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Sample records for high yielding rice

  1. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

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    Nathaniel B Lyman

    Full Text Available Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  2. Grain yield and quality responses of tropical hybrid rice to high night-time temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, W.; Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Xie, F.; Schmidt, R.C.; Jagadish, K.S.V.

    2016-01-01

    High temperature has a pronounced effect on grain yield and quality in rice. Climate change has increased night temperature more than day temperature in many parts of the world. How rice responds to high night-time temperature (HNT) is largely unknown. This study presents the first effort to assess

  3. Exploring options to combine high yields with high nitrogen use efficiencies in irrigated rice in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Q.; Bouman, B.A.M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Keulen, van H.; Cao, W.

    2007-01-01

    In Jiangsu province, Southeast China, high irrigated rice yields (6-8000 kg ha(-1)) are supported by high nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs (260-300 kg N ha(-1)) and low fertilizer N use efficiencies (recoveries of 30-35%). Improvement of fertilizer N use efficiency can increase farmers' profitability

  4. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

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    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  5. In vitro somatic embryogenesis of high yielding varieties of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) belongs to the family Gramineae and is the staple food for half of the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the total land area covered under cereals. Now-a-days, the production of rice is hampered due to climatic changes. Therefore, it is essential to develop variety which is tolerant to ...

  6. Breeding high-yielding drought-tolerant rice: genetic variations and conventional and molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Dixit, Shalabh; Ram, T; Yadaw, R B; Mishra, K K; Mandal, N P

    2014-11-01

    The increased occurrence and severity of drought stress have led to a high yield decline in rice in recent years in drought-affected areas. Drought research at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) over the past decade has concentrated on direct selection for grain yield under drought. This approach has led to the successful development and release of 17 high-yielding drought-tolerant rice varieties in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Africa. In addition to this, 14 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) showing a large effect against high-yielding drought-susceptible popular varieties were identified using grain yield as a selection criterion. Six of these (qDTY 1.1 , qDTY 2.2 , qDTY 3.1 , qDTY 3.2 , qDTY 6.1 , and qDTY 12.1 ) showed an effect against two or more high-yielding genetic backgrounds in both the lowland and upland ecosystem, indicating their usefulness in increasing the grain yield of rice under drought. The yield of popular rice varieties IR64 and Vandana has been successfully improved through a well-planned marker-assisted backcross breeding approach, and QTL introgression in several other popular varieties is in progress. The identification of large-effect QTLs for grain yield under drought and the higher yield increase under drought obtained through the use of these QTLs (which has not been reported in other cereals) indicate that rice, because of its continuous cultivation in two diverse ecosystems (upland, drought tolerant, and lowland, drought susceptible), has benefited from the existence of larger genetic variability than in other cereals. This can be successfully exploited using marker-assisted breeding. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Research Advances in High-Yielding Cultivation and Physiology of Super Rice

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    Jing FU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, China launched a program to breed super rice or super hybrid rice by combining intersubspecific heterosis with ideal plant types. Today, approximately 80 super rice varieties have been released and some of them show high grain yields of 12–21 t/hm2 in field experiments. The main reasons for the high yields of super rice varieties, compared with those of conventional varieties, can be summarized as follows: more spikelets per panicle and larger sink size (number of spikelets per square meter; larger leaf area index, longer duration of green leaf, greater photosynthetic rate, higher lodging resistance, greater dry matter accumulation before the heading stage, greater remobilization of pre-stored carbohydrates from stems and leaves to grains during the grain-filling period; and larger root system and greater root activity. However, there are two main problems in super rice production: poor grain-filling of the later-flowering inferior spikelets (in contrast to earlier-flowering superior spikelets, and low and unstable seed-setting rate. Here, we review recent research advances in the crop physiology of super rice, focusing on biological features, formation of yield components, and population quality. Finally, we suggest further research on crop physiology of super rice.

  8. Response of high yielding rice varieties to NaCl salinity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity is one the biggest constraint to obtain crop potential yield throughout paddy fields in some part of the coastal line of rice cultivated area in Iran. In order to find resistant varieties and study the reaction of some newly released high yielding varieties to different levels of salinity of irrigation water an experiment was ...

  9. Responses of Yield Characteristics to High Temperature During Flowering Stage in Hybrid Rice Guodao 6

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    Guan-fu FU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available By sowing at different dates during 2005 and 2006 both in paddy fields and greenhouse, a super hybrid rice combination Guodao 6 and a conventional hybrid rice combination Xieyou 46 (as control were used to analyze the differences in heat injury index, seed setting rate, grain yield and its components. Guodao 6 showed more stable yield and spikelet fertility, and lower heat injury index than Xieyou 46. Further studies indicated that the spikelet sterility is positively correlated with the average daily temperature and the maximum daily temperature, with the coefficients of 0.8604 and 0.9850 (P<0.05 respectively in Guodao 6. The effect of high temperature injury on seed setting caused by maximum daily temperature was lower than that by average daily temperature during the grain filling stage.

  10. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice.

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    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B; McNally, Kenneth L; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; McKay, John K

    2017-02-21

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

  11. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

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    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  12. Photosynthesis of the flag leaf blade and its sheath in high-yielding hybrid rice 'Liangyoupeijiu'.

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    Guo, Zhao-Wu; Li, He-Song; Wang, Ruo-Zhong; Xiao, Lang-Tao

    2007-12-01

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice 'Liangyoupeijiu' (LYP9) and hybrid rice 'Shanyou 63' (SY63) as the experimental materials and using (14)C radio-autography, the photosynthetic capacities and distribution of photosynthates in flag leaf blades and sheaths of LYP9 were studied. The results showed that net photosynthetic rates (Pn) of the flag leaf blades and sheaths of LYP9 were much higher than those of SY63; the light transmissivity rates (LT) measured at the medium height of the flag leaf sheaths and the penultimate leaf sheaths were also significantly higher than those of SY63. The incipient activities, total activities and activation percentages of Rubisco in the flag leaf blade and sheath of LYP9 were all higher than those of SY63. The photosynthate transport rate in the sheaths of LYP9, and the quantity of photosynthate transported to the spikes and transformed to economic yield of LYP9 were all higher than those of SY63. The photosynthates produced by the sheaths were mainly transported to spike to make a certain contribution (about 15%) to yield.

  13. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice

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    Su, J.; Hu, C.; Yan, X.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Guan, Q.; Wang, Y.; Zhong, D.; Jansson, Georg C.; Wang, F.; Schnrer, Anna; Sun, Chuanxin

    2015-07-22

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7–17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25–100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades4. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement5. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions4,6, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2, conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased methane

  14. Expression of barley SUSIBA2 transcription factor yields high-starch low-methane rice.

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    Su, J; Hu, C; Yan, X; Jin, Y; Chen, Z; Guan, Q; Wang, Y; Zhong, D; Jansson, C; Wang, F; Schnürer, A; Sun, C

    2015-07-30

    Atmospheric methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide, and is responsible for about 20% of the global warming effect since pre-industrial times. Rice paddies are the largest anthropogenic methane source and produce 7-17% of atmospheric methane. Warm waterlogged soil and exuded nutrients from rice roots provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis in paddies with annual methane emissions of 25-100-million tonnes. This scenario will be exacerbated by an expansion in rice cultivation needed to meet the escalating demand for food in the coming decades. There is an urgent need to establish sustainable technologies for increasing rice production while reducing methane fluxes from rice paddies. However, ongoing efforts for methane mitigation in rice paddies are mainly based on farming practices and measures that are difficult to implement. Despite proposed strategies to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions, no high-starch low-methane-emission rice has been developed. Here we show that the addition of a single transcription factor gene, barley SUSIBA2 (refs 7, 8), conferred a shift of carbon flux to SUSIBA2 rice, favouring the allocation of photosynthates to aboveground biomass over allocation to roots. The altered allocation resulted in an increased biomass and starch content in the seeds and stems, and suppressed methanogenesis, possibly through a reduction in root exudates. Three-year field trials in China demonstrated that the cultivation of SUSIBA2 rice was associated with a significant reduction in methane emissions and a decrease in rhizospheric methanogen levels. SUSIBA2 rice offers a sustainable means of providing increased starch content for food production while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from rice cultivation. Approaches to increase rice productivity and reduce methane emissions as seen in SUSIBA2 rice may be particularly beneficial in a future climate with rising temperatures resulting in increased

  15. Optimal yield-related attributes of irrigated rice for high yield potential based on path analysis and stability analysis

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    Ganghua Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of yield in rice (Oryza sativa L. is vital for ensuring food security in China. Both rice breeders and growers need an improved understanding of the relationship between yield and yield-related traits. New indica cultivars (53 in 2007 and 48 in 2008 were grown in Taoyuan, Yunnan province, to identify important components contributing to yield. Additionally, two standard indica rice cultivars with similar yield potentials, II You 107 (a large-panicle type and Xieyou 107 (a heavy-panicle type, were planted in Taoyuan, Yunnan province and Nanjing, Jiangsu province, from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the stability of yield and yield-related attributes. Growth duration (GD, leaf area index (LAI, panicles per m2 (PN, and spikelets per m2 (SM were significantly and positively correlated with grain yield (GY over all years. Sequential path analysis identified PN and panicle weight (PW as important first-order traits that influenced grain yield. All direct effects were significant, as indicated by bootstrap analysis. Yield potential varied greatly across locations but not across years. Plant height (PH, days from heading to maturity (HM, and grain weight (GW were stable traits that showed little variation across sites or years, whereas GD (mainly the pre-heading period, PHP and PN varied significantly across locations. To achieve a yield of 15 t ha− 1, a cultivar should have a PH of 110–125 cm, a long GD with HM of approximately 40 days, a PN of 300–400 m− 2, and a GW of 29–31 mg.

