WorldWideScience

Sample records for high beta fusion

  1. Achieving high fusion reactivity in high poloidal beta discharges in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Batha, S.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Budny, R.V.; Bush, C.E.; Cavallo, A.; Chance, M.S.; Cheng, C.Z.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Fu, G.Y.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Janos, A.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Levinton, F.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Manickam, J.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Wieland, R.M.; Yamada, M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.: Zweben, S.; Kesner, J.; Marmar, E.; Snipes, J.; Terry, J.

    1993-04-01

    High poloidal beta discharges have been produced in TFTR that achieved high fusion reactivities at low plasma currents. By rapidly decreasing the plasma current just prior to high-power neutral beam injection, relatively peaked current profiles were created having high l i > 2, high Troyon-normalized beta, βN > 3, and high poloidal beta. β p ≥ 0.7 R/a. The global energy confinement time after the current ramp was comparable to supershots, and the combination of improved MHD stability and good confinement produced a new high εβ p high Q DD operating mode for TFTR. Without steady-state current profile control, as the pulse lengths of high βp discharges were extended, l i decreased, and the improved stability produced immediately after by the current ramp deteriorated. In four second, high εβ p discharges, the current profile broadened under the influence of bootstrap and beam-drive currents. When the calculated voltage throughout the plasma nearly vanished, MHD instabilities were observed with β N as low as 1.4. Ideal MHD stability calculations showed this lower beta limit to be consistent with theoretical expectations

  2. Proceedings of the US-Japan workshop and the satellite meeting of ITC-9 on physics of high beta plasma confinement in innovative fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Satoru [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Physics of High Beta Plasma Confinement in Innovative Fusion System was held jointly with the Satellite Meeting of ITC-9 at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki-city during December 14-15, 1998. This proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the workshop. These include: Theoretical analysis on the stability of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas; Theory and Modeling of high {beta} plasmas; Recent progressive experiments in high {beta} systems; Formation of high {beta} plasmas using merging phenomenon; Theory and Modeling of a FRC Fusion Reactor. The 15 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Proceedings of the US-Japan workshop and the satellite meeting of ITC-9 on physics of high beta plasma confinement in innovative fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Satoru

    1999-04-01

    The US-Japan Workshop on Physics of High Beta Plasma Confinement in Innovative Fusion System was held jointly with the Satellite Meeting of ITC-9 at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki-city during December 14-15, 1998. This proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the workshop. These include: Theoretical analysis on the stability of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas; Theory and Modeling of high β plasmas; Recent progressive experiments in high β systems; Formation of high β plasmas using merging phenomenon; Theory and Modeling of a FRC Fusion Reactor. The 15 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Extension of high poloidal beta scenario in DIII-D to lower q95 for steady state fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Gong, X.; Qian, J.; Ding, S.; Ren, Q.; Guo, W.; Pan, C.; Li, G.; Xia, T.; Garofalo, A.; Lao, L.; Hyatt, A.; Ferron, J.; Collins, C.; Lin, D.; McKee, G.; Rhode, T.; McClenaghan, J.; Holcomb, C.; Cui, L.; Heidbrink, W.; Zhu, Y.; Diiid Team; East Team

    2017-10-01

    DIII-D/EAST joint experiments have improved the high poloidal beta scenario with sustained large-radius internal transport barrier (ITB) extended to high plasma current Ip 1MA with q95 6.0. Slight off-axis NBCD is applied to obtain broader current density profile, ITBs can now be sustained below the previously observed βp threshold with excellent confinement (H98y2 1.8). The scenario also exhibits a local negative shear appearing with q increased at rho 0.4, which helps ITB formation and sustainment. This confirms TGLF prediction that negative magnetic shear can help recover ITB and achieve high confinement with reduced q95. Detailed analysis shows that the Shafranov shift and q profile is critical in the ITB formation at high βp regime. Supported in part by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China 2015GB102000, 2015GB110005, and US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  5. Non-fusion and fusion expression of beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus bulgaricus in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Chao-Wu; Liu, Heng-Chuan; Yu, Qian; Pei, Xiao-Fang

    2008-10-01

    To construct four recombinant Lactococcus lactis strains exhibiting high beta-galactosidase activity in fusion or non-fusion ways, and to study the influence factors for their protein expression and secretion. The gene fragments encoding beta-galactosidase from two strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, wch9901 isolated from yogurt and 1.1480 purchased from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, were amplified and inserted into lactococcal expression vector pMG36e. For fusion expression, the open reading frame of the beta-galactosidase gene was amplified, while for non-fusion expression, the open reading frame of the beta-galactosidase gene was amplified with its native Shine-Dalgarno sequence upstream. The start codon of the beta-galactosidase gene partially overlapped with the stop codon of vector origin open reading frame. Then, the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 and confirmed by determining beta-galactosidase activities. The non-fusion expression plasmids showed a significantly higher beta-galactosidase activity in transformed strains than the fusion expression plasmids. The highest enzyme activity was observed in Lactococcus lactis transformed with the non-fusion expression plasmids which were inserted into the beta-galactosidase gene from Lactobacillus bulgaricus wch9901. The beta-galactosidase activity was 2.75 times as high as that of the native counterpart. In addition, beta-galactosidase expressed by recombinant plasmids in Lactococcus lactis could be secreted into the culture medium. The highest secretion rate (27.1%) was observed when the culture medium contained 20 g/L of lactose. Different properties of the native bacteria may have some effects on the protein expression of recombinant plasmids. Non-fusion expression shows a higher enzyme activity in host bacteria. There may be a host-related weak secretion signal peptide gene within the structure gene of Lb. bulgaricus beta

  6. High beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dory, R.A.; Berger, D.P.; Charlton, L.A.; Hogan, J.T.; Munro, J.K.; Nelson, D.B.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sigmar, D.J.; Strickler, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    MHD equilibrium, stability, and transport calculations are made to study the accessibility and behavior of ''high beta'' tokamak plasmas in the range β approximately 5 to 15 percent. For next generation devices, beta values of at least 8 percent appear to be accessible and stable if there is a conducting surface nearby

  7. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  8. High beta experiments in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Nishimura, K.

    1994-09-01

    High beta experiments were performed in the low-aspect-ratio helical device CHS with the volume-averaged equilibrium beta up to 2.1 %. These values (highest for helical systems) are obtained for high density plasmas in low magnetic field heated with two tangential neutral beams. Confinement improvement given by means of turning off gas puffing helped significantly to make high betas. Magnetic fluctuations increased with increasing beta, but finally stopped to increase in the beta range > 1 %. The coherent modes appearing in the magnetic hill region showed strong dependence on the beta values. The dynamic poloidal field control was applied to suppress the outward plasma movement with the plasma pressure. Such an operation gave fixed boundary operations of high beta plasmas in helical systems. (author)

  9. High-beta linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1979-01-01

    Accelerating structures for high-beta linacs that have been and are in use are reviewed in terms of their performance. Particular emphasis is given to room-temperature structures and the disk-and-washer structure. The disk-and-washer structure has many attractive features that are discussed for pulsed high-gradient linacs, for 100% duty-cycle medium-gradient linacs and for high-current linacs requiring maximal amounts of stored energy in the electric fields available to the beam

  10. Nanoscale organization of {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor-Venus fusion protein domains on the surface of mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vobornik, Dusan; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Haley, Jennifer [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud [Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Taylor, Rod [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Johnston, Linda J., E-mail: Linda.Johnston@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada); Pezacki, John Paul, E-mail: John.Pezacki@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2009-04-24

    Adrenergic receptors are a key component of nanoscale multiprotein complexes that are responsible for controlling the beat rate in a mammalian heart. We demonstrate the ability of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to visualize {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors ({beta}{sub 2}AR) fused to the GFP analogue Venus at the nanoscale on HEK293 cells. The expression of the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein was tightly controlled using a tetracycline-induced promoter. Both the size and density of the observed nanoscale domains are dependent on the level of induction and thus the level of protein expression. At concentrations between 100 and 700 ng/ml of inducer doxycycline, the size of domains containing the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein appears to remain roughly constant, but the number of domains per cell increase. At 700 ng/ml doxycycline the functional receptors are organized into domains with an average diameter of 150 nm with a density similar to that observed for the native protein on primary murine cells. By contrast, larger micron-sized domains of {beta}{sub 2}AR are observed in the membrane of the HEK293 cells that stably overexpress {beta}{sub 2}AR-GFP and {beta}{sub 2}AR-eYFP. We conclude that precise chemical control of gene expression is highly advantageous for the use {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion proteins as models for {beta}{sub 2}AR function. These observations are critical for designing future cell models and assays based on {beta}{sub 2}AR, since the receptor biology is consistent with a relatively low density of nanoscale receptor domains.

  11. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1977-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (<100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  12. High performance inertial fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuckolls, J.H.; Bangerter, R.O.; Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.; Pan, Y.L.

    1978-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target designs are considered which may have very high gains (approximately 1000) and low power requirements (< 100 TW) for input energies of approximately one megajoule. These include targets having very low density shells, ultra thin shells, central ignitors, magnetic insulation, and non-ablative acceleration

  13. Mitochondrial fusion is increased by the nuclear coactivator PGC-1beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Liesa

    Full Text Available There is no evidence to date on whether transcriptional regulators are able to shift the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission events through selective control of gene expression.Here, we demonstrate that reduced mitochondrial size observed in knock-out mice for the transcriptional regulator PGC-1beta is associated with a selective reduction in Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2 expression, a mitochondrial fusion protein. This decrease in Mfn2 is specific since expression of the remaining components of mitochondrial fusion and fission machinery were not affected. Furthermore, PGC-1beta increases mitochondrial fusion and elongates mitochondrial tubules. This PGC-1beta-induced elongation specifically requires Mfn2 as this process is absent in Mfn2-ablated cells. Finally, we show that PGC-1beta increases Mfn2 promoter activity and transcription by coactivating the nuclear receptor Estrogen Related Receptor alpha (ERRalpha.Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which mammalian cells control mitochondrial fusion. In addition, we describe a novel role of PGC-1beta in mitochondrial physiology, namely the control of mitochondrial fusion mainly through Mfn2.

  14. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on recent experiments which have shown the practicality of using activated carbon (coconut charcoal) at 4K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were satisfactory. The long-term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL was now known; therefore a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long-term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77 K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately one-third way through, and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict the use of charcoal as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high-vacuum pumping applications

  15. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  16. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high β discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present β limit

  17. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B; Huysmans, G T.A.; Sips, A C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Turbulence of high-beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvesyuk, V.I.; Chirkov, A.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Principals of numerical modelling of turbulence in high-beta plasma (β > 0.1) are discussed. Creation of transport model for axial symmetric nonuniform confining magnetic field is considered. Numerical model of plasma turbulence in FRC is presented. The physical and mathematical models are formulated from nonuniform axial symmetric high-beta plasma. It is shown that influence of waves arise under this plasma conditions lead to chaotic motion of charged particles across magnetic field. (author)

  19. High temperature fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.; dePaz, J.F.; Gohar, M.Y.; Stevens, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fusion energy may have unique advantages over other systems as a source for high temperature process heat. A conceptual design of a blanket for a 7 m tokamak reactor has been developed that is capable of producing 1100 0 C process heat at a pressure of approximately 10 atmospheres. The design is based on the use of a falling bed of MgO spheres as the high temperature heat transfer system. By preheating the spheres with energy taken from the low temperature tritium breeding part of the blanket, 1086 MW of energy can be generated at 1100 0 C from a system that produces 3000 MW of total energy while sustaining a tritium breeding ratio of 1.07. The tritium breeding is accomplished using Li 2 O modules both in front of (6 cm thick) and behind (50 cm thick) the high temperature ducts. Steam is used as the first wall and front tritium breeding module coolant while helium is used in the rear tritium breeding region. The system produces 600 MW of net electricity for use on the grid

  20. Progress in high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingwen

    2001-01-01

    The author reviews the progress in laboratory high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF), including ICF capsule physics, high-energy-density science, inertial fusion energy, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and its design of ignition targets and the peta watt laser breakthrough. High power laser, particle beam, and pulsed power facilities around the world have established the new laboratory field of high-energy- density plasma physics and have furthered development of inertial fusion. New capabilities such as those provided by high-brightness peta watt lasers have enabled the study of matter feasible in conditions previously unachievable on earth. Science and technology developed in inertial fusion research have found near-term commercial use and have enabled steady progress toward the goal of fusion ignition and high gain in the laboratory, and have opened up new fields of study for the 21 st century

  1. Characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor beta-arrestin 2 interaction: a high-affinity receptor phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Martini, Lene; Schwartz, Thue W

    2005-01-01

    To dissect the interaction between beta-arrestin ((beta)arr) and family B G protein-coupled receptors, we constructed fusion proteins between the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor and (beta)arr2. The fusion constructs had an increase in apparent affinity selectively for glucagon, suggesting...... that (beta)arr2 interaction locks the receptor in a high-affinity conformation, which can be explored by some, but not all, ligands. The fusion constructs adopted a signaling phenotype governed by the tethered (beta)arr2 with an attenuated G protein-mediated cAMP signal and a higher maximal internalization...... of that which has previously been characterized for family A G protein-coupled receptors, suggesting similarities in the effect of (beta)arr interaction between family A and B receptors also at the molecular level....

  2. Construction of a high beta plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.; Torabi-Fard, A.

    1976-02-01

    A high beta plasma source has been designed and constructed. This source will serve as a means of developing and exercising different diagnostic techniques as required for ALVAND I, linear theta pinch experiment. Also, it will serve to acquaint the technicians with some of the techniques and safety rules of high voltage and capacitor discharge experiments. The operating parameters of the theta pinch and Z-pinch preionization is presented and the program of diagnostic measurements on the high beta plasma source is discussed

  3. Beta decay of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinov, Yuri A; Bosch, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Beta decay of highly charged ions has attracted much attention in recent years. An obvious motivation for this research is that stellar nucleosynthesis proceeds at high temperatures where the involved atoms are highly ionized. Another important reason is addressing decays of well-defined quantum-mechanical systems, such as one-electron ions where all interactions with other electrons are excluded. The largest modifications of nuclear half-lives with respect to neutral atoms have been observed in beta decay of highly charged ions. These studies can be performed solely at ion storage rings and ion traps, because there high atomic charge states can be preserved for extended periods of time (up to several hours). Currently, all experimental results available in this field originate from experiments at the heavy-ion complex GSI in Darmstadt. There, the fragment separator facility FRS allows the production and separation of exotic, highly charged nuclides, which can then be stored and investigated in the storage ring facility ESR. In this review, we present and discuss in particular two-body beta decays, namely bound-state beta decay and orbital electron capture. Although we focus on experiments conducted at GSI, we will also attempt to provide general requirements common to any other experiment in this context. Finally, we address challenging but not yet performed experiments and we give prospects for the new radioactive beam facilities, such as FAIR in Darmstadt, IMP in Lanzhou and RIKEN in Wako.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of beta-spodumene as a fusion reactor structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Schmunk, R.E.; Henslee, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    Beta-spodumene was investigated as a candidate material for use in fusion reactor environments. Properties which support the use of beta-spodumene include good thermal shock resistance, a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low-Z composition which would result in minimum impact on the plasma, and flexibility in fabrication processes. Specimens were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a fluence of 5.3 x 10 22 n/m 2 , E > MeV, and 4.9 x 10 23 n/m 2 thermal fluence in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the impact of irradiation on the material. Preliminary data indicate that the mechanical properties of beta-spodumene are little affected by irradiation. Gas production and release have also been investigated. (orig.)

  5. [High beta tokamak research and plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 12 months of the present budget period can be divided into four areas: completion of kink mode studies in HBT; completion of carbon impurity transport studies in HBT; design of HBT-EP; and construction of HBT-EP. Each of these is described briefly in the sections of this progress report

  6. Numerical models for high beta magnetohydrodynamic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackbill, J.U.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of numerical magnetohydrodynamics for highly conducting, high-beta plasmas are outlined. The discussions emphasize the physical properties of the flow, and how elementary concepts in numerical analysis can be applied to the construction of finite difference approximations that capture these features. The linear and nonlinear stability of explicit and implicit differencing in time is examined, the origin and effect of numerical diffusion in the calculation of convective transport is described, and a technique for maintaining solenoidality in the magnetic field is developed. Many of the points are illustrated by numerical examples. The techniques described are applicable to the time-dependent, high-beta flows normally encountered in magnetically confined plasmas, plasma switches, and space and astrophysical plasmas. 40 refs

  7. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, G.A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Iacono, R.; Mauel, M.E.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Kesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    A new regime of high poloidal beta operation in TFTR was developed in the course of the first two years of this project (9/25/89 to 9/24/91). Our proposal to continue this successful collaboration between Columbia University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for a three year period (9/25/91 to 9/24/94) to continue to investigate improved confinement and tokamak performance in high poloidal beta plasmas in TFTR through the DT phase of operation was approved by the DOE and this is a report of our progress during the first 9 month budget period of the three year grant (9/25/91 to 6/24/92). During the approved three year project period we plan to (1) extend and apply the low current, high QDD discharges to the operation of TFTR using Deuterium and Tritium plasma; (2) continue the analysis and plan experiments on high poloidal beta phenomena in TFTR including: stability properties, enhanced global confinement, local transport, bootstrap current, and divertor formation; (3) plan and carry out experiments on TFTR which attempt to elevate the central q to values > 2 where entry to the second stability regime is predicted to occur; and (4) collaborate on high beta experiments using bean-shaped plasmas with a stabilizing conducting shell in PBX-M. In the seven month period covered by this report we have made progress in each of these four areas through the submission of 4 TFTR Experimental Proposals and the partial execution of 3 of these using a total of 4.5 run days during the August 1991 to February 1992 run

  8. Application of high temperature superconductors for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietz, W.H.; Heller, R.; Schlachter, S.I.; Goldacker, W.

    2011-01-01

    The use of High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) materials in future fusion machines can increase the efficiency drastically. For ITER, W7-X and JT-60SA the economic benefit of HTS current leads was recognized after a 70 kA HTS current lead demonstrator was designed, fabricated and successfully tested by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, which is a merge of former Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and University of Karlsruhe). For ITER, the Chinese Domestic Agency will provide the current leads as a part of the superconducting feeder system. KIT is in charge of design, construction and test of HTS current leads for W7-X and JT-60SA. For W7-X 14 current leads with a maximum current of 18.2 kA are required that are oriented with the room temperature end at the bottom. JT60-SA will need 26 current leads (20 leads - 20 kA and 6 leads - 25.7 kA) which are mounted in vertical, normal position. These current leads are based on BiSCCO HTS superconductors, demonstrating that HTS material is now state of the art for highly efficient current leads. With respect to future fusion reactors, it would be very promising to use HTS material not only in current leads but also in coils. This would allow a large increase of efficiency if the coils could be operated at temperatures ≥65 K. With such a high temperature it would be possible to omit the radiation shield of the coils, resulting in a less complex cryostat and a size reduction of the machine. In addition less refrigeration power is needed saving investment and operating costs. However, to come to an HTS fusion coil it is necessary to develop low ac loss HTS cables for currents well above 20 kA at high fields well above 10 T. The high field rules BiSCCO superconductors out at temperatures above 50 K, but RE-123 superconductors are promising. The development of a high current, high field RE-123 HTS fusion cable will not be targeted outside fusion community and has to be in the frame of a long term development programme for

  9. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Milroy, R. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Yang, X.; Garate, E. G.; Gota, H.; Korepanov, S.; Necas, A.; Roche, T.; Smirnov, A.; Trask, E.

    2015-04-01

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  10. Fusion reactors-high temperature electrolysis (HTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study to identify and develop a reference design for synfuel production based on fusion reactors are given. The most promising option for hydrogen production was high-temperature electrolysis (HTE). The main findings of this study are: 1. HTE has the highest potential efficiency for production of synfuels from fusion; a fusion to hydrogen energy efficiency of about 70% appears possible with 1800 0 C HTE units and 60% power cycle efficiency; an efficiency of about 50% possible with 1400 0 C HTE units and 40% power cycle efficiency. 2. Relative to thermochemical or direct decomposition methods HTE technology is in a more advanced state of development, 3. Thermochemical or direct decomposition methods must have lower unit process or capital costs if they are to be more attractive than HTE. 4. While design efforts are required, HTE units offer the potential to be quickly run in reverse as fuel cells to produce electricity for restart of Tokamaks and/or provide spinning reserve for a grid system. 5. Because of the short timescale of the study, no detailed economic evaluation could be carried out.A comparison of costs could be made by employing certain assumptions. For example, if the fusion reactor-electrolyzer capital installation is $400/(KW(T) [$1000/KW(E) equivalent], the H 2 energy production cost for a high efficiency (about 70 %) fusion-HTE system is on the same order of magnitude as a coal based SNG plant based on 1976 dollars. 6. The present reference design indicates that a 2000 MW(th) fusion reactor could produce as much at 364 x 10 6 scf/day of hydrogen which is equivalent in heating value to 20,000 barrels/day of gasoline. This would fuel about 500,000 autos based on average driving patterns. 7. A factor of three reduction in coal feed (tons/day) could be achieved for syngas production if hydrogen from a fusion-HTE system were used to gasify coal, as compared to a conventional syngas plant using coal-derived hydrogen

  11. Fusions between green fluorescent protein and beta-glucuronidase as sensitive and vital bifunctional reporters in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaedvlieg, N E; Schlaman, H R; Admiraal, P C; Wijting, S E; Stougaard, J; Spaink, H P

    1998-11-01

    By fusing the genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and beta-glucuronidase (GUS) we have created a set of bifunctional reporter constructs which are optimized for use in transient and stable expression studies in plants. This approach makes it possible to combine the advantage of GUS, its high sensitivity in histochemical staining, with the advantages of GFP as a vital marker. The fusion proteins were functional in transient expression studies in tobacco using either DNA bombardment or potato virus X as a vector, and in stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana and Lotus japonicus plants. The results show that high level of expression does not interfere with efficient stable transformation in A. thaliana and L. japonicus. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy we show that the fusion constructs are very suitable for promoter expression studies in all organs of living plants, including root nodules. The use of these reporter constructs in the model legume L. japonicus offers exciting new possibilities for the study of the root nodulation process.

  12. High temperature superconductivity and cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitz, M.

    1990-01-01

    There are numerous historical and scientific parallels between high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) and the newly emerging field of cold fusion (CF). Just as the charge carrier effective mass plays an important role in SC, the deuteron effective mass may play a vital role in CF. A new theory including effects of proximity, electron shielding, and decreased effective mass of the fusing nuclei can account for the reported CF results. A quantum-gas model that covers the range from low temperature to superhigh temperature SC indicates an increased T c with reduced dimensionality. A reduced dimensionality effect may also enhance CF. A relation is shown between CF and the significant cluster-impact fusion experiments

  13. Interaction of a spheromak-like compact toroid with a high beta spherical tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; McLean, H.S.; Baker, K.L.; Evans, R.W.; Horton, R.D.; Terry, S.D.; Howard, S.; Schmidt, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiments using accelerated spheromak-like compact toroids (SCTs) to fuel tokamak plasmas have quantified the penetration mechanism in the low beta regime; i.e. external magnetic field pressure dominates plasma thermal pressure. However, fusion reactor designs require high beta plasma and, more importantly, the proper plasma pressure profile. Here, the effect of the plasma pressure profile on SCT penetration, specifically, the effect of diamagnetism, is addressed. It is estimated that magnetic field pressure dominates penetration even up to 50% local beta. The combination of the diamagnetic effect on the toroidal magnetic field and the strong poloidal field at the outer major radius of a spherical tokamak will result in a diamagnetic well in the total magnetic field. Therefore, the spherical tokamak is a good candidate to test the potential trapping of an SCT in a high beta diamagnetic well. The diamagnetic effects of a high beta spherical tokamak discharge (low aspect ratio) are computed. To test the penetration of an SCT into such a diamagnetic well, experiments have been conducted of SCT injection into a vacuum field structure which simulates the diamagnetic field effect of a high beta tokamak. The diamagnetic field gradient length is substantially shorter than that of the toroidal field of the tokamak, and the results show that it can still improve the penetration of the SCT. Finally, analytic results have been used to estimate the effect of plasma pressure on penetration, and the effect of plasma pressure was found to be small in comparison with the magnetic field pressure. The penetration condition for a vacuum field only is reported. To study the diamagnetic effect in a high beta plasma, additional experiments need to be carried out on a high beta spherical tokamak. (author)

  14. HYFIRE: fusion-high temperature electrolysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Benenati, R.; Dang, V.D.; Horn, F.; Isaacs, H.; Lazareth, O.; Makowitz, H.; Usher, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is carrying out a comprehensive conceptual design study called HYFIRE of a commercial fusion Tokamak reactor, high-temperature electrolysis system. The study is placing particular emphasis on the adaptability of the STARFIRE power reactor to a synfuel application. The HYFIRE blanket must perform three functions: (a) provide high-temperature (approx. 1400 0 C) process steam at moderate pressures (in the range of 10 to 30 atm) to the high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) units; (b) provide high-temperature (approx. 700 to 800 0 C) heat to a thermal power cycle for generation of electricity to the HTE units; and (c) breed enough tritium to sustain the D-T fuel cycle. In addition to thermal energy for the decomposition of steam into its constitutents, H 2 and O 2 , electrical input is required. Power cycle efficiencies of approx. 40% require He cooling for steam superheat. Fourteen hundred degree steam coupled with 40% power cycle efficiency results in a process efficiency (conversion of fusion energy to hydrogen chemical energy) of 50%

  15. Experimental study of high beta toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    Experiments on the Wisconsin Levitated Toroidal Octupole have produced a wide range of stable high β plasmas with β significantly above single fluid MHD theory predictions. A stable β approx. 8% plasma, twice the fluid limit, is obtained with 5 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/ and tau/sub β/ approx. = 6000 tau/sub Alfven/ = 600 μsec. The enhanced stability is explained with a kinetic treatment that includes the effect of finite ion gyroradius which couples the ballooning mode to an ion drift wave. In a more collisional, large gyroradius (2 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/) regime, a stable β approx. 35% plasma is obtained with a decay time of 1000 Alfven times. Measurement of the equilibrium magnetic field in this regime indicates that the diamagnetic current density is five times smaller than predicted by ideal MHD, probably due to ion gyroviscosity. Particle transport is anomalous and ranges from agreement with the classical diffusion rate at the highest beta, lowest field plasma (B/sub P/ = 200 G), to thirteen times the classical rate in a β=11%, high field plasma (B/sub P/ = 860 G) where the level of enhancement increase with magnetic field. Fluctuations in density, electrostatic potential, and magnetic field have been studied in plasmas with β from 0.1% to 40%

  16. Stability Limits of High-Beta Plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    Stability at high beta is an important requirement for a compact, economically attractive fusion reactor. DIII-D experiments have shown that ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is an accurate predictor of the ultimate stability limits for tokamaks, and the Troyon scaling law has provided a useful approximation of ideal stability limits for discharges with 'conventional' profiles. However, variation of the discharge shape, pressure profile, and current density profile can lead to ideal MHD beta limits that differ significantly from simple Troyon scaling. The need for profiles consistent with steady-state operation places an important additional constraint on plasma stability. Nonideal effects can also be important and must be taken into account. For example, neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), resulting from plasma resistivity and the nonlinear effects of the bootstrap current, can become unstable at beta values well below the ideal MHD limit. DIII-D experiments are now entering a new era of unprecedented control over plasma stability, including suppression of NTMs by localized current drive at the island location, and direct feedback stabilization of kink modes with a resistive wall. The continuing development of physics understanding and control tools holds the potential for stable, steady-state fusion plasmas at high beta

  17. Progress toward fully noninductive, high beta conditions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.; Greenfield, C.M.; Luce, T.C.; Ferron, J.R.; St John, H.E.; DeBoo, J.C.; Osborne, T.H.; Petty, C.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Gorelov, I.A.; Groebner, R.J.; Hyatt, A.W.; Kajiwara, K.; La Haye, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leonard, A.W.; Lohr, J.

    2006-01-01

    The DIII-D Advanced Tokamak (AT) program in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research, 1986, Vol. I (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), p. 159] is aimed at developing a scientific basis for steady-state, high-performance operation in future devices. This requires simultaneously achieving 100% noninductive operation with high self-driven bootstrap current fraction and toroidal beta. Recent progress in this area includes demonstration of 100% noninductive conditions with toroidal beta, β T =3.6%, normalized beta, β N =3.5, and confinement factor, H 89 =2.4 with the plasma current driven completely by bootstrap, neutral beam current drive, and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). The equilibrium reconstructions indicate that the noninductive current profile is well aligned, with little inductively driven current remaining anywhere in the plasma. The current balance calculation improved with beam ion redistribution that was supported by recent fast ion diagnostic measurements. The duration of this state is limited by pressure profile evolution, leading to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities after about 1 s or half of a current relaxation time (τ CR ). Stationary conditions are maintained in similar discharges (∼90% noninductive), limited only by the 2 s duration (1τ CR ) of the present ECCD systems. By discussing parametric scans in a global parameter and profile databases, the need for low density and high beta are identified to achieve full noninductive operation and good current drive alignment. These experiments achieve the necessary fusion performance and bootstrap fraction to extrapolate to the fusion gain, Q=5 steady-state scenario in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [R. Aymar et al., Fusion Energy Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Sorrento, Italy (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), paper IAEA-CN-77/OV-1]. The modeling tools that have

  18. High density, high magnetic field concepts for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    One rather discouraging feature of our conventional approaches to fusion energy is that they do not appear to lend themselves to a small reactor for developmental purposes. This is in contrast with the normal evolution of a new technology which typically proceeds to a full scale commercial plant via a set of graduated steps. Accordingly' several concepts concerned with dense plasma fusion systems are being studied theoretically and experimentally. A common aspect is that they employ: (a) high to very high plasma densities (∼10 16 cm -3 to ∼10 26 cm -3 ) and (b) magnetic fields. If they could be shown to be viable at high fusion Q, they could conceivably lead to compact and inexpensive commercial reactors. At least, their compactness suggests that both proof of principle experiments and development costs will be relatively inexpensive compared with the present conventional approaches. In this paper, the following concepts are considered: (1) The staged Z-pinch, (2) Liner implosion of closed-field-line configurations, (3) Magnetic ''fast'' ignition of inertial fusion targets, (4) The continuous flow Z-pinch

  19. High temperature experiment for accelerator inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The High Temperature Experiment (HTE) is intended to produce temperatures of 50-100 eV in solid density targets driven by heavy ion beams from a multiple beam induction linac. The fundamental variables (particle species, energy number of beamlets, current and pulse length) must be fixed to achieve the temperature at minimum cost, subject to criteria of technical feasibility and relevance to the development of a Fusion Driver. The conceptual design begins with an assumed (radiation-limited) target temperature and uses limitations due to particle range, beamlet perveance, and target disassembly to bound the allowable values of mass number (A) and energy (E). An accelerator model is then applied to determine the minimum length accelerator, which is a guide to total cost. The accelerator model takes into account limits on transportable charge, maximum gradient, core mass per linear meter, and head-to-tail momentum variation within a pulse

  20. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas. (author)

  1. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas.

  2. Fusion Performance of High Magnetic Field Expe-riments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Coppi, B.

    1997-11-01

    High magnetic field machines have the characteristic of operating well within the usual limitations known as density and beta limits. This feature is highlighted in the Ignitor concept thanks to its reference field of up to 13 T on the magnetic axis and its high current densities. The two reference scenarios with plasma currents of 12 MA and 11 MA respectively, are discussed. The ramp time is 4 sec for both scenarios, whereas the following programmed time dependence of the current is different. The results of an extensive series of numerical simulations using an appropriate version of the 1+1/2D JETTO transport code show that in any case optimal fusion performances are reacheable without needing enhancement over the values of the energy replacement time predicted by the most pessimistic scalings (for the so-called L-mode regime). The density is the crucial parameter involved on the path to ignition that can be achieved provided the density rise is carefully programmed. The density profiles can be controlled by the proper use of the pellet injector that is included in the machine design.

  3. Hydrogen production from high temperature electrolysis and fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, J.F.; Issacs, H.S.; Lazareth, O.; Powell, J.R.; Salzano, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from high temperature electrolysis of steam coupled with a fusion reactor is studied. The process includes three major components: the fusion reactor, the high temperature electrolyzer and the power conversion cycle each of which is discussed in the paper. Detailed process design and analysis of the system is examined. A parametric study on the effect of process efficiency is presented

  4. Use of high current density superconducting coils in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1979-11-01

    Superconducting magnets will play an important role in fusion research in years to come. The magnets which are currently proposed for fusion research use the concept of cryostability to insure stable operation of the superconducting coils. This paper proposes the use of adiabatically stable high current density superconducting coils in some types of fusion devices. The advantages of this approach are much lower system cold mass, enhanced cryogenic safety, increased access to the plasma and lower cost

  5. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.

    1988-01-01

    A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig

  6. MHD analysis of LHD high beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiguchi, K.; Nakajima, N.; Carreras, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of the interchange mode in the LHD plasma depends on the overlap of the vortices with different helicity. If the vortices are separated in the radial direction, each mode saturates mildly with generating the local flat regions in the pressure profile. In the case of the significant overlap of the vortices, the convection is enhanced and the sudden global reduction of the pressure occurs. Succession of the saturated pressure profile in the increase of beta can suppress the overlap. Self-organization of the pressure profile to suppress the overlap of the vortices can be the stabilizing mechanism in the LHD plasma. (orig.)

  7. Theory of high density laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.B.; Nuckolls, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A basic laser fusion scheme is presented. Some of its subtleties are described and the theoretical difficulties which now appear to be the major obstacles are considered. Interpretations of some recent laser compression experiments are given. (U.S.)

  8. Safety and deterministic failure analyses in high-beta D-D tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Safety and deterministic failure analyses were performed to compare major component failure characteristics for different high-beta D-D tokamak reactors. The primary focus was on evaluating damage to the reactor facility. The analyses also considered potential hazards to the general public and operational personnel. Parametric designs of high-beta D-D tokamak reactors were developed, using WILDCAT as the reference. The size, and toroidal field strength were reduced, and the fusion power increased in an independent manner. These changes were expected to improve the economics of D-D tokamaks. Issues examined using these designs were radiation induced failurs, radiation safety, first wall failure from plasma disruptions, and toroidal field magnet coil failure

  9. Characteristics of MHD stability of high beta plasmas in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.; Nakajima, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Todo, Y.; Suzuki, Y.

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand characteristics of the MHD stability of high beta plasmas obtained in the LHD experiments, full MHD simulations have been performed for the first time. Since there is a magnetic hill in a plasma peripheral region, the ballooning modes extending into the plasma peripheral region with a chaotic magnetic field are destabilized. However, in the nonlinear phase, the core region comes under the in influence of the instabilities and the central pressure decreases. There is a tendency that modes are suppressed as the beta value and/or magnetic Reynolds number increase, which is consistent with a result that high beta plasmas enter the second stable region of the ideal ballooning modes as beta increases and remaining destabilized ballooning modes are considered to be resistive type. (author)

  10. Deuterium-tritium TFTR plasmas in the high poloidal beta regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A.

    1995-03-01

    Deuterium-tritium plasmas with enhanced energy confinement and stability have been produced in the high poloidal beta, advanced tokamak regime in TFTR. Confinement enhancement H triple-bond τ E /τ E ITER-89P > 4 has been obtained in a limiter H-mode configuration at moderate plasma current I p = 0.85 - 1.46 MA. By peaking the plasma current profile, β N dia triple-bond 10 8 tperpendicular > aB 0 /I p = 3 has been obtained in these plasma,s exceeding the β N limit for TFTR plasmas with lower internal inductance, l i . Fusion power exceeding 6.7 MW with a fusion power gain Q DT = 0.22 has been produced with reduced alpha particle first orbit loss provided by the increased l i

  11. The use of scaling laws for the design of high beta tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauel, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several different empirical scaling laws for the tokamak energy confinement time are used to estimate the auxiliary heating power required for a laboratory experiment capable of testing tokamak confinement at high beta and techniques to access the second stability regime. Since operating experience in the second stability regime does not yet exist, these laws predict a wide range of possible power requirements, especially at large aspect ratios. However, by examining a model DT fusion power reactor with reasonable restrictions on the fusion island weight, neutron loading, and maximum magnetic field of the external coils, only a limited range of operating conditions are found for both first and second regime tokamaks, and only a subset of the scaling laws predict ignition. These particular scaling laws are then used to set confinement goals which if demonstrated by the laboratory experiment would indicate favourable scaling to a reactor. (author)

  12. The binding affinity of a soluble TCR-Fc fusion protein is significantly improved by crosslinkage with an anti-C{beta} antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Horii, Masae; Kobayashi, Eiji [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Jin, Aishun [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150081 (China); Kishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: immkishi@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Muraguchi, Atsushi [Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel soluble TCR composed of TCR V and C regions with Ig Fc region is generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCR-Fc protein immobilized by an anti-C{beta} antibody bound to a p/MHC tetramer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding affinity of TCR-Fc was markedly increased by binding with anti-C{beta} antibody. -- Abstract: The identification and cloning of tumor antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) and the production of the soluble form of the TCR (sTCR) contributed to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for cancer. Recently, several groups have reported the development of technologies for the production of sTCRs. The native sTCR has a very low binding affinity for the antigenic peptide/MHC (p/MHC) complex. In this study, we established a technology to produce high affinity, functional sTCRs. We generated a novel sTCR-Fc fusion protein composed of the TCR V and C regions of the TCR linked to the immunoglobulin (Ig) Fc region. A Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the fusion protein was approximately 60 kDa under reducing conditions and approximately 100-200 kDa under non-reducing conditions. ELISAs using various antibodies showed that the structure of each domain of the TCR-Fc protein was intact. The TCR-Fc protein immobilized by an anti-C{beta} antibody effectively bound to a p/MHC tetramer. An SPR analysis showed that the TCR-Fc protein had a low binding affinity (KD; 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M) to the p/MHC monomer. Interestingly, when the TCR-Fc protein was pre-incubated with an anti-C{beta} antibody, its binding affinity for p/MHC increased by 5-fold (2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M). We demonstrated a novel method for constructing a functional soluble TCR using the Ig Fc region and showed that the binding affinity of the functional sTCR-Fc was markedly increased by an anti-C{beta} antibody, which is probably due to the stabilization of the V{alpha}/V{beta

  13. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  14. Galectin-1 as a fusion partner for the production of soluble and folded human {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-T7 in E. coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasek, Marta [Structural Glycobiology Section, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 2170 (United States); Boeggeman, Elizabeth; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy [Structural Glycobiology Section, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 2170 (United States); Basic Science Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 2170 (United States); Qasba, Pradman K., E-mail: qasba@helix.nih.gov [Structural Glycobiology Section, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 2170 (United States)

    2010-04-09

    The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli often leads to inactive aggregated proteins known as the inclusion bodies. To date, the best available tool has been the use of fusion tags, including the carbohydrate-binding protein; e.g., the maltose-binding protein (MBP) that enhances the solubility of recombinant proteins. However, none of these fusion tags work universally with every partner protein. We hypothesized that galectins, which are also carbohydrate-binding proteins, may help as fusion partners in folding the mammalian proteins in E. coli. Here we show for the first time that a small soluble lectin, human galectin-1, one member of a large galectin family, can function as a fusion partner to produce soluble folded recombinant human glycosyltransferase, {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 ({beta}4Gal-T7), in E. coli. The enzyme {beta}4Gal-T7 transfers galactose to xylose during the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker sequence attached to a Ser residue of proteoglycans. Without a fusion partner, {beta}4Gal-T7 is expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies. We have designed a new vector construct, pLgals1, from pET-23a that includes the sequence for human galectin-1, followed by the Tev protease cleavage site, a 6x His-coding sequence, and a multi-cloning site where a cloned gene is inserted. After lactose affinity column purification of galectin-1-{beta}4Gal-T7 fusion protein, the unique protease cleavage site allows the protein {beta}4Gal-T7 to be cleaved from galectin-1 that binds and elutes from UDP-agarose column. The eluted protein is enzymatically active, and shows CD spectra comparable to the folded {beta}4Gal-T1. The engineered galectin-1 vector could prove to be a valuable tool for expressing other proteins in E. coli.

  15. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document describes ideal and resistive MHD studies of high-beta plasmas and of the second stability region. Significant progress is reported on the resistive stability properties of high beta poloidal ''supershot'' discharges. For these studies initial profiles were taken from the TRANSP code which is used extensively to analyze experimental data. When an ad hoc method of removing the finite pressure stabilization of tearing modes is implemented it is shown that there is substantial agreement between MHD stability computation and experiment. In particular, the mode structures observed experimentally are consistent with the predictions of the resistive MHD model. We also report on resistive stability near the transition to the second region in TFTR. Tearing modes associated with a nearby infernal mode may explain the increase in MHD activity seen in high beta supershots and which impede the realization of Q∼1. We also report on a collaborative study with PPPL involving sawtooth stabilization with ICRF

  16. High temperature superconductor cable concepts for fusion magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078397

    2013-01-01

    Three concepts of high temperature superconductor cables carrying kA currents (RACC, CORC and TSTC) are investigated, optimized and evaluated in the scope of their applicability as conductor in fusion magnets. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cables is measured; the thermal expansion and conductivity of structure, insulation and filling materials are investigated. High temperature superconductor winding packs for fusion magnets are calculated and compared with corresponding low temperature superconductor cases.

  17. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  18. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials

  19. High density linear systems for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.R.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The physics and technological limitations and uncertainties associated with the linear theta pinch are discussed in terms of a generalized energy balance, which has as its basis the ratio (Q/sub E/) of total electrical energy generated to net electrical energy consumed. Included in this total is the virtual energy of bred fissile fuel, if a hybrid blanket is used, as well as the actual of real energy deposited in the blanket by the fusion neutron. The advantages and disadvantages of the pulsed operation demanded by the linear theta pinch are also discussed

  20. Wall stabilization of high beta plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.S.; Strait, E.J.; Lao, L.L.; Turnbull, A.D.; Burrell, K.H.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Groebner, R.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Mauel, M.

    1995-02-01

    Detailed analysis of recent high beta discharges in the DIII-D tokamak demonstrates that the resistive vacuum vessel can provide stabilization of low n magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. The experimental beta values reaching up to β T = 12.6% are more than 30% larger than the maximum stable beta calculated with no wall stabilization. Plasma rotation is essential for stabilization. When the plasma rotation slows sufficiently, unstable modes with the characteristics of the predicted open-quotes resistive wallclose quotes mode are observed. Through slowing of the plasma rotation between the q = 2 and q = 3 surfaces with the application of a non-axisymmetric field, the authors have determined that the rotation at the outer rational surfaces is most important, and that the critical rotation frequency is of the order of Ω/2π = 1 kHz

  1. On the Demand for High-beta Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Simutin, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have documented that pension plan sponsors often monitor a fund’s performance relative to a benchmark. We use a first-difference approach to show that in an effort to beat benchmarks, fund managers controlling large pension assets tend to increase their exposure to high-beta stocks...

  2. Production and study of high-beta plasma confined by a superconducting dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, D.T.; Hansen, A.; Mauel, M.E.; Ortiz, E.; Boxer, A.C.; Ellsworth, J.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Mahar, S.; Roach, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) [J. Kesner et al., in Fusion Energy 1998, 1165 (1999)] is a new research facility that is exploring the confinement and stability of plasma created within the dipole field produced by a strong superconducting magnet. Unlike other configurations in which stability depends on curvature and magnetic shear, magnetohydrodynamic stability of a dipole derives from plasma compressibility. Theoretically, the dipole magnetic geometry can stabilize a centrally peaked plasma pressure that exceeds the local magnetic pressure (β>1), and the absence of magnetic shear allows particle and energy confinement to decouple. In initial experiments, long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges lasting more than 10 s have been produced that are consistent with equilibria having peak beta values of 20%. Detailed measurements have been made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. In these initial experiments, the high-field superconducting floating coil was supported by three thin supports. The plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 and 6.4 GHz, and a population of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV, dominates the plasma pressure. Creation of high-pressure, high-beta plasma is possible only when intense hot electron interchange instabilities are stabilized by sufficiently high background plasma density. A dramatic transition from a low-density, low-beta regime to a more quiescent, high-beta regime is observed when the plasma fueling rate and confinement time become sufficiently large

  3. High beta and confinement studies on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the first 8 months of this project we have made substantial progress toward the goals set out in our original proposal. Our plan to access new regimes of operation at high values of var-epsilon β p using low current discharges in TFTR has worked extremely well and a new regime of operation has indeed been found in the course of our execution of TFTR Experimental Proposal 146 which involved our operation of TFTR on 9 November 1989, 19--20 January 1990 and 1--2 February 1990. The status of our high var-epsilon β p work on TFTR is given and is extracted from our paper submitted for presentation to the 1990 EPS meeting in Amsterdam. We have also performed an analysis of the energetic particle stabilization requirements for TFTR Supershots, and developed methods for analysis and a theory of perturbative transport measurements in TFTR

  4. Beta activity measurements in high, variable gamma backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanga, D.; Sandu, E.; Craciun, L.

    1997-01-01

    In many cases beta activity measurements must be performed in high and variable gamma backgrounds. In such instances it is necessary to use well-shielded detectors but this technique is limited to laboratory equipment and frequently insufficient. In order to perform in a simple manner beta activity measurements in high and variable backgrounds a software-aided counting technique have been developed and a counting system have been constructed. This technique combines the different counting techniques with traditional method of successive measurement of the sample and background. The counting system is based on a programmable multi-scaler which is endowed with appropriate software and allow all operations to be performed via keyboard in an interactive fashion. Two large - area proportional detectors were selected in order to have the same background and the same gamma response within 5%. A program has been developed for the counting data analysis and beta activity computing. The software-aided counting technique has been implemented for beta activity measurement in high and variable backgrounds. (authors)

  5. Use of high temperature superconductors for future fusion magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, W H [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Celentano, G; Della Corte, A [Superconductivity Division, ENEA - Frascati Research Center, Frascati (Italy); Goldacker, W; Heller, R; Komarek, P; Kotzyba, G; Nast, R; Obst, B; Schlachter, S I; Schmidt, C; Zahn, G [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Technische Physik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pasztor, G; Wesche, R [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Villingen (Switzerland); Salpietro, E; Vostner, A [European Fusion Development Agreement, Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    With the construction of ITER the feasibility of a fusion machine will be demonstrated. To commercialize fusion it is essential to keep losses as small as possible in future fusion power plants. One major component where losses can be strongly reduced is the cooling system. For example in ITER where efficiency is not a major goal, a cooling power of 64 kW at 4.4 K is foreseen taking more than 20 MW electric power. Considering the size of future commercial fusion machines this consumption of electric power for cooling will even be higher. With a magnet system working at 20 K a fusion machine would work more efficient by a factor of 5-10 with respect to electric power consumption for cryogenics. Even better than that, would be a machine with a magnet system operating at 65 K to 77 K. In this case liquid nitrogen could be used as coolant saving money for investment and operation costs. Such an increase in the operating temperature of the magnet system can be achieved by the use of High- Temperature Superconductors (HTS). In addition the use of HTS would allow much smaller efforts for thermal shielding and alternative thermal insulation concepts may be possible, e.g. for an HTS bus bar system. This contribution will give an overview about status, promises and challenges of HTS conductors on the way to an HTS fusion magnet system beyond ITER. (author)

  6. High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results

  7. Fusion reactor development using high power particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The present paper outlines major applications of the ion source/accelerator to fusion research and also addresses the present status and future plans for accelerator development. Applications of ion sources/accelerators for fusion research are discussed first, focusing on plasma heating, plasma current drive, plasma current profile control, and plasma diagnostics. The present status and future plan of ion sources/accelerators development are then described focusing on the features of existing and future tokamak equipment. Positive-ion-based NBI systems of 100 keV class have contributed to obtaining high temperature plasmas whose parameters are close to the fusion break-even condition. For the next tokamak fusion devices, a MeV class high power neutral beam injector, which will be used to obtain a steady state burning plasma, is considered to become the primary heating and current drive system. Development of such a system is a key to realize nuclear fusion reactor. It will be entirely indebted to the development of a MeV class high current negative deuterium ion source/accelerator. (N.K.)

  8. High temperature superconductors for fusion magnets -influence of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudy, M.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors present the results of study of influence of neutron irradiation of high temperature superconductors for fusion magnets. High temperature superconductors (type of YBCO (Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxygen)) are strong candidates to be applied in the next step of fusion devices. Defects induced by fast neutrons are effective pinning centres, which can significantly improve critical current densities and reduce J c anisotropy. Due to induced lattice disorder, T c is reduced. Requirements for ITER (DEMO) are partially achieved at 64 K.

  9. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document summarizes progress made on the research of high beta and second region transport and stability. In the area second stability region studies we report on an investigation of the possibility of second region access in the center of TFTR ''supershots.'' The instabilities found may coincide with experimental observation. Significant progress has been made on the resistive stability properties of high beta poloidal ''supershot'' discharges. For these studies profiles were taken from the TRANSP transport analysis code which analyzes experimental data. Invoking flattening of the pressure profile on mode rational surfaces causes tearing modes to persist into the experimental range of interest. Further, the experimental observation of the modes seems to be consistent with the predictions of the MHD model. In addition, code development in several areas has proceeded

  10. Hydrogen production from fusion reactors coupled with high temperature electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and complement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Processes which may be considered for this purpose include electrolysis, thermochemical decomposition or thermochemical-electrochemical hybrid cycles. Preliminary studies at Brookhaven indicate that high temperature electrolysis has the highest potential efficiency for production of hydrogen from fusion. Depending on design electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60 percent and hydrogen production efficiencies of approximately 50 to 70 percent are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets

  11. High-precision thickness measurements using beta backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.V.

    1978-11-01

    A two-axis, automated fixture for use with a high-intensity Pm-147 source and a photomultiplier-scintillation beta-backscatter probe for making thickness measurements has been designed and built. A custom interface was built to connect the system to a minicomputer, and software was written to position the tables, control the probe, and make the measurements. Measurements can be made in less time with much greater precision than by the method previously used

  12. The High Field Path to Practical Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumgaard, Robert; Whyte, D.; Greenwald, M.; Hartwig, Z.; Brunner, D.; Sorbom, B.; Marmar, E.; Minervini, J.; Bonoli, P.; Irby, J.; Labombard, B.; Terry, J.; Vieira, R.; Wukitch, S.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a faster, lower cost development path for fusion energy enabled by high temperature superconductors, devices at high magnetic field, innovative technologies and modern approaches to technology development. Timeliness, scale, and economic-viability are the drivers for fusion energy to combat climate change and aid economic development. The opportunities provided by high-temperature superconductors, innovative engineering and physics, and new organizational structures identified over the last few years open new possibilities for realizing practical fusion energy that could meet mid-century de-carbonization needs. We discuss re-factoring the fusion energy development path with an emphasis on concrete risk retirement strategies utilizing a modular approach based on the high-field tokamak that leverages the broader tokamak physics understanding of confinement, stability, and operational limits. Elements of this plan include development of high-temperature superconductor magnets, simplified immersion blankets, advanced long-leg divertors, a compact divertor test tokamak, efficient current drive, modular construction, and demountable magnet joints. An R&D plan culminating in the construction of an integrated pilot plant and test facility modeled on the ARC concept is presented.

