The waste arisings and radiation doses received during the work are tabulated. (author)

  2. Year impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on quality of life of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a number of achievements as well as challenges. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of 48 weeks HAART of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine on the quality of life of HIVinfected Nigerians. Materials and Method: ...

  3. Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy administered by general practitioners in rural South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R. E.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Schrooders, P. A.; van de Vijver, D. A.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Tempelman, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the one-year efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) administered by general practitioners in a primary care community clinic in rural South Africa. We performed an observational cohort study of 675 treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus

  4. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the WHO European Region 2003-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerup, Annemarie R; Donoghoe, Martin C; Lazarus, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    To assess changes in access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between the end of 2002 and the end of 2005, and to review the capacity for further HAART scale-up in the then 52 Member States of the WHO European Region....

  5. Immunological Analysis of Treatment Interruption After Early Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellens, Ingrid M. M.; Pogany, Katalin; Westerlaken, Geertje H. A.; Borghans, José A. M.; Miedema, Frank; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Kroon, Frank P.; Lange, Joep M. A.; Brinkman, Kees; Prins, Jan M.; van Baarle, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    We longitudinally evaluated HIV-specific T-cell immunity after discontinuation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). After treatment interruption (TI), some individuals could maintain a low plasma viral load ( <15,000 copies/mL), whereas others could not (>50,000 copies/mL). Before HAART

  6. Detection of lipoatrophy in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, K.; Verweel, G.; Groot, R. de; Hartwig, N.G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has been associated with lipodystrophy in adults. Much is unknown about its characteristics, especially in children. OBJECTIVE: To obtain an objective case definition of the lipodystrophy syndrome. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. One

  7. Calcium Oxide Supported on Monoclinic Zirconia as a Highly Active Solid Base Catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, A.M.; Haasterecht, van T.; Jong, de K.P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium oxide supported on ZrO2 is a highly active catalyst for base-catalyzed reactions such as aldol-type reactions and transesterification reactions. The role of key parameters during preparation, that is, impregnation versus precipitation, heat treatment, and metal oxide loading on the basicity

  8. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly active eighth-grade girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W; Pate, Russell R

    2013-06-01

    Although girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Data from 1,866 eighth-grade girls from six field centers across the United States participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed-model analysis of variance examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. High-active girls were taller, had lower body mass indices and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding genetic and lifestyle factors, and in particular to ill-defined and low levels of physical activity. This study assessed the relationship between age and a diverse range of physiological functions in a cohort of highly active older individuals (cyclists) aged 55-79 years in whom the effects of lifestyle factors would be ameliorated. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. V̇O2max was most closely associated with age, but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The data suggest that the relationship between human ageing and physiological function is highly individualistic and modified by inactivity. Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55-79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular

  10. The role of reaction pathways and support interactions in the development of high activity hydrotreating catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topsøe, Henrik; Hinnemann, Berit; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    structures may be present as single sulfide sheets. Thus, stacking is not an essential feature of Type II catalysts. The article illustrates how the new scientific insight has aided the introduction of the new high activity BRIM (TM) type catalysts for FCC pre-treatment and production of ultra low sulfur...... exhibiting a metallic character are observed to be involved in adsorption, hydrogenation and C-S bond cleavage. The insight is seen to provide a new framework for understanding the DDS and HYD pathways and the role of steric hindrance and poisons. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have illustrated...... how support interactions may influence the activity of sulfided catalysts. The brim sites and the tendency to form vacancies are seen to differ in types I and II Co-Mo-S. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) studies show that the high activity Type II...

  11. Inactive experiments for advanced separation processes prior to high activity trials in ATALANTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamet, Jean; Lanoe, Jean-Yves; Rivalier, Patrick; Borda, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    Many trials have been performed in ATALANTE's shielded cells to demonstrate the technical feasibility of processes involving minor actinide separation. They required developments of new extractors as well as a step by step procedure have been used to lower the risks of malfunction during high active operation. The design of the extractors developed by Cea has included shielded cells restrictions, miniaturization to lower the quantity of high active material and wastes and the care for being representative of industrial equipment. After individual shake down inactive tests, with actual phases, each process experiment scheduled in ATALANTE has been tested at G1 Facility in Marcoule. The objective was to reproduce as much as possible all the equipment chosen for active tests. This procedure has demonstrated its efficiency to detect many problems that would have heavy impact if they have been discovered during active trials. It was also used for operators'training. (authors)

  12. Erectile Dysfunction Among HIV Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia as a Main Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Romero‐Velez, MD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: ED is highly prevalent in HIV patients. Dyslipidemia should be considered as a risk factor for ED in HIV patients. Romero‐Velez G, Lisker‐Cervantes A, Villeda‐Sandoval CI, Sotomayor de Zavaleta M, Olvera‐Posada D, Sierra‐Madero JG, Arreguin‐Camacho LO, and Castillejos‐Molina RA. Erectile dysfunction among HIV patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy: Dyslipidemia as a main risk factor. Sex Med 2014;2:24–30.

  13. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85–2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous–organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al 2 O 3 catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  14. Long-term α-hazard of high activity waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.

    1974-01-01

    The concentration and decay of α-emitters in high activity waste arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing was calculated under specified reference conditions. An attempt to evaluate the long-term hazard of such waste is being made by applying the ''barrier'' approach derived from reactor safety studies. Four barriers were identified, which could be evaluated in a probabilistic way by taking into account the great uncertainties present in each of them. The barriers are: 1) quality of the segregation afforded by deep geological formations, 2) stability of conditioned waste (chemical and physical), 3) retention by immediate surrounding, 4) distribution pattern of actinides in the environment. The analysis of a fictional accident showed that the uncertainties connected with the evaluation of the barriers' value are rather large. Additional studies particularly on the stability of conditioned waste and ecological properties of the environment towards actinides, would considerably improve our knowledge of the value of the barrier system. Chemical separation of actinides from high activity waste would be an additional option of undoubted value for the disposal of high activity waste. Its value for the overall safety of the entire waste inventory depends on many factors which need better evaluation, such as safety of the disposal of the separated actinides and the amount and quality of the additional waste generated by the separation process. An analysis of various levels of possible separations suggests that a reasonable target might be: Pu, Am and Cm, decontamination factor 10 3 ; Np, coextraction with U and Pu with a 90% yield

  15. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun, E-mail: 1044208419@qq.com; Mao, Hui, E-mail: rejoice222@163.com [Sichuan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Materials Science (China)

    2016-10-15

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85–2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous–organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  16. Shielding design of highly activated sample storage at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Julia Abdul Karim; Mohamad Hairie Rabir; Muhd Husamuddin Abdul Khalil; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh

    2010-01-01

    Radiation protection has always been one of the most important things considered in Reaktor Triga PUSPATI (RTP) management. Currently, demands on sample activation were increased from variety of applicant in different research field area. Radiological hazard may occur if the samples evaluation done were misjudge or miscalculated. At present, there is no appropriate storage for highly activated samples. For that purpose, special irradiated samples storage box should be provided in order to segregate highly activated samples that produce high dose level and typical activated samples that produce lower dose level (1 - 2 mR/ hr). In this study, thickness required by common shielding material such as lead and concrete to reduce highly activated radiotracer sample (potassium bromide) with initial exposure dose of 5 R/ hr to background level (0.05 mR/ hr) were determined. Analyses were done using several methods including conventional shielding equation, half value layer calculation and Micro shield computer code. Design of new irradiated samples storage box for RTP that capable to contain high level gamma radioactivity were then proposed. (author)

  17. Low-level viremia and proviral DNA impede immune reconstitution in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Katzenstein, Terese L; Thim, Per T.

    2005-01-01

    Immunological and virological consequences of low-level viremia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remain to be determined....

  18. Round robin 'Impurities in uranium matrix': a success for CETAMA and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, Guy; Roudil, Daniele; Balsley, Steven Devry; Bulyha, Siarhei; Aregbe, Yetunde

    2012-01-01

    The safeguard of nuclear material is of paramount importance to the IAEA which increasingly uses this information for characterization purposes in order to strengthen the verification of declared nuclear material and to identify the origin of samples from mines. IAEA tasked CETAMA to conduct a round robin with objective to evaluate the capability of laboratories to measure impurities in uranium with concentration levels between 1 and 500 ppm relative to uranium. This round robin was attended by 17 international laboratories from the nuclear industry and safeguards community. The results are mainly obtained by ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The synthesis of this round robin were helpful in identifying anomalies and will allow the IAEA to better set realistic measurement performance targets for ICP-MS and ICP-AES. (authors)

  19. Expansion of highly activated invariant natural killer T cells with altered phenotype in acute dengue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaladasa, A.; Wickramasinghe, N.; Adikari, T. N.; Gomes, L.; Shyamali, N. L. A.; Salio, M.; Cerundolo, V.; Ogg, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are capable of rapid activation and production of cytokines upon recognition of antigenic lipids presented by CD1d molecules. They have been shown to play a significant role in many viral infections and were observed to be highly activated in patients with acute dengue infection. In order to characterize further their role in dengue infection, we investigated the proportion of iNKT cells and their phenotype in adult patients with acute dengue infection. The functionality of iNKT cells in patients was investigated by both interferon (IFN)‐γ and interleukin (IL)−4 ex‐vivo enzyme‐linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays following stimulation with alpha‐galactosyl‐ceramide (αGalCer). We found that circulating iNKT cell proportions were significantly higher (P = 0·03) in patients with acute dengue when compared to healthy individuals and were predominantly of the CD4+ subset. iNKT cells of patients with acute dengue had reduced proportions expressing CD8α and CD161 when compared to healthy individuals. The iNKT cells of patients were highly activated and iNKT activation correlated significantly with dengue virus‐specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody levels. iNKT cells expressing Bcl‐6 (P = 0·0003) and both Bcl‐6 and inducible T cell co‐stimulator (ICOS) (P = 0·006) were increased significantly in patients when compared to healthy individuals. Therefore, our data suggest that in acute dengue infection there is an expansion of highly activated CD4+ iNKT cells, with reduced expression of CD161 markers. PMID:26874822

  20. Automation of labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepareur, Nicolas; Ardisson, Valerie; Noiret, Nicolas; Boucher, Eveline; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Clement, Bruno; Garin, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    This work describes optimisation of the kit formulation for labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced rhenium-188. Radiochemical purity (RCP) was 92.52±2.3% and extraction yield was 98.56±1.2%. The synthesis has been automated with a TADDEO module (Comecer) giving a mean final yield of 52.68±9.6%, and reducing radiation burden to the radiochemist by 80%. Radiolabelled Lipiodol ( 188 Re-SSS/Lipiodol) is stable for at least 7 days (RCP=91.07±0.9%).

  1. Recent advances in the designing and the equipment of high activity laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazire, R.; Duhamel, F.

    1960-01-01

    The authors described the general principles governing the design of a laboratory for experimenting and handling radioactive substances. The difficulties encountered are of two types: 1) those due to the dangers of external irradiation; 2) those due to the dangers of internal contamination. As an example, the authors describe the French achievements in this field and in particular: - the high-activity laboratories at Saclay; - the laboratory for the examination of irradiated fuels at Saclay; - the 'hot' laboratory of the CEN-Grenoble; - the alpha, beta and gamma laboratories of the CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Finally, the report describes the protective materials used for these installations. (author) [fr

  2. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water

    OpenAIRE

    Moliner, Manuel; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containin...

  3. Remission of HIV-associated myelopathy after highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Fernandez F

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated myelopathy is the leading cause of spinal cord disease in HIV-infected patients. Typically, it affects individuals with low CD4 T cell counts, presenting with slowly progressive spastic paraparesis associated with dorsal column sensory loss as well as urinary disturbances. Other aetiologies must be first ruled out before establishing the diagnosis. We report here the case of a 37-year-old woman with advanced HIV disease, who developed HIV-associated myelopathy. The patient showed a gradual improvement after beginning with highly active antiretroviral therapy and, finally, she achieved a complete functional recovery. In addition, neuroimaging and neurophysiological tests normalized.

  4. Multi-element analyses of Vietnamese environmental samples for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, T.H.; Nguyen, T.B.; Nguyen, T.N.; Yoshida, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for measuring 8 major and 27 trace elements in food and soil samples collected in Vietnam. The concentration of elements in food samples was different from different locations and also from different food groups. Depth profiles of the elements were discussed for soil samples. (author)

  5. A comprehensive evaluation of physical and environmental performances for wet-white leather manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jiabo; Puig Vidal, Rita; Sang, Jun; Lin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the comprehensive evaluation results of physical and environmental performances for a novel wet-white (chrome-free) leather manufacturing. The tanning process is optimized as 15 wt% tannic acid (TA) combination with 4 wt% Laponite nanoclay, giving the leather with shrinkage temperature (Ts) above 86 °C. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements indicate that Laponite can be evenly and tightly bound within the leather matrix, which is fu...

  6. Chemical analysis of geological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the analytical methodology used in geochemical exploration has been based on molecular absorption, atomic absorption, and ICP-AES, ICPMAS etc. Detection limit and precision are factors in the choice of methodology in search of metallic ores and are related to the accuracy of data. A brief outline of the various chemical analysis techniques explaining essentially the basics of measurement principles and instrumentation is discussed

  7. Construction of the yeast whole-cell Rhizopus oryzae lipase biocatalyst with high activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-ling; Guo, Qin; Wang, Rui-zhi; Xu, Juan; Zhou, Chen-wei; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2011-07-01

    Surface display is effectively utilized to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Codon optimization has been proven to be effective in maximizing production of heterologous proteins in yeast. Here, the cDNA sequence of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) was optimized and synthesized according to the codon bias of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and based on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface display system with α-agglutinin as an anchor, recombinant yeast displaying fully codon-optimized ROL with high activity was successfully constructed. Compared with the wild-type ROL-displaying yeast, the activity of the codon-optimized ROL yeast whole-cell biocatalyst (25 U/g dried cells) was 12.8-fold higher in a hydrolysis reaction using p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) as the substrate. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to combine the techniques of yeast surface display and codon optimization for whole-cell biocatalyst construction. Consequently, the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst was constructed with high activity. The optimum pH and temperature for the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst were pH 7.0 and 40 °C. Furthermore, this whole-cell biocatalyst was applied to the hydrolysis of tributyrin and the resulted conversion of butyric acid reached 96.91% after 144 h.

  8. Design of high-activity single-atom catalysts via n-p codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Jia, Jianfeng; Wu, Haishun

    2018-03-01

    The large-scale synthesis of stable single-atom catalysts (SACs) in experiments remains a significant challenge due to high surface free energy of metal atom. Here, we propose a concise n-p codoping approach, and find it can not only disperse the relatively inexpensive metal, copper (Cu), onto boron (B)-doped graphene, but also result in high-activity SACs. We use CO oxidation on B/Cu codoped graphene as a prototype example, and demonstrate that: (1) a stable SAC can be formed by stronger electrostatic attraction between the metal atom (n-type Cu) and support (p-type B-doped graphene). (2) the energy barrier of the prototype CO oxidation on B/Cu codoped graphene is 0.536 eV by the Eley-Rideal mechanism. Further analysis shows that the spin selection rule can provide well theoretical insight into high activity of our suggested SAC. The concept of n-p codoping may lead to new strategy in large-scale synthesis of stable single-atom catalysts.

  9. Management of disused high-activity sealed radioactive sources: Opting for removal from the national territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourão, Rogério Pimenta, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Since 2007 Brazil has been using the removal from its territory as a strategy for the management of sealed sources. Three campaigns have been carried out so far, each aiming at specific source types or categories. In the first of these campaigns in 2007, 126 neutron sources of American origin were repatriated to the USA, followed in 2010 by around 900 low activity sources (Categories 3 to 5, according to the IAEA classification system). Both operations were conducted by teams of the American institute Los Alamos National Laboratory. A third campaign, focused on high activity sources – essentially Cobalt-60 sources for teletherapy – was carried out between 2016 and 2017 and resulted in 81 spent high activity radioactive sources of American- and Canadian-origin been sent to Germany and the USA. This operation was carried out by a team of South Africa using a dedicated Mobile Hot Cell. The benefits to Brazil resulting from these operations are clear: increase in safety and security; availability of new precious storage space; less effort dedicated to the disused sealed sources storage; less space in the future borehole facility; financial gains in the selling or reuse of steel, lead and depleted uranium from the original shields. An overexposure incident occurred during the operation, in which a worker was exposed to a dose above the annual statutory limit. (author)

  10. High activity PtRu/C catalysts synthesized by a modified impregnation method for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Liu Changpeng; Liao Jianhui; Lu Tianhong; Xing Wei; Zhang Jiujun

    2009-01-01

    A modified impregnation method was used to prepare highly dispersive carbon-supported PtRu catalyst (PtRu/C). Two modifications to the conventional impregnation method were performed: one was to precipitate the precursors ((NH 4 ) 2 PtCl 6 and Ru(OH) 3 ) on the carbon support before metal reduction; the other was to add a buffer into the synthetic solution to stabilize the pH. The prepared catalyst showed a much higher activity for methanol electro-oxidation than a catalyst prepared by the conventional impregnation method, even higher than that of current commercially available, state-of-the-art catalysts. The morphology of the prepared catalyst was characterized using TEM and XRD measurements to determine particle sizes, alloying degree, and lattice parameters. Electrochemical methods were also used to ascertain the electrochemical active surface area and the specific activity of the catalyst. Based on XPS measurements, the high activity of this catalyst was found to originate from both metallic Ru (Ru 0 ) and hydrous ruthenium oxides (RuO x H y ) species on the catalyst surface. However, RuO x H y was found to be more active than metallic Ru. In addition, the anhydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO 2 ) species on the catalyst surface was found to be less active.

  11. Investigation of polyelectrolytes by total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, I.; Nagy, M.

    2000-01-01

    Water soluble polyelectrolyte samples containing mono-, bi- and trivalent metal ions were investigated without any pretreatment. Acid digestion of linear polymers may lead to a product insoluble in water so the digestion has to be avoided. The aim of this paper was the determination of analytical characteristics and limitations of the total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis for poly (vinylalcohol-vinylsulphate) salts and poly (acrylic acid, acrylamide) copolymers containing the following cations: K + , Cs + , Ba 2+ , Cu 2+ and La 3+ . On the basis of our results efficiency of ion-exchange during preparation of polyelectrolytes and stoichiometry of the end-product were determined. TXRF results were compared with data gained by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements except in the case of Cs + which has poor sensitivity in ICP-AES. Good agreement was found between the results of the two techniques and calculations from titrimetric data. Concentration of Li + and Mg 2+ in polymer samples was measured by ICP-AES. In majority of cases film-like dry residues of aqueous solutions of polyelectrolytes can be characterized by homogeneous spatial distribution of metal ions within the organic matrix. This is because the migration of the ions is hindered during drying process. Determination of metals in polyelectrolyte films by TXRF is quite ideal as model for analysis of plant, animal or human tissues which is a frequent task in environmental and inorganic biomedical analytical chemistry. (author)

  12. Forensic analysis of tempered sheet glass by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jisonna, L.J. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); DeYoung, P.A., E-mail: deyoung@hope.ed [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Ferens, J.; Hall, C.; Lunderberg, J.M.; Mears, P. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Padilla, D. [Department of Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1233 (United States); Peaslee, G.F. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49422-9000 (United States); Sampson, R. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} PIXE was found to give the same results for trace elements in glass as ICP. {yields} PIXE can non-destructively determine trace element concentrations in auto glass. {yields} Measured Ca, Fe, Ti, Mn, and Sr in auto glass with PIXE. -- Abstract: The elemental concentrations of five trace elements in tempered sheet glass fragments were determined using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry. The trace element concentrations for calcium, iron, manganese, strontium, and titanium are compared to those obtained by inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) following complete digestion by hydrofluoric acid. For these five elements, the absolute concentrations obtained by both methods are shown to agree well over a wide range of concentrations. The limits of detection for trace elements are typically lower for the ICP-AES method. However, we show that the concentrations of these five elements can be accurately measured by the PIXE method. Since PIXE is an entirely non-destructive method, there exists a niche for this technique to be used as a complement to the more sensitive ICP-AES technique in the forensic analysis of sheet glass.

  13. Feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for classification of sea salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Man Minh; Cui, Sheng; Yoo, Jonghyun; Han, Song-Hee; Ham, Kyung-Sik; Nam, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yonghoon

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a fast, reliable classification tool for sea salts. For 11 kinds of sea salts, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and aluminum (Al), concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the LIBS spectra were recorded in the narrow wavelength region between 760 and 800 nm where K (I), Mg (I), Ca (II), Al (I), and cyanide (CN) band emissions are observed. The ICP-AES measurements revealed that the K, Mg, Ca, and Al concentrations varied significantly with the provenance of each salt. The relative intensities of the K (I), Mg (I), Ca (II), and Al (I) peaks observed in the LIBS spectra are consistent with the results using ICP-AES. The principal component analysis of the LIBS spectra provided the score plot with quite a high degree of clustering. This indicates that classification of sea salts by chemometric analysis of LIBS spectra is very promising. Classification models were developed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and evaluated. In addition, the Al (I) peaks enabled us to discriminate between different production methods of the salts. © 2012 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  14. A Clinical Drug Library Screen Identifies Tosufloxacin as Being Highly Active against Staphylococcus aureus Persisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Niu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify effective compounds that are active against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus persisters, we screened a clinical drug library consisting of 1524 compounds and identified six drug candidates that had anti-persister activity: tosufloxacin, clinafloxacin, sarafloxacin, doxycycline, thiostrepton, and chlorosalicylanilide. Among them, tosufloxacin had the highest anti-persister activity, which could completely eradicate S. aureus persisters within 2 days in vitro. Clinafloxacin ranked the second with very few persisters surviving the drug exposure. Interestingly, we found that both tosufloxacin and trovafloxacin that had high activity against persisters contained at the N-1 position the 2,4-difluorophenyl group, which is absent in other less active quinolones and may be associated with the high anti-persister activity. Further studies are needed to evaluate tosufloxacin in animal models and to explain its unique activity against bacterial persisters. Our findings may have implications for improved treatment of persistent bacterial infections.

  15. Impact of Cesium decontamination on performances of high activity sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, Christophe; Boyer-Deslys, Valerie; Dautheribes, Jean L.; Esbelin, Eric; Beres, Andre; Jan, Steve; Baghdadi, Sarah; Rivier, Cedric [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). RadioChemistry and Processes Dept.

    2017-09-01

    Experiments in the ATALANTE facility can lead to high activity samples (for example the dissolution of hulls and spent fuels), essentially coming from the presence of {sup 137}Cs. Usually, these samples are handled in a shielded cell. The removal of this radionuclide from the sample would make it possible to handle it in glove boxes without having to perform an important dilution in the shielded cells beforehand. It would allow to analyze samples using techniques usually implemented in glove boxes (such as ICP, α spectrometry..) and to reach lower detection and quantification limits. To do so, a separation by extraction chromatography using a Triskem AMP-PAN column was developed. A cesium decontamination factor higher than 5 x 10{sup 4} and detection limits improvement up to a factor 100 were obtained.

  16. Sports Cardiology: Core Curriculum for Providing Cardiovascular Care to Competitive Athletes and Highly Active People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, Aaron L; Battle, Robert W; Beckerman, James G; Bove, Alfred A; Lampert, Rachel J; Levine, Benjamin D; Link, Mark S; Martinez, Matthew W; Molossi, Silvana M; Salerno, Jack; Wasfy, Meagan M; Weiner, Rory B; Emery, Michael S

    2017-10-10

    The last few decades have seen substantial growth in the populations of competitive athletes and highly active people (CAHAP). Although vigorous physical exercise is an effective way to reduce the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease, CAHAP remain susceptible to inherited and acquired CV disease, and may be most at risk for adverse CV outcomes during intense physical activity. Traditionally, multidisciplinary teams comprising athletic trainers, physical therapists, primary care sports medicine physicians, and orthopedic surgeons have provided clinical care for CAHAP. However, there is increasing recognition that a care team including qualified CV specialists optimizes care delivery for CAHAP. In recognition of the increasing demand for CV specialists competent in the care of CAHAP, the American College of Cardiology has recently established a Sports and Exercise Council. An important primary objective of this council is to define the essential skills necessary to practice effective sports cardiology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilborn, Tracy; Zampoli, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The outcome of HIV infection has improved since the widespread availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Some patients, however, develop a clinical and radiological deterioration following initiation of HAART due to either the unmasking of occult subclinical infection or an enhanced inflammatory response to a treated infection. This phenomenon is believed to result from the restored ability to mount an immune response and is termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) or immune reconstitution disease. IRIS is widely reported in the literature in adult patients, most commonly associated with mycobacterial infections. There is, however, a paucity of data documenting the radiological findings of IRIS in children. Radiologists need to be aware of this entity. As a diagnosis of exclusion it is essential that the radiological findings be assessed in the context of the clinical presentation. This article reviews the common clinical and radiological manifestations of IRIS in HIV-infected children. (orig.)

  18. Non-Fermi Liquids as Highly Active Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Shigeto; Yagi, Shunsuke; Chen, Wei-Tin; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Okazaki, Noriyasu; Ohno, Tomoya; Suzuki, Hisao; Matsuda, Takeshi

    2017-10-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a key role in emerging energy conversion technologies such as rechargeable metal-air batteries, and direct solar water splitting. Herein, a remarkably low overpotential of ≈150 mV at 10 mA cm -2 disk in alkaline solutions using one of the non-Fermi liquids, Hg 2 Ru 2 O 7 , is reported. Hg 2 Ru 2 O 7 displays a rapid increase in current density and excellent durability as an OER catalyst. This outstanding catalytic performance is realized through the coexistence of localized d-bands with the metallic state that is unique to non-Fermi liquids. The findings indicate that non-Fermi liquids could greatly improve the design of highly active OER catalysts.

  19. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the development and remission of oral plasmablastic lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Petersen Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL represents a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in this tumor is poorly known due to its small incidence. This study reports a case of a 33-year-old HIV-positive woman who was referred to the Stomatology Department complaining about a painful gingival growth and cervical nodule both with 20 days of evolution. The lesions appeared 7 months after the patient stopped HAART. The final diagnosis was PBL. After resuming HAART for 45 days, the gingival lesion presented complete remission. The patient continued with HAART alongside chemotherapy. At 24 months follow-up, the patient was stable. The dental surgeon plays an essential role in orientation and retention in care of HIV patients once the adherence of HAART seems to play an important role in PBL development and response to treatment.

  20. The opalinus clay project - disposal of medium and highly-active nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the project to demonstrate the feasibility of disposing of long-living medium-active and highly-radioactive nuclear wastes in sedimentary rock in Switzerland. The disposal tasks to be carried out are reviewed and the solutions proposed are described, including short-term handling, intermediate storage and final disposal of low, medium and highly-active wastes. The present state of affairs is described and, in particular, the feasibility of implementing a final storage facility in the opalinus clay beds to be found in northern Switzerland. The project for such a facility in the wine-growing area of the canton of Zurich is described in detail, including the storage concept, the technology to be used and operational aspects as well as questions of safety

  1. A case of atypical progressive outer retinal necrosis after highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Se Joon; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Chung, Hum

    2004-06-01

    This is a report of an atypical case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) and the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the clinical course of viral retinitis in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. A 22-year-old male patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with unilaterally reduced visual acuity and a dense cataract. After cataract extraction, retinal lesions involving the peripheral and macular areas were found with perivascular sparing and the mud-cracked, characteristic appearance of PORN. He was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and was given combined antiviral treatment. With concurrent HAART, the retinal lesions regressed, with the regression being accelerated by further treatment with intravenous acyclovir and ganciclovir. This case suggests that HAART may change the clinical course of PORN in AIDS patients by improving host immunity. PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute unilateral cataract in AIDS patients.

  2. Dosimetric optimization of worksite involving the installation of VATS containing highly active effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.; Busani, J.; Madigand, Y.; Pailloux, J.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of safety improvements at the CEA, CEA-FAR, concerned to formalize the ALARA initiative, has carried out for information and training purpose and to create awareness a dosimetric assessment of the worksite where new storage vats for highly active effluents are to be installed. The approach used for this worksite is global. Techniques used were all complementary, ensuring constant elaboration, experiment follow-up and feedback of a worksite at a relatively low dosimetric cost (an estimated 36 men.mSv brought down to 30 men.mSv through implementation of the ALARA principle). This type of global conception of radioprotection involving all the employees (head of project, project managers, companies, radioprotection employees...) which today proves its worth on a modest worksite must now be extended to worksites of a broader scope (several hundreds of men.mSv) where fulfillment of the dosimetric objectives is a major stake. (author)

  3. Will vitrified high active reactor waste be deposited on the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koksvik, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    The NRPB in the UK has carried out a preliminary study on the consequences of the disposal of high active waste on the ocean bed at great depths. This is reported in 'Assessment of the radiological protection aspects of disposal of high level waste on the ocean floor', by P.D. Grimswood and G.A.M. Webb (NRPB-R 48). This report is here briefly summarised and commented on. It deals with the radiological consequences to man of the erosion and corrosion of glassified (vitrified) radioactive waste, in the deep (>4000m) ocean, radionuclide migration and path ways to man. The conclusion is that considerations of radiological protection do not preclude the disposal of specially treated radioactive waste on the ocean bed. (JIW)

  4. Danger and dementia: caregiver experiences and shifting social roles during a highly active hurricane season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Janelle J; Castañeda, Heide

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disaster preparedness and decision-making by caregivers of community-dwelling persons diagnosed with Alzheimer's or a related dementia (ADRD). Interviews were conducted with 20 caregivers in South Florida. Twelve of these interviews include caregiving experiences during the highly active 2004-2005 hurricane seasons. Results indicate that persons in earlier stages of ADRD can, and often do, remain engaged in the disaster preparation and planning process. However, during the early stages, persons may also resist evacuation, even if the caregiver felt it was necessary. During later stages of the disease, caregivers reported less resistance to disaster-related decisions, however, with the tradeoff of less ability to assist with preparation.

  5. The upgraded external-beam PIXE/PIGE set-up at LABEC for very fast measurements on aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Mochi, D.; Nava, S. [Department of Physics, University of Florence and INFN, Florence (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)technique has been widely used since its birth for the study of the aerosol composition, and for a long time it has been the dominating technique for its elemental analysis. However now it has to compete with other techniques, like Induced Coupled Plasma and detection by Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) or Synchrotron Radiation XRF (SR-XRF). To remain competitive, a proper experimental set-up is important to fully exploit PIXE capabilities. At LABEC, an external beam line is fully dedicated to PIXE-PIGE measurements of atmospheric aerosols [1]. Recently SDD (Silicon Drift Detectors) have been introduced for X-ray detection thanks to their better resolution with respect to Si(Li) detectors and the possibility of managing high counting rates (up to 50 kHz at 0.5 μsec shaping time). This implies, in turn, the possibility of using very high beam currents thus drastically reducing the measurement time. However their use for a complete characterization of X-rays was limited by the small thickness and surface areas available. Now SDD with a thickness of 500 μm and 80 mm{sup 2} area have been introduced in the market. We have therefore replaced the Si(Li) detector used so far for the detection of medium-high Z elements with such a SDD. A comparison of the two detectors has been carried out; PIXE minimum detection limits (MDLs) at different proton beam energies have been studied to find out the best energy for PIXE measurements on aerosol samples collected on different substrata, namely Teflon, Kapton, Nuclepore and Kimfol, used for daily or hourly sampling or for cascade impactors. In particular in the case of Teflon filters, the production of γ-rays by F in the Teflon filter limits the current which may be used and the Compton γ-ray background worsens the MDLs. Due to the lower thickness of the SDD detector with respect to a typical Si(Li) detector, these problems are reduced

  6. Basic chemistry for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Yoon; Suh, Moo Yul; Joe, Kih Soo; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Jung Suk; Sohn, Se Chul; Han, Sun Ho; Jee, Kwang Yong; Choi, Kwang Soon; Lee, Chang Heon

    1991-03-01

    Chemical analysis methods on geological materials were investigated for the evaluation of radioactive waste disposal site, and the scope and contents weer as follows: -Determination of the major and trace elements in granite rocks by ICP-AES and INAA: Experimental conditions of ICP-AES and INAA were established with geological standard rock, USGS-G2. The ICP-AES was found to be better both in precision and in accuracy than the INAA for major elements. The precision and the accuracy of the ICP-AES method were about 6% and +/- 10%, respectively. -Determination of inorganic and organic anions by ion chromatography and prediction of retention times : Analytical methods for inorganic anions was established with NaOH eluents by ion chromatography. Studies on the prediction of retention times of the anions for gradient elution was carried out using the stepwise elution equation. The slope from the plot of log K' against log [OH - ] was obtained by a linear regression, and a good agreement was obtained between the experimental and the calculated values. -Development of analytical methods for the determination of Co, Ni and In by differential-pulse adsorptive stripping voltametry and ferrous and ferric ions by spectrometry : Detection limits of Co, Ni and In were 0.02, 0.05 and 0.2 ppb, respectively, and the content of ferrous and ferric ion in KAERI ground water were 0.12 and 0.08 ppm respectively. -Determination of trace uranium in groundwaters by neutron activation analysis : Uranium in KAERI groundwater was preconcentrated on the chelating resin, Chelex-100 and the uranium content was measured by neutron activation analysis. The analytical result was 4.5 ppb with standard deviation of 0.049. (Author)

  7. Atomically Monodisperse Nickel Nanoclusters as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for Water Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram

    2016-04-08

    Achieving water splitting at low overpotential with high oxygen evolution efficiency and stability is important for realizing solar to chemical energy conversion devices. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization and electrochemical evaluation of highly active nickel nanoclusters (Ni NCs) for water oxidation at low overpotential. These atomically precise and monodisperse Ni NCs are characterized by using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction and mass spectrometry. The molecular formulae of these Ni NCs are found to be Ni4(PET)8 and Ni6(PET)12 and are highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution without any pre-conditioning. Ni4(PET)8 are slightly better catalysts than Ni6(PET)12 and initiate the oxygen evolution at an amazingly low overpotential of ~1.51 V (vs RHE; η ≈ 280 mV). The peak oxygen evolution current density (J) of ~150 mA cm–2 at 2.0 V (vs. RHE) with a Tafel slope of 38 mV dec–1 is observed using Ni4(PET)8. These results are comparable to the state-of-the art RuO2 electrocatalyst, which is highly expensive and rare compared to Ni-based materials. Sustained oxygen generation for several hours with an applied current density of 20 mA cm–2 demonstrates the long-term stability and activity of these Ni NCs towards electrocatalytic water oxidation. This unique approach provides a facile method to prepare cost-effective, nanoscale and highly efficient electrocatalysts for water oxidation.

  8. Facile synthesis of highly active PdAu nanowire networks as self-supported electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2014-06-25

    In recent years, direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are attracting increasing attention owing to their wide applications. However, a significant challenge in the development of DEFC technology is the urgent need for highly active anode catalysts for the ethanol oxidation reaction. In this work, a facile and reproducible method for the high-yield synthesis of PdAu nanowire networks is demonstrated. The whole synthetic process is very simple, just mixing Na2PdCl4, HAuCl4, and KBr in an aqueous solution and using polyvinylpyrrolidone as a protective reagent while sodium borohydride as a reductant. The whole synthetic process can be simply performed at room temperature and completed in 30 min, which can greatly simplify the synthetic process and lower the preparation cost. Electrochemical catalytic measurement results prove that the as-prepared catalysts exhibit dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline solution. The facile synthetic process and excellent catalytic performance of the as-prepared catalysts demonstrate that they can be used as a promising catalyst for DEFCs.

  9. Oral candidiasis as a clinical marker of highly active antiretroviral treatment failure in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lopez-Verdin

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection that is readily detectable in the clinic. It has been used to assess the immune status of HIV patients as well as the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Objective: To determine the frequency of oral candidiasis infection among various indicators associated with antiretroviral therapy effectiveness. Material and methods: Cross-sectional and analytical study, in which groups were initially created based on the use or not of antiretroviral therapy. Participants were subjected to questions on factors related to Candida infection, salivary flow measurements and a clinical examination of the oral cavity to determine the frequency of candidiasis Results: The difference in the frequency of oral candidiasis between groups with and without antiretroviral therapy was significant (OR 2.6 IC95% 1.5-4.4. There were also a significant association with decreased number of CD4 lymphocytes.. Discussion: Resistance to anti-retroviral therapy constitutes one of the fundamental barriers to a successful treatment in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, as do toxicities and adherence problems. Clinical markers such oral candidiasis is an easily and accesible parameter for the early detection of treatment failure.

  10. Cervical Shedding of HIV-1 RNA Among Women With Low Levels of Viremia While Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Michael N.; Benning, Lorie; Xu, Jiaao; Strickler, Howard D.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Minkoff, Howard; Young, Mary; Bremer, James; Levine, Alexandra M.; Kovacs, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background Among women with low o r undetectable quantities of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, factors associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding, including choice of treatment regimen, are poorly characterized. Methods We measured HIV-1 RNA in cervical swab specimens obtained from participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study who had concurrent plasma viral RNA levels <500 copies/mL, and we assessed factors associated with genital HIV shedding. The study was powered to determine the relative effects of antiretroviral protease inhibitors (PIs) versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) on viral RNA shedding. Results Overall, 44 (15%) of 290 women had detectable HIV-1 RNA in cervical specimens. In the final multivariate model, shedding was independently associated with NNRTI (vs. PI) use (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24, 1.13 to 4.45) and illicit drug use (OR, 95% CI: 2.41, 0.96 to 5.69). Conclusions This is the largest study to define risks for genital HIV-1 RNA shedding in women with low/undetectable plasma virus. Shedding in this population was common, and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (vs. PI-based HAART) was associated with genital HIV shedding. Further study is required to determine the impact of these findings on transmission of HIV from mother to child or to sexual partners. PMID:17106279

  11. Quantitative determination of total cesium in highly active liquid waste by using liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Van-Khoai; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Taguchi, Shigeo; Takamura, Yuzuru; Surugaya, Naoki; Kuno, Takehiko

    2018-06-01

    A sensitive analytical method for determination of total cesium (Cs) in highly active liquid waste (HALW) by using modified liquid electrode plasma optical emission spectrometry (LEP-OES) is developed in this study. The instrument is modified to measure radioactive samples in a glove box. The effects of important factors, including pulsed voltage sequence and nitric acid concentration, on the emission of Cs are investigated. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are 0.005 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The achieved LOD is one order lower than that of recently developed spectroscopic methods using liquid discharge plasma. The developed method is validated by subjecting a simulated HALW sample to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recoveries obtained from a spike-and-recovery test are 96-102%, implying good accuracy. The method is successfully applied to the quantification of Cs in a real HALW sample at the Tokai reprocessing plant in Japan. Apart from dilution and filtration of the HALW sample, no other pre-treatment process is required. The results agree well with the values obtained using gamma spectrometry. The developed method offers a reliable technique for rapid analysis of total Cs in HALW samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Ryoichi; Sakoh, Takefumi; Nagai, Iwao

    1994-01-01

    Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

  13. Screening of strains with the high activity and thermostability nattokinase by {sup 60}Co γ-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuying, Li; Ying, Nie; Huan, Du; Xuanming, Tang [Institute of Agro-products Processing Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhonglin, Zhao [College of Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou (China); Xin, Ma [Agricultural Information Institute, Chinese Academic of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Yan, Li [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou (China)

    2013-06-15

    In this study, Bacillus natto was irradiated by {sup 60}Co γ-ray, and activity was determined by Casein plate method in order to get high activity and thermostability strains. 60 strains with high activity were obtained through irradiation by 800 Gy {sup 60}Co γ-ray. In this dose, the positive mutation rate was 45%. Then 60 strains was treated by different tempreture and 11 strains showed thermostability at 65℃. (authors)

  14. Screening of strains with the high activity and thermostability nattokinase by "6"0Co γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuying; Nie Ying; Du Huan; Tang Xuanming; Zhao Zhonglin; Ma Xin; Li Yan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, Bacillus natto was irradiated by "6"0Co γ-ray, and activity was determined by Casein plate method in order to get high activity and thermostability strains. 60 strains with high activity were obtained through irradiation by 800 Gy "6"0Co γ-ray. In this dose, the positive mutation rate was 45%. Then 60 strains was treated by different tempreture and 11 strains showed thermostability at 65℃. (authors)

  15. Selective CO Methanation on Highly Active Ru/TiO2 Catalysts: Identifying the Physical Origin of the Observed Activation/Deactivation and Loss in Selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdel-Mageed, Ali M.; Widmann, Daniel; Olesen, Sine Ellemann

    2018-01-01

    Ru /TiO2 catalysts are highly active and selective in the selective methanation of CO in the presence of large amounts of CO2, but suffer from a considerable deactivation and loss of selectivity during time on stream. Aiming at a fundamental understanding of these processes, we have systematically...... different effects such as structural effects, adlayer effects such as site blocking effects and changes in the chemical (surface) composition of the catalysts. Operando XANES / EXAFS measurements revealed that an initial activation phase is largely due to the reduction of oxidized Ru species, together...