  16. Pyramiding of drought yield QTLs into a high quality Malaysian rice cultivar MRQ74 improves yield under reproductive stage drought.

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    Shamsudin, Noraziyah Abd Aziz; Swamy, B P Mallikarjuna; Ratnam, Wickneswari; Sta Cruz, Ma Teressa; Sandhu, Nitika; Raman, Anitha K; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-12-01

    With the objective of improving the grain yield (GY) of the Malaysian high quality rice cultivar MRQ74 under reproductive stage drought stress (RS), three drought yield QTLs, viz. qDTY 2.2, qDTY 3.1 , and qDTY 12.1 were pyramided by marker assisted breeding (MAB). Foreground selection using QTL specific markers, recombinant selection using flanking markers, and background selections were performed in every generation. BC1F3 derived pyramided lines (PLs) with different combinations of qDTY 2.2, qDTY 3.1 , and qDTY 12.1 were evaluated under both RS and non-stress (NS) during the dry season (DS) of 2013 and 2014 at IRRI. The GY reductions in RS trials compared to NS trials ranged from 79 to 99 %. Plant height (PH) was reduced and days to flowering (DTF) was delayed under RS. Eleven BC1F5 MRQ74 PLs with yield advantages of 1009 to 3473 kg ha(-1) under RS and with yields equivalent to MRQ74 under NS trials were identified as promising drought tolerance PLs. Five best PLs, IR 98010-126-708-1-4, IR 98010-126-708-1-3, IR 98010-126-708-1-5, IR 99616-44-94-1-1, and IR 99616-44-94-1-2 with a yield advantage of more than 1000 kg ha(-1) under RS and with yield potential equivalent to that of MRQ74 under NS were selected. The effect of three drought grain yield QTLs under RS in MRQ74 was validated. Under NS, PLs with two qDTY combinations (qDTY 2.2 + qDTY 12.1 ) performed better than PLs with other qDTY combinations, indicating the presence of a positive interaction between qDTY 2.2 and qDTY 12.1 in the MRQ74 background. Drought tolerant MRQ74 PLs with a yield advantage of more than 1000 kg ha(-1) under RS were developed. Differential yield advantages of different combinations of the qDTYs indicate a differential synergistic relationship among qDTYs.

  17. Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators Enhance the Morpho-Physiological Growth and Yield of Rice under High Temperature.

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    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ihsan, Zahid; Shah, Adnan N; Wu, Chao; Yousaf, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Alharby, Hesham; Alghabari, Fahad; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on rice growth and yield attributes under high day (HDT) and high night temperature (HNT). Two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) were subjected to temperature treatments in controlled growth chambers and four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA), and triazoles (Tr) were applied. High temperature severely affected rice morphology, and also reduced leaf area, above-, and below-ground biomass, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, while increased the leaf water potential of both rice cultivars. Grain yield and its related attributes except number of panicles, were reduced under high temperature. The HDT posed more negative effects on rice physiological attributes, while HNT was more detrimental for grain formation and yield. The Huanghuazhan performed better than IR-64 under high temperature stress with better growth and higher grain yield. Exogenous application of PGRs was helpful in alleviating the adverse effects of high temperature. Among PGR combinations, the Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the most effective treatment for both cultivars under high temperature stress. The highest grain production by Vc+Ve+MejA+Br treated plants was due to enhanced photosynthesis, spikelet fertility and grain filling, which compensated the adversities of high temperature stress. Taken together, these results will be of worth for further understanding the adaptation and survival mechanisms of rice to high temperature and will assist in developing heat-resistant rice germplasm in future.

  18. Effects of field high temperature on grain yield and quality of a subtropical type japonica rice—Pon-Lai rice

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    Yi-Chien Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical japonica type rice is sensitive to high temperature. Pon-Lai rice is a special japonica type with adaptation to the subtropical climate in Taiwan. Facing climate change, rising temperatures would damage the yield and quality of rice production. This research was conducted using Pon-Lai rice in the field of a subtropical climate. We conducted 2 experiments, including a year-round experiment and collection of samples from different districts for building different temperature conditions. We analyzed the correlation between rising temperature and rice yield or quality. In our results, the critical period of temperature effect is 0–15 days after heading (H15. The threshold of high temperature damage in yield and appearance quality was 25–27 °C. Grain weight decreased about 2–6%, while the temperature of H15 was raised 1 °C above the thresholds. Perfect grain ratio and chalky grain ratio decreased and increased, respectively, while the temperature of H15 was raised above the thresholds. However, the high temperature in H15 affected the physicochemical characteristics. In addition, we found positive correlation between grain length to width ratio and perfect grain ratio. Grain length to width ratio could be an index of temperature effects for grain quality. In our study, when the temperature was below 30 °C, a rising temperature of H15 could damage rice yield and appearance quality, and change grain shape. Our results could provide reference for dealing with the warming future in other temperate rice-cultivated countries.

  19. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  20. Higher yields and lower methane emissions with new rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Huang, Shan; Hungate, Bruce A; van Kessel, Chris; Hu, Shuijin; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Lianhai; Yan, Xiaojun; Wang, Lili; Chen, Jin; Hang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yi; Horwath, William R; Ye, Rongzhong; Linquist, Bruce A; Song, Zhenwei; Zheng, Chengyan; Deng, Aixing; Zhang, Weijian

    2017-11-01

    Breeding high-yielding rice cultivars through increasing biomass is a key strategy to meet rising global food demands. Yet, increasing rice growth can stimulate methane (CH4 ) emissions, exacerbating global climate change, as rice cultivation is a major source of this powerful greenhouse gas. Here, we show in a series of experiments that high-yielding rice cultivars actually reduce CH4 emissions from typical paddy soils. Averaged across 33 rice cultivars, a biomass increase of 10% resulted in a 10.3% decrease in CH4 emissions in a soil with a high carbon (C) content. Compared to a low-yielding cultivar, a high-yielding cultivar significantly increased root porosity and the abundance of methane-consuming microorganisms, suggesting that the larger and more porous root systems of high-yielding cultivars facilitated CH4 oxidation by promoting O2 transport to soils. Our results were further supported by a meta-analysis, showing that high-yielding rice cultivars strongly decrease CH4 emissions from paddy soils with high organic C contents. Based on our results, increasing rice biomass by 10% could reduce annual CH4 emissions from Chinese rice agriculture by 7.1%. Our findings suggest that modern rice breeding strategies for high-yielding cultivars can substantially mitigate paddy CH4 emission in China and other rice growing regions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate

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    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kono, Izumi; Ito, Sachie; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity. PMID:23985993

  2. Photochemical properties in flag leaves of a super-high-yielding hybrid rice and a traditional hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence transient.

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    Zhang, Meiping; Shan, YongJie; Kochian, Leon; Strasser, Reto J; Chen, GuoXiang

    2015-12-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence of flag leaves in a super-high-yielding hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) LYPJ, and a traditional hybrid rice SY63 cultivar with lower grain yield, which were grown in the field, were investigated from emergence through senescence of flag leaves. As the flag leaf matured, there was an increasing trend in photosynthetic parameters such as quantum efficiency of primary photochemistry ([Formula: see text] Po) and efficiency of electron transport from PS II to PS I (Ψ Eo). The overall photosynthetic performance index (PIABS) was significantly higher in the high-yielding LYPJ compared to SY63 during the entire reproductive stage of the plant, the same to MDA content. However, [Formula: see text] Po(=F V/F M), an indicator of the primary photochemistry of the flag leaf, did not display significant changes with leaf age and was not significantly different between the two cultivars, suggesting that PIABS is a more sensitive parameter than [Formula: see text] Po (=F V/F M) during leaf age for distinguishing between cultivars differing in yield.

  3. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency

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    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yinglie; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on GWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions from all sources, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon sequestration). The ISSM mainly consisted of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates and split, manure, Zn and Na2SiO3 fertilization and planting density for the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Four ISSM scenarios consisting of different chemical N rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, ISSM-N1 (25 % reduction), ISSM-N2 (10 % reduction), ISSM-N3 (FP rate) and ISSM-N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 35 and 40 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the ISSM-N1 and ISSM-N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar GWPs. The ISSM-N3 and ISSM-N4 scenarios remarkably increased the GWP and GHGI by an average of 69 and 39 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of ISSM-N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  4. Spectral reflectance of rice canopies and red edge position (REP) as indicator of high yield varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, M.; Darvishsefat, A.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Rice is the staple food in Iran. More than 80 percent of rice area is distributed in the two northern provinces of Mazandaran and Gilan, so that investment in increasing the quantity and quality can impact an effective role in economic independence and sustainable agriculture. Increased efficiency

  5. Physiological Mechanisms Underlying the High-Grain Yield and High-Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Elite Rice Varieties under a Low Rate of Nitrogen Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Selecting rice varieties with a high nitrogen (N use efficiency (NUE is the best approach to reduce N fertilizer application in rice production and is one of the objectives of the Green Super Rice (GSR Project in China. However, the performance of elite candidate GSR varieties under low N supply remains unclear. In the present study, differences in the grain yield and NUE of thirteen and fourteen candidate varieties with two controls were determined at a N rate of 100 kg ha-1 in field experiments in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The grain yield for all of the rice varieties ranged from 8.67 to 11.09 t ha-1, except for a japonica rice variety YG29, which had a grain yield of 6.42 t ha-1. HY549 and YY4949 produced the highest grain yield, reflecting a higher biomass production and harvest index in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Total N uptake at maturity (TNPM ranged from 144 to 210 kg ha-1, while the nitrogen use efficiency for grain production (NUEg ranged from 35.2 to 62.0 kg kg-1. Both TNPM and NUEg showed a significant quadratic correlation with grain yield, indicating that it is possible to obtain high grain yield and NUEg with the reduction of TNPM. The correlation between N-related parameters and yield-related traits suggests that promoting pre-heading growth could increase TNPM, while high biomass accumulation during the grain filling period and large panicles are important for a higher NUEg. In addition, there were significant and negative correlations between the NUEg and N concentrations in leaf, stem and grain tissues at maturity. Further improvements in NUEg require a reduction in the stem N concentration but not the leaf N concentration. The daily grain yield was the only parameter that significantly and positively correlated with both TNPM and NUEg. This study determined variations in the grain yield and NUE of elite candidate GSR rice varieties and provided plant traits that could be used as selection criteria in breeding N