  13. NK1 receptor fused to beta-arrestin displays a single-component, high-affinity molecular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Lene; Hastrup, Hanne; Holst, Birgitte; Fraile-Ramos, Alberto; Marsh, Mark; Schwartz, Thue W

    2002-07-01

    Arrestins are cytosolic proteins that, upon stimulation of seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors, terminate signaling by binding to the receptor, displacing the G protein and targeting the receptor to clathrin-coated pits. Fusion of beta-arrestin1 to the C-terminal end of the neurokinin NK1 receptor resulted in a chimeric protein that was expressed to some extent on the cell surface but also accumulated in transferrin-labeled recycling endosomes independently of agonist stimulation. As expected, the fusion protein was almost totally silenced with respect to agonist-induced signaling through the normal Gq/G11 and Gs pathways. The NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion construct bound nonpeptide antagonists with increased affinity but surprisingly also bound two types of agonists, substance P and neurokinin A, with high, normal affinity. In the wild-type NK1 receptor, neurokinin A (NKA) competes for binding against substance P and especially against antagonists with up to 1000-fold lower apparent affinity than determined in functional assays and in homologous binding assays. When the NK1 receptor was closely fused to G proteins, this phenomenon was eliminated among agonists, but the agonists still competed with low affinity against antagonists. In contrast, in the NK1-beta-arrestin1 fusion protein, all ligands bound with similar affinity independent of the choice of radioligand and with Hill coefficients near unity. We conclude that the NK1 receptor in complex with arrestin is in a high-affinity, stable, agonist-binding form probably best suited to structural analysis and that the receptor can display binding properties that are nearly theoretically ideal when it is forced to complex with only a single intracellular protein partner.

  14. Dynamic behaviour of the high confinement mode of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohm, H.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamic behaviour of the High Confinement mode (H-mode) of fusion plasmas, which is one of the most promising regimes of enhanced energy confinement in magnetic fusion research. The physics of the H-mode is not yet fully understood, and the detailed behaviour is complex. However, we establish a simple physics picture of the phenomenon. Although a first principles theory of the anomalous transport processes in a fusion plasma has not yet been given, we show that within the picture developed here, it is possible to describe the dynamic behaviour of the H-mode, namely the dynamics of the L-H transition and the occurrence of edge localized modes (ELMs). (orig.)

  15. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, W.K.; Hoffman, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay π + → π 0 e + vε is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R(π + → π 0 e + vε) = 0.3999±0.0005 s -1 . The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R(π + → π 0 e + vε) = 0.394 ± 0.015 s -1 . A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required

  16. Ideal-MHD beta limits: scaling laws and comparison with Doublet III high-beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, L.C.; Bhadra, D.K.; Helton, F.J.; Lao, L.L.; Todd, T.N.

    1983-06-01

    Doublet III (DIII) recently has achieved a value for #betta#, the ratio of volume averaged plasma to magnetic pressure, of 4.5%. This #betta# value is in the range required for an economically attractive tokamak reactor, and also close to the relevant limit predicted by ideal-MHD theory. It is therefore of great interest to assess the validity of the theory by comparison with experiment and thus to have a basis for the prediction of future reactor performance. A large variety of plasma shapes have been obtained in DIII. These shapes can be divided into two classes: (1) limiter discharges, and (2) diverted discharges, which are of great interest because of their good confinement in the H-mode operation. We derive simple scaling laws from the variation of optimized ideal-MHD beta limits (#betta#/sub c/) with plasma shape parameters. The current profile is optimized for fixed plasma shapes, separately for the high-n (ballooning) and the low-n (kink) modes. Results are presented in the form of suitability normalized curves of #betta# versus poloidal beta, #betta#/sub p/, for both ballooning and kink modes in order to simultaneously compare all the DIII experimental data

  17. Multi-wavelength imaging of solar plasma. High-beta disruption model of solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibasaki, Kiyoto

    2007-01-01

    Solar atmosphere is filled with plasma and magnetic field. Activities in the atmosphere are due to plasma instabilities in the magnetic field. To understand the physical mechanisms of activities / instabilities, it is necessary to know the physical conditions of magnetized plasma, such as temperature, density, magnetic field, and their spatial structures and temporal developments. Multi-wavelength imaging is essential for this purpose. Imaging observations of the Sun at microwave, X-ray, EUV and optical ranges are routinely going on. Due to free exchange of original data among solar physics and related field communities, we can easily combine images covering wide range of spectrum. Even under such circumstances, we still do not understand the cause of activities in the solar atmosphere well. The current standard model of solar activities is based on magnetic reconnection: release of stored magnetic energy by reconnection is the cause of solar activities on the Sun such as solar flares. However, recent X-ray, EUV and microwave observations with high spatial and temporal resolution show that dense plasma is involved in activities from the beginning. Based on these observations, I propose a high-beta model of solar activities, which is very similar to high-beta disruptions in magnetically confined fusion experiments. (author)

  18. High magnetic field induced otolith fusion in the zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Roldán, Patricia; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Schulz, Hildegard; Yu, Xin

    2016-04-11

    Magnetoreception in animals illustrates the interaction of biological systems with the geomagnetic field (geoMF). However, there are few studies that identified the impact of high magnetic field (MF) exposure from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners (>100,000 times of geoMF) on specific biological targets. Here, we investigated the effects of a 14 Tesla MRI scanner on zebrafish larvae. All zebrafish larvae aligned parallel to the B0 field, i.e. the static MF, in the MRI scanner. The two otoliths (ear stones) in the otic vesicles of zebrafish larvae older than 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) fused together after the high MF exposure as short as 2 hours, yielding a single-otolith phenotype with aberrant swimming behavior. The otolith fusion was blocked in zebrafish larvae under anesthesia or embedded in agarose. Hair cells may play an important role on the MF-induced otolith fusion. This work provided direct evidence to show that high MF interacts with the otic vesicle of zebrafish larvae and causes otolith fusion in an "all-or-none" manner. The MF-induced otolith fusion may facilitate the searching for MF sensors using genetically amenable vertebrate animal models, such as zebrafish.

  19. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications.

  20. Laser fusion and high energy density science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    High-power laser technology is now opening a variety of new fields of science and technology using laser-produced plasmas. The laser plasma is now recognized as one of the important tools for the investigation and application of matter under extreme conditions, which is called high energy density science. This chapter shows a variety of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high energy density science. One of the more attractive industrial and science applications is the generation of intense pulse-radiation sources, such as the generation of electro-magnetic waves in the ranges of EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) to gamma rays and laser acceleration of charged particles. The laser plasma is used as an energy converter in this regime. The fundamental science applications of high energy density physics are shown by introducing laboratory astrophysics, the equation of state of high pressure matter, including warm dense matter and nuclear science. Other applications are also presented, such as femto-second laser propulsion and light guiding. Finally, a new systematization is proposed to explore the possibility of the high energy density plasma application, which is called high energy plasma photonics''. This is also exploration of the boundary regions between laser technology and beam optics based on plasma physics. (author)

  1. Fusion blanket high-temperature heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Deep penetration of 14 MeV neutrons makes two-temperature region blankets feasible. A relatively low-temperature (approx. 300 0 C) metallic structure is the vacuum/coolant pressure boundary, while the interior of the blanket, which is a simple packed bed of nonstructural material, operates at very high temperatures (>1000 0 C). The water-cooled shell structure is thermally insulated from the steam-cooled interior. High-temperature steam can dramatically increase the efficiency of electric power generation, as well as produce hydrogen and oxygen-based synthetic fuels at high-efficiency

  2. R and D toward highly repetitive laser fusion demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Nakahiro; Matsukado, Koji; Watari, Takeshi; Sekine, Takashi; Takeuchi, Yasuki; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics conducts research on a unique continuous neutron generation method by integrating and utilizing elemental technologies such as laser, target, and measurement for laser nuclear fusion research. In addition, in collaboration with the Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Toyota Motor Corporation, and others, it is conducting research on laser fusion. As a high power laser of element technology, it constructed an ultrahigh intensity laser system by combining glass slab laser KURE-I and ultrahigh intensity femtosecond laser MATSU-I equipped with titanium sapphire transmitter, and achieved a peak output of 20 TW, It plans to further increase this to 100 TW. As other element technologies, it is also considering nuclear fusion fuel - target technology and light - high energy particle measurement technology. Regarding the demonstration of continuous generation of laser fusion neutrons, it performed 100 times of continuous laser beam irradiation at 1 Hz, and actually measured the number of neutrons generated. It measured 4.5x10 4 pieces of neutrons on average (maximum 10 5 ) with a frequency of 98%. Since 100% of neutron generation should occur in principle, in the future it will be necessary to enhancing laser collecting intensity and to improve solid particle number density in order to put this process into practical use as a neutron source. (A.O.)

  3. Generation and characterization of recombinant bivalent fusion protein r-Cpib for immunotherapy against Clostridium perfringens beta and iota toxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Majumder, Saugata; Kingston, Joseph J; Batra, Harsh V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta (CPB) and iota (CPI) toxaemias result in some of the most lethal forms of haemorrhagic and necrotic enteritis and sudden death syndrome affecting especially neonates. While CPB enterotoxemia is one of the most common forms of clostridial enterotoxemia, CPI enterotoxemia though putatively considered to be rare is an emerging cause of concern. The similarities in clinical manifestation, gross and histopathology findings of both types of toxaemias coupled to the infrequency of CPI toxaemia might lead to symptomatic misidentification with Type C resulting in therapeutic failure due to habitual administration of CPB anti-toxin which is ineffective against CPI. Therefore in the present study, to generate a composite anti-toxin capable of neutralizing both toxaemias, a novel bivalent chimera r-Cpib was constructed by splicing the non-toxic C terminal binding regions of CPB and CPI, via a flexible glycine linker (G4S) by overlap-extension PCR. The fusion protein was characterized for its therapeutic abilities toward CPI and CPB toxin neutralizations. The r-Cpib was found to be non-toxic and could competitively inhibit binding of CPB to host cell receptors thereby reducing its cytotoxicity. Immunization of mice with r-Cpib generated specific antibodies capable of neutralizing the above toxaemias both in vitro and in vivo. Caco-2 cells exposed to a mixture of anti-r-Cpib sera and native CPI or CPB, displayed significantly superior protection against the respective toxins while passive challenge of mice with a similar mixture resulted in 83 and 91% protection against CPI and CPB respectively. Alternatively, mice exposed to a mixture of sham sera and native toxins died within 2-3 days. This work thus demonstrates r-Cpib as a novel bivalent fusion protein capable of efficient immunotherapy against C. perfringens CPI and CPB toxaemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High conductivity Be-Cu alloys for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilley, E.A.; Adachi, Takao; Ishibashi, Yoshiki

    1995-01-01

    The optimum material has not yet been identified. This will result in heat from plasma to the first wall and divertor. That is, because of cracks and melting by thermal power and shock. Today, it is considered to be some kinds of copper, alloys, however, for using, it must have high conductivity. And it is also needed another property, for example, high strength and so on. We have developed some new beryllium copper alloys with high conductivity, high strength, and high endurance. Therefore, we are introducing these new alloys as suitable materials for the heat sink in fusion reactors

  5. Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhehui; Li, Yangfang

    2012-01-01

    It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance (∼ 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located ∼1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given voltage

  6. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  7. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  8. Fusion blanket for high-efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Taussig, R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperature (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by Ar) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approx. 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum Ar temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  9. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 deg C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project 'two-zone' blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 deg C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case. (author)

  10. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena  (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  11. Secret high-temperature reactor concept for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of our SCEPTRE project was to create an advanced second-generation inertial fusion reactor that offers the potential for either of the following: (1) generating electricity at 50% efficiency, (2) providing high temperature heat (850 0 C) for hydrogen production, or (3) producing fissile fuel for light-water reactors. We have found that these applications are conceptually feasible with a reactor that is intrinsically free of the hazards of catastrophic fire or tritium release

  12. Design issues for a laboratory high gain fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    In an inertial fusion laboratory high gain facility, experiments will be carried out with up to 1000 MJ of thermonuclear yield. The experiment area of such a facility will include many systems and structures that will have to operate successfully in the difficult environment created by the sudden large energy release. This paper estimates many of the nuclear effects that will occur, discusses the implied design issues and suggests possible solutions so that a useful experimental facility can be built. 4 figs

  13. The fusion reactor - a chance to solve the energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienecke, R.

    1975-01-01

    The work deals with the physical fundamentals of nuclear fusion and the properties of the necessary plasma and gives a survey on the arrangements used today for magnetic confinement such as tokamak, stellarator, high-beta experiments and laser fusion. Finally, the technology of the fusion reactor and its potential advantages are explained. (RW/LH) [de

  14. High-energy fusion: A quest for a simple, small and environmentally acceptable colliding-beam fusion power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglich, B.

    1978-01-01

    Fusion goals should be lowered for a speedier research and development of a less ambitious but a workable 'low-gain fusion power amplifier', based on proven technologies and concepts. The aim of the Migma Program of Controlled Fusion is a small (10-15 liters) fusion power source based on colliding beams instead of plasma or laser heating. Its scientific and technological 'philosophy' is radically different from that of the governmental fusion programs of the USA and USSR. Migmacell uses radiation-free fuels, ('advanced fuels'), rather than tritium. Economic projections show that such a smaller power cell can be econonomically competitive in spite of its low power gain, because it can be mass produced. Power stations could be made either large or small and the power transmission and distribution pattern in the nation would change. An interspersion of energy resources would result. Minifusion opens the possibility to smaller countries (and medium size institutions of large countries), for participation in fusion research; this resource of research talent is presently excluded from fusion by the high cost of the mainline governmental research (over $ 200 million for one experimental fusion device, as compared to $ 1 million for migmacell). The time-scale for obtaining experimental results is reduced from decades to years. Experimental accomplishments to date and the further research needed, are presented. (orig.) [de

  15. Development of high $\\beta^*$-optics for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Wessels, Johannes Peter

    This thesis describes a feasibility study for a special optical configuration in Insertion Region 2 (IR2) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is host of the ALICE detector. This configuration allows the study of elastic and diffractive scattering during LHC high-intensity proton operation, in parallel to the nominal physics studies in all LHC experiments at the design energy of 7 TeV per beam. Such measurements require the instal- lation of additional Roman Pot (RP) detectors in the very forward region, at longitudinal distances of 150 m to 220 m from the Interaction Point (IP). Apart from being adjusted for a specific betatron phase advance between the IP and the RP detectors, such a configuration must be optimized for the largest possible $\\beta^*$ -value, to be sensitive for the smallest possible four-momentum transfer $|t|$. A value of $\\beta^*$ = 18 m is compatible with a bunch spacing of 25 ns, considering the LHC design emittance of N = 3.75 μm rad, and a required bunch-bunch separation of $12 \\...

  16. Review of progress in superconducting high-beta structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelin, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the past two years, there has been substantial progress in superconducting high-beta cavities in a number of areas. Understanding of the Q-disease, which occurs when a cavity is held for prolonged periods near 100 K, has advanced, and techniques for mitigating this problem have improved. Progress has been made in the use of high peak power processing to suppress field emission. Cell geometries have improved to reduce the ratio of peak surface electric field to accelerating field, and trapped mode behavior has been found to permit use of nine cells for some applications. The operating experience base for cavities installed in accelerators has increased substantially, as has the performance experience base for industrially manufactured cavities, including both solid niobium and sputter-coated copper. Additional applications for superconducting cavities have been identified. Progress has been made toward the design and construction of a Tera-Electron-Volt Superconducting Linear Accelerator (TESLA) test bed. (author). 25 refs., 1 fig

  17. SUPPORT FOR HU CFRT SUMMER HIGH SCHOOL FUSION WORKSHOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh

    2010-01-01

    Nine summer fusion science research workshops for minority and female high school students were conducted at the Hampton University Center for Fusion Research and Training from 1996 to 2005. Each workshop was of the duration of eight weeks. In all 35 high school students were mentored. The students presented 28 contributed papers at the annual meetings of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics. These contributed papers were very well received by the plasma physics and fusion science research community. The students won a number of prestigious local, state, and national honors, awards, prizes, and scholarships. The notable among these are the two regional finalist positions in the 1999 Siemens-Westinghouse Science and Technology Competitions; 1st Place U.S. Army Award, 2006; 1st Place U.S. Naval Science Award, 2006; Yale Science and Engineering Association Best 11th Grade Project, 2006; Society of Physics Students Book Award, 2006; APS Corporate Minority Scholarship and others. This workshop program conducted by the HU CFRT has been an exemplary success, and served the minority and female students exceptionally fruitfully. The Summer High School Fusion Science Workshop is an immensely successful outreach activity conducted by the HU CFRT. In this workshop, we train, motivate, and provide high quality research experiences to young and talented high school scholars with emphasis on under-represented minorities and female students in fusion science and related areas. The purpose of this workshop is to expose minority and female students to the excitement of research in science at an early stage in their academic lives. It is our hope that this may lead the high school students to pursue higher education and careers in physical sciences, mathematics, and perhaps in fusion science. To our knowledge, this workshop is the first and only one to date, of fusion science for under-represented minorities and female high school students at an HBCU. The faculty

  18. High beta and second stability region transport and stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.H.; Phillps, M.W.; Todd, A.M.M.; Krishnaswami, J.; Hartley, R.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes ideal and resistive studies of high-beta plasmas and of the second stability region. Emphasis is focused on ''supershot'' plasmas in TFIR where MHD instabilities are frequently observed and which spoil their confinement properties. Substantial results are described from the analysis of these high beta poloidal plasmas. During these studies, initial pressure and safety factor profiles were obtained from the TRANSP code, which is used extensively to analyze experimental data. Resistive MBD stability studies of supershot equilibria show that finite pressure stabilization of tearing modes is very strong in these high βp plasmas. This has prompted a detailed re-examination of linear tearing mode theory in which we participated in collaboration with Columbia University and General Atomics. This finite pressure effect is shown to be highly sensitive to small scale details of the pressure profile. Even when an ad hoc method of removing this stabilizing mechanism is implemented, however, it is shown that there is only superficial agreement between resistive MBD stability computation and the experimental data. While the mode structures observed experimentally can be found computationally, there is no convincing correlation with the experimental observations when the computed results are compared with a large set of supershot data. We also describe both the ideal and resistive stability properties of TFIR equilibria near the transition to the second region. It is shown that the highest β plasmas, although stable to infinite-n ideal ballooning modes, can be unstable to the so called ''infernal'' modes associated with small shear. The sensitivity of these results to the assumed pressure and current density profiles is discussed. Finally, we describe results from two collaborative studies with PPPL. The first involves exploratory studies of the role of the 1/1 mode in tokamaks and, secondly, a study of sawtooth stabilization using ICRF

  19. l=1,2 high-beta stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.R.; Cantrell, E.L.; Gribble, R.F.; Klare, K.A.; Kutac, K.J.; Miller, G.; Siemon, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    The final scyllac experiments are described. These experiments utilized a feedback-stabilized, l=1,2 high-beta stellarator configuration and like the previous feedback-stabilization experiments were carried out in a toroidal sector, rather than a complete torus. The energy confinement time, obtained from excluded flux measurements, agrees with a two-dimensional calculation of particle end loss from a straight theta pinch. Because simple end loss was dominant, the energy confinement time was independent of whether equilibrium adjustment or feedback stabilization fields were applied. The dynamical characteristics of the toroidal equilibrium were improved by elimination of the l=0 field used previously, as expected from theory. A modal rather than local feedback control algorithm was used. Although feedback clearly decreased the m=1 motion of the plasma, the experimental test of modal feedback, which is expected from theory to be superior to local feedback, is considered inconclusive because of the limitations imposed by the sector configuration

  20. Magnetic field structure of experimental high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic field structure of several low and high β tokamaks in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) was determined by high-impedance internal magnetic probes. From the measurement of the magnetic field, the poloidal flux, toroidal flux, toroidal current, and safety factor are calculated. In addition, the plasma position and cross-sectional shape are determined. The extent of the perturbation of the plasma by the probe was investigated and was found to be acceptably small. The tokamaks have major radii of approx.0.24 m, minor radii of approx.0.05 m, toroidal plasma current densities of approx.10 6 A/m 2 , and line-integrated electron densities of approx.10 20 m -2 . The major difference between the low and high β tokamaks is that the high β tokamak was observed to have an outward shift in major radius of both the magnetic center and peak of the toroidal current density. The magnetic center moves inward in major radius after 20 to 30 μsec, presumably because the plasma maintains major radial equilibrium as its pressure decreases from radiation due to impurity atoms. Both the equilibrium and the production of these tokamaks from a toroidal field stabilized z-pinch are modeled computationally. One tokamak evolves from a state with low β features, through a possibly unstable state, to a state with high β features

  1. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena 
    (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  2. Resistive wall mode stabilization in slowly rotating high beta plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimerdes, H [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Okabayashi, M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Strait, E J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Betti, R [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Chu, M S [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Hu, B [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); In, Y [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Jackson, G L [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); La Haye, R J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lanctot, M J [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Liu, Y Q [Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Navratil, G A [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Takahashi, H [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    DIII-D experiments show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) can remain stable in high {beta} scenarios despite a low net torque from nearly balanced neutral beam injection heating. The minimization of magnetic field asymmetries is essential for operation at the resulting low plasma rotation of less than 20 krad s{sup -1} (measured with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy using C VI emission) corresponding to less than 1% of the Alfven velocity or less than 10% of the ion thermal velocity. In the presence of n = 1 field asymmetries the rotation required for stability is significantly higher and depends on the torque input and momentum confinement, which suggests that a loss of torque-balance can lead to an effective rotation threshold above the linear RWM stability threshold. Without an externally applied field the measured rotation can be too low to neglect the diamagnetic rotation. A comparison of the instability onset in plasmas rotating with and against the direction of the plasma current indicates the importance of the toroidal flow driven by the radial electric field in the stabilization process. Observed rotation thresholds are compared with predictions for the semi-kinetic damping model, which generally underestimates the rotation required for stability. A more detailed modeling of kinetic damping including diamagnetic and precession drift frequencies can lead to stability without plasma rotation. However, even with corrected error fields and fast plasma rotation, plasma generated perturbations, such as edge localized modes, can nonlinearly destabilize the RWM. In these cases feedback control can increase the damping of the magnetic perturbation and is effective in extending the duration of high {beta} discharges.

  3. Managing fusion high-level waste-A strategy for burning the long-lived products in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion devices appear to be a viable option for burning their own high-level waste (HLW). We propose a novel strategy to eliminate (or minimize) the HLW generated by fusion systems. The main source of the fusion HLW includes the structural and recycled materials, refractory metals, and liquid breeders. The basic idea involves recycling and reprocessing the waste, separating the long-lived radionuclides from the bulk low-level waste, and irradiating the limited amount of HLW in a specially designed module to transmute the long-lived products into short-lived radioisotopes or preferably, stable elements. The potential performance of the new concept seems promising. Our analysis indicated moderate to excellent transmutation rates could be achieved in advanced fusion designs. Successive irradiation should burn the majority of the HLW. The figures of merit for the concept relate to the HLW burn-up fraction, neutron economy, and impact on tritium breeding. Hopefully, the added design requirements could be accommodated easily in fusion power plants and the cost of the proposed system would be much less than disposal in a deep geological HLW repository. Overall, this innovative approach offers benefits to fusion systems and helps earn public acceptance for fusion as a HLW-free source of clean nuclear energy

  4. Exploring novel high power density concepts for attractive fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A. [California State Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; APEX Team

    1999-05-01

    The advanced power extraction study is aimed at exploring innovative concepts for fusion power technology (FPT) that can tremendously enhance the potential of fusion as an attractive and competitive energy source. Specifically, the study is exploring new and `revolutionary` concepts that can provide the capability to efficiently extract heat from systems with high neutron and surface heat loads while satisfying all the FPT functional requirements and maximizing reliability, maintainability, safety, and environmental requirements. The primary criteria for measuring performance of the new concepts are: (1) high power density capability with a peak neutron wall load (NWL) of {proportional_to}10 MW m{sup -2} and surface heat flux of {proportional_to}2 MW m{sup -2}; (2) high power conversion efficiency, {proportional_to}40% net; and (3) clear potential to achieve high availability; specifically low failure rate, large design margin, and short downtime for maintenance. A requirement that MTBF{>=}43 MTTR was derived as a necessary condition to achieve the required first wall/blanket availability, where MTBF is the mean time between failures and MTTR is the mean time to recover. Highlights of innovative and promising new concepts that may satisfy these criteria are provided. (orig.) 40 refs.

  5. High-density-plasma diagnostics in magnetic-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The lectures will begin by defining high density in the context of magnetic confinement fusion research and listing some alternative reactor concepts, ranging from n/sub e/ approx. 2 x 10 14 cm -3 to several orders of magnitude greater, that offer potential advantages over the main-line, n/sub e/ approx. 1 x 10 14 cm -3 , Tokamak reactor designs. The high density scalings of several major diagnostic techniques, some favorable and some disadvantageous, will be discussed. Special emphasis will be given to interferometric methods, both electronic and photographic, for which integral n/sub e/dl measurements and associated techniques are accessible with low wavelength lasers. Reactor relevant experience from higher density, smaller dimension devices exists. High density implies high β, which implies economies of scale. The specialized features of high β diagnostics will be discussed

  6. Indirectly driven, high convergence inertial confinement fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.; Caird, J.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.; Lerche, R.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Murray, J.; Nelson, M.B.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.; Ress, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of high convergence indirectly driven implosions has been done with the Nova Laser Fusion facility. These implosions were well characterized by a variety of measurements; computer models are in good agreement. The imploded fuel areal density was measured using a technique based on secondary neutron spectroscopy. At capsule convergences of 24:1, comparable to what is required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules, these capsules achieved fuel densities of 19 g/cm 3 . Independent measurements of density, burn duration, and ion temperature gave nτθ=1.7±0.9x10 14 keV s/cm 3

  7. Information Fusion for High Level Situation Assessment and Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition, we developed algorithms for performing active information fusion to improve both fusion accuracy and efficiency so that decision making and situation assessment can be made in a timely and efficient manner...

  8. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonjae; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner scrape-off layer (SOL) region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and BOUT++ simulations, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave instability when resistivity drops below a certain value. The blobs temperature decreases in the course of its motion through the SOL and so the blob can switch from the electromagnetic to the electrostatic regime where resistive drift waves become important again.

  9. High density regimes and beta limits in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeulders, P.

    1990-01-01

    Results are first presented on the density limit in JET discharges with graphite (C), Be gettered graphite and Be limiters. There is a clear improvement in the case of Be limiters. The Be gettered phase showed no increase in the gas fueled density limit, except with Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH), but, the limit changed character. During MARFE-formation, any further increase in density was prevented, leading to a soft density limit. The soft density limit was a function of input power and impurity content with a week dependence on q. Helium and pellet fuelled discharges exceeded the gas-fuelled global density limits, but essentially had the same edge limit. In the second part, results are presented of high β operation in low-B Double-Null (DN) X-point configurations with Be-gettered carbon target plates. The Troyon limit was reached during H-mode discharges and toroidal β values of 5.5% were obtained. At high beta, the sawteeth were modified and characterised by very rapid heat-waves and fishbone-like pre- and post-cursors with strongly ballooning character. 17 refs., 5 figs

  10. Effects of q and high beta on tokamak stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brickhouse, N.S.; Callen, J.D.; Dexter, R.N.

    1984-08-01

    In the Columbia University Torus II tokamak plasmas have been studied with volume averaged toroidal beta values as high as 15%. Experimental equilibria have been compared with a 2D free boundary MHD equilibrium code PSEC. The stability of these equilibria has been computed using PEST, the predictions of which are compatible with an observed instability in Torus II which may be characterized as a high toroidal mode number ballooning fluctuation. In the University of Wisconsin Tokapole II tokamak disruptive instability behavior is investigated, with plasma able to be confined on closed magnetic surfaces in the scrape-off region, as the cylindrical edge safety factor is varied from q approx. 3 to q approx. 0.5. It is observed that at q/sub a/ approx. 3 major disruption activity occurs without current terminations, at q/sub a/ less than or equal to 2 well-confined plasmas are obtained without major disruption, and at q/sub a/ approx. 0.5 only partial reconnection accompanies minor disruptions

  11. High poloidal beta equilibria in TFTR limited by a natural inboard poloidal field null

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Gross, R.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.V.; Bush, C.E.; Chance, M.S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Hatcher, R.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hirshman, S.P.; Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Manickam, J.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Owens, D.K.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Kesner, J.; Marmar, E.S.; Terry, J.L.

    1991-07-01

    Recent operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor TFTR, has produced plasma equilibria with values of Λ triple-bond β p eq + l i /2 as large as 7, εβ p dia triple-bond 2μ 0 ε /much-lt B p much-gt 2 as large as 1.6, and Troyon normalized diamagnetic beta, β N dia triple-bond 10 8 t perpendicular>aB 0 /I p as large as 4.7. When εβ p dia approx-gt 1.25, a separatrix entered the vacuum chamber, producing a naturally diverted discharge which was sustained for many energy confinement times, τ E . The largest values of εβ p and plasma stored energy were obtained when the plasma current was ramped down prior to neutral beam injection. The measured peak ion and electron temperatures were as large as 24 keV and 8.5 keV, respectively. Plasma stored energy in excess of 2.5 MJ and τ E greater than 130 msec were obtained. Confinement times of greater than 3 times that expected from L-mode predictions have been achieved. The fusion power gain. Q DD , reached a values of 1.3 x 10 -3 in a discharge with I p = 1 MA and εβ p dia = 0.85. A large, sustained negative loop voltage during the steady state portion of the discharge indicates that a substantial non-inductive component of I p exists in these plasmas. Transport code analysis indicates that the bootstrap current constitutes up to 65% of I p . Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability analysis shows that while these plasmas are near, or at the β p limit, the pressure gradient in the plasma core is in the first region of stability to high-n modes. 24 refs., 10 figs

  12. Access to high beta advanced inductive plasmas at low injected torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, W.M.; Grierson, B.A.; Okabayashi, M.; Politzer, P.A.; Buttery, R.J.; Ferron, J.R.; Garofalo, A.M.; Jackson, G.L.; Kinsey, J.E.; La Haye, R.J.; Luce, T.C.; Petty, C.C.; Welander, A.S.; Holcomb, C.T.; Lanctot, M.J.; Hanson, J.M.; Turco, F.; In, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D demonstrate that advanced inductive (AI) discharges with high equivalent normalized fusion gain can be accessed and sustained with very low amounts (∼1 N m) of externally injected torque, a level of torque that is anticipated to drive a similar amount of rotation as the beams on ITER, via simple consideration of the scaling of the moment of inertia and confinement time. The AI regime is typically characterized by high confinement, and high β N , allowing the possibility for high performance, high gain operation at reduced plasma current. Discharges achieved β N ∼ 3.1 with H 98(y,2) ∼ 1 at q 95 ∼ 4, and are sustained for the maximum duration of the counter neutral beams (NBs). In addition, plasmas using zero net NB torque from the startup all the way through to the high β N phase have been created. AI discharges are found to become increasingly susceptible to m/n = 2/1 neoclassical tearing modes as the torque is decreased, which if left unmitigated, generally slow and lock, terminating the high performance phase of the discharge. Access is not notably different whether one ramps the torque down at high β N , or ramps β N up at low torque. The use of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive proved to be an effective method of avoiding such modes, enabling stable operation at high beta and low torque, a portion of phase space that has otherwise been inaccessible. Thermal confinement is significantly reduced at low rotation, a result that is reproduced using the TGLF transport model. Although it is thought that stiffness is increased in regions of low magnetic shear, in these AI plasmas, the reduced confinement occurs at radii outside the low shear, and in fact, higher temperature gradients can be found in the low shear region at low rotation. Momentum transport is also larger at low rotation, but a significant intrinsic torque is measured that is consistent with a previous scaling considering the role of the

  13. Access to high beta advanced inductive plasmas at low injected torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, W. M.; Politzer, P. A.; Buttery, R. J.; Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Hanson, J. M.; In, Y.; Jackson, G. L.; Kinsey, J. E.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Luce, T. C.; Okabayashi, M.; Petty, C. C.; Turco, F.; Welander, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D demonstrate that advanced inductive (AI) discharges with high equivalent normalized fusion gain can be accessed and sustained with very low amounts (∼1 N m) of externally injected torque, a level of torque that is anticipated to drive a similar amount of rotation as the beams on ITER, via simple consideration of the scaling of the moment of inertia and confinement time. The AI regime is typically characterized by high confinement, and high βN, allowing the possibility for high performance, high gain operation at reduced plasma current. Discharges achieved βN ∼ 3.1 with H98(y,2) ∼ 1 at q95 ∼ 4, and are sustained for the maximum duration of the counter neutral beams (NBs). In addition, plasmas using zero net NB torque from the startup all the way through to the high βN phase have been created. AI discharges are found to become increasingly susceptible to m/n = 2/1 neoclassical tearing modes as the torque is decreased, which if left unmitigated, generally slow and lock, terminating the high performance phase of the discharge. Access is not notably different whether one ramps the torque down at high βN, or ramps βN up at low torque. The use of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive proved to be an effective method of avoiding such modes, enabling stable operation at high beta and low torque, a portion of phase space that has otherwise been inaccessible. Thermal confinement is significantly reduced at low rotation, a result that is reproduced using the TGLF transport model. Although it is thought that stiffness is increased in regions of low magnetic shear, in these AI plasmas, the reduced confinement occurs at radii outside the low shear, and in fact, higher temperature gradients can be found in the low shear region at low rotation. Momentum transport is also larger at low rotation, but a significant intrinsic torque is measured that is consistent with a previous scaling considering the role of the turbulent

  14. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  15. Fusion materials high energy-neutron studies. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Guinan, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to provide background information on the US Magnetic Fusion Reactor Materials Program, (2) to provide a framework for evaluating nuclear data needs associated with high energy neutron irradiations, and (3) to show the current status of relevant high energy neutron studies. Since the last symposium, the greatest strides in cross section development have been taken in those areas providing FMIT design data, e.g., source description, shielding, and activation. In addition, many dosimetry cross sections have been tentatively extrapolated to 40 MeV and integral testing begun. Extensive total helium measurements have been made in a variety of neutron spectra. Additional calculations are needed to assist in determining energy dependent cross sections

  16. Measurement of gross beta radioactivity in high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Lin Cansheng; Zhang Xianzi; Chen Guoan; Zhang Chonghai

    1992-01-01

    Using beta plastic scintillation counter of low level background, gross beta radioactivity of twelve samples for high-level liquid waste is determined directly. Beta efficiency curves of plastic scintillation counter for four mass thickness are calibrated in advance. Determining gross beta radioactivity, gross efficiency of the scintillation counter for various energy beta ray is calculated via weighted mean method with the ratio of radioactivity for each nuclide. The ratio of radioactivity for nuclides which have gamma disintegration is determined in terms of the radioactivity measured by gamma spectrometer. The ratio of the radioactivity for 90 Sr which has purity beta disintegration is calculated in terms of half life time approximation. The ratio of the radioactivity for 147 Pm which also has purity disintegration is calculated by means of apparent cooling-time approximation. The uncertainty of results for the present work is about +-15%

  17. Effects of global MHD instability on operational high beta-regime in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Narushima, Y.; Funaba, H.; Narihara, K.; Tanaka, K.; Toi, K.; Ohdachi, S.; Kaneko, O.; Yamada, H.; Nakajima, N.; Yamada, I.; Kawahata, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Komori, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Cooper, W.A.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the Large Helical device (LHD), the operational highest averaged beta value has been expanded from 3.2% to 4% in last two years by increasing the heating capability and exploring a new magnetic configuration with a high aspect ratio. Although the MHD stability properties are considered to be unfavourable in the new high aspect configuration, the heating efficiency due to neutral beams and the transport properties are expected to be favourable in a high beta range. In order to make clear the effect of the global ideal MHD unstable mode on the operational regimes in helical systems, specially the beta gradients in the peripheral region and the beta value, the MHD analysis and the transport analysis are done in a high beta range up to 4% in LHD. In a high beta range of more than 3%, the maxima of the observed thermal pressure gradients in the peripheral region are marginally stable to a global ideal MHD instability. Though a gradual degradation of the local transport in the region has been observed as beta increases, a disruptive degradation of the local transport does not appear in the beta range up to 4%. (author)

  18. Characterization of a beta-glycosidase highly active on disaccharides and of a beta-galactosidase from Tenebrio molitor midgut lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Alexandre H P; Terra, Walter R; Ferreira, Clélia

    2003-02-01

    The midgut of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae has four beta-glycosidases. The properties of two of these enzymes (betaGly1 and betaGly2) have been described elsewhere. In this paper, the characterization of the other two glycosidases (betaGly3 and betaGly4) is described. BetaGly3 has one active site, hydrolyzes disaccharides, cellodextrins, synthetic substrates and beta-glucosides produced by plants. The enzyme is inhibited by amygdalin, cellotriose, cellotetraose and cellopentaose in high concentrations, probably due to transglycosylation. betaGly3 hydrolyzes beta 1,4-glycosidic linkages with a catalytic rate independent of the substrate polymerization degree (k(int)) of 11.9 s(-1). Its active site is formed by four subsites, where subsites +1 and -1 bind glucose residues with higher affinity than subsite +2. The main role of betaGly3 seems to be disaccharide hydrolysis. BetaGly4 is a beta-galactosidase, since it has highest activity against beta-galactosides. It can also hydrolyze fucosides, but not glucosides, and has Triton X-100 as a non-essential activator (K(a)=15 microM, pH 4.5). betaGly4 has two active sites that can hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl beta-galactoside (NPbetaGal). The one hydrolyzing NPbetaGal with more efficiency is also active against methylumbellipheryl beta-D-galactoside and lactose. The other active site hydrolyzes NPbetaFucoside and binds NPbetaGal weakly. BetaGly4 hydrolyzes hydrophobic substrates with high catalytical efficiency and is able to bind octyl-beta-thiogalactoside in its active site with high affinity. The betaGly4 physiological role is supposed to be the hydrolysis of galactolipids that are found in membranes from vegetal tissues. As the enzyme has a hydrophobic site where Triton X-100 can bind, it might be activated by membrane lipids, thus becoming fully active only at the surface of cell membranes.

  19. Fast optical shutters for Nova, a high power fusion laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L.P.; Gagnon, W.L.; Carder, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design and performance test results for fast optical shutters intended for use in the Nova high power fusion laser system are briefly described. Both an opening shutter to protect the pellet target from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), and a closing shutter to protect the laser from light reflected back from the target are discussed. Faraday rotators, synchronized by a 400 Hz oscillator, provide an opening shutter mechanism with an opening time of approximately 10 μs. A plasma closing shutter, employing electrical sublimation of a foil, provide a shutter closing time of 70 ns +- 20 ns. Energy for foil sublimation is provided by discharge of a 42 J capacitor bank. Implementation of these shutter techniques in the Nova system is anticipated to improve laser output power and efficiency

  20. High convergence, indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments at Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Cable, M.D.; Hatchett, S.P.; Caird, J.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann, C.; Murphy, T.J.; Murray, J.; Nelson, M.B.; Phillion, D.W.; Powell, H.; Ress, D.

    1996-01-01

    High convergence, indirect drive implosion experiments have been done at the Nova Laser Facility. The targets were deuterium and deuterium/tritium filled, glass microballoons driven symmetrically by x rays produced in a surrounding uranium hohlraum. Implosions achieved convergence ratios of 24:1 with fuel densities of 19 g/cm 3 ; this is equivalent to the range required for the hot spot of ignition scale capsules. The implosions used a shaped drive and were well characterized by a variety of laser and target measurements. The primary measurement was the fuel density using the secondary neutron technique (neutrons from the reaction 2 H( 3 H,n) 4 He in initially pure deuterium fuel). Laser measurements include power, energy and pointing. Simultaneous measurement of neutron yield, fusion reaction rate, and x-ray images provide additional information about the implosion process. Computer models are in good agreement with measurement results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Advantages of High Tolerance Measurements in Fusion Environments Applying Photogrammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, T.; Ellis, R.; Priniski, C.; Raftopoulos, S.; Stevens, D.; Viola, M.

    2009-01-01

    Photogrammetry, a state-of-the-art technique of metrology employing digital photographs as the vehicle for measurement, has been investigated in the fusion environment. Benefits of this high tolerance methodology include relatively easy deployment for multiple point measurements and deformation/distortion studies. Depending on the equipment used, photogrammetric systems can reach tolerances of 25 microns (0.001 in) to 100 microns (0.004 in) on a 3-meter object. During the fabrication and assembly of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) the primary measurement systems deployed were CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and supporting algorithms such as both interferometer-aided (IFM) and absolute distance measurement based (ADM) laser trackers, as well as portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms. Photogrammetry was employed at NCSX as a quick and easy tool to monitor coil distortions incurred during welding operations of the machine assembly process and as a way to reduce assembly downtime for metrology processes

  2. High efficiency targets for high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at the short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, pellets using 1/4 micron laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150 to 200) may produce energy gains as high as 200 to 250

  3. Ideal MHD stability of high poloidal beta equilibria in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Chance, M.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Jardin, S.C.; Manickam, J.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Phillips, M.W.; Hughes, M.H.; Kesner, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments in TFTR have expanded the operating space of the device to include plasmas with values of var-epsilon β p dia ≡ 2μ 0 var-epsilon perpendicular >/ p >> 2 as large as 1.6, and Troyon normalized diamagnetic beta β N dia ≡ β t perpendicular aB t /10 -8 I p as large as 4.7. At values of var-epsilon β p dia ≥ 1.3, a separatrix was observed to enter the vacuum vessel, producing a naturally diverted discharge. Plasmas with large values of var-epsilon β p dia were created with both the plasma current, I p , held constant and with I p decreased, or ramped down, before the start of neutral beam injection. A convenient characterization of the change in I p using experimental parameters can be defined by the ratio of I p before the ramp down, to I p during the neutral beam heating phase, F I p . The ideal MHD stability of these equilibria is investigated to determine their location in stability space, and to study the role of plasma current and pressure profile modification in the creation of these high var-epsilon β p and β N plasmas. The evolution of these plasmas is modelled from experimental data using the TRANSP code. Two-dimensional equilibria are computed from the TRANSP results and used as input to both high and low-n stability codes including PEST. The high var-epsilon β p equilibria, which generally have an oblate cross-sectional shape, are in the first stability region to high-n ballooning modes. At constant I p , these equilibria generally have maximum pressure gradients near the magnetic axis and are stable to n=1 modes without a stabilizing conducting wall. The effect of the current profile shape on the stability of low-n kink/ballooning modes and the requirements for these plasmas to access the second stability region are examined. 6 refs

  4. Controllers for high-performance nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, de M.R.

    2012-01-01

    A succesful nuclear fusion reactor will confine plasma at hig temperatures and densities, with low thermal losses. The workhorse of the nuclear fusion community is the tokamak, a toroidal device in which plasmas are confined by poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields. Ideally, the confirming magnetic

  5. A high power, tunable free electron maser for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanus, W.H.; Bratman, V.L.; Bongers, W.A.; Caplan, M.; Denisov, G.G.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Manintveld, P.; Militsyn, B.; Oomens, A.A.M.; Poelman, A.J.; Plomp, J.; Pluygers, J.; Savilov, A.V.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Sterk, A.B.; Verhoeven, A.G.A

    2001-01-01

    The Fusion-FEM experiment, a high-power, electrostatic free-electron maser being built at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', is operated at various frequencies. So far, experiments were done without a depressed collector, and the pulse length was limited to 12 {mu}s. Nevertheless, many aspects of generation of mm-wave power have been explored, such as the dependency on the electron beam energy and beam current, and cavity settings such as the feedback coefficient. An output power of 730 kW at 206 GHz is generated with a 7.2 A, 1.77 MeV electron beam, and 360 kW at 167 GHz is generated with a 7.4 A, 1.61 MeV electron beam. It is shown experimentally and by simulations that, depending on the electron beam energy, the FEM can operate in single-frequency regime. The next step of the FEM experiment is to reach a pulse length of 100 ms. The major part of the beam line, the high voltage systems, and the collector have been completed. The undulator and mm-wave cavity are now at high voltage (2 MV). The new mm-wave transmission line, which transports the mm-wave output power from the high-voltage terminal to ground and outside the pressure tank, has been tested at low power.

  6. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kover, Karen, E-mail: kkover@cmh.edu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa [Kansas City University Medical Biosciences, Kansas City, MO (United States); Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V. [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  7. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kover, Karen; Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu; Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa; Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H 2 O 2 assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H 2 O 2 levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced TXNIP

  8. High-$\\gamma$ Beta Beams within the LAGUNA design study

    CERN Document Server

    Orme, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Within the LAGUNA design study, seven candidate sites are being assessed for their feasibility to host a next-generation, very large neutrino observatory. Such a detector will be expected to feature within a future European accelerator neutrino programme (Superbeam or Beta Beam), and hence the distance from CERN is of critical importance. In this article, the focus is a $^{18}$Ne and $^{6}$He Beta Beam sourced at CERN and directed towards a 50 kton Liquid Argon detector located at the LAGUNA sites: Slanic (L=1570 km) and Pyh\\"{a}salmi (L=2300 km). To improve sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering, these baselines are then combined with a concurrent run with the same flux directed towards a large Water \\v{C}erenkov detector located at Canfranc (L=650 km). This degeneracy breaking combination is shown to provide comparable physics reach to the conservative Magic Baseline Beta Beam proposals. For $^{18}$Ne ions boosted to $\\gamma=570$ and $^{6}$He ions boosted to $\\gamma=350$, the correct mass ordering can be...

  9. Evaluation of the amyloid beta-GFP fusion protein as a model of amyloid beta peptides-mediated aggregation: A study of DNAJB6 chaperone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohamed Hussein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ peptides and intracellular aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Recent evidence indicates that accumulation and aggregation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. This would suggest that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP that maintain cellular protein homeostasis might be candidates for disease amelioration. We recently found that DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of heat shock proteins, effectively prevented the aggregation of short aggregation-prone peptides containing large poly glutamines (associated with CAG repeat diseases both in vitro and in cells. Moreover, recent in vitro data showed that DNAJB6 can delay the aggregation of Aβ42 peptides. In this study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of extracellular and intracellular Aβ peptides using transfection of HEK293 cells with Aβ-GFP fusion construct and performing western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 indeed suppresses Aβ-GFP aggregation, but not seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular Aβ peptides. Unexpectedly and unlike what we found for peptide-mediated aggregation, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of the Aβ-GFP fusion protein and its J-domain was crucial for its anti-aggregation effect. In addition, other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPA1a overexpression also suppressed Aβ-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that Aβ aggregation differs from poly Q peptide induced aggregation in terms of chaperone handling and sheds doubt on the usage of Aβ-GFP fusion construct for studying Aβ peptide aggregation in cells.

  10. High-resolution melting analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Phusua, Arunee; Suanta, Sudjai; Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Sae-Tung, Rattika; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid mutation analysis which assesses the pattern of reduction of fluorescence signal after subjecting the amplified PCR product with saturated fluorescence dye to an increasing temperature. We used HRM analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia disease in northern Thailand. Five PCR-HRM protocols were used to detect point mutations in five different segments of the beta-globin gene, and one protocol to detect the 3.4 kb beta-globin deletion. We sought to characterize the mutations in carriers and to enable prenatal diagnosis in 126 couples at risk of having a fetus with beta-thalassemia disease. The protocols identified 18 common mutations causing beta-thalassemia, including the rare codon 132 (A-T) mutation. Each mutation showed a specific HRM pattern and all results were in concordance with those from direct DNA sequencing or gap-PCR methods. In cases of beta-thalassemia disease resulting from homozygosity for a mutation or compound heterozygosity for two mutations on the same amplified segment, the HRM patterns were different to those of a single mutation and were specific for each combination. HRM analysis is a simple and useful method for mutation identification in beta-thalassemia carriers and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

  11. The high beta tokamak-extended pulse magnetohydrodynamic mode control research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, D A; Bialek, J; Byrne, P J; De Bono, B; Levesque, J P; Li, B Q; Mauel, M E; Navratil, G A; Pedersen, T S; Rath, N; Shiraki, D

    2011-01-01

    The high beta tokamak-extended pulse (HBT-EP) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode control research program is studying ITER relevant internal modular feedback control coil configurations and their impact on kink mode rigidity, advanced digital control algorithms and the effects of plasma rotation and three-dimensional magnetic fields on MHD mode stability. A new segmented adjustable conducting wall has been installed on the HBT-EP and is made up of 20 independent, movable, wall shell segments instrumented with three distinct sets of 40 saddle coils, totaling 120 in-vessel modular feedback control coils. Each internal coil set has been designed with varying toroidal angular coil coverage of 5, 10 and 15 0 , spanning the toroidal angle range of an ITER port plug based internal coil to test resistive wall mode (RWM) interaction and multimode MHD plasma response to such highly localized control fields. In addition, we have implemented 336 new poloidal and radial magnetic sensors to quantify the applied three-dimensional fields of our control coils along with the observed plasma response. This paper describes the design and implementation of the new control shell incorporating these control and sensor coils on the HBT-EP, and the research program plan on the upgraded HBT-EP to understand how best to optimize the use of modular feedback coils to control instability growth near the ideal wall stabilization limit, answer critical questions about the role of plasma rotation in active control of the RWM and the ferritic resistive wall mode, and to improve the performance of MHD control systems used in fusion experiments and future burning plasma systems.

  12. Potential design modifications for the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.R.; Monsler, M.J.; Powell, E.G.; Walker, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Generation of electric power from inertial confinement fusion requires a reaction chamber. One promising type, the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) chamber, includes a falling array of liquid lithium jets. These jets act as: (1) a renewable first wall and blanket to shield metal components from x-ray and neutron exposure, (2) a tritium breeder to replace tritium burned during the fusion process, and (3) an absorber and transfer medium for fusion energy. Over 90% of the energy produced in the reaction chamber is absorbed in the lithium jet fall. Design aspects are included

  13. High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Prost

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the U.S. program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2  μC/m over long pulse durations (4  μs in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo, and electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K^{+} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius for which the transverse phase space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (≈80% is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  14. Analytic, High-beta Solutions of the Helical Grad-Shafranov Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Reiman, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    We present analytic, high-beta (β ∼ O(1)), helical equilibrium solutions for a class of helical axis configurations having large helical aspect ratio, with the helix assumed to be tightly wound. The solutions develop a narrow boundary layer of strongly compressed flux, similar to that previously found in high beta tokamak equilibrium solutions. The boundary layer is associated with a strong localized current which prevents the equilibrium from having zero net current

  15. High-beta tokamak research. Annual progress report, 1 August 1982-1 August 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, G.A.