  16. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A.; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A.

    2016-01-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. PMID:27672209

  17. AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Vishnu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In economically developed countries, AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL accounts for a large proportion of malignances in HIV-infected individuals. Since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART in 1996, epidemiology and prognosis of ARL have changed. While there is a slight increase in the incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in HIV-infected individuals, use of HAART has contributed to a decline in the incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL and also a decrease in the overall incidence of ARL. Strategies that employ HAART, improved supportive care, and the use of Rituximab with multi-agent chemotherapy have contributed to improved rates of complete remission and survival of patients with ARL that rival those seen in stage and histology matched HIV negative NHL patients. Most recent clinical trials demonstrate better outcomes with the use of rituximab in ARL. Tumor histogenesis (germinal center vs. non-germinal center origin is associated with lymphoma-specific outcomes in the setting of AIDS-related diffuse-large B cell lymphoma. High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT and autologous stem cell rescue (ASCT can be effective for a subset of patients with relapsed ARL. HIV sero-status alone should not preclude consideration of ASCT in the setting of ARL relapse. Clinical trials investigating the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in ARL are currently underway.

  18. Conceptual design and development of high-activity radioactive liquid packaging (summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.L.; McCoy, J.C.; Edwards, W.S.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental remediation and disposal of US Department of Energy radioactive liquid waste require analytical support, characterization, process development, testing, demonstration, and stabilization. In support of these diverse activities, there is a need to transport varying quantities of Type B high-activity liquid (HAL). To date, except for quantities of 50 ml (1.7 oz), there has never been, a US, Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed liquid Type B package available to support these remediation activities. In an effort to develop suitable packaging for large volumes of HAL, an investigation into packaging alternatives that would facilitate such transfers is under way. In, past and present studies, a spent fuel shipping cask fitted with a high-integrity pressure vessel has been determined to be the most viable concept for large volume HAL shipments. One concept that was investigated utilized the Pacific Nuclear 125-B shipping container and has been shown to meet the strUctural, thermal, shielding, and criticality conditions for HAL. The results of these investigations are being extended to develop the concept into the HAL packaging system

  19. HIV, human papillomavirus, and cervical neoplasia and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Hugo; Lillo, Flavia; Broutet, Nathalie; Smith, Jennifer S

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to review the literature on the epidemiological association between human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV, and cervical neoplasia, and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on this association. MEDLINE was searched using the terms 'human papillomavirus', 'HPV', 'HIV', 'cervix', 'neoplasm', and 'antiretroviral' to identify articles published before December 2006. HIV-infection was strongly associated with a higher prevalence, incidence, and persistence of HPV infection and correlated with prevalence, incidence, persistence, and progression of squamous intraepithelial lesions. The association between HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma has been more difficult to establish, but is now fully recognized. HAART seems to have little, if any, beneficial effect on the natural history of intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive women. Despite this fact, HAART, does increase the life expectancy of HIV-positive women. Therefore, it remains important to closely monitor HPV-related disease in women with HIV who are receiving HAART, particularly in regions of the world where cervical screening is not available routinely.

  20. Surface strontium enrichment on highly active perovskites for oxygen electrocatalysis in solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.; Mutoro, Eva; Liu, Zhi; Grass, Michael E.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Christen, Hans M.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides have high catalytic activities for oxygen electrocatalysis competitive to platinum at elevated temperatures. However, little is known about the oxide surface chemistry that influences the activity near ambient oxygen partial pressures, which hampers the design of highly active catalysts for many clean-energy technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells. Using in situ synchrotron-based, ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry changes, we show that the coverage of surface secondary phases on a (001)-oriented La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC) film becomes smaller than that on an LSC powder pellet at elevated temperatures. In addition, strontium (Sr) in the perovskite structure enriches towards the film surface in contrast to the pellet having no detectable changes with increasing temperature. We propose that the ability to reduce surface secondary phases and develop Sr-enriched perovskite surfaces of the LSC film contributes to its enhanced activity for O 2 electrocatalysis relative to LSC powder-based electrodes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Hepatic adverse events during highly active antiretroviral therapy containing nevirapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazhan Tansu

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatotoxicity is one of the most serious complications of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The aim of this report is to analyse an HIV infected patient on HAART including nevirapine and taking antidepressive agents, with acute toxic hepatitis. Case presentation A 39 year old patient diagnosed as HIV positive one month ago administered to the clinical ward of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in Ege University Medical School with high fever, malaise, nausea, diarrheae and elevated liver enzymes (ALT 1558 U/L, AST 4288 U/L. He has been using HAART including zidovudine+lamivudine (2 × 1/day and nevirapine (2 × 200 mg/day, following dose escalation for 22 days, sertralin and diazepam for 12 days and lithium for 10 days. The patient was hospitalized. Antiretroviral and antidepressant treatments were stopped. The day after admission, his fever dropped and his symptoms improved. Clinical improvement continued on the following days. The patient was discharged upon his request on the 14th day of hospitalization. The liver function tests returned to normal levels in two weeks following discharge. Conclusion Close monitoring of liver enzymes during the first 12 weeks of nevirapine therapy is critical to prevent life threatening events.

  2. Autophagic flux is highly active in early mitosis and differentially regulated throughout the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ji, Xinmiao; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Xin

    2016-06-28

    Mitosis is a fast process that involves dramatic cellular remodeling and has a high energy demand. Whether autophagy is active or inactive during the early stages of mitosis in a naturally dividing cell is still debated. Here we aimed to use multiple assays to resolve this apparent discrepancy. Although the LC3 puncta number was reduced in mitosis, the four different cell lines we tested all have active autophagic flux in both interphase and mitosis. In addition, the autophagic flux was highly active in nocodazole-induced, double-thymidine synchronization released as well as naturally occurring mitosis in HeLa cells. Multiple autophagy proteins are upregulated in mitosis and the increased Beclin-1 level likely contributes to the active autophagic flux in early mitosis. It is interesting that although the autophagic flux is active throughout the cell cycle, early mitosis and S phase have relatively higher autophagic flux than G1 and late G2 phases, which might be helpful to degrade the damaged organelles and provide energy during S phase and mitosis.

  3. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract; Plan de developpement. Projet HAVL. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  4. Experiences and perceptions of patients with 100% adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidat, Mohsin; Fairley, Christopher; Grierson, Jeffrey

    2007-07-01

    A decade has passed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as standard of care for HIV/AIDS patients. The success of HAART is largely dependent on almost 100% adherence to it. In this study our primary aim was to understand from patients' own perspectives and experiences what resulted in them having 100% adherence to HAART. Thus, we purposefully recruited for in-depth interviews 10 participants (7 men and 3 women) with 100% adherence to HAART (>/=6 months previous to the interviews). All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by using Giorgi's phenomenological analysis approach. The following issues emerged from the analysis: readiness to go on HAART; HAART viewed as a life-line; maintenance of 100% adherence related with willingness to live longer and healthier; optimal ongoing patient-physician relationship, better coping and/or lack of perceived side effects; and improvements in clinical condition as well as in CD4 T-cells count and viral load reinforced the motivation to continue 100% adherence. The study findings should be helpful for health professionals caring for HIV-infected individuals on HAART.

  5. Highly Active N,O Zinc Guanidine Catalysts for the Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Pascal M; Fuchs, Martin; Ohligschläger, Andreas; Rittinghaus, Ruth; McKeown, Paul; Akin, Enver; Schmidt, Maximilian; Hoffmann, Alexander; Liauw, Marcel A; Jones, Matthew D; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja

    2017-09-22

    New zinc guanidine complexes with N,O donor functionalities were prepared, characterized by X-Ray crystallography, and examined for their catalytic activity in the solvent-free ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of technical-grade rac-lactide at 150 °C. All complexes showed a high activity. The fastest complex [ZnCl 2 (DMEGasme)] (C1) produced colorless poly(lactide) (PLA) after 90 min with a conversion of 52 % and high molar masses (M w =69 100, polydispersity=1.4). The complexes were tested with different monomer-to-initiator ratios to determine the rate constant k p . Furthermore, a polymerization with the most active complex C1 was monitored by in situ Raman spectroscopy. Overall, conversion of up to 90 % can be obtained. End-group analysis was performed to clarify the mechanism. All four complexes combine robustness against impurities in the lactide with high polymerization rates, and they represent the fastest robust lactide ROP catalysts to date, opening new avenues to a sustainable ROP catalyst family for industrial use. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Deep disposal of high activity radioactive wastes: the study of engineered and geological barriers behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun; Cui; Delage, P.; Laure, E. de; Behrouz, Gatmiri; Sulem, J.; Anh Minh, Tang

    2008-09-01

    One option for the isolation of high activity and long lived radioactive wastes is the disposal of the vitrified waste containers in galleries dug inside impermeable rocks of the deep underground (granite, argillite, salt). The multi-barrier isolation concept is based on the use of successive barriers to avoid the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere (container envelope, engineered barrier made of compacted swelling clay, and host rock). In parallel to the works carried out in underground laboratories, experiments and simulation works are performed in order to understand the behaviour of storage facilities and barriers under the effects of constraints, water fluxes and temperature changes. In this context, the UR Navier geotechnical team (CERMES), a joint research unit of Ecole des Ponts ParisTech and LCPC, has been working for more than 15 years on this topic for various contractors. These works are based on original experimental devices allowing to identify the thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena and thereafter to model them. This dossier presents a summary of these works. (J.S.)

  7. A Highly Active and Alcohol-Tolerant Cathode Electrocatalyst Containing Ag Nanoparticles Supported on Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Moton, Elizabeth; McClure, Joshua P.; Bowers, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    A highly active oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst was synthesized by supporting Ag nano-particles on graphene nano platelets (Ag/GNP) via ultrasound treatment. The Ag/GNP catalyzes the O 2 molecule through a 4-electron reduction to water in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The half-wave potential for the ORR on Ag/GNP is similar to a Pt black coated electrode (i.e -0.27 V at Ag/GNP, and -0.18 V at 40% Pt/C vs.SCE). The kinetic rate for the ORR on Ag/GNP is 3.16 × 10 −2 cm · s −1 at -0.4 V vs. SCE. The effect of alcohols and other impurities on the ORR catalytic activity for Ag/GNP was examined and found to be highly tolerant to methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol. The Ag/GNP catalyst is also tolerant to tetraalkyl ammonium hydroxides; i.e. functional groups related to the chemical structure of common alkaline electrolyte membranes

  8. Testing and evaluation of the properties of various potential materials for immobilizing high activity waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malow, G.; Beran, V.; Lutze, W.

    1980-01-01

    Second joint annual report of the work performed on the testing and evaluation of materials for immobilizing high activity waste under Community contracts. At Marcoule, active block samples containing HAW from the Marcoule reprocessing plant were cast to the specification of five of the six original reference samples and leach tested at ambient temperature. Phosphate glass -bead samples produced by the Gelsenberg/DWK PAMELA process- were included in the test programme at HMI-Berlin and UKAEA Harwell. Leaching tests of inactive samples with leachants of various pH-values, with ionized water and with natural water compositions representative of certain repository conditions (salt, clay and granite) were added to the Harwell programme. The studies of radiation and thermal effects and the investigation of devitrification phenomena, started in 1977, continued, as samples reached annealing times of 2400 h and doses 4 x 10 17 dpg. The results achieved have so far confirmed most of the favourable preliminary assessments of glass based solidification products. At this stage the programme aims primarily at the understanding of physical and chemical phenomena rather that at verification under realistic waste storage and disposal conditions

  9. Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a high-activity catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat, Simon A.; Smith, Paul J.; Wells, Peter P.; Chater, Philip A.; Carter, James H.; Morgan, David J.; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M.; Wagner, Jakob B.; Davies, Thomas E.; Lu, Li; Bartley, Jonathan K.; Taylor, Stuart H.; Spencer, Michael S.; Kiely, Christopher J.; Kelly, Gordon J.; Park, Colin W.; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.; Hutchings, Graham J.

    2016-03-01

    Copper and zinc form an important group of hydroxycarbonate minerals that include zincian malachite, aurichalcite, rosasite and the exceptionally rare and unstable—and hence little known and largely ignored—georgeite. The first three of these minerals are widely used as catalyst precursors for the industrially important methanol-synthesis and low-temperature water-gas shift (LTS) reactions, with the choice of precursor phase strongly influencing the activity of the final catalyst. The preferred phase is usually zincian malachite. This is prepared by a co-precipitation method that involves the transient formation of georgeite; with few exceptions it uses sodium carbonate as the carbonate source, but this also introduces sodium ions—a potential catalyst poison. Here we show that supercritical antisolvent (SAS) precipitation using carbon dioxide (refs 13, 14), a process that exploits the high diffusion rates and solvation power of supercritical carbon dioxide to rapidly expand and supersaturate solutions, can be used to prepare copper/zinc hydroxycarbonate precursors with low sodium content. These include stable georgeite, which we find to be a precursor to highly active methanol-synthesis and superior LTS catalysts. Our findings highlight the value of advanced synthesis methods in accessing unusual mineral phases, and show that there is room for exploring improvements to established industrial catalysts.

  10. Vitamin E concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinoseki Kaio, Daniella J Itinoseki; Rondó, Patricia Helen C; Luzia, Liania Alves; Souza, José Maria P; Firmino, Aline Vale; Santos, Sigrid Sousa

    2014-09-15

    HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 μmol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037). A positive association (p < 0.001) was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment.

  11. Astatine-211 Radiochemistry: The Development Of Methodologies For High Activity Level Radiosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At α-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  12. UP2 400 High Activity Oxide Legacy Waste Retrieval Project Scope and Progress-13048

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Varet, Thierry [AREVA Site Value Development Business Unit, La Hague Site (France)

    2013-07-01

    The High Activity Oxide facility (HAO) reprocessed sheared and dissolved 4500 metric tons of light water reactor fuel the fuel of the emerging light water reactor spent fuel between 1976 and 1998. Over the period, approximately 2200 tons of process waste, composed primarily of sheared hulls, was produced and stored in a vast silo in the first place, and in canisters stored in pools in subsequent years. Upon shutdown of the facility, AREVA D and D Division in La Hague launched a thorough investigation and characterization of the silos and pools content, which then served as input data for the definition of a legacy waste retrieval and reconditioning program. Basic design was conducted between 2005 and 2007, and was followed by an optimization phase which lead to the definition of a final scenario and budget, 12% under the initial estimates. The scenario planned for the construction of a retrieval and reconditioning cell to be built on top of the storage silo. The retrieved waste would then be rinsed and sorted, so that hulls could subsequently be sent to La Hague high activity compacting facility, while resins and sludge would be cemented within the retrieval cell. Detailed design was conducted successfully from 2008 until 2011, while a thorough research and development program was conducted in order to qualify each stage of the retrieval and reconditioning process, and assist in the elaboration of the final waste package specification. This R and D program was defined and conducted as a response and mitigation of the major project risks identified during the basic design process. Procurement and site preparatory works were then launched in 2011. By the end of 2012, R and D is nearly completed, the retrieval and reconditioning process have been secured, the final waste package specification is being completed, the first equipment for the retrieval cell is being delivered on site, while preparation works are allowing to free up space above and around the silo, to

  13. ASTATINE-211 RADIOCHEMISTRY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR HIGH ACTIVITY LEVEL RADIOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MICHAEL R. ZALUTSKY

    2012-08-08

    -labeled targeted radiotherapeutics currently is a daunting task. Our central hypothesis is that improvements in 211At radiochemistry are critically dependent on gaining an understanding of and compensating for the effects of radiolysis induced by 211At {alpha}-particles. Because of the widespread interest in labeling antibodies, antibody fragments and peptides with 211At, our proposed work plan will initially focus on reagents that we have developed for this purpose. Part of our strategy is the use of synthetic precursors immobilized on polymeric resins or perfluorous and triarylphosphonium supports. Their use could eliminate the need for a purification step to separate unreacted tin precursor from labeled product and hopefully provide a simple kit technology that could be utilized at other institutions. The specific aims of this project are: (1) To optimze methods for 211At production and isolation of 211At from cyclotron targets; (2) To develop convenient and reproducible methodologies for high activity level and high specific activity radiohalogenation of biomolecules with 211At; (3) to develop a procedure for extending the shelf-life of 211At beyond a few hours so that this radionuclide can be utilized at centers remote from its site of production; and (4) to work out high activity level synthesis methods for utilizing support immobilized tin precursors for 211At labeling. If we are successful in achieving our goals, the radiochemical methodologies that are developed could greatly facilitate the use of 211At-labeled targeted cancer therapeutics in patients, even at institutions that are distant from the few sites currently available for 211At production.

  14. Prevalence of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS children in highly active antiretroviral therapy era. A literature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Octavio; Castillo, Nydia

    2015-08-01

    SummaryHighly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the morbidity and mortality related to HIV infection, including oral opportunistic infections. This paper offers an analysis of the scientific literature on the epidemiological aspects of oral candidiasis in HIV-positive children in the combination antiretroviral therapy era. An electronic databases search was made covering the highly active antiretroviral therapy era (1998 onwards). The terms used were oral lesions, oral candidiasis and their combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy and HIV/AIDS children. The following data were collected from each paper: year and country in which the investigation was conducted, antiretroviral treatment, oral candidiasis prevalence and diagnostic parameters (clinical or microbiological). Prevalence of oral candidiasis varied from 2.9% in American HIV-positive children undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy to 88% in Chilean HIV-positive children without antiretroviral therapy. With respect to geographical location and antiretroviral treatment, higher oral candidiasis prevalence in HIV-positive children on combination antiretroviral therapy/antiretroviral therapy was reported in African children (79.1%) followed by 45.9% reported in Hindu children. In HIV-positive Chilean children on no antiretroviral therapy, high oral candidiasis prevalence was reported (88%) followed by Nigerian children (80%). Oral candidiasis is still frequent in HIV-positive children in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era irrespective of geographical location, race and use of antiretroviral therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Erectile Dysfunction Among HIV Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia as a Main Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Velez, Gustavo; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Villeda-Sandoval, Christian I; Sotomayor de Zavaleta, Mariano; Olvera-Posada, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan Gerardo; Arreguin-Camacho, Lucrecia O; Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in HIV patients from the HIV clinic of a tertiary referral center in Mexico City. Design Prevalence was obtained from cross-sectional studies, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), a standardized method, was used to assess ED. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in the HIV clinic. Participants completed the IIEF to allow ED assessment. Information on demographics, clinical and HIV-related variables was retrieved from their medical records. Results One hundred and nine patients were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 8.8 years. ED was present in 65.1% of the individuals. Patients had been diagnosed with HIV for a mean of 92.7 ± 70.3 months and had undergone a mean 56.4 ± 45.5 months of HAART. The only variable associated with ED in the univariate analysis was dyslipidemia, and this association was also found in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.01). Conclusions ED is highly prevalent in HIV patients. Dyslipidemia should be considered as a risk factor for ED in HIV patients. Romero-Velez G, Lisker-Cervantes A, Villeda-Sandoval CI, Sotomayor de Zavaleta M, Olvera-Posada D, Sierra-Madero JG, Arreguin-Camacho LO, and Castillejos-Molina RA. Erectile dysfunction among HIV patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy: Dyslipidemia as a main risk factor. Sex Med 2014;2:24–30. PMID:25356298

  16. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-11-18

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Polyomavirus JCV excretion and genotype analysis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load < 1000 copies, CD4 cell count of 200-700 x 106 cells/l, and stable HAART regimen. PCR assays and sequence analysis were carried out using JCV-specific primers against different regions of the virus genome. RESULTS: JCV excretion in urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.

  18. Cleaning and dismantling of a high activity laboratory (abstract and presentation slides)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredel; Thierry; Buzare, Alain

    2005-01-01

    The high activity laboratories have been built at the end of the 50ies. The particularity of this facility was that about 14 different laboratories worked in 14 different fields (biology, production of Cs and Cf sources, metallurgy, mechanical testing ...). Because of the optimization of the nuclear research, the CEA decided to close progressively this facility and to transfer the different experiments in other places. This action began in 1997 and is planed to end in 2010. 6 laboratories have been closed from 1997 to 2001 and the dismantling of the shielded cells has begun since 2002. Therefore, several laboratories have been cleaned of the materials and experiments. Nevertheless, the main particularity of this subject is that some experimental activities have been pursued during the cleaning and dismantling of other laboratories. For example, we describe the dismantling of the laboratory that performed metallurgical and mechanical characterization of irradiated materials. This laboratory occupied 20 lead cells and 2 glove boxes. The exploitation of those cells has been stopped progressively (12 at the end of 2001 and 5 at the end of 2003). The end of the last 3 cell exploitation is planed to end 2005. Since the end of 2001, 9 lead cells have been cleaned. Their dismantling is planed for next the two years. In parallel, we will clean all the other cells. During this phase we will have also to transfer all the irradiated samples (about 5000) that are still in the laboratory to the waste treatment facility of the CEA centre or to the new laboratory which has been presented during the previous hotlab meeting in Saclay. The paper gives details for background about ended operations: Organization, waste production, specific designs which improve radioprotection, waste destinations and costs, Difficulties and feedback experience of dismantling. (Author)

  19. Highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence and its determinants in selected regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART can reduce morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients. However, it depends upon adherence to medication. The objective of this study was to examine the adherence to HAART and to evaluate individual patient characteristics i.e. self-efficacy, depression level, and social support and to finally determine HAART adherence in selected regions in Indonesia.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Jakarta, Malang, Bandung, Makasar and Banda Aceh. The subject of the study was HIV-infected patients who were older than 13 years old and had taken HAART for at least a month. They were recruited consecutively then asked how many pills they had missed during the previous month. Poor adherence can be stated if the percentage of adherence rate is below 95%. HIV treatment adherence self-efficacy scale  (HIVASES, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL was adapted to assess self-efficacy, depression level and social support, respectively.Results: We found that 96% (n=53 of the subjects adhered to HAART. There were no associations between adherence with self-efficacy, depression level, and social support. The main cause of non-adherence in this study was ‘simply  forget’.Conclusion: Adherence to HAART was found to be high and not associated with self-efficacy, depression level and social support in some central regions in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:50-5Keywords: adherence, depression, HAART, HIV, self-efficacy, social support

  20. Rapid turnover of 2-LTR HIV-1 DNA during early stage of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijun Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and resides latently in the resting memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, which blocks the eradication of HIV-1. The viral persistence of HIV-1 is mainly caused by its proviral DNA being either linear nonintegrated, circular nonintegrated, or integrated. Previous reports have largely focused on the dynamics of HIV-1 DNA from the samples collected with relatively long time intervals during the process of disease and HAART treatment, which may have missed the intricate changes during the intervals in early treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the dynamics of HIV-1 DNA in patients during the early phase of HARRT treatment. Using optimized real time PCR, we observed significant changes in 2-LTR during the first 12-week of treatment, while total and integrated HIV-1 DNA remained stable. The doubling time and half-life of 2-LTR were not correlated with the baseline and the rate of changes in plasma viral load and various CD4+ T-cell populations. Longitudinal analyses on 2-LTR sequences and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS levels did not reveal any significant changes in the same treatment period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study revealed the rapid changes in 2-LTR concentration in a relatively large number of patients during the early HAART treatment. The rapid changes indicate the rapid infusion and clearance of cells bearing 2-LTR in the peripheral blood. Those changes are not expected to be caused by the blocking of viral integration, as our study did not include the integrase inhibitor raltegravir. Our study helps better understand the dynamics of HIV-DNA and its potential role as a biomarker for the diseases and for the treatment efficacy of HAART.

  1. Highly active and durable Ca-doped Ce-SBA-15 catalyst for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitsartarn, Warintorn; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Kawi, Sibudjing

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Ca-doped Ce-incorporated SBA-15 (Ca/CeS) catalyst was successfully synthesized by using direct synthesis of Ce-incorporated SBA-15 followed by impregnation of CaO (calcium oxide). The maximum Si/Ce molar ratio that Ce atoms can be incorporated successfully into the mesoporous framework was found to be 5 (CeS-5). After the impregnation of 30 wt. % Ca, the obtained 30Ca/CeS-5 catalysts showed the superior catalytic performance for transesterification reaction of palm oil with methanol and also the higher catalytic activity as compared to other supported catalysts, i.e. CaO/CeO 2 and CaO–CeO 2 /SBA-15. This can be attributed to the well-dispersion of CaO on the CeS-5 support surface. Furthermore, it was found that the leaching of Si, Ce and Ca from the catalyst into biodiesel produced was negligible (i.e. <1 ppm after 7 cycles), indicating the strong interaction between CaO and CeS-5 support. As a result, the 30Ca/CeS-5 catalyst can be reused at least 15 cycles with insignificant decrease in catalytic activity, offering the efficient CaO-based catalyst for biodiesel production. - Highlights: • Mesoporous Ca-based catalyst was successfully developed for biodiesel production. • Catalyst exhibited high activity towards transesterification (FAME yield > 98%). • Catalyst can be effectively re-used at least 15 cycles. • Extremely low catalyst contaminant (<1 ppm) was presented

  2. [High activity antiretroviral therapy change associated to adverse drug reactions in a specialized center in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiela, José D; Dapena, Elida

    2016-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) represent the first cause of change of the first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen, therefore, they constitute the main limiting factor in the long-term follow up of HIV patients in treatment. A retrospective study was carried out in a specialized center in Lara State, Venezuela, including 99 patients over 18 years of age who had change of first-line HAART regimen due to ADRs, between 2010 and 2013. The aims of this research were to describe the sociodemographic and clinical variables, frequency of ADRs related to change of HAART, duration of the first-line HAART regimen, to determine the drugs associated with ARVs and to identify the risk factors. The ADRs constituted 47.5% of all causes of change of first-line HAART regimen, the median duration was 1.08±0.28 years. The most frequent ADRs were anemia (34.3%), hypersensitivity reactions (20.2%) and gastrointestinal intolerance (13.1%). The most frequent ARV regimen type was the protease inhibitors-based regimen (59.6%), but zidovudine was the ARV most linked to ADRs (41.4%). The regression analysis showed increased risk of ADRs in singles and students in the univariate analysis and heterosexuals and homosexuals in multivariate analysis; and decreased risk in active workers. The present work shows the high prevalence of ADRs in the studied population and represents the first case-based study that describes the pharmacoepidemiology of a cohort of HIV-positive patients treated in Venezuela.

  3. Tin-containing zeolites are highly active catalysts for the isomerization of glucose in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Manuel; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Davis, Mark E

    2010-04-06

    The isomerization of glucose into fructose is a large-scale reaction for the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS; reaction performed by enzyme catalysts) and recently is being considered as an intermediate step in the possible route of biomass to fuels and chemicals. Here, it is shown that a large-pore zeolite that contains tin (Sn-Beta) is able to isomerize glucose to fructose in aqueous media with high activity and selectivity. Specifically, a 10% (wt/wt) glucose solution containing a catalytic amount of Sn-Beta (150 Sn:glucose molar ratio) gives product yields of approximately 46% (wt/wt) glucose, 31% (wt/wt) fructose, and 9% (wt/wt) mannose after 30 min and 12 min of reaction at 383 K and 413 K, respectively. This reactivity is achieved also when a 45 wt% glucose solution is used. The properties of the large-pore zeolite greatly influence the reaction behavior because the reaction does not proceed with a medium-pore zeolite, and the isomerization activity is considerably lower when the metal centers are incorporated in ordered mesoporous silica (MCM-41). The Sn-Beta catalyst can be used for multiple cycles, and the reaction stops when the solid is removed, clearly indicating that the catalysis is occurring heterogeneously. Most importantly, the Sn-Beta catalyst is able to perform the isomerization reaction in highly acidic, aqueous environments with equivalent activity and product distribution as in media without added acid. This enables Sn-Beta to couple isomerizations with other acid-catalyzed reactions, including hydrolysis/isomerization or isomerization/dehydration reaction sequences [starch to fructose and glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) demonstrated here].

  4. High activity of cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene towards ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lu; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Bin-Wei; Cai, Yuan-Rong; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-07-21

    Cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene (PtxRhy/GN) with different atomic ratio of Pt and Rh were directly synthesized for the first time using the modified polyol method with Br(-) for the shape-directing agents. The process didn't use surface-capping agents such as PVP that easily occupy the active sites of electrocatalysts and are difficult to remove. Graphene is the key factor for cubic shape besides Br(-) and keeping catalysts high-dispersed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of these electrocatalysts. The results showed that they were composed of homogeneous cubic PtRh alloys. Traditional electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, were used to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of PtxRhy/GN towards ethanol electrooxidation. It can be seen that PtxRhy/GN with all atomic ratios exhibited high catalytic activity, and the most active one has a composition with Pt : Rh = 9 : 1 atomic ratio. Electrochemical in situ FTIR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the cleavage of C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acidic solutions, the results illustrated that Rh in an alloy can promote the split of C-C bond in ethanol, and the alloy catalyst with atomic ratio Pt : Rh = 1 : 1 showed obviously better performance for the C-C bond breaking in ethanol and higher selectivity for the enhanced activity of ethanol complete oxidation to CO2 than alloys with other ratios of Pt and Rh. The investigation indicates that high activity of PtxRhy/GN electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation is due to the specific shape of alloys and the synergistic effect of two metal elements as well as graphene support.

  5. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm; Bonface, Jean-Michael

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  6. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany); Bonface, Jean-Michael [TN International, Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)

    2009-07-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of highly active and dual-functional electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Geng; Xu, Guangran; Li, Yingjun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Liu, Baocang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Gong, Xia [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zheng, Dafang [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Jun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Wang, Qin, E-mail: qinwang@imu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ternary RuMPt (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) nanodendrities (NDs) catalysts, are successfully synthesized by using a facile method. The as-obtained ternary catalysts manifest superior catalytic activity and stability both in terms of surface and mass specific activities toward the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, as compared to the binary catalysts and the commercial Pt/C catalysts. - Highlights: • Ternary RuMPt catalysts are synthesized by using a facile method. • The catalysts manifest superior catalytic activity towards the MOR and ORR. • High activities are attributed to enhanced electron density and synergistic effects. - Abstract: The promising Pt-based ternary catalyst is crucial for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) due to improving catalytic activity and durability for both methanol oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction. In this work, a facile strategy is used for the synthesis ternary RuMPt (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) nanodendrities catalysts. The ternary RuMPt alloys exhibit enhanced specific and mass activity, positive half-wave potential, and long-term stability, compared with binary Pt-based alloy and the commercial Pt/C catalyst, which is attributed to the high electron density and upshifting of the d-band center for Pt atoms, and synergistic catalytic effects among Pt, M, and Ru atoms by introducing a transition metal. Impressively, the ternary RuCoPt catalyst exhibits superior mass activity (801.59 mA mg{sup −1}) and positive half-wave potential (0.857 V vs. RHE) towards MOR and ORR, respectively. Thus, the RuMPt nanocomposite is a very promising material to be used as dual electrocatalyst in the application of PEMFCs.

  8. Graphene decorated with Pd nanoparticles via electrostatic self-assembly: A highly active alcohol oxidation electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shujing; Li, Shuwen; Hu, Tengyue; Gou, Galian; Ren, Ren; Huang, Jingwei; Xie, Miao; Jin, Jun; Ma, Jiantai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Novel perylene-connected ionic liquids (PTCDI-ILs) have been successfully synthesized in a convenient approach and used as linkers for three-component Pd/PTCDI-ILs/GS heterostructure when non-covalently attached on graphene. The obtained nano-hybrids represented high electrochemical surface area and enhanced electrocatalytic activity for DAFCs in alkaline media. -- Highlights: • A novel preparation of three-component Pd/ionic liquids/graphene heterostructure has been constructed. • The Pd-based nano-catalysts have relatively low price and higher resistance to CO poisoning when compared with Pt-based catalysts. • The nano-catalysts represent high electrochemical surface area and enhanced electrocatalytic activity for DAFCs in alkaline media. -- Abstract: Graphene nanosheets (GS) are non-covalently functionalized with novel N,N-bis-(n-butylimidazolium bromide salt)-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid diimide (PTCDI-ILs) via the π–π stacking, and then employed as the support of Pd nanoparticles. The negatively charged Pd precursors are adsorbed on positively charged imidazolium ring moiety of PTCDI-ILs wrapping GS surface via electrostatic self-assembly and then in situ reduced by NaBH 4 . X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope images reveal that Pd nanoparticles with an average size of 2.7 nm are uniformly dispersed on GS surface. The Pd/PTCDI-ILs/GS exhibits unexpectedly high activity toward alcohol oxidation reaction, which can be attributed to the large electrochemical surface area of Pd nanoparticles. It also shows enhanced electrochemical stability due to the structural integrity of PTCDI-ILs/GS. This provides a facile approach to synthesize GS-based nanoelectrocatalysts

  9. Facile synthesis of a platinum-lead oxide nanocomposite catalyst with high activity and durability for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hong-Hui; Chen, De-Hao; Zhou, Zhi-You; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2012-12-21

    Aimed at searching for highly active and stable nano-scale Pt-based catalysts that can improve significantly the energy conversion efficiency of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), a novel Pt-PbO(x) nanocomposite (Pt-PbO(x) NC) catalyst with a mean size of 3.23 nm was synthesized through a simple wet chemistry method without using a surfactant, organometallic precursors and high temperature. Electrocatalytic tests demonstrated that the as-prepared Pt-PbO(x) NC catalyst possesses a much higher catalytic activity and a longer durability than Pt nanoparticles (nm-Pt) and commercial Pt black catalysts for ethanol electrooxidation. For instance, Pt-PbO(x) NC showed an onset potential that was 30 mV and 44 mV less positive, together with a peak current density 1.7 and 2.6 times higher than those observed for nm-Pt and Pt black catalysts in the cyclic voltammogram tests. The ratio of current densities per unit Pt mass on Pt-PbO(x) NC, nm-Pt and Pt black catalysts is 27.3 : 3.4 : 1 for the long-term (2 hours) chronoamperometric experiments measured at -0.4 V (vs. SCE). In situ FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed that the activity of breaking C-C bonds of ethanol of the Pt-PbO(x) NC is as high as 5.17 times that of the nm-Pt, which illustrates a high efficiency of ethanol oxidation to CO(2) on the as-prepared Pt-PbO(x) NC catalyst.

  10. Separation of phosphorous by liquid-liquid extraction for the measurement of 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.N.; Yang, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorous containing radioisotope waste was separated and determined by liquid-liquid extraction method through liquid scintillation counter (LSC). In this process, ammonium phosphate was converted to phosphomolybdate (PMo) by the reaction of ammonium molybdate (Mo) in HCl solution (0.02 M) and maximum UV/VIS absorbance (λ max ) 218 nm was observed. The PMo solution was extracted with TOA (Tri-n-Octylamine)/xylene mixture and λ max 290 nm was found for this organic layer. Absorbance of aqueous and organic layer was linear through concentration. The impurities such as Co, Cr, Gd, etc. remain in aqueous layer by treating with Mo which was determined by ICP-AES and AAS. The quenching correction curve for 32 P was calculated using LSC results. No counting change was observed as the volume of quenchers increased. The recovery was 98% and 81% for the extraction and separation process from the test using H 3 32 PO 4 as standard tracer. (author)

  11. Ru Nanoparticles Supported on MIL-101 by Double Solvents Method as High-Performance Catalysts for Catalytic Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly dispersed crystalline Ru nanoparticles (NPs were successfully immobilized inside the pores of MIL-101 by a double solvents method (DSM. HRTEM clearly demonstrated the uniform distribution of the ultrafine Ru NPs throughout the interior cavities of MIL-101. The synthesized Ru@MIL-101 catalyst was also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption desorption, and ICP-AES. The catalytic test indicated that the Ru NPs supported MIL-101 material exhibited exceedingly high activity and excellent durability for hydrogen generation from the catalytic hydrolysis of amine boranes.