  6. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Tarlera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flooding after 30 days of emergence, CF30; and an alternative system (controlled deficit irrigation allowing for wetting and drying, AWDI. AWDI showed mean cumulative CH4 emission values of 98.4 kg CH4 ha−1, 55 % lower compared to CF30, while no differences in nitrous oxide emissions were observed between treatments ( p > 0.05. No yield differences between irrigation systems were observed in two of the rice seasons ( p > 0.05 while AWDI promoted yield reduction in one of the seasons ( p< 0.05. When rice yield and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions were considered together, the AWDI irrigation system allowed for lower yield-scaled total global warming potential (GWP. Higher irrigation water productivity was achieved under AWDI in two of the three rice seasons. These findings suggest that AWDI could be an option for reducing GHG emissions and increasing irrigation water productivity. However, AWDI may compromise grain yield in certain years, reflecting the importance of the need for fine tuning of this irrigation strategy and an assessment of the overall tradeoff between relationships in order to promote its adoption by farmers.

  7. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  8. Using an Active-Optical Sensor to Develop an Optimal NDVI Dynamic Model for High-Yield Rice Production (Yangtze, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Ferguson, Richard B; Zheng, Hengbiao; Cao, Qiang; Tian, Yongchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2017-03-24

    The successful development of an optimal canopy vegetation index dynamic model for obtaining higher yield can offer a technical approach for real-time and nondestructive diagnosis of rice (Oryza sativa L) growth and nitrogen (N) nutrition status. In this study, multiple rice cultivars and N treatments of experimental plots were carried out to obtain: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), leaf area index (LAI), above-ground dry matter (DM), and grain yield (GY) data. The quantitative relationships between NDVI and these growth indices (e.g., LAI, DM and GY) were analyzed, showing positive correlations. Using the normalized modeling method, an appropriate NDVI simulation model of rice was established based on the normalized NDVI (RNDVI) and relative accumulative growing degree days (RAGDD). The NDVI dynamic model for high-yield production in rice can be expressed by a double logistic model: RNDVI = ( 1 + e - 15.2829 × ( R A G D D i - 0.1944 ) ) - 1 - ( 1 + e - 11.6517 × ( R A G D D i - 1.0267 ) ) - 1 (R2 = 0.8577**), which can be used to accurately predict canopy NDVI dynamic changes during the entire growth period. Considering variation among rice cultivars, we constructed two relative NDVI (RNDVI) dynamic models for Japonica and Indica rice types, with R2 reaching 0.8764** and 0.8874**, respectively. Furthermore, independent experimental data were used to validate the RNDVI dynamic models. The results showed that during the entire growth period, the accuracy (k), precision (R2), and standard deviation of RNDVI dynamic models for the Japonica and Indica cultivars were 0.9991, 1.0170; 0.9084**, 0.8030**; and 0.0232, 0.0170, respectively. These results indicated that RNDVI dynamic models could accurately reflect crop growth and predict dynamic changes in high-yield crop populations, providing a rapid approach for monitoring rice growth status.

  9. Breeding strategies for increasing yield potential in super hybrid rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihua CHENG,Xiaodeng ZHAN,Liyong CAO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Super hybrid rice breeding is a new breeding method combining semi-dwarf breeding and heterosis breeding using germplasm and gene-environment interactions. This paper reviews the breeding strategies of super hybrid rice breeding in China, focusing on the utilization of heterosis of indica and japonica subspecies, construction of ideal plant architecture and pyramiding of disease resistant genes in restorer lines. To develop super hybrid rice, considerable effort should be made to explore genes related with high yield, good quality, resistance to pests and diseases, tolerance to stresses. Molecular breeding methods in combination with crossing techniques should be adopted in super hybrid rice breeding.

  10. Nutrient Balance at Integrated Nutrient Management on Lowland Rice Which is Dominated by 1:1 Clay Mineral for High Potential Rice Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Kasno

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The curve of the most recent production period of theintensification lowland rice was stating a levelling off. In the effort to increase the rice production, an improvementon intensification quality using a balance fertilizing concept was determined. The objective of this research was tostudy the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrient balance among the integrated nutrient management. The fieldexperiment was conducted in Margodadi and Mulyosari, Metro, Lampung, in dry season 2006. A randomized CompleteBlock Design was applied with ten treatments and three replications. The treatments combined of inorganic andorganic fertilizers. Phosphorus and potassium dosages and proportions were determined based on the previous researchheld in 2005, it were 100 kg SP-36 ha-1 and 80 kg KCl ha-1 in Mulyosari, and 130 kg SP-36 ha-1 and 120 kg KCl ha-1in Margodadi. At the beginning, 100 kg urea was added. The crop’s need of nitrogen was monitored using the LeafColor Chart every 7-10 days, starting from the 21st days after planting, up to the phase panical inisiation. Total ureafertilizer added was 300 kg ha-1. Organic matters consisting of 5 Mg ha-1 rice straw and 2 Mg ha-1 cow manure wereadded. Ammonium sulphate was added to provide 10 kg S ha-1 and by 5 minutes dying the seedlings on 0,05% ZnSO4solution before planting was intended to provide Zn nutrient. Micro nutrient Cu was provided by adding 5 kg ha-1CuSO4. The plot size was 5m x 5m, and Hybride Rice, PHB 71, was used as the plant indicator. Observation wasfocused on the weight of dry straw and yield and on analysing the nutrient content of straw and grain yield. The resultshowed that the weight of the yield increased from 7.44 to 7.93 Mg ha-1 by adding Cu in Mulyosari. The totalproduction of Hybride PHB 71 in the NPK treatment based on the Margodadi and Mulyosari nutrient status were 7.44and 7.00 Mg ha-1, respectively. Adding KCl 120 kg ha-1 in Margodadi and 80 kg ha-1 in Mulyosari was equal to

  11. Response of high yielding rice varieties to NaCl salinity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... in the experiment include: Dasht, Khazar, Kadous, Nemat, Neda,. Fajr, Shafagh and Sahel. To obtain the accurate result and exclude any unwanted and interfering variable in the environment and to minimize their effects, the experiment was conducted in a highly controlled greenhouse. The greenhouse ...

  12. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadtanapuk, S. [School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Teraarusiri, W. [Central Laboratory, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000 (Thailand); Phanchaisri, B. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@frnf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S., E-mail: burinka@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •N-ion beam bombarded Thai jasmine rice seeds to induce mutation. •Mutants with blast-disease resistance and high yield were screened. •Gene involved in the blast-disease resistance was analyzed. •The gene responsible for the resistance was linked to Spotted leaf protein 11. -- Abstract: Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60–80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 10{sup 16}–2 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 10{sup 6} spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11)

  13. Simulating rice yields under climate change scenarios using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %. Simulations demonstrate that the effects of planting dates cannot be overlooked in finding measures to increase rice yield under climate change mitigations. The effects of climate change on rice yield of will depend on the actual patterns of ...

  14. Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Burgos, Nilda R; Singh, Shilpa; Gealy, David R; Gbur, Edward E; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-03-01

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains may differ in physicochemical traits from cultivated rice, which may reduce the quality of harvested rice grain. To evaluate the effect of volunteer rice on cultivated rice, fields were surveyed in Arkansas in 2012. Cropping history that included hybrid cultivars in the previous two years (2010 and 2011) had higher volunteer rice infestation (20%) compared with fields planted previously with inbred rice (5.5%). The total grain yield of rice was reduced by 0.4% for every 1% increase in volunteer rice density. The grain quality did not change in fields planted with the same cultivar for three years. Volunteer rice density of at least 7.6% negatively impacted the head rice and when infestation reached 17.7%, it also reduced the rice grain yield. The protein and amylose contents of rice were not affected until volunteer rice infestation exceeded 30%. Crop rotation systems that include hybrid rice are expected to have higher volunteer rice infestation than systems without hybrid rice. It is predicted that, at 8% infestation, volunteer rice will start to impact head rice yield and will reduce total yield at 18% infestation. It could alter the chemical quality of rice grain at >30% infestation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Estimation of rice yield affected by drought and relation between rice yield and TVDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, C.; Tamura, E.; Sigit, G.

    2016-12-01

    Impact of climate change is not only seen on food production but also on food security and sustainable development of society. Adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue throughout the world to reduce the risks along with the plans and strategies for food security and sustainable development. As a key adaptation to the climate change, agricultural insurance is expected to play an important role in stabilizing agricultural production through compensating the losses caused by the climate change. As the adaptation, the Government of Indonesia has launched agricultural insurance program for damage of rice by drought, flood and pest and disease. The Government started a pilot project in 2013 and this year the pilot project has been extended to 22 provinces. Having the above as background, we conducted research on development of new damage assessment method for rice using remote sensing data which could be used for evaluation of damage ratio caused by drought in West Java, Indonesia. For assessment of the damage ratio, estimation of rice yield is a key. As the result of our study, rice yield affected by drought in dry season could be estimated at level of 1 % significance using SPOT 7 data taken in 2015, and the validation result was 0.8t/ha. Then, the decrease ratio in rice yield about each individual paddy field was calculated using data of the estimated result and the average yield of the past 10 years. In addition, TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index) which was calculated from Landsat8 data in heading season indicated the dryness in low yield area. The result suggests that rice yield was affected by irrigation water shortage around heading season as a result of the decreased precipitation by El Nino. Through our study, it becomes clear that the utilization of remote sensing data can be promising for assessment of the damage ratio of rice production precisely, quickly and quantitatively, and also it can be incorporated into the insurance procedures.