    1983-08-01

    The main research objectives during the past year fell into four areas: (1) detailed observations over a range of high-beta tokamak equilibria; (2) fabrication of an improved and more flexible high-beta tokamak based on our understanding of the present Torus II; (3) extension of the pulse length to 100 usec with power crowbar operation of the equilibrium field coil sets; and (4) comparison of our equilibrium and stability observations with computational models of MHD equilibrium and stability

  16. High current pulsed linear ion accelerators for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Yonas, G.; Poukey, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Pulsed ion beams have a number of advantages for use as inertial fusion drivers. Among these are classical interaction with targets and good efficiency of production. As has been pointed out by members of the accelerator community, multistage accelerators are attractive in this context because of lower current requirements, low power flow per energy conversion stage and low beam divergence at higher ion energies. On the other hand, current transport limits in conventional accelerators constrain them to the use of heavy ions at energies much higher than those needed to meet the divergence requirements, resulting in large, costly systems. We have studied methods of neutralizing ion beams with electrons within the accelerator volume to achieve higher currents. The aim is to arrive at an inexpensive accelerator that can advantageously use existing pulsed voltage technology while being conservative enough to achieve a high repetition rate. Typical output parameters for reactor applications would be an 0 + beam of 30 kA at 300 MeV. We will describe reactor scaling studies and the physics of neutralized linear accelerators using magnetic fields to control the electron dynamics. Recent results are discussed from PULSELAC, a five stage multikiloampere device being tested at Sandia Laboratories

  17. High current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, N.; Schein, J.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy Ion fusion (HIF) is one of the approaches for the controlled thermonuclear power production. A source of heavy ions with charge states 1+ to 2+, in ∼0.5 A current beams with ∼20 micros pulse widths and ∼10 Hz repetition rates are required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the HIF program to date, but suffer from sloe turn-on, heating problems for large areas, are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states, in short and long pulse bursts, with low emittance and high beam currents. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications is investigated. An existing ion source at LBNL was modified to produce ∼0.5 A, ∼60 keV Gd (A∼158) ion beams. The experimental effort concentrated on beam noise reduction, pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and achieving low beam emittance at 0.5 A ion current level. Details of the source development will be reported

  18. High density plasmas formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Velarde, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Velarde, G.; Bravo, E.; Eliezer, S.; Florido, R.; Garcia Rubiano, J.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Gil de la Fe, J. M.; Leon, P. T.; Martel, P.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Relano, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, E.; Lachaise, M.; Oliva, E.

    2005-01-01

    In inertially confined fusion (ICF), high densities are required to obtain high gains. In Fast Ignition, a high density, low temperature plasma can be obtained during the compression. If the final temperature reached is low enough, the electrons of the plasma can be degenerate. In degenerate plasmas. Bremsstrahlung emission is strongly suppressed an ignition temperature becomes lower than in classical plasmas, which offers a new design window for ICF. The main difficulty of degenerate plasmas in the compression energy needed for high densities. Besides that, the low specific heat of degenerate electrons (as compared to classical values) is also a problem because of the rapid heating of the plasma. Fluid dynamic evolution of supernovae remnants is a very interesting problem in order to predict the thermodynamical conditions achieved in their collision regions. Those conditions have a strong influence in the emission of light and therefore the detection of such events. A laboratory scale system has been designed reproducing the fluid dynamic field in high energy experiments. The evolution of the laboratory system has been calculated with ARWEN code, 2D Radiation CFD that works with Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Results are compared with simulations on the original system obtained with a 3D SPH astrophysical code. New phenomena at the collision plane and scaling of the laboratory magnitudes will be described. Atomic physics for high density plasmas has been studied with participation in experiments to obtain laser produced high density plasmas under NLTE conditions, carried out at LULI. A code, ATOM3R, has been developed which solves rate equations for optically thin plasmas as well as for homogeneous optically thick plasmas making use of escape factors. New improvements in ATOM3R are been done to calculate level populations and opacities for non homogeneous thick plasmas in NLTE, with emphasis in He and H lines for high density plasma diagnosis. Analytical expression

  19. High-resolution crystal structure of an engineered human beta2-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherezov, Vadim; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Hanson, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of eukaryotic signal transduction proteins that communicate across the membrane. We report the crystal structure of a human beta2-adrenergic receptor-T4 lysozyme fusion protein bound to t...

  20. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  1. High Beta Steady State Research and Future Directions on JT-60U and JFT-2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Shinichi

    2003-10-01

    JT-60U and JFT-2M research is focused on high beta steady state operation towards economically and environmentally attractive reactors. In JT-60U, a high-βp H-mode plasma was sustained with βN 2.7 for 7.4 s in which neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) limited the attainable β_N. Real-time tracking NTM stabilization system using ECCD demonstrated complete suppression of NTM leading to recovery of βN before onset of NTM. Performance in a fully non-inductive H-mode plasma was improved up to n_i(0) τE T_i(0) = 3.1 x 10^20 keV s m-3 using N-NBCD with βN 2.4, HH_y,2=1.2 and bootstrap fraction f_BS 0.5. ECH experiments extended the confinement enhancement for dominantly electron heated reversed shear plasmas up to HH_y,2 2 at T_e/Ti 1.25. A world record ECCD efficiency, 4.2 x 10^18 A/W/m^2, was achieved at Te 23 keV with a highly localized central current density. Innovative initiation and current build-up without center solenoid currents were established by LHCD/ECH and bootstrap current up to f_BS 0.9. In JFT-2M, the inside of the vacuum vessel wall was fully covered with low-activation ferritic steel plates to investigate their use in plasmas near fusion conditions. High βN plasmas were produced up to βN = 3.3 with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and a steady H-mode edge. A new H-mode regime with steady high recycling (HRS) and an ITB was exploited leading to βN H_89P 6.2 at n_e/nG 0.7. In 2003, JT-60U will be able to operate for the duration up to 65 s at 1 MA/2.7 T and the heating/current-drive duration up to 30 s at 17 MW to prolong high-βN and/or high-f_BS discharges with feedback controls. JFT-2M is planning to implement wall stabilization experiments in 2004 to pursue plasmas above the ideal no-wall limit using a ferritic wall. The modification of JT-60 to a fully superconducting tokamak is under discussion to explore high-β steady state operation in collision-less plasmas well above no-wall limit with ferritic wall in a steady state.

  2. High-pressure liquid chromatographic determination of chlorphenesin carbamate and the beta-isomeric carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W F

    1976-12-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay was developed for the determination of chlorphenesin carbamate and its beta-isomeric carbamate. A single 4-mm i.d. X 30-cm column, prepacked with 10 micrometer fully porous silica gel particles, is used with 3% methanol in 50% water-saturated butyl chloride as the mobile phase. The procedure separates chlorphenesin carbamate from several possible impurities in addition to the beta-isomeric carbamate. The assay was applied to bulk drug and compressed tablets. The relative standard deviations for the assays of chlorphenesin carbamate and the beta-isomer are approximately 1 and 2%, respectively.

  3. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Letzring, S.; Skupsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental efforts over the past 5 years have been aimed at carrying out ICF shots with spin-polarized D fuel. The authors successfully prepared polarized D in HD, and solved the problems of loading target shells with their carefully prepared isotopic mixtures, polarizing them so that the D polarization remains metastably frozen-in for about half a day, and carrying out the various cold transfer requirements at Syracuse, where the target is prepared, and at Rochester, where the cold target is inserted into the OMEGA fusion chamber. A principal concern during this past year was overcoming difficulties encountered in maintaining the integrity of the fragile cold target during the multitude of cold-transfers required for the experiment. These difficulties arose from insufficient rigidity of the cold transfer systems, which were constrained to be of small diameter by the narrow central access bore of the dilution refrigerator, and were exacerbated by the multitude of required target shell manipulations between different environments, each with different coupling geometry, including target shell permeation, polarization, storage, transport, retrieval and insertion into OMEGA. The authors did solve all of these problems, and were able to position a cold, high density but unpolarized target with required precision in OMEGA. Upon shooting the accurately positioned unpolarized high density cold target, no neutron yield was observed. Inspection inside the OMEGA tank after the shot indicated the absence of neutron yield was due to mal-timing or insufficient retraction rate of OMEGA's fast shroud mechanism, resulting in interception of at least 20 of the 24 laser beams by the faulty shroud. In spite of this, all elements of the complex experiment the authors originally undertook have been successfully demonstrated, and the cold retrieval concepts and methods they developed are being utilized on the ICF upgrades at Rochester and at Livermore

  4. New directions in fusion machines: report on the MFAC Panel X on high power density options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The high cost of fusion is motivating a shift in research interest toward smaller, lower-cost systems. Panel X of the Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee (MFAC) was charged to assess the potential benefits and problems associated with small, high-power-density approaches to fusion. The Panel identified figures of merit which are useful in evaluating various approaches to reduce the development costs and capital costs of fusion systems. As a result of their deliberations, the Panel recommended that ''...increased emphasis should be given to improving the mass power density of fusion systems, aiming at a minimum target of 100 kWe/tonne'', and that ''Increased emphasis should be given to concepts that offer the potential to reduce substantially the cost of development steps in physics and technology.''

  5. New directions in fusion machines: report on the MFAC Panel X on high power density options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The high cost of fusion is motivating a shift in research interest toward smaller, lower-cost systems. Panel X of the Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee (MFAC) was charged to assess the potential benefits and problems associated with small, high-power-density approaches to fusion. The Panel identified figures of merit which are useful in evaluating various approaches to reduce the development costs and capital costs of fusion systems. As a result of their deliberations, the Panel recommended that ''...increased emphasis should be given to improving the mass power density of fusion systems, aiming at a minimum target of 100 kWe/tonne'', and that ''Increased emphasis should be given to concepts that offer the potential to reduce substantially the cost of development steps in physics and technology.''

  6. Synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites with high adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Haojie, E-mail: shj6922@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Liu Lei [Pharmaceutic College of Henan University (China); Jia Xiaohua; Min Chunying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University (China)

    2012-12-15

    A hybrid nanostructure of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and {beta}-ferric oxyhydroxide ({beta}-FeOOH) nanoparticles is synthesized by ultrasonic-assisted in situ hydrolysis of the precursor ferric chloride and CNTs. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy , and transmission electron microscopy establishes the nanohybrid structure of the synthesized sample. The results revealed that the surface of CNTs was uniformly assembled by numerous {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles and had an average diameter of 3 nm. The formation route of anchoring {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles onto CNTs was proposed as the intercalation and adsorption of iron ions onto the wall of CNTs, followed by the nucleation and growth of {beta}-FeOOH nanoparticles. The values of remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) of the as-synthesized CNTs/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites were 0.1131 emu g, and 490.824 Oe, respectively. Furthermore, CNTs/{beta}-FeOOH nanocomposites showed a very high adsorption capacity of Congo red and thus these nanocomposites can be used as good adsorbents and can be used for the removal of the dye of Congo red from the waste water system.

  7. High-density fusion and the Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Munger, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The formation of a Z-pinch in dense gas is investigated using numerical modeling in one and two dimensions. Hot, dense Z-pinches are calculated with n approximately 2 x 10 21 cm 3 and T = 10 keV. Relaxation by sausage instability of an unstable pinch profile to a marginally stable one is calculated along with end losses in 2 dimensions to show that, if plasma is confined for N = 50 to 200 sound transits across the radius a, pinches with length L = Na are of interest for fusion power. A conceptual, ''no-wall'' fusion reactor is discussed. (author)

  8. High power microwave diagnostic for the fusion energy experiment ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Goncalves, B.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave diagnostics will play an increasingly important role in burning plasma fusion energy experiments like ITER and beyond. The Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic to be installed at ITER is an example of such a diagnostic with great potential in present and future experiments....... The ITER CTS diagnostic will inject a 1 MW 60 GHz gyrotron beam into the ITER plasma and observe the scattering off fluctuations in the plasma — to monitor the dynamics of the fast ions generated in the fusion reactions....

  9. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Letzring, S.; Skupsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    Our experimental efforts over the past 5 years have been aimed at cazrying out ICF shots with spin-polarized 0 fuel. We successfully prepared polarized 0 in HD, and solved the problems of loading target shells with our carefully prepared isotopic -rnixt.l.l?-es, polarizing them so that the 0 polarization remains metastably frozen-in for about half a day, and carrying out the various cold transfer requirements at Syracuse, where the target is prepared, and at Rochester, where the cold target is inserted fusion chamber. Upon shooting the accurately positioned unpolarized high density cold target, no neutron yield was observed. Inspection inside the OMEGA tank after the shot indicated the absence of neutron yield was dus to mal-timing or insufficient retraction rate of OMEGA'S fast shroud mechanism, resulting in interception of at least 20 of the 24 laser beams by the faulty shroud. In spits of this, all alements of the complex experiment we originally undertook have been successfully demonstrated, and the cold retrieval concepts and methods we developed are being utilized on the ICF upgrades at Rochester and at Livermore. In addition to the solution of the interface problems, we obtained novel results on polymer shell characteristics at low temperatures, and continuation of these experiments is c = ently supported by KLUP. Extensive additional mappings were ca=ied out of nuclear spin relaxation rates of H and D in solid HD in the temperature-magnetic field rangs of 0.01 to 4.2K and 0 - 13 Tesla. New phenomena were discovered, such as association of impurity clustering with very low temperature motion, and inequality of the growth-rate and decay-rate of the magnetization

  10. Ion temperature anisotropy limitation in high beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, Earl E.; Keiter, Paul A.; Balkey, Matthew M.; Boivin, Robert F.; Kline, John L.; Blackburn, Melanie; Gary, S. Peter

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures in the Large Experiment on Instabilities and Anisotropies (LEIA) space simulation chamber display an inverse correlation between the upper bound on the ion temperature anisotropy and the parallel ion beta (β=8πnkT/B 2 ). Fluctuation measurements indicate the presence of low frequency, transverse, electromagnetic waves with wave numbers and frequencies that are consistent with predictions for Alfven Ion Cyclotron instabilities. These observations are also consistent with in situ spacecraft measurements in the Earth's magnetosheath and with a theoretical/computational model that predicts that such an upper bound on the ion temperature anisotropy is imposed by scattering from enhanced fluctuations due to growth of the Alfven ion cyclotron instability. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. MHD activity and energy loss during beta saturation and collapse at high beta poloidal in PBX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Sesnic, S.; Bol, K.

    1987-10-01

    High-β experiments, in medium to high-q tokamak plasmas, exhibit a temporal β saturation and collapse. This behavior has been attributed to ballooning, ideal kink, or tearing modes. In PBX, a unique diagnostic capability allowed studies of the relation between MHD and energy loss for neutral-beam-heated (<6 MW), mildly indented (10 to 15%), nearly steady I/sub p/ discharges that approached the Troyon-Gruber limit. Under these conditions, correlations between MHD activity and energy losses have shown that the latter can be almost fully accounted for by various long wavelength MHD instabilities and that there is no need to invoke high-n ballooning modes in PBX. 6 refs., 4 figs

  12. High Power Microwave Diagnostic for the Fusion Energy Experiment ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Gonçalves, B.

    2016-01-01

    Microwave diagnostics will play an increasingly important role in burning plasma fusion energy experiments like ITER and beyond. The Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic to be installed at ITER is an example of such a diagnostic with great potential in present and future experiments...

  13. High temperature gases: progress towards nuclear fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, P.

    1975-11-01

    The basics of producing gaseous plasmas are outlined. The use of shock waves for heating is reviewed along with diagnostic techniques to measure various plasma properties. The use of hot plasmas in the CTR program is mentioned along with some basic fusion-directed studies. (MOW)

  14. Equilibrium of high beta plasma in closed magnetic line system (MBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesso, H.; Shiina, S.; Saito, K.; Nogi, Y.; Osaniai, Y.; Yoshimura, H.; Todoroki, J.; Hamada, S.; Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Atomic Energy Research Inst.)

    1985-01-01

    The beta effects on the plasma equilibrium in Modified Bumpy Torus (MBT) sector, which is an asymmetric closed line system with l = 0 and fairly large l = +- 1 field distortions, are studied. For this purpose, the equilibrium of high beta plasma produced by theta-pinch is compared with that of betaless plasma numerically calculated from the measured magnetic field profiles in device. The equilibrium condition depends weakly on beta value, but the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated as the beta value increases. The m = 1 long wavelength MHD instability is not observed during the observation time of approx. 15 μs. These experimental results are compared with MHD theory based on the new ordering taking the finiteness of l = +- 1 field distortion (deltasub(+-1) > or approx. 1) into account, which suggests significant stabilizing effects due to self formation of magnetic well and also due to the conducting wall. (author)

  15. New directions in fusion machines: Report on the MFAC panel X on high power density options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    The high cost of fusion is motivating a shift in research interest toward smaller, lower-cost systems. Panel X of the Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee (MFAC) was charged to assess the potential benefits and problems associated with small, highpower-density approaches to fusion. The Panel identified figures of merit which are useful in evaluating various approaches to reduce the development costs and capital costs of fusion systems. As a result of their deliberations, the Panel recommended that ''...increased emphasis should be given to improving the mass power density of fusion systems, aiming at a minimum target of 100 kWe/tonne'', and that ''Increased emphasis should be given to concepts that offer the potential to reduce4 substantially the cost of development steps in physics and technology.''

  16. Design of a fusion reaction-history measurement system with high temporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoshi; Wang Feng; Liu Shenye; Jiang Xiaohua; Tang Qi

    2010-01-01

    In order to accurately measure the history of fusion reaction for experimental study of inertial confinement fusion, we advance the design of a fusion reaction-history measurement system with high temporal resolution. The diagnostic system is composed of plastic scintillator and nose cone, an optical imaging system and the system of optic streak camera. Analyzing the capability of the system indicated that the instrument measured fusion reaction history at temporal resolution as low as 55ps and 40ps correspond to 2.45MeV DD neutrons and 14.03MeV DT neutrons. The instrument is able to measure the fusion reaction history at yields 1.5 x 10 9 DD neutrons, about 4 x 10 8 DT neutrons are required for a similar quality signal. (authors)

  17. Dry-boxes for manipulation of high-energy {beta} emitters; Bottes pour manipulation d'emetteurs {beta} energiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boclet, K; Laurent, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Because of the thinners of latex or neoprene gloves and the high intensity of Bremsstrahlung radiation, manipulation of pure high-energy {beta}{sup -} emitters is impossible in ordinary dry-boxes. There are many types of box equipped with heavy lead or steel protection, but their use for radioelements such as {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y is not justified. We have devised units known as 'tong boxes' which, while retaining much of the flexibility of operation found in dry-boxes, provide adequate protection. 1 curie of {sup 32}P placed in the centre of the enclosure gives about 15 mR/ 8 h. at the part of the wall closest to the source. (author) [French] La faible epaisseur des gants de latex ou de neoprene et l'importance du rayonnement de freinage rendent impossible la manipulation des emetteurs {beta}{sup -} purs energiques dans des boites a gants normales. Il existe de nombreux types d'enceintes dotees d'une forte protection de plomb ou d'acier dont l'emploi n'est pas justifie pour des radioelements tels que {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y. Nous avons realise des ensembles appeles 'Boites a Pinces', qui tout en conservant une grande partie de la souplesse d'utilisation des boites a gants sont dotees d'une protection suffisante. 1 curie de {sup 32}P place au centre de l'enceinte donne environ 15 mR/ 8 h au contact de la paroi la plus rapprochee de la source. (auteur)

  18. Global kink and ballooning modes in high-beta systems and stability of toroidal drift modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Rem, J.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Schep, T.J.; Venema, M.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical code (HBT) has been developed which solves for the equilibrium, global stability and high-n stability of plasmas with arbitrary cross-section. Various plasmas are analysed for their stability to these modes in the high-beta limit. Screw-pinch equilibria are stable to high-n ballooning modes up to betas of 18%. The eigenmode equation for drift waves is analysed numerically. The toroidal branch is shown to be destabilized by the non-adiabatic response of trapped and circulating particles. (author)

  19. Shock ignition of high gain inertial fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtz, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Lebel, E.; Casner, A.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Inertial Confinement Fusion relies on the compression of small amounts of an equimolar mix of Deuterium and Tritium (DT) up to volumic masses of several hundreds of g/cm 3 . Such high densities are obtained by means of the implosion of a spherical shell made of cryogenic DT fuel. In the conventional scheme a hot spot is formed in the central part of the pellet at the end of the implosion. If the pressure of this hot spot is large enough (several hundreds of Gbars), thermonuclear heating occurs with a characteristic time shorter than the hydrodynamic confinement time and the target self ignites. Since the central hot spot pressure results from the conversion of the shell kinetic energy into thermal energy, the threshold for the ignition of a given mass of DT is a direct function of the implosion velocity. Typical implosion velocities for central self ignition are of the order of 400 km/s. Such high velocities imply both a strong acceleration of the shell and the use of large aspect ration shells in order to optimize the hydrodynamic efficiency of the implosion, at least in direct drive. These two features strongly enhance the risk of shell beak up at time of acceleration under the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore the formation of the hot spot may itself the unstable, this reducing its effective mass. High compression may be achieved at much lower velocities, thus reducing the energy budget and enhancing the implosion safety, but the corresponding fuel assembly requires an additional heating in order to reach ignition. This heating may be obtained from a 70-100 kJ laser pulse, delivered in 10-15 ps (Fast Ignition). An alternative idea is to boost up the central pressure of a target imploded at a sub-ignition velocity by means of a convergent strong shock launched at the end of the compression phase. This Shock Ignition (SI) concept has been suggested in 1983 by Scherbakov et al. More recently, R. Betti et al. developed

  20. The Role of Combined ICRF and NBI Heating in JET Hybrid Plasmas in Quest for High D-T Fusion Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantsinen Mervi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined ICRF and NBI heating played a key role in achieving the world-record fusion yield in the first deuterium-tritium campaign at the JET tokamak in 1997. The current plans for JET include new experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T plasmas with more ITER-like conditions given the recently installed ITER-like wall (ILW. In the 2015-2016 campaigns, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of high-performance plasma scenarios compatible with ILW in preparation of the forthcoming D-T campaign. Good progress was made in both the inductive (baseline and the hybrid scenario: a new record JET ILW fusion yield with a significantly extended duration of the high-performance phase was achieved. This paper reports on the progress with the hybrid scenario which is a candidate for ITER longpulse operation (∼1000 s thanks to its improved normalized confinement, reduced plasma current and higher plasma beta with respect to the ITER reference baseline scenario. The combined NBI+ICRF power in the hybrid scenario was increased to 33 MW and the record fusion yield, averaged over 100 ms, to 2.9x1016 neutrons/s from the 2014 ILW fusion record of 2.3x1016 neutrons/s. Impurity control with ICRF waves was one of the key means for extending the duration of the high-performance phase. The main results are reviewed covering both key core and edge plasma issues.

  1. The frequency and the degree of fusion of the lung on high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hwan Sik; Kim, Sung Jin; Bae, Il Hun; Song, Kyung Sup; Kim, Joo Chang; Han, Ki Suk; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Kil Sun

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and degree of fusion of the lung as seen on high-resolution CT (HRCT). In 210 patients high-resolution CT scans from the apex to the diaphragm were obtained at 1 mm collimation and 7 mm interval. We retrospectively analysed the frequency and degree of fusion of the lung bordering each interlobar fissure. Fusion of the lung was defined when fissure appeared without complete lobar separation. The degree of lung fusion was classified as mild (less than 1/3 of the fissure), moderate (greater than 1/3 and less than 2/3 of fissure), or severe (greater than 2/3 of the fissure). In 90 of 210 patients, all fissures were identified. In 73 of these 90 (81.1%), lung fusion was noted, the most frequent site of this being between the right upper and right middle lobe (53.3%) . The least frequent site was between the upper portion of the left upper and left lower lobe (32.2%). Am mild degree of fusion was most frequently found between the right middle and right lower lobe (83.9%0, while a severe degree was most frequent between the right middle and right upper lobe (50.0%), followed by the lingular division and the left lower lobe (41.9%). HRCT can be used to evaluate the frequency and degree of interlobar lung fusion. (author)

  2. Resonant magnetohydrodynamic waves in high-beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    When a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagates in a weakly dissipative inhomogeneous plasma, the resonant interaction of this wave with either local Alfven or slow MHD waves is possible. This interaction occurs at the resonant position where the phase velocity of the global wave coincides with the phase velocity of either Alfven or slow MHD waves. As a result of this interaction a dissipative layer embracing the resonant position is formed, its thickness being proportional to R -1/3 , where R>>1 is the Reynolds number. The wave motion in the resonant layer is characterized by large amplitudes and large gradients. The presence of large gradients causes strong dissipation of the global wave even in very weakly dissipative plasmas. Very often the global wave motion is characterized by the presence of both Alfven and slow resonances. In plasmas with small or moderate plasma beta β, the resonance positions corresponding to the Alfven and slow resonances are well separated, so that the wave motion in the Alfven and slow dissipative layers embracing the Alfven and slow resonant positions, respectively, can be studied separately. However, when β > or approx. R 1/3 , the two resonance positions are so close that the two dissipative layers overlap. In this case, instead of two dissipative layers, there is one mixed Alfven-slow dissipative layer. In this paper the wave motion in such a mixed dissipative layer is studied. It is shown that this motion is a linear superposition of two motions, one corresponding to the Alfven and the other to the slow dissipative layer. The jump of normal velocity across the mixed dissipative layer related to the energy dissipation rate is equal to the sum of two jumps, one that occurs across the Alfven dissipative layer and the other across the slow dissipative layer.

  3. Stability of high-beta tokamak equilibria and transport in Belt-Pinch IIa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G; Gruber, O; Krause, H; Mast, F; Wilhelm, R [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    In Belt-Pinch IIa, highly elongated equilibria with poloidal beta values up to the aspect ratio have been achieved. In these tokamak-like configurations, no fast-growing MHD instabilities such as external kink and ballooning modes have been observed. Rigid displacement instabilities have been stabilized by an appropriate poloidal magnetic field configuration and by a conducting shell. By comparing simulation experiments using the Garching high-beta transport code with measurements, it has been found that in the collision-dominated plasma no anomalously enhanced transport occurs. Transport theory in the Pfirsch-Schlueter regime, which includes elongation and high-beta effects, has been confirmed by the experiment. In particular, it has been shown that the perpendicular electrical conductivity is also classical. Detailed investigations of oxygen and carbon impurity losses demonstrated that the impurity subprograms commonly used for tokamaks underestimate the radiation losses in the range Tsub(e)=10 to 30 eV.

  4. Recent US advances in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev, E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2007-01-01

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport, and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by >50X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. We are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy

  5. Covalent labeling of the beta-adrenergic ligand-binding site with para-(bromoacetamidyl)benzylcarazolol. A highly potent beta-adrenergic affinity label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.E.; Heald, S.L.; Jeffs, P.W.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Para-(Bromoacetamidyl)benzylcarazolol (pBABC) was synthesized and found to be an extremely potent affinity label for beta-adrenergic receptors. Its interaction with mammalian (rabbit and hamster lung) and nonmammalian (turkey and frog erythrocyte) beta-adrenergic receptors was similar, displaying EC 50 values of 400-900 pM for inhibiting 125 I-cyanopindolol binding to these receptors. pBABC reduced the number of beta-adrenergic receptors in frog erythrocyte membranes, without any change in the affinity of the remaining sites for [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. pBABC has been radioiodinated. As assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, this affinity probe specifically labeled the beta-adrenergic peptide of a purified preparation of hamster lung, with high efficiency (approximately 40%) and with a pharmacological specificity characteristic of an interaction at the beta 2-adrenergic receptor ligand-binding site. Comparison of the proteolyzed products derived from purified receptor labeled with [ 125 I]pBABC and with the photoaffinity agent [ 125 I]p-azidobenzylcarazolol suggested that covalent labeling of the beta-adrenergic receptor by these probes occurs at similar domains of the beta-adrenergic receptor

  6. High-Technology Companies Often Turn to Colleges for Confidential 'Beta Tests' of New Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Judith Axler

    1988-01-01

    Beta testing--the process of trying a product in a real-world setting before releasing it commercially--exploits a natural interface between universities and high-technology industries. High-tech companies need confidential, real-world tests of new products, and universities are eager to get an early look at tomorrow's technology. (MLW)

  7. Determining the hierarchy of neutrino masses with high density magnetized detectors at the Beta Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donini, A.; Fernandez-Martinez, E.; Rigolin, S.; Migliozzi, P.; Lavina, L. Scotto; Selvi, M.; De Fatis, T. Tabarelli; Terranova, F.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-kton iron detectors can be simultaneously exploited as far detectors for high energy Beta Beams and to determine the atmospheric ν μ flux in the multi-GeV range. These measurements can be combined in a highly non trivial manner to improve the sensitivity to the hierarchy of neutrino masses. Considering a Super-SPS based Beta Beam and a 40 kton far detector located ∼700 km from the source (CERN to Gran Sasso distance), we demonstrate that even with moderate detector granularities the sign of Δm 13 2 can be determined for θ 13 values greater than 4 deg.

  8. The high-density Z-pinch as a pulsed fusion neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Sethian, J.D.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The dense Z-pinch (DZP) is one of the earliest and simplest plasma heating and confinement schemes. Recent experimental advances based on plasma initiation from hair-like (10s μm in radius) solid hydrogen filaments have so far not encountered the usually devastating MHD instabilities that plagued early DZP experiments. These encouraging results along with debt of a number of proof-of principle, high-current (1--2 MA in 10--100 ns) experiments have prompted consideration of the DZP as a pulsed source of DT fusion neutrons of sufficient strength (/dot S//sub N/ ≥ 10 19 n/s) to provide uncollided neutron fluxes in excess of I/sub ω/ = 5--10 MW/m 2 over test volumes of 10--30 litre or greater. While this neutron source would be pulsed (100s ns pulse widths, 10--100 Hz pulse rate), giving flux time compressions in the range 10 5 --10 6 , its simplicity, near-time feasibility, low cost, high-Q operation, and relevance to fusion systems that may provide a pulsed commercial end-product (e.g., inertial confinement or the DZP itself) together create the impetus for preliminary considerations as a neutron source for fusion nuclear technology and materials testings. The results of a preliminary parametric systems study (focusing primarily on physics issues), conceptual design, and cost versus performance analyses are presented. The DZP promises an expensive and efficient means to provide pulsed DT neutrons at an average rate in excess of 10 19 n/s, with neutron currents I/sub ω/ /approx lt/ 10 MW/m 2 over volumes V/sub exp/ ≥ 30 litre using single-pulse technologies that differ little from those being used in present-day experiments. 34 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Visualization of intracranial vessel anatomy using high resolution MRI and a simple image fusion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasel, C.

    2005-01-01

    A new technique for fusion and 3D viewing of high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and morphological MR sequences is reported. Scanning and image fusion was possible within 20 min on a standard 1.5 T MR-scanner. The procedure was successfully performed in 10 consecutive cases with excellent visualization of wall and luminal aspects of the intracranial segments of the internal carotid artery, the vertebrobasilar system and the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral artery

  10. Visualization of intracranial vessel anatomy using high resolution MRI and a simple image fusion technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasel, C. [Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: christian.nasel@perfusion.at

    2005-04-01

    A new technique for fusion and 3D viewing of high resolution magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and morphological MR sequences is reported. Scanning and image fusion was possible within 20 min on a standard 1.5 T MR-scanner. The procedure was successfully performed in 10 consecutive cases with excellent visualization of wall and luminal aspects of the intracranial segments of the internal carotid artery, the vertebrobasilar system and the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral artery.

  11. Advanced fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yukihiro

    2003-01-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p- 6 Li and p- 11 B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D- 3 He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D- 3 He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of 3 He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of 3 He is estimated to be in the moon. The 3 He of about 10 23 kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  12. Advanced fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukihiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    The main subjects on fusion research are now on D-T fueled fusion, mainly due to its high fusion reaction rate. However, many issues are still remained on the wall loading by the 14 MeV neutrons. In the case of D-D fueled fusion, the neutron wall loading is still remained, though the technology related to tritium breeding is not needed. The p-{sup 6}Li and p-{sup 11}B fueled fusions are not estimated to be the next generation candidate until the innovated plasma confinement technologies come in useful to achieve the high performance plasma parameters. The fusion reactor of D-{sup 3}He fuels has merits on the smaller neutron wall loading and tritium handling. However, there are difficulties on achieving the high temperature plasma more than 100 keV. Furthermore the high beta plasma is needed to decrease synchrotron radiation loss. In addition, the efficiency of the direct energy conversion from protons coming out from fusion reaction is one of the key parameters in keeping overall power balance. Therefore, open magnetic filed lines should surround the plasma column. In this paper, we outlined the design of the commercial base reactor (ARTEMIS) of 1 GW electric output power configured by D-{sup 3}He fueled FRC (Field Reversed Configuration). The ARTEMIS needs 64 kg of {sup 3}He per a year. On the other hand, 1 million tons of {sup 3}He is estimated to be in the moon. The {sup 3}He of about 10{sup 23} kg are to exist in gaseous planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. (Y. Tanaka)

  13. Prospects of High Temperature Superconductors for fusion magnets and power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietz, Walter H.; Barth, Christian; Drotziger, Sandra; Goldacker, Wilfried; Heller, Reinhard; Schlachter, Sonja I.; Weiss, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An overview of HTS application in fusion is given. • BSCCO application for current leads is discussed. • Several approaches to come to a high current HTS cable are shown. • Open issues and benefits of REBCO high current HTS cables are discussed. -- Abstract: During the last few years, progress in the field of second-generation High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) was breathtaking. Industry has taken up production of long length coated REBCO conductors with reduced angular dependency on external magnetic field and excellent critical current density jc. Consequently these REBCO tapes are used more and more in power application. For fusion magnets, high current conductors in the kA range are needed to limit the voltage during fast discharge. Several designs for high current cables using High Temperature Superconductors have been proposed. With the REBCO tape performance at hand, the prospects of fusion magnets based on such high current cables are promising. An operation at 4.5 K offers a comfortable temperature margin, more mechanical stability and the possibility to reach even higher fields compared to existing solutions with Nb 3 Sn which could be interesting with respect to DEMO. After a brief overview of HTS use in power application the paper will give an overview of possible use of HTS material for fusion application. Present high current HTS cable designs are reviewed and the potential using such concepts for future fusion magnets is discussed

  14. Fusion neutron generation by high-repetitive target injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Pellet injection and repetitive laser illumination are key technologies for realizing inertial fusion energy. The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. and Toyota Motor Corporation demonstrate the pellet injection, counter laser beams' engagement and neutron generation. Deuterated polystyrene (CD) bead pellets, after free-falling for a distance of 18 cm at 1 Hz, are successfully engaged by two counter laser beams from a diode-pumped, ultra-intense laser HAMA. The laser energy, pulse duration, wavelength and the intensity are 0.63 J per beam, 104 fs, 811 nm and 4.7 x 10 18 W/cm 2 , respectively. The irradiated pellets produce D (D, n) 3 He-reacted neutrons with a maximum yield of 9.5 x 10 4 /4π sr/shot. A straight channel with 10 μm-diameter is found through the beads. The pellet size is 1 mm. The results indicate potentially useful technologies for the next step in realizing inertial fusion energy. The results are reviewed as well as some oversea activities. (author)

  15. High quality actively cooled plasma-facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) for future fusion devices, with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL). This actively cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long-pulse operation, has been operated under essentially thermally steady state conditions. Testing to identify braze flaws, analysis of the impact of joining flaws on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the OPL, and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed. This experience suggests that, for PFCs in future fusion devices, flaw-tolerant designs are possible; analyses of the impacts of flaws on performance can provide criteria for quality assurance; and validating appropriate methods of inspection for such flaws early in the design development of PFCs is prudent. The need for in-service monitoring is also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Highly effective portable beta spectrometer for precise depth selective electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldiyarov, N.U.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Seytimbetov, A.M.; Zhdanov, V.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: More broad application of the nuclear-physical method of precise Depth Selective Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy (DS EMS) is limited by insufficient accessibility of highly-effective beta spectrometers with acceptable resolution. It should be mentioned that the method DS EMS is realized at a combined installation that consists of a highly-effective beta spectrometer and a conventional portable nuclear gamma-resonance spectrometer. Yet few available beta spectrometers have sophisticated design and controlling; in most cases they are cumbersome. All the attempts to simplify beta spectrometers resulted in noticeable worsening of depth resolution for the DS EMS method making the measurements non precise. There is currently an obvious need in a highly-effective portable easily controlled beta spectrometer. While developing such portable beta spectrometer, it is more promising to use as basis a simpler spectrometer, which has ratio of sample size to spectrometer size of about five times. The paper presents an equal-arm version of a highly-effective portable beta spectrometer with transverse heterogeneous sector magnetic field that assures double focusing. The spectrometer is equipped with a large-area non-equipotential source (a sample under investigation) and a position-sensitive detector. This portable spectrometer meets all requirements for achievement of the DS EMS depth resolution close to the physical limit and demonstrates the following main characteristics: equilibrium orbit radius ρ 0 = 80 mm, instrumental energy resolution 0.6 % at solid angle 1 % of 4π steradian, area of non-equipotential source ∼ 80 mm 2 , registration by position-sensitive detector of ∼ 10 % of the energy interval. Highly-effective portable beta spectrometer assures obtaining Moessbauer data with depth resolution close to physical limit of the DS EMS method. So in measurements at conversion and Auger electrons with energies of about units of keV and above, the achieved

  17. Intense deuterium nuclear fusion of pycnodeuterium-lumps coagulated locally within highly deuterated atom clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshiaki, A; Zhang, Y C

    2002-01-01

    Embedded nano-Pd particles of 5 nm in size instantly abundant D-atoms more than 250% in the atomic ratio against Pd-atoms at room temperature when they are kept in D sub 2 gas pressurized to less than 10 atm. In such ultrahigh densities, 2-4 D-atoms can be coagulated inside each octahedral space of Pd lattice (pycnodeuterium-lump). When a stimulation energy such as latticequake causing by ultrasonic wave was supplied to those highly deuterated Pd particles, intense deuterium nuclear fusion (''solid fusion'') was generated there and both excess heat and sup 4 He gas were abundantly produced. Naturally, these facts can not be realized at all in bulk Pd. The results show that the nuclear fusion occurs without any hazardous rays in pycnodeuterium-lumps coagulated locally inside the each cell of the host metal lattice. These unit cells correspond to minimum unit of the solid fusion reactor as a ''Lattice Reactor''. (author)

  18. Fracture of fusion mass after hardware removal in patients with high sagittal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedney, Cara L; Daffner, Scott D; Stefanko, Jared J; Abdelfattah, Hesham; Emery, Sanford E; France, John C

    2016-04-01

    patients who underwent surgery for ASD after a remote fusion. These patients later developed a fracture of the fusion mass after hardware removal from their previously successfully fused segment. All patients had a high sagittal imbalance and had previously undergone multiple spinal operations. The development of a spontaneous fracture of the fusion mass may be related to sagittal imbalance. Consideration should be given to reimplanting hardware for these patients, even across good fusions, to prevent spontaneous fracture of these areas if the sagittal imbalance is not corrected.

  19. High fat programming of beta cell compensation, exhaustion, death and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, Marlon E

    2015-03-01

    Programming refers to events during critical developmental windows that shape progeny health outcomes. Fetal programming refers to the effects of intrauterine (in utero) events. Lactational programming refers to the effects of events during suckling (weaning). Developmental programming refers to the effects of events during both fetal and lactational life. Postnatal programming refers to the effects of events either from birth (lactational life) to adolescence or from weaning (end of lactation) to adolescence. Islets are most plastic during the early life course; hence programming during fetal and lactational life is most potent. High fat (HF) programming is the maintenance on a HF diet (HFD) during critical developmental life stages that alters progeny metabolism and physiology. HF programming induces variable diabetogenic phenotypes dependent on the timing and duration of the dietary insult. Maternal obesity reinforces HF programming effects in progeny. HF programming, through acute hyperglycemia, initiates beta cell compensation. However, HF programming eventually leads to chronic hyperglycemia that triggers beta cell exhaustion, death and dysfunction. In HF programming, beta cell dysfunction often co-presents with insulin resistance. Balanced, healthy nutrition during developmental windows is critical for preserving beta cell structure and function. Thus early positive nutritional interventions that coincide with the development of beta cells may reduce the overwhelming burden of diabetes and metabolic disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. High beta-Lactamase Levels Change the Pharmacodynamics of beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hengzhuang; Ciofu, Oana; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    the role of beta-lactamase in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of ceftazidime and imipenem on P. aeruginosa biofilms. P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its corresponding beta-lactamase-overproducing mutant, PA Delta DDh2Dh3, were used in this study. Biofilms of these two strains in flow chambers......, microtiter plates, and on alginate beads were treated with different concentrations of ceftazidime and imipenem. The kinetics of antibiotics on the biofilms was investigated in vitro by time-kill methods. Time-dependent killing of ceftazidime was observed in PAO1 biofilms, but concentration-dependent killing...... activity of ceftazidime was observed for beta-lactamase-overproducing biofilms of P. aeruginosa in all three models. Ceftazidime showed time-dependent killing on planktonic PAO1 and PA Delta DDh2Dh3. This difference is probably due to the special distribution and accumulation in the biofilm matrix of beta...

  1. Equilibrium and stability of high-beta plasma in a finite l=+-1 toroidal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, S.; Saito, K.; Todoroki, J.; Hamada, S.; Gesso, H.; Nogi, Y.; Osanai, Y.; Yoshimura, H.

    1983-01-01

    The equilibrium and stability are theoretically and experimentally investigated of high-beta plasma in the Modified Bumpy Torus, which is an asymmetric closed-line system with fairly large l=0 and l=+-1 field components. The finiteness of the l=+-1 component induces significant stabilizing effects due both to self formation of a magnetic well and to the conducting wall. (author)

  2. ORNL shielded facilities capable of remote handling of highly radioactive beta--gamma emitting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, W.R.

    1977-09-01

    A survey of ORNL facilities having adequate shielding and containment for the remote handling of experimental quantities of highly radioactive beta-gamma emitting materials is summarized. Portions of the detailed descriptions of these facilities previously published in ORNL/TM-1268 are still valid and are repeated

  3. ICRF [Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies] heating and antenna coupling in a high beta tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elet, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Maxwell's Equations are solved in two-dimensions for the electromagnetic fields in a toroidal cavity using the cold plasma fluid dielectric tensor in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF). The Vector Wave Equation is transformed to a set of two, coupled second-order partial differential equations with inhomogeneous forcing functions which model a wave launcher. The resulting equations are finite differenced and solved numerically with a complex banded matrix algorithm on a Cray-2 computer using a code described in this report. This code is used to study power coupling characteristics of a wave launcher for low and high beta tokamaks. The low and high beta equilibrium tokamak magnetic fields applied in this model are determined from analytic solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation. The code shows good correspondence with the results of low field side ICRF heating experiments performed on the Tokamak of Fontenay-Aux-Roses (TFR). Low field side and high field side antenna coupling properties for ICRF heating in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) experiment are calculated with this code. Variations of antenna position in the tokamak, ionic concentration and plasma density, and volume-averaged beta have been analyzed for HBT. It is found that the location of the antenna with respect to the plasma has the dominant role in the design of an ICRF heating experiment in HBT. 10 refs., 52 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Magnetic fusion with high energy self-colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostoker, N.; Wessel, F.; Maglich, B.; Fisher, A.

    1992-06-01

    Field-reversed configurations of energetic large orbit ions with neutralizing electrons have been proposed as the basis of a fusion reactor. Vlasov equilibria consisting of a ring or an annulus have been investigated. A stability analysis has been carried out for a long thin layer of energetic ions in a low density background plasma. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from tokamaks that energetic ions slow down and diffuse in accordance with classical theory in the presence of large non-thermal fluctuations and anomalous transport of low energy (10 keV) ions. Provided that major instabilities are under control, it seems likely that the design of a reactor featuring energetic self-colliding ion beams can be based on classical theory. In this case a confinement system that is much better than a tokamak is possible. Several methods are described for creating field reversed configurations with intense neutralized ion beams

  5. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed

  6. Magnetic fusion with high energy self-colliding ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restoker, N.; Wessel, F.; Maglich, B.; Fisher, A.

    1993-01-01

    Field-reversed configurations of energetic large orbit ions with neutralizing electrons have been proposed as the basis of a fusion reactor. Vlasov equilibria consisting of a ring or an annulus have been investigated. A stability analysis has been carried out for a long thin layer of energetic ions in a low density background plasma. There is a growing body of experimental evidence from tokamaks that energetic ions slow down and diffuse in accordance with classical theory in the presence of large non-thermal fluctuations and anomalous transport of low energy (10 keV) ions. Provided that major instabilities are under control, it seems likely that the design of a reactor featuring energetic self-colliding ion beams can be based on classical theory. In this case a confinement system that is much better than a tokamak is possible. Several methods are described for creating field reversed configurations with intense neutralized ion beams

  7. High stability space frame for a large fusion laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, C.A.; Myall, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    The Shiva laser system is a large neodymium glass laser target irradiation facility being constructed at LLL to perform laser fusion experiments. A frame is being constructed to support the large number of laser components that make up the Shiva system. Twenty laser chains composed of amplifiers, spatial filters, polarizers, rotators, and mirrors will be arranged in an optimum geometry so that each beam arrives at the target simultaneously and within alignment tolerances. This frame is capable of supporting approximately 600 individual component assemblies and maintaining a tolerance of +-4-μrad rotation between any two points over a period of 100 s. Consideration has been given to the positional stability and support of the components, the geometrical array of stacked beams with respect to the oscillator and target, the flow of utilities (e.g., power cables and cooling gas pipes), good accessibility for operation and maintenance, and adaptability for change and growth

  8. Joining and fabrication techniques for high temperature structures including the first wall in fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Kim, K. B.

    2003-09-01

    The materials for PFC's (Plasma Facing Components) in a fusion reactor are severely irradiated with fusion products in facing the high temperature plasma during the operation. The refractory materials can be maintained their excellent properties in severe operating condition by lowering surface temperature by bonding them to the high thermal conducting materials of heat sink. Hence, the joining and bonding techniques between dissimilar materials is considered to be important in case of the fusion reactor or nuclear reactor which is operated at high temperature. The first wall in the fusion reactor is heated to approximately 1000 .deg. C and irradiated severely by the plasma. In ITER, beryllium is expected as the primary armour candidate for the PFC's; other candidates including W, Mo, SiC, B4C, C/C and Si 3 N 4 . Since the heat affected zones in the PFC's processed by conventional welding are reported to have embrittlement and degradation in the sever operation condition, both brazing and diffusion bonding are being considered as prime candidates for the joining technique. In this report, both the materials including ceramics and the fabrication techniques including joining technique between dissimilar materials for PFC's are described. The described joining technique between the refractory materials and the dissimilar materials may be applicable for the fusion reactor and Generation-4 future nuclear reactor which are operated at high temperature and high irradiation

  9. Joining and fabrication techniques for high temperature structures including the first wall in fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, B. S.; Kim, K. B

    2003-09-01

    The materials for PFC's (Plasma Facing Components) in a fusion reactor are severely irradiated with fusion products in facing the high temperature plasma during the operation. The refractory materials can be maintained their excellent properties in severe operating condition by lowering surface temperature by bonding them to the high thermal conducting materials of heat sink. Hence, the joining and bonding techniques between dissimilar materials is considered to be important in case of the fusion reactor or nuclear reactor which is operated at high temperature. The first wall in the fusion reactor is heated to approximately 1000 .deg. C and irradiated severely by the plasma. In ITER, beryllium is expected as the primary armour candidate for the PFC's; other candidates including W, Mo, SiC, B4C, C/C and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Since the heat affected zones in the PFC's processed by conventional welding are reported to have embrittlement and degradation in the sever operation condition, both brazing and diffusion bonding are being considered as prime candidates for the joining technique. In this report, both the materials including ceramics and the fabrication techniques including joining technique between dissimilar materials for PFC's are described. The described joining technique between the refractory materials and the dissimilar materials may be applicable for the fusion reactor and Generation-4 future nuclear reactor which are operated at high temperature and high irradiation.

  10. Pulsed fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This summer school specialized in examining specific fusion center systems. Papers on scientific feasibility are first presented: confinement of high-beta plasma, liners, plasma focus, compression and heating and the use of high power electron beams for thermonuclear reactors. As for technological feasibility, lectures were on the theta-pinch toroidal reactors, toroidal diffuse pinch, electrical engineering problems in pulsed magnetically confined reactors, neutral gas layer for heat removal, the conceptual design of a series of laser fusion power plants with ''Saturn'', implosion experiments and the problem of the targets, the high brightness lasers for plasma generation, and topping and bottoming cycles. Some problems common to pulsed reactors were examined: energy storage and transfer, thermomechanical and erosion effects in the first wall and blanket, the problems of tritium production, radiation damage and neutron activation in blankets, and the magnetic and inertial confinement

  11. High beta, sawtooth-free tokamak operation using energetic trapped particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Bussac, M.N.; Romanelli, F.

    1988-08-01

    It is shown that a population of high energy trapped particles, such as that produced by ion cyclotron heating in tokamaks, can result in a plasma completely stable to both sawtooth oscillations and the fishbone mode. The stable window of operation increases in size with plasma temperature and with trapped particle energy, and provides a means of obtaining a stable plasma with high current and high beta. 13 refs., 2 figs

  12. Design, construction, and characterization of high-performance membrane fusion devices with target-selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwada, Ayumi; Yamane, Iori; Tsuboi, Mana; Ando, Shun; Matsuda, Kiyomi

    2012-01-31

    Membrane fusion proteins such as the hemagglutinin glycoprotein have target recognition and fusion accelerative domains, where some synergistically working elements are essential for target-selective and highly effective native membrane fusion systems. In this work, novel membrane fusion devices bearing such domains were designed and constructed. We selected a phenylboronic acid derivative as a recognition domain for a sugar-like target and a transmembrane-peptide (Leu-Ala sequence) domain interacting with the target membrane, forming a stable hydrophobic α-helix and accelerating the fusion process. Artificial membrane fusion behavior between the synthetic devices in which pilot and target liposomes were incorporated was characterized by lipid-mixing and inner-leaflet lipid-mixing assays. Consequently, the devices bearing both the recognition and transmembrane domains brought about a remarkable increase in the initial rate for the membrane fusion compared with the devices containing the recognition domain alone. In addition, a weakly acidic pH-responsive device was also constructed by replacing three Leu residues in the transmembrane-peptide domain by Glu residues. The presence of Glu residues made the acidic pH-dependent hydrophobic α-helix formation possible as expected. The target-selective liposome-liposome fusion was accelerated in a weakly acidic pH range when the Glu-substituted device was incorporated in pilot liposomes. The use of this pH-responsive device seems to be a potential strategy for novel applications in a liposome-based delivery system. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Role of high l values in the onset of incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Unnati; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. A.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    A particle-γ-coincidence experiment is performed to investigate the role of high l values in the production of direct-α-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) in 12 C+ 169 Tm system. Spin distributions of various xn/pxn/αxn/2αxn channels are measured at E lab =5.6A and 6.5A MeV. Entirely different de-excitation patterns are observed in direct-α-emitting channels and fusion-evaporation channels. The fusion-evaporation channels are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While narrow range feeding for only high-spin states was observed in the case of direct-α-emitting channels, in the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high-spin states in final reaction products. To have better insight into the associated l values in different reaction channels, the present data are compared with similar data obtained in 16 O(E lab ≅5.6A MeV) + 169 Tm system. The mean driving angular momenta involved in the production of direct-α-emitting channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of fusion-evaporation channels. Direct-α multiplicity in the forward cone increases with driving angular momenta, which indicates the origin of direct-α-emitting channels at high l values in noncentral interactions.