  12. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  13. Flowsheet development studies for the decontamination of high-activity-level water at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Bigelow, J.E.; Campbell, D.O.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    Several chemical processing flowsheets were considered for the decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2. A zeolite ion exchange process was evaluated and recommended for absorption of the bulk of the highly radioactive cesium and strontium. Standard organic ion-exchange resins were selected to remove the remaining traces of radioactive nuclides (except tritium which cannot be removed by any practical process). Process conditions were evaluated using both synthetic, tracer-level solutions and samples of actual, high-activity level water from TMI Unit 2

  14. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients before and after the highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paschoalette Rodrigues Bachur

    Full Text Available Enteroparasites are related to gastrointestinal alterations among patients with HIV/AIDS, some causing severe manifestations in the period before the institution of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The prevalence of enteroparasitoses in patients with HIV/AIDS seen at two hospitals in Ceará , Brazil, was compared in the pre-HAART (Group 1; n = 482 and HAART (Group 2; n = 100 eras. Fecal parasitologic examinations (FPE were performed using the direct, Lutz, Baermann-Moraes and modified Ziehl-Neelsen methods. The following parasites were detected in Groups 1 and 2, respectively: Strongyloides stercoralis - 30.1% and 11% (p<0.0001, Ascaris lumbricoides - 15.6% and 2% (p<0.0001, hookworms - 13.7% and 2% (p<0.0001, Trichuris trichiura - 13.1% and 1% (p<0.0001, Hymenolepis nana - 0 and 1% (p = 0.1718, Giardia duodenalis - 7.9% and 1% (p = 0.0076, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar - 3.3% and 1% (p = 0.3301, Isospora belli - 4.8% and 1% (p = 0.0993, Cryptosporidium sp. - 8.1% and 0 (p = 0.0007, and non-pathogenic protozoans as well. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence of enteroparasites between the eras (63.9% to 24%; p<0.0001. In the HAART era, the following observations were made: greater frequency of enteroparasites in patients without antiretroviral therapy (p = 0.0575, as in those with AIDS (p = 0.08, and diarrhea (36% of the patients; lack of association with positive FPE (p = 0.626; and non-detection of Cryptosporidium sp. Strongyloides stercoralis showed an elevated prevalence in the two eras and was more frequent in men (32.41% than women (19.04% of Group 1 (p = 0.018, a finding suggesting the transmission of the helminth through sodomy. The advent of the HAART modified the profile of opportunistic infections, including parasites, probably due to the reconstitution of cellular immunity and the direct action of HAART on the parasites.

  15. Demonstration of innovative partitioning processes for minor actinide recycling from high active waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Geist, A.; Malmbeck, R.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of the minor actinides (MA) using the Partitioning and Transmutation strategy (P and T) could contribute significantly to reducing the volume of high level waste in a geological repository and to decreasing the waste's longterm hazards originating from the long half-life of the actinides. Several extraction processes have been developed worldwide for the separation and recovery of MA from highly active raffinates (HAR, e.g. the PUREX raffinate). A multi-cycle separation strategy has been developed within the framework of European collaborative projects. The multi-cycle processes, on the one hand, make use of different extractants for every single process. Within the recent FP7 European research project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation), the development of new innovative separation processes with a reduced number of cycles was envisaged. In the so-called 'innovative SANEX' concept, the trivalent actinides and lanthanides are co-extracted from the PUREX raffinate by a DIAMEX like process (e.g. TODGA). Then, the loaded solvent is subjected to several stripping steps. The first one concerns selectively stripping the actinides(III) with selective water-soluble ligands (SO3-Ph-BTB), followed by the subsequent stripping of trivalent lanthanides. A more challenging route studied also within our laboratories is the direct actinide(III) separation from a PUREX-type raffinate using a mixture of CyMe 4 BTBP and TODGA as extractants, the so-called One cycle SANEX process. A new approach, which was also studied within the ACSEPT project, is the GANEX (Grouped ActiNide EXtraction) concept addressing the simultaneous partitioning of all transuranium (TRU) elements for their homogeneous recycling in advanced generation IV reactor systems. Bulk uranium is removed in the GANEX 1st cycle, e.g. using a monoamide extractant and the GANEX 2nd cycle then separates the TRU. A solvent composed of TODGA + DMDOHEMA in kerosene has been shown to

  16. Association between diarrhea and quality of life in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramarin, A; Parise, N; Campostrini, S; Yin, DD; Postma, MJ; Lyu, R; Grisetti, R; Capetti, A; Cattelan, AM; Di Toro, MT; Mastroianni, A; Pignattari, E; Mondardini, [No Value; Calleri, G; Raise, E; Starace, F

    Diarrhea is a common symptom that many HIV patients experience either as a consequence of HIV infection or of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A multicenter, prospective observational study was conducted in 11 AIDS clinics in Italy to determine the effect of diarrhea on health-related

  17. A clinically prognostic scoring system for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: results from the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda; Gatell, Jose M

    2002-01-01

    The risk of clinical progression for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons receiving treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is poorly defined. From an inception cohort of 8457 HIV-infected persons, 2027 patients who started HAART during prospective follow-up wer...

  18. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for women and children in the WHO European Region 2002-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Annemarie Rinder; Lazarus, Jeff; Donoghoe, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To assess the level of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for women and children in the WHO European Region. Methods. Analysis of data from three national surveys of 53 WHO European Member States. The comparative level of access to HAART for women and children was a...

  19. N2O decomposition over Fe/ZSM-5: reversible generation of highly active cationic Fe species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q.; Hensen, E.J.M.; Mojet, B.L.; Wolput, van J.H.M.C.; Santen, van R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Fe-oxide species in Fe/ZSM-5 (prepared by chemical vapor deposition of FeCl3)-active in N2O decomposition-react with zeolite protons during high temperature calcination to give highly active cationic Fe species, this transformation being reversible upon exposure to water vapor at lower temperature

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2, or 3 and 27 with AIDS (WHO stage 4 receiving HAART between 1995 and 2000 in Cape Town were compared with HIV-infected controls matched for baseline WHO stage, CD4 count, age, and socioeconomic status, who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART; No-ART group. Costs of service provision (January 2004 prices, US$1 = 7.6 Rand included local unit costs, and two scenarios for HAART prices for WHO recommended first-line regimens: scenario 1 used current South African public-sector ART drug prices of $730 per patient-year (PPY, whereas scenario 2 was based on the anticipated public-sector price for locally manufactured drug of $181 PPY. All analyses are presented in terms of patients without AIDS and patients with AIDS. For patients without AIDS, the mean number of inpatient days PPY was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-1.19 for the HAART group versus 3.73 (95% CI: 3.55-3.97 for the No-ART group, and 8.71 (95% CI: 8.40-9.03 versus 4.35 (95% CI: 4.12-5.61, respectively, for mean number of outpatient visits PPY. Average service provision PPY was $950 for the No-ART group versus $1,342 and $793 PPY for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG was $1,622 for scenario 1 and $675 for scenario 2. For patients with AIDS, mean inpatients days PPY was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.63-2.52 for the HAART versus 15.36 (95% CI: 13.97-16.85 for the No-ART group. Mean outpatient visits PPY was 7.62 (95% CI: 6.81-8.49 compared with 6.60 (95% CI: 5.69-7.62 respectively. Average service provision PPY was $3,520 for the No-ART group versus $1,513 and $964

  1. Cost-effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motasim Badri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices.Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2, or 3 and 27 with AIDS (WHO stage 4 receiving HAART between 1995 and 2000 in Cape Town were compared with HIV-infected controls matched for baseline WHO stage, CD4 count, age, and socioeconomic status, who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART; No-ART group. Costs of service provision (January 2004 prices, USD 1 = 7.6 Rand included local unit costs, and two scenarios for HAART prices for WHO recommended first-line regimens: scenario 1 used current South African public-sector ART drug prices of $730 per patient-year (PPY, whereas scenario 2 was based on the anticipated public-sector price for locally manufactured drug of $181 PPY. All analyses are presented in terms of patients without AIDS and patients with AIDS. For patients without AIDS, the mean number of inpatient days PPY was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-1.19 for the HAART group versus 3.73 (95% CI: 3.55-3.97 for the No-ART group, and 8.71 (95% CI: 8.40-9.03 versus 4.35 (95% CI: 4.12-5.61, respectively, for mean number of outpatient visits PPY. Average service provision PPY was $950 for the No-ART group versus $1,342 and $793 PPY for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG was $1,622 for scenario 1 and $675 for scenario 2. For patients with AIDS, mean inpatients days PPY was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.63-2.52 for the HAART versus 15.36 (95% CI: 13.97-16.85 for the No-ART group. Mean outpatient visits PPY was 7.62 (95% CI: 6.81-8.49 compared with 6.60 (95% CI: 5.69-7.62 respectively. Average service provision PPY was $3,520 for the No-ART group versus $1,513 and $964 for the HAART group for scenario 1

  2. A model problem for restricted-data gamma ray emission tomography of highly active nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattle, Brian A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops the work of Cattle et al. [Cattle, B.A., Fellerman, A.S., West, R.M., 2004. On the detection of solid deposits using gamma ray emission tomography with limited data. Measurement Science and Technology 15, 1429-1439] by considering a generalization of the model employed therein. The focus of the work is the gamma ray tomographic analysis of high-level waste processing. The work in this paper considers a two-dimensional model for the measurement of gamma ray photon flux, as opposed to the previous one-dimensional analysis via the integrated Beer-Lambert law. The mathematical inverse problem that arises in determining physical quantities from the photon count measurements is tackled using Bayesian statistical methods that are implemented computationally using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. In a further new development, the effect of the degree of collimation of the detector on the reliability of the solutions is also considered

  3. Determination of radioisotopic contents of high-active materials in non-standard conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Vins, M.

    2014-01-01

    The light-water research reactor LVR-15, operated by Research |Centre Rez, serves as a source of neutrons for applied and basic research. One of the main areas of applied research is the influence of neutron radiation field on the physical and mechanical properties of construction materials used in reactor technology. The presented contribution deals with the determination of a radioisotopic composition and the estimate of its activity.The determination is based on gamma spectrometry measurements. The purpose of the measurements was the determination of the main sources of radiation and the result was used to prepare a procedure for the handling, transport and testing of samples in the rigs. (authors)

  4. Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veser, Goetz

    2009-08-31

    Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700°C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting “plateau” of stability from 600-900°C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and

  5. Low activity of superoxide dismutase and high activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes from centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Jeune, B; Nybo, H

    1998-01-01

    aged between 60 and 79 years. MEASUREMENTS: enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase (GR) in erythrocytes. Functional capacity among the centenarians was evaluated by Katz' index of activities of daily living, the Physical...

  6. Physiochemical and Thermodynamic Characterization of Highly Active Mutated Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase for Lignocellulose Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Rashid, Muhammad Hamid; Riaz, Muhammad; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Ashiq, Nourin

    2018-01-01

    Cellulose represents a major source of fermentable sugars in lignocellulosic biomass and a combined action of hydrolytic enzymes (exoglucanases , endoglucanases and β-glucosidases) is required to effectively convert cellulose to glucose that can be fermented to bio-ethanol. However, in-order to make the production of bio-ethanol an economically feasible process, the costs of the enzymes to be used for hydrolysis of the raw material need to be reduced and an increase in specific activity or production efficiency of cellulases is required. Among the cellulases, β-glucosidase not only hydrolyzes cellobiose to glucose but it also reduces the cellobiose inhibition, resulting in efficient functioning of endo- and exo-glucanases. Therefore, in the current study kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of highly active β-glucosidase from randomly mutated Aspergillus niger NIBGE-06 have been evaluated for its industrial applications. The main objective of this study was the identification of mutations and determination of their effect on the physiochemical, kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of β-glucosidase activity and stability. Pure cultures of Aspergillus niger NIBGE and its 2-Deoxy-D-glucose resistant γ-rays mutant Aspergillus niger NIBGE-06 were grown on Vogel's medium containing wheat bran (3% w/v), at 30±1 °C for 96-108 h. Crude enzymes from both strains were subjected to ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography on Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) system. The purified β-glucosidases from both fungal sources were characterized for their native and subunit molecular mass through FPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The purified enzymes were then comparatively characterized for their optimum temperature, activation energy (Ea), temperature quotient (Q10), Optimum pH, Heat of ionization (ΔHI) of active site residues , Michaelis-Menten constants (Vmax, Km, kcat and kcat/Km) and thermodynamics of irreversible inactivation through

  7. Migration of gases around a cell containing high-activity vitrified wastes during the operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, A.; Wendling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Andra is studying the Callovo-Oxfordian mud-stones, located at a depth of approximately 500 m beneath the borders of the Meuse and the Haute-Marne Departements, in order to assess the feasibility of constructing a repository for radioactive waste in this low-permeability geological formation. Several categories of waste are being considered for disposal in the geological repository. Of these, the high-activity, long-lived vitrified wastes (known as 'Waste C') are strongly exothermic and will be stored in cells that are about 40 m long, with a single access aperture from an access gallery. The cell wall will be supported by a steel lining. During the reversible operational phase (lasting at least 100 years), and as long as the access galleries are ventilated, the corrosion of the steel lining by oxygen in air will be important. It is necessary to determine the thickness of the lining corroded during this phase in order to be able to design the lining with an appropriate initial thickness to maintain integrity. In addition, at the end of the cell farthest from the ventilated access gallery, it is possible that the oxygen concentration will be so low that corrosion occurs under reducing (anaerobic) conditions. This chemical reaction produces hydrogen gas, which will migrate towards the access gallery. To maintain operational safety, it is necessary to define the hydrogen concentration within the cell and within the access gallery in order to evaluate the fire and/or explosion hazards (the hydrogen-oxygen mixture is highly flammable and/or explosive at certain concentrations). The objectives of this study were to estimate for the reversible operational phase (i.e. for 100 years): - The thickness of the steel lining required to ensure mechanical integrity. - Transfer rates (advection and / or diffusion) and gas concentrations (oxygen, hydrogen and water vapour) at all points in the annular void between the

  8. Intracavitary dosimetry of a high-activity remote loading device with oscillating source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcovito, G.; Piermattei, A.; D'Abramo, G.; Bassi, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Dosimetric experiments have been carried out in water around a Fletcher applicator loaded by a Buchler system containing two 137 Cs 148 GBq (4 Ci) sources and one 192 Ir 740 GBq (20 Ci) source. The mechanical system which controls the movement of the 192 Ir source and the resulting motion of the source are described. The dose distribution around the sources was measured photographically and by a PWT Normal 0.22 cm 3 ionisation chamber. The absolute dose rate was measured along the lateral axes of the sources. The measurements of exposure in water near the sources were corrected for the effect due to the finite volume of the chamber. The ''quantisation method'' described by Cassell (1983) was utilised to calculate the variation of the dose rate along the lateral axes of the sources. The dose distribution around both 192 Ir and 137 Cs sources was found to be spherical for angles greater than 40 0 from the longitudinal axes of the sources. A simple algorithm fitting the data for the moving 192 Ir source is proposed. A program written in FORTRAN IV and run on a Univac 1100/80 computer has been used to plot dose distributions on anatomical data obtained from CT images. (author)

  9. The application of research and technology in the Highly Active Liquor storage and treatment facilities at Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    At the Sellafield nuclear site, Highly Active Liquor (HAL) produced from Magnox and Oxide reprocessing operations is evaporated and interim stored in the Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) complex prior to vitrification in one of three Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) processing lines. These plants are integral to the current commercial activities at Sellafield and also in safely discharging liabilities in the future. The management and operation of HALES and WVP are subject to significant regulatory and public scrutiny and there is the requirement to deliver a reduction in the HAL volumes stored in HALES in accordance with a regulator imposed HAL stock reduction specification. In delivering the required reduction BNFL has faced a number of technical and operational challenges which have resulted in the development and execution of significant programmes of research and development and technical and engineering projects. The key challenges faced are briefly presented. (author)

  10. Synthesis of carbonate esters by carboxymethylation using NaAlO2 as a highly active heterogeneous catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Sreerangappa; Indukuri, Kiran; Riant, Olivier; Debecker, Damien

    2018-01-01

    Sodium aluminate is presented as a highly active heterogeneous catalyst able to convert a range of alcohols into the corresponding mixed carbonate esters, in high yield and under green conditions. The reaction is carried out using dimethyl carbonate both as a reactant and solvent, at 90°C. Allylic, aliphatic and aromatic alcohols are converted in good yields. The solid catalyst is shown to be truly heterogeneous, resistant to leaching, and recyclable.

  11. Researches on the management of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. Axis 1 - separation-transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of seven presentations given at a technical workshop of the French nuclear energy society (SFEN) about the researches on separation-transmutation of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. The presentations deal with: inventory and radiotoxicity of the rad-wastes in concern; industrial experience; experience on chemical separation: molecules and processes; reactors physics and transmutation - reactors for transmutation; fuels and targets; scenarios that include transmutation; environmental impacts of these different scenarios. (J.S.)

  12. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully.

  13. High activity of novel Pd/TiO2 nanotube catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Guo Daojun; Li Hulin

    2005-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of methanol in sulfuric acid solution was studied using palladium well-dispersed on titanium nanotubes, in relation to methanol oxidation processes in the direct oxidation methanol fuel cell. Pd dispersed on titania nanotubes, which leads to high surface area substrates, showed excellent catalytic activities compared to those of pure Pd and Pd-TiO 2 nanoparticles. TEM results show a narrow distribution of TiO 2 nanoparticles whose particle size is about 10nm, and uniform nano-sized TiO 2 nanotubes with 10nm in diameters are seen from HRTEM . A homogeneous structure in the composite nanomaterials is indicated by XRD analysis. The composite electrode activities were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and at 25 deg. C it was found that 3wt% Pd in titania nanotubes had the best activity for methanol oxidation

  14. Development of maintenance equipment for nuclear material fabrication equipment in a highly active hot cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, K. H. and others

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the development of a maintenance system for a highly contaminated nuclear material handling equipment at a hot-cell. This maintenance system has mainly three subsystems - a gamma-radiation measurement module for detecting a gamma-radiation level and identifying its distribution in-situ, a dry-type decontamination device for cleaning up contaminated particles, and a maintenance chamber for isolating contaminated equipment. The mechanical design considerations, controller, capabilities and remote operation and manipulation of the maintenance system are described. Such subsystems developed were installed and tested in the IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) M6 hot-cell after mock-up tests and performed their specific tasks successfully

  15. Highly active engineered-enzyme oriented monolayers: formation, characterization and sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patolsky Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interest in introducing ecologically-clean, and efficient enzymes into modern industry has been growing steadily. However, difficulties associated with controlling their orientation, and maintaining their selectivity and reactivity is still a significant obstacle. We have developed precise immobilization of biomolecules, while retaining their native functionality, and report a new, fast, easy, and reliable procedure of protein immobilization, with the use of Adenylate kinase as a model system. Methods Self-assembled monolayers of hexane-1,6-dithiol were formed on gold surfaces. The monolayers were characterized by contact-angle measurements, Elman-reagent reaction, QCM, and XPS. A specifically designed, mutated Adenylate kinase, where cysteine was inserted at the 75 residue, and the cysteine at residue 77 was replaced by serine, was used for attachment to the SAM surface via spontaneously formed disulfide (S-S bonds. QCM, and XPS were used for characterization of the immobilized protein layer. Curve fitting in XPS measurements used a Gaussian-Lorentzian function. Results and Discussion Water contact angle (65-70°, as well as all characterization techniques used, confirmed the formation of self-assembled monolayer with surface SH groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed clearly the two types of sulfur atom, one attached to the gold (triolate and the other (SH/S-S at the ω-position for the hexane-1,6-dithiol SAMs. The formation of a protein monolayer was confirmed using XPS, and QCM, where the QCM-determined amount of protein on the surface was in agreement with a model that considered the surface area of a single protein molecule. Enzymatic activity tests of the immobilized protein confirmed that there is no change in enzymatic functionality, and reveal activity ~100 times that expected for the same amount of protein in solution. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, immobilization of a protein by the method

  16. Ru-assisted synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites with high activity for ethanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Caiqin; Ren, Fangfang; Du, Yukou

    2015-07-01

    Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium, which are mainly ascribed to the synergetic effect between Pd and Ru. This indicates that the Pd7/Ru1 catalysts should have great potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells.Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly

  17. Highly active carbon supported Pd cathode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Borodzinski, A.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Mierzwa, B.; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M.; Stobinski, L.; Ciecierska, E.; Zimoch, A.; Opałło, M.

    2016-12-01

    One of the drawbacks of low-temperature fuel cells is high price of platinum-based catalysts used for the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of the fuel cell. The aim of this work is to develop the palladium catalyst that will replace commonly used platinum cathode catalysts. A series of palladium catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were prepared and tested on the cathode of Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC). Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the carbon black (Vulcan) and on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface by reduction of palladium(II) acetate dissolved in ethanol. Hydrazine was used as a reducing agent. The effect of functionalization of the carbon supports on the catalysts physicochemical properties and the ORR catalytic activity on the cathode of DFAFC was studied. The supports were functionalized by treatment in nitric acid for 4 h at 80 °C. The structure of the prepared catalysts has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Hydrophilicity of the catalytic layers was determined by measuring contact angles of water droplets. The performance of the prepared catalysts has been compared with that of the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C (Premetek) catalyst. The maximum power density obtained for the best palladium catalyst, deposited on the surface of functionalized carbon black, is the same as that for the commercial Pt/C (Premetek). Palladium is cheaper than platinum, therefore the developed cathode catalyst is promising for future applications.

  18. Tungsten-doped ZnO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization, and highly active photocatalyst toward dye photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah, E-mail: Fallah.m@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A series of W-doped ZnO nanocomposite with different W contents were synthesized by sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and BET surface area measurement. The XRD results revealed that all the W-doped samples showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDS and XPS revealed that W was doped into ZnO structure. The particle size of doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to that of pure ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of undoped ZnO and W-doped ZnO was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the W-doped ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO and the optimum percentage of doped W is 4 mol%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO samples may be related to the narrowing of the band gap, increase in the charge separation efficiency, particle size reduction and increase of the surface area. Highlights: ► W-doped ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The XRD results revealed that all the materials consisting of wurtzite structure. ► The sizes of the W-ZnO nanocomposite are 5–10 nm, obtained from TEM image. ► With W doping into ZnO photoinduced charge separation rate has been enhanced. ► Photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO.

  19. Tungsten-doped ZnO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization, and highly active photocatalyst toward dye photodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah

    2013-01-01

    A series of W-doped ZnO nanocomposite with different W contents were synthesized by sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and BET surface area measurement. The XRD results revealed that all the W-doped samples showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDS and XPS revealed that W was doped into ZnO structure. The particle size of doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to that of pure ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of undoped ZnO and W-doped ZnO was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the W-doped ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO and the optimum percentage of doped W is 4 mol%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO samples may be related to the narrowing of the band gap, increase in the charge separation efficiency, particle size reduction and increase of the surface area. Highlights: ► W-doped ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The XRD results revealed that all the materials consisting of wurtzite structure. ► The sizes of the W-ZnO nanocomposite are 5–10 nm, obtained from TEM image. ► With W doping into ZnO photoinduced charge separation rate has been enhanced. ► Photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO

  20. Highly active carbon supported Pd cathode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A., E-mail: amikolajczuk@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Borodzinski, A.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Mierzwa, B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, Warsaw (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, Warsaw (Poland); Ciecierska, E. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Zimoch, A.; Opałło, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Palladium catalyst used on the cathode DFAFC is comparable to commercial platinum catalyst. • The treatment of carbon supports in nitric acid(V) increases the electrochemically available metal surface area and the catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction of catalysts. - Abstract: One of the drawbacks of low-temperature fuel cells is high price of platinum-based catalysts used for the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of the fuel cell. The aim of this work is to develop the palladium catalyst that will replace commonly used platinum cathode catalysts. A series of palladium catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were prepared and tested on the cathode of Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC). Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the carbon black (Vulcan) and on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface by reduction of palladium(II) acetate dissolved in ethanol. Hydrazine was used as a reducing agent. The effect of functionalization of the carbon supports on the catalysts physicochemical properties and the ORR catalytic activity on the cathode of DFAFC was studied. The supports were functionalized by treatment in nitric acid for 4 h at 80 °C. The structure of the prepared catalysts has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Hydrophilicity of the catalytic layers was determined by measuring contact angles of water droplets. The performance of the prepared catalysts has been compared with that of the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C (Premetek) catalyst. The maximum power density obtained for the best palladium catalyst, deposited on the surface of functionalized carbon black, is the same as that for the commercial Pt/C (Premetek). Palladium is cheaper than platinum, therefore the developed cathode catalyst is promising for future applications.

  1. Growth, immune and viral responses in HIV infected African children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagenda Danstan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scale up of paediatric antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings continues despite limited access to routine laboratory monitoring. We documented the weight and height responses in HIV infected Ugandan children on highly active antiretroviral therapy and determined clinical factors associated with successful treatment outcomes. Methods A prospective cohort of HIV infected children were initiated on HAART and followed for 48 weeks. Body mass index for age z scores(BAZ, weight and height-for-age z scores (WAZ & HAZ were calculated: CD4 cell % and HIV-1 RNA were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks. Treatment outcomes were classified according to; both virological and immunological success (VS/IS, virological failure and immunological success (VF/IS. virological success and immunological failure (VS/IF and both virological and immunological failure (VF/IF. Results From March 2004 until May 2006, 124 HIV infected children were initiated on HAART. The median age (IQR was 5.0 years (2.1 - 7.0 and 49% (61/124 were female. The median [95% confidence interval (CI] BAZ, WAZ and HAZ at baseline were 0.29 (-2.9, -1.2, -1.2 (-2.1, -0.5 and -2.06 (-2.9, -1.2 respectively. Baseline median CD4 cell % and log10 HIV-1 RNA were; 11.8% (7.5-18.0 and 5.6 (5.2-5.8 copies/ml. By 48 weeks, mean WAZ and HAZ in the VF/IS group, which was younger, increased from - 0.98 (SD 1.7 to + 1.22 (SD 1.2 and from -1.99 (1.7 to + 0.76 (2.4 respectively. Mean increase in WAZ and HAZ in the VS/IF group, an older group was modest, from -1.84 (1.3 to - 0.41 (1.2 and -2.25 (1.2 to -1.16 (1.3 respectively. Baseline CD4 cell % [OR 6.97 95% CI (2.6 -18.6], age [OR 4.6 95% CI (1.14 -19.1] and WHO clinical stage [OR 3.5 95%CI (1.05 -12.7] were associated with successful treatment outcome. Conclusions HIV infected Ugandan children demonstrated a robust increase in height and weight z scores during the first 48 weeks of HAART, including those who failed to

  2. Development of gastric cancer in nonatrophic stomach with highly active inflammation identified by serum levels of pepsinogen and Helicobacter pylori antibody together with endoscopic rugal hyperplastic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mika; Kato, Jun; Inoue, Izumi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Yoshida, Takeichi; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Enomoto, Shotaro; Ueda, Kazuki; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Masataka; Tekeshita, Tatsuya; Mohara, Osamu; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate groups at high risk of developing cancer among patients with serologically identified Helicobacter pylori infection and nonatrophic stomach. Annual endoscopy was performed for a mean of 5.4 years in 496 asymptomatic middle-aged men who were H. pylori antibody-positive and pepsinogen (PG) test-negative. Subjects were stratified according to the activity of H. pylori-associated gastritis measured by serum levels of PG and H. pylori antibody, and/or by endoscopic findings of rugal hyperplastic gastritis (RHG), and cancer development was investigated. During the study period, seven cases of cancer developed in the cohort (incidence rate, 261/100,000 person-years), with 85.7% developing in the group showing a PGI/II ratio ≤ 3.0, reflecting active inflammation-based high PGII levels. Cancer incidence was significantly higher in this group (750/100,000 person-years) than in groups with less active gastritis. Furthermore, cancer incidence for this group was significantly higher in the subgroup with high H. pylori antibody titers than in the low-titer subgroup. Meanwhile, endoscopic findings revealed that 11.7% of subjects showed RHG reflecting localized highly active inflammation, and cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with RHG than in patients without. Combining the two serum tests and endoscopic examination for RHG allowed identification of subjects with more active gastritis and higher cancer risk. No cancer development was observed in these high-risk subjects after H. pylori eradication. Subjects with highly active gastritis identified by the two serological tests and endoscopic RHG constitute a group at high risk of cancer development with H. pylori-infected nonatrophic stomach. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  3. High stability and high activity Pd/ITO-CNTs electrocatalyst for direct formic acid fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Wei-Li; Gu, Da-Ming; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Zhang, Jing-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The addition of ITO in Pd/CNTs catalyst significantly improves the activity and stability of catalyst for formic acid electrooxidation due to excellent stability and high electrical conductivity of ITO, and metal-support interaction between Pd nanoparticles and ITO. - Highlights: • Pd catalyst with ITO and CNTs as a mixture support for DFAFC was first prepared by microwave-assisted polyol process. • The activity and stability of Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst is significantly higher than those of Pd/CNTs. • When ITO content is 50% of ITO/CNTs support mass, Pd/ITO-CNTs exhibits the best performance. - Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) and carbon nanotube hybrid has been explored as a support for Pd catalyst. Pd/ITO-CNTs catalysts with different ITO contents were prepared by the microwave-assisted polyol process. The as-prepared Pd/ITO-CNTs catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electrochemical measurements in this work. The TEM results show that Pd particle size distribution in the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst is more uniform than that in Pd/CNTs, indicating that the ITO can promote the dispersion of Pd nanoparticles. It is found that there is metal-support interaction between Pd nanoparticles and ITO in the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst through XPS test. The results of electrochemical tests prove that the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalysts exhibit higher electro-catalytic activity and stability than Pd/CNTs toward formic acid electrooxidation. When the ITO content is 50% of ITO-CNTs support mass, the Pd/ITO-CNTs catalyst has the best catalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation. The peak current density of formic acid electrooxidation on the Pd/ITO-CNTs50% electrode is 1.53 times as high as that on Pd/CNTs, 2.31 times higher than that on Pd/ITO. The results of aging

  4. Thyroid function in HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeddu, Gr.; Calia, G.M.; Lovigu, C.; Mannazzu, M.; Mura, M.S.; Spanu, A.; Solinas, P.; Falchi, A.; Madeddu, G.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Altered thyroid function parameters have been reported in HIV patients also during therapy. We further investigated whether thyroid disorders occur in HIV patients both naive or on HAART. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 168 HIV patients aged 20 to 62 yrs, 110M and 58F: 95 patients (G1) were on HAART including protease inhibitors-PI (36.89±13.0 mths); 58 (G2) were on HAART (Nevirapine or Efavirenz) without PI (13.22±8.68 mths) and previously submitted to other HAART regimens (28.10±12.3 mths); 15 (G3) were naive. In all patients and in 44 age-sex matched normal subjects (C) we measured in serum by IRMA, FT3 and FT4 (pg/ml), TSH (μU/ml), antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) and hTG (U/ml) antibodies (Ab). Results: Thyroid function test abnormalities were found in 18/153 patients treated with HAART (11.7%), 9 G1 and 9 G2 patients, while the tests were normal in naive cases. Both FT3 and FT4 were above normal range and TSH suppressed in one G1 patient with clinical signs of hyperthyroidism; FT4 was low and TSH elevated in 2 G2 cases with slight clinical signs of hypothyroidism. Moreover, TSH values >3.5 μU/ml and normal FT3 and FT4 levels were ascertained in 7 further cases as probable subclinical hypothyroidism. Only FT4 was low in 3 further cases and FT3 high in 5 others, all asymptomatic. hTG-Ab were present in 2 subclinical hypothyroidism patients and in 3 further cases with normal thyroid tests. Mean TSH levels were higher but not significantly in G1 than in G2; both were higher than in G3 and C. FT4 levels were significantly lower in G1 (12.294±2.938; p<0.002), G2 (11.091±2.453; p<0.00002) and G3 (10.186±2.537; p<0.00004) than in C (13.734±2.205). FT4 was significantly lower in G2 (p<0.006) and G3 ( p<0.01) than in G1; there was no difference between G2 and G3. FT3 was higher in G1 (3.711±0.559) and G2 (3.60±0.581) than in G3 (3.42±0.549) and C (3.452±0.343); the difference was significant (p<0.01) only between G1 and C. Neither FT3, FT4 nor TSH

  5. Prediction and Characterization of High-Activity Events in Social Media Triggered by Real-World News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, Janani; Quezada, Mauricio; Poblete, Barbara; Lanckriet, Gert

    2016-01-01

    On-line social networks publish information on a high volume of real-world events almost instantly, becoming a primary source for breaking news. Some of these real-world events can end up having a very strong impact on on-line social networks. The effect of such events can be analyzed from several perspectives, one of them being the intensity and characteristics of the collective activity that it produces in the social platform. We research 5,234 real-world news events encompassing 43 million messages discussed on the Twitter microblogging service for approximately 1 year. We show empirically that exogenous news events naturally create collective patterns of bursty behavior in combination with long periods of inactivity in the network. This type of behavior agrees with other patterns previously observed in other types of natural collective phenomena, as well as in individual human communications. In addition, we propose a methodology to classify news events according to the different levels of intensity in activity that they produce. In particular, we analyze the most highly active events and observe a consistent and strikingly different collective reaction from users when they are exposed to such events. This reaction is independent of an event's reach and scope. We further observe that extremely high-activity events have characteristics that are quite distinguishable at the beginning stages of their outbreak. This allows us to predict with high precision, the top 8% of events that will have the most impact in the social network by just using the first 5% of the information of an event's lifetime evolution. This strongly implies that high-activity events are naturally prioritized collectively by the social network, engaging users early on, way before they are brought to the mainstream audience.

  6. The development of a mobile hot cell facility for the conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, G.R.; Al-Mughrabi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Waste Technology Section with additional support from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund has funded the design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of a portable hot cell intended to address the problem of disused Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) in obsolete irradiation devices such as teletherapy heads and dry irradiators. The project is initially targeting the African continent but expected soon to expand to Latin America and Asia. This hot cell allows source removal, characterization, consolidation, repackaging in modern storage shields, and secure storage of high risk SHARS at national radioactive waste storage facilities. (authors)

  7. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O.; Pedersen, C.; Cozzi-Leori, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within EuroSIDA, a multicenter observational cohort of more than 8500 patients from across Europe......, the incidences of NHL and subtypes (Burkitt, immunoblastic, primary brain lymphoma [PBL], and other/unknown histology) were determined according to calendar time of follow-up, and for those who initiated HAART (> or =3 drugs) also time on HAART. Potential predictive factors of NHL were evaluated in Cox...

  8. Deep-ocean disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes: a conservative assessment of the seafood critical pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, M.S.; Economides, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper applies conventional 'worst-case' assumptions to modelling the effects of possible future disposal of high-activity wastes in the oceans. It otherwise uses previously published and generally accepted data to assess the possible intakes of the waste nuclides via consumption of seaweeds, molluscs, crustaceans, plankton and fish. Model-predicted intakes for critical groups generally exceed ICRP-recommended limits, with 244 Cm, 241 Am and 137 Cs being the most potentially hazardous nuclides. The various seafood consumption pathways are found to rank, in decreasing order of potential hazard, as seaweeds > molluscs > plankton > fish > crustaceans. (Auth.)

  9. Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for injecting drug users in the WHO European Region 2002-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donoghoe, Martin C; Bollerup, Annemarie R; Lazarus, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Providing equitable access to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) to injecting drug users (IDUs) is both feasible and desirable. Given the evidence that IDUs can adhere to HAART as well as non-IDUs and the imperative to provide universal and equitable access to HIV/AIDS treatment for all...... who need it, here we examine whether IDUs in the 52 countries in the WHO European Region have equitable access to HAART and whether that access has changed over time between 2002 and 2004. We consider regional and country differences in IDU HAART access; examine preliminary data regarding...

  10. Unprecedented Oxidative Addition of Highly Active Manganese into the Oxygen-Sulfur Bond of Coumarin and Pyrone 4-Tosylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ueon Sang; Joo, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Seung-Hoi [Dankook University , Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Novel organomanganese reagents, 2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy tosylmanganese (A1), and 6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-yloxy tosylmanganese (A2), were obtained by the reaction of highly active Mn with 2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (I) and 6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-yl-4-methylbenzenesulfonate (II), respectively. This was accomplished by the insertion of Mn into the oxygen-sulfur bond. Of interest, subsequent cross-coupling reactions of the thus-obtained organomanganese reagents afforded two different products, esters and sulfones, depending on the electrophile used under mild conditions.

  11. Long-term use of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy is not associated with carotid artery stiffness in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haohui Zhu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy currently used in China is not associated with carotid artery stiffness in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with good highly active antiretroviral therapy compliance. Human immunodeficiency virus may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis.

  12. Persistent humoral immune defect in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated children with HIV-1 infection: loss of specific antibodies against attenuated vaccine strains and natural viral infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Vincent; Scherpbier, Henriëtte; Pajkrt, Dasja; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Zaaijer, Hans; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy era, a loss of specific antibodies was seen. Our objective with this study was to describe the loss of specific antibodies during treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: In a prospective, single-center, cohort study of

  13. Impact of Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection on Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Outcome in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, Nina Margrethe; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ø.; Kronborg, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients may decrease the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. We determined the impact of HCV infection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome among...

  14. Impact of hepatitis C virus coinfection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome in HIV-infected individuals: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weis, Nina Margrethe; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ø.; Kronborg, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients may decrease the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. We determined the impact of HCV infection on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome among...

  15. Structured intermittent interruption of chronic HIV infection treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy: effects on leptin and TNF-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, M Montes de Oca; Pérez-Cano, R; Garcia-Juárez, R; Martín-Aspas, A; del Alamo, C Fernández Gutiérrez; Girón-González, J A

    2006-04-01

    The changes in nutritional parameters and adipocytokines after structured intermittent interruption of highly active antiretroviral treatment of patients with chronic HIV infection are analyzed. Twenty-seven patients with chronic HIV infection (median CD4+ T cell count/microl: nadir, 394; at the beginning of structured interruptions, 1041; HIV viral load: nadir, 41,521 copies/ml; at the beginning of structured interruptions triglycerides, cholesterol, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor and its soluble receptors I and II were determined. After the three cycles of intermittent interruptions of therapy, no significant differences in CD4+ T cell count/microl, viral load, or serum concentrations of cholesterol or triglycerides with reference to baseline values were found. A near-significant higher fatty mass (skinfold thicknesses, at the end, 121 mm, at the beginning, 100 mm, p = 0.100), combined with a significant increase of concentration of leptin (1.5 vs. 4.7 ng/ml, p = 0,044), as well as a decrease in serum concentrations of soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor (TNFRI, 104 vs. 73 pg/ml, p = 0.022; TNFRII 253 vs. 195 pg/ml, p = 0.098) were detected. Structured intermittent interruption of highly active antiretroviral treatment of patients with chronic HIV infection induces a valuable positive modification in markers of lipid turnover and adipose tissue mass.

  16. HOW DOES FINGOLIMOD (GILENYA® FIT IN THE TREATMENT ALGORITHM FOR HIGHLY ACTIVE RELAPSING-REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz eFazekas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder characterised by inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system (CNS. Until recently, disease modifying treatment was based on agents requiring parenteral delivery, thus limiting long-term compliance. Basic treatments such as beta-interferon provide only moderate efficacy, and although therapies for second-line treatment and highly active MS are more effective, they are associated with potentially severe side effects. Fingolimod (Gilenya® is the first oral treatment of MS and has recently been approved as single disease-modifying therapy in highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS for adult patients with high disease activity despite basic treatment (beta-interferon and for treatment-naïve patients with rapidly evolving severe RRMS. At a scientific meeting that took place in Vienna on November 18th, 2011, experts from 10 Central and Eastern European countries discussed the clinical benefits and potential risks of fingolimod for MS, suggested how the new therapy fits within the current treatment algorithm and provided expert opinion for the selection and management of patients.