  16. Tillering and yield formation of a temperate Japonica rice cultivar in a Mediterranean rice agrosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Eixarch, M.; Català, M.M.; Tomàs, N.; Pla, E; Zhu, D.

    2015-07-01

    Rice tillering is a crucial stage for yield formation. Deep understanding of the relationship between tillering dynamics and yield formation in a particular agrosystem is crucial to boost rice productivity. Research on rice tillering is mainly focused on tropical agrosystems whereas less is done in the Mediterranean, with direct water-seeding and Japonica cultivars. This study aims at characterizing tillering dynamics and identifying the main explanatory tillering traits of yield in a Mediterranean rice agrosystem, Ebro Delta (Northern Spain). A temperate Japonica cultivar grown in Spain, Gleva, was utilized. Plants and tillers were tagged to assess emergence and fertility ratios and grain yield; while changes in tillering number over time, yield and yield components for unit area were measured. Plant and tillering dynamics in the Ebro Delta rice fields can be accurately predicted through equations herein provided, which are based either on thermal time or leaf development. Plants grown under regional standard agricultural practices produced up to eight primary tillers of which two or three become productive. Maximum tiller number was the main explanatory variable of yield while high-yielding tillers within a plant are located on nodes with the highest emergence ratios and, after the main stem, they are the major contributors to yield. The decisive role of tiller development on yield along with the predictability of tiller dynamics raises options to optimize grain yield through tillering modulation. In this sense, results from this study suggests the promotion of early tillering followed by inhibition of late tillering as a strategy of tillering regulation. (Author)

  17. Upland rice yield as affected by Brachiaria coverage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano S. Nascente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important point in no-tillage system is the time between cover crop glyphosate desiccation and rice sowing. This study aimed to verify the effect of Brachiaria ruziziensis management time before rice sowing on rice yield and its components. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and consisted of four types of B. ruziziensis management: with Brachiaria and with herbicide (WBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and with herbicide (NBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and without herbicide (NBNH, and with Brachiaria and without herbicide (WBNH, at four times: 30, 20, 10, and 0 days, preceding the rice sowing. The amount of B. ruziziensis dry matter increased as the management was done closer to the rice sowing date. The WBWH and WBNH managements (this one causes the lowest rice grain yield must be done 30 days before rice sowing; while NBWH management must be done ten or more days before rice sowing. On the other hand, NBNH management (this one favors the best rice grain yield can be done until rice sowing day. Despite some reduction in rice yield caused by the B. ruziziensis management, when it was done at the proper time the rice grain yield was similar to the control (without Brachiaria sowing and without herbicide application.

  18. Remotely Sensed Rice Yield Prediction Using Multi-Temporal NDVI Data Derived from NOAA's-AVHRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha−1. Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly. PMID:23967112

  19. Remotely sensed rice yield prediction using multi-temporal NDVI data derived from NOAA's-AVHRR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha(-1). Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

  20. simulating rice yields under climate change scenarios using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    climatic parameters (temperature, CO2 concentration, solar radiation and rainfall) and had various effects on rice. Simulated rice yields ... évalué pour la simulation des rendements du riz sous différents scenarios de changement climatique au Ghana en utilisant des données .... The project's average yield was 3.87 t ha-1.

  1. Determinants of Yield Gap in Upland Rice Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respondents cultivated three improved rice varieties – ITA 150, WAB 189 and FARO 55 with average yield gaps of 1.52, 1.38 and 0.91 tons per hectare, respectively. This makes these rice varieties under-exploited as farmers operate at levels where they obtain an average of 49% of the potential yield. Factors which would ...

  2. Effect of volunteer rice infestation on grain quality and yield of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants arise from shattered seeds of the previous crop, which could reduce the yield of cultivated rice and the commercial value of harvested grain. Volunteer rice plants from a cultivar other than the current crop produce grains that may differ in physico-chemical t...

  3. Improving Yield of Transplanted Aman and Boro Rice Through Tegra Package of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Kader, MSR Mia, MA Kafi, MS Hossain, N Islam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the yield performance of transplant aman rice cv. BRRI dhan49 and boro rice cv. BRRI dhan29 under improved package of cultivation (TEGRA as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA is a rice farming practice which includes use of quality seeds and healthy seedlings, transplanting with rice transplanter, use of herbicide, use of balanced fertilization and micronutrients, and preventive plant protection measures. The study during transplant aman season included two treatments on rice cultivation method viz. TEGRA package and farmers’ practice while in boro rice four treatments viz. TEGRA package, farmers’ practice with high inputs, farmers’ practice with medium inputs and farmers’ practice with low inputs. The yield and plant characters of both transplant aman and boro rice were significantly influenced by the TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice increased the grain yield by 18.3% in transplant aman rice and by 80% in boro rice with less cost of production as compared to farmers’ practice, which eventually resulted 23% increase in gross return and 400% in net return. As a result, the benefit cost ratio of TEGRA package was much higher (1.35 and 2.20 during transplant aman rice and boro rice, respectively compared to that of farmers’ practice (1.07 and 1.30.

  4. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rices yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  5. Determinants of Yield Gap in Lowland Rice Production in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated that rice farmers in the area cultivated four improved rice varieties WITA 4, FARO 15, FARO 35 and FARO 44 with average yield gaps of 1.48, 2.85, 3.03 and 3.20 tons per hectare respectively. This makes these rice varieties under-exploited as farmers operate at levels where they obtain an average of 49% ...

  6. A correlation study of proximate composition, physical and cooking properties of new high yielding and disease resistant rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Rasool

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to compare proximate composition, physical, and cooking properties of locally cultivated rice varieties of Kashmir division viz.; SR-1, K-448, and K-39. Various physiochemical properties were studied. The relationship between physical, proximate composition, and cooking properties was determined using Pearson’s correlation. Length–breadth (L/B ratio showed a significant positive correlation with kernel length and negative correlation with thousand kernel weight, with a correlation coefficient (r of 0.893 and −0.855, respectively, (p  0.05. Solid loss in gruel was observed to have a negative correlation with L/B ratio (r = −0.432, p > 0.05, water uptake ratio (r = −0.742, p < 0.05, and cooking time (r = −0.678, p < 0.05. The rice cultivars with higher cooking time showed lower gruel solid loss and vice versa. Water uptake was observed to be positively correlated with L/B ratio (r = 0.768, p < 0.05. Among all the cultivars studied, K-448 variety has potential for consumers’ preference and it could be used for breeding programs for the improvement of valuable grain quality traits.

  7. An indica rice genotype showed a similar yield enhancement to that of hybrid rice under free air carbon dioxide enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunwu; Xu, Xi; Wang, Dan; Zhu, Jianguo; Liu, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Although the rice growth response to FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) has been widely studied and is considered important within the scientific community, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of FACE on the yield of indica rice, which is typically the parent of indica hybrids in China. The effects of FACE on the yield, yield components, biomass, N uptake and leaf photosynthesis of Yangdao 6 Hao (an indica rice) in China were examined over 2 years. The grain yield increased over 30%, the panicle number increased 12.4% on average, and the spikelet number per panicle also showed an average increase of 8.2% at elevated CO2. FACE caused a significant enhancement in both the filled spikelet percentage (+5.9%) and the individual grain weight (+3.0%). Compared with three prior FACE studies on rice, a similar enhancement of yield in hybrid indica was shown under FACE, with much a higher value than for the japonica rice cultivar (approximately + 13%) because of indica’s stronger sink generation and N uptake capacity, which help coordinate the C/N balance to avoid photosynthetic acclimation. The high enhancement of the indica rice yield under FACE holds promise for improved cultivar selection for future food security.

  8. Comparison Between Direct-seeding and Transplanting of Rice in Mazandaran Province: Weed Competition, Yield and Yield Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate rice competition ability against weeds in direct-seeding and transplanting systems afield experiment was conducted at Mahmud Abad region of Mazandaran province on 2011 growing season. Experimental treatments were studied in a split plot factorial design based on randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Direct-seeding and transplanting of rice in wet seedbed were the main plots and three rice cultivars under two weed management systems (weed free and weed infested were arranged in sub plots. Results showed there was no significant yield difference in both system of rice planting under weed free condition, but yield loss due to weed interference in direct-seeding and transplanting of rice were 66% and 14% respectively.Line 843 which showed high competition ability in transplanting of rice, encountered with low ability due to weed pressure derivedweek early vigor but our traditional cultivar (Tarom Deilamani has acceptable competition ability and better yield sustainabilitythan improved cultivar (Khazar and line 843 in direct seeding system. Cultivars competitiveness could be attributed to more height, higher growth rate in early season, panicle number and higher dry weight of rice. Also in direct seeding related traits to the early vigor was more important than others. Results revealed that direct seeding integrated with weed control could be a good strategy for reducing costs of rice production. In such a system seedling early growth has important role in weed suppression.

  9. Yes we can! Improving rice yield with diverse genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice breeding programs have been successful in using diverse germplasm for enhancement of pest resistance traits in rice, but traditionally have been less successful in using these materials for yield improvement. However, over the last decade Asian germplasm resources have proven to be fundamental ...

  10. Optimal fertilizer N rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the USA. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to the presence of both anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management pr...