  14. Modification of the magnetic field structure of high-beta plasmas with a perturbation field in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S; Suzuki, Y; Narushima, Y; Watanabe, K Y; Ohdachi, S; Ida, K; Yoshinuma, M; Narihara, K; Yamada, I; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Yamada, H; Takemura, Y

    2013-01-01

    The effect of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on MHD characteristics is investigated in high-beta plasmas of the Large Helical Device. The ramp-up and static m/n = 1/1 RMP field are applied in medium- (∼2%) and high- (∼4%) beta plasmas in order to find beta dependences of mode penetration, MHD activities and confinement. The results show that the threshold of mode penetration linearly increases with the beta value and/or plasma collisionality. The threshold of mode penetration in the RMP ramp-up experiments is roughly consistent with the static RMP case. The beta value gradually decreases with the RMP field strength before mode penetration, which is caused by a reduction in the pressure inside the ι/2π = 1 resonance. The width of the magnetic island after the penetration becomes larger than the given RMP field, and it is further enhanced by the increment of the beta value. (paper)

  15. Overcoming beta-agonist tolerance: high dose salbutamol and ipratropium bromide. Two randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haney Sarah

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthmatics treated with long-acting beta-agonists have a reduced bronchodilator response to moderate doses of inhaled short acting beta-agonists during acute bronchoconstriction. It is not known if the response to higher doses of nebulised beta-agonists or other bronchodilators is impaired. We assessed the effect of long-acting beta-agonist treatment on the response to 5 mg nebulised salbutamol and to ipratropium bromide. Methods Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies of inhaled formoterol 12 μg twice daily in patients with asthma. High-dose salbutamol: 36 hours after the last dose of 1 week of formoterol or placebo treatment, 11 subjects inhaled methacholine to produce a 20% fall in FEV1. Salbutamol 5 mg was then administered via nebuliser and the FEV1 was monitored for 20 minutes. Ipratropium: 36 hours after the last dose of 1 week of formoterol or placebo treatment, 11 subjects inhaled 4.5% saline to produce a 20% fall in FEV1. Salbutamol 200 μg or ipratropium bromide 40 μg was then inhaled and the FEV1 was monitored for 30 minutes. Four study arms compared the response to each bronchodilator after formoterol and placebo. Analyses compared the area under the bronchodilator response curves, adjusting for changes in pre-challenge FEV1, dose of provocational agent and FEV1 fall during the challenge procedure. Results The response to nebulised salbutamol was 15% lower after formoterol therapy compared to placebo (95% confidence 5 to 25%, p = 0.008. The response to ipratropium was unchanged. Conclusion Long-acting beta-agonist treatment induces tolerance to the bronchodilator effect of beta-agonists, which is not overcome by higher dose nebulised salbutamol. However, the bronchodilator response to ipratropium bromide is unaffected.

  16. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D 2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D 2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into 4 He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; 3 He to 4 He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of 3 He/ 4 He

  17. Investigation of High Temperature Ductility Losses in Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Strain Rate . ...... 89 4.1.3 Results of Initial Tests .9.... 94 4.2 CCT Diagram Development .. ......... .. 94 4.3 Lattice Incompatibility Measurements...123 5.1 Phase Stability and Transformations . . . 124 5.1.1 CCT Diagrams ........... 126 Aluminum Additions. ........ .147 Beta... CCT ) Diagram of Ti-6211..............101 1 4.6 High-Temperature X-Ray Diffraction Specimen Configurations..............106 4.7 High-Temperature X-Ray

  18. Design of a high-flux test assembly for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, E.K.; Vogel, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Fusion Material Test Facility (FMIT) will provide a high flux fusion-like neutron environment in which a variety of structural and non-structural materials irradiations can be conducted. The FMIT experiments, called test assemblies, that are subjected to the highest neutron flux magnitudes and associated heating rates will require forced convection liquid metal cooling systems to remove the neutron deposited power and maintain test specimens at uniform temperatures. A brief description of the FMIT facility and experimental areas is given with emphasis on the design, capabilities and handling of the high flux test assembly

  19. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs

  20. Simultaneous determination of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in plasma and urine with dual-column reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Stroomer, A. E.; Peters, G. J.; van Gennip, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    F-beta-Alanine and beta-alanine were detected in plasma and urine samples with fluorescence detection of orthophthaldialdehyde derivatives of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine after separation with dual-column reversed-phase HPLC. The detection limits of F-beta-alanine and beta-alanine in the HPLC

  1. High-adiabat high-foot inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the national ignition facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H-S; Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Salmonson, J D; Kline, J L

    2014-02-07

    This Letter reports on a series of high-adiabat implosions of cryogenic layered deuterium-tritium (DT) capsules indirectly driven by a "high-foot" laser drive pulse at the National Ignition Facility. High-foot implosions have high ablation velocities and large density gradient scale lengths and are more resistant to ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor instability induced mixing of ablator material into the DT hot spot. Indeed, the observed hot spot mix in these implosions was low and the measured neutron yields were typically 50% (or higher) of the yields predicted by simulation. On one high performing shot (N130812), 1.7 MJ of laser energy at a peak power of 350 TW was used to obtain a peak hohlraum radiation temperature of ∼300  eV. The resulting experimental neutron yield was (2.4±0.05)×10(15) DT, the fuel ρR was (0.86±0.063)  g/cm2, and the measured Tion was (4.2±0.16)  keV, corresponding to 8 kJ of fusion yield, with ∼1/3 of the yield caused by self-heating of the fuel by α particles emitted in the initial reactions. The generalized Lawson criteria, an ignition metric, was 0.43 and the neutron yield was ∼70% of the value predicted by simulations that include α-particle self-heating.

  2. Combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists improves swim ergometer sprint performance but not high-intensity swim performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders; Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in elite athletes, which leads to a major use of beta2 -agonists. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the effects of combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists (salbutamol, formoterol, and salmeterol...

  3. High beta radiation exposure of medical staff measures for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, I.; Rimpler, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New therapies applying beta radionuclides have been introduced in medicine in recent years, especially in nuclear medicine, e. g. radio-synoviorthesis, radioimmunotherapy and palliative pain therapy. The preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, their dispensary as well as injection require the handling of vials and syringes with high activities of beta emitters at small distances to the skin. Thus the medical staff may be exposed to a high level of beta radiation. Hence the local skin dose, Hp(0,07), was measured at these workplaces with thin-layer thermoluminescent dosemeters TLD (LiF:Mg,P,Cu) fixed to the tip of the fingers at both hands of the personnel. In addition, official beta/photon ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. Very high local skin doses were measured at the tip of index finger and thumb. The findings indicate that the exposure of the staff can exceed the annual dose limit for skin of 500 mSv when working at a low protection standard. By the use of appropriate shieldings and tools (e.g. tweezers or forceps) the exposure was reduced of more than one order of magnitude. The German dosimetry services provide official beta/photon ring dosemeters for routine monitoring of the extremity exposure of occupationally exposed persons. But even monitoring with these official dosemeters does not provide suitable results to control compliance with the dose limit in the majority of cases because they can mostly not be worn at the spot of highest beta exposure (finger tip). Therefore, a study was performed to identify the difference of readings of official ring dosemeters and the maximum local skin dose at the finger tips. At workplaces of radio-synoviorthesis a correction factor of 3 was determined provided that the staff worked at high radiation protection standard and the ring dosemeters were worn at the first knuckle of the index finger. The correction factor increases significantly when the radiation

  4. Approximate model for toroidal force balance in the high-beta stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.

    1979-03-01

    A simple model for estimating the body force acting on a diffuse plasma confined in a three-dimensional, high-beta stellarator geometry is given. The equilibrium is treated by an asymptotic expansion about a straight theta pinch with diffuse, circular cross section. The expansion parameter delta is the strength of the applied helical fields. This expansion leads to an inconsistent set of equations for the equilibrium in second order. Nevertheless, by averaging the equilibrium equations over the volume of the confined plasma, a unique condition for toroidal equilibrium is obtained. When the results are compared with the predictions of previous equilibrium theory, which is based on the sharp-boundary model, a large deviation is found. This correction is especially large for l = 0,1 systems at high beta and must be accounted for in any confinement experiment

  5. Measurement of high-beta tokamak pressure profiles with multipoint Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinton, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    A multipoint Thomson-scattering system has been developed to obtain pressure profiles along the major radius of Torus II, a high-beta tokamak. The profiles obtained during the 20 to 25 μs lifetime of the discharge indicates that the plasma has a peak temperature of 80 eV and density of 1.0 x 10 15 cm - 3 . The profiles remain fairly constant during this time until the equilibrium is lost, after which the temperature and density decays to 10 eV and 10 14 cm - 3 very quickly (approx. 1 μs). Experimental results show Torus II has a high-beta ( approx. 10%) equilibrium, with a strong shift of the peak of the pressure profile towards the outside. Numerical results from a 2-D free boundary MHD equilibrium code have obtained equilibria which closely approximate the experimentally measured profiles

  6. A conceptual fusion reactor based on the high-plasma-density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Carlson, G.; Hoffman, M.; Werner, R.

    1977-01-01

    Conceptual DT and DD fusion reactors are discussed based on magnetic confinement with the high-plasma-density Z-pinch. The reactor concepts have no ''first wall'', the fusion neutrons and plasma energy being absorbed directly into a surrounding lithium vortex blanket. Efficient systems with low re-circulated power are projected, based on a flow-through pinch cycle for which overall Q values can approach 10. The conceptual reactors are characterized by simplicity, small minimum size (100MW(e)) and by the potential for minimal radioactivity hazards. (author)

  7. Interaction with beta-arrestin determines the difference in internalization behavor between beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiina, T; Kawasaki, A; Nagao, T; Kurose, H

    2000-09-15

    The beta(1)-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR) shows the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. As beta-arrestin is important for internalization, we examine the interaction of beta-arrestin with beta(1)AR with three different methods: intracellular trafficking of beta-arrestin, binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin to intracellular domains of beta(1)- and beta(2)ARs, and inhibition of betaAR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by beta-arrestin. The green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 translocates to and stays at the plasma membrane by beta(2)AR stimulation. Although green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin 2 also translocates to the plasma membrane, it returns to the cytoplasm 10-30 min after beta(1)AR stimulation. The binding of in vitro translated beta-arrestin 1 and beta-arrestin 2 to the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR is lower than that of beta(2)AR. The fusion protein of beta-arrestin 1 with glutathione S-transferase inhibits the beta(1)- and beta(2)AR-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities, although inhibition of the beta(1)AR-stimulated activity requires a higher concentration of the fusion protein than that of the beta(2)AR-stimulated activity. These results suggest that weak interaction of beta(1)AR with beta-arrestins explains the resistance to agonist-induced internalization. This is further supported by the finding that beta-arrestin can induce internalization of beta(1)AR when beta-arrestin 1 does not dissociate from beta(1)AR by fusing to the carboxyl tail of beta(1)AR.

  8. Conceptual design of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for transmutation of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, L.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Yang, Y.W.; Wu, Y.; Luan, G.S.; Xu, Q.; Guo, Z.J.; Xiao, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste using fusion-fission hybrid reactors, we are studying all the possible types of blanket, including a comparison of the thermal and fast neutron spectrum blankets. Conceptual designs of a small tokamak hybrid blanket with small inventory of actinides and fission products are presented. The small inventory of wastes makes the system safer. The small hybrid reactor system based on a fusion core with experimental parameters to be realized in the near future can effectively transmute actinides and fission products at a neutron wall loading of 1MWm -2 . An innovative energy system is also presented, including a fusion driver, fuel breeder, high level waste transmuter, fission reactor and so on. An optimal combination of all types of reactor is proposed in the system. ((orig.))

  9. Final technical report. 1998 HU CFRT summer fusion high school workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    1999-01-01

    The center conducted its third High School Summer Fusion Science Workshop in Summer 1998. The center had only three faculty mentors available only for a part of Summer 1998, The center accepted four scholars in this workshop, Prof. Halima Ali coordinated this workshop. Each student was assigned to a research mentor according to the student's interest in a specific research area and problem. In the workshop in the center, the students received instructions and training in the basics of energy, plasma and fusion sciences. They also received one-on-one instructions and training by their mentors to further their understanding of the subject and to introduce to relevant concepts such as magnetic confinement fusion, tokamaks, diverters and area-preserving maps

  10. MHD Stability Calculations of High-Beta Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.; Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Redi, M.H.; Pomphrey, N.

    1999-01-01

    The MHD stability of quasi-axisymmetric compact stellarators is investigated. It is shown that bootstrap current driven external kink modes can be stabilized by a combination of edge magnetic shear and appropriate 3D plasma boundary shaping while maintaining good quasi-axisymmetry. The results demonstrate that there exists a new class of stellarators with quasi-axisymmetry, large bootstrap current, high MHD beta limit, and compact size

  11. High beta, Long Pulse, Bootstrap Sustained Scenarios on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Long-pulse, high-beta scenarios have been established on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Beta(sub)t(always equal to 2μ(sub)0· /B 2 (sub)t0) ∼ 35% has been achieved during transient discharges. The machine improvements that lead to these results, including error field reduction and high-temperature bakeout of plasma-facing components are described. The highest Beta(sub)t plasmas have high triangularity (delta = 0.8) and elongation (k = 2.0) at low-aspect ratio A always equal to R/a = 1.4. The strong shaping permits large values of normalized current, I(sub)N(always equal to I(sub)p /(aB(sub)t0)) approximately equal to 6 while maintaining moderate values of q(sub)95 = 4. Long-pulse discharges up to 1 sec in duration have been achieved with substantial bootstrap current. The total noninductive current drive can be as high as 60%, comprised of 50% bootstrap current and ∼10% neutral-beam current drive. The confinement enhancement factor H89P is in excess of 2.7. Beta(sub)N * H(sub)89P approximately or greater than 15 has been maintained for 8 * tau(sub)E ∼ 1.6 * tau(sub)CR, where tau(sub)CR is the relaxation time of the first radial moment of the toroidal current density. The ion temperature for these plasmas is significantly higher than that predicted by neoclassical theory

  12. Recent advancement in research and planning toward high beta steady state operation in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyeon Keo; Hong, S.; Humphreys, D.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) research is to explore stable improved confinement regimes and technical challenge for superconducting tokamak operation and thus, to establish the basis for predictable high beta steady state tokamak plasma operation. To fulfil the goal, the current KSTAR research program is composed of three elements: 1) Exploration of anticipated engineering and technology for a stable long pulse operation of high beta plasmas including Edge Localized Mode (ELM) control with the low n (=1, 2) Resonant Magnetic Perturbation (RMP) using in-vessel control coils and innovative non-inductive current drives. The achieved long pulse operation up to ∼50s and fully non-inductive current drive will be combined in the future. Study of efficient heat exhaust will be combined with an innovative divertor design/operation. 2) Exploration of the operation boundary through establishment of true stability limits of the harmful MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) instabilities and confinement of the tokamak plasmas in KSTAR, making use of the lowest error field and magnetic ripple simultaneously achieved among all tokamaks ever built. The intrinsic machine error field has a long history of research as the source of MHD instabilities and magnetic ripple is known to be a cause of energy loss in the plasma. The achieved high beta discharges at β N ∼4 and stable discharges at q 95 (∼2) will be further improved. 3) Validation of theoretical modeling of MHD instabilities and turbulence toward predictive capability of stable high beta plasmas. In support of these research goals, the state of the art diagnostic systems, such as Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) system in addition to accurate profile diagnostics, are deployed not only to provide precise 2D/3D information of the MHD instabilities and turbulence but also to challenge unresolved physics problems such as the nature of ELMs, ELM-crash dynamics and the role of the core

  13. Amyloid-beta binds catalase with high affinity and inhibits hydrogen peroxide breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, N G

    1999-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) specifically bound purified catalase with high affinity and inhibited catalase breakdown of H(2)O(2). The Abeta-induced catalase inhibition involved formation of the inactive catalase Compound II and was reversible. CatalaseAbeta interactions provide rapid functional assays for the cytotoxic domain of Abeta and suggest a mechanism for some of the observed actions of Abeta plus catalase in vitro.

  14. High-speed repetitive pellet injector prototype for magnetic confinement fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattolillo, A.; Gasparotto, M.; Migliori, S.; Angelone, G.; Baldarelli, M.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Ronci, G.; Reggiori, A.; Riva, G.; Carlevaro, R.; Daminelli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    The design of a test facility aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of high-speed repetitive acceleration of solid D 2 pellets for fusion applications, developed in a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ENEA Frascati, is presented. The results of tests performed at the CNPM/CNR on the piston wear in a repetitively operating two-stage gun are also reported

  15. Electrostatic levitation, control and transport in high rate, low cost production of inertial confinement fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.; Johnson, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion requires production of power plant grade targets at high rates and process yield. A review of present project specifications and techniques to produce targets is discussed with special emphasis on automating the processes and combining them with an electrostatic transport and suspension system through the power plant target factory

  16. Complex workplace radiation fields at European high-energy accelerators and thermonuclear fusion facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; D'Errico, F; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernàndez, F; Fuchs, A; Golnik, N; Lacoste, V; Leuschner, A; Sandri, S; Silari, M; Spurny, F; Wiegel, B; Wright, P

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the research needs and research activities within Europe to develop new and improved methods and techniques for the characterization of complex radiation fields at workplaces around high-energy accelerators and the next generation of thermonuclear fusion facilities under the auspices of the COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry (CONRAD) project funded by the European Commission.

  17. High-level fusion of depth and intensity for pedestrian classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrbach, M.; Enzweiler, M.; Gavrila, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to pedestrian classification which involves a high-level fusion of depth and intensity cues. Instead of utilizing depth information only in a pre-processing step, we propose to extract discriminative spatial features (gradient orientation histograms and local

  18. Specific recognition of the C-terminal end of A beta 42 by a high affinity monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Trine Veje; Holm, Arne; Birkelund, Svend

    2009-01-01

    The neurotoxic peptide A beta(42) is derived from the amyloid precursor protein by proteolytic cleavage and is deposited in the brain of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we generate a high affinity monoclonal antibody that targets the C-terminal end of A beta(42......) with high specificity. By this is meant that the paratope of the antibody must enclose the C-terminal end of A beta(42) including the carboxy-group of amino acid 42, and not just recognize a linear epitope in the C-terminal part of A beta. This has been accomplished by using a unique antigen construct made...... by the Ligand Presenting Assembly technology (LPA technology). This strategy results in dimeric presentation of the free C-terminal end of A beta(42). The generated Mab A beta1.1 is indeed specific for the C-terminal end of A beta(42) to which it binds with high affinity. Mab A beta1.1 recognizes the epitope...

  19. Application of Electron Bernstein Wave heating and current drive to high beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW) can potentially heat and drive current in high-beta plasmas. Electromagnetic waves can convert to EBW via two paths. O-mode heating, demonstrated on W-7AS, requires waves be launched within a narrow k-parallel range. Alternately, in high-beta plasmas, the X-mode cutoff and EBW conversion layers are millimeters apart, so the fast X-mode can tunnel to the EBW branch. We are studying the conversion of EBW to the X-mode by measuring the radiation temperature of the cyclotron emission and comparing it to the electron temperature. In addition, mode conversion has been studied with an approximate kinetic full-wave code. We have enhanced EBW mode conversion to ∼ 100% by encircling the antenna with a limiter that shortens the density scale length at the conversion layer in the scrape off of the CDX-U spherical torus (ST) plasma. Consequently, a limiter in front of a launch antenna achieves efficient X-mode coupling to EBW. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck codes have been used to develop current drive scenarios in NSTX high-beta (∼ 40%) ST plasmas and a relativistic code will examine the potential synergy of EBW current drive with the bootstrap current. (author)

  20. Beta Emission and Bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    Bremsstrahlung is continuous radiation produced by beta particles decelerating in matter; different beta emitters have different endpoint energies; high-energy betas interacting with high-Z materials will more likely produce bremsstrahlung; depending on the data, sometimes all you can say is that a beta emitter is present.

  1. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  2. The fusion of satellite and UAV data: simulation of high spatial resolution band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Siok, Katarzyna; Woroszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Orych, Agata

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing techniques used in the precision agriculture and farming that apply imagery data obtained with sensors mounted on UAV platforms became more popular in the last few years due to the availability of low- cost UAV platforms and low- cost sensors. Data obtained from low altitudes with low- cost sensors can be characterised by high spatial and radiometric resolution but quite low spectral resolution, therefore the application of imagery data obtained with such technology is quite limited and can be used only for the basic land cover classification. To enrich the spectral resolution of imagery data acquired with low- cost sensors from low altitudes, the authors proposed the fusion of RGB data obtained with UAV platform with multispectral satellite imagery. The fusion is based on the pansharpening process, that aims to integrate the spatial details of the high-resolution panchromatic image with the spectral information of lower resolution multispectral or hyperspectral imagery to obtain multispectral or hyperspectral images with high spatial resolution. The key of pansharpening is to properly estimate the missing spatial details of multispectral images while preserving their spectral properties. In the research, the authors presented the fusion of RGB images (with high spatial resolution) obtained with sensors mounted on low- cost UAV platforms and multispectral satellite imagery with satellite sensors, i.e. Landsat 8 OLI. To perform the fusion of UAV data with satellite imagery, the simulation of the panchromatic bands from RGB data based on the spectral channels linear combination, was conducted. Next, for simulated bands and multispectral satellite images, the Gram-Schmidt pansharpening method was applied. As a result of the fusion, the authors obtained several multispectral images with very high spatial resolution and then analysed the spatial and spectral accuracies of processed images.

  3. High non-specific binding of the {beta}{sub 1}-selective radioligand 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemann, B. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Law, M.P. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Clinical Sciences Centre; Kopka, K. [Muenster Univ. (DE). Department of Nuclear Medicine] [and others

    2003-08-01

    Aim: As results of cardiac biopsies suggest, myocardial {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor density is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure. However, changes in cardiac {beta}{sub 2}-adrenoceptors vary. With suitable radiopharmaceuticals single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) offer the opportunity to assess {beta}-adrenoceptors non-invasively. Among the novel racemic analogues of the established {beta}{sub 1}-selective adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 89.406 the iodinated 2-I-ICI-H showed high affinity and selectivity to {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in murine ventricular membranes. The aim of this study was its evaluation as a putative subtype selective {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic radioligand in cardiac imaging. Methods: Competition studies in vitro and in vivo were used to investigate the kinetics of 2-I-ICI-H binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in mice and rats. In addition, the radiosynthesis of 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H from the silylated precursor 2-SiMe{sub 3}-ICI-H was established. The specific activity was 80 GBq/{mu}mol, the radiochemical yield ranged from 70 to 80%. Results: The unlabelled compound 2-I-ICI-H showed high {beta}{sub 1}-selectivity and -affinity in the in vitro competition studies. In vivo biodistribution studies apparently showed low affinity to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors. The radiolabelled counterpart 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H showed a high degree of non-specific binding in vitro and no specific binding to cardiac {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in vivo. Conclusion: Because of its high non-specific binding 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H is no suitable radiotracer for imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  4. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 94720, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, 08544, Princeton, NJ (United States); Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-13

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4·10{sup 22}, 1.3·10{sup 22} and 1.0·10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  5. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Princeton University, Physics Department, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Gironi, L.; Maino, M. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Dafinei, I.; Orio, F.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Giuliani, A. [Centre de Spectrometrie de Masse, Orsay (France); Gotti, C.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy); Nagorny, S.; Pagnanini, L. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Nones, C. [SPP Centre de Saclay, CEA, Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4.10{sup 22}, 1.3.10{sup 22} and 1.0.10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  6. Long-lived, high-strength states of ICAM-1 bonds to beta2 integrin, I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Evan; Kinoshita, Koji; Simon, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Using single-molecule force spectroscopy to probe ICAM-1 interactions with recombinant alphaLbeta2 immobilized on microspheres and beta2 integrin on neutrophils, we quantified an impressive hierarchy of long-lived, high-strength states of the integrin bond, which start from basal levels with inte......Using single-molecule force spectroscopy to probe ICAM-1 interactions with recombinant alphaLbeta2 immobilized on microspheres and beta2 integrin on neutrophils, we quantified an impressive hierarchy of long-lived, high-strength states of the integrin bond, which start from basal levels...... with integrin activation in solutions of divalent cations and shift dramatically upward to hyperactivated states with cell signaling in leukocytes. Taking advantage of very rare events, we used repeated measurements of bond lifetimes under steady ramps of force to achieve a direct assay for the off......-based assays of soluble ICAM-1 dissociation from immobilized LFA-1, i.e., approximately 10(-2)/s in Mg2+ or Mn2+ and approximately 1/s in Ca2+. At the same time, as expected for adhesive function, we find that the beta2 integrin bonds activated in Mn2+ or Mg2+ possess significant and persistent mechanical...

  7. Long-lived, high-strength states of ICAM-1 bonds to beta2 integrin, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, Koji; Leung, Andrew; Simon, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Using single-molecule force spectroscopy to probe ICAM-1 interactions with recombinant alphaLbeta2 immobilized on microspheres and beta2 integrin on neutrophils, we quantified an impressive hierarchy of long-lived, high-strength states of the integrin bond, which start from basal levels with acti......Using single-molecule force spectroscopy to probe ICAM-1 interactions with recombinant alphaLbeta2 immobilized on microspheres and beta2 integrin on neutrophils, we quantified an impressive hierarchy of long-lived, high-strength states of the integrin bond, which start from basal levels......-out and outside-in signaling in neutrophils on the lifetimes and mechanical strengths of ICAM-1 bonds to beta2 integrin on the cell surface. Even though ICAM-1 bonds to recombinant alphaLbeta2 on microspheres in Mg2+ or Mn2+ can live for long periods of time under slow pulling, here we show that stimulation...... of neutrophils in Mg2+ plus the chemokine IL-8 (i.e., inside-out signaling) induces several-hundred-fold longer lifetimes for ICAM-1 attachments to LFA-1, creating strong bonds at very slow pulling speeds where none are perceived in Mg2+ or Mn2+ alone. Similar changes are observed with outside-in signaling, i...

  8. Development of high yield strength non-magnetic steels for the equipments of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hidenori; Mukai, Tetsuya; Ohtani, Hiroo; Tsuruki, Takanori; Okada, Yasutaka

    1979-01-01

    Recently, activity of nuclear fusion research and so forth increase the demand of non-magnetic materials for various equipments and structures. For these usage, very low magnetic permeability as well as high strength are required under high magnetic field. Based on fundamental research, middle C-17% Cr-7% Ni-N non-magnetic steel has been developed. The developed steel shows more stable austenite phase and possesses higher yield strength and endurance limit of more than 10 kg/mm 2 , compared with 18% Cr-8% Ni austenitic steel. Also the developed steel has good ductility and toughness in spite of the high yield strength and shows better machinability than usual high Mn non- magnetic steels. The large forgings of this newly developed steel are manufactured in the works for the equipments of nuclear fusion research and confirmed good mechanical properties, high fatigue strength and low permeability. (author)

  9. High-Damage-Threshold Pinhole for Glass Fusion Laser Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumit, N.A.; Letzring, S.A.; Johnson, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    We are investigating methods to fabricate high-damage-threshold spatial-filter pinholes that might not be susceptible to plasma closure for relatively high energies and long pulses. These are based on the observation that grazing-incidence reflection from glass can withstand in excess of 5 kJ/cm 2 (normal to the beam) without plasma formation. The high damage threshold results from both the cos q spreading of the energy across the surface and the reflection of a large fraction of the energy from the surface, thereby greatly reducing the field strength within the medium

  10. Oat beta-glucan ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods: This study sought to evaluate the impact of oat beta-glucan on insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet with fructose (10%, w/v added in drinking water for 10 weeks. Results: The results showed that supplementation with oat beta-glucan could significantly reduce the insulin resistance both in low-dose (200 mg/kg−1 body weight and high-dose (500 mg/kg−1 body weight groups, but the high-dose group showed a more significant improvement in insulin resistance (P<0.01 compared with model control (MC group along with significant improvement in hepatic glycogen level, oral glucose, and insulin tolerance. Moreover, hepatic glucokinase activity was markedly enhanced both in low-dose and high-dose groups compared with that of MC group (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results suggested that supplementation of oat beta-glucan alleviated insulin resistance and the effect was dose dependent.

  11. A high-flow holweck pump for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseli, M.; Dinner, P.J.; Murdoch, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    Present concepts for power reactors require high pumping speed for the torus exhaust (10 5 -10 6 1/s) with low tritium inventories. Conventional approaches using Compound Cryopumps necessitate high tritium inventories and Turbomolecular pumps require large scale-up in throughput and are sensitive to eddy current heating of the rotor and sudden venting thrust. Cooling the gas to low temperature (20K) increases the gas density at the pump-entrance enough to obtain high throughputs from compact mechanical devices such as molecular drag pumps. A numerical model of such a pump and experimental results confirm the high pumping speed achievable with this concept. The model is used for extrapolation and optimisation of the design of a prototype. (orig.)

  12. Physics of laser fusion. Volume III. High-power pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Eimerl, D.; George, E.V.; Trenholme, J.B.; Simmons, W.W.; Hunt, J.T.

    1982-09-01

    High-power pulsed lasers can deliver sufficient energy on inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) time scales (0.1 to 10 ns) to heat and compress deuterium-tritium fuel to fusion-reaction conditions. Several laser systems have been examined, including Nd:glass, CO 2 , KrF, and I 2 , for their ICF applicability. A great deal of developmental effort has been applied to the Nd:glass laser and the CO 2 gas laser systems; these systems now deliver > 10 4 J and 20 x 10 12 W to ICF targets. We are constructing the Nova Nd:glass laser at LLNL to provide > 100 kJ and > 100 x 10 12 W of 1-μm radiation for fusion experimentation in the mid-1980s. For ICF target gain > 100 times the laser input, we expect that the laser driver must deliver approx. 3 to 5 MJ of energy on a time scale of 10 to 20 ns. In this paper we review the technological status of fusion-laser systems and outline approaches to constructing high-power pulsed laser drivers

  13. A high-power laser system for thermonuclear fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, Eh.A.; Ignat'ev, L.P.; Koval'skij, N.G.; Kolesnikov, Yu.A.; Mamzer, A.F.; Pergament, M.I.; Rudnitskij, Yu.P.; Smirnov, G.V.; Yagnov, V.A.; Nikolaevskij, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    A high-power laser system has been designed for an energy output of approximately 3X10 4 J. Neodymium glass was selected based on the level of technical progress, operating experience and the availability of components. The operating performance that has been achieved to date is described. (author)

  14. Simulation of transition dynamics to high confinement in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Xu, G. S.; Madsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The transition dynamics from the low (L) to the high (H) confinement mode in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a first-principles four-field fluid model. Numerical results are in agreement with measurements from the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak - EAST...

  15. Demountable toroidal fusion core facility for physics optimization and fusion engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogart, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Krall, N.A.; Dalessandro, J.A.; Weggel, C.F.; Lund, K.O.; Sedehi, S.

    1986-01-01

    Following a successful compact ignition tokamak (CIT) experiment, a fusion facility will be required for physics optimization (POF) and fusion engineering research (FERF). The POF will address issues such as high-beta operation, current drive, impurity control, and will test geometric and configurational variations such as the spherical torus or the reversed-field pinch (RFP). The FERF will be designed to accumulate rapidly a large neutron dose in prototypical fusion subsystems exposed to radiation. Both facilities will require low-cost replacement cores and rapid replacement times. The Demountable Toroidal Fusion Core (DTFC) facility is designed to fulfill these requirements. It would be a cost-effective stepping stone between the CIT and a demonstration fusion reactor

  16. High plasma concentration of beta-D-glucan after administration of sizofiran for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tokuyasu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hirokazu Tokuyasu1, Kenichi Takeda1, Yuji Kawasaki1, Yasuto Sakaguchi2, Noritaka Isowa2, Eiji Shimizu3, Yasuto Ueda31Divisions of Respiratory Medicine, 2Thoracic Surgery, Matsue Red Cross Hospital, 200 Horomachi, Matsue, Shimane; 3Division of Medical Oncology and Molecular Respirology, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, JapanAbstract: A 69-year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer was admitted to our hospital for further investigation of abnormal shadows on her chest roentgenogram. Histologic examination of transbronchial lung biopsy specimens revealed epithelioid cell granuloma, and Mycobacterium intracellulare was detected in the bronchial lavage fluid. The plasma level of (1→3-beta-D-glucan was very high, and this elevated level was attributed to administration of sizofiran for treatment of cervical cancer 18 years previously. Therefore, in patients with cervical cancer, it is important to confirm whether or not sizofiran has been administered before measuring (1→3-beta-D-glucan levels.Keywords: (1→3-beta-D-glucan, cervical cancer, Mycobacterium intracellulare, sizofiran

  17. Heating properties of merging/reconnection startup of high-beta ST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Yasushi

    2005-01-01

    The high-power reconnection heating of spherical tokamak (ST) has been studied in the TS-3 experiment by use of axial merging of two STs. In this method, the merging/magnetic reconnection transformed a part of magnetic energy of merging STs into their thermal energy within short reconnection time. Our present low-field merging (0.3-0.5kG, R∼0.2m) attained the maximum heating power of 4-10MW and increased the beta-values of STs by factor 2-3 transiently. The ion heating energy was found to increase inversely with the q-value (B t component) of two STs. The most probable cause for this dependence is fast reconnection speed/ outflow speed due to large anomalous resistivity of current sheet in low-q state. After merging startup, decrease in beta was observed especially in low-q STs, indicating that the final beta value of ST increased with the q-value. (author)

  18. Early incorporation of cell-derived cholesterol into pre-beta-migrating high-density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.R.; Fielding, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cultures of human skin fibroblasts were labeled to high cholesterol specific activity with [ 3 H]cholesterol and incubated briefly (1-3 min) with normal human plasma. The plasma was fractionated by two-dimensional agarose-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the early appearance of cholesterol label among plasma lipoproteins determined. A major part of the label at 1-min incubation was in a pre-beta-migrating apo A-I lipoprotein fraction with a molecular weight of ca. 70,000. Label was enriched about 30-fold in this fraction relative to its content of apo A-I (1-2% of total apo A-I). The proportion of label in this lipoprotein was strongly correlated with its concentration in plasma. Further incubation (2 min) in the presence of unlabeled cells demonstrated transfer of label from this fraction to a higher molecular weight pre-beta apo A-I species, to low-density lipoprotein, and to the alpha-migrating apo A-I that made up the bulk (96%) of total apo A-I in plasma. The data suggest that a significant part of cell-derived cholesterol is transferred specifically to a pre-beta-migrating lipoprotein A-I species as part of a cholesterol transport transfer sequence in plasma

  19. COMPARISON OF COOLING SCHEMES FOR HIGH HEAT FLUX COMPONENTS COOLING IN FUSION REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar Domalapally

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Some components of the fusion reactor receives high heat fluxes either during the startup and shutdown or during the operation of the machine. This paper analyzes different ways of enhancing heat transfer using helium and water for cooling of these high heat flux components and then conclusions are drawn to decide the best choice of coolant, for usage in near and long term applications.

  20. Thomson scattering measurements on the high beta pinch Extrap-T1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, P.

    1989-11-01

    Electron temperature and density measurement on a high beta discharge in the Extrap-T1 device have been performed with Thomson scattering. It was found that the signal levels were low and the plasma background radiation high. The spread of the measured temperatures and densities was large. A computer code was developed to investigate whether this spread in measured temperatures was due to shot to shot variations or to photon statistics. The code showed that the scattered data could be explained by photon statistics

  1. Explosion of optimal high-beta operation regime by magnetic axis swing in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Ohdachi, S.; Watanabe, K.Y.

    2010-11-01

    In Large Helical Device (LHD), the volume averaged beta value dia > as high as 5.1% was achieved in FY2007-2008 experiments. High beta operation regime was explorated by the programmed control of magnetic axis position, which characterizes MHD equilibrium, stability and transport. This control became enable by increasing capability of poloidal coil power supply. The experiments made clear the effect of magnetic hill on MHD activities in high-beta plasmas with more than 4%. Also it enabled to access the ideal stability boundary with keeping high-beta state. The strong m/n=2/1 mode leading minor collapse in core plasma appeared with the inward shift of the magnetic axis. (author)

  2. Preconceptual design of hyfire. A fusion driven high temperature electrolysis plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varljen, T.C.; Chi, J.W.H.; Karbowski, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has been engaged in a scoping study to investigate the potential merits of coupling a fusion reactor with a high temperature blanket to a high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Westinghouse is assisting this study in the areas of systems design integration, plasma engineering, balance of plant design and electrolyzer technology. The aim of the work done in the past year has been to focus on a reference design point for the plant, which has been designated HYFIRE. In prior work, the STARFIRE commercial tokamak fusion reactor was directly used as the fusion driver. This report describes a new design obtained by scaling the basic STARFIRE design to permit the achievement of a blanket power of 6000 MWt. The high temperature blanket design employs a thermally insulated refractory oxide region which provides high temperature (>1000 deg. C) steam at moderate pressures to high temperature electrolysis units. The electrolysis process selected is based on the high temperature, solid electrolyte fuel cell technology developed by Westinghouse. An initial process design and plant layout has been completed; component cost and plant economics studies are now underway to develop estimates of hydrogen production costs and to determine the sensitivity of this cost to changes in major design parameters. (author)

  3. High-temperature fusion of a multielectron leviton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalets, Michael

    2018-04-01

    The state of electrons injected onto the surface of the Fermi sea depends on temperature. The state is pure at zero temperature and is mixed at finite temperature. In the case of a single-electron injection, such a transformation can be detected as a decrease in shot noise with increasing temperature. In the case of a multielectron injection, the situation is subtler. The mixedness helps the development of quantum-mechanical exchange correlations between injected electrons, even if such correlations are absent at zero temperature. These correlations enhance the shot noise, which in part counteracts the reduction of noise with temperature. Moreover, at sufficiently high temperatures, the correlation contribution to noise predominates over the contribution of individual particles. As a result, in the system of N electrons, the apparent charge (which is revealed via the shot noise) is changed from e at zero temperature to N e at high temperatures. It looks like the exchange correlations glue electrons into one particle of total charge and energy. This point of view is supported by both charge noise and heat noise. Interestingly, in the macroscopic limit, N →∞ , the correlation contribution completely suppresses the effect of temperature on noise.

  4. Influence of transmutation and high neutron exposure on materials used in fission-fusion correlation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.

    1990-07-01

    This paper explores the response of three different materials to high fluence irradiation as observed in recent fusion-related experiments. While helium at fusion-relevant levels influences the details of the microstructure of Fe--Cr--Ni alloys somewhat, the resultant changes in swelling and tensile behavior are relatively small. Under conditions where substantially greater-than-fusion levels of helium are generated, however, an extensive refinement of microstructure can occur, leading to depression of swelling at lower temperatures and increased strengthening at all temperatures studied. The behavior of these alloys is dominated by their tendency to converge to saturation microstructures which encourage swelling. Irradiations of nickel are dominated by its tendency to develop a different type of saturation microstructure that discourages further void growth. Swelling approaches saturation levels that are remarkably insensitive to starting microstructure and irradiation temperature. The rate of approach to saturation is very sensitive to variables such as helium, impurities, dislocation density and displacement rate, however. Copper exhibits a rather divergent response depending on the property measured. Transmutation of copper to nickel and zinc plays a large role in determining electrical conductivity but almost no role in void swelling. Each of these three materials offers different challenges in the interpretation of fission-fusion correlation experiments

  5. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Lin; Wang Yangwei; Xu Xin; Liu Chengze

    2015-01-01

    Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy...

  6. Final Report on The Theory of Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    Report describes theoretical research in the theory of fusion plasmas funded under grant DE-FG02-04ER54737. This includes work on: explosive instabilities, plasma turbulence, Alfven wave cascades, high beta (pressure) tokamaks and magnetic reconnection. These studies have lead to abetter understanding of fusion plasmas and in particular the future behavior of ITER. More than ten young researchers were involved in this research - some were funded under the grant.

  7. Approach to high stability beta limit and its control by fast wave current drive in reversed field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, K.; Kondoh, Y.; Gesso, H.; Osanai, Y.; Saito, K.N.; Ukai, R.; Nanba, T.; Nagamine, Y.; Shiina, S.

    2001-01-01

    Before the generation of steady state, dynamo-free RFP configuration by rf current driving scheme, it is necessary to find an optimum configuration into high stability beta limit against m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes and reducing nonlinearly turbulent level with less rf power. As first step to the optimization study, we are interested in partially relaxed state model (PRSM) RFP configuration, which is considered to be closer to a relaxed state at finite beta since it has force-free fields for poloidal direction with a relatively shorter characteristic length of relaxation and a relatively higher stability beta limit to m=1 resonant ideal MHD modes. The stability beta limit to m=1 resonant resistive MHD modes can be predicted to be relatively high among other RFP models and to be enhanced by the current density profile control using fast magnetosonic waves (FMW), which are accessible to high density region with strong absorption rate. (author)

  8. Highly mesoporous single-crystalline zeolite beta synthesized using a nonsurfactant cationic polymer as a dual-function template

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jie

    2014-02-12

    Mesoporous zeolites are useful solid catalysts for conversion of bulky molecules because they offer fast mass transfer along with size and shape selectivity. We report here the successful synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicate zeolite Beta from a commercial cationic polymer that acts as a dual-function template to generate zeolitic micropores and mesopores simultaneously. This is the first demonstration of a single nonsurfactant polymer acting as such a template. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we discovered that the resulting material (Beta-MS) has abundant and highly interconnected mesopores. More importantly, we demonstrated using a three-dimensional electron diffraction technique that each Beta-MS particle is a single crystal, whereas most previously reported mesoporous zeolites are comprised of nanosized zeolitic grains with random orientations. The use of nonsurfactant templates is essential to gaining single-crystalline mesoporous zeolites. The single-crystalline nature endows Beta-MS with better hydrothermal stability compared with surfactant-derived mesoporous zeolite Beta. Beta-MS also exhibited remarkably higher catalytic activity than did conventional zeolite Beta in acid-catalyzed reactions involving large molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. Beryllium armored mockups for fusion high flux application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.; Watson, R.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main requirements to use Be as a candidate for plasma facing component in ITER is providing a reliable joint between Be and Cu-alloy heat sink structure. In this work authors present the results of recent activity on this way. To create Be/CuCrZr joints the unique fast e-beam brazing technology was developed in Russia. The numbers of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were manufactured in Efremov Institute by fast e-beam brazing using Cu-Sn-In-Ni brazing alloy. These mock-ups were tested by Sandia Laboratory at the EBTS electron beam facility. The goals of the tests were to define the allowable dimensions of the armour tiles for the heat loads of more than 10 MW/m 2 , to find the limit of bond strength for the Be/CuCrZr joint and response to heat loads and to estimate the life time of the brazed tiles by thermo-cyclic testing. The screening and thermal fatigue results are presented. With the aim to check the applicability of developed fast brazing process to DS-Cu alloy (GlidCop) the actively cooled mock-up produced by fast brazing Be onto GlidCop structure was manufactured and tested in Efremov Institute, main results are discussed. Summarizing testing data authors show that the CuCrZr or DS-Cu heat sink armored with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during thousand heating/cooling cycles without serious damaging in the armour material and its joint. (author)

  10. A hydrogel biosensor for high selective and sensitive detection of amyloid-beta oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun LP

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Liping Sun,1 Yong Zhong,1 Jie Gui,1 Xianwu Wang,1 Xiaorong Zhuang,2 Jian Weng1 1Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, Research Center of Biomedical Engineering of Xiamen, Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, Xiamen University, 2Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive and memory impairment. It is the most common neurological disease that causes dementia. Soluble amyloid-beta oligomers (AβO in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are the pathogenic biomarker correlated with AD. Methods: A simple electrochemical biosensor using graphene oxide/gold nanoparticles (GNPs hydrogel electrode was developed in this study. Thiolated cellular prion protein (PrPC peptide probe was immobilized on GNPs of the hydrogel electrode to construct an AβO biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was utilized for AβO analysis. Results: The specific binding between AβO and PrPC probes on the hydrogel electrode resulted in an increase in the electron-transfer resistance. The biosensor showed high specificity and sensitivity for AβO detection. It could selectively differentiate AβO from amyloid-beta (Aβ monomers or fibrils. Meanwhile, it was highly sensitive to detect as low as 0.1 pM AβO in artificial CSF or blood plasma. The linear range for AβO detection is from 0.1 pM to 10 nM. Conclusion: This biosensor could be used as a cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of AD due to its high electrochemical performance and bionic structure. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid-beta oligomer, graphene, gold nanoparticles, biosensor

  11. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses E.I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The National Ignition Facility (NIF, a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF and high-energy-density science (HEDS, is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL. A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC, an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE. This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  12. The NIF: An international high energy density science and inertial fusion user facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, E. I.; Storm, E.

    2013-11-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8-MJ/500-TW Nd:Glass laser facility designed to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density science (HEDS), is operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A primary goal of NIF is to create the conditions necessary to demonstrate laboratory-scale thermonuclear ignition and burn. NIF experiments in support of indirect-drive ignition began late in FY2009 as part of the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), an international effort to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory. To date, all of the capabilities to conduct implosion experiments are in place with the goal of demonstrating ignition and developing a predictable fusion experimental platform in 2012. The results from experiments completed are encouraging for the near-term achievement of ignition. Capsule implosion experiments at energies up to 1.6 MJ have demonstrated laser energetics, radiation temperatures, and symmetry control that scale to ignition conditions. Of particular importance is the demonstration of peak hohlraum temperatures near 300 eV with overall backscatter less than 15%. Important national security and basic science experiments have also been conducted on NIF. Successful demonstration of ignition and net energy gain on NIF will be a major step towards demonstrating the feasibility of laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). This paper will describe the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the beginning of fundamental science experiments and the plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to HEDS and fusion energy researchers around the world.

  13. Catalyzed deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium fusion blankets for high temperature process heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.M.H.; Salimi, B.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiumless blanket designs, associated with a catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion cycle and using a single high temperature solid pebble or falling bed zone, for process heat production, are proposed. Neutronics and photonics calculations, using the Monte Carlo method, show that an about 90% heat deposition fraction is possible in the high temperature zone, compared to a 30 to 40% fraction if a deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion cycle is used with separate breeding and heat deposition zones. Such a design is intended primarily for synthetic fuels manufacture through hydrogen production using high temperature water electrolysis. A system analysis involving plant energy balances and accounting for the different fusion energy partitions into neutrons and charged particles showed that plasma amplification factors in the range of 2 are needed. In terms of maximization of process heat and electricity production, and the maximization of the ratio of high temperature process heat to electricity, the catalyzed D-D system outperforms the D-T one by about 20%. The concept is thought competitive to the lithium boiler concept for such applications, with the added potential advantages of lower tritium inventories in the plasma, reduced lithium pumping (in the case of magnetic confinement) and safety problems, less radiation damage at the first wall, and minimized risks of radioactive product contamination by tritium

  14. High beta plasma confinement and neoclassical effects in a small aspect ratio reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayase, K.; Sugimoto, H.; Ashida, H.

    2003-01-01

    The high β equilibrium and stability of a reversed field pinch (RFP) configuration with a small aspect ratio are theoretically studied. The equilibrium profile, high beta limit and the bootstrap current effect on those are calculated. The Mercier stable critical β decreases with 1/A, but β∼0.2 is permissible at A=2 with help of edge current profile modification. The effect of bootstrap current is evaluated for various pressure and current profiles and cross-sectional shapes of plasma by a self-consistent neoclassical PRSM equilibrium formulation. The high bootstrap current fraction (F bs ) increases the shear stabilization effect in the core region, which enhances significantly the stability β limit compared with that for the classical equilibrium. These features of small aspect ratio RFP, high β and high F bs , and a possibly easier access to the quasi-single helicity state beside the intrinsic compact structure are attractive for the feasible economical RFP reactor concept. (author)

  15. U.S. Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers

  16. Chromobacterium spp. harbour Ambler class A beta-lactamases showing high identity with KPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jayol, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The origin of KPC is unknown. The aim of this study was to detect progenitors of KPC in silico and to functionally verify their beta-lactam hydrolysis activity. Methods: The sequence of KPC-2 was used to mine the NCBI protein sequence database. The best non-KPC hits were analysed by a......-lactamases with up to 76% aa identity to KPC from distinct Chromobacterium species is highly indicative of the role played by this genus in the evolution of KPC....

  17. High-beta studies with beam-heated, non-circular plasmas in ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Bates, S.C.; Bush, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper we describe some preliminary results of high beta studies on ISX-B for mildly D shaped discharges. ISX-B is a modest size tokamak (R 0 = 93 cm, a = 27 cm) equipped with two tangantially-aligned neutral beam injectors giving a total power up to 3 MW. The poloidal coil system allows choice of plasma boundary shapes from circular to elongated (kappa less than or equal to 1.8), with D, elliptical, or inverse D cross sections. The non-circular work discussed here is for kappa approx. = 1.5

  18. High temperature resistant materials and structural ceramics for use in high temperature gas cooled reactors and fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Irrespective of the systems and the status of the nuclear reactor development lines, the availability, qualification and development of materials are crucial. This paper concentrates on the requirements and the status of development of high temperature metallic and ceramic materials for core and heat transferring components in advanced HTR supplying process heat and for plasma exposed, high heat flux components in Tokamak fusion reactor types. (J.P.N.)

  19. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J.R.; Feibush, E.; Fredian, T.W.; Goode, M.M.; Greenwald, M.J.; Keahey, K.; Leggett, T.; Li, K.; McCune, D.C.; Papka, M.E.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Thompson, M.R.; Uram, T.; Wallace, G.

    2006-01-01

    portion of national program efforts are organized around coordinated efforts to develop promising operational scenarios. Substantial efforts to develop integrated plasma modeling codes are also underway in the U.S., Europe and Japan. As a result of the highly collaborative nature of FES research, the community is facing new and unique challenges. While FES has a significant track record for developing and exploiting remote collaborations, with such large investments at stake, there is a clear need to improve the integration and reach of available tools. The NFC Project was initiated to address these challenges by creating and deploying collaborative software tools. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES 'Grid' (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP) provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  20. Remote systems requirements of the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Remote systems will be required in the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings, and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser-beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources, their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  1. Remote systems requirements of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-10-01

    Remote systems will be required in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy Converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources and their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  2. High thermal efficiency, radiation-based advanced fusion reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taussig, R.T.

    1977-04-01

    A new energy conversion scheme is explored in this study which has the potential of achieving thermal cycle efficiencies high enough (e.g., 60 to 70 percent) to make advanced fuel fusion reactors attractive net power producers. In this scheme, a radiation boiler admits a large fraction of the x-ray energy from the fusion plasma through a low-Z first wall into a high-Z working fluid where the energy is absorbed at temperatures of 2000 0 K to 3000 0 K. The hot working fluid expands in an energy exchanger against a cooler, light gas, transferring most of the work of expansion from one gas to the other. By operating the radiation/boiler/energy exchanger as a combined cycle, full advantage of the high temperatures can be taken to achieve high thermal efficiency. The existence of a mature combined cycle technology from the development of space power plants gives the advanced fuel fusion reactor application a firm engineering base from which it can grow rapidly, if need be. What is more important, the energy exchanger essentially removes the peak temperature limitations previously set by heat engine inlet conditions, so that much higher combined cycle efficiencies can be reached. This scheme is applied to the case of an advanced fuel proton-boron 11 fusion reactor using a single reheat topping and bottoming cycle. A wide variety of possible working fluid combinations are considered and particular cycle calculations for the thermal efficiency are presented. The operation of the radiation boiler and energy exchanger are both described. Material compatibility, x-ray absorption, thermal hydraulics, structural integrity, and other technical features of these components are analyzed to make a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of this concept

  3. High energy resolution characteristics on 14MeV neutron spectrometer for fusion experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Takada, Eiji; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A 14MeV neutron spectrometer suitable for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor is now under development on the basis of a recoil proton counter telescope principle in oblique scattering geometry. To verify its high energy resolution characteristics, preliminary experiments are made for a prototypical detector system. The comparison results show reasonably good agreement and demonstrate the possibility of energy resolution of 2.5% in full width at half maximum for 14MeV neutron spectrometry. (author)

  4. Alternate applications of fusion power: development of a high-temperature blanket for synthetic-fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.A.; Mattas, R.F.; Krajcinovic, D.; DePaz, J.; Gohar, Y.