  17. FY-97 operations of the pilot-scale glass melter to vitrify simulated ICPP high activity sodium-bearing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musick, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    A 3.5 liter refractory-lined joule-heated glass melter was built to test the applicability of electric melting to vitrify simulated high activity waste (HAW). The HAW streams result from dissolution and separation of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcines and/or radioactive liquid waste. Pilot scale melter operations will establish selection criteria needed to evaluate the application of joule heating to immobilize ICPP high activity waste streams. The melter was fabricated with K-3 refractory walls and Inconel 690 electrodes. It is designed to be continuously operated at 1,150 C with a maximum glass output rate of 10 lbs/hr. The first set of tests were completed using surrogate HAW-sodium bearing waste (SBW). The melter operated for 57 hours and was shut down due to excessive melt temperatures resulting in low glass viscosity (< 30 Poise). Due to the high melt temperature and low viscosity the molten glass breached the melt chamber. The melter has been dismantled and examined to identify required process improvement areas and successes of the first melter run. The melter has been redesigned and is currently being fabricated for the second run, which is scheduled to begin in December 1997

  18. Basic design and construction of a mobile hot cell for the conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Fan Zhiwen; Al-Mughrabi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources is one important step in sealed radioactive sources management strategies. Based on the practice on the designing of the immobilized hot cell, the handling of the sealed radioactive sources, and the reference of the mobile hot cell constructed in South Africa, SHARS conditioning process and the basic design of a mobile hot cell is developed. The mobile hot cell has been constructed and the tests including the cold test of the SRS conditioning, the hot cell assemble and disassemble and SRS recovery were done. The shielding capacity were tested by 3.8 x 10 13 Bq cobalt-60 sources and the dose rate of the equipment surface, below 2 m, is less than 0.016 mSv/h. It is proved that the designing requirement is meet and the function of the equipment is good. (authors)

  19. Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of HIV-1-associated cryptococcal meningitis during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touma, Madeleine; Rasmussen, Line D.; Martin-Iguacel, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with advanced immunosup-pression predisposes to cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We describe the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of CM in HIV-infected individuals during the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Methods......: A nationwide, population-based cohort of HIV-infected individuals was used to estimate incidence and mortality of CM including risk factors. A description of neurological symptoms of CM at presentation and follow-up in the study period 1995–2014 was included in this study. Results: Among 6,351 HIV...... was associated with increased risk of CM [IRR, 2.05 (95% CI, 1.00–4.20)]. The main signs and symptoms at presentation were headache, cognitive deficits, fever, neck stiffness, nausea, and vomiting. All individuals diagnosed with CM had a CD4 + cell count

  20. Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of HIV-1-associated cryptococcal meningitis during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touma, Madeleine; Rasmussen, Line D.; Martin-Iguacel, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    : A nationwide, population-based cohort of HIV-infected individuals was used to estimate incidence and mortality of CM including risk factors. A description of neurological symptoms of CM at presentation and follow-up in the study period 1995-2014 was included in this study. RESULTS: Among 6,351 HIV......BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with advanced immunosuppression predisposes to cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We describe the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of CM in HIV-infected individuals during the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. METHODS...... was associated with increased risk of CM [IRR, 2.05 (95% CI, 1.00-4.20)]. The main signs and symptoms at presentation were headache, cognitive deficits, fever, neck stiffness, nausea, and vomiting. All individuals diagnosed with CM had a CD4(+) cell count

  1. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.

    2008-04-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  2. Graves' Disease as a Manifestation of Immune Reconstitution in HIV-Infected Individuals after Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Rasul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in certain HIV-1-infected individuals has been described as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. This phenomenon should be suspected in individuals who present with clinical deterioration and a presentation suggestive of hyperthyroidism despite good virological and immunological response to HAART. Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism may be discrete or overt and typically develop 8–33 months after initiating therapy. One to two percent of HIV-infected patients can present with overt thyroid disease. Relatively few cases of Graves' IRIS have been reported in the literature to date. We describe four cases of Graves' IRIS in HIV-infected patients who were started on HAART therapy.

  3. Predictors of psychological well-being in a diverse sample of HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safren, Steven A; Radomsky, Adam S; Otto, Michael W; Salomon, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify variables relevant to psychological well-being in HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Multiple stressors accompany living with HIV while managing a HAART regimen. However, a variety of cognitive and behavioral variables can protect against or augment the deleterious effects of stress in this population. The authors hypothesized that satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and maladaptive attributions about HIV would explain more variance in psychological well-being than stressful life events per se. Participants were individuals with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy-either starting a new HAART regimen or having difficulties adhering to their current regimen. Satisfaction with social support, coping styles, and punishment beliefs about HIV were uniquely associated with depression, quality of life, and self-esteem over and above the effects of stressful life events. These results provide support for continued psychosocial interventions that target these variables among patients with HIV.

  4. Well-Defined Molybdenum Oxo Alkyl Complex Supported on Silica by Surface Organometallic Chemistry: A Highly Active Olefin Metathesis Precatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Merle, Nicolas; Le Qué mé ner, Fré dé ric; Bouhoute, Yassine; Szeto, Kai C.; De Mallmann, Aimery; Barman, Samir; Samantaray, Manoja; Delevoye, Laurent; Gauvin, Ré gis M.; Taoufik, Mostafa; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The well-defined silica-supported molybdenum oxo alkyl species (SiO−)MoO(CH Bu) was selectively prepared by grafting of MoO(CH Bu)Cl onto partially dehydroxylated silica (silica) using the surface organometallic chemistry approach. This surface species was fully characterized by elemental analysis and DRIFT, solid-state NMR, and EXAFS spectroscopy. This new material is related to the active species of industrial supported MoO/SiO olefin metathesis catalysts. It displays very high activity in propene self-metathesis at mild (turnover number = 90 000 after 25 h). Remarkably, its catalytic performance outpaces those of the parent imido derivative and its tungsten oxo analogue.

  5. Long-term effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in perinatally HIV-infected children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracher, Linda; Valerius, Niels Henrik; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    children treated with HAART. Initial HAART included 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in combination with either a protease inhibitor (n =38) or a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (n =12). 19 (39%) patients were previously treated with mono- or dual therapy. Baseline......The long-term impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV-1 infected children is not well known. The Danish Paediatric HIV Cohort Study includes all patients ... characteristics were median CD4 percentage 14% and HIV-RNA viral load 4.9 log(10). Within the first 12 weeks of therapy approximately 60% achieved HIV-RNA viral load children changed the components of HAART. The proportion of children with CD4...

  6. Well-Defined Molybdenum Oxo Alkyl Complex Supported on Silica by Surface Organometallic Chemistry: A Highly Active Olefin Metathesis Precatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Merle, Nicolas

    2016-12-05

    The well-defined silica-supported molybdenum oxo alkyl species (SiO−)MoO(CH Bu) was selectively prepared by grafting of MoO(CH Bu)Cl onto partially dehydroxylated silica (silica) using the surface organometallic chemistry approach. This surface species was fully characterized by elemental analysis and DRIFT, solid-state NMR, and EXAFS spectroscopy. This new material is related to the active species of industrial supported MoO/SiO olefin metathesis catalysts. It displays very high activity in propene self-metathesis at mild (turnover number = 90 000 after 25 h). Remarkably, its catalytic performance outpaces those of the parent imido derivative and its tungsten oxo analogue.

  7. Determination of radon and uranium in the groundwater of Bangalore city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somashekar, R.K.; Davis, Deljo; Jeban Singh, M.; Prakash, K.L.; Shivanna, K.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater is a precious source of drinking water. Radon and uranium are the naturally occurring radioactive elements in water. The present study attempts to identify the nature of groundwater with respect to the radon and uranium in and around Bangalore city. The radon in groundwater is measured by the integrated instrumental field screening techniques using a radon in air monitor (RAD-7) with attached bubbler. The water after the radon measurement, analysed for the total uranium using ICP- AES. The Radon in water represented in Bq/L and total uranium in μg/L

  8. Demonstration of the TRUEX process for the treatment of actual high activity tank waste at the INEEL using centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Todd, T.A.; Olson, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), formerly reprocessed spent nuclear fuel to recover fissionable uranium. The radioactive raffinates from the solvent extraction uranium recovery processes were converted to granular solids (calcine) in a high temperature fluidized bed. A secondary liquid waste stream was generated during the course of reprocessing, primarily from equipment decontamination between campaigns and solvent wash activities. This acidic tank waste cannot be directly calcined due to the high sodium content and has historically been blended with reprocessing raffinates or non-radioactive aluminum nitrate prior to calcination. Fuel reprocessing activities are no longer being performed at the ICPP, thereby eliminating the option of waste blending to deplete the waste inventory. Currently, approximately 5.7 million liters of high-activity waste are temporarily stored at the ICPP in large underground stainless-steel tanks. The United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare filed a Notice of Noncompliance in 1992 contending some of the underground waste storage tanks do not meet secondary containment. As part of a 1995 agreement between the State of Idaho, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Navy, the waste must be removed from the tanks by 2012. Treatment of the tank waste inventories by partitioning the radionuclides and immobilizing the resulting high-activity and low-activity waste streams is currently under evaluation. A recent peer review identified the most promising radionuclide separation technologies for evaluation. The Transuranic Extraction-(TRUEX) process was identified as a primary candidate for separation of the actinides from ICPP tank waste

  9. Nutritional assessment and lipid profile in HIV-infected children and adolescents treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Hjertquist Tremeschin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV-infected children and adolescents treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART regimens that include a protease inhibitor (PI can show significant improvements in clinical outcomes, nutritional status and quality of life. The study aimed to report nutritional and metabolic alterations for pediatric patients continuously exposed to HAART and for healthy controls for up to 1 year. METHODS: Clinical, anthropometric, lipid profile and food intake data were collected prospectively over approximately 12-months for each patient. RESULTS: Fifty-one individuals were studied, of these, 16 were healthy. After 12 months follow-up, HIV-positive individuals remained below the healthy control group parameters. No change was observed concerning food intake. Triglyceride serum levels were higher in patients using protease inhibitor at the onset of the study [PI groups: 114 (43 - 336, and 136 (63 - 271 versus control group: 54.5 (20 - 162; p = 0.003], but after twelve months follow-up, only the group using protease inhibitor for up to two months presented higher values [140 (73 - 273 versus 67.5 (33 - 117; p = 0.004]. HDL-cholesterol was lower in HIV-positive individuals [HIV-positive groups: 36 (27 - 58 and 36 (23 - 43; control 49.5 (34 - 69; p = 0.004]. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected children and adolescents treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy showed compromised nutritional parameters compared to a paired healthy control group. Individuals using protease inhibitor presented worse triglyceride serum levels compared to their healthy counterparts.

  10. Use of polyethers in the treatment of acidic high activity nuclear wastes. First progress report, June 1, 1975--May 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Objective is to develop a solvent extraction system for treating acidic high activity nuclear wastes in order to remove 99.9% of the cesium and strontium. A series of macrocyclic polyethers ''crown compounds'' which can form organic soluble complexes with the alkali metals (Cs +1 ) and the alkali earth metals (Sr +2 ) are being screened. Thus far, five ''crown'' compounds have been tested for solubility in both carbon tetrachloride and kerosene, each solvent containing a range of TBP concentrations. Also distribution coefficients of both cesium and strontium have been measured. Results have been negative in that sufficient extraction of either Cs +1 or Sr +2 into the organic phase was not achieved to make a solvent extraction process feasible. The highest distribution coefficient obtained (organic/aqueous)/sup (2)/ was 0.04 +- 0.02 for both Sr +2 and Cs +1 . The problem seems to lie in the low solubility of the ''crowns'' in the organic phases and the apparent ability of the ''crowns'' to distribute into the aqueous phase and complex the metal. The solubility data indicate that the addition of aliphatic character to the ''crowns'' improves their organic solubility whereas aromatic addition decreases their organic solubility. Accordingly, a new ''crown'', 4, 4'-didecanolybenzo 24-crown-8, was ordered from the Parish Chemical Company in Provo, Utah

  11. Relationship of long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy on salivary flow rate and CD4 Count among HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Vijay; Baghirath, P Venkat; Naishadham, P Parameswar; Suneetha, Sujai; Suneetha, Lavanya; Sreedevi, P

    2015-01-01

    To determine if long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) therapy alters salivary flow rate and also to compare its relation of CD4 count with unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva. A cross-sectional study was performed on 150 individuals divided into three groups. Group I (50 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, but not on HAART therapy), Group II (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for less than 3 years called short-term HAART), Group III (50 HIV-infected subjects and on HAART for more than or equal to 3 years called long-term HAART). Spitting method proposed by Navazesh and Kumar was used for the measurement of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. Chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis. The mean CD4 count was 424.78 ± 187.03, 497.82 ± 206.11 and 537.6 ± 264.00 in the respective groups. Majority of the patients in all the groups had a CD4 count between 401 and 600. Both unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary (UWS and SWS) flow rates in Group I was found to be significantly higher than in Group II (P flow rate between Group II and III subjects were also found to be statistically significant (P relationship in Group II (P flow rates of HIV-infected individuals who are on long-term HAART.

  12. A study on the analysis of minerals and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Yong O; Lee, Kil Yong; Yoon, Woo Yual; Park, Jin Tai; Yang, Myeong Kwon; Chun, Sang Ki [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Sample homogeneity is the attribute of a sample that assures the same result will be obtained within measurement uncertainty for all subsamples taken for analysis. Generally, all mineral samples are inhomogeneous to some degree. The fundamental question is whether or not the existing inhomogeneity is detectable under typical measurement conditions. Inhomogeneity varies from one element to another in a given sample, and its detection depends on the analytical sample size and the particle size taken for each measurement. The aim of this study is to measure the homogeneity of the samples and to develop the analytical method of gold and silver in minerals. For these two purposes, three kind of minerals of sulfide, oxide, copper ores which are known to be have gold in them were selected as the target minerals. At first, the sample homogeneity was measured for sample size and its particle size by Fire Assay, NAA, ICP-AES and PIXE. In case of the PIXE, not the elemental content but the relative intensity ratio of emitted x-ray from a pellet({phi}=40 mm, t = 2 mm) was used to measure precisely the sample homogeneity. New analytical methods researched in the study for the precise analysis of gold and silver, ICP-AES, NAA and XRF which are major analysis tool in our group were used. The result was that sample homogeneity increased with increasing the sample size and decreasing the particle size. And trace amount of gold in mineral samples could be analysed accurately by large sample size-short irradiation technique by NAA. ICP-AES was also capable to analysis of ppm grade gold in mineral samples by aqua-regia acid digestion technique. In case of silver, XRF can be used to analysis of tens ppm grade silver but its detection limit was about 10 ppm. ICP-AES can be also used to analysis of silver less than hundreds ppm grade, if the amount of silver over this range, the precipitation of silver chloride formed in the sample solution. So, the analytical methods of silver in

  13. Installation of a bitumen coating plant for high-activity concentrates; Installation pilote d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J; Lefillatre, G; Seyfried, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    Following the excellent results obtained on the industrial coating of radioactive sludges, the possibility of solidifying also the evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been considered. For high activity concentrates, the use of bitumen is however limited by two main parameters: temperature resistance, irradiation resistance. By making use of the characteristics of a blown bitumen, it has been possible to design a high activity coating pilot plant treating concentrations of several tens of curies per litre. This plant will make use of a screw-type extrusion machine capable of coating treated concentrates at a rate of 20 l/hr. Before being coated, the concentrates will be subjected to a coprecipitation treatment designed to make the radioelements insoluble. This installation will make possible, apart from technological studies, laboratory experiments on the coated material (measurements on self-heating, on electrical charges, on radiolytic gases, and also lixiviation tests. It is at present believed, on the basis of available data, that it is possible to coat concentrates having an activity of 20 Ci/l at a price of 1840 F per cubic metre. (authors) [French] A la suite des excellents resultats obtenus pour l'enrobage industriel des boues radioactives, il a ete envisage de solidifier egalement les concentrats d'evaporation par le bitume. Pour les concentrats de haute activite, l'emploi du bitume est cependant limite par deux parametres essentiels: tenue a la temperature, tenue a l'irradiation. Grace aux caracteristiques d'un bitume souffle, il a ete possible de concevoir une installation pilote d'enrobage haute activite contenant plusieurs dizaines de curies par litre. Cette installation utilisera une machine du type extrudeuse a vis qui peut enrober 20 l/h de concentrats traites. Avant leur enrobage, les concentrats subiront un traitement de coprecipitation destine a insolubiliser les radioelements. En dehors des etudes technologiques, cette installation

  14. Glioblastoma, gadolinium (III) and NCT. An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercanti, D.; Casalbore, P.; Sanita, F.; Rosi, F.; Festinesi, A.; Pallini, R.; Gilbert, B.; Stasio, G. de

    2000-01-01

    We treated cultured human glioblastoma cells with gadolinium (III) [gadopentetic acid] and we found that: a) cells do internalise this element; b) gadolinium can be localised in the cells nuclei; c) exposure of the cultures to a neutron beam produced a significant and immediate cell death. Although cell survival was also influenced in the irradiated controls it was further reduced (about 50%) in cells pre-exposed to 10 mg/ml gadopentetic acid. We also found that Gd uptake, as measured by ICP-AES, was concentration dependent. (author)

  15. Geochemistry of ferromanganese nodule-sediment pairs from central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Parthiban, G.

    analyses and remaining part of the solution was used for rare earth element separation using Dowex AG 50W-X8 (200-400 mesh) ion exchange resin following the procedure of Jarvis and Jarvis (1985). Major, few trace and rare earth elements were analysed... and precision based on duplicate sample analysis were ± 4 %. For total silica measurements, both nodules and sediments were fused with lithium metaborate in a furnace and clear solutions obtained were analysed with ICP-AES. Accuracy was better than ± 4...

  16. Structural role of Cu in the soil active glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Wacławska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glasses from the SiO2-P2O5-K2O-CaO-MgO-CuO system acting as slow release fertilizers were synthesized by the melt-quenching technique. Influence of copper addition on structure of the glasses was evaluated by XRD, SEM, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Chemical activity of the glasses in 2 wt.% citric acid solutions was measured by ICP-AES method. It has been found that increasing content of phosphorous increased solubility of copper in the structure of the studied glasses which was the result of formation of P-O-Cu bonds.

  17. Modification of working parameters for routine determination of trace elemental impurities in PuO2 samples by direct current arc-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, D.K.; Phadke, M.P.; Dapolikar, T.T.; Kapur, H.N.; Kumar, Rajendra; Dubey, K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we have altered the parameters of routine method to determine the trace elemental impurities in PuO 2 samples using DC arc source optically coupled with CCD based spectrometer system. The method is basically a fractional distillation technique using DC arc source, involving ignition, dilution of the sample with U 3 O 8 containing carrier mixture, arcing of the sample/standard mixture in DC arc and measurement of analyte signals by spectrometer system. In all fifteen elemental impurities including Boron and Cadmium were determined. Detection limits are comparable with ICP-AES method. (author)

  18. Heavy-metal contamination on training ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Schneider, J.F.

    1993-05-01

    Large quantities of lead and other heavy metals are deposited in the environment of weapons ranges during training exercises. This study was conducted to determine the type, degree, and extent of heavy-metal contamination on selected handgun, rifle, and hand-grenade ranges at Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany. Soil, vegetation, and surface-water samples were collected and analyzed using the inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) method and the toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP). The ICP-AES results show that above-normal levels of lead and copper are in the surface soil at the handgun range, high concentrations of lead and copper are in the berm and soil surface at the rifle range, and elevated levels of cadmium and above-normal concentrations of arsenic, copper, and zinc are present in the surface soil at the hand-grenade range. The TCLP results show that surface soils can be considered hazardous waste because of lead content at the rifle range and because of cadmium concentration at the hand-grenade range. Vegetation at the handgun and rifle ranges has above-normal concentrations of lead. At the hand-grenade range, both vegetation and surface water have high levels of cadmium. A hand-held X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer was used to measure lead concentrations in soils in a field test of the method. Comparison of XRF readings with ICP-AES results for lead indicate that the accuracy and precision of the hand-held XRF unit must improve before the unit can be used as more than a screening tool. Results of this study show that heavy-metal contamination at all three ranges is limited to the surface soil; heavy metals are not being leached into the soil profile or transported into adjacent areas.

  19. Comparison of a portable micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the ancient ceramics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulou, D.N.; Zachariadis, G.A.; Anthemidis, A.N.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Stratis, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Two multielement instrumental methods of analysis, micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were applied for the analysis of 7th and 5th century B.C. ancient ceramic sherds in order to evaluate the above two methods and to assess the potential to use the current compact and portable micro-XRF instrument for the in situ analysis of ancient ceramics. The distinguishing factor of interest is that micro-XRF spectrometry offers the possibility of a nondestructive analysis, an aspect of primary importance in the compositional analysis of cultural objects. Micro-XRF measurements were performed firstly directly on the ceramic sherds with no special pretreatment apart from surface cleaning (micro-XRF on sherds) and secondly on pressed pellet disks which were prepared for each ceramic sherd (micro-XRF on pellet). For the ICP-AES determination of elements, test solutions were prepared by the application of a microwave-assisted decomposition procedure in closed high-pressure PFA vessels. Also, the standard reference material SARM 69 was used for the efficiency calibration of the micro-XRF instrument and was analysed by both methods. In order to verify the calibration, the standard reference materials NCS DC 73332 and SRM620 as well as the reference materials AWI-1 and PRI-1 were analysed by micro-XRF. Elemental concentrations determined by the three analytical procedures (ICP-AES, micro-XRF on sherds and micro-XRF on pellets) were statistically treated by correlation analysis and Student's t-test (at the 95% confidence level)

  20. Comparison of a portable micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the ancient ceramics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, D.N. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Zachariadis, G.A. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Anthemidis, A.N. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsirliganis, N.C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, Tsimiski 58, GR-67100, Xanthi (Greece); Stratis, J.A. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Aristotle University, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: jstratis@chem.auth.gr

    2004-12-01

    Two multielement instrumental methods of analysis, micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were applied for the analysis of 7th and 5th century B.C. ancient ceramic sherds in order to evaluate the above two methods and to assess the potential to use the current compact and portable micro-XRF instrument for the in situ analysis of ancient ceramics. The distinguishing factor of interest is that micro-XRF spectrometry offers the possibility of a nondestructive analysis, an aspect of primary importance in the compositional analysis of cultural objects. Micro-XRF measurements were performed firstly directly on the ceramic sherds with no special pretreatment apart from surface cleaning (micro-XRF on sherds) and secondly on pressed pellet disks which were prepared for each ceramic sherd (micro-XRF on pellet). For the ICP-AES determination of elements, test solutions were prepared by the application of a microwave-assisted decomposition procedure in closed high-pressure PFA vessels. Also, the standard reference material SARM 69 was used for the efficiency calibration of the micro-XRF instrument and was analysed by both methods. In order to verify the calibration, the standard reference materials NCS DC 73332 and SRM620 as well as the reference materials AWI-1 and PRI-1 were analysed by micro-XRF. Elemental concentrations determined by the three analytical procedures (ICP-AES, micro-XRF on sherds and micro-XRF on pellets) were statistically treated by correlation analysis and Student's t-test (at the 95% confidence level)

  1. Breast cancer and HIV in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: two case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Naeem; Rana, Fauzia; Guthrie, Troy

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is rising in US women; however its impact on breast cancer incidence, stage at presentation, response and treatment toxicity remains unknown. To address the impact of HIV infection and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the natural history of breast cancer we present two cases of breast cancer in HIV-infected women and also review the literature. A literature search was done on Medline using the key words HIV/AIDS, breast cancer, and HAART therapy, restricted to English language. There were mostly case reports and one large series of 20 cases reported by Hurley et al. Data concerning the impact of HIV infection and HAART therapy regarding pathogenesis, stage at presentation, tumor type, response, and toxicity associated with treatment were reviewed. The literature review shows that the breast cancer incidence is either same or less in HIV-infected patients compared to the general population. However, the patients with HIV infection present with more advanced stage and aggressive disease, and they also have poor chemotherapy tolerance. The impact of HAART on breast cancer incidence in HIV-infected patients is still unclear. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Fabrication of highly active and cost effective SERS plasmonic substrates by electrophoretic deposition of gold nanoparticles on a DVD template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leordean, Cosmin; Marta, Bogdan; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Focsan, Monica; Botiz, Ioan; Astilean, Simion, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Simple and cost effective electrophoretic method to fabricate plasmonic substrates. • SERS performance at three different excitation laser lines. • Promising applicability in SERS based biosensing. - Abstract: In this work we present a simple, rapid and cost effective method to fabricate highly active SERS substrates. This method consists in an electrophoretic deposition of gold nanoparticles on a metallic nanostructured template of a commercial digital versatile disk (DVD). The negatively charged gold nanoparticles self-assemble on the positively charged DVD metallic film connected to a positive terminal of a battery, due to the influence of the electric field. When gold nanoparticles self-assembled on DVD metallic film, a 10-fold additional enhancement of Raman signal was observed when compared with the case of GNPs self-assembled on a polycarbonate DVD substrate only. Finite-difference time-domain simulations demonstrated that the additional electromagnetic field arising in the hot-spots created between gold nanoparticles and DVD metallic film induces an additional enhancement of the Raman signal. SERS efficiency of the fabricated plasmonic substrate was successfully demonstrated through detection of para-aminothiophenol molecule with three different excitation laser lines (532, 633 and 785 nm). The enhancement factor was calculated to be 10{sup 6} and indicates that plasmonic substrates fabricated through this method could be a promising platform for future SERS based sensors.

  3. Pt-Richcore/Sn-Richsubsurface/Ptskin Nanocubes As Highly Active and Stable Electrocatalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Rubén; Arán-Ais, Rosa M; Padgett, Elliot; Muller, David A; Lázaro, Ma Jesús; Solla-Gullón, José; Feliu, Juan M; Pastor, Elena; Abruña, Héctor D

    2018-03-14

    Direct ethanol fuel cells are one of the most promising electrochemical energy conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications. However, more efficient and stable and less expensive electrocatalysts are still required. Interestingly, the electrochemical performance of the electrocatalysts toward the ethanol oxidation reaction can be remarkably enhanced by exploiting the benefits of structural and compositional sensitivity and control. Here, we describe the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical behavior of cubic Pt-Sn nanoparticles. The electrochemical activity of the cubic Pt-Sn nanoparticles was found to be about three times higher than that obtained with unshaped Pt-Sn nanoparticles and six times higher than that of Pt nanocubes. In addition, stability tests indicated the electrocatalyst preserves its morphology and remains well-dispersed on the carbon support after 5000 potential cycles, while a cubic (pure) Pt catalyst exhibited severe agglomeration of the nanoparticles after a similar stability testing protocol. A detailed analysis of the elemental distribution in the nanoparticles by STEM-EELS indicated that Sn dissolves from the outer part of the shell after potential cycling, forming a ∼0.5 nm Pt skin. This particular atomic composition profile having a Pt-rich core, a Sn-rich subsurface layer, and a Pt-skin surface structure is responsible for the high activity and stability.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  5. Highly active antiretroviral therapy in Brazil: the challenge of universal access in a context of social inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Mariana A; Petersen, Maya L; Enriquez, Melissa; Bastos, Francisco I

    2004-08-01

    To investigate trends in AIDS mortality and incidence in Brazil over the period of 1984 to 2000 and to assess the impact of the introduction of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the country in 1996. Data from the Brazilian disease notification system and the national mortality information system were used to calculate annual region-specific and sex-specific AIDS incidence and mortality rates. We also calculated sex- and region-specific ratios of the number of AIDS deaths in one year to the number of AIDS cases notified two years earlier. AIDS mortality rates for both men and women and in all five of the geographic regions of Brazil declined following introduction of HAART, despite continued growth in AIDS incidence. The ratio of the number of AIDS deaths in one year to the number of AIDS cases notified two years earlier for men equalized rapidly with the ratio for women following introduction of HAART. More recently, AIDS incidence declined for both sexes and in most of the regions of Brazil. Despite Brazil's resource limitations and disparities in wealth between men and women and among the country's regions, the introduction of universal access to HAART in Brazil has helped achieve impressive declines in AIDS mortality, and it may also be contributing to declines in AIDS incidence.

  6. Time-resolved QXAFS studies on the formation and dynamic behavior of the highly active Pd catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Kazu

    2009-01-01

    The stepwise growth of Pd in USY zeolite was followed by in situ scanning quick X-ray absorption fine structure (QXAFS) spectroscopy involving repeated alternating exposures to H 2 and O 2 flows at room temperature. During the first reduction of 0.4 wt%-Pd/USY with 8% H 2 , Pd clusters of 13 atoms with a coordination number (CN) of 5.1 formed within 20 min in the supercage of USY. The growth followed first-order kinetics with respect to the concentration of Pd 2+ and the CN of Pd-Pd. The clusters were stable up to 443 K. The clusters were partially oxidized in less than 2 min on exposure to 8% O 2 , and then quickly reduced with 8% H 2 (second reduction) to afford larger Pd clusters of 26 atoms. The clusters continued to increase in size in a stepwise fashion on further alternate exposures to O 2 and H 2 . The finely dispersed Pd 0 species exhibited extremely high activity in the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions when the o-xylene solution was activated with H 2 -bubbling. (author)

  7. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active Antiretoviral Therapy at Gondar University Hospital, North-Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokeb, Mehretie; Degu, Getu

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University Hospital. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University Hospital from March 01-April 30, 2014. The study included 283 HIV-infected children who were on HAART for 6 months and above. Medical records of HIV-infected children were reviewed using pre-tested questionnaire. CD4 count/percent was collected every 6 months retrospectively. For all statistical significance tests, the cut-off value was pimmunological response. The study revealed that there was good Immunological response to ART, and that the maximum response was in the 1(st) 6 months of ART. Low CD4 count at initiation, undisclosed HIV status and lack of good adherence were found to cause low immunological response to HAART.

  8. Pt Single Atoms Embedded in the Surface of Ni Nanocrystals as Highly Active Catalysts for Selective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuhan; Geng, Zhigang; Zhao, Songtao; Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Li, Zhenyu; Si, Rui; Zeng, Jie

    2018-06-13

    Single-atom catalysts exhibit high selectivity in hydrogenation due to their isolated active sites, which ensure uniform adsorption configurations of substrate molecules. Compared with the achievement in catalytic selectivity, there is still a long way to go in exploiting the catalytic activity of single-atom catalysts. Herein, we developed highly active and selective catalysts in selective hydrogenation by embedding Pt single atoms in the surface of Ni nanocrystals (denoted as Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals). During the hydrogenation of 3-nitrostyrene, the TOF numbers based on surface Pt atoms of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals reached ∼1800 h -1 under 3 atm of H 2 at 40 °C, much higher than that of Pt single atoms supported on active carbon, TiO 2 , SiO 2 , and ZSM-5. Mechanistic studies reveal that the remarkable activity of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals derived from sufficient hydrogen supply because of spontaneous dissociation of H 2 on both Pt and Ni atoms as well as facile diffusion of H atoms on Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals. Moreover, the ensemble composed of the Pt single atom and nearby Ni atoms in Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals leads to the adsorption configuration of 3-nitrostyrene favorable for the activation of nitro groups, accounting for the high selectivity for 3-vinylaniline.

  9. Prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions in HIV-infected minority children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, M A; Barasch, A; Koenigsberg, S R; Fine, D; Houpt, M

    2000-01-01

    This project studied the prevalence of oral soft tissue disease in HIV-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thirty-eight HIV-infected children participated in the study. Twenty-three of these patients were treated with HAART while 14 received exclusively reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) and served as controls. The children were examined three times at approximately one-month intervals while their health history and laboratory data were abstracted from medical charts. Analyses were performed to determine differences in lesion prevalence between treatment groups as well as between lesion and no lesion groups with regard to immune differences. Thirty patients (79%) had oral lesions detected in at least one visit. There were no differences in specific lesion prevalence between HAART compared with RTI-treated children. However, a trend for more oral candidiasis in the latter group was observed. Subjects with oral soft tissue lesions had lower CD4 counts (P = 0.04) and percentage (P = 0.01) but similar viral loads when compared to patients without oral soft tissue disease. HAART does not appear to significantly affect oral soft tissue disease prevalence in HIV-infected children. Presence of lesions was associated with decreased immunity and may signal advancing disease.

  10. Relevance of P-glycoprotein on CXCR4+ B cells to organ manifestation in highly active rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Adachi, Tomoko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Kawabe, Akio; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2018-03-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression on activated B cells is associated with active efflux of intracellular drugs, resulting in drug resistance. CXCR4 is associated with migration of B cells. This study was designed to elucidate the relevance of P-gp expression on CXCR4 + B cells to clinical manifestations in refractory RA. CD19 + B cells were analyzed using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. P-gp was highly expressed especially on CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells in RA. The proportion of P-gp-expressing CXCR4 + B cells correlated with disease activity, estimated by Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI), and showed marked expansion in RA patients with high SDAI and extra-articular involvement. In highly active RA, massive infiltration of P-gp + CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells was noted in CXCL12-expressing inflammatory lesions of RA synovitis and RA-associated interstitial pneumonitis. In RA patient with active extra-articular involvement, intracellular dexamethasone level (IDL) in lymphocytes diminished with expansion of P-gp + CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells. Adalimumab reduced P-gp + CXCR4 + CD19 + B cells, increased IDL in lymphocytes, and improved the clinical manifestation and allowed tapering of concomitant medications. Expansion of P-gp + CXCR4 + B cells seems to be associated with drug resistance, disease activity and progressive destructive arthritis with extra-articular involvement in RA.

  11. High capacity cask (TN28V) and International Transport System for the return shipment of vitrified high activity wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sert, G.; Savornin, B.; Rouquette, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel generates different kinds of wastes. Among them fission products and non fissile actinides represent 98% of the radioactivity; these wastes are separated, concentrated, mixed with molten glass and poured into stainless steel containers. For political reasons, it is necessary to return these vitrified high activity wastes to the foreign countries which have decided to have their spent fuel reprocessed in France. So the transport of vitrified waste is vital for both the reprocessor and the utilities that have trusted the reprocessor and this operation has to be securely performed to give satisfaction to all concerned particles. For that reason Cogema will control the whole transport activity from La Hague plants to the receiving facilities of the customers. Therefore cogema will be responsible of the transport whatever the cask type (transport or storage) and will subcontract the transport operation to experienced companies such as Transnucleaire, PNTL or NTL, who will act on behalf of Cogema. Cogema will be the owner of the transport casks while the storage casks will normally be owned by the customers. Both cask types will of course have to comply with the requirements of La Hague, as published by Cogema

  12. Prolonged control of replication-competent dual- tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 following cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salgado Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART during primary HIV-1 infection occasionally results in transient control of viral replication after treatment interruption, the vast majority of patients eventually experience a rebound in plasma viremia. Results Here we report a case of a patient who was started on HAART during symptomatic primary infection and who has subsequently maintained viral loads of + T cells. In addition, he does not have any known protective HLA alleles. Thus it is unlikely that he was destined to become a natural elite controller or suppressor. The mechanism of control of viral replication is unclear; he is infected with a CCR5/CXCR4 dual-tropic virus that is fully replication-competent in vitro. In addition, his spouse, who transmitted the virus to him, developed AIDS. The patient's CD4+ T cells are fully susceptible to HIV-1 infection, and he has low titers of neutralizing antibodies to heterologous and autologous HIV-1 isolates. Furthermore, his CD8+ T cells do not have potent HIV suppressive activity. Conclusion This report suggests that some patients may be capable of controlling pathogenic HIV-1 isolates for extended periods of time after the cessation of HAART through a mechanism that is distinct from the potent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL mediated suppression that has been reported in many elite suppressors.

  13. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaio, Daniella Junko; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Souza, José Maria Pacheco; Firmino, Aline Vale; Luzia, Liania Alves; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a common condition in HIV-infected individuals and may occur in all stages of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, micronutrients related to immunity and oxidative stress, in 182 adults with HIV/AIDS, under different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their HAART regimen: combination of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs; combination of NRTIs, protease inhibitors, and ritonavir; combination of NRTIs and other classes. Multiple linear regression analysis determined the effect of the treatment regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen, on vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations, controlling for the following variables: gender, age, educational level, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, time of infection with HIV, presence of comorbidities, CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglyceride levels. There was no significant difference in vitamin A or beta-carotene concentrations in patients under the different HAART regimens. However, approximately 4% of the patients had deficient/low concentrations of vitamin A (<0.70 μmol/L), and 98% showed concentrations of beta-carotene <1.0 μmol/L. In conclusion, HIV/AIDS patients in this region will not benefit from vitamin A supplementation, independently of the HAART regimen utilized, but beta-carotene may be of importance, considering its antioxidant effect.

  14. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi ( B. burgdorferi ) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  15. African Ancestry Influences CCR5 –2459G>A Genotype-Associated Virologic Success of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvu, Vinay K.; Igo, Robert P.; Jurevic, Richard J.; Serre, David; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Mehlotra, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a North American, HIV-positive, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated, adherent cohort of self-identified white and black patients, we previously observed that chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) –2459G>A genotype had a strong association with time to achieve virologic success (TVLS) in black but not in white patients. Methods Using 128 genome-wide ancestry informative markers, we performed a quantitative assessment of ancestry in these patients (n = 310) to determine (1) whether CCR5 –2459G>A genotype is still associated with TVLS of HAART when ancestry, not self-identified race, is considered and (2) whether this association is influenced by varying African ancestry. Results We found that the interaction between CCR5 –2459G>A genotype and African ancestry (≤0.125 vs. ≥0.425 and A genotype and TVLS was stronger in patients with African ancestry ≥0.71 than in patients with African ancestry ≥0.452, in both Kaplan-Meier (log-rank P = 0.039 and 0.057, respectively, for AA, GA, and GG) and Cox proportional hazards regression (relative hazard for GG compared with AA 2.59 [95% CI, 1.27–5.22; P = 0.01] and 2.26 [95% CI, 1.18–4.32; P = 0.01], respectively) analyses. Conclusions We observed that the association between CCR5 –2459G>A genotype and TVLS of HAART increased with stronger African ancestry. Understanding the genomic mechanisms by which African ancestry influences this association is critical, and requires further studies. PMID:24714069

  16. CASTOR(r) and CONSTOR(r) type transport and storage casks for spent fuel and high active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, B.; Sowa, W.