  11. Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine genotypes of boro rice (Oryza sativa L. were grown in a randomized block design with three replications in plots of 4m x 1m with a crop geometry of 20 cm x 20 cm between November-April, in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nagaon, India. Quantitative data were collected on five randomly selected plants of each genotype per replication for yield/plant, and six other yield components, namely plant height, panicles/plant, panicle length, effective grains/panicle, 100 grain weight and harvest index. Mean values of the characters for each genotype were used for analysis of variance and covariance to obtain information on genotypic and phenotypic correlation along with coheritability between two characters. Path analyses were carried out to estimate the direct and indirect effects of boro rice�s yield components. The objective of the study was to identify the characters that mostly influence the yield for increasing boro rice productivity through breeding program. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive genotypic correlation of yield/plant with plant height (0.21, panicles/plant (0.53, panicle length (0.53, effective grains/panicle (0.57 and harvest index (0.86. Path analysis based on genotypic correlation coefficients elucidated high positive direct effect of harvest index (0.8631, panicle length (0.2560 and 100 grain weight (0.1632 on yield/plant with a residual effect of 0.33. Plant height and panicles/plant recorded high positive indirect effect on yield/plant via harvest index whereas effective grains/panicle on yield/plant via harvest index and panicle length. Results of the present study suggested that five component characters, namely harvest index, effective grains/plant, panicle length, panicles/plant and plant height influenced the yield of boro rice. A genotype with higher magnitude of these component characters could be either selected from the existing genotypes or evolved by breeding program for genetic

  12. Breeding for blast-disease-resistant and high-yield Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) mutants using low-energy ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Phanchaisri, B.; Yu, L. D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam was applied on mutation induction for plant breeding of blast-disease-resistant Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105). Seeds of the wild-type rice were bombarded in vacuum by nitrogen ion beam at energy of 60-80 keV to a beam fluence range of 2 × 1016-2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The ion-bombarded rice seeds were grown in soil for 2 weeks as transplanted rice in plastic pots at 1 seedling/pot. The seedlings were then screened for blast resistance by Pyricularia grisea inoculation with 106 spores/ml concentrations. The blast-resistant rice mutant was planted up to F6 generation with the consistent phenotypic variation. The high percentage of the blast-disease-resistant rice was analyzed with DNA fingerprint. The HAT-RAPD (high annealing temperature-random amplified polymorphic DNA) marker revealed the modified polymorphism fragment presenting in the mutant compared with wild type (KDML 105). The cDNA fingerprints were investigated and the polymorphism fragment was subcloned into pGEM-T easy vector and then sequenced. The sequence of this fragment was compared with those already contained in the database, and the fragment was found to be related to the Spotted leaf protein 11 (Spl11).

  13. Potential Yield Increase of Hybrid Rice at Five Locations in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Xie, Xiaobing; Huang, Min; Zhou, Xuefeng; Zhang, Ruichun; Chen, Jiana; Wu, Dandan; Xia, Bing; Xiong, Hong; Xu, Fuxian; Zou, Yingbin

    2016-12-01

    A number of field studies have demonstrated that the yield potential of hybrid rice cultivars is higher than that of inbred cultivars, although the magnitude of difference between hybrid and inbred cultivars at different yield levels has not been described. The objective of this study is to compare the yield increase potential at different yield levels between hybrid and conventional rice. Ten field experiments were conducted at five locations in southern China in 2012 and 2013. At each location, two hybrid and two inbred cultivars were grown at three N levels: high (225 kg/hm(2)), moderate (161-191 kg/hm(2)) and the control, zero N (0 kg/hm(2)). Hybrid rice yielded approximately 8 % more grain than did inbred cultivars in Huaiji, Binyang and Haikou; approximately 7 % more in Changsha; and approximately 19 % more in Xingyi. The high grain yields observed for hybrid rice cultivars were attributed to high grain weight and biomass accumulation at maturity. On average, rice yields were approximately 6.0-7.5 t ha(-1) (medium yield) in Huaiji, Binyang and Haikou; approximately 9.0 t ha(-1) in Changsha (high yield); and approximately 12.0 t ha(-1) (super high yield) in Xingyi. The yield gaps among Huaiji, Binyang and Haikou and Changsha were attributed to the differences in spikelets m(-2) and biomass production, whereas the yield gap between Changsha and Xingyi was caused by the differences in grain-filling percentage, grain weight and harvest index. The differences in biomass production among sites were primarily due to variation in crop growth rate induced by varied temperatures and accumulative solar radiation. The yield superiority of hybrid rice was relatively small in comparison with that of inbred cultivars at medium and high yield levels, but the difference was large at super high yield levels. Improving rice yields from medium to high should focus on spikelets m(-2) and biomass, whereas further improvement to super high level should emphasize on

  14. Impacts of climate change on rice production in Africa and causes of simulated yield changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, Pepijn A J; Zwart, Sander J

    2018-03-01

    This study is the first of its kind to quantify possible effects of climate change on rice production in Africa. We simulated impacts on rice in irrigated systems (dry season and wet season) and rainfed systems (upland and lowland). We simulated the use of rice varieties with a higher temperature sum as adaptation option. We simulated rice yields for 4 RCP climate change scenarios and identified causes of yield declines. Without adaptation, shortening of the growing period due to higher temperatures had a negative impact on yields (-24% in RCP 8.5 in 2070 compared with the baseline year 2000). With varieties that have a high temperature sum, the length of the growing period would remain the same as under the baseline conditions. With this adaptation option rainfed rice yields would increase slightly (+8%) but they remain subject to water availability constraints. Irrigated rice yields in East Africa would increase (+25%) due to more favourable temperatures and due to CO2 fertilization. Wet season irrigated rice yields in West Africa were projected to change by -21% or +7% (without/with adaptation). Without adaptation irrigated rice yields in West Africa in the dry season would decrease by -45% with adaptation they would decrease significantly less (-15%). The main cause of this decline was reduced photosynthesis at extremely high temperatures. Simulated heat sterility hardly increased and was not found a major cause for yield decline. The implications for these findings are as follows. For East Africa to benefit from climate change, improved water and nutrient management will be needed to benefit fully from the more favourable temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations. For West Africa, more research is needed on photosynthesis processes at extreme temperatures and on adaptation options such as shifting sowing dates. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Effect of ridge & terraced ecological rice farming on rice photosynthetic characteristics and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua-Bin; Liu, Jian-Xia; Yao, Lin; He, Hui; Huang, Huang

    2014-09-01

    Taking super hybrid rice Y-liangyou 1, and hybrid rice Xianyou 63 and conventional rice Huanghuazhan as test materials, a field experiment was conducted in Changsha City of Hunan Province in 2011 and 2012 to investigate the effects of ridge & terraced ecological rice farming (RT) and bed ecological rice farming (B) on rice grain yield and photosynthetic characteristics. Compared with conventional rice farming (CK) , yield of Y-liangyou 1 in the RT was increased significantly by 28.7%, the effective panicles per unit area and spikelets per panicle were increased by 16.1% and 6.8%, respectively. Yields of Xianyou 63 and Huanghuazhan in the RT and B were 24.3% and 19.7%, 12.0% and 16.2% higher than those of CK, respectively. Leaf area index, dry matter accumulation before and after full-heading, total dry matter accumulation of Y-liangyou 1 in the RT was higher than that of CK. Number of spikelets/leaf area, number of filled grains/leaf area, grain mass/leaf area of Y-liangyou 1 in the RT were 8.1%, 14.8% and 15.8% higher than those of CK, respectively, the photosynthetic potential was increased by 32.2% while the net assimilation rate was declined by 9.3%.

  16. Plausible rice yield losses under future climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Huang, Yao; Ciais, Philippe; Elliott, Joshua; Huang, Mengtian; Janssens, Ivan A; Li, Tao; Lian, Xu; Liu, Yongwen; Müller, Christoph; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-12-19

    Rice is the staple food for more than 50% of the world's population1-3. Reliable prediction of changes in rice yield is thus central for maintaining global food security. This is an extraordinary challenge. Here, we compare the sensitivity of rice yield to temperature increase derived from field warming experiments and three modelling approaches: statistical models, local crop models and global gridded crop models. Field warming experiments produce a substantial rice yield loss under warming, with an average temperature sensitivity of -5.2 ± 1.4% K-1. Local crop models give a similar sensitivity (-6.3 ± 0.4% K-1), but statistical and global gridded crop models both suggest less negative impacts of warming on yields (-0.8 ± 0.3% and -2.4 ± 3.7% K-1, respectively). Using data from field warming experiments, we further propose a conditional probability approach to constrain the large range of global gridded crop model results for the future yield changes in response to warming by the end of the century (from -1.3% to -9.3% K-1). The constraint implies a more negative response to warming (-8.3 ± 1.4% K-1) and reduces the spread of the model ensemble by 33%. This yield reduction exceeds that estimated by the International Food Policy Research Institute assessment (-4.2 to -6.4% K-1) (ref. 4). Our study suggests that without CO2 fertilization, effective adaptation and genetic improvement, severe rice yield losses are plausible under intensive climate warming scenarios.