    1981-11-01

    This study has shown that utilization of the unique features of a fusion reactor can result in a novel and potentially economical method of decomposing steam into hydrogen and oxygen. Most of the power of fusion reactors is in the form of energetic neutrons. If this power could be used to produce high temperature uncontaminated steam, a large fraction of the energy needed to decomposee the steam could be supplied as thermal energy by the fusion reaction. Proposed high temperature electrolysis processes require steam temperature in excess of 1000 0 C for high efficiency. The design put forth in this study details a system that can accomplish that end

  5. Thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisse, J.

    2000-01-01

    This document takes stock of the two ways of thermonuclear fusion research explored today: magnetic confinement fusion and inertial confinement fusion. The basic physical principles are recalled first: fundamental nuclear reactions, high temperatures, elementary properties of plasmas, ignition criterion, magnetic confinement (charged particle in a uniform magnetic field, confinement and Tokamak principle, heating of magnetized plasmas (ohmic, neutral particles, high frequency waves, other heating means), results obtained so far (scale laws and extrapolation of performances, tritium experiments, ITER project), inertial fusion (hot spot ignition, instabilities, results (Centurion-Halite program, laser experiments). The second part presents the fusion reactor and its associated technologies: principle (tritium production, heat source, neutron protection, tritium generation, materials), magnetic fusion (superconducting magnets, divertor (role, principle, realization), inertial fusion (energy vector, laser adaptation, particle beams, reaction chamber, stresses, chamber concepts (dry and wet walls, liquid walls), targets (fabrication, injection and pointing)). The third chapter concerns the socio-economic aspects of thermonuclear fusion: safety (normal operation and accidents, wastes), costs (costs structure and elementary comparison, ecological impact and external costs). (J.S.)

  6. High LET Radiation Can Enhance TGF(Beta) Induced EMT and Cross-Talk with ATM Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Janniffer; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The TGF(Beta) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation in mammary epithelial cells. We investigated possible interactions between the TGF(Beta) and ATM pathways following simulated space radiation using hTERT immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT), mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1lu), and several human fibroblast cell lines. TGF(Beta) is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis. The implication of EMT by radiation also has several lines of developing evidence, however is poorly understood. The identification of TGF(Beta) induced EMT can be shown in changes to morphology, related gene over expression or down regulation, which can be detected by RT-PCR, and immunostaining and western blotting. In this study, we have observed morphologic and molecular alternations consistent with EMT after Mv1lu cells were treated with TGF(Beta) High LET radiation enhanced TGF(Beta) mediated EMT with a dose as low as 0.1Gy. In order to consider the TGF(Beta) interaction with ATM we used a potent ATM inhibitor Ku55933 and investigated gene expression changes and Smad signaling kinetics. Ku559933 was observed to reverse TGF(Beta) induced EMT, while this was not observed in dual treated cells (radiation+TGF(Beta)). In EPC-hTERT cells, TGF(Beta) alone was not able to induce EMT after 3 days of application. A combined treatment with high LET, however, significantly caused the alteration of EMT markers. To study the function of p53 in the process of EMT, we knocked down P53 through RNA interference. Morphology changes associated with EMT were observed in epithelial cells with silenced p53. Our study indicates: high LET radiation can enhance TGF(Beta) induced EMT; while ATM is triggering the process of TGF(Beta)-induced EMT, p53 might be an essential repressor for EMT phenotypes.

  7. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases exhibits various strain rate hardening effects, both failure through adiabatic shear band. Ti-5553 alloy with Widmannstatten microstructure exhibit more obvious strain rate hardening effect, lower critical strain rate for ASB nucleation, compared with the alloy with Bimodal microstructures. Under dynamic compression, shock-induced beta to alpha” martensite transformation occurs.

  8. 100% noninductive operation at high beta using off-axis ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Greenfield, C.M.; Wade, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) program on DIII-D is developing the scientific basis for steady-state, high-performance operation in future devices. The key element of the program is to demonstrate sustainment of 100% noninductive current for several seconds at high beta. Guided by integrated modeling, recent experiments using up to 2.5 MW of off-axis electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and up to 15 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) with q 95 ∼ 5 have sustained ∼ 100% of the plasma current noninductively for 1 s at high beta (β ∼ 3.6%, β N ∼ 3.4, above the no-wall limit) with q min ≥ 1.5 and good confinement (H 89 ∼ 2.3). Integrated modeling using both empirical and theory-based models is used to design experiments and to interpret their results. These experiments have achieved the parameters required for the ITER Q=5 steady-state scenario, and the same modeling tools are applied to ITER AT scenario development. (author)

  9. 100% NONINDUCTIVE OPERATION AT HIGH BETA USING OFF-AXIS ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MURAKAMI, M.; GREENFIELD, C.M.; WADE, M.R.; LUCE, T.C.; FERRON, J.R.; ST JOHN, H.E.; MAKOWSKI, M.A.; AUSTIN, M.E.; ALLEN, S.L.; BRENNAN, D.P.; BURRELL, K.H.; CASPER, T.A.; DeBOO, J.C.; DOYLE, E.J.; GAROFALO, A.M.; GOHIL, P.; GORELOV, I.A.; GOEBNER, R.J.; HOBIRK, J.; HYATT, A.W.; JAYAKUMAR, R.J.; KAJIWARA, K.; KESSEL, C.E.; KINSEY, J.E.; LA HAYE, R.J.; KIM, J.Y.; LAO, L.L.; LOHR, J.; MENARD, J.E.; PETTY, C.C.; PETRIE, T.W.; PINSKER, R.I.; POLITZER, P.A.; PRATER, R.; RHODES, T.L.; SIPS, A.C.C.; STAEBLER, G.M.; TAYLOR, T.S.; WANG, G.; WEST, W.P.; ZENG, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Tokamak (AT) program on DIII-D is developing the scientific basis for steady-state, high-performance operation in future devices. The key element of the program is to demonstrate sustainment of 100% noninductive current for several seconds at high beta. Guided by integrated modeling, recent experiments using up to 2.5 MW of off-axis electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and up to 15 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) with q 95 ∼ 5 have sustained ∼ 100% of the plasma current noninductively for 1 s at high beta (β ∼ 3.6%, β N ∼ 3.4, above the no-wall limit) with q min (ge) 1.5 and good confinement (H 89 ∼ 2.3). Integrated modeling using both empirical and theory-based models is used to design experiments and to interpret their results. These experiments have achieved the parameters required for the ITER Q=5 steady-state scenario, and the same modeling tools are applied to ITER AT scenario development

  10. A hydrogel biosensor for high selective and sensitive detection of amyloid-beta oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Zhong, Yong; Gui, Jie; Wang, Xianwu; Zhuang, Xiaorong; Weng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive and memory impairment. It is the most common neurological disease that causes dementia. Soluble amyloid-beta oligomers (AβO) in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are the pathogenic biomarker correlated with AD. A simple electrochemical biosensor using graphene oxide/gold nanoparticles (GNPs) hydrogel electrode was developed in this study. Thiolated cellular prion protein (PrP C ) peptide probe was immobilized on GNPs of the hydrogel electrode to construct an AβO biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was utilized for AβO analysis. The specific binding between AβO and PrP C probes on the hydrogel electrode resulted in an increase in the electron-transfer resistance. The biosensor showed high specificity and sensitivity for AβO detection. It could selectively differentiate AβO from amyloid-beta (Aβ) monomers or fibrils. Meanwhile, it was highly sensitive to detect as low as 0.1 pM AβO in artificial CSF or blood plasma. The linear range for AβO detection is from 0.1 pM to 10 nM. This biosensor could be used as a cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of AD due to its high electrochemical performance and bionic structure.

  11. (-)[125I]-iodopindolol, a new highly selective radioiodinated beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist: measurement of beta-receptors on intact rat astrocytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barovsky, K.; Brooker, G.

    1980-01-01

    (-)-Pindolol, one of the most potent beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, was radioiodinated using chloramine-T oxidation of carrier-free Na 125I and separated from unreacted pindolol to yield 2200 Ci/mmole (-)-[125I]-iodopindolol ((-)-[125I]-IPin). Mass and ultraviolet spectra confirmed that the iodination occurred on the indole ring, presumably at the 3 position. The binding of radiolabeled (-)-[125I]-IPin to beta-adrenergic receptors has been studied using intact C6 rat astrocytoma cells (2B subclone) grown in monolayer cultures. Binding of (-)[125IPin was saturable with time and concentration. Using 13 pM (-)-[125I]IPin, binding equilibrium was reached in 90 min at 21-22 degrees C. The reverse rate constant was 0.026 min-1 at 21 0 C. Specific binding (expressed as 1 microM(-)-propranolol displaceable counts) of (-)-[125I]-IPin was 95% of total binding. Scatchard analysis of (-)-[125I]-I]Pin binding revealed approximately 4300 receptors/cell and a dissociation constant of 30 pM. This was in excellent agreement with the kinetically determined dissociation constant of 35 pM. Displacement by propranolol and isoproterenol showed that (-)-[125I]-IPin binding sites were pharmacologically and stereospecifically selective. These results indicate that (-)-[125I]-IPin, a pure (-)-stereoisomer, high specific activity radioligand, selectively binds to beta-adrenergic receptors in whole cells with a high percentage of specific binding and should therefore be useful in the study and measurement of cellular beta-adrenergic receptors

  12. On the increase of predictive performance with high-level data fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Smilde, A.K.; Hageman, J.A.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Eeuwijk, F.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The combination of the different data sources for classification purposes, also called data fusion, can be done at different levels: low-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices, medium-level, i.e. concatenating data matrices after feature selection and high-level, i.e. combining model outputs. In this paper the predictive performance of high-level data fusion is investigated. Partial least squares is used on each of the data sets and dummy variables representing the classes are used as response variables. Based on the estimated responses y-hat j for data set j and class k, a Gaussian distribution p(g k |y-hat j ) is fitted. A simulation study is performed that shows the theoretical performance of high-level data fusion for two classes and two data sets. Within group correlations of the predicted responses of the two models and differences between the predictive ability of each of the separate models and the fused models are studied. Results show that the error rate is always less than or equal to the best performing subset and can theoretically approach zero. Negative within group correlations always improve the predictive performance. However, if the data sets have a joint basis, as with metabolomics data, this is not likely to happen. For equally performing individual classifiers the best results are expected for small within group correlations. Fusion of a non-predictive classifier with a classifier that exhibits discriminative ability lead to increased predictive performance if the within group correlations are strong. An example with real life data shows the applicability of the simulation results.

  13. GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is a well-studied prototype for heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that respond to diffusible hormones and neurotransmitters. To overcome the structural flexibility of the beta2AR and to facilitate its cr...

  14. Stability and control of resistive wall modes in high beta, low rotation DIII-D plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, A.M.; Jackson, G.L.; Haye, R.J. La; Okabayashi, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Strait, E.J.; Ferron, J.R.; Groebner, R.J.; In, Y.; Lanctot, M.J.; Matsunaga, G.; Navratil, G.A.; Solomon, W.M.; Takahashi, H.; Takechi, M.; Turnbull, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent high-β DIII-D (Luxon J.L. 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 64) experiments with the new capability of balanced neutral beam injection show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) remains stable when the plasma rotation is lowered to a fraction of a per cent of the Alfven frequency by reducing the injection of angular momentum in discharges with minimized magnetic field errors. Previous DIII-D experiments yielded a high plasma rotation threshold (of order a few per cent of the Alfven frequency) for RWM stabilization when resonant magnetic braking was applied to lower the plasma rotation. We propose that the previously observed rotation threshold can be explained as the entrance into a forbidden band of rotation that results from torque balance including the resonant field amplification by the stable RWM. Resonant braking can also occur naturally in a plasma subject to magnetic instabilities with a zero frequency component, such as edge localized modes. In DIII-D, robust RWM stabilization can be achieved using simultaneous feedback control of the two sets of non-axisymmetric coils. Slow feedback control of the external coils is used for dynamic error field correction; fast feedback control of the internal non-axisymmetric coils provides RWM stabilization during transient periods of low rotation. This method of active control of the n = 1 RWM has opened access to new regimes of high performance in DIII-D. Very high plasma pressure combined with elevated q min for high bootstrap current fraction, and internal transport barriers for high energy confinement, are sustained for almost 2 s, or 10 energy confinement times, suggesting a possible path to high fusion performance, steady-state tokamak scenarios

  15. Different antihypertensive effect of beta-blocking drugs in low and normal-high renin hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralberg, B E; Tolagen, K

    1976-05-31

    The treatment response to beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs was compared in two groups of patients with primary (essential) hypertension and different renin levels. Each group consisted of 25 patients and was equally distributed regarding age, severity and stage of hypertension. In the first group (group 1), the mean upright plasma renin activity was 0.8 ng ml-1h-1 (range 0.3 to 1.5) and the patients were considered to have low renin hypertension. In the other group (group 2) the patients had a mean plasma renin activity of 2.1 ng ml-1h-1 (range 1.1 to 5.1) and were considered to have normal to high renin hypertension. In both groups the patients were initially treated with beta-blocking drugs; in group 1 with a beta-blocker corresponding to an average dose of 311 mg propranolol a day for at least eight weeks and in group 2 with propranolol 320 mg a day in a fixed dose for eight weeks. The hypotensive response differed significantly between the two groups (p less than 0.001). In group 1 the pretreatment blood pressure was 197/117 mm Hg supine and 198/120 mm Hg standing. During treatment blood pressure decreased only 5/3 mm Hg supine and 9/5 mm Hg standing. The pretreatment blood pressure in group 2 was 187/114 mm Hg supine and 186/117 mm Hg standing. Beta-blocking therapy reduced blood pressure 36/23 and 34/18 mm Hg, respectively (both p less than 0.001). Pulse rates fell significantly in the two groups, both in the lying and standing positions. In 17 patients with low renin hypertension (group 1), a volume-depleting drug was added (spironolactone, 14 patients; thiazides, 3 patients) and this achieved a marked fall in blood pressure levels of 38/16 mm Hg supine and 37/19 mm Hg standing (both p less than 0.001). These results suggest the following: (1) Most patients with normal to high plasma renin activity respond well to moderate doses of propranolol. (2) Propranolol given in the same doses is almost without antihypertensive effect in patients with low renin

  16. High-level transfer and long-term expression of the human beta-globin gene in a mouse transplant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftopoulos, H; Ward, M; Bank, A

    1998-06-30

    Insertion of a normally functioning human beta-globin gene into the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) of patients with beta-thalassemia may be an effective approach to the therapy of this disorder. Safe, efficient gene transfer and long-term, high-level expression of the transferred human beta-globin gene in animal models are prerequisites for HSC somatic gene therapy. We have recently shown for the first time that, using a modified beta-globin retroviral vector in a mouse transplant model, long-term, high-level expression of a transferred human beta-globin gene is possible. The human beta-globin gene continues to be detected up to eight months post-transplantation of beta-globin-transduced hematopoietic cells into lethally irradiated mice. The transferred human beta-globin gene is detected in three of five mice surviving long-term (> 4 months) transplanted with bone marrow cells transduced with high-titer virus. The unrearranged 5.1 kb human beta-globin gene-containing provirus is seen by Southern blotting in two of these mice. More importantly, long-term expression of the transferred gene is seen in two mice at levels of 5% and 20% that of endogenous murine beta-globin. We document stem cell transduction by showing continued high-level expression of the human beta-globin gene in secondarily transplanted recipient mice. These results provide evidence of HSC transduction with a human beta-globin gene in animals and demonstrate that retroviral-mediated unrearranged human beta-globin gene transfer leads to a high level of human beta-globin gene expression in the long term for the first time. A gene therapy strategy may be a feasible therapeutic approach to the beta-thalassemias if consistent human beta-globin gene transfer and expression into HSC can be achieved.

  17. Rational design of highly potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins: Implication for developing antiviral therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ling; Gao, George F.; Tien Po

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant protein containing one heptad-repeat 1 (HR1) segment and one HR2 segment of the HIV-1 gp41 (HR1-HR2) has been shown to fold into thermally stable six-helix bundle, representing the fusogenic core of gp41. In this study, we have used the fusogenic core as a scaffold to design HIV-1 fusion inhibitory proteins by linking another HR1 to the C terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR121) or additional HR2 to the N terminus of HR1-HR2 (HR212). Both recombinant proteins could be abundantly and solubly expressed and easily purified, exhibiting high stability and potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 fusion with IC 50 values of 16.2 ± 2.8 and 2.8 ± 0.63 nM, respectively. These suggest that these rationally designed proteins can be further developed as novel anti-HIV-1 therapeutics

  18. Experimental observations of MHD instabilities in the high-beta tokamak Torus-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, M.

    1982-01-01

    The CO 2 laser scattering and interferometry diagnostics have been used to study the MHD instabilities in the high-beta tokamak Torus-II. Detailed measurements of the density and density fluctuation profiles have been performed. In order to measure density fluctuations with wavelengths longer than 2 cm, an interferometric like, phase matching technique has been developed. The toroidal and poloidal mode numbers have been measured using a double-beam, two-position technique. Working at high-beta values, average β greater than or equal to 10%, we have found parameters where the growing instabilities are created or suppressed. The plasma lifetime for both cases is seen to be about the same and the loss of the plasma appears to be caused by the decay in the external fields. The growing instability parameters are within the MHD regime, and it only grows at the outer edge of the plasma. This is in agreement with the theoretical Ballooning mode instability. The frequency and mode number measurements also agree with the Kinetic theory description of Ballooning modes. The comparison with possible other modes, such as Tearing and Drift instabilities, is performed and the Ballooning growth rate is shown to be the best fit to the experimental values

  19. Cold Test Results of the ISAC-II Medium Beta High Gradient Cryomodule

    CERN Document Server

    Laxdal, R E; Clark, G S; Fong, K; Mitra, A K; Poirier, R L; Rawnsley, B; Ries, T; Sekatchev, I; Stanford, G; Zvyagintsev, V

    2004-01-01

    Many proposals (RIA, Eurisol, ISAC-II) are emerging for a new generation of high gradient heavy ion accelerators. The ISAC-II medium beta cryomodule represents the first realized application that encorporates many new techniques to improve the performance over machines presently being used for beam delivery. The machine lattice, compatible with multi-charge acceleration, uses high field (9T) superconducting solenoids with bucking coils for active fringe field compensation. The bulk niobium quarter wave medium beta cavity produces 6 MV/m over an effective length of 18cm with a peak surface field of ~30 MV/m. TRIUMF has developed a mechanical tuner capable of both coarse (kHz) and fine (Hz) frequency adjustments of the cavity. The demonstrated tuner resolution is better than 0.1 μm (0.6 Hz). A new rf coupling loop has been developed that operates at 200 Watts forward power with less than 0.5 Watt of power being added to the helium load. Cold alignment in ISAC-II has been done with rf pick-ups using a ...

  20. Study and design of a very high spatial resolution beta imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnard, J.

    2008-01-01

    The b autoradiography is a widely used technique in pharmacology or biological fields. It is able to locate in two dimensions molecules labeled with beta emitters. The development of a gaseous detector incorporating micro-mesh called PIM in the Subatech laboratory leads to the construction of a very high spatial resolution apparatus dedicated to b imaging. This device is devoted to small analysis surface of a half microscope slide in particular of 3 H or 14 C and the measured spatial resolution is 20 μm FWHM. The recent development of a new reconstruction method allows enlarging the field of investigation to high energy beta emitters such as 131 I, 18 F or 46 Sc. A new device with a large active area of 18*18 cm 2 has been built with a user friendly design. This allows to image simultaneously 10 microscope slides. Thanks to a multi-modality solution, it retains the good characteristics of spatial resolution obtained previously on a small surface. Moreover, different kinds of samples, like microscope slides or scotches can be analysed. The simulation and experimentation work achieved during this thesis led to an optimal disposition of the inner structure of the detector. These results and characterization show that the PIM structure has to be considered for a next generation of b-Imager. (author)

  1. High pressure deuterium-tritium gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, A.J.; Spaletta, H.W.; Ware, A.G.; Zabriskie, J.M.; Hardwick, D.A.; Maltrud, H.R.; Paciotti, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    In experimental studies of muon-catalyzed fusion, the density of the hydrogen gas mixture is an important parameter. Catalysis of up to 150 fusions per muon has been observed in deuterium-tritium gas mixtures at liquid hydrogen density; at room temperature, such densities require a target gas pressure of the order of 1000 atmospheres (100 MPa, 15,000 psi). We report here the design considerations for hydrogen gas target vessels for muon-catalyzed fusion experiments that operate at 1000 and 10,000 atmospheres. The 1000 atmosphere high pressure target vessels are fabricated of Type A-286 stainless steel and lined with oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper to provide a barrier to hydrogen permeation of the stainless steel. The 10,000 atmosphere ultrahigh pressure target vessels are made from 18Ni (200 grade) maraging steel and are lined with OFHC copper, again to prevent hydrogen permeation of the steel. In addition to target design features, operating requirements, fabrication procedures, and secondary containment are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Inertial confinement fusion: steady progress towards ignition and high gain (summary talk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the results presented at the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2004, this paper highlights the most important recent advances in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the Laser Megajoule facility and many improvements in the target design, the conventional indirect-drive approach is advancing steadily towards the demonstration of ignition and high gain. The development of the polar direct-drive concept also made the prospects for direct-drive ignition on the NIF very favourable. Substantial progress was reported on the exploration of the fast-ignition approach to ICF. Parallel to that, multi-wire Z-pinches have become a competitive driver option for achieving ignition at the lowest possible cost. In heavy-ion fusion, experiments have been devoted so far to studying the generation, transport, and final focusing of high-current ion beams. A new concept for a power plant with a heavy-ion driver, based on a cylindrical direct-drive target compressed and ignited (in the fast-ignition mode) by two separate beams of very energetic (E i ≥ 0.5 GeV u -1 ) heavy ions, has been proposed

  3. Inertial confinement fusion: steady progress towards ignition and high gain (summary talk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basko, M. M.

    2005-10-01

    Based on the results presented at the 20th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2004, this paper highlights the most important recent advances in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the Laser Mégajoule facility and many improvements in the target design, the conventional indirect-drive approach is advancing steadily towards the demonstration of ignition and high gain. The development of the polar direct-drive concept also made the prospects for direct-drive ignition on the NIF very favourable. Substantial progress was reported on the exploration of the fast-ignition approach to ICF. Parallel to that, multi-wire Z-pinches have become a competitive driver option for achieving ignition at the lowest possible cost. In heavy-ion fusion, experiments have been devoted so far to studying the generation, transport, and final focusing of high-current ion beams. A new concept for a power plant with a heavy-ion driver, based on a cylindrical direct-drive target compressed and ignited (in the fast-ignition mode) by two separate beams of very energetic (Ei>~ 0.5 GeV u-1) heavy ions, has been proposed.

  4. Reconstitution of high affinity α2 adrenergic agonist binding by fusion with a pertussis toxin substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Neubig, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    High affinity α 2 adrenergic agonist binding is thought to occur via a coupling of the α 2 receptor with N/sub i/, the inhibitory guanyl nucleotide binding protein. Human platelet membranes pretreated at pH 11.5 exhibit a selective inactivation of agonist binding and N/sub i/. To further study the mechanism of agonist binding, alkali treated membranes (ATM) were mixed with membranes pretreated with 10 μM phenoxybenzamine to block α 2 receptors (POB-M). The combined membrane pellet was incubated in 50% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to promote membrane-membrane fusion and assayed for binding to the α 2 agonist [ 3 H]UK 14,304 (UK) and the antagonist [ 3 H] yohimbine. PEG treatment resulted in a 2-4 fold enhancement of UK binding whereas yohimbine binding was unchanged. No enhancement of UK binding was observed in the absence of PEG treatment. The reconstitution was dependent on the addition of POB-M. They found that a 1:1 ratio of POB-M:ATM was optimal. Reconstituted binding was inhibited by GppNHp. Fusion of rat C6 glioma cell membranes, which do not contain α 2 receptors, also enhanced agonist binding to ATM. Fusion of C6 membranes from cells treated with pertussis toxin did not enhance [ 3 H] UK binding. These data show that a pertussis toxin sensitive membrane component, possibly N/sub i/, can reconstitute high affinity α 2 agonist binding

  5. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Anwar M. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Van Domselaar, Gary [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China); She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sui, Jianhua [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); He, Runtao [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Marasco, Wayne A. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Li, Xuguang, E-mail: Sean.Li@hc-sc.gc.ca [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  6. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, Anwar M.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D.; Sui, Jianhua; He, Runtao; Marasco, Wayne A.; Li, Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. → Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. → The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. → The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  7. Application of the high-spin isomer beams to the secondary fusion reaction and the measurement of g-factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Asahi, K.; Kishida, T.; Ueno, H.; Sato, W.; Yoshimi, A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kameda, D.; Miyoshi, H.; Fukuchi, T.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Kibe, M.; Hokoiwa, N.; Odahara, A.; Cederwall, B.; Lagergren, K.; Podolyak, Zs.; Ishihara, M.; Gono, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A technique for providing high-spin isomers as probes of the fusion reaction and the measurement of g-factor has been worked out at RIKEN. In the study of the fusion reaction 12 C( 145m Sm,xn) 157-x Er, the γ rays emitted from the fusion-evaporation residue 154 Er have been successfully observed. The nuclear g-factor of the T 1/2 = 28 ns high-spin isomer in 149 Dy has been measured with the γ-ray TDPAD method

  8. Characterization of high temperature superconductor cables for magnet toroidal field coils of the DEMO fusion power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Bayer, Christoph M

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is a key technology to satisfy the basic demand for electric energy sustainably. The official EUROfusion schedule foresees a first industrial DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant for 2050. In this work several high temperature superconductor sub-size cables are investigated for their applicability in large scale DEMO toroidal field coils. Main focus lies on the electromechanical stability under the influence of high Lorentz forces at peak magnetic fields of up to 12 T.

  9. Characterization of high temperature superconductor cables for magnet toroidal field coils of the DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Christoph M.

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear fusion is a key technology to satisfy the basic demand for electric energy sustainably. The official EUROfusion schedule foresees a first industrial DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant for 2050. In this work several high temperature superconductor sub-size cables are investigated for their applicability in large scale DEMO toroidal field coils. Main focus lies on the electromechanical stability under the influence of high Lorentz forces at peak magnetic fields of up to 12 T.

  10. Demountable low stress high field toroidal field magnet system for tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Hsieh, D.; Lehner, J.; Suenaga, M.

    1978-01-01

    A new type of superconducting magnet system for large fusion reactors is described. Instead of winding large planar or multi-axis coils, as has been proposed in previous fusion reactor designs, the superconducting coils are made by joining together several prefabricated conductor sections. The joints can be unmade and sections removed if they fail. Conductor sections can be made at a factory and shipped to the reactor site for assembly. The conductor stress level in the assembled coil can be kept small by external support of the coil at a number of points along its perimeter, so that the magnetic forces are transmitted to an external warm reinforcement structure. This warm reinforcement structure can also be the primary containment for the fusion reactor, constructed similar to a PCRV (Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel) used in fission reactors. Low thermal conductivity, high strength supports are used to transfer the magnetic forces to the external reinforcement through a hydraulic system. The hydraulic supports are movable and can be programmed to accommodate thermal contraction and to minimize stress in the superconducting coil. (author)

  11. Demountable low stress high field toroidal field magnet system for tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Hsieh, D.; Lehner, J.; Suenaga, M.

    1977-01-01

    A new type of superconducting magnet system for large fusion reactors is described in this report. Instead of winding large planar or multi-axis coils, as has been proposed in previous fusion reactor designs, the superconducting coils are made by joining together several prefabricated conductor sections. The joints can be unmade and sections removed if they fail. Conductor sections can be made at a factory and shipped to the reactor site for assembly. The conductor stress level in the assembled coil can be kept small by external support of the coil at a number of points along its perimeter, so that the magnetic forces are transmitted to an external warm reinforcement structure. This warm reinforcement structure can also be the primary containment for the fusion reactor, constructed similar to a PCRV (Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel) used in fission reactors. Low thermal conductivity, high strength supports are used to transfer the magnetic forces to the external reinforcement through a hydraulic system. The hydraulic supports are movable and can be programmed to accommodate thermal contraction and to minimize stress in the superconducting coil

  12. Repetitively pulsed, high energy KrF lasers for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, M.C.; Sethian, J.D.; Giuliani, J.L.; Lehmberg, R.; Kepple, P.; Wolford, M.F.; Hegeler, F.; Friedman, M.; Jones, T.C.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Weidenheimer, D.; Rose, D.

    2004-01-01

    Krypton fluoride (KrF) lasers produce highly uniform beams at 248 nm, allow the capability of 'zooming' the spot size to follow an imploding pellet, naturally assume a modular architecture and have been developed into a pulsed-power- based industrial technology that readily scales to a fusion power plant sized system. There are two main challenges for the fusion power plant application: to develop a system with an overall efficiency of greater than 6% (based on target gains of 100) and to achieve a durability of greater than 3 x 10 8 shots (two years at 5 Hz). These two issues are being addressed with the Electra (700 J, 5 Hz) and Nike (3000 J, single shot) KrF lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory. Based on recent advances in pulsed power, electron beam generation and transport, hibachi (foil support structure) design and KrF physics, wall plug efficiencies of greater than 7% should be achievable. Moreover, recent experiments show that it may be possible to realize long lived electron beam diodes using ceramic honeycomb cathodes and anode foils that are convectively cooled by periodically deflecting the laser gas. This paper is a summary of the progress in the development of the critical KrF technologies for laser fusion energy. (author)

  13. Attenuation capability of low activation-modified high manganese austenitic stainless steel for fusion reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, M.M. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El-kameesy, S.U.; El-Fiki, S.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Ghali, S.N. [Steel Technology Department, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan (Egypt); El Shazly, R.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Saeed, Aly, E-mail: aly_8h@yahoo.com [Nuclear Power station Department, Faculty of Engineering, Egyptian-Russian University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Improvement stainless steel alloys to be used in fusion reactors. • Structural, mechanical, attenuation properties of investigated alloys were studied. • Good agreement between experimental and calculated results has been achieved. • The developed alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactors. - Abstract: Low nickel-high manganese austenitic stainless steel alloys, SSMn9Ni and SSMn10Ni, were developed to use as a shielding material in fusion reactor system. A standard austenitic stainless steel SS316L was prepared and studied as a reference sample. The microstructure properties of the present stainless steel alloys were investigated using Schaeffler diagram, optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction pattern. Mainly, an austenite phase was observed for the prepared stainless steel alloys. Additionally, a small ferrite phase was observed in SS316L and SSMn10Ni samples. The mechanical properties of the prepared alloys were studied using Vickers hardness and tensile tests at room temperature. The studied manganese stainless steel alloys showed higher hardness, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength than SS316L. On the other hand, the manganese stainless steel elongation had relatively lower values than the standard SS316L. The removal cross section for both slow and total slow (primary and those slowed down in sample) neutrons were carried out using {sup 241}Am-Be neutron source. Gamma ray attenuation parameters were carried out for different gamma ray energy lines which emitted from {sup 60}Co and {sup 232}Th radioactive sources. The developed manganese stainless steel alloys had a higher total slow removal cross section than SS316L. While the slow neutron and gamma rays were nearly the same for all studied stainless steel alloys. From the obtained results, the developed manganese stainless steel alloys could be considered as candidate materials for fusion reactor system with low activation based on the short life

  14. Improving hot-spot pressure for ignition in high-adiabat Inertial Confinement Fusion implosion

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Dongguo; Zhu, Shaoping; Pei, Wenbing; Zou, Shiyang; Zheng, Wudi; Gu, Jianfa; Dai, Zhensheng

    2017-01-01

    A novel capsule target design to improve the hot-spot pressure in the high-adiabat implosion for inertial confinement fusion is proposed, where a layer of comparatively high-density material is used as a pusher between the fuel and the ablator. This design is based on our theoretical finding of the stagnation scaling laws, which indicates that the hot spot pressure can be improved by increasing the kinetic energy density $\\rho_d V_{imp}^2/2$ ($\\rho_d$ is the shell density when the maximum she...

  15. Conceptual study on high performance blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixue; Wu Yican

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design on high performance dual-cooled blanket of fusion-driven transmuter is presented based on neutronic calculation. The dual-cooled system has some attractive advantages when utilized in transmutation of HLW (High Level Wastes). The calculation results show that this kind of blanket could safely transmute about 6 ton minor actinides (produced by 170 GW(e) Year PWRs approximately) and 0.4 ton fission products per year, and output 12 GW thermal power. In addition, the variation of power and critical factor of this blanket is relatively little during its 1-year operation period. This blanket is also tritium self-sustainable

  16. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  17. Target design for high fusion yield with the double Z-pinch-driven hohlraum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Cuneo, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Bennett, G. R.; Campbell, R. B.; Christenson, P. J.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Porter, J. L.; Slutz, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    A key demonstration on the path to inertial fusion energy is the achievement of high fusion yield (hundreds of MJ) and high target gain. Toward this goal, an indirect-drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target involving two Z-pinch x-ray sources heating a central secondary hohlraum is described by Hammer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 6, 2129 (1999)]. In subsequent research at Sandia National Laboratories, theoretical/computational models have been developed and an extensive series of validation experiments have been performed to study hohlraum energetics, capsule coupling, and capsule implosion symmetry for this system. These models have been used to design a high-yield Z-pinch-driven ICF target that incorporates the latest experience in capsule design, hohlraum symmetry control, and x-ray production by Z pinches. An x-ray energy output of 9 MJ per pinch, suitably pulse-shaped, is sufficient for this concept to drive 0.3-0.5 GJ capsules. For the first time, integrated two-dimensional (2D) hohlraum/capsule radiation-hydrodynamics simulations have demonstrated adequate hohlraum coupling, time-dependent radiation symmetry control, and the successful implosion, ignition, and burn of a high-yield capsule in the double Z-pinch hohlraum. An important new feature of this target design is mode-selective symmetry control: the use of burn-through shields offset from the capsule that selectively tune certain low-order asymmetry modes (P 2 ,P 4 ) without significantly perturbing higher-order modes and without a significant energy penalty. This paper will describe the capsule and hohlraum design that have produced 0.4-0.5 GJ yields in 2D simulations, provide a preliminary estimate of the Z-pinch load and accelerator requirements necessary to drive the system, and suggest future directions for target design work

  18. Beta decay of Cu-56

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borcea, R; Aysto, J; Caurier, E; Dendooven, P; Doring, J; Gierlik, M; Gorska, M; Grawe, H; Hellstrom, M; Janas, Z; Jokinen, A; Karny, M; Kirchner, R; La Commara, M; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Mayet, P; Nieminen, A; Nowacki, F; Penttila, H; Plochocki, A; Rejmund, M; Roeckl, E; Schlegel, C; Schmidt, K; Schwengner, R; Sawicka, M

    2001-01-01

    The proton-rich isotope Cu-56 was produced at the GSI On-Line Mass Separator by means of the Si-28(S-32, p3n) fusion-evaporation reaction. Its beta -decay properties were studied by detecting beta -delayed gamma rays and protons. A half-Life of 93 +/- 3 ms was determined for Cu-56. Compared to the

  19. Highly radiation-resistant vacuum impregnation resin systems for fusion magnet insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, P.E.; Munshi, N.A.; Denis, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Magnets built for fusion devices such as the newly proposed Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) need to be highly reliable, especially in a high radiation environment. Insulation materials are often the weak link in the design of superconducting magnets due to their sensitivity to high radiation doses, embrittlement at cryogenic temperatures, and the limitations on their fabricability. An insulation system capable of being vacuum impregnated with desirable properties such as a long pot-life, high strength, and excellent electrical integrity and which also provides high resistance to radiation would greatly improve magnet performance and reduce the manufacturing costs. A new class of insulation materials has been developed utilizing cyanate ester chemistries combined with other known radiation-resistant resins, such as bismaleimides and polyimides. These materials have been shown to meet the demanding requirements of the next generation of devices, such as FIRE. Post-irradiation testing to levels that exceed those required for FIRE showed no degradation in mechanical properties. In addition, the cyanate ester-based systems showed excellent performance at cryogenic temperatures and possess a wide range of processing variables, which will enable cost-effective fabrication of new magnets. This paper details the processing parameters, mechanical properties at 76 K and 4 K, as well as post-irradiation testing to dose levels surpassing 10 8 Gy

  20. Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gojkovic, Zoran; Sandrini, Michael; Piskur, Jure

    2001-01-01

    no pyrimidine catabolic pathway, it enabled growth on N-carbamyl- beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source. The D. discoideum and D. melanogaster PYD3 gene products are similar to mammalian beta -alanine synthases. In contrast, the S. kluyveri protein is quite different from these and more similar to bacterial......beta -Alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamy-beta -alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta -alanine synthase...... N- carbamyl amidohydrolases. All three beta -alanine synthases are to some degree related to various aspartate transcarbamylases, which catalyze the second step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. PYD3 expression in yeast seems to be inducible by dihydrouracil and N...

  1. Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes

  2. Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes.

  3. Toroidal confinement of non-neutral plasma - A new approach to high-beta equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Z.; Ogawa, Y.; Morikawa, J.

    2001-01-01

    Departure from the quasi-neutral condition allows us to apply significant two-fluid effects that impart a new freedom to the design of high-performance fusion plasma. The self-electric field in a non-neutralized plasma induces a strong ExB-drift flow. A fast flow produces a large hydrodynamic pressure that can balance with the thermal pressure of the plasma. Basic concepts to produce a toroidal non-neutral plasma have been examined on the internal-conductor toroidal confinement device Proto-RT. A magnetic separatrix determines the boundary of the confinement region. Electrons describe chaotic orbits in the neighborhood of the magnetic null point on the separatrix. The chaos yields collisionless diffusion of electrons from the particle source (electron gun) towards the confinement region. Collisionless heating also occurs in the magnetic null region, which can be applied to produce a plasma. (author)

  4. Spectroscopic study of turbulent heating in the high beta tokamak - Torus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Visible spectroscopy, involving line profile and line intensity measurements, was used to study the turbulent heating of the rectangular cross-section high-beta tokamak Torus II. The spectroscopy was done in the visible wave-length region using a six channel polychrometer having 0.2 A resolution, which is capable of radial scans of the plasma. The plasma, obtained by ionizing helium, is heated by poloidal skin currents, induced by a rapid (tau/sub R/ approx. = 1.7 μsec) change of the toroidal magnetic field either parallel or anti-parallel to the initial toroidal bias magnetic field, which converts a cold toroidal Z-pinch plasma into a hot tokamak plasma

  5. Ion transport analysis of a high beta-poloidal JT-60U discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Tajima, T.; Dong, J.-Q.; Kim, J.-Y.; Kishimoto, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The high beta-poloidal discharge number 17110 in JT-60U (JT-60 Team, IAEA, Vienna, 1993) that developes an internal transport barrier is analysed for the transport of ion energy and momentum. First, the classical ion temperature gradient stability properties are calculated in the absence of sheared plasma flows to establish the L-mode transport level prior to the emergence of the transport barrier. Then the evolving toroidal and poloidal velocity profiles reported by Koide et al (1994 Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 3662) are used to show how the sheared mass flows control the stability and transport. Coupled energy-momentum transport equations predict the creation of a transport barrier. The balance of the steep ion temperature gradient against the magnetic shear and sheared mass flow is calculated for the profiles in the 17110 discharge. (Author)

  6. Proposal for the construction of a High-Beta Tokamak at LASL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Laan, P.C.T.; Freidberg, J.P.; Thomas, K.S.

    1976-06-01

    The large heating rate inherent to implosion heating allows the rapid generation of high-beta tokamak plasmas. A study of these plasmas in the proposed HBT machine can give information on how MHD equilibrium and stability limit β and q. Both a wide current profile and a moderate elongation of the minor cross section should help to raise the permissible peak β values in HBT to at least 20 percent. The longer term loss processes occurring in MHD-stable plasmas are to be investigated. The main parameters of HBT are: R = 0.30 m, minor cross section a racetrack of width and height 0.24 m and 0.48 m, B/sub phi/ = 2 T, I/sub phi/ approximately 750 kA

  7. New technology and neo-science on the nuclear fusion reactor engineering. ITER and super high speed phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This research meeting has been held under cooperation of the ''nuclear fusion reactor engineering research group'' and ''nuclear fusion reactor materials research group'' of the Yayoi Research Group. This meeting was planned and conducted for 2 days under the following predominant thema: Present status of research on thermo-nuclear fusion experimental reactor engineering design (ITER/EDA) and its promoting method in Japan, and a new scientific side in the research and development of nuclear fusion reactor materials or the super high speed phenomena. In the former item, the following reports were published: Creative period of R and D on the nuclear fusion reactor, present statue and future development of ITER/EDA, meanings of ITER under realization of the nuclear fusion energy, and others. And in the latter item, the following reports were published: Nuclear fusion materials engineering and system quantum engineering, dynamic imagination of atom and molecule using pulse snap shot method, laser wake field acceleration and ultra short x-ray pulse generation, development of T-cube laser in JAERI, and others. (G.K.)

  8. High thermal conductivity of graphite fiber silicon carbide composites for fusion reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L.L.; Balden, M.; Causey, R.A.; Atsumi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of using CVI SiC/graphite fiber composites as low tritium retaining, high thermal conductivity composites for fusion applications are presented. Three-dimensional woven composites have been chemically vapor infiltrated with SiC and their thermophysical properties measured. One material used an intermediate grade graphite fiber in all directions (Amoco P55) while a second material used very high thermal conductive fiber (Amoco K-1100) in the high fiber density direction. The overall void was less than 20%. Strength as measured by four-point bending was comparable to those of SiC/SiC composite. The room temperature thermal conductivity in the high conductivity direction was impressive for both materials, with values >70 W/m K for the P-55 and >420 W/m K for the K-1100 variant. The thermal conductivity was measured as a function of temperature and exceeds the highest thermal conductivity of CVD SiC currently available at fusion relevant temperatures (>600 deg. C). Limited data on the irradiation-induced degradation in thermal conductivity is consistent with carbon fiber composite literature

  9. Development of high power ceramic lasers and possible application to nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagitani, Takagimi; Yagi, Hideki; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Kaminskii, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    We have succeeded in fabricating high-transparent Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG) and Y 2 O 3 laser ceramic materials using vacuum sintering method. Compared with single crystal, ceramics have the following advantages, namely: (1) Ease of fabrication; (2) Less expensive; (3) Fabrication of large size and high concentration; (4) Multi-layer and multi-functional ceramic structure; (5) Mass production, etc. On the base of Nd 3+ :YAG ceramics, we performed high efficient and high power (up to 1.46 kW) CW lasers with laser diode pumping. Optical properties of Nd:YAG ceramics, such as absorption, emission and fluorescence lifetime, were found to be similar to those of Nd:YAG single crystal. The thermal conductivity of Nd:YAG ceramics was measured, which is also found to be very similar to that of Nd:YAG single crystal. The simulated emission cross section of Nd 3+ :Y 2 O 3 happened to be in the range that is required for laser fusion driver. This makes Nd:Y 2 O 3 a potential candidate for being used in laser fusion system. Some optical properties of Nd:Y 2 O 3 ceramics were investigated and for the first time, CW room-temperature laser oscillation at two wavelength (1074.6 nm and 1078.6 nm) of 4 F 3/2 → 4 I 11/2 channel was obtained with a slope efficiency of 32%. (author)

  10. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  11. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1996-01-01

    A high current, low emittance, high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver accelerator scale beam. Using a high charge state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system, which consists of a gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 3D beam simulations and experimental feasibility study results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector. (orig.)

  12. High Temperature Plasmas Theory and Mathematical Tools for Laser and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Spatschek, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Filling the gap for a treatment of the subject as an advanced course in theoretical physics with a huge potential for future applications, this monograph discusses aspects of these applications and provides theoretical methods and tools for their investigation. Throughout this coherent and up-to-date work the main emphasis is on classical plasmas at high-temperatures, drawing on the experienced author's specialist background. As such, it covers the key areas of magnetic fusion plasma, laser-plasma-interaction and astrophysical plasmas, while also including nonlinear waves and phenomena.

  13. IEFIT - An Interactive Approach to High Temperature Fusion Plasma Magnetic Equilibrium Fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Schissel, D.P.; Lao, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    An interactive IDL based wrapper, IEFIT, has been created for the magnetic equilibrium reconstruction code EFIT written in FORTRAN. It allows high temperature fusion physicists to rapidly optimize a plasma equilibrium reconstruction by eliminating the unnecessarily repeated initialization in the conventional approach along with the immediate display of the fitting results of each input variation. It uses a new IDL based graphics package, GaPlotObj, developed in cooperation with Fanning Software Consulting, that provides a unified interface with great flexibility in presenting and analyzing scientific data. The overall interactivity reduces the process to minutes from the usual hours

  14. High resolution neutron diffraction crystallographic investigation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened steels of interest for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, R.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Wang, M.; Zhang, G.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out to characterize the crystallographic phases present in different Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels of interest for fusion technology. The different lattice structures, Im3m for the ferritic ODS and Fm3m for the austenitic ODS, are resolved showing line anisotropy effects possibly correlated with differences in dislocation densities and texture. Many contributions from minority phases are detected well above the background noise; none of the expected crystallographic phases, such as M 23 C 6 and including Y 2 O 3 , fits them, but the TiN phase is identified in accordance with results of other microstructural techniques

  15. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  16. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance; HAPL Team

    2005-12-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  17. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Anderson, Michael; Williams, Brian; Blanchard, Jake; Snead, Lance

    2005-01-01

    The high average power laser program is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first wall (FW) will be subject to high energy density radiation and high doses of high energy helium implantation. Tungsten has been identified as the candidate material for a FW armor. The fundamental concern is long term thermo-mechanical survivability of the armor against the effects of high temperature pulsed operation and exfoliation due to the retention of implanted helium. Even if a solid tungsten armor coating would survive the high temperature cyclic operation with minimal failure, the high helium implantation and retention would result in unacceptable material loss rates. Micro-engineered materials, such as castellated structures, plasma sprayed nano-porous coatings and refractory foams are suggested as a first wall armor material to address these fundamental concerns. A micro-engineered FW armor would have to be designed with specific geometric features that tolerate high cyclic heating loads and recycle most of the implanted helium without any significant failure. Micro-engineered materials are briefly reviewed. In particular, plasma-sprayed nano-porous tungsten and tungsten foams are assessed for their potential to accommodate inertial fusion specific loads. Tests show that nano-porous plasma spray coatings can be manufactured with high permeability to helium gas, while retaining relatively high thermal conductivities. Tungsten foams where shown to be able to overcome thermo-mechanical loads by cell rotation and deformation. Helium implantation tests have shown, that pulsed implantation and heating releases significant levels of implanted helium. Helium implantation and release from tungsten was modeled using an expanded kinetic rate theory, to include the effects of pulsed implantations and thermal cycles. Although, significant challenges remain micro-engineered materials are shown to constitute potential

  18. Computational Study of Anomalous Transport in High Beta DIII-D Discharges with ITBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankin, Alexei; Garofalo, Andrea; Grierson, Brian; Kritz, Arnold; Rafiq, Tariq

    2015-11-01

    The advanced tokamak scenarios require a large bootstrap current fraction and high β. These large values are often outside the range that occurs in ``conventional'' tokamak discharges. The GLF23, TGLF, and MMM transport models have been previously validated for discharges with parameters associated with ``conventional'' tokamak discharges. It has been demonstrated that the TGLF model under-predicts anomalous transport in high β DIII-D discharges [A.M. Garofalo et al. 2015 TTF Workshop]. In this research, the validity of MMM7.1 model [T. Rafiq et al. Phys. Plasmas 20 032506 (2013)] is tested for high β DIII-D discharges with low and high torque. In addition, the sensitivity of the anomalous transport to β is examined. It is shown that the MMM7.1 model over-predicts the anomalous transport in the DIII-D discharge 154406. In particular, a significant level of anomalous transport is found just outside the internal transport barrier. Differences in the anomalous transport predicted using TGLF and MMM7.1 are reviewed. Mechanisms for quenching of anomalous transport in the ITB regions of high-beta discharges are investigated. This research is supported by US Department of Energy.

  19. Investigation of MHD instabilities and control in KSTAR preparing for high beta operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Bialek, J. M.; Berkery, J. W.; Lee, S. G.; Ko, W. H.; Bak, J. G.; Jeon, Y. M.; Park, J. K.; Kim, J.; Hahn, S. H.; Ahn, J.-W.; Yoon, S. W.; Lee, K. D.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.; You, K.-I.; Bae, Y. S.; Oh, Y. K.; Kim, W.-C.; Kwak, J. G.

    2013-08-01

    Initial H-mode operation of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is expanded to higher normalized beta and lower plasma internal inductance moving towards design target operation. As a key supporting device for ITER, an important goal for KSTAR is to produce physics understanding of MHD instabilities at long pulse with steady-state profiles, at high normalized beta, and over a wide range of plasma rotation profiles. An advance from initial plasma operation is a significant increase in plasma stored energy and normalized beta, with Wtot = 340 kJ, βN = 1.9, which is 75% of the level required to reach the computed ideal n = 1 no-wall stability limit. The internal inductance was lowered to 0.9 at sustained H-mode duration up to 5 s. In ohmically heated plasmas, the plasma current reached 1 MA with prolonged pulse length up to 12 s. Rotating MHD modes are observed in the device with perturbations having tearing rather than ideal parity. Modes with m/n = 3/2 are triggered during the H-mode phase but are relatively weak and do not substantially reduce Wtot. In contrast, 2/1 modes to date only appear when the plasma rotation profiles are lowered after H-L back-transition. Subsequent 2/1 mode locking creates a repetitive collapse of βN by more than 50%. Onset behaviour suggests the 3/2 mode is close to being neoclassically unstable. A correlation between the 2/1 mode amplitude and local rotation shear from an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer suggests that the rotation shear at the mode rational surface is stabilizing. As a method to access the ITER-relevant low plasma rotation regime, plasma rotation alteration by n = 1, 2 applied fields and associated neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) induced torque is presently investigated. The net rotation profile change measured by a charge exchange recombination diagnostic with proper compensation of plasma boundary movement shows initial evidence of non-resonant rotation damping by the n = 1, 2 applied

  20. Investigation of MHD instabilities and control in KSTAR preparing for high beta operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.S.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Bialek, J.M.; Berkery, J.W.; Lee, S.G.; Ko, W.H.; Bak, J.G.; Jeon, Y.M.; Kim, J.; Hahn, S.H.; Yoon, S.W.; Lee, K.D.; You, K.-I.; Bae, Y.S.; Oh, Y.K.; Park, J.K.; Ahn, J.-W.; Choi, M.J.; Yun, G.S.; Park, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Initial H-mode operation of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is expanded to higher normalized beta and lower plasma internal inductance moving towards design target operation. As a key supporting device for ITER, an important goal for KSTAR is to produce physics understanding of MHD instabilities at long pulse with steady-state profiles, at high normalized beta, and over a wide range of plasma rotation profiles. An advance from initial plasma operation is a significant increase in plasma stored energy and normalized beta, with W tot = 340 kJ, β N = 1.9, which is 75% of the level required to reach the computed ideal n = 1 no-wall stability limit. The internal inductance was lowered to 0.9 at sustained H-mode duration up to 5 s. In ohmically heated plasmas, the plasma current reached 1 MA with prolonged pulse length up to 12 s. Rotating MHD modes are observed in the device with perturbations having tearing rather than ideal parity. Modes with m/n = 3/2 are triggered during the H-mode phase but are relatively weak and do not substantially reduce W tot . In contrast, 2/1 modes to date only appear when the plasma rotation profiles are lowered after H–L back-transition. Subsequent 2/1 mode locking creates a repetitive collapse of β N by more than 50%. Onset behaviour suggests the 3/2 mode is close to being neoclassically unstable. A correlation between the 2/1 mode amplitude and local rotation shear from an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer suggests that the rotation shear at the mode rational surface is stabilizing. As a method to access the ITER-relevant low plasma rotation regime, plasma rotation alteration by n = 1, 2 applied fields and associated neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) induced torque is presently investigated. The net rotation profile change measured by a charge exchange recombination diagnostic with proper compensation of plasma boundary movement shows initial evidence of non-resonant rotation damping by the n = 1, 2

  1. The effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on indices of health in highly trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Melissa J; O'Connor, Donna M; Lukins, Joann E

    2003-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of 6 wk oral supplementation of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB combined with creatine monohydrate (HMBCr) on indices of health in highly trained athletes. Elite, male rugby league players (n=28) were allocated to 1 of 3 groups: a control group (n=6), a HMB group (3 g/d; n=11), or a HMBCr group (3 g/day HMB, 3 g/d Cr; n=11). Testing prior to, and immediately following, supplementation included a full blood count, plasma testosterone and cortisol, blood electrolytes, lipids, urea and glucose, sperm count and motility, and assessment of psychological state. A 3 x 2 factorial ANOVA revealed no effect of HMB or HMBCr on any of the measured parameters except minor changes in blood bicarbonate and blood monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Blood bicarbonate was significantly decreased in the HMB post-supplementation sample compared to the control and HMBCr groups. Blood monocyte and lymphocyte counts showed no within-group changes for HMB or HMBCr supplementation but were significantly different from the control. However, the majority of these readings remained within normal range. HMB and HMBCr were concluded to have no adverse effects on the parameters evaluated in this study when taken orally by highly trained male athletes over a 6-wk period.