    2002-01-01

    The German company GNB has developed, tested, licensed, fabricated, loaded, transported and stored a large number of casks for spent fuel and high-level waste. CASTOR(r) casks are used at 18 sites on three continents. Spent fuel assemblies of the types PWR, BWR, VVER, RBMK, MTR and THTR as well as vitrified high active waste (HAW) containers are stored in these kinds of casks. More than 600 CASTOR(r) casks have been loaded for long-term storage. The two decades of storage have shown that the basic requirements, which are safe confinement, criticality safety, sufficient shielding and appropriate heat transfer have been fulfilled in each case. There is no indication that problems will arise in the future. Of course, the experience of 20 years has resulted in improvements of the cask design. One basic improvement is GNB's development since the mid 1990s of a sandwich cask design using heavy concrete and steel as basic materials, for economical and technical reasons. This CONSTOR(r) cask concept also fulfils all design criteria for transport and storage given by the IAEA recommendations and national authorities. By May 2002 40 CONSTOR(r) casks had been delivered and 15 had been successfully loaded and stored. In this paper the different types of casks are presented. Experiences gained during the large number of cask loadings and more than 4000 cask-years of storage will be summarised. The presentation of recent and future development shows the optimisation potential of the CASTOR(r) and CONSTOR(r) cask families for safe and economical management of spent fuel. (author)

  17. Ga-Doped Pt-Ni Octahedral Nanoparticles as a Highly Active and Durable Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, JeongHoon; Shin, Hyeyoung; Kim, MinJoong; Lee, Hoin; Lee, Kug-Seung; Kwon, YongKeun; Song, DongHoon; Oh, SeKwon; Kim, Hyungjun; Cho, EunAe

    2018-04-11

    Bimetallic PtNi nanoparticles have been considered as a promising electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) owing to their high catalytic activity. However, under typical fuel cell operating conditions, Ni atoms easily dissolve into the electrolyte, resulting in degradation of the catalyst and the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA). Here, we report gallium-doped PtNi octahedral nanoparticles on a carbon support (Ga-PtNi/C). The Ga-PtNi/C shows high ORR activity, marking an 11.7-fold improvement in the mass activity (1.24 A mg Pt -1 ) and a 17.3-fold improvement in the specific activity (2.53 mA cm -2 ) compared to the commercial Pt/C (0.106 A mg Pt -1 and 0.146 mA cm -2 ). Density functional theory calculations demonstrate that addition of Ga to octahedral PtNi can cause an increase in the oxygen intermediate binding energy, leading to the enhanced catalytic activity toward ORR. In a voltage-cycling test, the Ga-PtNi/C exhibits superior stability to PtNi/C and the commercial Pt/C, maintaining the initial Ni concentration and octahedral shape of the nanoparticles. Single cell using the Ga-PtNi/C exhibits higher initial performance and durability than those using the PtNi/C and the commercial Pt/C. The majority of the Ga-PtNi nanoparticles well maintain the octahedral shape without agglomeration after the single cell durability test (30,000 cycles). This work demonstrates that the octahedral Ga-PtNi/C can be utilized as a highly active and durable ORR catalyst in practical fuel cell applications.

  18. Different profiles of immune reconstitution in children and adults with HIV-infection after highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Manuel

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in characterizing the immune recovery of HIV-1-infected people have highlighted the importance of the thymus for peripheral T-cell diversity and function. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in immune reconstitution profiles after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART between HIV-children and adults. Methods HIV patients were grouped according to their previous clinical and immunological status: 9 HIV-Reconstituting-adults (HIV-Rec-adults and 10 HIV-Reconstituting-children (HIV-Rec-children on HAART with viral load (VL ≤400 copies/ml and CD4+ ≥500 cells/μL at least during 6 months before the study and CD4+ ≤300 cells/μL anytime before. Fifteen healthy-adults and 20 healthy-children (control subjects were used to calculate Z-score values to unify value scales between children and adults to make them comparable. Results HIV-Rec-children had higher T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC and lower interleukin (IL-7 levels than HIV-Rec-adults (p + (CD4+CD45RA hi+CD27+, naïve CD8+ (CD8+CD45RA hi+CD27+, and memory CD8+ (CD8+CD45RO+ cells/μl than HIV-Rec-adults, but similar memory CD4+ (CD4+CD45RO+ counts. HIV-Rec-children had lower naïve CD8+ Z-score values than HIV-Rec-adults (p = 0.05. Conclusion Our data suggest that HIV-Rec-children had better thymic function than HIV-Rec-adults and this fact affects the peripheral T-cell subsets. Thus, T-cell recovery after HAART in HIV-Rec-adults could be the consequence of antigen-independent peripheral T-cell expansion while in HIV-Rec-children thymic output could play a predominant role in immune reconstitution.

  19. Greater confinement disposal of high activity and special case wastes at the Nevada Test Site: A unified migration assessment approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.A.; Olague, N.E.; Johnson, V.L.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neill, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Field Office has disposed of a small quantity of high activity and special case wastes using Greater Confinement Disposal facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. Because some of these wastes are transuranic radioactive wastes, the Environmental Protection Agency standards for their disposal under 40 CFR Part 191 which requires a compliance assessment. In conducting the 40 CFR Part 191 compliance assessment, review of the Greater Confinement Disposal inventory revealed potentially land disposal restricted hazardous wastes. The regulatory options for disposing of land disposal restricted wastes consist of (1) treatment and monitoring, or (2) developing a no-migration petition. Given that the waste is already buried without treatment, a no-migration petition becomes the primary option. Based on a desire to minimize costs associated with site characterization and performance assessment, a single approach has been developed for assessing compliance with 40 CFR Part 191, DOE Order 5820.2A (which regulates low-level radioactive wastes contained in Greater Confinement Disposal facilities) and developing a no-migration petition. The approach consists of common points of compliance, common time frame for analysis, and common treatment of uncertainty. The procedure calls for conservative bias of modeling assumptions, including model input parameter distributions and adverse processes and events that can occur over the regulatory time frame, coupled with a quantitative treatment of data and parameter uncertainty. This approach provides a basis for a defensible regulatory decision. In addition, the process is iterative between modeling and site characterization activities, where the need for site characterization activities is based on a quantitative definition of the most important and uncertain parameters or assumptions

  20. Dosimetry-guided high-activity 131I therapy in patients with advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verburg, Frederik A.; Haenscheid, Heribert; Biko, Johannes; Hategan, Maria C.; Lassmann, Michael; Kreissl, Michael C.; Reiners, Christoph; Luster, Markus

    2010-01-01

    In patients with advanced differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), therapy with the highest safe 131 I activity is desirable to maximize the tumour radiation dose yet avoid severe myelotoxicity. Recently, the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) published a standard operational procedure (SOP) for pre-therapeutic dosimetry in DTC patients incorporating a safety threshold of a 2 Gy absorbed dose to the blood as a surrogate for the red marrow. We sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness in everyday tertiary referral centre practice of treating advanced DTC with high 131 I activities chosen primarily based on the results of dosimetry following this SOP. We retrospectively assessed toxicity as well as biochemical and scintigraphic response in our first ten patients receiving such therapy for advanced DTC. The 10 patients received a total of 13 dosimetrically guided treatments with a median administered activity of 14.0 GBq (range: 7.0-21.4 GBq) 131 I. After 6 of 13 treatments in 6 of 10 patients, short-term side effects of 131 I therapy, namely nausea, vomiting or sialadenitis, were observed. Leukocyte and platelet counts dropped significantly in the weeks after 131 I treatment, but returned to pre-treatment levels by 3 months post-therapy. Serum thyroglobulin levels decreased after 12 of 13 treatments (median reduction: 58%) in 9 of 10 patients. In our initial patient cohort, high-activity 131 I therapy for advanced DTC based on pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry following the EANM SOP was safe and well tolerated. Such treatment almost always produced a partial biochemical tumour response. (orig.)

  1. HIV Infection Is Associated With Poor Outcomes for Patients With Anal Cancer in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, David; Bitterman, Danielle; Leichman, Cynthia G; Leichman, Lawrence; Sanfilippo, Nicholas; Moore, Harvey G; Du, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    HIV status may affect outcomes after definitive chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer. Here, we report a large series in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era comparing outcomes between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with anal cancer. This was a retrospective chart review. The study was conducted at an outpatient oncology clinic at large academic center. A total of 107 patients were reviewed, 39 HIV positive and 68 HIV negative. All of the patients underwent definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer. Data on patient characteristics, treatment, toxicity, and outcomes were collected. Overall survival, colostomy-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival were analyzed. Median follow-up was 15 months. HIV-positive patients were younger (median, 52 vs 64 years; p HIV-positive patients had a significantly longer duration from biopsy to start of chemoradiation (mean number of days, 82 vs 54; p = 0.042). There were no differences in rates of acute toxicities including diarrhea, fatigue, or dermatitis. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher rates of hospitalization (33% vs 15%; p = 0.024). The 3-year overall survival rate was 42% in HIV-positive and 76% in HIV-negative patients (p = 0.037; HR, 2.335 (95% CI, 1.032-5.283)). Three-year colostomy-free survival was 67% in HIV-positive and 88% in HIV-negative patients (p = 0.036; HR, 3.231 (95% CI, 1.014-10.299)). Differences in overall survival rates were not significant on multivariate analysis. This study was limited by its retrospective design and small patient numbers. In this cohort, HIV-positive patients had significantly worse overall and colostomy-free survival rates than HIV-negative patients. However, differences in survival were not significant on multivariate analysis. Additional studies are necessary to establish the etiology of this difference.

  2. Reference concepts for the final disposal of LWR spent fuel and other high activity wastes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas, F.; Ulibarri, A.

    1993-01-01

    Studies over the last three years have been recently concluded with the selection of a reference repository concept for the final disposal of spent fuel and other high activity wastes in deep geological formations. Two non-site specific preliminary designs, at a conceptual level, have been developed; one considers granite as the host rock and the other rock salt formations. The Spanish General Radioactive Waste Program also considers clay as a potential host rock for HLW deep disposal; conceptualization for a deep repository in clay is in the initial phase of development. The salt repository concept contemplates the disposal of the HLW in self-shielding casks emplaced in the drifts of an underground facility, excavated at a depth of 850 m in a bedded salt formation. The Custos Type I(7) cask admits up to seven intact PWR fuel assemblies or 21 of BWR type. The final repository facilities are planned to accept a total of 20,000 fuel assemblies (PWR and BWR) and 50 vitrified waste canisters over a period of 25 years. The total space needed for the surface facilities amounts to 322,000 m 2 , including the rock salt dump. The space required for the underground facilities amounts to 1.2 km 2 , approximately. The granite repository concept contemplates the disposal of the HLW in carbon steel canisters, embedded in a 0.75 m thick buffer of swelling smectite clay, in the drifts of an underground facility, excavated at a depth of 55 m in granite. Each canister can host 3 PWR or 9 BWR fuel assemblies. For this concept the total number of canisters needed amounts to 4,860. The space required for the surface and underground facilities is similar to that of the salt concept. The technical principles and criteria used for the design are discussed, and a description of the repository concept is presented

  3. High-activity samarium-153-EDTMP therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell support in unresectable osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzius, Ch.; Eckardt, J.; Sciuk, J.; Schober, O.; Bielack, S.; Flege, S.; Juergens, H.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Despite highly efficacious chemotherapy, patients with osteosarcomas still have a poor prognosis if adequate surgical control cannot be obtained. These patients may benefit from therapy with radiolabeled phosphonates. Patients and Methods: Six patients (three male, three female; seven to 41 years) with unresectable primary osteosarcoma (n = 3) or unresectable recurrent sites of osteosarcomas (n = 3) were treated with high-activity of Sm-153-EDTMP (150 MBq/kg BW). In all patients autologous peripheral blood stem cells had been collected before Sm-153-EDTMP therapy. Results: No immediate adverse reactions were observed in the patients. In one patient bone pain increased during the first 48 hrs after therapy. Three patients received pain relief. Autologous peripheral blood stem cell reinfusion was performed on day +12 to +27 in all patients to overcome potentially irreversible damage to the hematopoietic stem cells. In three patient external radiotherapy of the primary tumor site was performed after Sm-153-EDTMP therapy and in two of them polychemotherapy was continued. Thirty-six months later one of these patients is still free of progression. Two further patients are still alive. However, they have developed new metastases. The three patients who had no accompanying external radiotherapy, all died of disease progression five to 20 months after therapy. Conclusion: These preliminary results show that high-dose Sm-153-EDTMP therapy is feasible and warrants further evaluation of efficacy. The combination with external radiation and polychemotherapy seems to be most promising. Although osteosarcoma is believed to be relatively radioresistant, the total focal dose achieved may delay local progression or even achieve permanent local tumor control in patients with surgically inaccessible primary or relapsing tumors. (orig.)

  4. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in human immune deficiency virus-positive patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Akshaya Srikanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in Human immune deficiency virus (HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. To identify the risk factors associated with ADRs in HIV patients. To analyze reported ADRs based on various parameters like causality, severity, predictability, and preventability. Retrospective case-control study. An 18-month retrospective case-control study of 208 patients newly registered in ART center, RIMS hospital, Kadapa, were intensively monitored for ADRs to HAART. Predictability was calculated based on the history of previous exposure to drug. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify the risk factors for ADRs. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test for estimating the correlation between ADRs and different variables. All statistical calculations were performed using EpiInfo version 3.5.3. Monitoring of 208 retrospective patients by active Pharmacovigilance identified 105 ADRs that were identified in 71 patients. Skin rash and anemia were the most commonly observed ADRs. The organ system commonly affected by ADR was skin and appendages (31.57%. The ADRs that were moderate were 90.14% of cases. The incidence of ADRs (53.52% was higher with Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine combination. CD4 cell count less than <250 cells/μl were 80.28%, male gender were observed to be the risk factors for ADRs. Our study finding showed that there is a need of active pharmaceutical care with intensive monitoring for ADRs in Indian HIV-positive patients who are illiterate, of male and female gender, with CD4 count ≤250 cells/mm 3 with comorbid conditions.

  5. Barriers to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy as expressed by people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, V E; Tesfa, A; Tompkins, D C

    1999-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to gain a clearer understanding of the barriers to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) faced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHIV/AIDS) on Long Island, New York. Focus group, a qualitative research method, was used to study these barriers. The study was conducted in 1998 on Long Island, NY, at five institutions that provide services to 1700 PLWHIV/AIDS. Five focus groups were conducted with 6 to 13 PLWHIV/AIDS in each group, a total of 39 subjects. PLWHIV/AIDS identified eight common barriers to adherence to HAART. In descending order, the barriers include: (1) frequency and severity of side effects, (2) conflicts with daily routines, (3) dietary requirements, (4) frequency of taking medications, (5) number and dosage of medications, (6) psychosocial factors (i.e., stress, feeling good, and bad news), (7) pharmacy refills, and (8) physiological needs (i.e., sleep, hunger, or thirst). Many factors play a role in the success or failure of HAART, including preexisting drug resistance, drug-drug interactions, and the ability of PLWHIV/AIDS to adhere to a rigid and frequently changing medication regimen. The information gleaned from focus groups is limited in that it may not be generalized to a larger population with any known reliability. However, clinicians sensitive to barriers to adherence to HAART, including those identified by PLWHIV/AIDS in this study, may play a more proactive role in supporting adherence to the medication regimen, increasing the durability of effective viral suppression, decreasing morbidity and mortality, and decreasing the selection and transmission of resistant strains of HIV.

  6. Selective Essential Oils from Spice or Culinary Herbs Have High Activity against Stationary Phase and Biofilm Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Shi, Wanliang; Zubcevik, Nevena; Miklossy, Judith; Zhang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Although the majority of patients with acute Lyme disease can be cured with the standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, about 10–20% of patients continue suffering from chronic symptoms described as posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome. While the cause for this is debated, one possibility is that persister bacteria are not killed by the current Lyme antibiotics and remain active in the system. It has been reported that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting Lyme disease symptoms. However, the activity of essential oils against the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been well studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of 34 essential oils against B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture as a model for persister bacteria. We found that not all essential oils had activity against the B. burgdorferi stationary phase culture, with top five essential oils (oregano, cinnamon bark, clove bud, citronella, and wintergreen) at a low concentration of 0.25% showing high anti-persister activity that is more active than the known persister drug daptomycin. Interestingly, some highly active essential oils were found to have excellent anti-biofilm ability as shown by their ability to dissolve the aggregated biofilm-like structures. The top three hits, oregano, cinnamon bark, and clove bud completely eradicated all viable cells without any regrowth in subculture in fresh medium, whereas but not citronella and wintergreen did not have this effect. Carvacrol was found to be the most active ingredient of oregano oil showing excellent activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase cells, while other ingredients of oregano oil p-cymene and α-terpinene had no apparent activity. Future studies are needed to characterize and optimize the active essential oils in drug combination studies in vitro and in vivo and to address their safety and pharmacokinetic properties before they can be considered as a

  7. Application of a microwave-based desolvation system for multi-elemental analysis of wine by inductively coupled plasma based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindlay, Guillermo [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: guillermo.grindlay@ua.es; Mora, Juan; Maestre, Salvador; Gras, Luis [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-23

    Elemental wine analysis is often required from a nutritional, toxicological, origin and authenticity point of view. Inductively coupled plasma based techniques are usually employed for this analysis because of their multi-elemental capabilities and good limits of detection. However, the accurate analysis of wine samples strongly depends on their matrix composition (i.e. salts, ethanol, organic acids) since they lead to both spectral and non-spectral interferences. To mitigate ethanol (up to 10% w/w) related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), a microwave-based desolvation system (MWDS) can be successfully employed. This finding suggests that the MWDS could be employed for elemental wine analysis. The goal of this work is to evaluate the applicability of the MWDS for elemental wine analysis in ICP-AES and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For the sake of comparison a conventional sample introduction system (i.e. pneumatic nebulizer attached to a spray chamber) was employed. Matrix effects, precision, accuracy and analysis throughput have been selected as comparison criteria. For ICP-AES measurements, wine samples can be directly analyzed without any sample treatment (i.e. sample dilution or digestion) using pure aqueous standards although internal standardization (IS) (i.e. Sc) is required. The behaviour of the MWDS operating with organic solutions in ICP-MS has been characterized for the first time. In this technique the MWDS has shown its efficiency to mitigate ethanol related matrix effects up to concentrations of 1% (w/w). Therefore, wine samples must be diluted to reduce the ethanol concentration up to this value. The results obtained have shown that the MWDS is a powerful device for the elemental analysis of wine samples in both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. In general, the MWDS has some attractive advantages for elemental wine analysis when compared to a conventional sample introduction system such

  8. Application of a microwave-based desolvation system for multi-elemental analysis of wine by inductively coupled plasma based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindlay, Guillermo; Mora, Juan; Maestre, Salvador; Gras, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Elemental wine analysis is often required from a nutritional, toxicological, origin and authenticity point of view. Inductively coupled plasma based techniques are usually employed for this analysis because of their multi-elemental capabilities and good limits of detection. However, the accurate analysis of wine samples strongly depends on their matrix composition (i.e. salts, ethanol, organic acids) since they lead to both spectral and non-spectral interferences. To mitigate ethanol (up to 10% w/w) related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), a microwave-based desolvation system (MWDS) can be successfully employed. This finding suggests that the MWDS could be employed for elemental wine analysis. The goal of this work is to evaluate the applicability of the MWDS for elemental wine analysis in ICP-AES and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For the sake of comparison a conventional sample introduction system (i.e. pneumatic nebulizer attached to a spray chamber) was employed. Matrix effects, precision, accuracy and analysis throughput have been selected as comparison criteria. For ICP-AES measurements, wine samples can be directly analyzed without any sample treatment (i.e. sample dilution or digestion) using pure aqueous standards although internal standardization (IS) (i.e. Sc) is required. The behaviour of the MWDS operating with organic solutions in ICP-MS has been characterized for the first time. In this technique the MWDS has shown its efficiency to mitigate ethanol related matrix effects up to concentrations of 1% (w/w). Therefore, wine samples must be diluted to reduce the ethanol concentration up to this value. The results obtained have shown that the MWDS is a powerful device for the elemental analysis of wine samples in both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. In general, the MWDS has some attractive advantages for elemental wine analysis when compared to a conventional sample introduction system such

  9. Production and Stability Study of High Activity 177Lu-Substance P as a Radiopharmaceutical for Malignant Tumors Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, E.B. de; Lima, C.M. de; Pujatti, P.B.; Mengatti, J.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, a high number of new developments in target therapies have emerged and the presence of peptide receptors and transporters at the cell membrane of several tumors constitutes the basis of the clinical use of specific radiolabeled ligands, such as Substance P (SP). SP is an 11-amino acid neuropeptide member of the family of tachykinins, characterized by the C-terminal sequence Phe-X- Gly-Leu-Met-NH 2 . It has been well established that SP plays an important role in modulating pain transmission from peripheral and central primary afferents and this peptide may be also involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. SP receptors are also found in brain, lymphoid tissues, vessels, gut smooth muscle, airway glands and bronchiolar walls. In receptor autoradiography of tumor specimens ex vivo, SP receptors were found on glioblastoma, medullary thyroid cancer, non- small cell lung cancer and carcinoma of pancreas, but the incidence is low in the last two. The introduction of radiolabeled SP for peptide receptor radiotherapy can be an alternative to treat these tumors by radionuclide therapy or loco-regional instillation. Several radioisotopes have been applied to radiolabel peptides for radionuclide therapy and 6.7 day half-life 177 Lu has emerged as a promising β- emitter for this purpose. The energy (497 keV) and mean range (670 μm) of lutetium-177 β particles are ideal for small tumors and micro-metastatic disease treatment. Because it also emits γ rays (208 keV, 11% abundance), imaging of 177 Lu-labeled endoradiotherapeutic agents is also possible. The goal of the present work was to determine the best radiolabeling conditions and the stability of SP complexed to DOTA chelator, using 177 Lu as radionuclide. The optimized condition was applied to produce a high activity and stable 177Lu-DOTA-SP, as a radiopharmaceutical for malignant tumors treatment. Substance P was radiolabeled at different conditions in order to determine the best

  10. Influence of Spirituality and Religion on Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Adult HIV/AIDS Patients in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agam Ebaji Ayuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a chronic medical illness such as Human Immune Deficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS may be the time when people turn to the Sacred through spirituality and religion. HIV is a chronic illness that requires strict adherence to medication regimens that may be influenced by spirituality/religion. This study was aimed at finding the association between spirituality/religion and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in adult HIV/AIDS patients. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 370 patients. Adherence was measured using an adapted adult AIDS clinical trial group (AACTG and visual analogue scale (VAS tools. Spirituality was assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spirituality Expanded (FACIT-Sp-Ex scale, religiosity with Duke University Religion index (DUREL, and religious coping with Brief Religious Coping (RCOPE scale. Adherence rates were 86.2 and 43.8% using AACTG and VAS tools, respectively. Statistical significant correlation was found between spirituality and adherence to HAART (r = 0.265; p = 0.00. Also, significant correlation was found between positive religious coping and adherence (r = 0.15, p = 0.003. Odds ratio indicated that female respondents were 1.6 times more likely to be adherent, compared with males. Similarly, every unit rise in spirituality score yielded a 1.3 times increased likelihood of adherence to HAART on multiple logistic regression of adherence to HAART with relevant predictors. Both spirituality and positive religious coping have positive influence on optimal adherence. Therefore, the training of health care personnel to assess and provide spiritual care and involvement of chaplains/religious leaders is advocated for improved adherence.

  11. Fission products determination in high activity waste solution by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectral interference correction by intensity ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    Fission products Se, Rb, Y, Zr, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd, Te, Cd, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd were determined in simulated high activity radioactive waste solution by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry without chemical separation. Thin layer technique was employed for the sample preparation. For the L spectral lines, the absorption effect was verified by Rasberry-Heinrich, Lucas Tooth-Pyne and Lachance-Trail relations. This effect was quantified and corrected accordingly. The spectral interferences of Kα and/or Lα lines of Y, Zr, Mo, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd elements were eliminated by the intensity ratio method. The overlapping of up to three analytical lines was corrected by applying this method. The concentration influence of the interfering element on the intensity ratio values as well the efficiency of the correction method were investigated in order to assure that no systematic or residual error, resulting from the correction, affect the actual fluorescent intensity determination. The results is compared with the data obtained from measurements of free lines of spectral interference and also with those obtained by the linear equation system. Fission products determination presented a precision in the range of 0.1 to 5.0% and an accuracy of up to ± 7.0% the results are compared with those obtained by neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry. Leaching data, when radioactive waste is incorporated in cement matrix, were attempted by X-ray fluorescence technique. For two years leaching period, leaching rate and diffusion coefficient data of cesium were determined. The results obtained agree with those obtained by γ-spectromety. (author) [pt

  12. Study and development of NiAl intermetallic coating on hypo-eutectoid steel using highly activated composite granules of the Ni-Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Zadorozhnyy, Vladislav Yu.; Pavlov, Mikhail D.; Semenov, Dmitri V.; Kaloshkin, Sergey D. [National Univ. of Science and Technology (MISIS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    NiAl intermetallic coating thickness of about 50 μm was fabricated on hypo-eutectoid steel by mechanical alloying using pre-activated Ni-Al composite granules as coating material. First, Ni and Al powders were mixed with the composition of Ni-50 at.% Al and mechanically activated in a planetary ball mill, until the composite granules of this powder mixture, having maximum activity (9 cm sec{sup -1}), were formed after 120 min of milling at 200 rpm. The composite granules were then taken out from the planetary ball mill just before the critical time, i. e. the time at which these granules synthesize and convert to an intermetallic NiAl compound. The highly activated composite granules of Ni-Al were then put into the vial of a vibratory ball mill with the substrate on top of the chamber. After mechanical alloying for 60 min in the vibratory ball mill, the composite granules were synthesized fully and heat was produced during the synthesis which helped producing a thick and strong adhesive coating of NiAl intermetallic on the steel substrate. The main advantage of this technique is that not only is time saved but also there is no need for any post mechanical alloying process such as annealing or laser treatment etc. to get homogeneous, strongly bonded intermetallic coatings. X-ray diffraction analysis clearly indicates the formation of NiAl phase. Micro-hardness of the coating and substrate was also measured. The cross-sectional microstructure of the composite granules and the final coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Emerging Trends of HIV Drug Resistance in Chinese HIV-Infected Patients Receiving First-Line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huixin; Ma, Ye; Su, Yingying; Smith, M. Kumi; Liu, Ying; Jin, Yantao; Gu, Hongqiu; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Background. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a dramatic decrease in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality through sustained suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and reconstitution of the immune response. Settings like China that experienced rapid HAART rollout and relatively limited drug selection face considerable challenges in controlling HIV drug resistance (DR). Methods. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to describe trends in emergent HIV DR to first-line HAART among Chinese HIV-infected patients, as reflected in the point prevalence of HIV DR at key points and fixed intervals after treatment initiation, using data from cohort studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. Results. Pooled prevalence of HIV DR from longitudinal cohorts studies was 10.79% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.85%–19.07%) after 12 months of HAART and 80.58% (95% CI, 76.6%–84.02%) after 72 months of HAART. The HIV DR prevalence from cross-sectional studies was measured in treatment intervals; during the 0–12-month HAART treatment interval, the pooled prevalence of HIV DR was 11.1% (95% CI, 7.49%–16.14%), which increased to 22.92% at 61–72 months (95% CI, 9.45%–45.86%). Stratified analyses showed that patients receiving a didanosine-based regimen had higher HIV DR prevalence than those not taking didanosine (15.82% vs 4.97%). Patients infected through former plasma donation and those receiving AIDS treatment at village clinics had higher HIV DR prevalence than those infected through sexual transmission or treated at a county-level hospital. Conclusions. Our findings indicate higher prevalence of HIV DR for patients with longer cumulative HAART exposure, highlighting important subgroups for future HIV DR surveillance and control. PMID:25053721

  14. Cerebral signal intensity abnormalities on T2-weighted MR images in HIV patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy: relationship with clinical parameters and interval changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Uta; Husstedt, Ingo W; Niederstadt, Thomas-Ulrich; Evers, Stefan; Heindel, Walter; Kloska, Stephan P

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between immune state and cerebral signal intensity abnormalities (SIAs) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Thirty-two subjects underwent a total of 109 magnetic resonance studies. The presence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorder, categorized CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, and plasma viral load were assessed for relationship with the severity and interval change of SIAs for different anatomic locations of the brain. Subjects with multifocal patterns of SIAs had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in 66.0%, whereas subjects with diffuse patterns of SIAs had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in only 31.4% (P < .001). Subjects without SIAs in the basal ganglia had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in 37.0%, whereas subjects with minor and moderate SIAs in the basal ganglia had CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL in 78.3% and 80.0%, respectively (P < .005). The percentage of subjects with CD4(+) cell counts < 200 cells/μL was 85.7% when there were progressive periventricular SIA changes and 45.5% when periventricular SIA changes were stable in follow-up (P < .05). The presence and progression of cerebral SIAs on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images reflecting cerebral infection with human immunodeficiency virus are significantly related to impaired immune state as measured by CD4(+) cell count. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between highly active antiretroviral therapy and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimala, Christian Akem; Blencowe, Hannah

    2017-03-09

    The increasing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been associated with increasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. However, the epidemiology of the association between HAART and CVD risk factors in SSA is sparse. We aim to assess the extent to which HAART is associated with selected cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome) in SSA. This will be a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between HAART and CVD risk factors retrieved from Medline, Embase, Popline, Africa-Wide Information, African Index Medicus and the Cochrane library databases. Studies will be screened for eligibility according to the selection criteria by two independent reviewers. Eligible studies will be assessed for the quality of their evidence and risk of bias using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies of the National Health Institute and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, with respect to the measured outcomes (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome). A data abstraction form will be produced on Epi info V.7 and data analysis done on STATA V.14 statistical software. Summary estimates of measures of effects for the association between HAART use and the outcomes will be derived. Random effects meta-analyses will be performed and I 2 statistic used to assess for heterogeneity between studies with respect to measured parameters. Qualitative synthesis will be used where data is insufficient to produce quantitative synthesis. The protocol has been reviewed by the Research Governance & Integrity Office of the Research Ethics Committee of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and confirmed as not requiring ethical approval. The findings of this study will be made widely available especially to national HIV/AIDS committees formulating

  16. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  17. Detection of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in Semen, Urethra, and Male Reproductive Organs during Efficient Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusali, G.; Dereuddre-Bosquet, N.; Le Tortorec, A.; Moreau, M.; Satie, A.-P.; Mahé, D.; Roumaud, P.; Bourry, O.; Sylla, N.; Bernard-Stoecklin, S.; Pruvost, A.; Le Grand, R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A number of men receiving prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) still shed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in semen. To investigate whether this seminal shedding may be due to poor drug penetration and/or viral production by long-lived cells within male genital tissues, we analyzed semen and reproductive tissues from macaques chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251) who were treated for 4 months with HAART, which was intensified over the last 7 weeks with an integrase inhibitor. We showed that a subset of treated animals continued shedding SIV in semen despite efficient HAART. This shedding was not associated with low antiretroviral drug concentrations in semen or in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate. HAART had no significant impact on SIV RNA in the urethra, whereas it drastically reduced SIV RNA levels in the prostate and vas deferens and to a lesser extent in the epididymis and seminal vesicle. The only detectable SIV RNA-positive cells within the male genital tract after HAART were urethral macrophages. SIV DNA levels in genital tissues were not decreased by HAART, suggesting the presence throughout the male genital tract of nonproductively infected cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 4 months of HAART induced variable and limited control of viral infection in the male reproductive organs, particularly in the urethra, and suggest that infected long-lived cells in the male genital tract may be involved in persistent seminal shedding during HAART. These results pave the way for further investigations of male genital organ infection in long-term-treated infected individuals. IMPORTANCE A substantial subset of men receiving prolonged HAART suppressing viral loads in the blood still harbor HIV in semen, and cases of sexual transmission have been reported. To understand the origin of this persistence, we analyzed the semen and male reproductive tissues from SIV

  18. Partitioning of actinides from high active waste solution of Purex origin counter-current extraction studies using TBP and CMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalkrishnan, V.; Wattal, P.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Murali, M.S.; Mathur, J.N.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2000-10-01

    A solvent extraction scheme has been formulated for the partitioning of actinides from Purex high level waste (HLW). The scheme is based on the results of earlier studies carried out with simulated waste solutions. In the present studies, the scheme was tested with high active waste (HAW) solution generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel from research reactors using laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The proposed process involved two-step extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamolylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO). In the first step, uranium, neptunium and plutonium were removed from the waste using TBP as extractant. The minor actinides left in the raffinate were extracted using a mixture of CMPO and TBP in the second step. The results showed complete extraction of actinides from the waste solution. Plutonium and neptunium extracted in TBP, were stripped together using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid in 2 M nitric acid medium, leaving uranium in the organic phase. Uranium can later be stripped using dilute nitric acid. Actinides extracted in CMPO-TBP phase were stripped using a mixture of formic acid, hydrazine, hydrate and citric acid. The stripping was quantitative in both the stripping runs. An additional extraction step for the preferential recovery of uranium, neptunium and plutonium from the waste solution using TBP is a modification over the conventional Truex process. Selective stripping of neptunium and plutonium from large quantities of uranium. The extraction of uranium using TBP eliminates the possibility of third phase and undesired loading of CMPO-TBP in the following step. Use of citrate-containing strippant allows the recovery of actinides from loaded CMPO-TBP mixture without causing any reflux of the actinides during stripping. The process has been developed with due consideration to minimising the generation of secondary wastes. The proposed strippants are effective even in presence of

  19. Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy cohort from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holst Helga L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies address the use of paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Africa. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study to investigate preliminary outcomes of all children eligible for HAART at Sinikithemba HIV/AIDS clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Immunologic, virologic, clinical, mortality, primary caregiver, and psychosocial variables were collected and analyzed. Results From August 31, 2003 until October 31, 2005, 151 children initiated HAART. The median age at HAART initiation was 5.7 years (range 0.3–15.4. Median follow-up time of the cohort after HAART initiation was 8 months (IQR 3.5–13.5. The median change in CD4% from baseline (p 95%adherence. Seventeen patients (11.3% had a regimen change; two (1.3% were due to antiretroviral toxicity. The Kaplan-Meier one year survival estimate was 90.9% (95%confidence interval (CI 84.8–94.6. Thirteen children died during follow-up (8.6%, one changed service provider, and no children were lost to follow-up. All 13 deaths occurred in children with advanced HIV disease within 5 months of treatment initiation. In multivariate analysis of baseline variables against mortality using Cox proportional-hazards model, chronic gastroenteritis was associated with death [hazard ratio (HR, 12.34; 95%CI, 1.27–119.71 and an HIV-positive primary caregiver was found to be protective against mortality [HR, 0.12; 95%CI, 0.02–0.88. Age, orphanhood, baseline CD4%, and hemoglobin were not predicators of mortality in our cohort. Fifty-two percent of the cohort had at least one HIV-positive primary caregiver, and 38.4% had at least one primary caregiver also on HAART at Sinikithemba clinic. Conclusion This report suggests that paediatric HAART can be effective despite the challenges of a resource-limited setting.

  20. Highly active dealloyed Cu@Pt core-shell electrocatalyst towards 2-propanol electrooxidation in acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poochai, Chatwarin, E-mail: p_chatwarin@yahoo.com

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • This is the first report on electrooxidation of 2-propanol in acidic media on dealloyed Cu@Pt/CP core-shell electrocatalyst. • The dealloyed Cu@Pt/CP is prepared using cyclic co-electrodeposition and selective Cu dealloying (CCEd-sCuD). • The structure of dealloyed Cu@Pt/CP is core-shell structure with Cu-rich core and Pt-rich surface. • The dealloyed Cu@Pt/CP shows high activity and great stability towards 2-propanol electrooxidation in acidic media. - Abstract: Dealloyed Cu@Pt core-shell electrocatalyst was fabricated by cyclic co-electrodeposition and selective Cu dealloying (CCEd-sCuD) on carbon paper (CP), namely Cu@Pt/CP. The Cu@Pt/CP exhibited a core-shell structure comprising with a Cu-rich core and a Pt-rich shell. The crystalline phases of Pt/CP and Cu@Pt/CP were a face-centered cubic (fcc). The compressive lattice strain approximately 0.85% was found in the Cu@Pt/CP owing to a lattice mismatch between a core and a shell region. In the core-region, Cu was formed Pt-Cu alloy as major and copper oxide and also metallic copper as minor. The morphology and grain size of the Cu@Pt/CP displayed a porous spherical shape with 100 nm in diameter, while those of Pt/CP seemed to be a cubic shape with smaller diameter of 40 nm. In electrochemical and catalytic activity, the surface of Cu@Pt/CP had a larger electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) than that of Pt/CP due to a porous formation caused by Cu dealloying. It is not surprising that the Cu@Pt/CP showed higher catalytic activity and greater stability towards 0.5 M 2-propanol electrooxidation in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in terms of peak current density (j{sub p}), peak potential (E{sub p}), onset potential (E{sub onset}), diffusion coefficient (D), and charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) which were caused by electronic structure modification, higher compressive lattice strain, and larger ECSA, compared with Pt/CP.

  1. A double-edged sword: does highly active antiretroviral therapy contribute to syphilis incidence by impairing immunity to Treponema pallidum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L; Ndifon, Wilfred; Brunham, Robert C; Dushoff, Jonathan; Park, Sang Woo; Rawat, Sanjana; Cameron, Caroline E

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the world has experienced a rapidly escalating outbreak of infectious syphilis primarily affecting men who have sex with men (MSM); many are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection. The prevailing hypothesis is that HAART availability and effectiveness have led to the perception among both individuals who are HIV-1 infected and those who are uninfected that HIV-1 transmission has become much less likely, and the effects of HIV-1 infection less deadly. This is expected to result in increased sexual risk-taking, especially unprotected anal intercourse, leading to more non-HIV-1 STDs, including gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis. However, syphilis incidence has increased more rapidly than other STDs. We hypothesise that HAART downregulates the innate and acquired immune responses to Treponema pallidum and that this biological explanation plays an important role in the syphilis epidemic. We performed a literature search and developed a mathematical model of HIV-1 and T. pallidum confection in a population with two risk groups with assortative mixing to explore the consequence on syphilis prevalence of HAART-induced changes in behaviour versus HAART-induced biological effects. Since rising syphilis incidence appears to have outpaced gonorrhoea and chlamydia, predominantly affecting HIV-1 positive MSM, behavioural factors alone may be insufficient to explain the unique, sharp increase in syphilis incidence. HAART agents have the potential to alter the innate and acquired immune responses in ways that may enhance susceptibility to T. pallidum . This raises the possibility that therapeutic and preventative HAART may inadvertently increase the incidence of syphilis, a situation that would have significant and global public health implications. We propose that additional studies investigating the interplay between HAART and enhanced T. pallidum susceptibility are needed. If our hypothesis is correct, HAART should be combined with

  2. Differences in serum IgA responses to HIV-1 gp41 in elite controllers compared to viral suppressors on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Nabi

    Full Text Available Mechanisms responsible for natural control of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV replication in elite controllers (EC remain incompletely defined. To determine if EC generate high quality HIV-specific IgA responses, we used Western blotting to compare the specificities and frequencies of IgA to HIV antigens in serum of gender-, age- and race-matched EC and aviremic controllers (HC and viremic noncontrollers (HN on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Concentrations and avidity of IgA to HIV antigens were measured using ELISA or multiplex assays. Measurements for IgG were performed in parallel. EC were found to have stronger p24- and V1V2-specific IgG responses than HN, but there were no IgG differences for EC and HC. In contrast, IgA in EC serum bound more frequently to gp160 and gag proteins than IgA in HC or HN. The avidity of anti-gp41 IgA was also greater in EC, and these subjects had stronger IgA responses to the gp41 heptad repeat region 1 (HR1, a reported target of anti-bacterial RNA polymerase antibodies that cross react with gp41. However, EC did not demonstrate greater IgA responses to E. coli RNA polymerase or to peptides containing the shared LRAI sequence, suggesting that most of their HR1-specific IgA antibodies were not induced by intestinal microbiota. In both EC and HAART recipients, the concentrations of HIV-specific IgG were greater than HIV-specific IgA, but their avidities were comparable, implying that they could compete for antigen. Exceptions were C1 peptides and V1V2 loops. IgG and IgA responses to these antigens were discordant, with IgG reacting to V1V2, and IgA reacting to C1, especially in EC. Interestingly, EC with IgG hypergammaglobulinemia had greater HIV-specific IgA and IgG responses than EC with normal total IgG levels. Heterogeneity in EC antibody responses may therefore be due to a more focused HIV-specific B cell response in some of these individuals. Overall, these data suggest that development of

  3. Verification of Vitrified High-Activity Waste Stored in a CASTOR HAW 20/28 CG Cask by Simulated Baseline Comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shephard, A.; Arenas-Carrasco, J.; Dratschmidt, H.; De-Baere, P.; Af Ekenstam, G.; Lebrun, A.