  17. PAY1 improves plant architecture and enhances grain yield in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Xiao, Langtao; Xie, Daoxin; Sun, Chuanqing

    2015-08-01

    Plant architecture, a complex of the important agronomic traits that determine grain yield, is a primary target of artificial selection of rice domestication and improvement. Some important genes affecting plant architecture and grain yield have been isolated and characterized in recent decades; however, their underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we report genetic identification and functional analysis of the PLANT ARCHITECTURE AND YIELD 1 (PAY1) gene in rice, which affects plant architecture and grain yield in rice. Transgenic plants over-expressing PAY1 had twice the number of grains per panicle and consequently produced nearly 38% more grain yield per plant than control plants. Mechanistically, PAY1 could improve plant architecture via affecting polar auxin transport activity and altering endogenous indole-3-acetic acid distribution. Furthermore, introgression of PAY1 into elite rice cultivars, using marker-assisted background selection, dramatically increased grain yield compared with the recipient parents. Overall, these results demonstrated that PAY1 could be a new beneficial genetic resource for shaping ideal plant architecture and breeding high-yielding rice varieties. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Division of Genetics and Hybrid Rice Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Minh Cong [Hanoi No. 1 Teacher Training Univ., Department of Genetics (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  19. Bridging the Rice Yield Gaps under Drought: QTLs, Genes, and their Use in Breeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Sandhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world’s population. Although rice production has doubled in the last 30 years as a result of the development of high-yield, widely adaptable, resource-responsive, semi-dwarf varieties, the threat of a food crisis remains as severe as it was 60 years ago due to the ever-increasing population, water scarcity, labor scarcity, shifting climatic conditions, pest/diseases, loss of productive land to housing, industries, rising sea levels, increasing incidences of drought, flood, urbanization, soil erosion, reduction in soil nutrient status, and environmental issues associated with high-input agriculture. Among these, drought is predicted to be the most severe stress that reduces rice yield. Systematic research on drought over the last 10 years has been conducted across institutes on physiology, breeding, molecular genetics, biotechnology, and cellular and molecular biology. This has provided a better understanding of plant drought mechanisms and has helped scientists to devise better strategies to reduce rice yield losses under drought stress. These include the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs for grain yield under drought as well as many agronomically important traits related to drought tolerance, marker-assisted pyramiding of genetic regions that increase yield under drought, development of efficient techniques for genetic transformation, complete sequencing and annotation of rice genomes, and synteny studies of rice and other cereal genomes. Conventional and marker-assisted breeding rice lines containing useful introgressed genes or loci have been field tested and released as varieties. Still, there is a long way to go towards developing drought-tolerant rice varieties by exploiting existing genetic diversity, identifying superior alleles for drought tolerance, understanding interactions among alleles for drought tolerance and their interaction with genetic backgrounds, and

  20. Breeding elite japonica-type soft rice with high protein content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rice grains. In an attempt to analyze whether the anti-Waxy gene could increase protein content while reducing amylose content in the rice grains, and develop good soft rice varieties with high protein content, an anti-Waxy gene was introduced into the high-yield japonica rice strain, Shangshida No. 2. The amylose contents ...

  1. Effects of elevated air temperature on physiological characteristics of flag leaves and grain yield in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qi-Hua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an indispensable environment element for crop growth, air temperature has brought challenge for the sustainable development of rice (Oryza sativa L. production. Elevated air temperature led to great loss in rice grain yield in many districts suffering from heat stress due to the greenhouse effect worldwide, which has received more and more attention from researchers. A field experiment was conducted to investigate impacts of high air temperature (HAT after rice heading stage on dynamics of SPAD values, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA contents of flag leaves, and grain yield attributes. The results showed that HAT significantly reduced SPAD values, soluble sugar and protein contents, seed-setting rate, number of filled grains per panicles, 1000-grain weight, and grain yield, while increased MDA content. There exists strong correlation between each physiological parameter and days from heading stage to maturity, which can be simulated by quadratic curve equation or linear regression equation. Under HAT, the enhanced MDA content and decreased soluble sugar content demonstrated the damage of membrane structure and photosynthesis function of rice flag leaves, which was partially attributed to the reduced SPAD value and soluble protein content. In the present experiment, rice seed-setting rate was more vulnerable to HAT than grain weight. The disturbance of physiological metabolism in flag leaves was a fundamental reason for the reduction of rice grain yield under HAT.

  2. Harvest season and head rice yield of upland rice cultivars submitted to parboiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Mendonça Garcia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE This work aimed to evaluate the effects of parboiling on the yield of upland rice cultivars harvested at different times. The cultivars were BRS Primavera and BRS Sertaneja, harvested at 30 and 47 days after flowering (DAF. For parboiling, samples were soaked in water bath at 65 °C in grain: water ratio of 1:1.6 in order to reach 25% and 30% moisture, and then were autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120 °C and 1.1 kg/cm2 of pressure. After drying up to 13% moisture in a greenhouse with forced air at 40 °C, samples were benefited, followed by separation using the trieur equipment and weighing to obtain the head rice yield. The results showed a higher yield for head rice harvested at 30 DAF than at 47 DAF (BRS Primavera 63.2 and 38.7%; BRS Sertaneja 68.5 and 55.7%, respectively. Parboiling increased the head rice yield, regardless of harvest season, but partly reflected the potential of the cultivar origin: BRS Primavera 70.06%, BRS Sertaneja 74.94%. It is concluded that the harvest season is one of the factors that most influence the quality of industrial rice and the effect of parboiling also depends on the potential of the material source.

  3. Rice Research to Break Yield Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Kohli, Ajay; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2015-10-01

    The world’s population continues to expand and it is expected to cross 9 billion by 2050. This would significantly amplify the demand for food, which will pose serious threats to global food security. Additional challenges are being imposed due to a gradual decrease in the total arable land and global environmental changes. Hence, it is of utmost importance to review and revise the existing food production strategies by incorporating novel biotechnological approaches that can help to break the crop yield barriers in the near future. In this review, we highlight some of the concerns hampering crop yield enhancements. The review also focuses on modern breeding techniques based on genomics as well as proven biotechnological approaches that enable identification and utilization of candidate genes. Another aspect of discussion is the important area of research, namely hormonal regulation of plant development, which is likely to yield valuable regulatory genes for such crop improvement efforts in the future. These strategies can serve as potential tools for developing elite crop varieties for feeding the growing billions.

  4. Effects of Mulching Mode on Canopy Physiological, Ecological Characteristics and Yield of Upland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-zhu ZHANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mulching mode on population physiology and ecology of rice were studied using a combination P88S/1128 as the material under three mulching cultivation modes including plastic film mulching, straw mulching and liquid film mulching, as well as bare cultivation (control. The results indicated that mulching mode had significant effects on micro-meteorological factors and individual growth of rice, as shown by an increase of relative humidity, a better internal micro-meteorological environment of rice population, a significant reduction under the rice canopy temperature, especially during high-temperature periods. Rice plants under mulching cultivation conditions displayed a stronger transpiration and lower leaf temperature, thereby improving the ability of anti-high temperature stress and markedly increasing the photosynthetic rate. Furthermore, the yield components of rice were significantly optimized under mulching cultivation, of which with plastic film mulching displayed the highest grain number per panicle and seed-setting rate, and a yield increase of 16.81% compared with the control; and with straw mulching displayed an increase of effective panicle number and a 9.59% increase of total yield compared to the control.

  5. Investigating Yield Variability and Inefficiency in Rice Production: A Case Study in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihai Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient and high variability in rice yield is a threat to food security in China, prompting the need for strategies to mitigate yield variability and increase productivity. This study investigates the presence of production risk and technical inefficiency for a sample of rice farms in the Xiangyang city of China using a stochastic production frontier framework. Results from the risk function reveal that labor and better soil quality have significant risk-reducing effects while machinery exerts a significant risk-increasing effect on rice production. The estimated mean technical efficiency score is 84%, suggesting that, on average, farmers could increase their rice production by 16%, without increasing the existing input levels by improving their management techniques. Factors that significantly affect technical efficiency are the age of farmers, female ratio, access and use of extension services, off-farm income, and the size of cultivated land. Results from this study suggest that yield variability and technical inefficiency in rice production can be reduced by appropriate choice of input combinations and elimination of mistakes in the production process through efficient management practices. Strategies, such as providing better extension services, loosening liquidity constraints facing farmers, and expanding rice farmers’ producing area, would help to achieve minimum inefficiency in production.

  6. Estimating Rice Yield under Changing Weather Conditions in Kenya Using CERES Rice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Nyang’au

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of change in weather conditions on the yields of Basmati 370 and IR 2793-80-1 cultivated under System of Rice Intensification (SRI in Mwea and Western Kenya irrigation schemes were assessed through sensitivity analysis using the Ceres rice model v 4.5 of the DSSAT modeling system. Genetic coefficients were determined using 2010 experimental data. The model was validated using rice growth and development data during the 2011 cropping season. Two SRI farmers were selected randomly from each irrigation scheme and their farms were used as research fields. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation were collected from the weather station in each of the irrigation schemes while daily solar radiation was generated using weatherman in the DSSAT shell. The study revealed that increase in both maximum and minimum temperatures affects Basmati 370 and IR 2793-80-1 grain yield under SRI. Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration led to an increase in grain yield for both Basmati and IR 2793-80-1 under SRI and increase in solar radiation also had an increasing impact on both Basmati 370 and IR 2793-80-1 grain yield. The results of the study therefore show that weather conditions in Kenya affect rice yield under SRI and should be taken into consideration to improve food security.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield Related Traits in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zarbafi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine gene action and heritability of grain yield related traits in rice, six rice varieties including Hashemi, Vandana, Kadous, Hassani, Shahpasand and IR36 were crossed in a diallel design in 2010. The parents and seeds of F1 generation (36 genotypes were grown in a completely randomized block design with three replications at the Research Field of the Rice Research Institute of Iran-Rasht in 2011. In this experiment, the yield related traits including grain yield, number of panicles per plant, number of spikelet’s per panicle, 1000-grain weight, plant height, panicle length and flag leaf area were measured in each experimental unit. Evaluation of the gene action based on the Hayman graphical method indicated that 1000-grain weight was controlled by partial dominance effect and the other attributes were controlled by complete dominance to over-dominance effects. Broad-sense heritability varied from 54.91% to 99.84% for flag leaf area and plant height, respectively and narrow-sense heritability ranged from 26.04% to 88.68% for panicle length and 1000-grain weight, respectively. Results of this research showed that the additive gene effect can be used to improve several traits including 1000-grain weight, but utilizing the heterosis phenomenon and hybrid production is recommended to improve the remaining traits in the studied population.