  2. Investigation of high flux test module for the international fusion materials irradiation facilities (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Makoto; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Yutani, Toshiaki

    2007-03-01

    This report describes investigation on structure of a high neutron flux test module (HFTM) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facilities (IFMIF). The HFTM is aimed for neutron irradiation of a specimen in a high neutron flux domain of the test cell for irradiation ground of IFMIF. We investigated the overall structure of the HFTM that was able to include specimens in a rig and thermocouple arrangement, an interface of control signal and support structure. Moreover, pressure and the amount of the bend in the module vessel (a rectangular section pressure vessel) were calculated. The module vessel did a rectangular section from limitation of a high neutron flux domain. Also, we investigated damage of thermocouples under neutron irradiation, which was a temperature sensor of irradiation materials temperature control demanded high precision. Based on these results, drawings on the HTFM structure. (author)

  3. Beta-Blockers for Exams Identify Students at High Risk of Psychiatric Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Jawad H; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar H; Kruuse, Christina; Fosbøl, Emil L

    2017-04-01

    Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students at risk of later psychiatric events. Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves for unadjusted associations and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard analyses for adjusted hazard ratios (HRs). We identified 12,147 healthy students with exam-related beta-blocker use and 12,147 matched healthy students with no current or prior use of beta-blockers (median age, 19 years; 80.3% women). Among all healthy students, 0.14% had a first-time prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period with the highest proportion among students aged 19 years (0.39%). Eighty-one percent of the students filled only that single prescription for a beta-blocker during follow-up. During follow-up, 2225 (18.3%) beta-blocker users and 1400 (11.5%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed an antidepressant (p beta-blocker users and 658 (5.4%) nonbeta-blocker users were prescribed a psychotropic drug (p beta-blocker users and 6 (0.05%) nonbeta-blocker users attempted suicide (p = 0.03). Exam-related beta-blocker use was associated with an increased risk of antidepressant use (adjusted HRs, 1.68 [95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.57-1.79], p beta-blockers during the exam period was

  4. Beta-blockers for exams identify students at high risk of psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H.; Dalsgaard, Søren; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Beta-blockers relieve the autonomic symptoms of exam-related anxiety and may be beneficial in exam-related and performance anxiety, but knowledge on related psychiatric outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that beta-blocker therapy for exam-related anxiety identifies young students...... at risk of later psychiatric events. Methods: Using Danish nationwide administrative registries, we studied healthy students aged 14-30 years (1996-2012) with a first-time claimed prescription for a beta-blocker during the exam period (May-June); students who were prescribed a beta-blocker for medical...... reasons were excluded. We matched these students on age, sex, and time of year to healthy and study active controls with no use of beta-blockers. Risk of incident use of antidepressants, incident use of other psychotropic medications, and suicide attempts was examined by cumulative incidence curves...

  5. High-pressure behavior of beta-Ga2O3 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.; He, Y.; Chen, W.

    2010-01-01

    that nanocrystalline monoclinic beta-Ga2O3 underwent a phase transition to rhombohedral alpha-Ga2O3. It was found that beta- to alpha-Ga2O3 transition began at about 13.6-16.4 GPa, and extended up to 39.2 GPa. At the highest pressure used, only alpha-Ga2O3 was present, which remained after pressure release. A Birch......-Murnaghan fit to the P-V data yielded a zero-pressure bulk modulus at fixed B-0(')=4: B-0=228(9) GPa and B-0=333(19) GPa for beta-Ga2O3 and alpha-Ga2O3 phases, respectively. We compared our results with bulk beta-Ga2O3, and concluded that the phase-transition pressure and bulk modulus of nanocrystalline beta...

  6. of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Activity by the Fusion of High-Resolution SPECT and Morphological Imaging Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Fujii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We aimed to clearly visualize heterogeneous distribution of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF activity in tumor tissues in vivo. Methods. We synthesized of 125I-IPOS, a 125I labeled chimeric protein probe, that would visualize HIF activity. The biodistribution of 125I-IPOS in FM3A tumor-bearing mice was evaluated. Then, the intratumoral localization of this probe was observed by autoradiography, and it was compared with histopathological findings. The distribution of 125I-IPOS in tumors was imaged by a small animal SPECT/CT scanner. The obtained in vivo SPECT-CT fusion images were compared with ex vivo images of excised tumors. Fusion imaging with MRI was also examined. Results. 125I-IPOS well accumulated in FM3A tumors. The intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS by autoradiography was quite heterogeneous, and it partially overlapped with that of pimonidazole. High-resolution SPECT-CT fusion images successfully demonstrated the heterogeneity of 125I-IPOS distribution inside tumors. SPECT-MRI fusion images could give more detailed information about the intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS. Conclusion. High-resolution SPECT images successfully demonstrated heterogeneous intratumoral distribution of 125I-IPOS. SPECT-CT fusion images, more favorably SPECT-MRI fusion images, would be useful to understand the features of heterogeneous intratumoral expression of HIF activity in vivo.

  7. High-Z plasma facing components in fusion devices: boundary conditions and operational experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, R.

    2006-04-01

    In present day fusion devices optimization of the performance and experimental freedom motivates the use of low-Z plasma facing materials (PFMs). However, in a future fusion reactor, for economic reasons, a sufficient lifetime of the first wall components is essential. Additionally, tritium retention has to be small to meet safety requirements. Tungsten appears to be the most realistic material choice for reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because it exhibits the lowest erosion. But besides this there are a lot of criteria which have to be fulfilled simultaneously in a reactor. Results from present day devices and from laboratory experiments confirm the advantages of high-Z PFMs but also point to operational restrictions, when using them as PFCs. These are associated with the central impurity concentration, which is determined by the sputtering yield, the penetration of the impurities and their transport within the confined plasma. The restrictions could exclude successful operation of a reactor, but concomitantly there exist remedies to ameliorate their impact. Obviously some price has to be paid in terms of reduced performance but lacking of materials or concepts which could substitute high-Z PFCs, emphasis has to be put on the development and optimization of reactor-relevant scenarios which incorporate the experiences and measures.

  8. High-Z plasma facing components in fusion devices: boundary conditions and operational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, R.

    2006-01-01

    In present day fusion devices optimization of the performance and experimental freedom motivates the use of low-Z plasma facing materials (PFMs). However, in a future fusion reactor, for economic reasons, a sufficient lifetime of the first wall components is essential. Additionally, tritium retention has to be small to meet safety requirements. Tungsten appears to be the most realistic material choice for reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because it exhibits the lowest erosion. But besides this there are a lot of criteria which have to be fulfilled simultaneously in a reactor. Results from present day devices and from laboratory experiments confirm the advantages of high-Z PFMs but also point to operational restrictions, when using them as PFCs. These are associated with the central impurity concentration, which is determined by the sputtering yield, the penetration of the impurities and their transport within the confined plasma. The restrictions could exclude successful operation of a reactor, but concomitantly there exist remedies to ameliorate their impact. Obviously some price has to be paid in terms of reduced performance but lacking of materials or concepts which could substitute high-Z PFCs, emphasis has to be put on the development and optimization of reactor-relevant scenarios which incorporate the experiences and measures

  9. Review of high thickness welding analysis using SYSWELD for a fusion grade reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Ravi, E-mail: prakash@ipr.res.in; Gangradey, Ranjana, E-mail: ranjana@ipr.res.in

    2013-10-15

    Vacuum vessel and Cryostat for a fusion grade machine are massive structures involving fabrication of chambers with high thickness, about thickness up to 60 mm or more, made of special grade steels. Such machines require accurate planning of welding as the distortions and tolerance levels are stringent. Vacuum vessel of ITER has “D” shaped profile and is toroidal double walled huge steel cage of about 6 m width and 19 m diameter, and the Cryostat of 30 m height and width. The huge vacuum chamber will be fabricated in various parts/sectors due to huge size and then welded with countless weld joints to give the final components. High thickness welding of vacuum vessel is considered to be one of the most important elements in building a reactor of fusion grade due to large ineluctable distortions of welded parts after welding process as it is not easy to correct the large deformations after the welding process and finally the corrections are very expensive. The present paper demonstrates results of welding simulation done using SYSWELD software. Simulation results are of review studies of identified welding process like MIG, MAG, NG-TIG, TIG and EBW for welding large structural D shaped vacuum vessel profile as a case study. Simulation has carried out for SS316LN in clamped as well as unclamped condition for a distortion tolerance of ±2 mm with various weld factors and the local–global approach.

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion: steady progress towards ignition and high gain (summary talk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Most important recent advances in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) are highlighted. With the construction of the NIF and LMJ facilities, and a number of improvements in the target design, the conventional indirect-drive approach is making a steady progress towards demonstration of ignition and high gain. The development of the polar direct-drive concept made also the prospects for direct-drive ignition on the NIF extremely favorable. A substantial progress has been reported from the Institute of Laser Engineering in Osaka on exploration of the fast-ignition approach to ICF. Parallel to that, multi-wire Z-pinches have become a competitive driver option for achieving ignition at a lowest possible cost. In heavy ion fusion, experiments have been devoted so far to studying the generation, transport, and final focusing of high-current ion beams. A new concept for a power plant with a heavy-ion driver, based on a cylindrical direct-drive target compressed and ignited (in the fast-ignition mode) by two separate beams of very energetic (E i > or ∼ 0.5 GeV/u) heavy ions, has been proposed. (author)

  11. Multi-UAV Doppler Information Fusion for Target Tracking Based on Distributed High Degrees Information Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Benzerrouk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Doppler-based target tracking has not been widely investigated, specifically when using modern nonlinear information filters. A high-degree Gauss–Hermite information filter, as well as a seventh-degree cubature information filter (CIF, is developed to improve the fifth-degree and third-degree CIFs proposed in the most recent related literature. These algorithms are applied to maneuvering target tracking based on Radar Doppler range/range rate signals. To achieve this purpose, different measurement models such as range-only, range rate, and bearing-only tracking are used in the simulations. In this paper, the mobile sensor target tracking problem is addressed and solved by a higher-degree class of quadrature information filters (HQIFs. A centralized fusion architecture based on distributed information filtering is proposed, and yielded excellent results. Three high dynamic UAVs are simulated with synchronized Doppler measurement broadcasted in parallel channels to the control center for global information fusion. Interesting results are obtained, with the superiority of certain classes of higher-degree quadrature information filters.

  12. Review of high thickness welding analysis using SYSWELD for a fusion grade reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Ravi; Gangradey, Ranjana

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum vessel and Cryostat for a fusion grade machine are massive structures involving fabrication of chambers with high thickness, about thickness up to 60 mm or more, made of special grade steels. Such machines require accurate planning of welding as the distortions and tolerance levels are stringent. Vacuum vessel of ITER has “D” shaped profile and is toroidal double walled huge steel cage of about 6 m width and 19 m diameter, and the Cryostat of 30 m height and width. The huge vacuum chamber will be fabricated in various parts/sectors due to huge size and then welded with countless weld joints to give the final components. High thickness welding of vacuum vessel is considered to be one of the most important elements in building a reactor of fusion grade due to large ineluctable distortions of welded parts after welding process as it is not easy to correct the large deformations after the welding process and finally the corrections are very expensive. The present paper demonstrates results of welding simulation done using SYSWELD software. Simulation results are of review studies of identified welding process like MIG, MAG, NG-TIG, TIG and EBW for welding large structural D shaped vacuum vessel profile as a case study. Simulation has carried out for SS316LN in clamped as well as unclamped condition for a distortion tolerance of ±2 mm with various weld factors and the local–global approach

  13. Application of SSNTDs for measurements of fusion reaction products in high-temperature plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowska, A., E-mail: a.malinowska@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Szydlowski, A.; Malinowski, K. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Scholz, M.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Jaskola, M.; Korman, A. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    The paper describes the application of SSNTDs of the PM-355 type to diagnostics of reaction products emitted from high-temperature deuterium plasmas produced in Plasma Focus (PF) facilities. Acceleration processes occurring in plasma lead often to the generation of high-energy ion beams. Such beams induce nuclear reactions and contribute to the emission of fast neutrons, fusion protons and alpha particles from PF discharges with a deuterium gas. Ion measurements are of primary importance for understanding the mechanisms of the physical processes which drive the charged-particle acceleration. The main aim of the present studies was to perform measurements of spatial- and energy-distributions of fusion-reaction protons (about 3 MeV) within a PF facility. Results obtained from energy measurements were compared with the proton-energy spectra computed theoretically. The protons were measured by means of a set of ion pinhole cameras equipped with PM-355 detectors, which were placed at different angles relative to the electrode axis of the PF facility.

  14. Effects of six weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on strength, power, and anthropometry of highly trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Donna M; Crowe, Melissa J

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of 6 weeks of dietary supplementation of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB combined with creatine monohydrate (HMBCr) on the muscular strength and endurance, leg power, and anthropometry of elite male rugby league players. The subjects were divided into a control group (n = 8), a HMB group (n = 11; 3 g.d(-1)) or a HMBCr group (n = 11; 12 g.d(-1) with 3 g HMB, 3 g Cr, 6 g carbohydrates). Three repetition maximum lifts on bench press, deadlifts, prone row, and shoulder press, maximum chin-up repetitions, 10-second maximal cycle test, body mass, girths, and sum of skinfolds were assessed pre- and postsupplementation. Statistical analysis revealed no effect of HMB or HMBCr on any parameter compared with presupplementation measures or the control group. HMB and HMBCr were concluded to have no ergogenic effect on muscular strength and endurance, leg power, or anthropometry when taken orally by highly trained male athletes over 6 weeks.

  15. Thin shell, high velocity inertial confinement fusion implosions on the national ignition facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T; Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Barrios, M A; Casey, D T; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Haan, S W; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Le Pape, S; MacPhee, A G; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R; Benedetti, L R; Bionta, R; Bond, E; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J; Celliers, P; Cerjan, C J; Church, J A; Dixit, S; Dylla-Spears, R; Edgell, D; Edwards, M J; Field, J; Fittinghoff, D N; Frenje, J A; Gatu Johnson, M; Grim, G; Guler, N; Hatarik, R; Herrmann, H W; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Knauer, J; Kohut, T; Kozioziemski, B; Kritcher, A; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N B; Merrill, F E; Moody, J D; Nagel, S R; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Ralph, J E; Rosen, M D; Rygg, J R; Sater, J; Sayre, D; Schneider, M B; Shaughnessy, D; Spears, B K; Town, R P J; Volegov, P L; Wan, A; Widmann, K; Wilde, C H; Yeamans, C

    2015-04-10

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165  μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Early results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.

  16. High-density and high-ρR fuel assembly for fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Zhou, C.

    2005-01-01

    Scaling relations to optimize implosion parameters for fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion are derived and used to design high-gain fast-ignition targets. A method to assemble thermonuclear fuel at high densities, high ρR, and with a small-size hot spot is presented. Massive cryogenic shells can be imploded with a low implosion velocity V I on a low adiabat α using the relaxation-pulse technique. While the low V I yields a small hot spot, the low α leads to large peak values of the density and areal density. It is shown that a 750 kJ laser can assemble fuel with V I ≅1.7x10 7 cm/s, α≅0.7, ρ≅400 g/cc, ρR≅3 g/cm 2 , and a hot-spot volume of less than 10% of the compressed core. If fully ignited, this fuel assembly can produce high gains of interest to inertial fusion energy applications

  17. Beta-fibrinogen allele frequencies in Peruvian Quechua, a high-altitude native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J L; Devine, D V; Monsalve, M V; Hochachka, P W

    1999-06-01

    Elevated hematocrits, which are found in many high-altitude populations, increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood and may represent an adaptation to hypoxic environments. However, as high hematocrit increases blood viscosity, which in turn is associated with hypertension and heart disease, it may be advantageous for high-altitude populations to limit other factors that contribute to increased blood viscosity. One such factor is the plasma concentration of the coagulation protein fibrinogen. Several common polymorphisms in the beta-fibrinogen gene have been identified that affect fibrinogen concentrations. We determined the allele frequencies of three of these polymorphisms (G/A-455(HaeIII), C/T-148(HindIII), and G/A+448(MnlI)) in sample groups drawn from three populations: Quechua-speaking natives living at over 3,200 m in the Peruvian Andes, North American natives (Na-Dene) from coastal British Columbia, and Caucasian North Americans. The frequencies of the alleles previously shown to be associated with increased fibrinogen levels were so low in the Quechuas that their presence could be accounted for solely by genetic admixture with Caucasians. Frequencies in the Na-Dene, a Native American group unrelated to the Quechua, were not significantly different from those in Caucasians.

  18. Association of Beta-2 Microglobulin with Inflammation and Dislipidemia in High-Flux Membrane Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçiu–Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Ramë; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher than expected cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, has been attributed to dyslipidemia as well as inflammation. Beta2-Microglobulin (β2M) is an independent predictor of outcome for hemodialysis patients and a representative substance of middle molecules. Results: In 40 patients in high-flux membrane hemodialysis, we found negative correlation of β2M with high density lipoprotein (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and albumin (r= -0.53, p<0.001) and positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.69, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (r=0.58, p < 0.05) and phosphorus (r= 0.53, p<0.001). There was no correlation of β2M with C- reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the follow-up period of three years, 6 out of 40 patients have died from cardiovascular events. Conclusion: In high-flux membrane hemodialysis patients, we observed a significant relationship of β2M with dyslipidemia and mineral bone disorders, but there was no correlation with inflammation. PMID:27994294

  19. Association of Beta-2 Microglobulin with Inflammation and Dislipidemia in High-Flux Membrane Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçiu-Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Ramë; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend

    2016-10-01

    Higher than expected cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, has been attributed to dyslipidemia as well as inflammation. Beta2-Microglobulin (β2M) is an independent predictor of outcome for hemodialysis patients and a representative substance of middle molecules. In 40 patients in high-flux membrane hemodialysis, we found negative correlation of β2M with high density lipoprotein (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and albumin (r= -0.53, p<0.001) and positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.69, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (r=0.58, p < 0.05) and phosphorus (r= 0.53, p<0.001). There was no correlation of β2M with C- reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the follow-up period of three years, 6 out of 40 patients have died from cardiovascular events. In high-flux membrane hemodialysis patients, we observed a significant relationship of β2M with dyslipidemia and mineral bone disorders, but there was no correlation with inflammation.

  20. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaio, Daniella Junko; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Souza, José Maria Pacheco; Firmino, Aline Vale; Luzia, Liania Alves; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a common condition in HIV-infected individuals and may occur in all stages of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, micronutrients related to immunity and oxidative stress, in 182 adults with HIV/AIDS, under different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their HAART regimen: combination of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs; combination of NRTIs, protease inhibitors, and ritonavir; combination of NRTIs and other classes. Multiple linear regression analysis determined the effect of the treatment regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen, on vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations, controlling for the following variables: gender, age, educational level, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, time of infection with HIV, presence of comorbidities, CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglyceride levels. There was no significant difference in vitamin A or beta-carotene concentrations in patients under the different HAART regimens. However, approximately 4% of the patients had deficient/low concentrations of vitamin A (<0.70 μmol/L), and 98% showed concentrations of beta-carotene <1.0 μmol/L. In conclusion, HIV/AIDS patients in this region will not benefit from vitamin A supplementation, independently of the HAART regimen utilized, but beta-carotene may be of importance, considering its antioxidant effect.

  1. Comparison of nuclear irradiation parameters of fusion breeder materials in high flux fission test reactors and a fusion power demonstration reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Herring, S.; Hogenbirk, A.; Leichtle, D.; Nagao, Y.; Pijlgroms, B.J.; Ying, A.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear irradiation parameters relevant to displacement damage and burn-up of the breeder materials Li 2 O, Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 TiO 3 have been evaluated and compared for a fusion power demonstration reactor and the high flux fission test reactor (HFR), Petten, the advanced test reactor (ATR, INEL) and the Japanese material test reactor (JMTR, JAERI). Based on detailed nuclear reactor calculations with the MCNP Monte Carlo code and binary collision approximation (BCA) computer simulations of the displacement damage in the polyatomic lattices with MARLOWE, it has been investigated how well the considered HFRs can meet the requirements for a fusion power reactor relevant irradiation. It is shown that a breeder material irradiation in these fission test reactors is well suited in this regard when the neutron spectrum is well tailored and the 6 Li-enrichment is properly chosen. Requirements for the relevant nuclear irradiation parameters such as the displacement damage accumulation, the lithium burn-up and the damage production function W(T) can be met when taking into account these prerequisites. Irradiation times in the order of 2-3 full power years are necessary for the HFR to achieve the peak values of the considered fusion power Demo reactor blanket with regard to the burn-up and, at the same time, the dpa accumulation

  2. Dimers of beta 2-glycoprotein I mimic the in vitro effects of beta 2-glycoprotein I-anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibody complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, B. C.; Meijers, J. C.; Derksen, R. H.; Arnout, J.; de Groot, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Anti-beta(2)-glycoprotein I antibodies are thought to cause lupus anticoagulant activity by forming bivalent complexes with beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI). To test this hypothesis, chimeric fusion proteins were constructed of the dimerization domain (apple 4) of factor XI and beta(2)GPI. Both a

  3. Two approaches to the reactor-relevant high-beta plasmas with profile control in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohdachi, S.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Sakakibara, S.

    2008-10-01

    From detailed optimization of configuration, volume averaged beta ∼ 5% has been achieved in the Large Helical Device(LHD). While the heating efficiency was the main point to be optimized in this approach, to form a more peaked pressure profile is another promising approach towards the high beta regime. A higher electron density profile with a steeper pressure gradient has been formed by pellet injection. From the MHD stability analysis, this peaked pressure profile is stable against the ideal MHD modes. By both approaches, the central plasma β 0 reaches about 10%. (author)

  4. Onset of hydrodynamic mix in high-velocity, highly compressed inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T; Patel, P K; Izumi, N; Springer, P T; Key, M H; Atherton, L J; Benedetti, L R; Bradley, D K; Callahan, D A; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Döppner, T; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Glenn, S; Grim, G; Haan, S W; Hammel, B A; Hicks, D; Hsing, W W; Jones, O S; Khan, S F; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Landen, O L; Le Pape, S; MacGowan, B J; Mackinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; Meezan, N B; Moody, J D; Pak, A; Parham, T; Park, H-S; Ralph, J E; Regan, S P; Remington, B A; Robey, H F; Ross, J S; Spears, B K; Smalyuk, V; Suter, L J; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Weber, S V; Lindl, J D; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Moses, E I

    2013-08-23

    Deuterium-tritium inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated yields ranging from 0.8 to 7×10(14), and record fuel areal densities of 0.7 to 1.3 g/cm2. These implosions use hohlraums irradiated with shaped laser pulses of 1.5-1.9 MJ energy. The laser peak power and duration at peak power were varied, as were the capsule ablator dopant concentrations and shell thicknesses. We quantify the level of hydrodynamic instability mix of the ablator into the hot spot from the measured elevated absolute x-ray emission of the hot spot. We observe that DT neutron yield and ion temperature decrease abruptly as the hot spot mix mass increases above several hundred ng. The comparison with radiation-hydrodynamic modeling indicates that low mode asymmetries and increased ablator surface perturbations may be responsible for the current performance.

  5. High beta tokamak operation in DIII-D limited at low density/collisionality by resistive tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    The maximum operational high beta in single-null divertor (SND) long pulse tokamak discharges in the DIII-D tokamak with a cross-sectional shape similar to the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) device is found to be limited by the onset of resistive instabilities that have the characteristics of neoclassically destabilized tearing modes. There is a soft limit due to the onset of an m/n=3/2 rotating tearing mode that saturates at low amplitude and a hard limit at slightly higher beta due to the onset of an m/n=2/1 rotating tearing mode that grows, slows down and locks. By operating at higher density and thus collisionality, the practical beta limit due to resistive tearing modes approaches the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  6. Beta2-adrenergic receptor allele frequencies in the Quechua, a high altitude native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J L; Monsalve, M V; Devine, D V; Hochachka, P W

    2000-03-01

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor is involved in the control of numerous physiological processes and, as the primary catecholamine receptor in the lungs, is of particular importance in the regulation of pulmonary function. There are several polymorphic loci in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene that have alleles that alter receptor function, including two (A/G46, G/C79) that increase agonist sensitivity. As such a phenotype may increase vaso and bronchial dilation, thereby facilitating air and blood flow through the lungs, we hypothesized that selection may have favoured these alleles in high altitude populations as part of an adaptive strategy to deal with the hypoxic conditions characteristic of such environments. We tested this hypothesis by determining the allele frequencies for these two polymorphisms, as well one additional missense mutation (C/T491) and two silent mutations (G/A252 and C/A523) in 63 Quechua speaking natives from communities located between 3200 and 4200 m on the Peruvian altiplano. These frequencies were compared with those of two lowland populations, one native American (Na-Dene from the west coast of Canada) and one Caucasian of Western European descent. The Quechua manifest many of the pulmonary characteristics of high altitude populations and differences in allele frequencies between the Quechua and lowlanders could be indicative of a selective advantage conferred by certain genotypes in high altitude environments. Allele frequencies varied between populations at some loci and patterns of linkage disequilibrium differed between the old-world and new-world samples; however, as these populations are not closely related, significant variation would be expected due to stochastic effects alone. Neither of the alleles associated with increased receptor sensitivity (A46, G79) was significantly over-represented in the Quechua compared with either lowland group. The Quechua were monomorphic for the C allele at base 79. This variant has been

  7. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  8. High normal fasting glucose level in obese youth: a marker for insulin resistance and beta cell dysregulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Malley, G

    2010-06-01

    A high but normal fasting plasma glucose level in adults is a risk factor for future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether normal fasting plasma glucose levels (<5.60 mmol\\/l) are associated with decreases in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, as well as an adverse cardiovascular profile in obese youth.

  9. High-beta characteristics of first and second-stable spherical tokamaks in reconnection heating experiments of TS-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Novel formations of ultra-high-beta Spherical Tokamak (ST) have been developed in the TS-3 device using high power heating of merging/ reconnection. In Type-A merging, two STs were merged together to build up the plasma beta. In Type-B merging, an oblate FRC was initially formed by merging of two spheromaks with opposing toroidal field B t and was transformed into an ultra-high-beta ST by applying external B t . Ballooning stability analyses confirmed formations of the first-stable STs by Type- A merging and the second-stable STs by Type-B merging and also the unstable STs by both mergings, revealing the ballooning stability window consistent with measured high-n instabilities. We made (1) those model analyses of the produced STs for the first time using the BALLOO stability code, revealing that hollowness/ broadness of current/pressure profiles widen significantly the window to the second-stable regime. This paper also addresses (2) normalized betas of the second-stable STs as large as 6-17 for comparison with the Troyon scaling and (3) a promising scaling of the reconnection heating energy. (author)

  10. The Effect of a 12-Week Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Highly-Trained Combat Sports Athletes: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Jeszka, Jan; Podg?rski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on physical capacity, body composition and the value of biochemical parameters in highly-trained combat sports athletes. Forty-two males highly-trained in combat sports were subjected to 12 weeks of supplementation with HMB and a placebo in a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind crossover manner. Over the course of the experiment, aerobic and anaerobic capacity was determined, whil...

  11. Review of fusion synfuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  12. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  13. A recombinant fusion protein-based, fluorescent protease assay for high throughput-compatible substrate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozóki, Beáta; Gazda, Lívia; Tóth, Ferenc; Miczi, Márió; Mótyán, János András; Tőzsér, József

    2018-01-01

    In connection with the intensive investigation of proteases, several methods have been developed for analysis of the substrate specificity. Due to the great number of proteases and the expected target molecules to be analyzed, time- and cost-efficient high-throughput screening (HTS) methods are preferred. Here we describe the development and application of a separation-based HTS-compatible fluorescent protease assay, which is based on the use of recombinant fusion proteins as substrates of proteases. The protein substrates used in this assay consists of N-terminal (hexahistidine and maltose binding protein) fusion tags, cleavage sequences of the tobacco etch virus (TEV) and HIV-1 proteases, and a C-terminal fluorescent protein (mApple or mTurquoise2). The assay is based on the fluorimetric detection of the fluorescent proteins, which are released from the magnetic bead-attached substrates by the proteolytic cleavage. The protease assay has been applied for activity measurements of TEV and HIV-1 proteases to test the suitability of the system for enzyme kinetic measurements, inhibition studies, and determination of pH optimum. We also found that denatured fluorescent proteins can be renatured after SDS-PAGE of denaturing conditions, but showed differences in their renaturation abilities. After in-gel renaturation both substrates and cleavage products can be identified by in-gel UV detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High-power corrugates waveguide components for mm-wave fusion heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olstad, R.A.; Doane, J.L.; Moeller, C.P.; O'Neill, R.C.; Di Martino, M.

    1996-10-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last year in the U.S., Japan, Russia, and Europe in developing high power long pulse gyrotrons for fusion plasma heating and current drive. These advanced gyrotrons typically operate at a frequency in the range 82 GHz to 170 GHz at nearly megawatt power levels for pulse lengths up to 5 s. To take advantage of these new microwave sources for fusion research, new and improved transmission line components are needed to reliably transmit microwave power to plasmas with minimal losses. Over the last year, General Atomics and collaborating companies (Spinner GmbH in Europe and Toshiba Corporation in Japan) have developed a wide variety of new components which meet the demanding power, pulse length, frequency, and vacuum requirements for effective utilization of the new generation of gyrotrons. These components include low-loss straight corrugated waveguides, miter bends, miter bend polarizers, power monitors, waveguide bellows, de breaks, waveguide switches, dummy loads, and distributed windows. These components have been developed with several different waveguide diameters (32, 64, and 89 mm) and frequency ranges (82 GHz to 170 GHz). This paper describes the design requirements of selected components and their calculated and measured performance characteristics

  15. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K W; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparacio, L; Pablant, N A; Beiersdorfer, P; Schneider, M; Widmann, K; Sanchez del Rio, M; Zhang, L

    2012-10-01

    High resolution (λ∕Δλ ∼ 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-μm (55)Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10(-8)-10(-6) times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  16. Progress in laboratory high gain ICF [inertial confinement fusion]: Prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, E.; Lindl, J.D.; Campbell, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a thermonuclear reaction in a small (/approximately/5 mm diameter) fuel capsule filled with a few milligrams of deuterium and tritium, has been the subject of very fruitful experimentation since the early 1970's. High gain ICF is now on the threshold of practical applications. With a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), these applications will have major implications for national defense, basic and applied science, and power production. With a driver capable of delivering about 10 MJ in a 10-ns pulse at an intensity of /approximately/3 /times/ 10 14 W/cm 2 , an appropriately configured cryogenic capsule could be compressed to a density of about 200 g/cm 3 and a temperature of 3--5 keV. Under these conditions, up to 10 mg of DT could be ignited, and with a burn efficiency of about 30%, release up to 1000 MJ of fusion energy, an energy gain of about 100. A thousand megajoules is equivalent to about one quarter ton of TNT, or about 7 gallons of oil--an amount of energy tractable under laboratory conditions and potentially very useful for a variety of applications. 61 refs., 33 figs

  17. Recent advances in high current vacuum arc ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Qi Nian Sheng; Prasad, R R; Krishnan, M S; Anders, A; Kwan, J; Brown, I

    2001-01-01

    For a heavy ion fusion induction linac driver, a source of heavy ions with charge states 1+-3+, approx 0.5 A current beams, approx 20 mu s pulse widths and approx 10 Hz repetition rates is required. Thermionic sources have been the workhorse for the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program to date, but suffer from heating problems for large areas and contamination. They are limited to low (contact) ionization potential elements and offer relatively low ion fluxes with a charge state limited to 1+. Gas injection sources suffer from partial ionization and deleterious neutral gas effects. The above shortcomings of the thermionic ion sources can be overcome by a vacuum arc ion source. The vacuum arc ion source is a good candidate for HIF applications. It is capable of providing ions of various elements and different charge states in short and long pulse bursts and high beam current density. Under a Phase-I STTR from DOE, the feasibility of the vacuum arc ion source for the HIF applications was investigated. We have modifie...

  18. The Cytotoxic Role of Intermittent High Glucose on Apoptosis and Cell Viability in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Glucose fluctuations are both strong predictor of diabetic complications and crucial factor for beta cell damages. Here we investigated the effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG on both cell apoptosis and proliferation activity in INS-1 cells and the potential mechanisms. Methods. Cells were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L, constant high glucose (CHG (25 mmol/L, and IHG (rotation per 24 h in 11.1 or 25 mmol/L for 7 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, xanthine oxidase (XOD level, apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and expression of cyclinD1, p21, p27, and Skp2 were determined. Results. We found that IHG induced more significant apoptosis than CHG and normal glucose; intracellular ROS and XOD levels were more markedly increased in cells exposed to IHG. Cells treated with IHG showed significant decreased cell viability and increased cell proportion in G0/G1 phase. Cell cycle related proteins such as cyclinD1 and Skp2 were decreased significantly, but expressions of p27 and p21 were increased markedly. Conclusions. This study suggested that IHG plays a more toxic effect including both apoptosis-inducing and antiproliferative effects on INS-1 cells. Excessive activation of cellular stress and regulation of cyclins might be potential mechanism of impairment in INS-1 cells induced by IHG.

  19. Potential for use of high-temperature superconductors in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The present rate of development of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) is sufficiently rapid that there may be opportunities for their use in contemporary fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The most likely 1application is for delivering power to the superconducting magnets, especially in substituting for the current leads between the temperatures of 4 K and 77K. A second possible application of HTSs is as a liquid-nitrogen-cooled power bus, connecting the power supplies to the magnets, thus reducing the ohmic heating losses over these relatively long cables. A third potential application of HTSs is as an inner high-field winding of the toroidal field coils that would operate at ∼20 K. While the use of higher temperature magnets offers significant advantages to the reactor system, it is unlikely that tested conductors of this type will be available within the ITER time frame. 23 refs., 2 figs

  20. High brightness K+ ion source for heavy ion fusion linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.; Rutkowski, H.

    1992-01-01

    Low emittance, high current, singly charged potassium thermionic ion sources are being developed for the Induction Linac System Experiment injector, ILSE. The ILSE, now in study at LBL, will address the physics issues of particle beams in a heavy ion fusion driver scenario. The K + ion beam considered is emitted thermionically into a diode gap from alumino-silicate layers (zeolite) coated on a porous tungsten cup. The Single Beam Transport Experiment (SBTE) 120keV cesium source was redesigned and modified with the aid of an ion optics and gun design program (EGUN) to enable the evaluation of the K + source performance at high extraction currents of about 80mA from a one inch diameter source. The authors report on the source fabrication technique and performance, including total current and current density profile measurements using Faraday cups, phase space distributions using the double slit scanning technique, and source emitting surface temperature dependence on heating power using a wire pyrometer

  1. HYFIRE II: fusion/high-temperature electrolysis conceptual-design study. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    As in the previous HYFIRE design study, the current study focuses on coupling a Tokamak fusion reactor with a high-temperature blanket to a High-Temperature Electrolyzer (HTE) process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Scaling of the STARFIRE reactor to allow a blanket power to 6000 MW(th) is also assumed. The primary difference between the two studies is the maximum inlet steam temperature to the electrolyzer. This temperature is decreased from approx. 1300 0 to approx. 1150 0 C, which is closer to the maximum projected temperature of the Westinghouse fuel cell design. The process flow conditions change but the basic design philosophy and approaches to process design remain the same as before. Westinghouse assisted in the study in the areas of systems design integration, plasma engineering, balance-of-plant design, and electrolyzer technology

  2. Tritium solubility and permeation in high retention fusion reactor breeder elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, D.

    1979-11-01

    As an alternative to the current philosophy of reducing the tritium inventory to a minimum by continuously extracting tritium from the breeder of a fusion reactor, an alternative design philosophy is examined in which tritium is contained within high retention breeder elements which can remain in the reactor for a substantial time. To prevent tritium diffusion through the clad of the element it is necessary to maintain a low tritium pressure within the element. Pressures of between 10 4 Pa and 1 Pa appear possible with an element containing a high solubility material provided it is kept below about 400 0 C. This should lead to a leakage into the coolant of between 10 Ci day -1 and 10 4 Ci day -1 which is considerably less than the 10 7 Ci day -1 in present designs. (author)

  3. The development of the high-tension wire for nuclear fusion superconductive magnet measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Morita, Yohsuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Furusawa, Ken-ichi.

    1987-01-01

    Following on tokamak critical plasma testing device JT-60, experimental fusion reactor JT-100 is being developed. The 6 kV high-tension wire has been developed for use in JT-100 under ultra-low temperature and high radiation environment. Used for superconductive magnet measurement, the wire is inserted in the vacuum vessel, being immersed within the liquid helium. As the insulating material of this wire, polyetherimido was found to be most suitable in the respects of radiation resistance and voltage-withstand property. In an electric wire covered with polyetherimido, which was made in trial, its test in voltage-withstand and bending characteristics at ultra-low temperature showed the wire to be usable for the intended purpose. (Mori, K.)

  4. Behaviour of candidate materials for fusion applications under high surface heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Nickel, H.; Kuroda, T.; Miyahara, A.

    1988-07-01

    High heat fluxes to in-vessel components of nuclear fusion devices (tokamaks) during normal operation and abnormal operation conditions are one of the governing issues in the selection of a plasma facing material and the design of first wall components. Their failure under high heat loads during service can severely influence the further operability of the entire fusion device. In order to determine the response of candidate materials to high heat fluxes an experimental program was carried out using the 10 MW Neutral Beam Injection Test Stand of the Institute for Plasma Physics of Nagoya University. Metal samples, 13 different fine grain graphites, carbon - carbon composites, and pyrolytic carbon samples were subjected to heat loads between 16 and 117 MW/m 2 and pulse durations of 50 to 950 ms. Afterwards the resulting structural changes as well as threshold values for the occurance of material damage were determined. The main damage observed on carbon materials was cracking in the case of graphites and pyrolytic carbon and erosion in the case of graphites and carbon - carbon composites. Processes leading to such damage were discussed and described in form of models. Parallel to these laboratory experiments numerical analyses of the response of graphite materials to high heat fluxes were carried out. The results are in general agreement with the experimentally determined values. In order to verify the results from experiments and numerical analyses, graphite test limiters were exposed to about 900 discharges in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. These proof tests fully confirmed the results obtained. (orig.) [de

  5. Occurrence of high-beta superthermal plasma events in the close environment of Jupiter's bow shock as observed by Ulysses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhavilas, P. K.; Sarris, E. T.; Anagnostopoulos, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure (or of their energy densities) which is known as the plasma parameter 'beta'(β) has important implications to the propagation of energetic particles and the interaction of the solar wind with planetary magnetospheres. Although in the scientific literature the contribution of the superthermal particles to the plasma pressure is generally assumed negligible, we deduced, by analyzing energetic particles and magnetic field measurements recorded by the Ulysses spacecraft, that in a series of events, the energy density contained in the superthermal tail of the particle distribution is comparable to or even higher than the energy density of the magnetic field, creating conditions of high-beta plasma. More explicitly, in this paper we analyze Ulysses/HI-SCALE measurements of the energy density ratio (parameter β ep ) of the energetic ions'(20 keV to ∼5 MeV) to the magnetic field's in order to find occurrences of high-beta (β ep >1) superthermal plasma conditions in the environment of the Jovian magnetosphere, which is an interesting plasma laboratory and an important source of emissions in our solar system. In particular, we examine high-beta ion events close to Jupiter's bow shock, which are produced by two processes: (a) bow shock ion acceleration and (b) ion leakage from the magnetosphere.

  6. PDX modification to produce a bean-shaped high-beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materna, P.; Chrzanowski, J.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Lee, K.; Pereira, M.

    1983-01-01

    Princeton's PDX tokamak is being converted to produce bean-shaped plasmas which hopefully will reach beta of 10%. The work, which is nearly complete, involves repositioning active coils, adding passive coils, and making external modifications

  7. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  8. High-beta experiments with neutral-beam injection on PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.; Bell, M.; Bitter, M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental investigations of high-beta plasmas produced in PDX with near-perpendicular neutral-beam injection are reported. Systematic power scans have been performed over a wide range of toroidal fields (νsub(T)q.7 T< Bsub(T)<2.2 T) and plasma currents (200 kA< Isub(p)<500 kA). At high toroidal fields, the change in total stored energy due to beam injection increases linearly with input power and also increases with plasma current. At lower toroidal fields and low injection power levels, the stored energy also increases with power and plasma current. However, at high power and low toroidal fields, a saturation in heating is observed. This result suggests the onset of a νsub(T) limit for circular cross-section tokamaks with near-perpendicular injection. Scaling experiments indicate that this νsub(T) limit increases with rising 1/q. Values of νsub(T)approx.=3% at qsub(PSI)=1.8 have been achieved. At high values of νsub(T)q, short bursts of MHD activity are observed, synchronized with sharply increased fluxes of perpendicular charge-exchange neutrals and rapid decreases in the rate of beam-driven neutron production. When strong bursts occur, there is a significant depletion of the fast-ion population. Estimates of the fast-ion loss indicate that it could explain the observed decrease in heating, although an additional reduction in thermal-plasma confinement cannot be ruled out. Numerical studies using measured pressure profiles predict that the equilibria obtained become unstable to the ideal n=1 internal mode, at about the same value of 0 where the new fluctuations are observed. (author)

  9. Autoantibodies to IA-2beta improve diabetes risk assessment in high-risk relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenbach, P; Bonifacio, E; Williams, A J K

    2008-01-01

    -positive participants (median age 12.1 years; 57% male), 113 developed diabetes (5 year cumulative risk 56%), and 148 were also GADA-positive and IAA-positive (4Ab-positive). IA2betaA were detected in 137 (65%) ICA/IA2A-positive participants and were associated with an increased 5 year diabetes risk (IA2beta......A-positive 65 vs 39% in IA2betaA-negative, p=0.0002). The effect was most marked in 4Ab-positive relatives (72% vs 52%, p=0.003). Metabolic testing further refined risk assessment. Among 101 4Ab-positive relatives with IA2betaA, the 5 year risk was 94% in those with a low FPIR (vs 50% in those with a normal...... FPIR, p4Ab/IA2betaA-positive participants with a low FPIR was 1.5 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed IA2betaA status, antibody number, young...

  10. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil

    2012-04-01

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  11. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-01

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  12. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  13. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  14. High fusion performance at high T i/T e in JET-ILW baseline plasmas with high NBI heating power and low gas puffing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Tae; Sips, A. C. C.; Romanelli, M.; Challis, C. D.; Rimini, F.; Garzotti, L.; Lerche, E.; Buchanan, J.; Yuan, X.; Kaye, S.; contributors, JET

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the transport analysis of high density baseline discharges in the 2016 experimental campaign of the Joint European Torus with the ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW), where a significant increase in the deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion neutron rate (~2.8  ×  1016 s-1) was achieved with stable high neutral beam injection (NBI) powers of up to 28 MW and low gas puffing. Increase in T i exceeding T e were produced for the first time in baseline discharges despite the high electron density; this enabled a significant increase in the thermal fusion reaction rate. As a result, the new achieved record in fusion performance was much higher than the previous record in the same heating power baseline discharges, where T i  =  T e. In addition to the decreases in collisionality and the increases in ion heating fraction in the discharges with high NBI power, T i  >  T e can also be attributed to positive feedback between the high T i/T e ratio and stabilisation of the turbulent heat flux resulting from the ion temperature gradient driven mode. The high T i/T e ratio was correlated with high rotation frequency. Among the discharges with identical beam heating power, higher rotation frequencies were observed when particle fuelling was provided by low gas puffing and pellet injection. This reveals that particle fuelling played a key role for achieving high T i/T e, and the improved fusion performance.

  15. High-beta plasma effects in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corr, C. S.; Boswell, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, high-beta plasma effects are investigated in a low-pressure helicon plasma source attached to a large volume diffusion chamber. When operating above an input power of 900 W and a magnetic field of 30 G a narrow column of bright blue light (due to Ar II radiation) is observed along the axis of the diffusion chamber. With this blue mode, the plasma density is axially very uniform in the diffusion chamber; however, the radial profiles are not, suggesting that a large diamagnetic current might be induced. The diamagnetic behavior of the plasma has been investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of the magnetic field (B z ) and the plasma kinetic pressure when operating in a pulsed discharge mode. It is found that although the electron pressure can exceed the magnetic field pressure by a factor of 2, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field from the plasma interior is not observed. In fact, under our operating conditions with magnetized ions, the maximum diamagnetism observed is ∼2%. It is observed that the magnetic field displays the strongest change at the plasma centre, which corresponds to the maximum in the plasma kinetic pressure. These results suggest that the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma sufficiently quickly that on a long time scale only a slight perturbation of the magnetic field is ever observed

  16. Tokamak-like confinement at high beta and low field in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarff, J S; Anderson, J K; Biewer, T M; Brower, D L; Chapman, B E; Chattopadhyay, P K; Craig, D; Deng, B; Hartog, D J Den; Ding, W X; Fiksel, G; Forest, C B; Goetz, J A; O'Connell, R; Prager, S C; Thomas, M A

    2003-01-01

    For several reasons, improved-confinement achieved in the reversed field pinch (RFP) during the last few years can be characterized as 'tokamak-like'. Historically, RFP plasmas have had relatively poor confinement due to tearing instability which causes magnetic stochasticity and enhanced transport. Tearing reduction is achieved through modification of the inductive current drive, which dramatically improves confinement. The electron temperature increases to >1 keV and the electron heat diffusivity decreases to approx. 5 m 2 s -1 , comparable with the transport level expected in a tokamak plasma of the same size and current. This corresponds to a 10-fold increase in global energy confinement. Runaway electrons are confined, and Fokker-Planck modelling of the electron distribution reveals that the diffusion at high energy is independent of the parallel velocity, uncharacteristic of stochastic transport. Improved-confinement occurs simultaneously with increased beta approx. 15%, while maintaining a magnetic field strength ten times weaker than a comparable tokamak. Measurements of the current, magnetic, and electric field profiles show that a simple Ohm's Law applies to this RFP sustained without dynamo relaxation

  17. High temperature piezoresistive {beta}-SiC-on-SOI pressure sensor for combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. von; Ziermann, R.; Reichert, W.; Obermeier, E. [Tech. Univ. Berlin (Germany). Microsensor and Actuator Technol. Center; Eickhoff, M.; Kroetz, G. [Daimler Benz AG, Munich (Germany); Thoma, U.; Boltshauser, T.; Cavalloni, C. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland); Nendza, J.P. [TRW Deutschland GmbH, Barsinghausen (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    For measuring the cylinder pressure in combustion engines of automobiles a high temperature pressure sensor has been developed. The sensor is made of a membrane based piezoresistive {beta}-SiC-on-SOI (SiCOI) sensor chip and a specially designed housing. The SiCOI sensor was characterized under static pressures of up to 200 bar in the temperature range between room temperature and 300 C. The sensitivity of the sensor at room temperature is approximately 0.19 mV/bar and decreases to about 0.12 mV/bar at 300 C. For monitoring the dynamic cylinder pressure the sensor was placed into the combustion chamber of a gasoline engine. The measurements were performed at 1500 rpm under different loads, and for comparison a quartz pressure transducer from Kistler AG was used as a reference. The maximum pressure at partial load operation amounts to about 15 bar. The difference between the calibrated SiCOI sensor and the reference sensor is significantly less than 1 bar during the whole operation. (orig.) 8 refs.

  18. Observations of toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostek, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The macroscopic rotation of plasma in a toroidal containment device is an important feature of the equilibrium. Toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II is measured experimentally by examining the Doppler shift of the 4685.75 A He II line emitted from the plasma. The toroidal flow at an average velocity of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec, a small fraction of the ion thermal speed, moves in the same direction as the toroidal plasma current. The poloidal flow follows the ion diamagnetic current direction, also at an average speed of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec. In view of certain ordering parameters, the toroidal flow is compared with predictions from neoclassical theory in the collosional, Pfirsch-Schluter regime. The poloidal motion, however results from an E x B drift in a positive radial electric field, approaching a stable ambipolar state. This radial electric field is determined from theory by using the measured poloidal velocity. Mechanisms for the time evolution of rotation are also examined. It appears that the circulation damping is governed by a global decay of the temperature and density gradients which, in turn, may be functions of radiative cooling, loss of equilibrium due to external field decay, or the emergence of a growing instability, occasionally observed in CO 2 interferometry measurements

  19. Transport and stability analyses supporting disruption prediction in high beta KSTAR plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J.-H.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Park, Y. S.; Berkery, J. W.; Jiang, Y.; Riquezes, J.; Lee, H. H.; Terzolo, L.; Scott, S. D.; Wang, Z.; Glasser, A. H.

    2017-10-01

    KSTAR plasmas have reached high stability parameters in dedicated experiments, with normalized beta βN exceeding 4.3 at relatively low plasma internal inductance li (βN/li>6). Transport and stability analyses have begun on these plasmas to best understand a disruption-free path toward the design target of βN = 5 while aiming to maximize the non-inductive fraction of these plasmas. Initial analysis using the TRANSP code indicates that the non-inductive current fraction in these plasmas has exceeded 50 percent. The advent of KSTAR kinetic equilibrium reconstructions now allows more accurate computation of the MHD stability of these plasmas. Attention is placed on code validation of mode stability using the PEST-3 and resistive DCON codes. Initial evaluation of these analyses for disruption prediction is made using the disruption event characterization and forecasting (DECAF) code. The present global mode kinetic stability model in DECAF developed for low aspect ratio plasmas is evaluated to determine modifications required for successful disruption prediction of KSTAR plasmas. Work supported by U.S. DoE under contract DE-SC0016614.