    2010-01-01

    The verification process for the vitrification of high-activity waste (HAW) focuses on maintaining the continuity-of-knowledge of special nuclear material (SNM) as it traverses a vitrification facility. However, the inaccessible nature of a vitrification facility presents an obstacle to the deployment of conventional safeguards, albeit the process area of a vitrification facility is effectively a hot cell. The employment of remotely operated NDA hardware/DA sample equipment inside the process area would be problematic-at-best and the alternative of continuous monitoring would draw heavily on the critical resource of inspector time. In response to the aforementioned constraints, the IAEA and Euratom opted to develop a new method which focuses on the verification of SNM after the vitrified HAW has been sealed in storage casks. The new method verifies the presence of the vitrified HAW through the comparison of total neutron count rates collected at points around a cask with those predicted by Monte Carlo simulation. The model includes a dual N50 neutron slab detector (custom design by Euratom) and a CASTOR HAW 20/28 CG storage cask configured with the operator declared contents. By comparison of the simulated neutron emission pattern and field measurements, the displacement of Pu and U is evident from a detectable neutron signal defect. Because the spontaneous fission of 244 Cm is the dominant neutron source in vitrified HAW, the 244 Cm/Pu and 244 Cm/U mass ratios must be known in order to relate the neutron signal outside the cask to the amounts of Pu and U stored inside. These mass ratios can be determined from HAW samples collected by the inspectorates from the accountability tanks and analyzed by DA. The absence of separation of SNM from the HAW is verified by other measures. To ensure the validity of the simulation, sources of uncertainty were systematically addressed and quantified. This new verification method effectively removes the need for NDA equipment

  4. The antiretroviral efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy and plasma nevirapine concentrations in HIV-TB co-infected Indian patients receiving rifampicin based antituberculosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Sanjeev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifampicin reduces the plasma concentrations of nevirapine in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infected patients, who are administered these drugs concomitantly. We conducted a prospective interventional study to assess the efficacy of nevirapine-containing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART when co-administered with rifampicin-containing antituberculosis treatment (ATT and also measured plasma nevirapine concentrations in patients receiving such a nevirapine-containing HAART regimen. Methods 63 cases included antiretroviral treatment naïve HIV-TB co-infected patients with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3 started on rifampicin-containing ATT followed by nevirapine-containing HAART. In control group we included 51 HIV patients without tuberculosis and on nevirapine-containing HAART. They were assessed for clinical and immunological response at the end of 24 and 48 weeks. Plasma nevirapine concentrations were measured at days 14, 28, 42 and 180 of starting HAART. Results 97 out of 114 (85.1% patients were alive at the end of 48 weeks. The CD4 cell count showed a mean increase of 108 vs.113 cells/mm3 (p=0.83 at 24 weeks of HAART in cases and controls respectively. Overall, 58.73% patients in cases had viral loads of less than 400 copies/ml at the end of 48 weeks. The mean (± SD Nevirapine concentrations of cases and control at 14, 28, 42 and 180 days were 2.19 ± 1.49 vs. 3.27 ± 4.95 (p = 0.10, 2.78 ± 1.60 vs. 3.67 ± 3.59 (p = 0.08, 3.06 ± 3.32 vs. 4.04 ± 2.55 (p = 0.10 respectively and 3.04 μg/ml (in cases. Conclusions Good immunological and clinical response can be obtained in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving rifampicin and nevirapine concomitantly despite somewhat lower nevirapine trough concentrations. This suggests that rifampicin-containing ATT may be co administered in resource limited setting with nevirapine-containing HAART regimen without substantial reduction in

  5. Restoration of the CD4 T cell compartment after long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy without phenotypical signs of accelerated immunological aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrisekoop, Nienke; van Gent, Rogier; de Boer, Anne Bregje; Otto, Sigrid A.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Steingrover, Radjin; Prins, Jan M.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Geelen, Sibyl P. M.; Vulto, Irma; Lansdorp, Peter; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, José A. M.; Miedema, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It remains uncertain whether full T cell reconstitution can be established in HIV-infected children and adults with long-term sustained virological control by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In this study, we comprehensively analyzed various phenotypical markers of CD4 T cell recovery.

  6. Restoration of the CD4 T cell compartment after long-term highly active Antiretroviral therapy without phenotypical signs of accelerated immunological aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrisekoop, Nienke; van Gent, Rogier; de Boer, Anne Bregje; Otto, Sigrid A.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stemgrover, Radjin; Prins, Jan M.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Geelen, Sibyl P. M.; Vulto, Irma; Lansdorp, Peter; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, Jose A. M.; Miedema, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It remains uncertain whether full T cell reconstitution can be established in HIV-infected children and adults with long-term sustained virological control by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In this study, we comprehensively analyzed various phenotypical markers of CD4 T cell recovery.

  7. Predictors of immunological failure after initial response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults: a EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Mocroft, Amanda; Vella, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factors that determine the immunological response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate predictors of immunological failure after initial CD4(+) response. METHODS: Data were from EuroSIDA, a prospective, international...

  8. Highly active, recyclable catalyst for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight, CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone, base component for a new class of resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Dirkzwager, Hendrik; Mul, Wilhelmus P.; Heeres, Hero J.; Linden, Adrianus J. van der; Orpen, A. Guy

    2002-01-01

    A highly active, recyclable homogeneous palladium(II) catalyst is described for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone (Carilite Oligomer), used for the manufacture of a new class of resins (Carilite Resins). The catalyst is composed of palladium acetate,

  9. La-doped Al2O3 supported Au nanoparticles: highly active and selective catalysts for PROX under PEMFC operation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingquan; Qiao, Botao; Huang, Yanqiang; Li, Lin; Lin, Jian; Liu, Xiao Yan; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Wen-Cui; Zhang, Tao

    2014-03-14

    La-doped γ-Al2O3 supported Au catalysts show high activity and selectivity for the PROX reaction under PEMFC operation conditions. The superior performance is attributed to the formation of LaAlO3, which suppresses H2 oxidation and strengthens CO adsorption on Au sites, thereby improving competitive oxidation of CO at elevated temperature.

  10. Highly Active and Specific Tyrosine Ammonia-Lyases from Diverse Origins Enable Enhanced Production of Aromatic Compounds in Bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jendresen, Christian Bille; Stahlhut, Steen Gustav; Li, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    Phenylalanine and tyrosine ammonia-lyases form cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, which are precursors of a wide range of aromatic compounds of biotechnological interest. Lack of highly active and specific tyrosine ammonia-lyases has previously been a limitation in metabolic engineering approaches...

  11. Method of preparing highly active and thermostable preparations of liver uridin-kinase usable for enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5'-phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cihak, A.; Vesely, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of preparing a high-activity uridine kinase for the enzymic synthesis of radioactive nucleoside-5m-phosphates of the pyrimidine series. The preparation is separated from male rat liver after intraperitoneal application of 5'-azacytidine. Examples are given showing detailed procedures for the conversion of uridine and 6-azauridine to the corresponding 5'-phosphates. (L.K.)

  12. What quantum measurements measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2017-09-01

    A solution to the second measurement problem, determining what prior microscopic properties can be inferred from measurement outcomes ("pointer positions"), is worked out for projective and generalized (POVM) measurements, using consistent histories. The result supports the idea that equipment properly designed and calibrated reveals the properties it was designed to measure. Applications include Einstein's hemisphere and Wheeler's delayed choice paradoxes, and a method for analyzing weak measurements without recourse to weak values. Quantum measurements are noncontextual in the original sense employed by Bell and Mermin: if [A ,B ]=[A ,C ]=0 ,[B ,C ]≠0 , the outcome of an A measurement does not depend on whether it is measured with B or with C . An application to Bohm's model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation suggests that a faulty understanding of quantum measurements is at the root of this paradox.

  13. Anomalously high activities of 137Cs in soils and vegetation on and near a diabase outcrop in La Sierra de Lema, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Alfonso, J.A.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of routine soil sampling to determine the 137 Cs background activities country-wide in Venezuela, it was decided to further investigate El Mirador (Lookout) area at the base of the Sierra de Lema mountain range. In April 2003 (A), soil samples were collected at eight sites on and around the edge of the diabase outcrop to confirm that this area had anomalously high 137 Cs activities. In July 2003 (B), not only soil samples were collected again, but also black mat, palm tree leaves and trunks, fruit bushes leaves and its fruit and fern leaves. The 137 Cs content was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy by a comparative method with reference materials. The 137 Cs activity values range from 16.3 to 30.8 Bq x kg -1 in the soil samples collected in July 2003, 20.7-32.1 Bq x kg -1 for the black mat, 26.3-38.4 Bq x kg -1 for the palm leaves, 16.8-31.2 Bq x kg -1 for the palm trunks and 17.6-27.3 Bq x kg -1 for the fruit bush leaves, while, the 137 Cs activity values for the whole fruit were between 23.4 and 30.7 Bq x kg -1 ; but, the value of the 137 Cs activity in the center of the fruit (the edible part) was 51.6 Bq x kg -1 , and the value of the 137 Cs activity for the fern leaves was 51.8 Bq x kg -1 . Thus, most of the 137 Cs activity values determined in the soil, black mat and vegetation samples from El Mirador (Lookout) were considered anomalously high with respect to those found near the equator and in other areas of Venezuela. Only the center of the fruit from the Clusia grandiflora bushes and the fern leaves had high activity ratios, about a factor of three and could be considered as biomonitors that concentrate and retain the 137 Cs. Finally, these anomalously high 137 Cs activities have been attributed not only to the rich organic soils, as sinks, but also due to the affect of the cloud forests. (author)

  14. Long-term hepatitis B virus (HBV response to lamivudine-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-HBV co-infected patients in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woottichai Khamduang

    Full Text Available Approximately 4 million of people are co-infected with HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV. In resource-limited settings, the majority of HIV-infected patients initiate first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy containing lamivudine (3TC-containing-HAART and long-term virological response of HBV to lamivudine-containing HAART in co-infected patients is not well known.HIV-HBV co-infected patients enrolled in the PHPT cohort (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00433030 and initiating a 3TC-containing-HAART regimen were included. HBV-DNA, HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell counts and alanine transaminase were measured at baseline, 3 months, 12 months and then every 6 months up to 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the cumulative rates of patients who achieved and maintained HBV-DNA suppression. Of 30 co-infected patients, 19 were positive for HBe antigen (HBeAg. At initiation of 3TC-containing-HAART, median HBV DNA and HIV RNA levels were 7.35 log(10 IU/mL and 4.47 log(10 copies/mL, respectively. At 12 months, 67% of patients achieved HBV DNA suppression: 100% of HBeAg-negative patients and 47% of HBeAg-positive. Seventy-three percent of patients had HIV RNA below 50 copies/mL. The cumulative rates of maintained HBV-DNA suppression among the 23 patients who achieved HBV-DNA suppression were 91%, 87%, and 80% at 1, 2, and 4 years respectively. Of 17 patients who maintained HBV-DNA suppression while still on 3TC, 4 (24% lost HBsAg and 7 of 8 (88% HBeAg-positive patients lost HBeAg at their last visit (median duration, 59 months. HBV breakthrough was observed only in HBeAg-positive patients and 6 of 7 patients presenting HBV breakthrough had the rtM204I/V mutations associated with 3TC resistance along with rtL180M and/or rtV173L.All HBeAg-negative patients and 63% of HBeAg-positive HIV-HBV co-infected patients achieved long-term HBV DNA suppression while on 3TC-containing-HAART. This study provides information useful for the management of co-infected patients

  15. Initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children in Europe and the United States: comparing clinical practice to guidelines and literature evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweel, Gwenda; Saavedra-Lozano, Jesus; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; Ramilo, Octavio; de Groot, Ronald

    2006-11-01

    Several guidelines are available to guide the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. The recommendations in these guidelines show significant variability. Because there is no well-established evidence on when to start HAART, it is left to the discretion of the pediatrician which guidelines to follow. We conducted a survey concerning the indications for starting antiretroviral therapy among pediatricians involved in the treatment of HIV-infected patients in Europe and the United States. We compared the results of this survey with the guidelines available at the time, the recently adapted guidelines and literature evidence. Our results indicate that in clinical practice HAART was initiated at higher viral loads and lower CD4 counts than recommended by the guidelines. American guidelines recommended and still recommend more aggressive treatment than the European guidelines, and this is reflected in clinical practice. Until recently all guidelines were based on long term risk analyses of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and death performed in cohort data. A recent short term risk analysis makes it possible to calculate the 6 or 12-month risk for progression to AIDS or death for an individual child. Because viral load and CD4 count are typically measured every 3 months, one can argue that it is clinically more relevant to base the decision of when to start HAART on the short term probability of disease progression. Guidelines in Europe are now based on this type of analysis. The American guidelines only adopted the thresholds for CD4 and viral load. The short term risk analysis also shows that the risk for developing AIDS varies markedly with age. This should be reflected in all guidelines. Determining the acceptable risk of disease progression is difficult and influenced by patient-, doctor- and culture-related factors. The controversy over whether or not to treat

  16. Source apportionment of traffic emissions of particulate matter using tunnel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mao, Hongjun; Prain, Hunter Douglas; Bull, Ian D.

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to quantify exhaust/non-exhaust emissions and the uncertainties associated with them by combining innovative motorway tunnel sampling and source apportionment modelling. Analytical techniques ICP-AES and GC-MS were used to identify the metallic and organic composition of PM10, respectively. Good correlation was observed between Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Sb and change in traffic volume. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organics varies significantly at the entrance and exit site of the tunnel, with fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and benzothiazole having the highest incremented concentrations. The application of Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis helped to identify the emission sources for 82% of the total PM10 mass inside the tunnel. Identified sources include resuspension (27%), diesel exhaust emissions (21%), petrol exhaust emissions (12%), brake wear emissions (11%) and road surface wear (11%). This study shows that major health related chemical species of PM10 originate from non-exhaust sources, further signifying the need for legislation to reduce these emissions.

  17. Rapid Separation Methods to Characterize Actinides and Metallic Impurities in Plutonium Scrap Materials at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Jones, V.D.

    1998-07-01

    The Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Storage Division at SRS plans to stabilize selected plutonium scrap residue materials for long term storage by dissolution processing and plans to stabilize other plutonium vault materials via high-temperature furnace processing. To support these nuclear material stabilization activities, the SRS Analytical Laboratories Department (ALD) will provide characterization of materials required prior to the dissolution or the high-firing of these materials. Lab renovations to install new analytical instrumentation are underway to support these activities that include glove boxes with simulated-process dissolution and high- pressure microwave dissolution capability. Inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), inductively- coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) will be used to measure actinide isotopics and metallic impurities. New high-speed actinide separation methods have been developed that will be applied to isotopic characterization of nuclear materials by TIMS and ICP-MS to eliminate isobaric interferences between Pu-238 /U- 238 and Pu-241/Am-241. TEVA Resin, UTEVA Resin, and TRU Resin columns will be used with vacuum-assisted flow rates to minimize TIMS and ICP-MS sample turnaround times. For metallic impurity analysis, rapid column removal methods using UTEVA Resin, AGMP-1 anion resin and AG MP-50 cation resin have also been developed to remove plutonium and uranium matrix interferences prior to ICP-AES and ICP- MS measurements

  18. Determination of trace elements in seawater by air-flow injection/ICP-MS with chelating resin preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyue-Hyung; Ohshima, Mitsuko; Motomizu, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    Multielement determination of major to trace metals in a deep seawater malt was accomplished by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) together with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Major elements, such as Na, K, Mg, and Ca, were measured by ICP-AES and normal continuos nebulization ICP-MS after sample dilution by 10 3 -10 6 fold. Fifteen trace elements in the concentrated metal solutions pretreated with cation-exchange resin or chelating resin could be simultaneously determined by air-flow injection/ICP-mass spectrometry (AFI/ICP-MS). Since the injection volume for AFI/ICP-MS was 25 μl, final samples volumes less than 500 μl were enough for several replicate measurements. Three different preconcentration methods assisted with AFI/ICP-MS were examined and could be successfully applied to a deep seawater malt. The analytical results of rate earth elements (REEs) and Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb obtained by AFI/ICP-MS coupled with disk filtration method using iminodiacetate (IDA)-type chelating resin were favorably agreed with the data obtained by AFI/ICP-MS coupled with column preconcentration method using chitosan-based chelating resin. (author)

  19. Immobilization of high activity nuclear wastes in sintered glass. Fabrication of blocks at semi-industrial scale by hot pressing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.O.; Messi, N.B.; Riquelme, R.; Sterba, M.E.; Audero, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The sintering process under glass pressure has been studied as an alternative of melting with the aim of obtaining a monolytic material apt to preserve the high activity nuclear wastes. Different properties of the products obtained have been evaluated where the material is selected on the basis of the results attained. The purpose of this work is the equipment development and the process adjusting for the blocks obtainment. (Author) [es

  20. Primary cutaneous b-cell lymphoma successfully treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy alone: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Villafañe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL is an unusual skin neoplasm with a great range of clinical presentations. Here, we report a case of CBCL in an AIDS patient presented as a single and nodular/ulcerative lesion in the perianal area. The patient was started on highly active antiretroviral therapy alone with a good clinical and oncological response. Two years later, the patient is asymptomatic with undetectable viral load and immune reconstitution.

  1. Antiretroviral effect of lovastatin on HIV-1-infected individuals without highly active antiretroviral therapy (The LIVE study): a phase-II randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Carlos J; Jaimes Fabian; Higuita Edwin A; Convers-Páez Sandra; Estrada Santiago; Gutierrez Francisco; Amariles Pedro; Giraldo Newar; Peñaloza Cristina; Rugeles Maria T

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy produces a significant decrease in HIV-1 replication and allows an increase in the CD4 T-cell count, leading to a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections and mortality. However, the cost, side effects and complexity of antiretroviral regimens have underscored the immediate need for additional therapeutic approaches. Statins exert pleiotropic effects through a variety of mechanisms, among which there are several immunoregul...

  2. A highly active PtCu3 intermetallic core-shell, multilayered Pt-skin, carbon embedded electrocatalyst produced by a scale-up sol-gel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, M; Jovanovič, P; Pavlišič, A; Jozinović, B; Zorko, M; Rečnik, A; Chernyshova, E; Hočevar, S; Hodnik, N; Gaberšček, M

    2014-11-07

    We present a novel, scaled-up sol-gel synthesis which enables one to produce 20 g batches of highly active and stable carbon supported PtCu3 nanoparticles as cathode materials for low temperature fuel cell application. We confirm the presence of an ordered intermetallic phase underneath a multilayered Pt-skin together with firm embedment of nanoparticles in the carbon matrix.

  3. Monitoring total boron in blood for BNCT by a novel atomic emission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, J.; Kulvik, M.; Ruokonen, I.; Vaehaetalo, J.; Faerkkilae, M.; Kallio, M.; Zilliacus, R.

    2000-01-01

    In BNCT the duration and timing of the is adjusted by 10 B concentrations in whole blood. Time-frame for determinations is less than 20 minutes. Therefore fast and accurate boron determinations are a prerequisite for BNCT. We present a method based on ICP-AES instrument for whole blood and plasma boron determinations with protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid as sample pre-treatment and beryllium as an internal standard. The method was compared to established but tedious ICP-mass spectrometric method with wet ashing as a sample pre-treatment. The ICP-AES method is in good agreement (correlation coefficient 0.99) the ICP-MS. Within-day and between-day imprecisions were less than 3,5% CV for whole blood samples. Samples taken during and after BPA-F infusion (290 mg/kg) revealed an uneven distribution between plasma and erythrocytes. The present method is feasible and one of the fastest currently available for BNCT. Our results indicate that BPA-F or its metabolites do not seem to be tightly bound to plasma proteins. It also seems that determination of boron in plasma sample may be preferable than measuring boron in whole blood. (author)

  4. High activity and low temperature optima of extracellular enzymes in Arctic sediments: implications for carbon cycling by heterotrophic microbial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2003-01-01

    (chondroitin sulfate, fucoidan, xylan and pullulan) to determine the temperature-activity responses of hydrolysis of a related class of compounds. All 4 enzyme activities showed similarly low temperature optima in the range of 15 to 18degreesC. These temperature optima are considerably lower than most previous......The rate of the initial step in microbial remineralization of organic carbon, extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, was investigated as a function of temperature in permanently cold sediments from 2 fjords on the west coast of Svalbard (Arctic Ocean). We used 4 structurally distinct polysaccharides...... reports of temperature optima for enzyme activities in marine sediments. At 0degreesC, close to the in situ temperature, these enzyme activities achieved 13 to 38% of their rates at optimum temperatures. In one experiment, sulfate reduction rates were measured in parallel with extracellular enzymatic...

  5. Lipid nanocarriers based on natural oils with high activity against oxygen free radicals and tumor cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O.; Mihaila, M.A.; Kaya, D.A.; Stan, R.; Meghea, A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of nano-dosage forms of phytochemicals represents a significant progress of the scientific approach in the biomedical research. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lipid nanocarriers based on natural oils (grape seed oil, fish oil and laurel leaf oil) in counteracting free radicals and combating certain tumor cells. No drug was encapsulated in the nanocarriers. The cytotoxic effect exerted by bioactive nanocarriers against two tumor cells, MDA-MB 231 and HeLa cell lines, and two normal cells, L929 and B16 cell lines, was measured using the MTT assay, while oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant activity using chemiluminescence analysis. The best performance was obtained for nanocarriers based on an association of grape seed and laurel leaf oils, with a capacity to scavenge about 98% oxygen free radicals. A dose of nanocarriers of 5 mg·mL −1 has led to a drastic decrease in tumor cell proliferation even in the absence of an antitumor drug (e.g. about 50% viability for MDA-MB 231 cell line and 60% viability for HeLa cell line). A comparative survival profile of normal and tumor cells, which were exposed to an effective dose of 2.5 mg·mL −1 lipid nanocarriers, has revealed a death rate of 20% for normal B16 cells and of 40% death rate for MDA-MB 231 and HeLa tumor cells. The results in this study imply that lipid nanocarriers based on grape seed oil in association with laurel leaf oil could be a candidate to reduce the delivery system toxicity and may significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of antitumor drugs in clinical applications. - Highlights: • Functional lipid nanocarriers with unique features and broad spectrum effectiveness • Lipid nanocarriers based on laureal leaf oil (LLO) and grape seed oil (GSO) • Antioxidant activity has reached 98% for nanocarriers containing 25% GSO and 2% LLO. • LLO exerts a significant cytotoxic effect against HeLa and MDA-MB 231 tumor cells. • 50

  6. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Stawski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the “aerobic capacity model,” endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ and increasing at ambient temperatures (Ta below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles (Myodes glareolus have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (Tb during exposure to high Ta. To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and Tb of selected and control voles at Ta from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the Tb of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the Tb of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured Ta of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (−28.6°C than in control lines (−20.2°C. Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under

  7. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Clare; Koteja, Paweł; Sadowska, Edyta T

    2017-01-01

    According to the "aerobic capacity model," endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) and increasing at ambient temperatures (T a ) below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (T b ) during exposure to high T a . To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and T b of selected and control voles at T a from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the T b of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the T b of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured T a of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT) is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C) does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (-28.6°C) than in control lines (-20.2°C). Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under thermally

  8. Lipid nanocarriers based on natural oils with high activity against oxygen free radicals and tumor cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Badea, G.; Oprea, O. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Mihaila, M.A. [Institute of Virusology “Stefan S. Nicolau”, Center of Immunology, Bravu Road, No. 285, 030304 Bucharest (Romania); Kaya, D.A. [Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Mustafa Kemal University, 31030 Antakya, Hatay (Turkey); Stan, R., E-mail: rl_stan2000@yahoo.com [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, A. [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Polizu Street No 1, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    The development of nano-dosage forms of phytochemicals represents a significant progress of the scientific approach in the biomedical research. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of lipid nanocarriers based on natural oils (grape seed oil, fish oil and laurel leaf oil) in counteracting free radicals and combating certain tumor cells. No drug was encapsulated in the nanocarriers. The cytotoxic effect exerted by bioactive nanocarriers against two tumor cells, MDA-MB 231 and HeLa cell lines, and two normal cells, L929 and B16 cell lines, was measured using the MTT assay, while oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant activity using chemiluminescence analysis. The best performance was obtained for nanocarriers based on an association of grape seed and laurel leaf oils, with a capacity to scavenge about 98% oxygen free radicals. A dose of nanocarriers of 5 mg·mL{sup −1} has led to a drastic decrease in tumor cell proliferation even in the absence of an antitumor drug (e.g. about 50% viability for MDA-MB 231 cell line and 60% viability for HeLa cell line). A comparative survival profile of normal and tumor cells, which were exposed to an effective dose of 2.5 mg·mL{sup −1} lipid nanocarriers, has revealed a death rate of 20% for normal B16 cells and of 40% death rate for MDA-MB 231 and HeLa tumor cells. The results in this study imply that lipid nanocarriers based on grape seed oil in association with laurel leaf oil could be a candidate to reduce the delivery system toxicity and may significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of antitumor drugs in clinical applications. - Highlights: • Functional lipid nanocarriers with unique features and broad spectrum effectiveness • Lipid nanocarriers based on laureal leaf oil (LLO) and grape seed oil (GSO) • Antioxidant activity has reached 98% for nanocarriers containing 25% GSO and 2% LLO. • LLO exerts a significant cytotoxic effect against HeLa and MDA-MB 231 tumor

  9. The effect of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition in HIV-infected persons initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlay, Judith C; Sharma, Shweta; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L; Grunfeld, Carl

    2009-07-01

    To examine the long-term effects of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition among 416 persons initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a substudy of a clinical trial of persons initiating ART, changes in body composition attributable to individual ART were examined. ARTs assessed were as follows: indinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, efavirenz, nevirapine, stavudine (d4T), zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), didanosine, and abacavir. Skinfolds and circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 months. Mid arm, mid thigh, and waist subcutaneous tissue areas and nonsubcutaneous tissue areas were calculated. Rates of change per year of exposure to each individual ART drug were determined using multivariate longitudinal regression. d4T and ZDV use was associated with losses in subcutaneous tissue area and skinfold thickness. 3TC use was associated with gains in all subcutaneous tissue areas and skinfold thickness, whereas abacavir use was associated with an increase in waist subcutaneous tissue area. Indinavir was associated with gains in waist subcutaneous tissue area, whereas indinavir, efavirenz, and nevirapine were associated with increases in upper back skinfolds. d4T use was also associated with increases in all nonsubcutaneous tissue areas; 3TC use was associated with the greatest increase in waist nonsubcutaneous tissue area. In this prospective nonrandomized evaluation, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors d4T and ZDV were associated with decreases in subcutaneous tissue areas, whereas 3TC use was associated with increased subcutaneous tissue areas and waist nonsubcutaneous tissue area.

  10. Non-carbon titanium cobalt nitride nanotubes supported platinum catalyst with high activity and durability for methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxiang; Li, Wuyi; Pan, Zhanchang; Xu, Yanbin; Liu, Gen; Hu, Guanghui; Wu, Shoukun; Li, Jinghong; Chen, Chun; Lin, Yingsheng

    2018-05-01

    Titanium cobalt nitride nanotubes (Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs) hybrid support, a novel robust non-carbon support material prepared by solvothermal and post-nitriding processes, is further decorated with Pt nanoparticles for the electrooxidation of methanol. The catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption/desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements. The morphology, structure and composition of the synthesized Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs suggest that the nanotube wall is porous and consists of homogeneous cohesively attached nitrides nanocube particles. Notable, Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs supported Pt catalyst exhibits significantly improved catalytic activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation compared with the conventional JM Pt/C catalyst. The experimental data indicate that enhanced catalytic activity and stability of Pt/Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs towards methanol electrooxidation might be mainly attributed to the tubular nanostructures and synergistic effect introduced by the Co doping. Both of them are playing an important role in improving the activity and durability of the Ti0.95Co0.05N NTs catalyst.

  11. Highly active promoters and native secretion signals for protein production during extremely low growth rates in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanka, Franziska; Arentshorst, Mark; Cairns, Timothy C; Jørgensen, Thomas; Ram, Arthur F J; Meyer, Vera

    2016-08-20

    The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is used in many industrial processes for the production of enzymes and organic acids by batch and fed-batch cultivation. An alternative technique is continuous cultivation, which promises improved yield and optimized pipeline efficiency. In this work, we have used perfusion (retentostat) cultivation to validate two promoters that are suitable for A. niger continuous cultivation of industrially relevant products. Firstly, promoters of genes encoding either an antifungal protein (Panafp) or putative hydrophobin (PhfbD) were confirmed as active throughout retentostat culture by assessing mRNA and protein levels using a luciferase (mluc) reporter system. This demonstrated the anafp promoter mediates a high but temporally variable expression profile, whereas the hfbD promoter mediates a semi-constant, moderate-to-high protein expression during retentostat culture. In order to assess whether these promoters were suitable to produce heterologous proteins during retentostat cultivation, the secreted antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus, which has many potential biotechnological applications, was expressed in A. niger during retentostat cultivation. Additionally, this assay was used to concomitantly validate that native secretion signals encoded in anafp and hfbD genes can be harnessed for secretion of heterologous proteins. Afp mRNA and protein abundance were comparable to luciferase measurements throughout retentostat cultivation, validating the use of Panafp and PhfbD for perfusion cultivation. Finally, a gene encoding the highly commercially relevant thermal hysteresis protein (THP) was expressed in this system, which did not yield detectable protein. Both hfbD and anafp promoters are suitable for production of useful products in A. niger during perfusion cultivation. These findings provide a platform for further optimisations for high production of heterologous proteins with industrial relevance.

  12. A phase 2 study of high-activity {sup 186}Re-HEDP with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant in progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer metastatic to bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, J.M. [Queen' s University Belfast/Belfast City Hospital, Department of Oncology, Belfast (United Kingdom); Norman, A.R. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Computing, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); McCready, V.R.; Flux, G.; Buffa, F.M. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Physics, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Johnson, B. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Bob Champion Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Coffey, J.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.A.; Parker, C.C.; Dearnaley, D.P. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Academic Unit of Urology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Cook, G. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Treleaven, J. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Haematology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    We investigated the potential for improvement in disease control by use of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) to permit administration of high activities of {sup 186}Re-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) in patients with progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Eligible patients had progressive HRPC metastatic to bone, good performance status and minimal soft tissue disease. Patients received 5,000 MBq of {sup 186}Re-HEDP i.v., followed 14 days later by PBSCT. Response was assessed using PSA, survival, pain scores and quality of life. Thirty-eight patients with a median age of 67 years (range 50-77) and a median PSA of 57 ng/ml (range 4-3,628) received a median activity of 4,978 MBq {sup 186}Re-HEDP (range 4,770-5,100 MBq). The most serious toxicity was short-lived grade 3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (21%) patients. The median survival of the group is 21 months (95%CI 18-24 months) with Kaplan-Meier estimated 1- and 2-year survival rates of 83% and 40% respectively. Thirty-one patients (81%, 95% CI 66-90%) had stable or reduced PSA levels 3 months post therapy while 11 (29%, 95% CI 15-49%) had PSA reductions of >50% lasting >4 weeks. Quality of life measures were stable or improved in 27 (66%) at 3 months. We have shown that it is feasible and safe to deliver high-activity radioisotope therapy with PBSCT to men with metastatic HRPC. Response rates and survival data are encouraging; however, further research is needed to define optimal role of this treatment approach. (orig.)

  13. Prevalence of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome among HIV positive individuals on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral treatment in Jimma, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Tsegay; Yami, Alemishet; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Yemane, Tilahun; Hamza, Leja; Kassim, Mehedi; Deribe, Kebede

    2012-01-01

    Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to significant reductions in morbidity and mortality rates. However, these agents had also given rise to the metabolic and morphologic abnormalities which are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Evidences elsewhere indicate growing in prevalence of these problems but studies are lacking in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome in patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 on a sample of 313 patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy in Jimma University specialized hospital. Structured questionnaire was used to assess patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of metabolic abnormalities. Checklists were used for reviewing charts about clinical manifestations of metabolic abnormalities and immunologic profile of patients. Data was cleaned, entered in and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 21.1% and HIV-lipodystrophy was detected 12.1% of patients. The factors found to be independently associated with metabolic syndrome were taking the antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months (AOR=4.2; 95% CI=1.24-14.23) and female sex (AOR=2.30; 95% CI=1.0-5.27) and the factor found to be independently associated with HIV-lipodystrophy was taking the antiretroviral therapy (AOR=3.59; 95% CI=1.03-12.54) for more than 12 months. Metabolic abnormalities were relatively common in the study population. The problems were higher among those who took anti-retroviral treatment for longer duration. Therefore, regular screening for and taking action against the metabolic abnormalities is mandatory.

  14. LaaA, a novel high-active alkalophilic alpha-amylase from deep-sea bacterium Luteimonas abyssi XH031(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghao; Wang, Yan; Yin, Chong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-amylase is a kind of broadly used industrial enzymes, most of which have been exploited from terrestrial organism. Comparatively, alpha-amylase from marine environment was largely undeveloped. In this study, a novel alkalophilic alpha-amylase with high activity, Luteimonas abyssi alpha-amylase (LaaA), was cloned from deep-sea bacterium L. abyssi XH031(T) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The gene has a length of 1428bp and encodes 475 amino acids with a 35-residue signal peptide. The specific activity of LaaA reached 8881U/mg at the optimum pH 9.0, which is obvious higher than other reported alpha-amylase. This enzyme can remain active at pH levels ranging from 6.0 to 11.0 and temperatures below 45°C, retaining high activity even at low temperatures (almost 38% residual activity at 10°C). In addition, 1mM Na(+), K(+), and Mn(2+) enhanced the activity of LaaA. To investigate the function of potential active sites, R227G, D229K, E256Q/H, H327V and D328V mutants were generated, and the results suggested that Arg227, Asp229, Glu256 and Asp328 were total conserved and essential for the activity of alpha-amylase LaaA. This study shows that the alpha-amylase LaaA is an alkali-tolerant and high-active amylase with strong potential for use in detergent industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Liver ultrastructural morphology and mitochondrial DNA levels in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection: no evidence of mitochondrial damage with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Motoi; Chu, Fanny F S; Au, May; Lu, Helen; Chen, Jennifer; Rietkerk, Sonja; Barrios, Rolando; Farley, John D; Montaner, Julio S; Montessori, Valentina C; Walker, David C; Côté, Hélène C F

    2008-06-19

    Liver mitochondrial toxicity is a concern, particularly in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. Liver biopsies from HIV/HCV co-infected patients, 14 ON-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and nine OFF-HAART, were assessed by electron microscopy quantitative morphometric analyses. Hepatocytes tended to be larger ON-HAART than OFF-HAART (P = 0.05), but mitochondrial volume, cristae density, lipid volume, mitochondrial DNA and RNA levels were similar. We found no evidence of increased mitochondrial toxicity in individuals currently on HAART, suggesting that concomitant HAART should not delay HCV therapy.

  16. HIV treatment response and prognosis in Europe and North America in the first decade of highly active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, M; Sterne, J; Costagliola, D

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV infection was introduced a decade ago. We aimed to examine trends in the characteristics of patients starting HAART in Europe and North America, and their treatment response and short-term prognosis. METHODS: We......, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002-03. The primary endpoints were the hazard ratios for AIDS and for death from all causes in the first year of HAART, which were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: The proportion of heterosexually infected patients increased from 20% in 1995-96 to 47% in 2002...

  17. Impact of injecting drug use on response to highly active antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vang; Omland, Lars; Gerstoft, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients infected through injecting drug use (injecting drug users, IDUs) compared to patients infected via other routes (non-IDUs). We conducted...... for non-IDUs, and IDUs initiated HAART later than non-IDUs. In conclusion, more than half of the HIV-infected patients in Denmark infected through injecting drug use gained full viral suppression after initiating HAART. Absolute CD4(+) cell count was lower and mortality higher among IDUs than non-IDUs....

  18. Some physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... contents of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) type grown in Konya .... Working conditions of ICP-AES. Instrument: ICP-AES ... The volume of fruit (V) and fruit density (Pt), were determined using the liquid ... These differences can.

  19. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96-99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  20. Combinatorial selection of a two-dimensional 3d-TM-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TM-TCNQ) monolayer as a high-activity nanocatalyst for CO oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Qingming; Wu, Tiantian; Chen, Guibin

    2018-01-01

    catalyzed by Sc-TCNQ (CO + O2* → OOCO*) can follow the LH mechanism with free energy barriers as low as 0.73 eV at 300 K. The second step of CO + O* → CO2 can occur with rather small energy barriers via either LH or ER mechanisms. The high activity of Sc-TCNQ can be attributed to its unique structural...... and thermodynamics of all the ten candidates (Sc-Zn), Sc-TCNQ is found to display the lowest activation energies and yield the highest catalytic activity for room temperature CO oxidation. Exploring the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms, we find that the rate-limiting step of CO oxidation...... and electronic features by possessing high stability, optimum adsorption energies with adsorbates, and fast reaction kinetics. These results have significant implications for the synthesis of two-dimensional single atom catalysis for CO oxidation with low-cost and high activity at low temperature....