  8. Agrotechnical management to increase yield and quality of rice at a low production cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Arbolay Moya

    2011-11-01

    3.\tPlot experiments on rice plant nutrition in order to obtain a better grain filling Results showed the bad quality of employed seeds: 53 and 59% of both rice varieties (LP-5 and J-104, respectively presented a poor formation with insufficient grain filling, from which it is impossible to arise normal rice seedlings, as was seen in the observations done, and besides the high number of dead embryos obtained: 13.3 % for variety LP-5 and 33.3% for J-104. Nutrition plots reflected importance on the utilization of fertilizers in adequate moments of life cycle of the rice plant, especially nitrogen, that must be in the early stages of growth and lastly in the reproductive phase; treatment 4, which responded to this management was superior, yielded 11.52 tones of paddy per hectare in 2008-2009 Dry Season and 7.83 in 2009 Wet Season, with statistical difference to all other treatments.

  9. Evaluation of Integrated Farming of Rice and Duck on Rice Grain Yield in Gilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mofidian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate integrated farming of rice and duck on rice grain yield, an experiment was performed on Oryza sativa L. in Gilan, Iran in 2013. This experiment was performed based on factorial split and it was also according to plan of randomized complete block (RCB in three replications. In this experiment the main factor of duck was between two levels (by presence of duck and without presence of duck and the minor factor was the factorial combination of weeding levels (weeding on the releasing day of ducks and not weeding on the releasing day of ducks; and also the planting spaces were 20×20 cm, 25×25 cm, 30×30 cm.The results of the analysis of variance show that the presence of duck in a rice field causes increasing in plant height, the number of grains per panicle, the number of filled grains per panicle, weight of thousands grains, harvest index (HI and grain yield. In total, results and statistics show that using duck in rice fields causes increasing in grain yield and consequently it increases farmer’s income and also reduction of using agricultural pesticides and protecting the environment.

  10. An efficient and reproducible method for regeneration of whole plants from mature seeds of a high yielding Indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety PAU 201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Shabir H; Sanghera, Gulzar S; Gosal, Satbir S

    2011-07-01

    Tissue culture is one of the tools necessary for genetic engineering and many other breeding programs. Moreover, selection of high regenerating rice varieties is a pre-requisite for success in rice biotechnology. In this report we established a reproducible plant regeneration system through somatic embryogenesis. The explants used for regeneration were embryogenic calli derived from mature seeds cultured on callus induction media. For callus induction mature seeds were cultured on MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose combined with 560 mg/l proline and 1.5-3.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.5-1.5 mg/l Kin. For plant regeneration, embryogenic calli were transferred to MS medium containing 30 g/l sucrose, supplemented with 1.0-3.0 mg/l BAP, 0.5-1.5 mg/l Kin and 0.5-1.5 mg/l NAA. The highest frequency of callus induction (44.4%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/l Kin, 560 mg/l proline and 30 g/l sucrose. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration (42.5%) was observed on the MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l Kin. The plantlets were hardened and transferred to soil in earthen pots. The developed method was highly reproducible. The in vitro developed plants showed normal growth and flowering under glasshouse conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  12. SOIL N, P AND K CONCENTRATIONS AND RICE YIELD INCREASED DUE TO THE APPLICATION OF Azolla pinnata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arivin Rivaie*

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies showed that application of Azolla pinnata as biofertilizer improved soil fertility some agricultural crops, including rice, whereas farmers in Lampung consider that A. pinnata suppresses growth of rice seedlings, so they throw it field by raising irrigation water surface. Information on effects A. pinnata application on changes in nutrient availability and rice yield obtained from paddy fields of regions still rare. A study was carried out to investigate effects of different rates of A. pinnata on changes in N, P, K concentrations in paddy soils, N uptake, and rice yield. A well-irrigated paddy field was incorporated with A. pinnata, and then rice seedlings of Ciherang variety had been grown from June up to December 2009. Results: application of A. pinnata at dose of five t per ha increased concentration of N, P and K as well as rice yield. A. pinnata had a relatively high N content, ie 2.43 percent. Application of A. pinnata of 7.5 t per ha increased significantly available soil P, indicated that A. pinnata requires a fairly high P to grow optimally. Application of A. pinnata of 7.5 t per ha gave highest dry grain yield, suggests that application A. pinnata did not suppress rice yield, even use of A. pinnata as organic matter source will help to conserve fossil fuels and foreign exchange as well as will allow more paddy fields that can be fertilized by N.

  13. Leaf gas exchange and yield of three upland rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of physiological parameters associated with crop performance and growth in different groups of upland rice (Oryza sativa L. may support plant breeding programs. We evaluated the role of gas exchange rates and dry matter accumulation (DMA as traits responsible for yields in a traditional (cv. ‘Caiapó’, intermediate (cv. ‘Primavera’ and modern (cv. ‘Maravilha’ upland rice cultivars. Leaf gas exchange rates, DMA, leaf area index (LAI, harvest indexes (HI and yield components were measured on these genotypes in the field, under sprinkler irrigation. Panicles per m2 and DMA at flowering (FL and heading, as well as CO2 assimilation rates (A were similar across these cultivars. The highest yield was found in ‘Primavera’, which may be explained by (i a two-fold higher HI compared to the other cultivars, (ii greater rates of DMA during spikelet formation and grain-filling, as well as (iii a slow natural decrease of A in this cultivar, at the end of the season (between FL and maturation.

  14. Biochar improves fertility of a clay soil in the Brazilian Savannah: short term effects and impact on rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Thais de Melo Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report single season effects of wood biochar (char application coupled with N fertilization on soil chemical properties, aerobic rice growth and grain yield in a clayey Rhodic Ferralsol in the Brazilian Savannah. Char application effected an increase in soil pH, K, Ca, Mg, CEC, Mn and nitrate while decreasing Al content and potential acidity of soils. No distinct effect of char application on grain yield of aerobic rice was observed. We believe that soil properties impacted by char application were inconsequential for rice yields because neither water, low pH, nor the availability of K or P were limiting factors for rice production. Rate of char above 16 Mg ha^(−1 reduced leaf area index and total shoot dry matter by 72 days after sowing. The number of panicles infected by rice blast decreased with increasing char rate. Increased dry matter beyond the remobilization capacity of the crop, and high number of panicles infected by rice blast were the likely cause of the lower grain yield observed when more than 60 kg N ha^(−1 was applied. The optimal rate of N was 46 kg ha^(−1 and resulted in a rice grain yield above 3 Mg ha^(−1.

  15. Wheat Yield Trend and Soil Fertility Status in Long Term Rice-Rice-Wheat Cropping System

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    Nabin Rawal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term soil fertility experiment under rice-rice-wheat system was performed to evaluate the long term effects of inorganic fertilizer and manure applications on soil properties and grain yield of wheat. The experiment began since 1978 was laid out in randomized complete block design with 9 treatments replicated 3 times. From 1990 onwards, periodic modifications have been made in all the treatments splitting the plots in two equal halves of 4 x 3 m2 leaving one half as original. In the original treatments, recent data revealed that the use of Farm Yard Manure (FYM @10 t ha-1 gave significantly (P≤0.05 higher yield of 2.3 t ha-1 in wheat, whereas control plot gave the lowest grain yield of 277 kg ha-1. Similarly, in the modified treatments, the use of FYM @10 t ha-1 along with inorganic Nitrogen (N and Potassium oxide (K2O @ 50 kg ha-1 produced significantly (P≤0.05 the highest yield of 2.4 t/ha in wheat. The control plot with an indigenous nutrient supply only produced wheat yield of 277 kg ha-1 after 35th year completion of rice-rice-wheat system. A sharp decline in wheat yields was noted in minus N, phosphorus (P, Potassium (K treatments during recent years. Yields were consistently higher in the N:P2O5:K2O and FYM treatments than in treatments, where one or more nutrients were lacking. The application of P2O5 and K2O caused a partial recovery of yield in P and K deficient plots. There was significant (P≤0.05 effect of use of chemical fertilizers and manure on soil properties. The soil analysis data showed an improvement in soil pH (7.8, soil organic matter (4.1%, total N content (0.16%, available P (503.5 kg P2O5 ha-1 and exchangeable K (137.5 kg K2O ha-1 in FYM applied treatments over all other treatments. The findings showed that the productivity of the wheat can be increased and sustained by improving nutrient through the integrated use of organic and inorganic manures in long term.

  16. Polyculture and fish yield in rice-cum-fish culture system in Dadin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice-cum-fish culture was carried out in Dadin Kowa rice fields, Gombe State, Nigeria with a view to determining the effect of different combination of Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus and Cyprinus carpio on fish yield. Six rice paddy fields labeled A – C were used for the sudy. Raised riceseedlings (FARO 27) were ...

  17. Photosynthesis and Transpiration Rates of Rice Cultivated Under the System of Rice Intensification and the Effects on Growth and Yield

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    Nurul Hidayati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI crop management method has been reported by many authors to significantly increase rice yield with lower inputs, but physiological bases of yielding improvement has not been studied. In this research we assessed some physiological parameters and the mechanism of rice yield improvement of rice plants under SRI cultivation method during both vegetative and generative phases compared to conventional rice cultivation methods. We measured photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, leaf temperature, chlorophyll content, N and P uptake, plant growth parameters and yield for those comparison. SRI methods significantly increased both vegetative and reproductive (generative parameters of rice plants compared to conventional cultivation methods. Photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll content, N and P uptake under SRI cultivation were significantly higher compared to those of the conventional rice cultivation, but no differences were found in transpiration rate and leaf temperature. With SRI method, plants in their generative phase (especially in the grain-filling phase had the highest photosynthetic and the lowest transpiration rates. Grain yield under SRI method was significantly higher (ca. 24% than that of conventional method.