  20. Observations of plasma rotation in the high-beta tokamak Torus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostek, C.; Marshall, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    Toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation are measured in a high Beta tokamak device by studying the Doppler shift of the 4686 A He II line. The toroidal flow motion is in the same direction as the plasma current at an average velocity of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec, a small fraction of the ion thermal speed. The poloidal flow follows the ion diamagnetic direction, also at an average speed of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec. In view of certain ordering parameters, the toroidal flow is compared with the predictions of neoclassical transport theory in the collisional regime. For the poloidal motion, however, it appears that an (E/sub r/ x B)/B 2 drift in a positive radial electric field, approaching a stable ambipolar state (STRINGER, 1970) is responsible. Mechanisms for the time evolution of the rotation are also examined. The radial electric field responsible for the (E/sub r/ x B)/B 2 drift is determined from the theory using the measured poloidal velocity

  1. Reduced and high molecular weight barley beta-glucans decrease plasma total and non-HDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Delaney, Bryan; Chadwell, Kim; Moolchandani, Vikas; Kotyla, Timothy; Ponduru, Sridevi; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Hess, Richard; Knutson, Nathan; Curry, Leslie; Kolberg, Lore; Goulson, Melanie; Ostergren, Karen

    2004-10-01

    Consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan lowers plasma cholesterol because of its soluble dietary fiber nature. The role of molecular weight (MW) in lowering serum cholesterol is not well established. Prior studies showed that enzymatic degradation of beta-glucan eliminates the cholesterol-lowering activity; however, these studies did not evaluate the MW of the beta-glucan. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether barley beta-glucan concentrates, partially hydrolyzed to reduce MW, possess cholesterol-lowering and antiatherogenic activities. The reduced MW fraction was compared with a high MW beta-glucan concentrate from the same barley flour. Concentrated beta-glucan preparations were evaluated in Syrian Golden F(1)B hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) with cholesterol, hydrogenated coconut oil, and cellulose. After 2 wk, hamsters were fed HCD or diets that contained high or reduced MW beta-glucan at a concentration of 8 g/100 g at the expense of cellulose. Decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations occurred in the hamsters fed reduced MW and high MW beta-glucan diets. Plasma HDL-C concentrations did not differ. HCD-fed hamsters had higher plasma triglyceride concentrations. Liver TC, free cholesterol, and cholesterol ester concentrations did not differ. Aortic cholesterol ester concentrations were lower in the reduced MW beta-glucan-fed hamsters. Consumption of either high or reduced MW beta-glucan increased concentrations of fecal total neutral sterols and coprostanol, a cholesterol derivative. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was greater than in HCD-fed hamsters only in those fed the reduced MW beta-glucan. Study results demonstrate that the cholesterol-lowering activity of barley beta-glucan may occur at both lower and higher MW.

  2. Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda, E-mail: gusviani@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara [Department of Ophthalmology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stefano, Eduardo Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, Marilia Medicine School, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

  3. High molecular weight of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus against amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-06-07

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a well-known mushroom in traditional Chinese food and medicine. HE extracts from the fruiting body and mycelia not only exhibit immunomodulatory, antimutagenic and antitumor activity but also have neuroprotective properties. Here, we purified HE polysaccharides (HEPS), composed of two high molecular weight polysaccharides (1.7 × 10(5) Da and 1.1 × 10(5) Da), and evaluated their protective effects on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. HEPS were prepared and purified using a 95 % ethanol extraction method. The components of HEPS were analyzed and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The neuroprotective effects of the polysaccharides were evaluated through a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and an MTT assay and by quantifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in cells. Our results showed that 250 μg/ml HEPS was harmless and promoted cell viability with 1.2 μM Aβ treatment. We observed that the free radical scavenging rate exceeded 90 % when the concentration of HEPS was higher than 1 mg/mL in cells. The HEPS decreased the production of ROS from 80 to 58 % in a dose-dependent manner. Cell pretreatment with 250 μg/mL HEPS significantly reduced Aβ-induced high MMPs from 74 to 51 % and 94 to 62 % at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Finally, 250 μg/mL of HEPS prevented Aβ-induced cell shrinkage and nuclear degradation of PC12 cells. Our results demonstrate that HEPS exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in neurons.

  4. Barriers to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  5. Superfluorescent highly doped neodymium materials as smooth sources for fusion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husson, D.; Gouedard, C.; Sauteret, C.; Migus, A.; Auzel, F.

    1991-01-01

    Obtaining uniform laser energy deposition on target is one of the main issue in laser driven inertial confinement fusion. Efforts to directly generate laser smooth emission have been unsuccessful up to now. Therefore different methods of laser smoothing have been developed, consisting of tentatives to destroy the spatial and temporal coherence of the emission which are at the origin on the non-uniformity. We may however wonder whether a laser is really needed for this application. In this work we have developed mirrorless light generator based on highly concentrated Nd-doped crystals or powders pumped by laser. We obtain emission showing characteristics of coherence but still compatible with amplification in existing large Nd-glass installation

  6. Development of high power radio frequency components for fusion plasma heating. Final report, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this CRADA was to develop advanced microwave heating systems for both ion cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron heating for magnetic fusion reactors. This involved low-frequency (UHF), high-power (millimeter-wave) microwave components, such as antennas, windows, and matching elements. This CRADA also involved developing conceptual designs for new microwave sources. General Atomics built and tested the distributed cooled window and provided LLNL with transmission and reflection test data in order to then benchmark the EM computer codes. The combline antenna built and analyzed by LLNL was based on a GA design. GA provided LLNL with a number of niobium plates for hot pressing and provided the necessary guidance to allow successful bonding. GA representatives were on site at LLNL on numerous occasions to consult and give guidance on the ferroelectric tuner, combline antenna and distributed window analysis

  7. High Degree Cubature Federated Filter for Multisensor Information Fusion with Correlated Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved high degree cubature federated filter for the nonlinear fusion system with cross-correlation between process and measurement noises at the same time using the fifth-degree cubature rule and the decorrelated principle in its local filters. The master filter of the federated filter adopts the no-reset mode to fuse local estimates of local filters to generate a global estimate according to the scalar weighted rule. The air-traffic maneuvering target tracking simulations are performed between the proposed filter and the fifth-degree cubature federated filter. Simulations results demonstrate that the proposed filter not only can achieve almost the same accuracy as the fifth-degree cubature federated filter with independent white noises, but also has superior performance to the fifth-degree cubature federated filter while the noises are cross-correlated at the same time.

  8. High-level production of human interleukin-10 fusions in tobacco cell suspension cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldis, Angelo; Ahmad, Adil; Reid, Alexandra; McGarvey, Brian; Brandle, Jim; Ma, Shengwu; Jevnikar, Anthony; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants has made much progress in recent years with the development of transient expression systems, transplastomic technology and humanizing glycosylation patterns in plants. However, the first therapeutic proteins approved for administration to humans and animals were made in plant cell suspensions for reasons of containment, rapid scale-up and lack of toxic contaminants. In this study, we have investigated the production of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension and evaluated the effect of an elastin-like polypeptide tag (ELP) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag on IL-10 accumulation. We report the highest accumulation levels of hIL-10 obtained with any stable plant expression system using the ELP fusion strategy. Although IL-10-ELP has cytokine activity, its activity is reduced compared to unfused IL-10, likely caused by interference of ELP with folding of IL-10. Green fluorescent protein has no effect on IL-10 accumulation, but examining the trafficking of IL-10-GFP over the cell culture cycle revealed fluorescence in the vacuole during the stationary phase of the culture growth cycle. Analysis of isolated vacuoles indicated that GFP alone is found in vacuoles, while the full-size fusion remains in the whole-cell extract. This indicates that GFP is cleaved off prior to its trafficking to the vacuole. On the other hand, IL-10-GFP-ELP remains mostly in the ER and accumulates to high levels. Protein bodies were observed at the end of the culture cycle and are thought to arise as a consequence of high levels of accumulation in the ER. PMID:23297698

  9. Carbon-carbon composite and copper-composite bond damages for high flux component controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma facing components constitute the first wall in contact with plasma in fusion machines such as Tore Supra and ITER. These components have to sustain high heat flux and consequently elevated temperatures. They are made up of an armour material, the carbon-carbon composite, a heat sink structure material, the copper chromium zirconium, and a material, the OFHC copper, which is used as a compliant layer between the carbon-carbon composite and the copper chromium zirconium. Using different materials leads to the apparition of strong residual stresses during manufacturing, because of the thermal expansion mismatch between the materials, and compromises the lasting operation of fusion machines as damage which appeared during manufacturing may propagate. The objective of this study is to understand the damage mechanisms of the carbon-carbon composite and the composite-copper bond under solicitations that plasma facing components may suffer during their life. The mechanical behaviours of carbon-carbon composite and composite-copper bond were studied in order to define the most suitable models to describe these behaviours. With these models, thermomechanical calculations were performed on plasma facing components with the finite element code Cast3M. The manufacturing of the components induces high stresses which damage the carbon-carbon composite and the composite-copper bond. The damage propagates during the cooling down to room temperature and not under heat flux. Alternative geometries for the plasma facing components were studied to reduce damage. The relation between the damage of the carbon-carbon composite and its thermal conductivity was also demonstrated. (author) [fr

  10. Highly efficient retrograde gene transfer into motor neurons by a lentiviral vector pseudotyped with fusion glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyabi Hirano

    Full Text Available The development of gene therapy techniques to introduce transgenes that promote neuronal survival and protection provides effective therapeutic approaches for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Intramuscular injection of adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors, as well as lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G, permits gene delivery into motor neurons in animal models for motor neuron diseases. Recently, we developed a vector with highly efficient retrograde gene transfer (HiRet by pseudotyping a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-based vector with fusion glycoprotein B type (FuG-B or a variant of FuG-B (FuG-B2, in which the cytoplasmic domain of RV-G was replaced by the corresponding part of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G. We have also developed another vector showing neuron-specific retrograde gene transfer (NeuRet with fusion glycoprotein C type, in which the short C-terminal segment of the extracellular domain and transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains of RV-G was substituted with the corresponding regions of VSV-G. These two vectors afford the high efficiency of retrograde gene transfer into different neuronal populations in the brain. Here we investigated the efficiency of the HiRet (with FuG-B2 and NeuRet vectors for retrograde gene transfer into motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain in mice after intramuscular injection and compared it with the efficiency of the RV-G pseudotype of the HIV-1-based vector. The main highlight of our results is that the HiRet vector shows the most efficient retrograde gene transfer into both spinal cord and hindbrain motor neurons, offering its promising use as a gene therapeutic approach for the treatment of motor neuron diseases.

  11. Enzymic hydrolysis of xylans. I. A high xylanase and beta-xylosidase producing strain of Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, D.

    1981-01-01

    Aspergillus niger, strain 110.42 (CBS) was selected as a producer of high xylanolytic activities. The time course of xylanase and beta-xylosidase production as well as the effect of pH and temperature on the activity of these enzymes were studied. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the enzymic degradation of arabinoxylan showed a nearly complete conversion to pentose sugars. Aspects of using crude xylanase preparations for enzymic saccharification of xylans are discussed.

  12. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    40 papers are presented at this 21. conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics (JET). Titles are: effects of sawtooth crashes on beams ions and fusion product tritons; beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes; impurity induced neutralization of MeV energy protons in JET plasmas; lost α particle diagnostic for high-yield D-T fusion plasmas; 15-MeV proton emission from ICRF-heated plasmas; pulse compression radar reflectometry for density measurements; gamma-ray emission profile measurements during ICRH discharges; the new JET phase ICRH array; simulation of triton burn-up; parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles; detached divertor plasmas; excitation of global Alfven Eigenmodes by RF heating; mechanisms of toroidal rotation; effect of shear in the radial electric field on confinement; plasma transport properties at the L-H transition; numerical study of plasma detachment conditions in JET divertor plasmas; the SOL width and the MHD interchange instability; non linear magnetic reconnection in low collisionality plasmas; topology and slowing down of high energy ion orbits; sawtooth crashes at high beta; fusion performances and alpha heating in future JET D-T plasmas; a stable route to high-beta plasmas with non-monotonic q-profiles; theory of propagation of changes to confinement; spatial distribution of gamma emissivity and fast ions during ICRF heating; multi-camera soft X-ray diagnostic; radiation phenomena and particle fluxes in the X-event; local measurement of transport parameters for laser injected trace impurities; impurity transport of high performance discharges; negative snakes and negative shear; neural-network charge exchange analysis; ion temperature anisotropy in helium neutral beam fuelling; impurity line emission due to thermal charge exchange in edge plasmas; control of convection by fuelling and pumping; VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties; ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission; LHCD/ICRH synergy

  13. Clinical outcome of trans-sacral interbody fusion after partial reduction for high-grade l5-s1 spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A; Deviren, V; Berven, S; Kleinstueck, F; Bradford, D S

    2001-10-15

    A clinical retrospective study was conducted. To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcome of reduction followed by trans-sacral interbody fusion for high-grade spondylolisthesis. In situ posterior interbody fusion with fibula allograft has improved the fusion rates for patients with high-grade spondylolisthesis. The use of this technique in conjunction with partial reduction has not been reported. Nine consecutive patients underwent treatment of high-grade (Grade 3 or 4) spondylolisthesis with partial reduction followed by posterior interbody fusion using cortical allograft. The average age at the time of surgery was 27 years (range, 8-51 years), and the average follow-up period was 43 months (range, 24-72 months). Before surgery, eight patients had low back pain, seven patients had radiating leg pain, and five patients had hamstring tightness. The average grade of spondylolisthesis by Meyerding grading was 3.9 (range, 3-5). Charts and radiographs were evaluated, and outcomes were collected by use of the modified SRS outcomes instrument. Radiographic indexes demonstrated significant improvement with partial reduction and fusion. The slip angle, as measured from the inferior endplate of L5, improved from 41.2 degrees (range, 24-82 degrees ) before surgery to 21 degrees (range, 5-40 degrees ) after surgery. All the patients were extremely or somewhat satisfied with surgery. The two patients who underwent this operation without initial instrumentation experienced fractures of their interbody grafts. Both of these patients underwent repair of the pseudarthrosis with placement of trans-sacral pedicle screw instrumentation and subsequent fusion. Partial reduction followed by posterior interbody fusion is an effective technique for the management of high-grade spondylolisthesis in pediatric and adult patient populations, as assessed by radiographic and clinical criteria. Pedicle screw instrumentation with the sacral screws capturing L5 is recommended when this

  14. Long-term high-level expression of human beta-globin occurs following transplantation of transgenic marrow into irradiated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelstein, A; Ward, M; Podda, S; de la Flor Weiss, E; Costantini, F; Bank, A

    1993-03-01

    When the human beta-globin gene is transferred into the bone marrow cells of live mice, its expression is very low. To investigate the reason for this, we transferred the bone marrow of transgenic mice containing and expressing the human beta-globin into irradiated recipients. We demonstrate that long-term high level expression of the human beta-globin gene can be maintained in the marrow and blood of irradiated recipients following transplantation. Although expression decreased over time in most animals because of host marrow reconstitution, the ratio of human beta-globin transgene expression to endogenous mouse beta-globin gene expression in donor-derived erythroid cells remained constant over time. We conclude that there is no inherent limitation to efficient expression of an exogenous human beta-globin gene in mouse bone marrow cells following marrow transplantation.

  15. High thermal efficiency x-ray energy conversion scheme for advanced fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quimby, D.C.; Taussig, R.T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports on a new radiation energy conversion scheme which appears to be capable of producing electricity from the high quality x-ray energy with efficiencies of 60 to 70 percent. This new reactor concept incorporates a novel x-ray radiation boiler and a new thermal conversion device known as an energy exchanger. The low-Z first walls of the radiation boiler are semi-transparent to x-rays, and are kept cool by incoming working fluid, which is subsequently heated to temperatures of 2000 to 3000 0 K in the interior of the boiler by volumetric x-ray absorption. The radiation boiler may be a compact part of the reactor shell since x-rays are readily absorbed in high-Z materials. The energy exchanger transfers the high-temperature working fluid energy to a lower temperature gas which drives a conventional turbine. The overall efficiency of the cycle is characterized by the high temperature of the working fluid. The high thermal efficiencies which appear achievable with this cycle would make an otherwise marginal advanced fusion reactor into an attractive net power producer. The operating principles, initial conceptual design, and engineering problems of the radiation boiler and thermal cycle are presented

  16. High Sensitivity Detection of Xe Isotopes Via Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which includes a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. The counting geometry is nearly 100% for beta and conversion electrons. The resolution in the pulse height spectrum from the plastic scintillator is sufficient to observe distinct peaks for specific conversion electrons. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse height spectra of gamma energy versus beta energy are obtained. Each of the four xenon isotopes has a distinctive signature in the two-dimensional energy array. The details of the counting system, examples of two-dimensional beta-gamma data, and operational experience with this counting system will be described

  17. Frontal delta-beta cross-frequency coupling in high and low social anxiety: An index of stress regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppelaars, Eefje S; Harrewijn, Anita; Westenberg, P Michiel; van der Molen, Melle J W

    2018-05-17

    Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between frontal delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (14-30 Hz) oscillations has been suggested as a candidate neural correlate of social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of social and performance situations. Prior studies have used amplitude-amplitude correlation (AAC) as a CFC measure and hypothesized it as a candidate neural mechanism of affective control. However, using this metric has yielded inconsistent results regarding the direction of CFC, and the functional significance of coupling strength is uncertain. To offer a better understanding of CFC in social anxiety, we compared frontal delta-beta AAC with phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) - a mechanism for information transfer through neural circuits. Twenty high socially anxious (HSA) and 32 low socially anxious (LSA) female undergraduates participated in a social performance task (SPT). Delta-beta PAC and AAC were estimated during the resting state, as well as the anticipation and recovery conditions. Results showed significantly more AAC in LSA than HSA participants during early anticipation, as well as significant values during all conditions in LSA participants only. PAC did not distinguish between LSA and HSA participants, and instead was found to correlate with state nervousness during early anticipation, but in LSA participants only. Together, these findings are interpreted to suggest that delta-beta AAC is a plausible neurobiological index of adaptive stress regulation and can distinguish between trait high and low social anxiety during stress, while delta-beta PAC might be sensitive enough to reflect mild state anxiety in LSA participants.

  18. A stable route to high-{beta}{sub p} plasmas with non-monotonic q-profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeldner, F X; Baranov, Y; Bhatnagar, V P; Bickley, A J; Challis, C D; Fischer, B; Gormezano, C; Huysmans, G T.A.; Kerner, W; Rimini, F; Sips, A C.C.; Springmann, R; Taroni, A [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Goedbloed, J P; Holties, H A [Institute for Plasmas Physics, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Parail, V V; Pereverzev, G V [Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Steady-state operation of tokamak reactors seems feasible in so-called Advanced Scenarios with high bootstrap current in high-beta{sub p} operation. The stabilization of such discharges with noninductive profile control will be attempted on JET in pursuit of previous high bootstrap current studies. Results of modelling studies of full noninductive current drive scenarios in JET and ITER are presented. Fast Waves (FW), Lower Hybrid (LH) Waves and Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) are used for heating and current drive, alternatively or in combination. A stable route to nonmonotonic q-profiles has been found with a specific ramp-up scenario which combines LH-current drive (LHCD) and a fast Ohmic ramp-up. A hollow current profile with deep shear reversal over the whole central region is thereby formed in an early low-beta phase and frozen in by additional heating. (authors). 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Improved synthesis with high yield and increased molecular weight of poly(alpha,beta-malic acid) by direct polycondensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Tanaka, Junzo

    2004-01-01

    The development of synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as poly(alpha-hydroxy acid), is particularly important for constructing medical devices, including scaffolds and sutures, and has attracted growing interest in the biomedical field. Here, we report a novel approach to preparing high molecular weight poly(malic acid) (HMW--PMA) as a biodegradable and bioabsorbable water-soluble polymer. We investigated in detail the reaction conditions for the simple direct polycondensation of l-malic acid, including the reaction times, temperatures, and catalysts. The molecular weight of synthesized alpha,beta-PMA is dependent on both the reaction temperature and time. The optimum reaction condition to obtain alpha,beta-PMA by direct polycondensation using tin(II) chloride as a catalyst was thus determined to be 110 degrees C for 45 h with a molecular weight of 5300. The method for alpha,beta-PMA synthesis established here will facilitate production of alpha,beta-PMA of various molecular weights, which may have a potential utility as biomaterials.

  20. Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. (McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

  1. Environmental life cycle assessment of high temperature nuclear fission and fusion biomass gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shutaro; Sakurai, Shigeki; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose nuclear biomass gasification plant as an advancement of conventional gasification plants. Environmental impacts of both fission and fusion plants were assessed through life cycle assessment. The result suggested the reduction of green-house gas emissions would be as large as 85.9% from conventional plants, showing a potential for the sustainable future for both fission and fusion plants. (author)

  2. Multitemporal Very High Resolution From Space: Outcome of the 2016 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, L.; Zhu, X.; Vakalopoulou, M.; Karantzalos, K.; Paragios, N.; Saux, Le B.; Moser, G.; Tuia, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the scientific outcomes of the 2016 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society are discussed. The 2016 Contest was an open topic competition based on a multitemporal and multimodal dataset,

  3. Plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes for high ionizing radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adadurov, A.F., E-mail: adadurov@isma.kharkov.ua [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhmurin, P.N.; Lebedev, V.N.; Kovalenko, V.N. [Institute for Scintillating Materials, NAN of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    Luminescent and scintillation properties of polystyrene-based plastic scintillators with {beta}-diketone Eu complexes are investigated. A scintillator with dibenzoylmethane Eu complex containing two phenyl groups demonstrates the maximum scintillating efficiency. It is shown that plastic scintillators efficiency is dramatically decreased if {beta}-diketone derivatives contain no phenyl groups as substituents. This fact can be explained by exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a matrix to Eu complex. - Highlights: > Fluorescent properties of polystyrene scintillators with {beta}-diketone complexes of Eu were studied. > Scintillating efficiency is increased with the number of phenyl groups in Eu complex. > This is related to exciplex mechanism of energy transfer from a polymer matrix to Eu complex.

  4. Mechanical Property Characteristics of Butt-Fusion Joint of High Density Polyethylene Pipe for NPP Safety Class Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Youngjin; Kim, Kyoungsu; Lee, Seunggun; Park, Heungbae; Yu, Jeongho; Kim, Jongsung; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jang, Changheui; Choi, Sunwoong

    2013-01-01

    Several NPPs in United States replaced parts of sea water or raw water system pipes to HDPE (high density polyethylene) pipes, which have outstanding resistance for oxidation and seismic loading. ASME B and PV code committee developed Code Case N-755, which describes rules for the construction of Safety Class 3 polyethylene pressure piping components. Several NPP's in US proposed relief requests in order to apply Code Case N-755. Although US NRC permitted using Code Case N-755 and HDPE materials for Class 3 buried piping, their permission was limited to only 10 years because of several concerns for material performance of HDPE. US NRC's major concerns are about material properties and the quality of fusion zone of HDPE. In this study, material property tests for HDPE fusion zone are conducted with varying standard fusion procedures. Mechanical property tests for fused material for HDPE pipes were conducted. Fused material shows lower toughness than base material and fused material of lower fusion pressure shows higher toughness than that of higher fusion pressure

  5. Laser - driven high - energy ions and their application to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghesi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The acceleration of high-energy ion beams (up to several tens of MeV per nucleon) following the interaction of short and intense laser pulses with solid targets has been one of the most important results of recent laser-plasma research [1]. The acceleration is driven by relativistic electrons, which acquire energy directly from the laser pulse and set up extremely large (∼TV/m) space charge fields at the target interfaces. The properties of laser-driven ion beams (high brightness and laminarity, high-energy cut-off, ultrashort burst duration) distinguish them from lower energy ions accelerated in earlier experiments at moderate laser intensities, and compare favourably with those of 'conventional' accelerator beams. In view of these properties, laser-driven ion beams can be employed in a number of innovative applications in the scientific, technological and medical areas. We will discuss in particular aspects of interest to their application in an Inertial Confinement Fusion context. Laser-driven protons are indeed being considered as a possible trigger for Fast Ignition of a precompressed fuel.[2] Recent results relating to the optimization of beam energy and focusing will be presented. These include the use of laser-driven impulsive fields for proton beam collimation and focusing [3], and the investigation of acceleration in presence of finite-scale plasma gradient. Proposed target developments enabling proton production at high repetition rate will also be discussed. Another important area of application of proton beams is diagnostic use in a particle probing arrangement for detection of density non-homogeneities [4] and electric/magnetic fields [5]. We will discuss the use of laser-driven proton beams for the diagnosis of magnetic and electric fields in planar and hohlraum targets and for the detection of fields associated to relativistic electron propagation through dense matter, an issue of high relevance for electron driven Fast Ignition. [1] M

  6. Demonstration of radiation pulse shaping with nested-tungsten-wire-array pinches for high-yield inertial confinement fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, M E; Vesey, R A; Sinars, D B; Chittenden, J P; Waisman, E M; Lemke, R W; Lebedev, S V; Bliss, D E; Stygar, W A; Porter, J L; Schroen, D G; Mazarakis, M G; Chandler, G A; Mehlhorn, T A

    2005-10-28

    Nested wire-array pinches are shown to generate soft x-ray radiation pulse shapes required for three-shock isentropic compression and hot-spot ignition of high-yield inertial confinement fusion capsules. We demonstrate a reproducible and tunable foot pulse (first shock) produced by interaction of the outer and inner arrays. A first-step pulse (second shock) is produced by inner array collision with a central CH2 foam target. Stagnation of the inner array at the axis produces the third shock. Capsules optimized for several of these shapes produce 290-900 MJ fusion yields in 1D simulations.

  7. The Highly Conserved Proline at Position 438 in Pseudorabies Virus gH Is Important for Regulation of Membrane Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Christina; Klupp, Barbara G.; Fuchs, Walter; Gerhard, Marika; Backovic, Marija; Rey, Felix A.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion in herpesviruses requires viral glycoproteins (g) gB and gH/gL. While gB is considered the actual fusion protein but is nonfusogenic per se, the function of gH/gL remains enigmatic. Crystal structures for different gH homologs are strikingly similar despite only moderate amino acid sequence conservation. A highly conserved sequence motif comprises the residues serine-proline-cysteine corresponding to positions 437 to 439 in pseudorabies virus (PrV) gH. The PrV-gH structure sho...

  8. Reaction-rate coefficients, high-energy ions slowing-down, and power balance in a tokamak fusion reactor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo

    1978-07-01

    Described are the reactivity coefficient of D-T fusion reaction, slowing-down processes of deuterons injected with high energy and 3.52 MeV alpha particles generated in D-T reaction, and the power balance in a Tokamak reactor plasma. Most of the results were obtained in the first preliminary design of JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) driven with stationary neutral beam injection. A manual of numerical computation program ''BALTOK'' developed for the calculations is given in the appendix. (auth.)

  9. Dust in fusion devices-a multi-faceted problem connecting high- and low-temperature plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J

    2004-01-01

    Small particles with sizes between a few nanometers and a few 10 μm (dust) are formed in fusion devices by plasma-surface interaction processes. Though it is not a major problem today, dust is considered a problem that could arise in future long pulse fusion devices. This is primarily due to its radioactivity and due to its very high chemical reactivity. Dust formation is particularly pronounced when carbonaceous wall materials are used. Dust particles can be transported in the tokamak over significant distances. Radioactivity leads to electrical charging of dust and to its interaction with plasmas and electric fields. This may cause interference with the discharge but may also result in options for particle removal. This paper discusses some of the multi-faceted problems using information both from fusion research and from low-temperature dusty plasma work

  10. Comparison of the dynamical processes in plasma turbulence observed in the high- and low-{beta} regions of the terrestrial foreshock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coca, D.; Balikhin, M.; Billings, S

    2001-06-01

    This paper highlights the fact that the dynamical processes that characterise plasma turbulence observed in the high-{beta} region of the terrestrial foreshock are significantly different from the dynamical processes identified in the low-{beta} region. The study is based on a time-domain model identified from measurements taken by AMPTE-UKS and AMPTE-IRM satellites. (author)

  11. Identification of a Bacillus subtilis secretion mutant using a beta-galactosidase screening procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, M F; Borchert, T V; Kontinen, V P

    1995-01-01

    High-level synthesis of exportable beta-galactosidase (LacZ) fusion proteins in Bacillus subtilis results in a lethal phenotype, and has been suggested as a tool for the selection of secretion mutants. We tested a plasmid-based, inducible lacZ fusion gene system for this purpose, but frequent...... mutations in cis, which reduced expression of the fusion gene, forced abandonment of the induction-selection strategy. Instead, after modification of the indicator plasmid, a screening procedure for increased basal LacZ activity levels was adopted. This led to the identification of a conditional B. subtilis...

  12. High-throughput deterministic single-cell encapsulation and droplet pairing, fusion, and shrinkage in a single microfluidic device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeman, R.M.; Kemna, Evelien; Wolbers, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    In this article, we present a microfluidic device capable of successive high-yield single-cell encapsulation in droplets, with additional droplet pairing, fusion, and shrinkage. Deterministic single-cell encapsulation is realized using Dean-coupled inertial ordering of cells in a Yin-Yang-shaped

  13. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  14. Study on Tensile Fatigue Behavior of Thermal Butt Fusion in Safety Class III High-Density Polyethylene Buried Piping in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Young Ju; Oh, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping, which has recently been applied to safety class III piping in nuclear power plants, can be butt-joined through the thermal fusion process, which heats two fused surfaces and then subject to axial pressure. The thermal fusion process generates bead shapes on the butt fusion. The stress concentrations caused by the bead shapes may reduce the fatigue lifetime. Thus, investigating the effect of the thermal butt fusion beads on fatigue behavior is necessary. This study examined the fatigue behavior of thermal butt fusion via a tensile fatigue test under stress-controlled conditions using finite element elastic stress analysis. Based on the results, the presence of thermal butt fusion beads was confirmed to reduce the fatigue lifetime in the low-cycle fatigue region while having a negligible effect in the medium- and high-cycle fatigue regions

  15. Study on Tensile Fatigue Behavior of Thermal Butt Fusion in Safety Class III High-Density Polyethylene Buried Piping in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Young Ju [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping, which has recently been applied to safety class III piping in nuclear power plants, can be butt-joined through the thermal fusion process, which heats two fused surfaces and then subject to axial pressure. The thermal fusion process generates bead shapes on the butt fusion. The stress concentrations caused by the bead shapes may reduce the fatigue lifetime. Thus, investigating the effect of the thermal butt fusion beads on fatigue behavior is necessary. This study examined the fatigue behavior of thermal butt fusion via a tensile fatigue test under stress-controlled conditions using finite element elastic stress analysis. Based on the results, the presence of thermal butt fusion beads was confirmed to reduce the fatigue lifetime in the low-cycle fatigue region while having a negligible effect in the medium- and high-cycle fatigue regions.

  16. Development of High Intensity D-T fusion NEutron Generator (HINEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yican; Liu, Chao; Song, Gang; Wang, Yongfeng; Li, Taosheng; Jiang, Jieqiong; Song, Yong; Ji, Xiang

    2017-09-01

    A high intensity D-T fusion neutron generator (HINEG) is keenly needed for the research and development (R&D) of nuclear technology and safety of the advanced nuclear energy system, especially for the radiation protection and shielding. The R&D of HINEG includes two phases: HINEG-I and HINEG-II. HINEG-I is designed to have both the steady beam and pulsed beam. The neutron yield of the steady beam is up to 1012 n/s. The width of pulse neutron beam is less than 1.5 ns. HINEG-I is used for the basic neutronics study, such as measurement of nuclear data, validation of neutronics methods and software, validation of radiation protection and so on. HINEG-II aims to generate a high neutron yield of 1013 n/s neutrons by adopting high speed rotating tritium target system integrated with jet/spray array enhanced cooling techniques, and can further upgrade to obtain neutron yield of 1014 1015n/s by using of accelerators-array in a later stage. HINEG-II can be used for fundamentals research of nuclear technology including mechanism of materials radiation damage and neutronics performance of components, radiation shielding as well as other nuclear technology applications.

  17. Development of High Intensity D-T fusion NEutron Generator (HINEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yican

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A high intensity D-T fusion neutron generator (HINEG is keenly needed for the research and development (R&D of nuclear technology and safety of the advanced nuclear energy system, especially for the radiation protection and shielding. The R&D of HINEG includes two phases: HINEG-I and HINEG-II. HINEG-I is designed to have both the steady beam and pulsed beam. The neutron yield of the steady beam is up to 1012 n/s. The width of pulse neutron beam is less than 1.5 ns. HINEG-I is used for the basic neutronics study, such as measurement of nuclear data, validation of neutronics methods and software, validation of radiation protection and so on. HINEG-II aims to generate a high neutron yield of 1013 n/s neutrons by adopting high speed rotating tritium target system integrated with jet/spray array enhanced cooling techniques, and can further upgrade to obtain neutron yield of 1014~1015n/s by using of accelerators-array in a later stage. HINEG-II can be used for fundamentals research of nuclear technology including mechanism of materials radiation damage and neutronics performance of components, radiation shielding as well as other nuclear technology applications.

  18. High speed quantitative digital beta autoradiography using a multi-step avalanche detector and an Apple-II microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.

    1985-04-01

    The development of an electronic, digital beta autoradiography system is described. Using a Multi-Step Avalanche/Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MSA/MWPC) detector system fitted with delay line readout, high speed digital imaging is demonstrated with sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Good proportionality of observed counting rate relative to the known tritium activity is demonstrated. The application of the system to autoradiography in immunoelectrophoresis, histopathology and DNA sequencing is described. (author)

  19. Fundamental study on target plate model with high thermal conductive ceramics for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro

    2004-01-01

    Target plate model (35 mm x 25 mm x 100 mm) of divertor device for fusion reactor was fabricated using low activated and light material, Si/xSiC Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) and high strength and thermal conductive SiC. This model has bonding structure of armor tile (25 mm x 25 mm x 10 mmt) of Hot Pressed (HP) and Hot Isostatic Pressed (HIP) Si/SiC (10 wt%)-MMC and substrate (25 mm x 25 mm x 100 mm) of SiC/BeO (1 wt%) with water cooling channel (φ15 mm). Armor tile material, Si/10SiC-MMC shows high thermal conductive and low resistivity with over 200 MPa peak bending strength at high temperature. This material behaves super plasticity over peak temperature corresponding to peak bending strength and low temperature brittleness of this material was improved to degrade DBTT to 673 K by optimization of Hot Press (HP) and Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) conditions. Substrate body material, SiC/1BeO behaves major characteristics of high bending strength over 500 MPa, high density of 3.2 g/cm 3 and high thermal conductivity of 270 W/m·K at room temperature. Target plate model with water cooling by 293 K and 2 MPa pressurized water at 1 m/s was exposed under 5 MW/m 2 x 30 s high heat flux H + ion beam and showed very good cooling performance and no damage was found after this test. (author)

  20. Determination of Beta-Lactam residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Brandão de Brito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic method to assay beta-lactam residues in milk was developed and validated. Milk samples were spiked with standard solutions and deproteinated. The extract was cleaned-up on C18 SPE cartridge, the antibiotics eluted with acetonitrile:water (50:50 v/v and derivatized with acetic anhydride and 1-methyl-imidazole solution containing HgCl2. The chromatographic analysis was performed on C18 column using mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer (pH 6.5 in the presence of Na2S2O3 gradient and detection at 325 nm. The method was selective for ampicillin, penicillin G and penicillin V, the latter used as internal standard. Average recoveries for ampicillin and penicillin G ranged, respectively, from 60.0% to 104.9% and from 82.7% to 109.2%, with coefficients of variation from 11.1% to 24.6%, and from 2.1% to 25.2%, indicating accuracy and precision. Detection limit of 4.0 µg/L for ampicillin and 3.0 µg/L for penicillin G, and quantification limits of 4.0 µg/L for both were estimated.Um método para determinar resíduos de antibióticos beta-lactâmicos em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE foi desenvolvido e validado. Amostras brancas foram adicionadas de padrão e desproteinizadas. O extrato foi purificado por extração em fase sólida C18, os antibióticos eluídos com acetonitrila:água (50:50 v/v e posteriormente derivatizados com anidrido acético e solução de 1-metil-imidazol contendo HgCl2. A análise cromatográfica foi realizada utilizando coluna C18, fase móvel composta por acetonitrila e tampão fosfato pH 6,5, na presença de Na2S2O3 em gradiente e detecção a 325 nm. O método foi seletivo para ampicilina, penicilina G e penicilina V, sendo este último utilizado como padrão interno. As médias de recuperação para ampicilina e penicilina G situaram-se, respectivamente, na faixa de 60,0% a 104,9% e de 82,7% a 109,2%, com coeficientes de varia

  1. High-Chern-number bands and tunable Dirac cones in beta-graphyne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Miert, Guido; Smith, Cristiane Morais; Juricic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Graphynes represent an emerging family of carbon allotropes that recently attracted much interest due to the tunability of the Dirac cones in the band structure. Here, we show that the spin-orbit couplings in beta-graphyne could produce various effects related to the topological properties of its

  2. Equilibrium and stability of high-beta plasma in Modified Bumpy Torus (MBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, J.; Shiina, S.; Saito, K.; Osanai, Y.; Nogi, Y.; Gesso, H.; Yagi, I.; Yokoyama, K.; Yoshimura, H.; Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Atomic Energy Research Inst.)

    1977-01-01

    The equilibrium and stability properties of the plasma in Modified Bumpy Torus, which is an asymmetric system with closed magnetic lines of force, is reported. For small beta value, the growth rate of m=1 mode instability in MBT can be smaller than that of Scyllac configuration. The results of 1/4 toroidal sector experiment are reported. (author)

  3. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  4. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  5. Development of {sup 100}Mo-containing scintillating bolometers for a high-sensitivity neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armengaud, E.; Gros, M.; Herve, S.; Magnier, P.; Navick, X.F.; Nones, C.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Zolotarova, A.S. [Universite Paris-Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Augier, C.; Billard, J.; Cazes, A.; Charlieux, F.; Jesus, M. de; Gascon, J.; Juillard, A.; Queguiner, E.; Sanglard, V.; Vagneron, L. [Univ Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Umatov, V.I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bekker, T.B. [V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bellini, F.; Ferroni, F. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benoit, A.; Camus, P. [CNRS-Neel, Grenoble (France); Berge, L.; Chapellier, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Humbert, V.; Le Sueur, H.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Plantevin, O. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Bergmann, T.; Kleifges, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Weber, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boiko, R.S.; Danevich, F.A.; Kobychev, V.V.; Nikolaichuk, M.O.; Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Broniatowski, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brudanin, V.; Rozov, S.; Yakushev, E. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Capelli, S.; Gironi, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G. [Universita di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Chernyak, D.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); The University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Combarieu, M. de; Pari, P. [Universite Paris-Saclay, IRAMIS, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coron, N.; Redon, T. [Universite Paris-Sud, IAS, CNRS, Orsay (France); Devoyon, L.; Koskas, F.; Strazzer, O. [Universite Paris-Saclay, Orphee, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Di Domizio, S. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Eitel, K.; Siebenborn, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Foerster, N.; Kozlov, V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Giuliani, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Universita dell' Insubria, DISAT, Como (Italy); Grigorieva, V.D.; Ivannikova, N.V.; Ivanov, I.M.; Makarov, E.P.; Shlegel, V.N.; Vasiliev, Ya.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Hehn, L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Jin, Y. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Marcoussis (France); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kudryavtsev, V.A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Laubenstein, M.; Nagorny, S.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Loidl, M.; Rodrigues, M. [CEA-Saclay, CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mancuso, M. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Universita dell' Insubria, DISAT, Como (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Pagnanini, L.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); INFN, Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Piperno, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Poda, D.V. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Rusconi, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Scorza, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); SNOLAB, Lively, ON (Canada); Velazquez, M. [Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, CNRS, Pessac (France)

    2017-11-15

    This paper reports on the development of a technology involving {sup 100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers, compatible with the goals of CUPID, a proposed next-generation bolometric experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. Large mass (∝ 1 kg), high optical quality, radiopure {sup 100}Mo-containing zinc and lithium molybdate crystals have been produced and used to develop high performance single detector modules based on 0.2-0.4 kg scintillating bolometers. In particular, the energy resolution of the lithium molybdate detectors near the Q-value of the double-beta transition of {sup 100}Mo (3034 keV) is 4-6 keV FWHM. The rejection of the α-induced dominant background above 2.6 MeV is better than 8σ. Less than 10 μBq/kg activity of {sup 232}Th({sup 228}Th) and {sup 226}Ra in the crystals is ensured by boule recrystallization. The potential of {sup 100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers to perform high sensitivity double-beta decay searches has been demonstrated with only 10 kg x d exposure: the two neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 100}Mo has been measured with the up-to-date highest accuracy as T{sub 1/2} = [6.90 ± 0.15(stat.) ± 0.37(syst.)] x 10{sup 18} years. Both crystallization and detector technologies favor lithium molybdate, which has been selected for the ongoing construction of the CUPID-0/Mo demonstrator, containing several kg of {sup 100}Mo. (orig.)

  6. Fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook covers the physics and technology upon which future fusion power reactors will be based. It reviews the history of fusion, reaction physics, plasma physics, heating, and confinement. Descriptions of commercial plants and design concepts are included. Topics covered include: fusion reactions and fuel resources; reaction rates; ignition, and confinement; basic plasma directory; Tokamak confinement physics; fusion technology; STARFIRE: A commercial Tokamak fusion power plant. MARS: A tandem-mirror fusion power plant; and other fusion reactor concepts

  7. Studies on Fusion Welding of High Nitrogen Stainless Steel: Microstructure, Mechanical and corrosion Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2018-03-01

    An attempt has been made in the present investigation to weld high nitrogen steel of 5mm thick plates using various process i.e., shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and autogenous electron beam welding (EBW) process. Present work is aimed at studying the microstructural changes and its effects on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Microstructure is characterized by optical, scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattered diffraction technique. Vickers hardness, tensile properties, impact toughness and face bend ductility testing of the welds was carried out. Pitting corrosion resistance of welds was determined using potentio-dynamic polarization testing in 3.5%NaCl solution. Results of the present investigation established that SMA welds made using Cr-Mn-N electrode were observed to have a austenite dendritic grain structure in the weld metal and is having poor mechanical properties but good corrosion resistance. GTA welds made using 18Ni (MDN 250) filler wire were observed to have a reverted austenite in martensite matrix of the weld metal and formation of unmixed zone at the fusion boundary which resulted in better mechanical properties and poor corrosion resistance. Fine grains and uniform distribution of delta ferrite in the austenite matrix and narrow width of weld zone are observed in autogeneous electron beam welds. A good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance was achieved for electron beam welds of high nitrogen steel when compared to SMA and GTA welds.

  8. Engineering and physics of high-power-density, compact, reversed-field-pinch fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmabadi, F.; Conn, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Schultz, K.R.; Steiner, D.

    1989-01-01

    The technical feasibility and key developmental issues of compact, high-power-density Reversed-Field-Pinch (RFP) reactors are the primary results of the TITAN RFP reactor study. Two design approaches emerged, TITAN-I and TITAN-II, both of which are steady-state, DT-burning, circa 1000 MWe power reactors. The TITAN designs are physically compact and have a high neutron wall loading of 18 MW m 2 . Detailed analyses indicate that: a) each design is technically feasible; b) attractive features of compact RFP reactors can be realized without sacrificing the safety and environmental potential of fusion; and c) major features of this particular embodiment of the RFP reactor are retained in a design window of neutron wall loading ranging from 10 to 20 MW/m 2 . A major product of the TITAN study is the identification and quantification of major engineering and physics requirements for this class of RFP reactors. These findings are the focus of this paper. (author). 26 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Mancini, R. C.; Iglesias, C. A.; MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Blancard, C.; Cosse, Ph.; Faussurier, G.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical opacities are required for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion, and Z pinches depends on the opacities of mid-atomic-number elements over a wide range of temperatures. The 150-300 eV temperature range is particularly interesting. The opacity models are complex and experimental validation is crucial. For example, solar models presently disagree with helioseismology and one possible explanation is inadequate theoretical opacities. Testing these opacities requires well-characterized plasmas at temperatures high enough to produce the ion charge states that exist in the sun. Typical opacity experiments heat a sample using x rays and measure the spectrally resolved transmission with a backlight. The difficulty grows as the temperature increases because the heating x-ray source must supply more energy and the backlight must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self-emission. These problems can be overcome with the new generation of high energy density (HED) facilities. For example, recent experiments at Sandia's Z facility [M. K. Matzen et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005)] measured the transmission of a mixed Mg and Fe plasma heated to 156±6 eV. This capability will also advance opacity science for other HED plasmas. This tutorial reviews experimental methods for testing opacity models, including experiment design, transmission measurement methods, accuracy evaluation, and plasma diagnostics. The solar interior serves as a focal problem and Z facility experiments illustrate the techniques.

  10. Collaborative technologies for distributed science: fusion energy and high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D P; Gottschalk, E E; Greenwald, M J; McCune, D

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a strategy to significantly enhance scientific collaborations in both Fusion Energy Sciences and in High-Energy Physics through the development and deployment of new tools and technologies into working environments. This strategy is divided into two main elements, collaborative workspaces and secure computational services. Experimental and theory/computational programs will greatly benefit through the provision of a flexible, standards-based collaboration space, which includes advanced tools for ad hoc and structured communications, shared applications and displays, enhanced interactivity for remote data access applications, high performance computational services and an improved security environment. The technologies developed should be prototyped and tested on the current generation of experiments and numerical simulation projects. At the same time, such work should maintain a strong focus on the needs of the next generation of mega-projects, ITER and the ILC. Such an effort needs to leverage existing computer science technology and take full advantage of commercial software wherever possible. This paper compares the requirements of FES and HEP, discuss today's solutions, examine areas where more functionality is required, and discuss those areas with sufficient overlap in requirements that joint research into collaborative technologies will increase the benefit to both

  11. Collaborative Technologies for Distributed Science - Fusion Energy and High-Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J.R.; Gottschalk, E.

    2006-01-01

    The large-scale experiments, needed for fusion energy sciences (FES) and high-energy physics (HEP) research, are staffed by correspondingly large, geographically dispersed teams. At the same time, theoretical work has come to rely increasingly on complex numerical simulations developed by distributed teams of scientists and applied mathematicians and run on massively parallel computers. These trends will only accelerate. Operation of the most powerful accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, will begin next year and will dominate experimental high-energy physics. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the ITER where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large portion of national programs efforts are organized around coordinated efforts to develop promising operational scenarios. While both FES and HEP have a significant track record for developing and exploiting remote collaborations, with such large investments at stake, there is a clear need to improve the integration and reach of the tools available. These challenges are being addressed by the creation and deployment of advanced collaborative software and hardware tools. Grid computing, to provide secure on-demand access to data analysis capabilities and related functions, is being deployed as an alternative to traditional resource sharing among institutions. Utilizing public-key based security that is recognized worldwide, numerous analysis and simulation codes are securely available worldwide in a service-oriented approach. Traditional audio teleconferencing is being augmented by more advanced capabilities including videoconferencing, instant messaging, presentation sharing, applications sharing, large display walls, and the virtual-presence capabilities of Access Grid and VRVS. With these advances, remote real-time experimental participation has begun as well as remote seminars, working meetings, and design review meetings. Work continues to focus on reducing the

  12. Phenotypic and gene expression changes between low (glucose-responsive) and High (glucose non-responsive) MIN-6 beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Driscoll, L.; Gammell, p.; McKierman, E.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term potential to routinely use replacement beta cells/islets as cell therapy for type 1 diabetes relies on our ability to culture such cells/islets, in vitro, while maintaining their functional status. Previous beta cell studies, by ourselves and other researchers, have indicated...... that the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) phenotype is relatively unstable, in long-term culture. This study aimed to investigate phenotypic and gene expression changes associated with this loss of GSIS, using the MIN-6 cell line as model. Phenotypic differences between MIN-6(L, low passage) and MIN-6(H......, high passage) were determined by ELISA (assessing GSIS and cellular (pro)insulin content), proliferation assays, phase contrast light microscopy and analysis of alkaline phosphatase expression. Differential mRNA expression was investigated using microarray, bioinformatics and real-time PCR technologies...

  13. A high-risk patient with long-QT syndrome with no response to cardioselective beta-blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Naoki; Miyazaki, Aya; Sakaguchi, Heima; Shimizu, Wataru; Ohuchi, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    We present a case of a high-risk 19-year-old female with long-QT syndrome (LQTS) with compound mutations. She had a history of aborted cardiac arrest and syncope and had received treatment with propranolol for 15 years. However, because she developed adult-onset asthma we tried to switch propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, to beta-1-cardioselective agents, bisoprolol and metoprolol. These resulted in both a markedly prolonged corrected QT interval and the development of LQTS-associated arrhythmias. Eventually, propranolol was reinitiated at a higher dose with the addition of verapamil, and she has had no further cardiac or asthmatic events for 5 years.

  14. Reply to ''Comment on enhancement of forbidden nuclear beta decay by high-intensity radio-frequency fields''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The negative conclusion in the Comment of Becker, Schlicher, and Scully about electromagnetic enhancement of beta decay is shown to be faulty. They have found an algebraic oversight in my paper, but correction of that oversight yields results strongly resembling the original. Becker, Schlicher, and Scully fail to find this. They then conduct an analysis which is highly implicit and incomplete. In attempting to analyze their very complicated expressions they claim not to find significant electromagnetic effects. Yet they also lose completely the electron retardation term of conventional forbidden beta decay. When they attempt to explain the difference between their results and mine, they misconstrue the momentum-translation technique and end up in a logical contradiction. They attempt also to apply a ''no-go'' theorem applicable only to plane-wave particles to my theory, which is built around the use of bound-state nuclear wave functions. This makes the no-go theorem inapplicable

  15. Development of a highly efficient indigo dyeing method using indican with an immobilized beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingyuan; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Koreyoshi; Kajitani, Kouichi; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

    2010-09-01

    A highly efficient method for dyeing textiles with indigo is described. In this method, the substrate, indican is first hydrolyzed at an acidic pH of 3 using an immobilized beta-glucosidase to produce indoxyl, under which conditions indigo formation is substantially repressed. The textile sample is then dipped in the prepared indoxyl solution and the textile is finally exposed to ammonia vapor for a short time, resulting in rapid indigo dyeing. As an enzyme, we selected a beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger, which shows a high hydrolytic activity towards indican and was thermally stable at temperatures up to 50-60 degrees C, in an acidic pH region. The A. niger beta-glucosidase, when immobilized on Chitopearl BCW-3001 by treatment with glutaraldehyde, showed an optimum reaction pH similar to that of the free enzyme with a slightly higher thermal stability. The kinetics for the hydrolysis of indican at pH 3, using the purified free and immobilized enzymes was found to follow Michaelis-Menten type kinetics with weak competitive inhibition by glucose. Using the immobilized enzyme, we successfully carried out repeated-batch and continuous hydrolyses of indican at pH 3 when nitrogen gas was continuously supplied to the substrate solution. Various types of model textiles were dyed using the proposed method although the color yield varied, depending on the type of textile used. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Re-entering fast ion effects on NBI heating power in high-beta plasmas of the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Ryosuke; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Funaba, Hisamichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sakakibara, Satoru; Ohdachi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Hamamatsu, Kiyotaka

    2011-10-01

    We calculate the heating power of the neutral beam injection (NBI) in the = 4.8% high-beta discharge achieved in the Large Helical Device (LHD). We investigate the difference of the heating efficiency and the heating power profile between with and without the re-entering fast ion effects. When the re-entering fast ion effects are taken into account, the heating efficiency in the co injection of the NBI (co-NBI case) is improved and it is about 1.8 times larger than that without the re-entering effects. In contrast, the heating efficiency with the re-entering effects in the counter injection of the NBI (ctr-NBI case) rarely differs from that without the re-entering ones. We also study the re-entering fast ion effects on the transport properties in the LHD high beta discharges. It is found that the tendency of the thermal conductivities on the beta value is not so much sensitive with and without the re-entering effects. In addition, we investigate the difference in the re-entering fast ion effects caused by the field strength and the magnetic configuration. In the co-NBI case, the re-entering fast ion effects on the heating efficiency increases with the decrease of the field strength. In the contrast, the re-entering fast ion effects in the ctr-NBI case rarely differs by changing the field strength. (author)

  17. Concept for a high performance MHD airbreathing-IEC fusion rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froning, H.D. Jr.; Miley, G.H.; Nadler, J.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, H.; Burton, E.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Single-State-to-Orbit (SSTO) vehicle propellant can be reduced by Magnets-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) processes that minimize airbreathing propulsion losses and propellant consumption during atmospheric flight, and additional reduction in SSTO propellant is enabled by Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion, whose more energetic reactions reduce rocket propellant needs. MHD airbreathing propulsion during an SSTO vehicle's initial atmospheric flight phase and IEC fusion propulsion during its final exo-atmospheric flight phase is therefore being explored. Accomplished work is not yet sufficient for claiming such a vehicle's feasibility. But takeoff and propellant mass for an MHD airbreathing and IEC fusion vehicle could be as much as 25 and 40 percent less than one with ordinary airbreathing and IEC fusion; and as much as 50 and 70 percent less than SSTO takeoff and propellant mass with MHD airbreathing and chemical rocket propulsion

  18. Concept for a high performance MHD airbreathing-IEC fusion rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froning, H. D.; Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, H.; Burton, E.