  1. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayati, Talib M., E-mail: talib-albyati@yahoo.com [University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iraq); Doyle, Aidan M., E-mail: a.m.doyle@mmu.ac.uk [Manchester Metropolitan University, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  2. Unearthing a Well-Defined Highly Active Bimetallic W/Ti Precatalyst Anchored on a Single Silica Surface for Metathesis of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja; Kavitake, Santosh Giridhar; Morlanes, Natalia Sanchez; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali; Dey, Raju; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Two compatible organometallic complexes, W(Me)(6) (1) and TiNp4 (2), were successively anchored on a highly dehydroxylated single silica support (SiO2-700) to synthesize the well-defined bimetallic precatalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)(equivalent to Si-O-)Ti(Np)(3)] (4). Precatalyst 4 was characterized at the molecular level using advanced surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) characterization techniques. The strong autocorrelation observed between methyl of W and Ti in H-1-H-1 multiple-quantum NMR spectra demonstrates that W and Ti species are in close proximity to each other. The bimetallic precatalyst 4, with a turnover number (TON) of 9784, proved to be significantly more efficient than the silica-supported monometallic catalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] (3), with a TON of 98, for propane metathesis at 150 degrees C in a flow reactor. The dramatic improvement in the activity signifies the cooperativity between Ti and W and indicates that the key step of alkane metathesis (C-H bond activation followed by beta-H elimination) occurs on Ti, followed by olefin metathesis, which occurs on W. We have demonstrated the influence and importance of proximity of Ti to W for achieving such a significantly high activity. This is the first report demonstrating the considerably high activity (TON = 9784) in propane metathesis at moderate temperature (150 degrees C) using a well-defined bimetallic system prepared via the SOMC approach.

  3. Unearthing a Well-Defined Highly Active Bimetallic W/Ti Precatalyst Anchored on a Single Silica Surface for Metathesis of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja

    2017-02-10

    Two compatible organometallic complexes, W(Me)(6) (1) and TiNp4 (2), were successively anchored on a highly dehydroxylated single silica support (SiO2-700) to synthesize the well-defined bimetallic precatalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)(equivalent to Si-O-)Ti(Np)(3)] (4). Precatalyst 4 was characterized at the molecular level using advanced surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) characterization techniques. The strong autocorrelation observed between methyl of W and Ti in H-1-H-1 multiple-quantum NMR spectra demonstrates that W and Ti species are in close proximity to each other. The bimetallic precatalyst 4, with a turnover number (TON) of 9784, proved to be significantly more efficient than the silica-supported monometallic catalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] (3), with a TON of 98, for propane metathesis at 150 degrees C in a flow reactor. The dramatic improvement in the activity signifies the cooperativity between Ti and W and indicates that the key step of alkane metathesis (C-H bond activation followed by beta-H elimination) occurs on Ti, followed by olefin metathesis, which occurs on W. We have demonstrated the influence and importance of proximity of Ti to W for achieving such a significantly high activity. This is the first report demonstrating the considerably high activity (TON = 9784) in propane metathesis at moderate temperature (150 degrees C) using a well-defined bimetallic system prepared via the SOMC approach.

  4. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction

  5. Solidification of highly active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.B.

    1984-11-01

    Final reports are presented on work on the following topics: glass technology; enhancement of off-gas aerosol collection; formation and trapping of volatile ruthenium; volatilisation of caesium, technetium and tellurium in high-level waste vitrification; deposition of ruthenium; and calcination of high-level waste liquors. (author)

  6. High activity levels nearly everywhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Far East. Large crude producing countries are upgrading their mature oil properties. Offshore gas fields are being found and developed as new pipeline infrastructures open several remote areas. Separate evaluations are given for China, Indonesia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Pakistan, Myanmar, Brunei, Philippines, and briefly for Cambodia, Bangladesh, Japan, Mongolia, Taiwan, Afghanistan, and the Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area

  7. Highly active ethylene oligomerization catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albahily, K.; Licciulli, S.; Gambarotta, S.; Korobkov, I.V.; Chevalier, R.; Schuhen, K.; Duchateau, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reaction of RN(H)PBr(Ph)2N(H)R [R = t-Bu, i-Pr, Ph] with two equivalents of n-BuLi followed by reaction with CrCl2(THF)2 afforded the divalent chromium complexes [(t-Bu)NP(Ph)2N(t-Bu)]Cr(µ2-Cl)2Li(THF)2 (1), [(i-Pr)NP(Ph)2N(i-Pr)]Cr(µ2-Cl)2Li(THF)2 (2), and

  8. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Mitomycin C for Invasive Anal Carcinoma in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunholz, Ingeborg; Weiss, Christian; Eberlein, Klaus; Haberl, Annette; Roedel, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcomes of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal carcinoma in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Patients and Methods: Between 1997 and 2008, 21 HIV-positive patients who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy were treated with CRT (50.4 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction plus a 5.4-10.8-Gy external boost; 5-fluorouracil, 1,000 mg/m 2 , Days 1-4 and 29-32; and mitomycin C, 10 mg/m 2 , Days 1 and 29). A retrospective analysis was performed with respect to the tumor response, local control, cancer-specific and overall survival, and toxicity. The immunologic parameters, including pre- and post-treatment CD4 count, viral load, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-specific morbidity was recorded during follow-up (median, 53 months; range, 10-99). Results: CRT could be completed in all 21 patients with a reduction in the chemotherapy dose and/or interruption of radiotherapy in 5 and 5 cases, respectively. Acute Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 8 (38%) of the 21 patients. A complete response was achieved in 17 patients (81%), and tumor persistence or early progression was noted in 4 (19%). Six patients (29%) died, 5 of cancer progression and 1 of treatment-related toxicity. The 5-year local control, cancer-specific, and overall survival rate was 59%, 75%, and 67%, respectively. The median CD4 count significantly decreased from 347.5 cells/μL before CRT to 125 cells/μL 3-7 weeks after CRT completion (p <.001). In 6 (32%) of 19 patients, an increase of the HIV viral load was noted. Both parameters returned to the pretreatment values with additional follow-up. Conclusion: Our data have confirmed that in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-related anal cancer can be treated with standard CRT without dose reductions. Close surveillance of the immunologic parameters is necessary.

  9. Evaluation of zeolite mixtures for decontaminating high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Campbell, D.O.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1984-05-01

    Mixtures of Linde Ionsiv IE-96 and Ionsiv A-51 were evaluated for use in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) that was installed at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station to decontaminate approx. 2780 m 3 of high-activity-level water. The original SDS flowsheet was conservatively designed for removal of cesium and strontium and would have required the use of approx. 60 SDS columns. Mixed zeolite tests were made on a 10 -5 scale and indicated that the appropriate ratio of IE-96/A-51 was 3/2. A mathematical model was used to predict the performance of the mixed zeolite columns in the SDS configuration and with the intended method of operation. Actual loading results were similar to those predicted for strontium and better than those predicted for cesium. The number of SDS columns needed to process the HALW was reduced to approx. 10. 6 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  10. Gram-Scale Synthesis of Highly Active and Durable Octahedral PtNi Nanoparticle Catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Juhyuk; Jang, Jue-Hyuk; Roh, Chi-Woo

    2018-01-01

    for the commercialization of PEMFCs. In this study, we focus on gram-scale synthesis of octahedral PtNi nanoparticles with Pt overlayers (PtNi@Pt) supported on the carbon, resulting in enhanced catalytic activity and durability. Such PtNi@Pt catalysts show high mass activity (1.24 A mgPt−1) at 0.9 V (vs RHE) for the ORR......Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are regarded as a promising renewable energy source for a future hydrogen energy society. However, highly active and durable catalysts are required for the PEMFCs because of their intrinsic high overpotential at the cathode and operation under the acidic...... condition for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Since the discovery of the exceptionally high surface activity of Pt3Ni(111), the octahedral PtNi nanoparticles have been synthesized and tested. Nonetheless, their milligram-scale synthesis method and poor durability make them unsuitable...

  11. Incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in HIV-infected patients during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig, Frederik Neess; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Omland, Lars Haukali

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection predisposes to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Here, we describe the incidence, presentation, and prognosis of PML in HIV-1-infected patients during the period before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1995...... at presentation and follow-up. RESULTS: Among 4,649 patients, we identified 47 patients with PML. The incidence rates were 3.3, 1.8, and 1.3 cases per 1000 person-years at risk in 1995-1996, 1997-1999, and 2000-2006, respectively. The risk of PML was significantly associated with low CD4(+) cell count, and 47......% of cases were diagnosed by means of brain biopsy or polymerase chain reaction analysis for JC virus. The predominant neurological symptoms at presentation were coordination disturbance, cognitive defects, and limb paresis. Thirty-five patients died; the median survival time was 0.4 years (95% confidence...

  12. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and outcome of AIDS-related Burkitt's lymphoma or leukemia. Results of the PETHEMA-LAL3/97 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Albert; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Brunet, Salut; del Potro, Eloy; Abella, Eugènia; Esteve, Jordi

    2005-07-01

    Short, intensive cycles of chemotherapy have resulted in improved survival in BurkittOs lymphoma/leukemia (BL) in adults. The prognosis of patients with immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated BL is considered to be poor, but these patients have seldom been treated with BL-specific protocols. However, a study (PETHEMA-LAL3/97) in which patients with BL were treated regardless of their HIV status failed to find differences between HIV-infected and immunocompetent individuals. Furthermore, patients who received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) seemed to have a slightly better disease-free survival than those who did not (p=0.051). We extended the follow-up analysis to elucidate the role of HAART in the survival of HIV-infected patients included in the PETHEMA-LAL3/97 protocol.

  13. Resistance profiles and adherence at primary virological failure in three different highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens: analysis of failure rates in a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, B T; Barfod, T S; Kirk, O

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interplay between resistance and adherence in the virological failure of three fundamentally different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 56 verified primary virological failures (viral load >400 HIV-1 RNA...... copies/mL) among 293 patients randomized to two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)+ritonavir+saquinavir (RS-arm) (n=115), two NRTIs+nevirapine+nelfinavir (NN-arm) (n=118), or abacavir+stavudine+didanosine (ASD-arm) (n=60) followed up for a median of 90 weeks. Data on adherence were...... collected from patient files, and genotyping was performed on plasma samples collected at time of failure. RESULTS: Treatment interruption or poor adherence was mainly caused by side effects and accounted for 74% of failures, and was associated with absence of resistance mutations. In the 30 failing...

  14. Solution Structures of Highly Active Molecular Ir Water-Oxidation Catalysts from Density Functional Theory Combined with High-Energy X-ray Scattering and EXAFS Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke R; Matula, Adam J; Kwon, Gihan; Hong, Jiyun; Sheehan, Stafford W; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H; Tiede, David M; Chen, Lin X; Batista, Victor S

    2016-05-04

    The solution structures of highly active Ir water-oxidation catalysts are elucidated by combining density functional theory, high-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We find that the catalysts are Ir dimers with mono-μ-O cores and terminal anionic ligands, generated in situ through partial oxidation of a common catalyst precursor. The proposed structures are supported by (1)H and (17)O NMR, EPR, resonance Raman and UV-vis spectra, electrophoresis, etc. Our findings are particularly valuable to understand the mechanism of water oxidation by highly reactive Ir catalysts. Importantly, our DFT-EXAFS-HEXS methodology provides a new in situ technique for characterization of active species in catalytic systems.

  15. Cold adaptation, ca2+ dependency and autolytic stability are related features in a highly active cold-adapted trypsin resistant to autoproteolysis engineered for biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Olivera-Nappa

    Full Text Available Pig trypsin is routinely used as a biotechnological tool, due to its high specificity and ability to be stored as an inactive stable zymogen. However, it is not an optimum enzyme for conditions found in wound debriding for medical uses and trypsinization processes for protein analysis and animal cell culturing, where low Ca(2+ dependency, high activity in mild conditions and easy inactivation are crucial. We isolated and thermodynamically characterized a highly active cold-adapted trypsin for medical and laboratory use that is four times more active than pig trypsin at 10(° C and at least 50% more active than pig trypsin up to 50(° C. Contrary to pig trypsin, this enzyme has a broad optimum pH between 7 and 10 and is very insensitive to Ca(2+ concentration. The enzyme is only distantly related to previously described cryophilic trypsins. We built and studied molecular structure models of this trypsin and performed molecular dynamic calculations. Key residues and structures associated with calcium dependency and cryophilicity were identified. Experiments indicated that the protein is unstable and susceptible to autoproteolysis. Correlating experimental results and structural predictions, we designed mutations to improve the resistance to autoproteolysis and conserve activity for longer periods after activation. One single mutation provided around 25 times more proteolytic stability. Due to its cryophilic nature, this trypsin is easily inactivated by mild denaturation conditions, which is ideal for controlled proteolysis processes without requiring inhibitors or dilution. We clearly show that cold adaptation, Ca(2+ dependency and autolytic stability in trypsins are related phenomena that are linked to shared structural features and evolve in a concerted fashion. Hence, both structurally and evolutionarily they cannot be interpreted and studied separately as previously done.

  16. Developing a Highly Active Blood Anticoagulant—a Heparin Complex with Glutamic Acid—by Simulating Chemical Equilibria Based on pH-Metric Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. S.; Semenov, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    The anticoagulant activity of high-molecular-weight heparin is increased by developing a new highly active heparin complex with glutamate using the thermodynamic model of chemical equilibria based on pH-metric data. The anticoagulant activity of the developed complexes is estimated in the pH range of blood plasma according to the drop in the calculated equilibrium Ca2+ concentration associated with the formation of mixed ligand complexes of Ca2+ ions, heparin (Na4hep), and glutamate (H2Glu). A thermodynamic model is calculated by mathematically modelling chemical equilibria in the CaCl2-Na4hep-H2Glu-H2O-NaCl system in the pH range of 2.30 ≤ pH ≤ 10.50 in diluted saline that acts as a background electrolyte (0.154 M NaCl) at 37°C and initial concentrations of the main components of ν × 10-3 M, where n ≤ 4. The thermodynamic model is used to determine the main complex of the monomeric unit of heparin with glutamate (HhepGlu5-) and the most stable mixed ligand complex of Ca2+ with heparin and glutamate (Ca2hepGlu2-) in the pH range of blood plasma (6.80 ≤ pH ≤ 7.40). It is concluded that the Ca2hepGlu2- complex reduces the Ca2+ concentration 107 times more than the Ca2+ complex with pure heparin. The anticoagulant effect of the developed HhepGlu5- complex is confirmed in vitro and in vivo via coagulation tests on the blood plasma of laboratory rats. Additional antithrombotic properties of the developed complex are identified. The new highly active anticoagulant, HhepGlu5- complex with additional antithrombotic properties, is patented.

  17. Considerations in using text messages to improve adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: a qualitative study among clients in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuagbaw L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mbuagbaw1,2, Renée Cécile Bonono-Momnougui1, Lehana Thabane2,31Centre for the Development of Best Practices in Health (CDBPH, Yaoundé Central Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 3Biostatistics Unit, Father Sean O'Sullivan Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is a major hindrance to the reduction of mortality and morbidity due to HIV. This qualitative study used focus groups to explore the views and experiences of HIV patients on HAART with adherence reminders, especially the text message (SMS [short message service]. The ethnographic data obtained were used to design a clinical trial to assess the effect of motivational text messages versus usual care to enhance adherence to HAART among HIV patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Participants appreciated the idea of a timely SMS reminder, and cited the physician as a role model. They expressed concerns about privacy. Long-term life goals were a motivating factor to adhere. Overall, text messaging was viewed positively as a tool with a dual function of reminder and motivator. Messages coming from the attending physician may have a stronger impact. Trials investigating the use of text messages to improve adherence to HAART need to consider the content and timing of SMS, taking into account technical challenges and privacy.Keywords: focus groups, adherence, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, text message, short message service (SMS, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  18. Total reflection x-ray analysis of metals in blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takuya; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kawamata, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The sample preparation for TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) quantitative analysis of trace elements in human blood samples was investigated. In the TXRF analysis, a solution sample is dropped and dried on a flat substrate, and then the dried residue is measured. In this case, the dried residue should be flat not to disturb X-ray total reflection on the substrate. In addition, it is required to simply measure the whole blood sample by TXRF method, although a serum is analyzed in many cases. Thus, we studied the optimum conditions of the sample preparation of the whole blood by adding the pure water to apply Hemolysis phenomenon, where blood cells are destroyed due to different of the osmotic pressure, leading to flat residue. It was found that the best S/B ratio was obtained when the whole blood was diluted 8 times with pure water. Moreover, it was investigated the influence of the surface chemical condition of the glass substrate on the shape of the dried reside of the blood sample. When the surface of the glass substrate was hydrophilic, the shape of the dried residues was not uniform, as a result, the quantitative data of TXRF analysis gave a large deviation. On the other hand, when the surface of the glass was hydrophobic, the shape of the residue was almost uniform, as a result, a good reproducibility was obtained. Another problem was an outer ring of the dried residue of the blood. This uneven ring absorbs the primary X-rays, caused to low determined quantitative data. Thus, we tried the heating way of the dropped blood sample at a high temperature of 200 degrees. In this case, the blood sample was dried immediately, and a flat homogeneous dried residue was obtained without the outer ring. Using the optimized conditions for sample preparation, human blood sample was quantitatively measured by TXRF and ICP-AES. A good agreement was obtained in TXRF and ICP-AES determinations; however, the measurement of Cl and Br will be an advantage of TXRF, because

  19. Production of high activity Aspergillus niger BCC4525 β-mannanase in Pichia pastoris and its application for mannooligosaccharides production from biomass hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnpicharnchai, Piyanun; Pinngoen, Waraporn; Teanngam, Wanwisa; Sornlake, Warasirin; Sae-Tang, Kittapong; Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa

    2016-12-01

    A cDNA encoding β-mannanase was cloned from Aspergillus niger BCC4525 and expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71. The secreted enzyme hydrolyzed locust bean gum substrate with very high activity (1625 U/mL) and a relatively high k cat /K m (461 mg -1 s -1  mL). The enzyme is thermophilic and thermostable with an optimal temperature of 70 °C and 40% retention of endo-β-1,4-mannanase activity after preincubation at 70 °C. In addition, the enzyme exhibited broad pH stability with an optimal pH of 5.5. The recombinant enzyme hydrolyzes low-cost biomass, including palm kernel meal (PKM) and copra meal, to produce mannooligosaccharides, which is used as prebiotics to promote the growth of beneficial microflora in animals. An in vitro digestibility test simulating the gastrointestinal tract system of broilers suggested that the recombinant β-mannanase could effectively liberate reducing sugars from PKM-containing diet. These characteristics render this enzyme suitable for utilization as a feed additive to improve animal performance.

  20. Tenofovir-Based Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Superior CD4 T Cells Repopulation Compared to Zidovudine-Based HAART in HIV 1 Infected Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitus Sambo Badii

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenofovir-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is one of the preferred first-line therapies in the management of HIV 1 infection. Ghana has since 2014 adopted this recommendation; however there is paucity of scientific data that reflects the safety and efficacy of the tenofovir-based therapy compared to zidovudine in the Ghanaian health system. This study sought to assess the comparative immune reconstitution potential between tenofovir and zidovudine-based HAART regimens, which includes lamivudine and efavirenz in combination therapy. It also aimed to investigate the adverse drug reactions/events (ADREs associated with pharmacotherapy with these agents in a total of 106 HAART naïve HIV patients. The study included 80 patients in the tenofovir cohort while 26 patients were on the zidovudine regimen. The occurrence of HIV comorbidities profile was assessed at diagnosis and throughout the study period. The baseline CD4 T cells count of the participants was also assessed at diagnosis and repeated at a median period of five months (range 4–6 months, after commencing treatment with either tenofovir- or zidovudine-based HAART. After five months of the HAART, the tenofovir cohort recorded higher CD4 T cell count change from baseline compared to the zidovudine cohort (p<0.0001. The patients on the tenofovir-based HAART and female sex however appeared to be associated with more multiple ADREs.

  1. Recent advances in the designing and the equipment of high activity laboratories; Progres recents dans la conception et l'equipement des laboratoires de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R; Duhamel, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The authors described the general principles governing the design of a laboratory for experimenting and handling radioactive substances. The difficulties encountered are of two types: 1) those due to the dangers of external irradiation; 2) those due to the dangers of internal contamination. As an example, the authors describe the French achievements in this field and in particular: - the high-activity laboratories at Saclay; - the laboratory for the examination of irradiated fuels at Saclay; - the 'hot' laboratory of the CEN-Grenoble; - the alpha, beta and gamma laboratories of the CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Finally, the report describes the protective materials used for these installations. (author) [French] Les auteurs exposent quels sont les principes generaux qui president a la conception d'un laboratoire a des travaux et des manipulations sur des substances radioactives. Les difficultes a surmonter sont de deux ordres: 1) celles qui proviennent du danger d'irradiation externe; 2) celles qui proviennent du danger de contamination interne. A titre d'exemple, les auteurs decrivent les realisations francaises dans ce domaine et en particulier: - le laboratoire de haute activite de Saclay, - le laboratoire d'examen des combustibles irradies de Saclay, - le laboratoire chaud du CEN-Grenoble, - les laboratoires alpha, beta, gamma du CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Enfin, le rapport decrit les materiaux de protection mis en oeuvre pour ces realisations. (auteur)

  2. Evolution of HVR-1 quasispecies after 1-year treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients according to the pattern of response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmone, Mariacarmela; Girardi, Enrico; Lalle, Eleonora; Abbate, Isabella; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Alessandrini, Anna; Piscopo, Rita; Ebo, Francesca; Cosco, Lucio; Antonucci, Giorgio; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria R

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) variability is mainly attributed to the ability of the virus to respond to host immune pressure, acting as a driving force for the evolution of quasispecies. This study was aimed at studying the changes in HVR-1 heterogeneity and the evolution of HCV quasispecies in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients according to the pattern of response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Sixteen HIV/HCV-coinfected patients harbouring HCV genotype 1 and who had been on HAART for at least 1 year, 8 showing increasing CD4+ T-cell counts (immunological responders) and 8 showing a stable or decreasing CD4+ T-cell counts (immunological nonresponders), were selected from a prospective cohort study. After 1 year of HAART, 11 patients showed HIV viral load HVR-1 region of HCV. Nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions ratio (Ka/Ks), aminoacidic complexity (normalized Shannon entropy) and diversity (p-distance), were considered as parameters of quasispecies heterogeneity. After 1 year of HAART, heterogeneity of HVR-1 quasispecies significantly decreased in virological non-responders, whereas the heterogeneity tended to increase in virological responders. The differences in the evolution were less stringent, when considering immunological response. On the other hand, profound qualitative modifications of HVR-1 quasispecies were observed only in patients with both immunological and virological HAART response. On the whole, these findings suggest that, in patients undergoing HAART, the extent of HCV variability and the evolution of HVR-1 quasispecies is influenced by the pattern of response to antiretroviral therapy.

  3. EFFECT OF HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY ON VAGINAL Candida spp. ISOLATION IN HIV-INFECTED COMPARED TO HIV-UNINFECTED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Souza Dantas ALCZUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE for sexually transmitted diseases (STD/AIDS of the city of Maringá, Brazil, from April 1 to October 30, 2011. The yeasts were isolated and identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was tested by the reference microdilution method. Higher frequencies of total vaginal Candida spp. isolation were found in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. However, both groups showed a similar frequency of colonization and VVC. Although C. albicans was the most frequent and sensitive to azolics and polyenes in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, the emerging resistance of C. glabrata to amphotericin B in the HIV-infected women was observed. Although higher frequency of vaginal Candida spp. isolation had been observed in the HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected women, colonization and VVC showed similar frequency in both groups, indicating that HAART appears to protect against vaginal colonization and VVC.

  4. A facile lyophilization synthesis of MoS{sub 2} QDs@graphene as a highly active electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenzhu; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiang; Tang, Yu; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Wenbin [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gansu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Chemical Catalysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Rong, E-mail: liyirong@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gansu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Chemical Catalysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The target catalyst was prepared by a facile and novel lyophilization method. • The HER activity of various morphologies of MoS{sub 2}-based catalysts were studied. • The catalyst owns superior dispersion, large active sites and high conductivity. • The catalyst exhibits superior HER activity and long-term stability. - Abstract: The development of robust, active and nonprecious electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction is quite urgent but still challenging. Here MoS{sub 2} QDs@Graphene is prepared via a facile lyophilization method, which leads to a better dispersion of MoS{sub 2} QDs on the graphene and optimizes the electronic mobility between the MoS{sub 2} layers. Impressively, the electrocatalyst MoS{sub 2} QDs@Graphene demonstrates the remarkable activity for HER in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, with a current density of 10 mA cm{sup −2} at a low overpotential of 140 mV and strong stability in acid condition. The achieved excellent performance is attributed to its morphology with large amount of active sites fabricated by the lyophilization method. This new method opens new pathway for the fabrication of non-precious metal electrocatalysts achieving high activity.

  5. The Modalities of Nonadherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and the Associated Factors Related to Patients' Sociodemographic Characteristics and Their Caregiving Perceptions in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guira, Oumar; Kaboré, Delwendé S R; Dao, Ginette; Zagré, Nicaise; Zohoncon, Théodora M; Pietra, Virginio; Drabo, Joseph Y; Simporé, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    The authors studied the modalities of nonadherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and its sociodemographic associated factors and those in relation to caregiving perception in Ouagadougou. A cross-sectional study was performed from December 2013 to February 2014 in 2 health centers. Adults receiving HAART for at least 3 months were included. Adherence was studied according to the quantitative, qualitative, and global criteria. Factors associated with nonadherence were analyzed with chi-square and Fisher tests. A logistic regression model was applied for multivariate analysis. The authors studied 152 patients: mean age 40.7 ± 7.8 years and sex ratio 0.34. Frequencies were 7.2% for self-reported quantitative, 20.4% for calculated quantitative, 31.6% for qualitative, and 38.2% for global nonadherence. Married status (P = .02), patient's dissatisfaction regarding clinical monitoring (P = .01), and therapeutic education (P = .03) were associated with nonadherence. In multivariate analysis, married status remains associated (odds ratio = 7.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.89-25.8, P = .0004). Nonadherence to HAART needs to be correctly managed during HIV/AIDS monitoring. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Time to and Predictors of CD4+ T-Lymphocytes Recovery in HIV-Infected Children Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Renner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. CD4+ T-lymphocyte monitoring is not routinely available in most resource-limited settings. We investigated predictors of time to CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery in HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral (HAART at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Methods. Time to CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery was defined as achieving percent CD4+ T-lymphocytes of 25%. We used Cox proportional hazard models for identifying significant predictor variables. Results. Of the 233 children with complete CD4+ T-lymphocyte data, the mean age at HAART initiation was 5.5 (SD=3.1 years. The median recovery time was 60 weeks (95% CL: 55–65. Evidence at baseline of severe suppression in CD4+ T-lymphocyte count adjusted for age, age at HAART initiation, gender, and having parents alive were statistically significant in predicting time to CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery. Conclusions. A targeted approach based on predictors of CD4+ T-lymphocyte recovery can be a viable and cost-effective way of monitoring HAART in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings.

  7. Oral Candida colonization and its relation with predisposing factors in HIV-infected children and their uninfected siblings in Brazil: the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Pomarico, Luciana; de Araújo Soares, Rosangela Maria; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro; Castro, Glória Fernanda

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate predisposing factors such as orofacial manifestations, immunosuppression status and antiretroviral therapy in relation to oral colonization by Candida spp. in Brazilian HIV-infected children and their uninfected siblings in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Whole stimulated saliva was collected from 65 HIV-infected children (HIV+) and 40 uninfected siblings (HIV-), followed by assessment of orofacial manifestation, caries indexes and the number of cavitated dentinal carious teeth (CDT). The salivary samples were cultured and the colonies were counted. After which they were identified by sugar assimilation and fermentation (API 20C). Data was analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Spearman tests and logistic regression. Regarding positive growth, HIV+ presented 80% (52/65) and HIV- 57.5% (23/40) (P = 0.013). Absence of antiretroviral therapy and HAART increased the probability of Candida isolation (P oral candidiasis (OC) had no influence on Candida isolation. Mixed Candida spp. cultures were observed in HIV+ (40%) and HIV- (52%): C. albicans was more frequently found in both groups, with a higher prevalence in HIV+ (P = 0.05); other non-albicans species were isolated in HIV+ and HIV-. Low prevalence of orofacial manifestations was observed in HIV+ (10.7% of OC). There was an association between means of CDT and Candida growth (P children had a significantly higher prevalence of oral Candida spp. compared to their uninfected siblings. Absence of HAART and presence of dentinal carious teeth increased significantly Candida spp. colonization in these children.

  8. Determinants of virological failure among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, Belete; Tariku, Amare; Bulti, Abera Balcha; Habitu, Yohannes Ayanaw; Derso, Terefe; Teshome, Destaw Fetene

    2017-01-01

    Viral load monitoring is used as an important biomarker for diagnosing treatment failure in patients with HIV infection/AIDS. Ethiopia has started targeted viral load monitoring. However, factors leading to virological failure are not well understood and studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the determinants of virological failure among HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A case-control study was conducted from May to June 2015. Cases were subjects who had already experienced virological failure; controls were those without virological failure. Data were extracted from 153 cases and 153 controls through chart review. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with virological failure, and variables with a p -value failure was observed among patients aged failure. Therefore, evidence-based intervention should be implemented to improve adherence to ART, which in turn helps to boost immunity (CD4) and suppresses viral replication and load. Moreover, attention should be given to younger patients who have had ART for longer periods.

  9. Isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium kansasii in an HIV-positive patient, and possible development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Despotovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are rare but important causes of infection in HIV-positive individuals. A 28-year-old HIV-positive male presented with a high fever, non-productive cough, right subcostal pain, splenomegaly, a very low CD4 count, elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a normal white blood cell count. The suspicion of tuberculosis (TB was very high, and sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli. Standard quadruple anti-TB therapy was initiated, but once culture of the sample revealed Mycobacterium kansasii, pyrazinamide was withdrawn. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was initiated soon after, consisting of abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz. The patient's general condition deteriorated 2 weeks after HAART initiation, which could have been due to the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. The patient recovered and was discharged in good condition. However, the results of resistance testing of the isolated organism arrived after discharge, and showed isoniazid and streptomycin resistance. This is the first case report of M. kansasii infection from Serbia and shows the difficulties encountered during the course of treatment.

  10. Impact of hepatitis B virus co-infection on response to highly active antiretroviral treatment and outcome in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, L H; Weis, N; Skinhøj, P

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on viral suppression, immune recovery and mortality in HIV-1 infected patients on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is a matter of debate. The impact of HBeAg status is unknown. METHODS: This prospective cohort study.......6%). Study endpoints were viral load, CD4 cell count and mortality. RESULTS: HBV co-infection had no impact on response to HAART regarding viral suppression or immune recovery. HBV co-infection was associated with several outcomes: overall mortality [mortality rate ratio (MRR) 1.5; 95% confidence interval...... (CI) 1.1-2.1], liver-related mortality (MRR 4.0; 95% CI 1.6-9.9) and AIDS-related deaths (MRR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-3.0). The presence of HBeAg did not influence patients' response to HAART. CONCLUSIONS: In HIV patients, chronic HBV infection has no impact on response to HAART concerning viral load...

  11. Associations between HIV, highly active anti-retroviral therapy, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among maternal deaths in South Africa 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebitloane, Hannah M; Moodley, Jagidesa; Sartorius, Benn

    2017-02-01

    To explore potential relationships between HIV and highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). A retrospective secondary analysis of maternal-deaths data from the 2011-2013 Saving Mothers Report from South Africa. The incidence of HIV infection amongst individuals who died owing to HDP was determined and comparisons were made based on HIV status and the use of HAART. Among 4452 maternal deaths recorded in the Saving Mothers report, a lower risk of a maternal deaths being due to HDP was observed among women who had HIV infections compared with women who did not have HIV (relative risk [RR] 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.64). Further, reduced odds of death being due to HDP were recorded among women with AIDS not undergoing HAART compared with women with HIV who did not require treatment (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.3-0.58). Notably, among all women with AIDS, a greater risk of death due to HDP was demonstrated among those who received HAART compared with those who did not (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.29). HIV and AIDS were associated with a decreased risk of HDP being the primary cause of death; the use of HAART increased this risk. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Highly active, bi-functional and metal-free B4C-nanoparticle-modified graphite felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H. R.; Shyy, W.; Wu, M. C.; Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-10-01

    The potential of B4C as a metal-free catalyst for vanadium redox reactions is investigated by first-principles calculations. Results show that the central carbon atom of B4C can act as a highly active reaction site for redox reactions, due primarily to the abundant unpaired electrons around it. The catalytic effect is then verified experimentally by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests, both of which demonstrate that B4C nanoparticles can enhance the kinetics for both V2+/V3+ and VO2+/VO2+ redox reactions, indicating a bi-functional effect. The B4C-nanoparticle-modified graphite felt electrodes are finally prepared and tested in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). It is shown that the batteries with the prepared electrodes exhibit energy efficiencies of 88.9% and 80.0% at the current densities of 80 and 160 mA cm-2, which are 16.6% and 18.8% higher than those with the original graphite felt electrodes. With a further increase in current densities to 240 and 320 mA cm-2, the batteries can still maintain energy efficiencies of 72.0% and 63.8%, respectively. All these results show that the B4C-nanoparticle-modified graphite felt electrode outperforms existing metal-free catalyst modified electrodes, and thus can be promising electrodes for VRFBs.

  13. Outcome of surgery in post-cytomegalovirus retinal detachment: Experience before and in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy in Indian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cytomegalovirus associated retinal detachment (CMVRD in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients in pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and HAART era in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, we reviewed medical records of all consecutive HIV patients, who underwent surgical repair for CMVRD from July 1998 to June 2011. We divided patients into two groups, i.e. group 1, pre HAART era and group 2, HAART era. We compared two groups for various parameters like visual outcome, surgical success, additional procedures, follow-up, etc., Results: Twenty-eight eyes of 26 patients were included; 12 eyes of the 11 patients in group 1 and 16 eyes of the 15 patients in group 2. Significant visual acuity improvement was seen in both groups. Complete anatomic success was seen in 11 eyes in group 1 and 15 eyes in group 2. One additional procedure in group 1 and 29 additional procedures were done in group 2. A mean follow-up was 16 months in group 1 and 41 months in group 2. Conclusion: There was no difference in outcome in pre-HAART and HAART group, except for longer follow-up and additional surgical procedures in HAART group.

  14. Hepatic histomorphological and biochemical changes following highly active antiretroviral therapy in an experimental animal model: Does Hypoxis hemerocallidea exacerbate hepatic injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyemaechi Okpara Azu

    Full Text Available As the roll-out of antiretroviral therapy continues to drive downwards morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs, organ toxicities (especially the liver are frequently becoming a major concern for researchers, scientists and healthcare planners.This study was conducted to investigate the possible protective effect of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (AP against highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART-induced hepatotoxicity. A total of 63 pathogen-free adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 9 groups and treated according to protocols.While no mortality was reported, animals treated with adjuvant HAART and AP recorded least% body weight gain. Significant derangements in serum lipid profiles were exacerbated by treatment of with AP as LDL (increased p < 0.03, triglycerides (increased p < 0.03 with no change in total cholesterol levels. Adjuvant AP with HAART caused reduction in LDL (p < 0.05 and 0.03, increased HDL (p < 0.05 and TG (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for AP100 and AP200 doses respectively. Markers of liver injury assayed showed significant increase (p < 0.003, 0.001 in AST in AP alone as well as HAART+ vitamins C and E groups respectively. Adjuvant HAART and AP and vitamins C and E also caused significant declines in ALT and ALP levels. Serum GGT was not markedly altered. Disturbances in histopathology ranged from severe hepatocellular distortions, necrosis and massive fibrosis following co-treatment of HAART with vitamins C and E as well as HAART alone. These results warrant caution on the adjuvant use of AP with HAART by PLWHAs as implications for hepatocellular injuries are suspect with untoward cardiometabolic changes. Keywords: Liver morphology, HAART, Cytotoxicity, Stains, Biochemistry, Lipid profile

  15. Predictors of early mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected children receiving high active antiretroviral treatment in public hospitals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebissa, Getachew; Deyessa, Negusse; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2015-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the breakthrough in care and treatment of people living with HIV, leading to a reduction in mortality and an improvement in the quality of life. Without antiretroviral treatment, most HIV-infected children die before their fifth birthday. So the objective of this study is to determine the mortality and associated factors in a cohort of HIV-infected children receiving ART in Ethiopia. A multicentre facility-based retrospective cohort study was done in selected pediatric ART units in hospitals found in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The probability of survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards regression models was conducted to determine the independent predictor of survival. A total of 556 children were included in this study. Of the total children, 10.4% were died in the overall cohort. More deaths (70%) occurred in the first 6 months of ART initiation, and the remaining others were still on follow-up at different hospitals. Underweight (moderate and severe; HR: 10.10; 95% CI: 2.08, 28.00; P = 0.004; and HR: 46.69; 95% CI: 9.26, 200.45; P ART adherence (HR: 11.72; 95% CI: 1.60, 48.44; P = 0.015), and hemoglobin level less than 7 g/dl (HR: 4.08: 95% CI: 1.33, 12.56; P = 0.014) were confirmed as significant independent predictors of death after controlling for other factors. Underweight, advanced disease stage, poor adherence to ART, and anemia appear to be independent predictor of survival in HIV-infected children receiving HAART at the pediatric units of public hospitals in Ethiopia. Nutritional supplementations, early initiation of HAART, close supervision, and monitoring of patients during the first 6 months, the follow up period is recommended.

  16. Highly active antiretroviral treatment and health related quality of life in South African adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A cross-sectional analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairall Lara R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is an important outcome in times of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART. We compared the HRQoL of HIV positive patients receiving HAART with those awaiting treatment in public sector facilities in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods A stratified random sample of 371 patients receiving or awaiting HAART were interviewed and the EuroQol-profile, EuroQol-index and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS were compared. Independent associations between these outcomes and HAART, socio-demographic, clinical and health service variables were estimated using linear and ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for intra-clinic clustering of outcomes. Results Patients receiving HAART reported better HRQoL for 3 of the 5 EuroQol-dimensions, for the VAS score and for the EuroQol index in bivariable analysis. They had a higher mean EuroQol index (0.11 difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04; 0.23, and were more likely to have a higher index (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1; 1.3, compared to those awaiting HAART, in multivariate analysis. Higher mean VAS scores were reported for patients who were receiving HAART (6.5 difference, 95% CI 1.3; 11.7, were employed (9.1, 95% CI 4.3; 13.7 or were female (4.7, 95% CI 0.79; 8.5. Conclusion HAART was associated with improved HRQoL in patients enrolled in a public sector treatment program in South Africa. Our finding that the EuroQol instrument was sensitive to HAART supports its use in future evaluation of HIV/AIDS care in South Africa. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate changes in individuals' HRQoL.