    2001-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that Single-State-to-Orbit (SSTO) vehicle propellant can be reduced by Magnets-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) processes that minimize airbreathing propulsion losses and propellant consumption during atmospheric flight, and additional reduction in SSTO propellant is enabled by Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion, whose more energetic reactions reduce rocket propellant needs. MHD airbreathing propulsion during an SSTO vehicle's initial atmospheric flight phase and IEC fusion propulsion during its final exo-atmospheric flight phase is therefore being explored. Accomplished work is not yet sufficient for claiming such a vehicle's feasibility. But takeoff and propellant mass for an MHD airbreathing and IEC fusion vehicle could be as much as 25 and 40 percent less than one with ordinary airbreathing and IEC fusion; and as much as 50 and 70 percent less than SSTO takeoff and propellant mass with MHD airbreathing and chemical rocket propulsion. .

  19. Magnetized target fusion: An ultra high energy approach in an unexplored parameter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is a concept that may lead to practical fusion applications in a variety of settings. However, the crucial first step is to demonstrate that it works as advertised. Among the possibilities for doing this is an ultrahigh energy approach to magnetized target fusion, one powered by explosive pulsed power generators that have become available for application to thermonuclear fusion research. In a collaborative effort between Los Alamos and the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) a very powerful helical generator with explosive power switching has been used to produce an energetic magnetized plasma. Several diagnostics have been fielded to ascertain the properties of this plasma. We are intensively studying the results of the experiments and calculationally analyzing the performance of this experiment

  20. High-efficiency targets for high-gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the induced spatial incoherence (ISI) technique, which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh--Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh--Taylor instability, pellets using (1)/(4) μm laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150--200) may produce energy gains as high as 200--250

  1. Experimental study of external kink instabilities in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivers, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of power through controlled thermonuclear fusion reactions in a magnetically confined plasma holds promise as a means of supplying mankind's future energy needs. The device most technologically advanced in pursuit of this goal is the tokamak, a machine in which a current-carrying toroidal plasma is thermally isolated from its surroundings by a strong magnetic field. To be viable, the tokamak reactor must produce a sufficiently large amount of power relative to that needed to sustain the fusion reactions. Plasma instabilities may severely limit this possibility. In this work, I describe experimental measurements of the magnetic structure of large-scale, rapidly-growing instabilities that occur in a tokamak when the current or pressure of the plasma exceeds a critical value relative to the magnetic field, and I compare these measurements with theoretical predictions

  2. Direct integration multiple collision integral transport analysis method for high energy fusion neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new analysis method specially suited for the inherent difficulties of fusion neutronics was developed to provide detailed studies of the fusion neutron transport physics. These studies should provide a better understanding of the limitations and accuracies of typical fusion neutronics calculations. The new analysis method is based on the direct integration of the integral form of the neutron transport equation and employs a continuous energy formulation with the exact treatment of the energy angle kinematics of the scattering process. In addition, the overall solution is analyzed in terms of uncollided, once-collided, and multi-collided solution components based on a multiple collision treatment. Furthermore, the numerical evaluations of integrals use quadrature schemes that are based on the actual dependencies exhibited in the integrands. The new DITRAN computer code was developed on the Cyber 205 vector supercomputer to implement this direct integration multiple-collision fusion neutronics analysis. Three representative fusion reactor models were devised and the solutions to these problems were studied to provide suitable choices for the numerical quadrature orders as well as the discretized solution grid and to understand the limitations of the new analysis method. As further verification and as a first step in assessing the accuracy of existing fusion-neutronics calculations, solutions obtained using the new analysis method were compared to typical multigroup discrete ordinates calculations

  3. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schissel, David P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Abla, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Burruss, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Feibush, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Fredian, T. W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Goode, M. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Greenwald, M. J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Keahey, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Leggett, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Li, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); McCune, D. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Papka, M. E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Randerson, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Sanderson, A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Stillerman, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Thompson, M. R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Uram, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wallace, G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2012-12-20

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES Grid (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  4. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, David P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J. R.; Feibush, E.; Fredian, T. W.; Goode, M. M.; Greenwald, M. J.; Keahey, K.; Leggett, T.; Li, K.; McCune, D. C.; Papka, M. E.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Thompson, M. R.; Uram, T.; Wallace, G.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES Grid(FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP) provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  5. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically...

  6. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of OMEGA separated reactants inertial confinement fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, Brian M., E-mail: bmhaines@lanl.gov; Fincke, James R.; Shah, Rahul C.; Boswell, Melissa; Fowler, Malcolm M.; Gore, Robert A.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Klein, Andreas; Rundberg, Robert S.; Steinkamp, Michael J.; Wilhelmy, Jerry B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS T087, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Grim, Gary P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Forrest, Chad J.; Silverstein, Kevin; Marshall, Frederic J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We present results from the comparison of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations with data from the implosions of inertial confinement fusion capsules with separated reactants performed on the OMEGA laser facility. Each capsule, referred to as a “CD Mixcap,” is filled with tritium and has a polystyrene (CH) shell with a deuterated polystyrene (CD) layer whose burial depth is varied. In these implosions, fusion reactions between deuterium and tritium ions can occur only in the presence of atomic mix between the gas fill and shell material. The simulations feature accurate models for all known experimental asymmetries and do not employ any adjustable parameters to improve agreement with experimental data. Simulations are performed with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code using an Implicit Large Eddy Simulation (ILES) strategy for the hydrodynamics. We obtain good agreement with the experimental data, including the DT/TT neutron yield ratios used to diagnose mix, for all burial depths of the deuterated shell layer. Additionally, simulations demonstrate good agreement with converged simulations employing explicit models for plasma diffusion and viscosity, suggesting that the implicit sub-grid model used in ILES is sufficient to model these processes in these experiments. In our simulations, mixing is driven by short-wavelength asymmetries and longer-wavelength features are responsible for developing flows that transport mixed material towards the center of the hot spot. Mix material transported by this process is responsible for most of the mix (DT) yield even for the capsule with a CD layer adjacent to the tritium fuel. Consistent with our previous results, mix does not play a significant role in TT neutron yield degradation; instead, this is dominated by the displacement of fuel from the center of the implosion due to the development of turbulent instabilities seeded by long-wavelength asymmetries. Through these processes, the long

  7. Progress towards a high-gain and robust target design for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Grant Logan, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Recently [E. Henestroza et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)], a new inertial-fusion target configuration, the X-target, using one-sided axial illumination has been explored. This class of target uses annular and solid-profile heavy ion beams to compress and ignite deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel that fills the interior of metal cases that have side-view cross sections in the shape of an 'X.' X-targets using all-DT-filled metal cases imploded by three annular ion beams resulted in fuel densities of {approx}50 g/cm{sup 3} at peak compression, and fusion gains of {approx}50, comparable to heavy ion driven hohlraum targets [D. A. Callahan-Miller and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)]. This paper discusses updated X-target configurations that incorporate inside the case a propellant (plastic) and a pusher (aluminum) surrounding the DT fuel. The updated configurations are capable of assembling higher fuel areal densities {approx}2 g/cm{sup 2} using two annular beams to implode the target to peak DT densities {approx}100 g/cm{sup 3}, followed by a fast-ignition solid ion beam which heats the high-density fuel to thermonuclear temperatures in {approx}200 ps to start the burn propagation, obtaining gains of {approx}300. These targets have been modeled using the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)] in two- and three- dimensions to study the properties of the implosion as well as the ignition and burn propagation phases. At typical Eulerian mesh resolutions of a few microns, the aluminum-DT interface shows negligible Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth; also, the shear flow of the DT fuel as it slides along the metal X-target walls, which drives the RT and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities, does not have a major effect on the burning rate. An analytic estimate of the RT instability process at the Al-DT interface shows that the aluminum spikes generated during the pusher deceleration phase

  8. Microstructure, Composition, and Impact Toughness Across the Fusion Line of High-Strength Bainitic Steel Weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei; Chang, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Chunlin; Zhao, Dewen

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzed the evolution of microstructure, composition, and impact toughness across the fusion line of high-strength bainitic steel weldments with different heat inputs. The main purpose was to develop a convenient method to evaluate the HAZ toughness quickly. The compositions of HAZ were insensitive to higher contents of alloy elements ( e.g., Ni, Mo) in the weld metal because their diffusion distance is very short into the HAZ. The weld metal contained predominantly acicular ferrite at any a heat input, whereas the main microstructures in the HAZ changed from lath martensite/bainite to upper bainite with the increasing heat input. The evolution of HAZ toughness in relation to microstructural changes can be revealed clearly combined with the impact load curve and fracture morphology, although the results of impact tests do not show an obvious change with heat input because the position of Charpy V notch contains the weld metal, HAZ as well as a part of base metal. As a result, based on the bead-on-plate welding tests, the welding parameter affecting the HAZ toughness can be evaluated rapidly.

  9. Classification of high resolution imagery based on fusion of multiscale texture features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jinxiu; Liu, Huiping; Lv, Ying; Xue, Xiaojuan

    2014-01-01

    In high resolution data classification process, combining texture features with spectral bands can effectively improve the classification accuracy. However, the window size which is difficult to choose is regarded as an important factor influencing overall classification accuracy in textural classification and current approaches to image texture analysis only depend on a single moving window which ignores different scale features of various land cover types. In this paper, we propose a new method based on the fusion of multiscale texture features to overcome these problems. The main steps in new method include the classification of fixed window size spectral/textural images from 3×3 to 15×15 and comparison of all the posterior possibility values for every pixel, as a result the biggest probability value is given to the pixel and the pixel belongs to a certain land cover type automatically. The proposed approach is tested on University of Pavia ROSIS data. The results indicate that the new method improve the classification accuracy compared to results of methods based on fixed window size textural classification

  10. Low Convergence path to Fusion I: Ignition physics and high margin design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molvig, Kim; Schmitt, M. J.; McCall, G. H.; Betti, R.; Foula, D. H.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    A new class of inertial fusion capsules is presented that combines multi-shell targets with laser direct drive at low intensity (280 TW/cm2) to achieve robust ignition. These Revolver targets consist of three concentric metal shells, enclosing a volume of 10s of µg of liquid deuterium-tritium fuel. The inner shell pusher, nominally of gold, is compressed to over 2000 g/cc, effectively trapping the radiation and enabling ignition at low temperature (2.5 keV) and relatively low implosion velocity (20 cm/micro-sec) at a fuel convergence of 9. Ignition is designed to occur well ``upstream'' from stagnation, with implosion velocity at 90% of maximum, so that any deceleration phase mix will occur only after ignition. Mix, in all its non-predictable manifestations, will effect net yield in a Revolver target - but not the achievement of ignition and robust burn. Simplicity of the physics is the dominant principle. There is no high gain requirement. These basic physics elements can be combined into a simple analytic model that generates a complete target design specification given the fuel mass and the kinetic energy needed in the middle (drive) shell (of order 80 kJ). This research supported by the US DOE/NNSA, performed in part at LANL, operated by LANS LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  11. Encoding technique for high data compaction in data bases of fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, J.; Cremy, C.; Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.; Dormido, S.

    1996-01-01

    At present, data requirements of hundreds of Mbytes/discharge are typical in devices such as JET, TFTR, DIII-D, etc., and these requirements continue to increase. With these rates, the amount of storage required to maintain discharge information is enormous. Compaction techniques are now essential to reduce storage. However, general compression techniques may distort signals, but this is undesirable for fusion diagnostics. We have developed a general technique for data compression which is described here. The technique, which is based on delta compression, does not require an examination of the data as in delayed methods. Delta values are compacted according to general encoding forms which satisfy a prefix code property and which are defined prior to data capture. Several prefix codes, which are bit oriented and which have variable code lengths, have been developed. These encoding methods are independent of the signal analog characteristics and enable one to store undistorted signals. The technique has been applied to databases of the TJ-I tokamak and the TJ-IU torsatron. Compaction rates of over 80% with negligible computational effort were achieved. Computer programs were written in ANSI C, thus ensuring portability and easy maintenance. We also present an interpretation, based on information theory, of the high compression rates achieved without signal distortion. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  13. A Two-Stream Deep Fusion Framework for High-Resolution Aerial Scene Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenging problems in understanding high-resolution remote sensing images is aerial scene classification. A well-designed feature representation method and classifier can improve classification accuracy. In this paper, we construct a new two-stream deep architecture for aerial scene classification. First, we use two pretrained convolutional neural networks (CNNs as feature extractor to learn deep features from the original aerial image and the processed aerial image through saliency detection, respectively. Second, two feature fusion strategies are adopted to fuse the two different types of deep convolutional features extracted by the original RGB stream and the saliency stream. Finally, we use the extreme learning machine (ELM classifier for final classification with the fused features. The effectiveness of the proposed architecture is tested on four challenging datasets: UC-Merced dataset with 21 scene categories, WHU-RS dataset with 19 scene categories, AID dataset with 30 scene categories, and NWPU-RESISC45 dataset with 45 challenging scene categories. The experimental results demonstrate that our architecture gets a significant classification accuracy improvement over all state-of-the-art references.

  14. Motional Stark Effect measurements of the local magnetic field in high temperature fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. C.; Bock, A.; Ford, O. P.; Reimer, R.; Burckhart, A.; Dinklage, A.; Hobirk, J.; Howard, J.; Reich, M.; Stober, J.

    2015-10-01

    The utilization of the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) experienced by the neutral hydrogen or deuterium injected into magnetically confined high temperature plasmas is a well established technique to infer the internal magnetic field distribution of fusion experiments. In their rest frame, the neutral atoms experience a Lorentz electric field, EL = v × B, which results in a characteristic line splitting and polarized line emission. The different properties of the Stark multiplet allow inferring, both the magnetic field strength and the orientation of the magnetic field vector. Besides recording the full MSE spectrum, several types of polarimeters have been developed to measure the polarization direction of the Stark line emission. To test physics models of the magnetic field distribution and dynamics, the accuracy requirements are quite demanding. In view of these requirements, the capabilities and issues of the different techniques are discussed, including the influence of the Zeeman Effect and the sensitivity to radial electric fields. A newly developed Imaging MSE system, which has been tested on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, is presented. The sensitivity allows to resolve sawtooth oscillations. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  15. Beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeulders, P; Hender, T C; Huysmans, G; Marcus, F; Ali-Arshad, S; Alper, B; Balet, B; Bures, M; Deliyanakis, N; Esch, H de; Fshpool, G; Jarvis, O N; Jones, T T.C.; Ketner, W; Koenig, R; Lawson, K; Lomas, P; O` Brien, D; Sadler, G; Stok, D; Stubberfield, P; Thomas, P; Thomen, K; Wesson, J [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M F [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    In Hot-ion H- and VH-modes, the highest achieved beta was about 10% below the Troyon value in the best case of discharge 26087. The operational space of the high beta discharges obtained before March 1992 has been explored as function of the parameters H{sub ITER89P}, {beta}{sub n}, q{sub 95}, I{sub p}. Also, a limiting envelope on the fusion reactivity as a function of the average plasma pressure and beta has been observed with R{sub DD} related to {beta}{sub {phi}}{sup 2}.B{sub {phi}}{sup 4}. MHD stability analysis shows that the JET VH modes at the edge are in the second region for ballooning mode stability. The dependence of ballooning stability and the n=1 external kink on the edge current density is analyzed. (authors). 6 figs., 6 refs.

  16. High-power microwave transmission and launching systems for fusion plasma heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave power in the 30- to 300-GHz frequency range is becoming widely used for heating of plasma in present-day fusion energy magnetic confinement experiments. Microwave power is effective in ionizing plasma and heating electrons through the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) process. Since the power is absorbed in regions of the magnetic field where resonance occurs and launching antennas with narrow beam widths are possible, power deposition location can be highly controlled. This is important for maximizing the power utilization efficiency and improving plasma parameters. Development of the gyrotron oscillator tube has advanced in recent years so that a 1-MW continuous-wave, 140-GHz power source will soon be available. Gyrotron output power is typically in a circular waveguide propagating a circular electric mode (such as TE 0,2 ) or a whispering-gallery mode (such as TE 15,2 ), depending on frequency and power level. An alternative high-power microwave source currently under development is the free-electron laser (FEL), which may be capable of generating 2-10 MW of average power at frequencies of up to 500 GHz. The FEL has a rectangular output waveguide carrying the TE 0,1 mode. Because of its higher complexity and cost, the high-average-power FEL is not yet as extensively developed as the gyrotron. In this paper, several types of operating ECH transmission systems are discussed, as well systems currently being developed. The trend in this area is toward higher power and frequency due to the improvements in plasma density and temperature possible. Every system requires a variety of components, such as mode converters, waveguide bends, launchers, and directional couplers. Some of these components are discussed here, along with ongoing work to improve their performance. 8 refs

  17. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Golcher, Edwin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-06-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ~ few mm), high current density (J ~ several tens of mA/cm2) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield () at different operating conditions are presented for K+ and Cs+ contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K+ beam of ~90 mA/cm2 were observed in 2.3 μs pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (~ 1 μs), high current densities (~ 100 mA/cm+) and low operating pressures (< 2 mtorr) were verified. For the latter, high but acceptable levels of beam emittance were measured (εn ≤ 0.006 π· mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ~ 5mA) by about a factor of 10.

  18. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create

  19. A National Collaboratory To Advance The Science Of High Temperature Plasma Physics For Magnetic Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, Allen R.; Johnson, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create

  20. Measurements of fusion-protons anisotropy around the pinch axis within high-current PF-1000 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies - IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion - IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Malinowska, A.; Malinowski, K.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Zebrowski, J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies - IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M.; Stepniewski, W. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion - IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    The paper describes measurements of fast protons produced by D-D fusion reactions during high-current discharges within the PF-1000 facility operated with the deuterium filling at 27 kV, 480 kJ. The measurements were performed by means of a set of pinhole-cameras equipped with PM-355 track detectors shielded by 80-{mu}m-thick Al-filters, which eliminated fast primary deuterons and protons of lower energy (< 3 MeV). Those cameras were placed at different angles around the pinch axis. The obtained proton images showed a distinct angular anisotropy, which was explained by an influence of local magnetic fields connected with a filamentary structure of the plasma column during the fast proton (and neutron) emission. The paper shows that in addition to measurements of a fusion neutron anisotropy it is reasonable to study also an anisotropy of fusion protons (originated from the second branch of the D-D reactions), as well as other charged fusion products. This document is composed of a paper followed by a poster

  1. Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion Pulses. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2011-2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    This publication presents experimental simulations of plasma-surface interaction phenomena at extreme conditions as expected in a fusion reactor, using dedicated test bed devices such as dense plasma focus, particle accelerators, plasma accelerators and plasma guns. It includes the investigation of the mechanism of material damage during transient heat loads on materials and addresses, in particular, the performance and adequacy of tungsten as plasma facing material for the next step fusion devices, such as ITER and fusion demonstration power plants. The publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of an IAEA coordinated research project on investigations on materials under high repetition and intense fusion pulses, conducted in the period 2011-2016 and provides a practical knowledge base for scientists and engineers carrying out activities in the plasma-material surface interaction area. Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA has made it possible for States that are not yet members of the ITER project to contribute to ITER relevant scientific investigations, which have led to increased capabilities of diagnostics for plasma surface interaction.

  2. Radiation Tolerance of Controlled Fusion Welds in High Temperature Oxidation Resistant FeCrAl Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    High temperature oxidation resistant iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys are candidate alloys for nuclear applications due to their exceptional performance during off-normal conditions such as a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) compared to currently deployed zirconium-based claddings [1]. A series of studies have been completed to determine the weldability of the FeCrAl alloy class and investigate the weldment performance in the as-received (non-irradiated) state [2,3]. These initial studies have shown the general effects of composition and microstructure on the weldability of FeCrAl alloys. Given this, limited details on the radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys and their weldments exist. Here, the highest priority candidate FeCrAl alloys and their weldments have been investigated after irradiation to enable a better understanding of FeCrAl alloy weldment performance within a high-intensity neutron field. The alloys examined include C35M (Fe-13%Cr-5% Al) and variants with aluminum (+2%) or titanium carbide (+1%) additions. Two different sub-sized tensile geometries, SS-J type and SS-2E (or SS-mini), were neutron irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor to 1.8-1.9 displacements per atom (dpa) in the temperature range of 195°C to 559°C. Post irradiation examination of the candidate alloys was completed and included uniaxial tensile tests coupled with digital image correlation (DIC), scanning electron microscopy-electron back scattered diffraction analysis (SEM-EBSD), and SEM-based fractography. In addition to weldment testing, non-welded parent material was examined as a direct comparison between welded and non-welded specimen performance. Both welded and non-welded specimens showed a high degree of radiation-induced hardening near irradiation temperatures of 200°C, moderate radiation-induced hardening near temperatures of 360°C, and almost no radiation-induced hardening at elevated temperatures near 550°C. Additionally, low-temperature irradiations showed

  3. Roughing up Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Sophia Zhengzi; Todorov, Viktor

    -section. An investment strategy that goes long stocks with high jump betas and short stocks with low jump betas produces significant average excess returns. These higher risk premiums for the discontinuous and overnight market betas remain significant after controlling for a long list of other firm characteristics......Motivated by the implications from a stylized equilibrium pricing framework, we investigate empirically how individual equity prices respond to continuous, or \\smooth," and jumpy, or \\rough," market price moves, and how these different market price risks, or betas, are priced in the cross......-section of expected returns. Based on a novel highfrequency dataset of almost one-thousand individual stocks over two decades, we find that the two rough betas associated with intraday discontinuous and overnight returns entail significant risk premiums, while the intraday continuous beta is not priced in the cross...

  4. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacman, David; Merkel, Susanne; Croner, Roland; Papadopoulos, Thomas; Brueckl, Wolfgang; Dimmler, Arno

    2007-01-01

    Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4) in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2) vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4)), lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival) using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and shorter survival. Stromal TGF-beta receptor 2

  5. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Methods Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4 in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2 vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. Results High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and

  6. Viral membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism

  7. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  8. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISHER, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEUTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial 5 to 30 (micro), are the most promising approach to imaging NIF target plasmas with the desired 5 (micro) spatial resolution in the target plane. Gel bubble detectors are being tested to record neutron images of ICF implosions in OMEGA experiments. By improving the noise reduction techniques used in analyzing the data taken in June 2000, we have been able to image the neutron emission from 6 · 10 13 yield DT target plasmas with a target plane spatial resolution of ∼ 140 (micro). As expected, the spatial resolution was limited by counting statistics as a result of the low neutron detection efficiency of the easy-to-use gel bubble detectors. The results have been submitted for publication and will be the subject of an invited talk at the October 2001 Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society. To improve the counting statistics, data was taken in May 2001 using a stack of four gel detectors and integrated over a series of up to seven high-yield DT shots. Analysis of the 2001 data is still in its early stages. Gel detectors were chosen for these initial tests since the bubbles can be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. They consist of ∼ 5000 drops (∼ 100 (micro) in diameter) of bubble detector liquid/cm 3 suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies ∼ 99% of the detector volume. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector and a light scattering system to record the bubble locations a few microseconds after the neutron exposure when the bubbles are ∼ 10 (micro) in diameter, should result in ∼ 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency and a target plane resolution on OMEGA of ∼ 10 to 50 (micro)

  9. Studies in High Current Density Ion Sources for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon-Golcher, E.

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation develops diverse research on small (diameter ∼ few mm), high current density (J ∼ several tens of mA/cm 2 ) heavy ion sources. The research has been developed in the context of a programmatic interest within the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program to explore alternative architectures in the beam injection systems that use the merging of small, bright beams. An ion gun was designed and built for these experiments. Results of average current density yield ( ) at different operating conditions are presented for K + and Cs + contact ionization sources and potassium aluminum silicate sources. Maximum values for a K + beam of ∼90 mA/cm 2 were observed in 2.3 (micro)s pulses. Measurements of beam intensity profiles and emittances are included. Measurements of neutral particle desorption are presented at different operating conditions which lead to a better understanding of the underlying atomic diffusion processes that determine the lifetime of the emitter. Estimates of diffusion times consistent with measurements are presented, as well as estimates of maximum repetition rates achievable. Diverse studies performed on the composition and preparation of alkali aluminosilicate ion sources are also presented. In addition, this work includes preliminary work carried out exploring the viability of an argon plasma ion source and a bismuth metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. For the former ion source, fast rise-times (∼ 1 (micro)s), high current densities (∼ 100 mA/cm 2 ) and low operating pressures ( e psilon) n (le) 0.006 π mm · mrad) although measured currents differed from the desired ones (I ∼ 5mA) by about a factor of 10

  10. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Development of high-current high-field conductors in Europe for fusion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, J.-L.; Spadoni, M.; Salpietro, E.; Ciazynski, D.; Ricci, M.; Libeyre, P.; della Corte, A.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the preparation for the realization of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), the construction and test of relevant models of seven different parts of the reactor was decided. Two of them are related to the superconducting coils: the toroidal field model coil (TFMC) and the central solenoid model coil (CSMC). For these superconducting coils, due to the expected high values of the current (≥60 kA) and voltage (≥5 kV with respect to the ground) the adopted technology was that of cable in conduit conductor (CICC). Until recently, little experience of this technology existed. Therefore, an extensive research and development programme has been carried out, in the last 10 years, by the ITER partners and particularly in Europe, to design, industrialize and test these large conductors and their joints. The EURATOM associations CEA and ENEA played a leading part in this phase. The CICC concept is described and the results of the developments are presented. About 7 km of conductors were manufactured in the industry and for that more than 10 tonnes of Nb3Sn strands were produced in Europe. In this large programme, Europe is particularly in charge of the TFMC, which will be tested this summer at Forschung Zentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). In the framework of this programme, three full size conductors and joint samples were tested at the European Sultan test facility (Centre de Recherches de Physique des Plasmas, Villigen, Switzerland), to validate the technological choices and check that the ITER specifications were met. The results of these tests are presented in detail. Starting from the strand critical properties, the conductors made of about 1000 strands did reach their expected performance. The joints of these large conductors are very special and delicate components. Their behaviour was quite successful and the joint resistance of these samples (of the order of 1 nΩ) was well within the specifications.

  12. The belt-screw-pinch reactor and other high-beta systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustraan, M.; Klippel, H.Th.; Veringa, H.J.; Verschuur, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    In a screw-pinch reactor the expenditure for plasma implosion and compression can be reduced and the reacting volume and burn time can be enlarged. This is possible by pinch ignition of only a few percent of the fuel. Fusion energy then ignites injected fuel pellets and expands the plasma. The magnitude of the pulsed magnetic fields is such as to make the application of superconducting coils feasible. An economical reactor model is described. A comparison is made with tokamak and reversed field pinch reactor designs. (author)

  13. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1976-01-01

    A method for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates.

  14. Method for nondestructive fuel assay of laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for nondestructively determining the deuterium and tritium content of laser fusion targets by counting the x rays produced by the interaction of tritium beta particles with the walls of the microballoons used to contain the deuterium and tritium gas mixture under high pressure. The x rays provide a direct measure of the tritium content and a means for calculating the deuterium content using the initial known D-T ratio and the known deuterium and tritium diffusion rates

  15. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementson, Joel [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied in high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W55+ through Ne-like W64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W44+ through Co-like W47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W64+ through Li-like W71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W6+ could be useful for

  16. Fusion neutron irradiation of Ni(Si) alloys at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.S.; Guinan, M.W.; Hahn, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    Two Ni-4% Si alloys, with different cold work levels, are irradiated with 14 MeV fusion neutrons at 623 K, and their Curie temperatures are monitored during irradiation. The results are compared to those of an identical alloy irradiated by 2 MeV electrons. The results show that increasing dislocation density increases the Curie temperature change rate. At the same damage rate, the Curie temperature change rate for the alloy irradiated by 14 MeV fusion neutrons is only 6 to 7% of that for an identical alloy irradiated by 2 MeV electrons. It is well known that the migration of radiation induced defects contributes to segregation of silicon atoms at sinks in this alloy, causing the Curie temperature changes. The current results imply that the relative free defect production efficiency decreases from one for the electron irradiated sample to 6 to 7% for the fusion neutron irradiated sample. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Fusion neutron irradiation of Ni(Si) alloys at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.S.; Guinan, M.W.; Hahn, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    Two Ni-4% Si alloys, with different cold work levels, are irradiated with 14 MeV fusion neutrons at 623 K, and their Curie temperatures are monitored during irradiation. The results are compared to those of an identical alloy irradiated by 2 MeV electrons. The results show that increasing dislocation density increases the Curie temperature change rate. At the same damage rate, the Curie temperature change rate for the alloy irradiated by 14 MeV fusion neutrons is only 6 to 7% of that for an identical alloy irradiated by 2 MeV electrons. It is well known that the migration of radiation induced defects contributes to segregation of silicon atoms at sinks in this alloy, causing the Curie temperature changes. The current results imply that the relative free defect production efficiency decreases from one for the electron irradiated sample to 6 to 7% for the fusion neutron irradiated sample. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Fusion neutron irradiation of Ni-Si alloys at high temperature*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J. S.; Guinan, M. W.; Hahn, P. A.

    1988-07-01

    Two Ni-4% Si alloys, with different cold work levels, have been irradiated with 14-MeV fusion neutrons at 623 K, and their Curie temperatures have been monitored during irradiation. The results are compared to those of an identical alloy irradiated by 2-MeV electrons. The results show that increasing dislocation density increases the Curie temperature change rate. At the same damage rate, the Curie temperature change rate for the alloy irradiated by 14-MeV fusion neutrons is only 6-7% of that for an identical alloy irradiated by 2-MeV electrons. It is well known that the migration of radiation induced defects contributes to segregation of silicon atoms at sinks in this alloy, causing the Curie temperature changes. The current results imply that the relative free defect production efficiency decreases from one for the electron irradiated sample to 6-7% for the fusion neutron irradiated sample.

  19. High accuracy prediction of beta-turns and their types using propensities and multiple alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Patrick F J; Alix, Alain J P

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a method that predicts both the presence and the type of beta-turns, using a straightforward approach based on propensities and multiple alignments. The propensities were calculated classically, but the way to use them for prediction was completely new: starting from a tetrapeptide sequence on which one wants to evaluate the presence of a beta-turn, the propensity for a given residue is modified by taking into account all the residues present in the multiple alignment at this position. The evaluation of a score is then done by weighting these propensities by the use of Position-specific score matrices generated by PSI-BLAST. The introduction of secondary structure information predicted by PSIPRED or SSPRO2 as well as taking into account the flanking residues around the tetrapeptide improved the accuracy greatly. This latter evaluated on a database of 426 reference proteins (previously used on other studies) by a sevenfold crossvalidation gave very good results with a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.42 and an overall prediction accuracy of 74.8%; this places our method among the best ones. A jackknife test was also done, which gave results within the same range. This shows that it is possible to reach neural networks accuracy with considerably less computional cost and complexity. Furthermore, propensities remain excellent descriptors of amino acid tendencies to belong to beta-turns, which can be useful for peptide or protein engineering and design. For beta-turn type prediction, we reached the best accuracy ever published in terms of MCC (except for the irregular type IV) in the range of 0.25-0.30 for types I, II, and I' and 0.13-0.15 for types VIII, II', and IV. To our knowledge, our method is the only one available on the Web that predicts types I' and II'. The accuracy evaluated on two larger databases of 547 and 823 proteins was not improved significantly. All of this was implemented into a Web server called COUDES (French acronym

  20. Construction of a 1 MeV Electron Accelerator for High Precision Beta Decay Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfellow, Brenden

    2014-09-01

    Beta decay energy calibration for detectors is typically established using conversion sources. However, the calibration points from conversion sources are not evenly distributed over the beta energy spectrum and the foil backing of the conversion sources produces perturbations in the calibration spectrum. To improve this, an external, tunable electron beam coupled by a magnetic field can be used to calibrate the detector. The 1 MeV electron accelerator in development at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) utilizes a pelletron charging system. The electron gun shoots 104 electrons per second with an energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV and is pulsed at a 10 kHz rate with a few ns width. The magnetic field in the spectrometer is 1 T and guiding fields of 0.01 to 0.05 T for the electron gun are used to produce a range of pitch angles. This accelerator can be used to calibrate detectors evenly over its energy range and determine the detector response over a range of pitch angles. Beta decay energy calibration for detectors is typically established using conversion sources. However, the calibration points from conversion sources are not evenly distributed over the beta energy spectrum and the foil backing of the conversion sources produces perturbations in the calibration spectrum. To improve this, an external, tunable electron beam coupled by a magnetic field can be used to calibrate the detector. The 1 MeV electron accelerator in development at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) utilizes a pelletron charging system. The electron gun shoots 104 electrons per second with an energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV and is pulsed at a 10 kHz rate with a few ns width. The magnetic field in the spectrometer is 1 T and guiding fields of 0.01 to 0.05 T for the electron gun are used to produce a range of pitch angles. This accelerator can be used to calibrate detectors evenly over its energy range and determine the detector response over a range of pitch angles

  1. Neoclassical current studies in high beta plasmas. Technical progress report, October 1, 1982-September 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    During the 12-month period, October 1, 1982 to September 30, 1983 the Levitated Octupole has been dedicated to a study of neoclassical currents. At beta values of a few percent, both the Pfirsch-Schlueter current and the bootstrap current have been observed and compared with theoretical predictions. The spatial variation of the current both radially and poloidally are found to agree with the prediction over a wide range of collisionality. A four megawatt ICRH capability exists for sustaining the current in steady state

  2. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2007-08-29

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  3. Highly Selective Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase III beta Inhibitors and Structural Insight into Their Mode of Action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mejdrová, Ivana; Chalupská, Dominika; Kögler, Martin; Šála, Michal; Plačková, Pavla; Bäumlová, Adriana; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Procházková, Eliška; Dejmek, Milan; Guillon, Rémi; Strunin, Dmytro; Weber, Jan; Lee, G.; Birkuš, G.; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Bouřa, Evžen; Nencka, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 9 (2015), s. 3767-3793 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302; GA ČR GA15-09310S; GA ČR GJ15-21030Y EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 333916 - STARPI4K Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta * broad-spectrum antiviral agents * positive-sense RNA viruses Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.589, year: 2015

  4. Identifying heavy-ion-beam fusion design and system features with high economic leverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    We have conducted parametric economic studies for heavy-ion-beam fusion electric power plants. We examined the effects on the cost of electricity of several design parameters: maximum achievable chamber pulse rate, driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, and net electric power. We found with reasonable assumptions on driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, a 2 to 3 GWe heavy-ion-beam fusion power plant, with a chamber pulse rate of 5 to 10 Hz, can be competitive with nuclear and coal power plants

  5. Alignment system for large high-power CO2 laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bausman, M.D.; Liberman, I.; Manning, J.P.; Singer, S.

    1977-01-01

    Aligning a pulsed CO 2 laser fusion system involves control systems which insure that the centers of beams follow a prescribed path to within 1 mm, that the pointing of the beams is correct to approximately 20 microradians, and that focal spot at the location of the experimental fusion target be placed to accuracies of 10 to 20 micrometers laterally and approximately 50 micrometers axially. These alignments are accomplished by a variety of sensing techniques which include thermal pinholes and quadrant detectors, Seebeck effect silicon detectors, and imaging autocollimating Hartmann test procedures employing ir vidicon systems

  6. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P

    1998-01-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta......-rII). We have, in other studies, shown that the presence of TGF beta-rII was mandatory for transmitting the growth inhibitory effect of TGF beta. The results showed a statistically significant difference in Dq, i.e. the shoulder width of the survival curve, between cell lines expressing TGF beta......-rII and cell lines which did not express the receptor (P = 0.01). Cell lines expressing TGF beta-rII had a high Dq-value. TGF beta-rII expression did not correlate with any other radiobiological parameters. We suggest that an intact growth inhibitory pathway mediated by the TGF beta-rII may have a significant...

  7. Fast and sensitive analysis of beta blockers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomková, Jana; Ondra, Peter; Kocianová, Eva; Václavík, Jan

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a method for the determination of acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, nebivolol and sotalol in human serum by liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution TOF mass spectrometry. After liquid-liquid extraction, beta blockers were separated on a reverse-phase analytical column (Acclaim RS 120; 100 × 2.1 mm, 2.2 μm). The total run time was 6 min for each sample. Linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, matrix effects, specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery and sample stability were evaluated. The method was successfully applied to the therapeutic drug monitoring of 108 patients with hypertension. This method was also used for determination of beta blockers in 33 intoxicated patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L., E-mail: lyin@lanl.gov; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a kλ{sub D} range of 0.15 < kλ{sub D} < 0.5, where stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is active (k is the initial electron plasma wave number and λ{sub D} is the Debye length). Using particle-in-cell simulations, the SRS reflectivity is found to scale as ∼ (kλ{sub D}){sup −4} for kλ{sub D} ≳ 0.3 where electron trapping effects dominate SRS saturation; the reflectivity scaling deviates from the above for kλ{sub D} < 0.3 when Langmuir decay instability (LDI) is present. The SRS risk is shown to be highest for kλ{sub D} between 0.2 and 0.3. SRS re-scattering processes are found to be unimportant under conditions relevant to ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Large-scale simulations of the hohlraum plasma show that the SRS wavelength spectrum peaks below 600 nm, consistent with most measured NIF spectra, and that nonlinear trapping in the presence of plasma gradients determines the SRS spectral peak. Collisional effects on SRS, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), LDI, and re-scatter, together with three dimensional effects, are examined. Effects of collisions are found to include de-trapping as well as cross-speckle electron temperature variation from collisional heating, the latter of which reduces gain, introduces a positive frequency shift that counters the trapping-induced negative frequency shift, and affects SRS and SBS saturation. Bowing and breakup of ion-acoustic wavefronts saturate SBS and cause a dramatic, sharp decrease in SBS reflectivity. Mitigation of SRS and SBS in the strongly nonlinear trapping regime is discussed.

  9. New WC-Cu thermal barriers for fusion applications: High temperature mechanical behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejado, E.; Dias, M.; Correia, J. B.; Palacios, T.; Carvalho, P. A.; Alves, E.; Pastor, J. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The combination of tungsten carbide and copper as a thermal barrier could effectively reduce the thermal mismatch between tungsten and copper alloy, which are proposed as base armour and heat sink, respectively, in the divertor of future fusion reactors. Furthermore, since the optimum operating temperature windows for these divertor materials do not overlap, a compatible thermal barrier interlayer between them is required to guarantee a smooth thermal transition, which in addition may mitigate radiation damage. The aim of this work is to study the thermo-mechanical properties of WC-Cu cermets fabricated by hot pressing. Focus is placed on the temperature effect and composition dependence, as the volume fraction of copper varies from 25 to 50 and 75 vol%. To explore this behaviour, fracture experiments are performed within a temperature range from room temperature to 800 °C under vacuum. In addition, elastic modulus and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated from these tests. Results reveal a strong dependence of the performance on temperature and on the volume fraction of copper and, surprisingly, a slight percent of Cu (25 vol%) can effectively reduce the large difference in thermal expansion between tungsten and copper alloy, which is a critical point for in service applications. The thermal performance of these materials, together with their mechanical properties could indeed reduce the heat transfer from the PFM to the underlying element while supporting the high thermal stresses of the joint. Thus, the presence of these cermets could allow the reactor to operate above the ductile to brittle transition temperature of tungsten, without compromising the underlying materials.

  10. Fast computational scheme for feedback control of high current fusion tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Khayrutdinov, R.; Azizov, E.; Jardin, S.

    1992-01-01

    An accurate and fast numerical model of tokamak plasma evolution is presented. In this code (DINA) the equilibrium problem of plasmas with free boundaries in externally changing magnetic fields is solved simultaneously with the plasma transport equation. The circuit equations are solved for the vacuum vessel and passive and active coils. The code includes pellet injection, neutral beam heating, auxiliary heating, and alpha particle heating. Bootstrap and beam-driven plasma currents are accounted for. An inverse variable technique is utilized to obtain the coordinates of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. This numerical algorithm permits to determine the flux coordinates very quickly and accurately. The authors show that using the fully resistive MHD analysis the region of stability (to vertical motions) is wider than using the rigid displacement model. Comparing plasma motions with the same gain, it is seen that the plasma oscillates more in the rigid analysis than in the MHD analysis. They study the influence of the pick up coil's location and the possibility of control of the plasma vertical position. They use a simple modification of the standard control law that enables the control of the plasma with pick up coils located at any position. This flexibility becomes critical in the design of future complex high current tokamak systems. The fully resistive MHD model permits to obtain accurate estimates of the plasma response. This approach yields computational time savings of one to two orders of magnitude with respect to other existing MHD models. In this sense, conventional numerical algorithms do not provide suitable models for application of modern control techniques into real time expert systems. The proposed inverse variable technique is rather suitable for incorporation in a comprehensive expert system for feedback control of fusion tokamaks in real time

  11. High-grade spondylolisthesis: gradual reduction using Magerl's external fixator followed by circumferential fusion technique and long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampalis, Christos; Grevitt, Michael; Shafafy, Masood; Webb, John

    2012-05-01

    To report the results of a cohort of patients treated with this technique high lighting radiological and functional outcomes, discussing also benefits arising from a gradual reduction procedure compared with other techniques. We evaluated nine patients who have undergone high-grade listhesis reduction and circumferential fusion at our institution from 1988 to 2006. Average length of follow-up was 11 years (5-19). Functional outcomes and radiological measurements were recorded and reported. Slip magnitude was reduced by an average of 2.9 grades (Meyerding classification). Slip angle improved by an average of 66% (p = 0.0001), lumbosacral angle by 47% (p = 0.0002), sacral rotation by 51% (p = 0.0068) and sacral inclination by 47% (p = 0.0055). At the latest follow-up 88.9% had achieved solid fusion. Post-operative 10-point Visual Analogue Score (VAS) for back pain had improved by 70% (p Average postoperative Oswestry Disability Index for all patients was 8% (range 0-16%) and that for Low Back Outcome Scores was 56.6 (range 44-70). All components of Short Form 36 Health Survey were greater than 80%. Overall patients' expectations were met in 100%. This is an effective and safe technique which addresses the lumbosacral kyphosis and cosmetic deformity without the neurological complications which accompany other reduction and fusion techniques for high-grade spondylolisthesis.

  12. Mitigation of rotational instability of high-beta field-reversed configuration by double-sided magnetized plasmoid injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, H.; Inomoto, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Asai, T.; Takahashi, Ts. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Active control of destructive rotational instability in a high-beta field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was demonstrated by using double-sided plasmoid injection technique. The elliptical deformation of the FRC's cross section was mitigated as a result of substantial suppression of spontaneous spin-up by the plasmoid injection. It was found that the injected plasmoid provided better stability against the rotational mode, suggesting that the compensation of the FRC's decaying magnetic flux might help to suppress its spin-up.

  13. Modeling of cascade and sub-cascade formation at high pka energies in irradiated fusion structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, A.; Metelkin, E.V.; Semenov, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A new theoretical model is developed for the investigations of cascade and sub-cascade formation in fusion structural materials under fast neutron irradiation at high primary knock atom (PKA) energies. Under 14 MeV neutron irradiation especially of light fusion structural materials such as Be, C, SiC materials PKA will have the energies up to 1 MeV. At such high energies it is very difficult to use the Monte Carlo or molecular dynamic simulations. The developed model is based on the analytical consideration of elastic collisions between displaced moving atoms into atomic cascades produced by a PKAs with the some kinetic energy obtained from fast neutrons. The Tomas-Fermy interaction potential is used for the describing of elastic collisions between moving atoms. The suggested model takes into account also the electronic losses for moving atoms between elastic collisions. The self consistent criterion for sub-cascade formation is suggested here which is based on the comparison of mean distance between two consequent PKA collisions and size of sub-cascade produced by PKA. The analytical relations for the most important characteristics of cascades and sub-cascade are determined including the average number of sub-cascades per one PKA in the dependence on PKA energy, the distance between sub-cascades and the average cascade and sub-cascade sizes as a function of PKA energy. The developed model allows determining the total numbers, distribution functions of cascades and sub-cascades in dependence on their sizes and generation rate of cascades and sub-cascades for different fusion neutron energy spectra. Based on the developed model the numerical calculations for main characteristics of cascades and sub-cascades in different fusion structural materials are performed using the neutron flux and PKA energy spectra for fusion reactors: ITER and DEMO. The main characteristics for cascade and sub-cascade formation are calculated here for the

  14. Modeling of cascade and sub-cascade formation at high PKA energies in irradiated fusion structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazanov, A.I.; Metelkin, E.V.; Semenov, E.V.

    2009-01-01

    A new theoretical model is developed for the investigations of cascade and sub-cascade formation in fusion structural materials under fast neutron irradiation at high primary knock-on atom energies. Light fusion structural materials: such as Be, C and SiC under 14 MeV neutron irradiation in fusion reactor will have the primary knock-on atoms with the energies up to 1 MeV. It is very difficult to use at such high energies the Monte-Carlo or molecular dynamic simulations [H.L. Heinisch, B.N. Singh, Philos. Mag. A67 (1993) 407; H.L. Heinisch, B.N. Singh, J. Nucl. Mater. 251 (1997) 77]. The developed model is based on the analytical consideration of elastic collisions between displaced moving atoms produced by primary knock-on atoms with some kinetic energies obtained from fast neutrons and crystal lattice atoms. The Thomas-Fermi interaction potential is used here for the description of these elastic atomic collisions. The suggested model takes into account also the electronic losses for moving atoms between elastic collisions. The self-consistent criterion for sub-cascade formation is suggested here which is based on the comparison of mean distance of primary knock-on atoms between consequent collisions of them with the target atoms and a size of sub-cascade produced by moving secondary knock-on atoms produced in such collisions. The analytical relations for the most important characteristics of cascades and sub-cascades are determined including the average number of sub-cascades per one primary knock-on atom in the dependence on its energy, the distance between sub-cascades and the average cascade and sub-cascade sizes. The developed model allows determining the total numbers, distribution functions of cascades and sub-cascades in dependence on their sizes and generation rate of cascades and sub-cascades for the different fusion neutron energy spectra. On the basis of this developed model the numerical calculations for main characteristics of cascades and sub

  15. High-dose continuous infusion beta-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A; Childs, Richard; Holland, Steven M; Anderson, Victoria L; Morris, John C; Wilson, Wyndham H; Drusano, George L; Walsh, Thomas J

    2010-05-01

    To report a case series of high-dose continuous infusion beta-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Continuous infusion ceftazidime or aztreonam was administered to achieve target drug concentrations at or above the minimum inhibitory concentration, when possible, in 3 patients with P. aeruginosa infections. The maximal calculated target drug concentration was 100 mg/L. In the first patient, with primary immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and aggressive cutaneous T-cell lymphoma/leukemia, continuous infusion ceftazidime (6.5-9.6 g/day) was used to successfully treat multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa bacteremia. In the second patient, with leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1, continuous infusion aztreonam (8.4 g/day) was used to successfully treat multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa wound infections. In the third patient, with severe aplastic anemia, continuous infusion ceftazidime (7-16.8 g/day) was used to treat P. aeruginosa pneumonia and bacteremia. In each patient, bacteremia cleared, infected wounds healed, and pneumonia improved in response to continuous infusion ceftazidime or aztreonam. Treatment strategies for multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa infections are limited. A novel treatment strategy, when no other options are available, is the continuous infusion of existing beta-lactam antibiotics to maximize their pharmacodynamic activity. High-dose continuous infusion ceftazidime or aztreonam was used for the successful treatment of resistant systemic P. aeruginosa infections in 3 chronically immunocompromised patients. Continuous infusion beta-lactam antibiotics are a potentially useful treatment strategy for resistant P. aeruginosa infections in immunocompromised patients.

  16. High precision measurement of fuel density profiles in nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, J.; von Hellermann, M.; Konig, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for deducing fuel density profiles of nuclear fusion plasmas in realtime during an experiment. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network is used to create a mapping between plasma radiation spectra and indirectly deduced hydrogen isotope densities. By combining

  17. High-power pulsed light ion beams for applications in fusion- and matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.; Karow, H.U.; Rusch, D.; Zieher, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    The foundations of ultrahigh-power pulse techniques are described together with the two pulse generators KALIF (Karlsruhe Light lion Facility) and Pollux of the INR. The physical principles and diagnostics of ion beam production are discussed as well as possible applications in the field of fusion research. (orig./HT) [de

  18. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  19. [Fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer

  20. Cluster expression in fission and fusion in high-dimensional macroscopic-microscopic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Moller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the fission-fusion potential-energy surfaces of very heavy nuclei and the formation process of these nuclei in cold-fusion reactions. In the potential-energy surfaces, we find a pronounced valley structure, with one valley corresponding to the cold-fusion reaction, the other to fission. As the touching point is approached in the cold-fusion entrance channel, an instability towards dynamical deformation of the projectile occurs, which enhances the fusion cross section. These two 'cluster effects' enhance the production of superheavy nuclei in cold-fusion reactions, in addition to the effect of the low compound-system excitation energy in these reactions. Heavy-ion fusion reactions have been used extensively to synthesize heavy elements beyond actinide nuclei. In order to proceed further in this direction, we need to understand the formation process more precisely, not just the decay process. The dynamics of the formation process are considerably more complex than the dynamics necessary to interpret the spontaneous-fission decay of heavy elements. However, before implementing a full dynamical description it is useful to understand the basic properties of the potential-energy landscape encountered in the initial stages of the collision. The collision process and entrance-channel landscape can conveniently be separated into two parts, namely the early-stage separated system before touching and the late-stage composite system after touching. The transition between these two stages is particularly important, but not very well understood until now. To understand better the transition between the two stages we analyze here in detail the potential energy landscape or 'collision surface' of the system both outside and inside the touching configuration of the target and projectile. In Sec. 2, we discuss calculated five-dimensional potential-energy landscapes inside touching and identify major features. In Sec. 3, we present calculated