  17. Highly active antiretroviral treatment and health related quality of life in South African adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection: A cross-sectional analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwagie, Goedele M; Bachmann, Max O; Meyer, Kobus; Booysen, Frikkie le R; Fairall, Lara R; Heunis, Christo

    2007-09-14

    Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in times of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment (HAART). We compared the HRQoL of HIV positive patients receiving HAART with those awaiting treatment in public sector facilities in the Free State province in South Africa. A stratified random sample of 371 patients receiving or awaiting HAART were interviewed and the EuroQol-profile, EuroQol-index and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were compared. Independent associations between these outcomes and HAART, socio-demographic, clinical and health service variables were estimated using linear and ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for intra-clinic clustering of outcomes. Patients receiving HAART reported better HRQoL for 3 of the 5 EuroQol-dimensions, for the VAS score and for the EuroQol index in bivariable analysis. They had a higher mean EuroQol index (0.11 difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04; 0.23), and were more likely to have a higher index (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.1; 1.3), compared to those awaiting HAART, in multivariate analysis. Higher mean VAS scores were reported for patients who were receiving HAART (6.5 difference, 95% CI 1.3; 11.7), were employed (9.1, 95% CI 4.3; 13.7) or were female (4.7, 95% CI 0.79; 8.5). HAART was associated with improved HRQoL in patients enrolled in a public sector treatment program in South Africa. Our finding that the EuroQol instrument was sensitive to HAART supports its use in future evaluation of HIV/AIDS care in South Africa. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate changes in individuals' HRQoL.

  18. Highly active antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors does not confer a unique CD4 cell benefit. The AVANTI and INCAS Study Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-07

    To determine if triple combination therapy, particularly including HIV protease inhibitors (PI), confers an unique immunological benefit that is independent of reductions of plasma viral load (pVL). The correlation between changes from baseline in CD4 cell count and pVL was examined at all time points up to 52 weeks in three randomized clinical trials (AVANTI-2, AVANTI-3 and INCAS) that compared dual nucleoside therapy with triple combination therapy. Individual pVL and CD4 cell counts changes from baseline were entered into multivariate linear regression models for patients receiving double therapy and for those receiving triple therapy including a PI and/or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and the null hypothesis was tested. After 52 weeks of therapy, the relationship between changes from baseline CD4 cell count and pVL was independent of whether patients were assigned double or triple therapy (P = 0.23 and 0.69 for intercept and slope, respectively), or whether patients were assigned triple therapy including a PI or triple therapy including an NNRTI (P = 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). Less than 5% of patients ever had 'discordant' increases in both CD4 cell count and pVL compared with baseline, and this proportion was unrelated to the class of therapy used. 'Discordant' decreases from baseline in both parameters were observed in up to 35% of individuals. The correlation between pVL and CD4 cell count changes from baseline improved over time on therapy, regardless of the therapeutic regimen involved. The data provide no evidence for a CD4 cell count benefit of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) unique to triple therapy or PI-containing regimens.

  19. The prevalence of antiretroviral multidrug resistance in highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients with HIV/AIDS between 2004 and 2009 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ju-yeon; Kwon, Oh-Kyung; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Park, Mina; Kim, Sung Soon

    2014-06-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) including protease inhibitors (PIs) has been used in South Korea since 1997. Currently, more than 20 types of antiretroviral drugs are used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients in South Korea. Despite the rapid development of various antiretroviral drugs, many drug-resistant variants have been reported after initiating HAART, and the efficiency of HAART is limited by these variants. To investigate and estimate the annual antiretroviral drug resistance and prevalence of antiretroviral multi-class drug resistance in Korean patients with experience of treatment. The amplified HIV-1 pol gene in 535 patients requested for genotypic drug resistance testing from 2004 to 2009 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was sequenced and analyzed annually and totally. The prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance was estimated based on "SIR" interpretation of the Stanford sequence database. Of viruses derived from 787 specimens, 380 samples (48.3%) showed at least one drug class-related resistance. Predicted NRTI drug resistance was highest at 41.9%. NNRTI showed 27.2% resistance with 23.3% for PI. The percent of annual drug resistance showed similar pattern and slightly declined except 2004 and 2005. The prevalence of multi-class drug resistance against each drug class was: NRTI/NNRTI/PI, 9.8%; NRTI/PI, 21.9%; NNRTI/PI, 10.4%; and NRTI/NNRTI, 21.5%. About 50% and less than 10% of patients infected with HIV-1 have multidrug and multiclass resistance linked to 16 antiretroviral drugs, respectively. The significance of this study lies in its larger-scale examination of the prevalence of drug-resistant variants and multidrug resistance in HAART-experienced patients in South Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Hypertension in HIV/AIDS Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART Compared with HAART-Naive Patients at the Limbe Regional Hospital, Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Akem Dimala

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS patients but has also been associated with increased metabolic complications and cardiovascular diseases. Data on the association between HAART and hypertension (HTN in Africa are scarce.Primarily to compare the prevalence of HTN in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART and HAART-naïve patients in Limbe, Cameroon; and secondarily to assess other socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with HTN in this population.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Limbe Regional Hospital HIV treatment center between April and June 2013, involving 200 HIV/AIDS patients (100 on first-line HAART regimens for at least 12 months matched by age and sex to 100 HAART-naïve patients. HTN was defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg.The prevalence of HTN in patients on HAART was twice (38%; 95% CI: 28.5-48.3 that of the HAART-naïve patients (19%; 95% CI, 11.8-28.1, p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, smoking, family history of HTN, and BMI-defined overweight, HAART was associated with HTN, the adjusted odds ratio of the HAART-treated versus HAART-naïve group was 2.20 (95% CI: 1.07-4.52, p = 0.032. HTN was associated with older age and male gender, in the HAART group and with BMI-defined overweight in the HAART-naïve group.The prevalence of hypertension in HIV/AIDS patients in Limbe stands out to be elevated, higher in patients on HAART compared to those not on treatment. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors should be routinely monitored. Other factors such as diet, weight control and physical exercise should also be considered.

  1. New subtypes and genetic recombination in HIV type 1-infecting patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Peru (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabar, Carlos Augusto; Acuña, Maribel; Gazzo, Cecilia; Salinas, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Fanny; Valverde, Ada; Romero, Soledad

    2012-12-01

    HIV-1 subtype B is the most frequent strain in Peru. However, there is no available data about the genetic diversity of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) here. A group of 267 patients in the Peruvian National Treatment Program with virologic failure were tested for genotypic evidence of HIV drug resistance at the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) of Peru between March 2008 and December 2010. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma and the segments of the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), purified, and fully sequenced. Consensus sequences were submitted to the HIVdb Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Algorithm Database from Stanford University, and then aligned using Clustal X v.2.0 to generate a phylogenetic tree using the maximum likelihood method. Intrasubtype and intersubtype recombination analyses were performed using the SCUEAL program (Subtype Classification by Evolutionary ALgo-rithms). A total of 245 samples (91%) were successfully genotyped. The analysis obtained from the HIVdb program showed 81.5% resistance cases (n=198). The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subtype B was predominant in the population (98.8%), except for new cases of A, C, and H subtypes (n=4). Of these cases, only subtype C was imported. Likewise, recombination analysis revealed nine intersubtype and 20 intrasubtype recombinant cases. This is the first report of the presence of HIV-1 subtypes C and H in Peru. The introduction of new subtypes and circulating recombinants forms can make it difficult to distinguish resistance profiles in patients and consequently affect future treatment strategies against HIV in this country.

  2. The origin of high activity but low CO(2) selectivity on binary PtSn in the direct ethanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-Mei; Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Kavanagh, Richard; Hamer, Philip; Hu, Peijun; Hardacre, Christopher; Martinez-Bonastre, Alex; Sharman, Jonathan; Thompsett, David; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2014-05-28

    The most active binary PtSn catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cell applications has been studied at 20 °C and 60 °C, using variable temperature electrochemical in situ FTIR. In comparison with Pt, binary PtSn inhibits ethanol dissociation to CO(a), but promotes partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Increasing the temperature from 20 °C to 60 °C facilitates both ethanol dissociation to CO(a) and then further oxidation to CO2, leading to an increased selectivity towards CO2; however, acetaldehyde and acetic acid are still the main products. Potential-dependent phase diagrams for surface oxidants of OH(a) formation on Pt(111), Pt(211) and Sn modified Pt(111) and Pt(211) surfaces have been determined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is shown that Sn promotes the formation of OH(a) with a lower onset potential on the Pt(111) surface, whereas an increase in the onset potential is found upon modification of the (211) surface. In addition, Sn inhibits the Pt(211) step edge with respect to ethanol C-C bond breaking compared with that found on the pure Pt, which reduces the formation of CO(a). Sn was also found to facilitate ethanol dehydrogenation and partial oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid which, combined with the more facile OH(a) formation on the Pt(111) surface, gives us a clear understanding of the experimentally determined results. This combined electrochemical in situ FTIR and DFT study provides, for the first time, an insight into the long-term puzzling features of the high activity but low CO2 production found on binary PtSn ethanol fuel cell catalysts.

  3. Rate of candidiasis among HIV-infected children in Spain in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1997-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Jensen, Julia; Micheloud, Dariela; Díaz, Asunción; Gurbindo, Dolores; Resino, Salvador

    2013-03-04

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The aim of our study was to estimate the candidiasis rate and evaluate its trend in HIV-infected children in Spain during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared to HIV-uninfected children. We carried out a retrospective study. Data were obtained from the records of the Minimum Basic Data Set from hospitals in Spain. All HIV-infected children were under 17 years of age, and a group of HIV-uninfected children with hospital admissions matching the study group by gender and age were randomly selected. The follow-up period (1997-2008) was divided into three calendar periods: a) From 1997 to 1999 for early-period HAART; b) from 2000 to 2002 for mid-period HAART; and c) from 2003 to 2008 for late-period HAART. Among children with hospital admissions, HIV-infected children had much higher values than HIV-uninfected children during each of the three calendar periods for overall candidiasis rates (150.0 versus 6.1 events per 1,000 child hospital admissions/year (p candidiasis rate (events per 1,000 HIV-infected children/year) decreased from 1997-1999 to 2000-2002 (18.8 to 10.6; p candidiasis, both non-ICM and ICM rates experienced significant decreases from 1997-1999 to 2003-2008 (15.9 to 5.7 (p candidiasis rate still remains higher than in the general population (from 1997 to 2008), candidiasis diagnoses have decreased among HIV-infected children throughout the HAART era, and it has ceased to be a major health problem among children with HIV infection.

  4. Rate of candidiasis among HIV-infected children in Spain in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1997–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The aim of our study was to estimate the candidiasis rate and evaluate its trend in HIV-infected children in Spain during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared to HIV-uninfected children. Methods We carried out a retrospective study. Data were obtained from the records of the Minimum Basic Data Set from hospitals in Spain. All HIV-infected children were under 17 years of age, and a group of HIV-uninfected children with hospital admissions matching the study group by gender and age were randomly selected. The follow-up period (1997–2008) was divided into three calendar periods: a) From 1997 to 1999 for early-period HAART; b) from 2000 to 2002 for mid-period HAART; and c) from 2003 to 2008 for late-period HAART. Results Among children with hospital admissions, HIV-infected children had much higher values than HIV-uninfected children during each of the three calendar periods for overall candidiasis rates (150.0 versus 6.1 events per 1,000 child hospital admissions/year (p candidiasis rate (events per 1,000 HIV-infected children/year) decreased from 1997–1999 to 2000–2002 (18.8 to 10.6; p candidiasis, both non-ICM and ICM rates experienced significant decreases from 1997–1999 to 2003–2008 (15.9 to 5.7 (p candidiasis rate still remains higher than in the general population (from 1997 to 2008), candidiasis diagnoses have decreased among HIV-infected children throughout the HAART era, and it has ceased to be a major health problem among children with HIV infection. PMID:23510319

  5. The cost-effectiveness of directly observed highly-active antiretroviral therapy in the third trimester in HIV-infected pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J McCabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In HIV-infected pregnant women, viral suppression prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission. Directly observed highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART enhances virological suppression, and could prevent transmission. Our objective was to project the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of directly observed administration of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A mathematical model was created to simulate cohorts of one million asymptomatic HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART, with women randomly assigned self-administered or directly observed antiretroviral therapy (DOT, or no HAART, in a series of Monte Carlo simulations. Our primary outcome was the quality-adjusted life expectancy in years (QALY of infants born to HIV-infected women, with the rates of Caesarean section and HIV-transmission after DOT use as intermediate outcomes. Both self-administered HAART and DOT were associated with decreased costs and increased life-expectancy relative to no HAART. The use of DOT was associated with a relative risk of HIV transmission of 0.39 relative to conventional HAART; was highly cost-effective in the cohort as a whole (cost-utility ratio $14,233 per QALY; and was cost-saving in women whose viral loads on self-administered HAART would have exceeded 1000 copies/ml. Results were stable in wide-ranging sensitivity analyses, with directly observed therapy cost-saving or highly cost-effective in almost all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the best available data, programs that optimize adherence to HAART through direct observation in pregnancy have the potential to diminish mother-to-child HIV transmission in a highly cost-effective manner. Targeted use of DOT in pregnant women with high viral loads, who could otherwise receive self-administered HAART would be a cost-saving intervention. These projections should be tested with randomized clinical trials.

  6. The cost-effectiveness of directly observed highly-active antiretroviral therapy in the third trimester in HIV-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Caitlin J; Goldie, Sue J; Fisman, David N

    2010-04-13

    In HIV-infected pregnant women, viral suppression prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission. Directly observed highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) enhances virological suppression, and could prevent transmission. Our objective was to project the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of directly observed administration of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy. A mathematical model was created to simulate cohorts of one million asymptomatic HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART, with women randomly assigned self-administered or directly observed antiretroviral therapy (DOT), or no HAART, in a series of Monte Carlo simulations. Our primary outcome was the quality-adjusted life expectancy in years (QALY) of infants born to HIV-infected women, with the rates of Caesarean section and HIV-transmission after DOT use as intermediate outcomes. Both self-administered HAART and DOT were associated with decreased costs and increased life-expectancy relative to no HAART. The use of DOT was associated with a relative risk of HIV transmission of 0.39 relative to conventional HAART; was highly cost-effective in the cohort as a whole (cost-utility ratio $14,233 per QALY); and was cost-saving in women whose viral loads on self-administered HAART would have exceeded 1000 copies/ml. Results were stable in wide-ranging sensitivity analyses, with directly observed therapy cost-saving or highly cost-effective in almost all cases. Based on the best available data, programs that optimize adherence to HAART through direct observation in pregnancy have the potential to diminish mother-to-child HIV transmission in a highly cost-effective manner. Targeted use of DOT in pregnant women with high viral loads, who could otherwise receive self-administered HAART would be a cost-saving intervention. These projections should be tested with randomized clinical trials.

  7. Prevalence, correlates and under-diagnosis of clinical depression among adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy in a Tertiary Health Institution in northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Wakawa Ibrahim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical depression is a highly debilitating illness, which is often under-diagnosed and negatively impacts on the quality of life of its sufferers. When it co-exists with other medical conditions, its effect is even more incapacitating. Undiagnosed depression in the context of HIV infection leads to accelerated decline in CD4+ cell counts with concomitant increase in the viral load and poor adherence to the antiretroviral medications which lead to viral mutation and the evolution of resistant strains. This study examined the prevalence of depression, its correlates and the frequency of the diagnosis of the condition among HIV+ subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART by the internists and general physicians at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital in Northeastern Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty representative samples of HIV+ adults on HAART were drawn from the Antiretroviral Therapy Clinic of the Institution. Diagnosis of depression was made using the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria based on Composite International Diagnostic Interview generated data. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were also analyzed for their correlation with depression in the subjects. About 20% of the respondents were diagnosed with clinical depression and no diagnosis of the condition was hitherto entertained in all the respondents. The independent determinants of depression in the participants were: female gender [odds ratio (OR=3.87 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.089-7.183], past history of psychiatric illness [OR=43.81 (95% CI: 9.731-197.30] and family history of psychiatric illness in first-degree relatives of the subjects [OR=14.364 (95% CI=5.327- 38.729]. Depression is a relatively common psychiatric condition among adults on HAART, there is therefore the need for routine screening of this condition among HIV+ subjects in order to optimize patient care and improve clinical outcomes.

  8. A single source precursor route to group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides as highly active supports for gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Shashank K.; Mendez, Violaine; Jeanneau, Erwann; Caps, Valerie; Daniè le, Sté phane

    2012-01-01

    A new Mitsubishi-type of star-shaped homoleptic derivative of indium(III), In4(mdea)6 (2, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) , was synthesized by the chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction of a heteroleptic complex In6Cl6(mdea)6 (1) and used as a facile single source molecular precursor for the sol-gel preparation of high surface area indium oxide. Successful deposition of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.-%) of average size 3.3 nm on the above metal oxide by using HAuCl4· 3H2O afforded a highly efficient Au/In2O3 catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene at low temperature. The above single source precursor approach was further extended to obtain other group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides, namely, α-Ga2O 3, β-Ga2O3 and Al4Ga 2O9, as highly active supports for gold catalysts. The obtained Au/M2O3 (M = Ga, In) and Au/Al4Ga 2O9 catalysts were thoroughly characterized by using several physicochemical techniques such as XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparative study of the above catalysts for the model aerobic oxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane was undertaken. Highly efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation reactions were obtained by depositing gold nanoparticles on group 13 mono- or mixed metal oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of well-characterized homo- and heterometallic N-methyldiethanolaminate derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy fails to reverse immunovirological abnormalities in gut-associated lymphoid tissue induced by acute HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tincati, Camilla; Biasin, Mara; Bandera, Alessandra; Violin, Michela; Marchetti, Giulia; Piacentini, Luca; Vago, Gian Luca; Balotta, Claudia; Moroni, Mauro; Franzetti, Fabio; Clerici, Mario; Gori, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of HIV infection, large CD4+ T-cell depletion occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. The kinetics of CD4+ T-cell decrease and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-mediated immune reconstitution were evaluated. Rectosigmoid colonic (RSC) biopsies and blood samples of nine patients with acute HIV infection were collected. CD4+ T-cell count, HIV RNA, intracellular HIV DNA and messenger RNA cytokine expression were evaluated before and after 6 months of HAART. All nine patients presented symptomatic retroviral infection. Early HAART was associated with a sustained and comparable reduction of HIV RNA in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RSC biopsies. HIV DNA decreased in PBMCs, but was only marginally reduced in RSC biopsies. Comparisons between reduction rates of HIV DNA in these two compartments confirmed that HIV DNA clearance was less efficient in RSC biopsies compared with PBMCs. Assessment of immunological profiles in PBMCs and RSC biopsies showed that the T-helper (Th)1-like/Th2-like ratio was sharply decreased in RSC biopsies and increased in PBMCs throughout the study period. A persistent Th2-like profile was detected in RSC biopsies. Efficient clearing of HIV DNA observed in PBMCs correlated with the establishment of a more favourable Th1-like profile. A less efficient clearance of intracellular HIV DNA following early introduction of HAART is associated with persistent immunological impairment in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which is reflected by the skewed expression of cytokines in this reservoir. The present study shows that early initiation of HAART, in the short-term, is not effective in containing the establishment of HIV infection and in reversing associated immunological GALT abnormalities.

  10. Ceria-supported ruthenium nanoparticles as highly active and long-lived catalysts in hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbayrak, Serdar; Tonbul, Yalçın; Özkar, Saim

    2016-07-05

    Ruthenium(0) nanoparticles supported on ceria (Ru(0)/CeO2) were in situ generated from the reduction of ruthenium(iii) ions impregnated on ceria during the hydrolysis of ammonia borane. Ru(0)/CeO2 was isolated from the reaction solution by centrifugation and characterized by ICP-OES, BET, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDS and XPS techniques. All the results reveal that ruthenium(0) nanoparticles were successfully supported on ceria and the resulting Ru(0)/CeO2 is a highly active, reusable and long-lived catalyst for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane with a turnover frequency value of 361 min(-1). The reusability tests reveal that Ru(0)/CeO2 is still active in the subsequent runs of hydrolysis of ammonia borane preserving 60% of the initial catalytic activity even after the fifth run. Ru(0)/CeO2 provides a superior catalytic lifetime (TTO = 135 100) in hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane at 25.0 ± 0.1 °C before deactivation. The work reported here includes the formation kinetics of ruthenium(0) nanoparticles. The rate constants for the slow nucleation and autocatalytic surface growth of ruthenium(0) nanoparticles were obtained using hydrogen evolution as a reporter reaction. An evaluation of rate constants at various temperatures enabled the estimation of activation energies for both the reactions, Ea = 60 ± 7 kJ mol(-1) for the nucleation and Ea = 47 ± 2 kJ mol(-1) for the autocatalytic surface growth of ruthenium(0) nanoparticles, as well as the activation energy of Ea = 51 ± 2 kJ mol(-1) for the catalytic hydrolysis of ammonia borane.

  11. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  12. A single source precursor route to group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides as highly active supports for gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Shashank K.

    2012-12-14

    A new Mitsubishi-type of star-shaped homoleptic derivative of indium(III), In4(mdea)6 (2, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) , was synthesized by the chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction of a heteroleptic complex In6Cl6(mdea)6 (1) and used as a facile single source molecular precursor for the sol-gel preparation of high surface area indium oxide. Successful deposition of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.-%) of average size 3.3 nm on the above metal oxide by using HAuCl4· 3H2O afforded a highly efficient Au/In2O3 catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene at low temperature. The above single source precursor approach was further extended to obtain other group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides, namely, α-Ga2O 3, β-Ga2O3 and Al4Ga 2O9, as highly active supports for gold catalysts. The obtained Au/M2O3 (M = Ga, In) and Au/Al4Ga 2O9 catalysts were thoroughly characterized by using several physicochemical techniques such as XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparative study of the above catalysts for the model aerobic oxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane was undertaken. Highly efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation reactions were obtained by depositing gold nanoparticles on group 13 mono- or mixed metal oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of well-characterized homo- and heterometallic N-methyldiethanolaminate derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. US hospital care for patients with HIV infection and pneumonia: the role of public, private, and Veterans Affairs hospitals in the early highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphold, Constance R; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Palella, Frank J; Parada, Jorge P; Chmiel, Joan S; Phan, Laura; Bennett, Charles L

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated differences in processes and outcomes of HIV-related pneumonia care among patients in Veterans Affairs (VA), public, and for-profit and not-for-profit private hospitals in the United States. We compared the results of our current study (1995 to 1997) with those of our previous study that included a sample of patients receiving care during the years 1987 to 1990 to determine how HIV-related pneumonia care had evolved over the last decade. The sample consisted of 1,231 patients with HIV infection who received care for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and 750 patients with HIV infection who received care for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) during the years 1995 to 1997. We conducted a retrospective medical record review and evaluated patient and hospital characteristics, HIV-related processes of care (timely use of anti-PCP medications, adjunctive corticosteroids), non-HIV-related processes of care (timely use of CAP treatment medications, diagnostic testing, ICU utilization, rates of endotracheal ventilation, placement on respiratory isolation), length of inpatient hospital stay, and inpatient mortality. Rates of timely use of antibiotics and adjunctive corticosteroids for treating PCP were high and improved dramatically from the prior decade. However, compliance with consensus guidelines that recommend public, private not-for-profit hospitals, and for-profit hospitals. This study provides the first overview of HIV-related pneumonia care in the early highly active antiretroviral therapy era, and contrasts current findings with those of a similarly conducted study from a decade earlier. Quality of care for patients with PCP improved, but further efforts are needed to facilitate the appropriate management of CAP. In the third decade of the epidemic, it will be important to monitor whether variations in processes of care for various HIV-related clinical diagnoses among different types of hospitals persist.

  14. Gd-DTPA T1 relaxivity in brain tissue obtained by convection-enhanced delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, Peter J [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Broaddus, William C; Chen Zhijian; Gillies, George T [Department of Neurosurgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Fatouros, Panos P; Corwin, Frank D, E-mail: wbroaddus@mcvh-vcu.ed [Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2010-06-21

    A common approach to quantify gadolinium (Gd) contrast agents involves measuring the post-contrast change in T1 rate and then using the constant T1 relaxivity R to determine the contrast agent concentration. Because this method is fast and non-invasive, it could be potentially valuable in many areas of brain research. However, to accurately measure contrast agent concentrations in the brain, the T1 relaxivity R of the specific agent must be accurately known. Furthermore, the macromolecular content and compartmentalization of the brain extracellular space (ECS) are expected to significantly alter R from values measured in aqueous solutions. In this study, the T1 relaxivity R of gadolinium-diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was measured following direct interstitial infusions of three different contrast agent concentrations to the parenchyma of rat brains. Changes in magnetic resonance (MR) T1 values were compared to brain slice concentrations determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to determine R in 15 rats. Additionally, samples of cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine were analyzed to evaluate possible Gd-DTPA clearance from the brain. The T1 relaxivity R of Gd-DTPA in the brain ECS was measured to be 5.35 (mM s){sup -1} in a 2.4 T field. This value is considerably higher than estimations used in studies by other groups. Measurements of brain Gd-DTPA tissue concentrations using MRI and ICP-AES demonstrated a high degree of coincidence. Clearance of Gd-DTPA was minimal at the time point immediately after infusion. These results suggest that the environment of the brain does in fact significantly affect Gd T1 relaxivity, and that MRI can accurately measure contrast agent concentrations when this relaxivity is well characterized.

  15. Gd-DTPA T1 relaxivity in brain tissue obtained by convection-enhanced delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Peter J.; Broaddus, William C.; Chen, Zhi-jian; Fatouros, Panos P.; Gillies, George T.; Corwin, Frank D.

    2010-06-01

    A common approach to quantify gadolinium (Gd) contrast agents involves measuring the post-contrast change in T1 rate and then using the constant T1 relaxivity R to determine the contrast agent concentration. Because this method is fast and non-invasive, it could be potentially valuable in many areas of brain research. However, to accurately measure contrast agent concentrations in the brain, the T1 relaxivity R of the specific agent must be accurately known. Furthermore, the macromolecular content and compartmentalization of the brain extracellular space (ECS) are expected to significantly alter R from values measured in aqueous solutions. In this study, the T1 relaxivity R of gadolinium-diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was measured following direct interstitial infusions of three different contrast agent concentrations to the parenchyma of rat brains. Changes in magnetic resonance (MR) T1 values were compared to brain slice concentrations determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to determine R in 15 rats. Additionally, samples of cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine were analyzed to evaluate possible Gd-DTPA clearance from the brain. The T1 relaxivity R of Gd-DTPA in the brain ECS was measured to be 5.35 (mM s)-1 in a 2.4 T field. This value is considerably higher than estimations used in studies by other groups. Measurements of brain Gd-DTPA tissue concentrations using MRI and ICP-AES demonstrated a high degree of coincidence. Clearance of Gd-DTPA was minimal at the time point immediately after infusion. These results suggest that the environment of the brain does in fact significantly affect Gd T1 relaxivity, and that MRI can accurately measure contrast agent concentrations when this relaxivity is well characterized.

  16. Gd-DTPA T1 relaxivity in brain tissue obtained by convection-enhanced delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Peter J; Broaddus, William C; Chen Zhijian; Gillies, George T; Fatouros, Panos P; Corwin, Frank D

    2010-01-01

    A common approach to quantify gadolinium (Gd) contrast agents involves measuring the post-contrast change in T1 rate and then using the constant T1 relaxivity R to determine the contrast agent concentration. Because this method is fast and non-invasive, it could be potentially valuable in many areas of brain research. However, to accurately measure contrast agent concentrations in the brain, the T1 relaxivity R of the specific agent must be accurately known. Furthermore, the macromolecular content and compartmentalization of the brain extracellular space (ECS) are expected to significantly alter R from values measured in aqueous solutions. In this study, the T1 relaxivity R of gadolinium-diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was measured following direct interstitial infusions of three different contrast agent concentrations to the parenchyma of rat brains. Changes in magnetic resonance (MR) T1 values were compared to brain slice concentrations determined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to determine R in 15 rats. Additionally, samples of cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine were analyzed to evaluate possible Gd-DTPA clearance from the brain. The T1 relaxivity R of Gd-DTPA in the brain ECS was measured to be 5.35 (mM s) -1 in a 2.4 T field. This value is considerably higher than estimations used in studies by other groups. Measurements of brain Gd-DTPA tissue concentrations using MRI and ICP-AES demonstrated a high degree of coincidence. Clearance of Gd-DTPA was minimal at the time point immediately after infusion. These results suggest that the environment of the brain does in fact significantly affect Gd T1 relaxivity, and that MRI can accurately measure contrast agent concentrations when this relaxivity is well characterized.

  17. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  18. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  19. Cell cycle dependence of boron uptake in various boron compounds used for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, F.; Matsumura, A.; Shibata, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Nose, T.; Okumura, M.

    2000-01-01

    In neutron capture therapy, it is important that the tumor take boron in selectively. Furthermore, it is ideal when the uptake is equal in each tumor cell. Some indirect proof of differences in boron uptake among neoplastic cell cycles has been documented. However, no investigation has yet measured boron uptake directly. Using flow cytometry, in the present study cells were sorted by G0/G1 phase and G2/M phase, and the boron concentration of each fraction was measured with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results were that BSH (sodiumborocaptate) and BPA (p-boronophenylalanine) had higher rates of boron uptake in the G2/M group than in the G0/G1 group. However, in BPA the difference was more prominent, which revealed a 2.2-3.3 times higher uptake of boron in the G2/M group than in the G0/G1 group. (author)

  20. Phytoextraction and phytostabilization potential of plants grown in the vicinity of heavy metal-contaminated soils: a case study at an industrial town site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorestani, B; Yousefi, N; Cheraghi, M; Farmany, A

    2013-12-01

    With the development of urbanization and industrialization, soils have become increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, nonintrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements, can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. In this research, two processes of phytoremediation (phytoextraction and phytostabilization) were surveyed in some plant species around an industrial town in the Hamedan Province in the central-western part of Iran. To this purpose, shoots and roots of the seven plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measuring Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations using ICP-AES and then calculating the biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters for each element. The obtained results showed that among the collected plants, Salsola soda is the most effective species for phytoextraction and phytostabilization and Cirsium arvense has the potential for phytostabilization of the measured heavy metals.

  1. Process and device for monitoring active and highly active liquids for specific nuclides, particularly in the primary coolant of boiling water and pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paffrath; Haag; Hanstein, W.

    1986-01-01

    The invention provides for a direct continuous measurement of amounts of activity or concentration and the automatic execution of analysis cycles for specific nuclides, which occur depending on the continuously determined total gamma value. The continuously determined total gamma values in a first measuring circuit are used to decide the frequency of sampling, the volume of samples, the measuring times, the doses of separating chemicals and the sample remnants. These parameters are provided for the control of the execution of an analysis cycle for specific nuclides occurring in a second measuring circuit. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Statistics for Radiation Measurement. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lötter, M. G. [Department of Medical Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2014-12-15

    Measurement errors are of three general types: (i) blunders, (ii) systematic errors or accuracy of measurements, and (iii) random errors or precision of measurements. Blunders produce grossly inaccurate results and experienced observers easily detect their occurrence. Examples in radiation counting or measurements include the incorrect setting of the energy window, counting heavily contaminated samples, using contaminated detectors for imaging or counting, obtaining measurements of high activities, resulting in count rates that lead to excessive dead time effects, and selecting the wrong patient orientation during imaging. Although some blunders can be detected as outliers or by duplicate samples and measurements, blunders should be avoided by careful, meticulous and dedicated work. This is especially important where results will determine the diagnosis or treatment of patients.

  3. Measurement evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, A

    1990-01-01

    The information obtained about a measured object is called ``crude'' measurement information and must be related to the conditions under which the measurement took place. Using ``crude'' measurement information as a starting point, evaluation produces physically correctly interpreted data with their estimated (or corrected) error. Although a number of works deal with the evaluation of measurements, they either appeared a long time ago or serve essentially different aims. This book gives a comprehensive and current overview on the basic principles, aids, devices, and methods in the eval

  4. Safety and Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Treatment-Naïve HIV Patients: Preliminary Findings of a Cohort Event Monitoring Study in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setkina, Svetlana; Dotsenko, Marina; Bondar, Sviatlana; Charnysh, Iryna; Kuchko, Alla; Kaznacheeva, Alena; Kozorez, Elena; Dodaleva, Alena; Rossa, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Antiretroviral drugs have well-documented evidence-based favorable benefit-risk ratios. Although various studies have investigated and characterized the safety profile of antiretroviral medicines, there are a limited number of studies evaluating the safety of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients with a specific co-morbidity. A cohort event monitoring (CEM) study of the safety and effectiveness of antiretroviral medicines in a target population that has a significant level of co-morbidities (chronic infectious diseases, peripheral blood cytopenias) was implemented. The aim was to evaluate the safety profile of the highly active ART (HAART) in the target population and subpopulations with risk factors, to optimize the monitoring and decision-making procedure for subgroups of patients with specific types of co-morbidity, and to implement a more vigilant approach to therapy management in risk groups of patients. Prospective observational CEM was implemented among HAART-naïve HIV-positive patients at four clinical sites from December 2012. Eligible patients were those starting first-line HAART. Close medical supervision of all enrolled patients, with regular clinical and laboratory monitoring, was provided by healthcare professionals within 1 year after commencement of therapy. Standardized forms were used for data collection on initial and subsequent visits. All objective or subjective deviations in condition (events) were assessed for a causal relationship with ART, and for severity, seriousness, reversibility, preventability, and pre-existing risk factors in the case of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A total of 518 HAART-naïve HIV-positive patients were enrolled in the CEM study. Of these patients, 65% (337) experienced one or several ADRs related to one or more components of HAART. Most of the ADRs reported were non-serious, expected, common (very common), transient (correctable), or reversible. The most common were hematotoxic, hepatotoxic, and

  5. Antiretroviral effect of lovastatin on HIV-1-infected individuals without highly active antiretroviral therapy (The LIVE study: a phase-II randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Carlos J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy produces a significant decrease in HIV-1 replication and allows an increase in the CD4 T-cell count, leading to a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections and mortality. However, the cost, side effects and complexity of antiretroviral regimens have underscored the immediate need for additional therapeutic approaches. Statins exert pleiotropic effects through a variety of mechanisms, among which there are several immunoregulatory effects, related and unrelated to their cholesterol-lowering activity that can be useful to control HIV-1 infection. Methods/design Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled, single-center, phase-II clinical trial. One hundred and ten chronically HIV-1-infected patients, older than 18 years and naïve for antirretroviral therapy (i.e., without prior or current management with antiretroviral drugs will be enrolled at the outpatient services from the most important centres for health insurance care in Medellin-Colombia. The interventions will be lovastatin (40 mg/day, orally, for 12 months; 55 patients or placebo (55 patients. Our primary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on viral replication. The secondary aim will be to determine the effect of lovastatin on CD4+ T-cell count in peripheral blood. As tertiary aims we will explore differences in CD8+ T-cell count, expression of activation markers (CD38 and HLA-DR on CD4 and CD8 T cells, cholesterol metabolism, LFA-1/ICAM-1 function, Rho GTPases function and clinical evolution between treated and not treated HIV-1-infected individuals. Discussion Preliminary descriptive studies have suggested that statins (lovastatin may have anti HIV-1 activity and that their administration is safe, with the potential effect of controlling HIV-1 replication in chronically infected individuals who had not received antiretroviral medications. Considering that there is limited clinical data available on

  6. HIV Status Does Not Influence Outcome in Patients With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Treated With Chemotherapy Using Doxorubicin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, and Dacarbazine in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoto, Silvia; Shaw, Kate; Okosun, Jessica; Gandhi, Shreyans; Fields, Paul; Wilson, Andrew; Shanyinde, Milensu; Cwynarski, Kate; Marcus, Robert; de Vos, Johannes; Young, Anna Marie; Tenant-Flowers, Melinda; Orkin, Chloe; Johnson, Margaret; Chilton, Daniella; Gribben, John G.; Bower, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The prognosis of HIV-infected patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era approaches that of the general population when they are treated with the same protocols. We analyzed the outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) in the HAART era according to HIV serostatus to establish whether this also holds true for HL. Patients and Methods From 1997 to 2010, 224 patients newly diagnosed with HL, of whom 93 were HIV positive, were consecutively treated with ABVD chemotherapy. HIV-positive patients had more high-risk disease according to the International Prognostic Score (IPS) than HIV-negative patients (IPS ≥ 3: 68% v 26%, respectively; P < .001). Forty-seven HIV-positive patients had a CD4 count less than 200/μL, and 92 patients received HAART during chemotherapy. Results The complete response rate was 74% for HIV-positive patients and 79% for HIV-negative patients (P = not significant). After a median follow-up of 60 months (range, 8 to 174 months), 23 patients (16 HIV-negative and seven HIV-positive patients) have experienced relapse at a median time of 6 months (range, 1 to 106 months). Five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 59% (95% CI, 47% to 70%) for HIV-positive patients and 66% (95% CI, 57% to 74%) for HIV-negative patients (P = not significant). Five-year overall survival (OS) was 81% (95% CI, 69% to 89%) and 88% (95% CI, 80% to 93%) for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, respectively (P = not significant). HIV status did not predict OS or EFS on multivariate analysis including IPS and HIV status. Conclusion This mature study demonstrates that HIV-positive patients with HL have more extensive disease with more adverse prognostic factors than HIV-negative patients, but when treated with ABVD, HIV infection does not adversely affect OS or EFS. PMID:23045581

  7. The acid-tolerant L-arabinose isomerase from the mesophilic Shewanella sp. ANA-3 is highly active at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    biochemical characterization of the novel Shewanella sp. ANA-3 L-arabinose isomerase. Determination of the biochemical properties demonstrated that this enzyme was highly active at low temperatures. The generated T268K mutant displays an increase of the enzyme stability essentially at low pH. These features seem to be very attractive for the bioconversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose at low temperature which is very interesting from industrial point of view. PMID:22074172

  8. The acid-tolerant L-arabinose isomerase from the mesophilic Shewanella sp. ANA-3 is highly active at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhimi Moez

    2011-11-01

    reported the purification and the biochemical characterization of the novel Shewanella sp. ANA-3 L-arabinose isomerase. Determination of the biochemical properties demonstrated that this enzyme was highly active at low temperatures. The generated T268K mutant displays an increase of the enzyme stability essentially at low pH. These features seem to be very attractive for the bioconversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose at low temperature which is very interesting from industrial point of view.

  9. N-heterocycle carbene (NHC)-ligated cyclopalladated N,N-dimethylbenzylamine: a highly active, practical and versatile catalyst for the Heck-Mizoroki reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Guang-Rong; Kantchev, Eric Assen B; Zhang, Chi; Ying, Jackie Y

    2009-05-21

    The wide dissemination of catalytic pr