  18. Root Traits Enhancing Rice Grain Yield under Alternate Wetting and Drying Condition

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    Nitika Sandhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing water requirements and lowering environmental footprints require attention to minimize risks to food security. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify appropriate root traits enhancing rice grain yield under alternate wetting and drying conditions (AWD and identify stable, high-yielding genotypes better suited to the AWD across variable ecosystems. Advanced breeding lines, popular rice varieties and drought-tolerant lines were evaluated in a series of 23 experiments conducted in the Philippines, India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Cambodia in 2015 and 2016. A large variation in grain yield under AWD conditions enabled the selection of high-yielding and stable genotypes across locations, seasons and years. Water savings of 5.7–23.4% were achieved without significant yield penalty across different ecosystems. The mean grain yield of genotypes across locations ranged from 3.5 to 5.6 t/ha and the mean environment grain yields ranged from 3.7 (Cambodia to 6.6 (India t/ha. The best-fitting Finlay-Wilkinson regression model identified eight stable genotypes with mean grain yield of more than 5.0 t/ha across locations. Multidimensional preference analysis represented the strong association of root traits (nodal root number, root dry weight at 22 and 30 days after transplanting with grain yield. The genotype IR14L253 outperformed in terms of root traits and high mean grain yield across seasons and six locations. The 1.0 t/ha yield advantage of IR14L253 over the popular cultivar IR64 under AWD shall encourage farmers to cultivate IR14L253 and also adopt AWD. The results suggest an important role of root architectural traits in term of more number of nodal roots and root dry weight at 10–20 cm depth on 22–30 days after transplanting (DAT in providing yield stability and preventing yield reduction under AWD compared to continuous flooded conditions. Genotypes possessing increased number of nodal roots provided higher yield over IR64

  19. Spatially distinct response of rice yield to autonomous adaptation under the CMIP5 multi-model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yonghee; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Im, Eun-Soon; Jung, Il-Won

    2017-02-01

    Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is a very important staple crop, as it feeds more than half of the world's population. Numerous studies have focused on the negative impacts of climate change on rice production. However, there is little debate on which region of the world is more vulnerable to climate change and how adaptation to this change can mitigate the negative impacts on rice production. We investigated the impacts of climate change on rice yield, based on simulations combining a global crop model, M-GAZE, and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model projections. Our focus was the impact of mitigating emission forcings (representative concentration pathway RCP 4.5 vs. RCP 8.5) and autonomous adaptation (i.e., changing crop variety and planting date) on rice yield. In general, our results showed that climate change due to anthropogenic warming leads to a significant reduction in rice yield. However, autonomous adaptation provides the potential to reduce the negative impact of global warming on rice yields in a spatially distinct manner. The adaptation was less beneficial for countries located at a low latitude (e.g., Cambodia, Thailand, Brazil) compared to mid-latitude countries (e.g., USA, China, Pakistan), as regional climates at the lower latitudes are already near the upper temperature thresholds for acceptable rice growth. These findings suggest that the socioeconomic effects from rice production in lowlatitude countries can be highly vulnerable to anthropogenic global warming. Therefore, these countries need to be accountable to develop transformative adaptation strategies, such as adopting (or developing) heat-tolerant varieties, and/or improve irrigation systems and fertilizer use efficiency.

  20. Yield differentials among participating and non-participating rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shortfall in domestic rice production in Nigeria has been attributed to inadequate provision of productivity-enhancing agricultural support services to rice farmers. Input supply and guaranteed market that entrenched the shortfall are the focus of the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) arrangement in rice production.

  1. Decreased use of pesticides for increased yields of rice and fish-options for sustainable food production in the Mekong Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Håkan; Tam, Nguyen Thanh

    2018-04-01

    This study assesses the use of pesticides and the attitude to pest management strategies among rice and rice-fish farmers in the Can Tho and Tien Giang provinces in Vietnam. Interviews were made with 80 farmers. The farmers were divided in to farmers cultivating only rice with a high use (RHP) and low use (RLP) of pesticides, and farmers cultivating rice and fish with a high use (RFHP) and low use (RFLP) of pesticides. 80% of the HP farmers relied mainly on pesticides to control pests, while >80% of the LP farmers also applied IPM strategies. Insecticides were the most commonly used pesticides. 85% of all farmers experienced health effects from using pesticides. 80% of the farmers felt that the yield of fish had decreased over the last three years, and that this mainly was caused by pesticides. The RFHP farmers had lower fish survival and fish yields as compared to the RFLP farmers. The RFHP farmers also had significant lower rice yields than the RFLP farmers, and there were significant correlations between both decreased fish yields and rice yields with increased use of pesticides among rice-fish farmers. Increased rice yields were positively correlated with increased fish survival, indicating the synergistic effects between rice and fish production. Overall, the RFLP farmers had the highest income of the four farmers´ groups, while RFHP farmers had the lowest income. This shows that rice-fish farming provides a competitive and sustainable alternative to intensive rice-farming, but only if the farmer restricts the use of pesticides. This would not only help to reduce the production costs, but also to decrease environmental and health effects, and it is proposed that rice-fish farming with a low use of pesticides provides an attractive alternative to rice-monocropping for a sustainable and diversified food production in the Mekong Delta. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic Variation for Grain Yield and Related Traits in Temperate Red Rice (Oryza sativa L. Ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzar Singh SANGHERA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in Kashmir (India to assess the genetic variability for grain yield and component traits among 14 red rice ecotypes from temperate region (locally known as Zag for its coloured kernels and correlation and path coefficients were also studied for fifteen agro-morphological characters. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were high for grain yield, secondary branches per panicle and panicle weight; moderate for grain number per panicle, grain length:breadth (L:B ratio and panicle density. High heritability accompanied by high to moderate genetic advance for panicle density, days to 50% flowering, plant height, grain number indicated the predominance of additive gene action for the expression of these characters. Grain yield was found to be positively and significantly correlated with number of tiller per plant, panicle density m-2 and number of grain per panicle at both genotypic and phenotypic levels indicating the importance of these characters for yield improvement in this material. The results of genotypic path analysis revealed that panicle density had the highest positive direct effect followed by plant height and days to flower. The overall results indicated that selection favouring higher panicle density, test weight and panicle weight and medium plant height with a reasonable balance for moderate grain number would help to achieve higher grain yield in this population of red rice ecotypes.

  3. Genetic Loci Governing Grain Yield and Root Development under Variable Rice Cultivation Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catolos, Margaret; Sandhu, Nitika; Dixit, Shalabh; Shamsudin, Noraziya A A; Naredo, Ma E B; McNally, Kenneth L; Henry, Amelia; Diaz, Ma G; Kumar, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the major abiotic stress to rice grain yield under unpredictable changing climatic scenarios. The widely grown, high yielding but drought susceptible rice varieties need to be improved by unraveling the genomic regions controlling traits enhancing drought tolerance. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield and root development traits under irrigated non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress in both lowland and upland situations. A mapping population consisting of 480 lines derived from a cross between Dular (drought-tolerant) and IR64-21 (drought susceptible) was used. QTL analysis revealed three major consistent-effect QTLs for grain yield (qDTY1.1, qDTY1.3 , and qDTY8.1 ) under non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress conditions, and 2 QTLs for root traits (qRT9.1 for root-growth angle and qRT5.1 for multiple root traits, i.e., seedling-stage root length, root dry weight and crown root number). The genetic locus qDTY1.1 was identified as hotspot for grain yield and yield-related agronomic and root traits. The study identified significant positive correlations among numbers of crown roots and mesocotyl length at the seedling stage and root length and root dry weight at depth at later stages with grain yield and yield-related traits. Under reproductive stage drought stress, the grain yield advantage of the lines with QTLs ranged from 24.1 to 108.9% under upland and 3.0-22.7% under lowland conditions over the lines without QTLs. The lines with QTL combinations qDTY1.3 +qDTY8.1 showed the highest mean grain yield advantage followed by lines having qDTY1.1 +qDTY8.1 and qDTY1.1 +qDTY8.1 +qDTY1.3 , across upland/lowland reproductive-stage drought stress. The identified QTLs for root traits, mesocotyl length, grain yield and yield-related traits can be immediately deployed in marker-assisted breeding to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties.

  4. Impacts of aerosol pollutant mitigation on lowland rice yields in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Li, Tao; Yue, Xu; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol pollution in China is significantly altering radiative transfer processes and is thereby potentially affecting rice photosynthesis and yields. However, the response of rice photosynthesis to aerosol-induced radiative perturbations is still not well understood. Here, we employ a process-based modelling approach to simulate changes in incoming radiation (RAD) and the diffuse radiation fraction (DF) with aerosol mitigation in China and their associated impacts on rice yields. Aerosol reduction has the positive effect of increasing RAD and the negative effect of decreasing DF on rice photosynthesis and yields. In rice production areas where the average RAD during the growing season is lower than 250 W m-2, aerosol reduction is beneficial for higher rice yields, whereas in areas with RAD>250 W m-2, aerosol mitigation causes yield declines due to the associated reduction in the DF, which decreases the light use efficiency. As a net effect, rice yields were estimated to significantly increase by 0.8%-2.6% with aerosol concentrations reductions from 20 to 100%, which is lower than the estimates obtained in earlier studies that only considered the effects of RAD. This finding suggests that both RAD and DF are important processes influencing rice yields and should be incorporated into future assessments of agricultural responses to variations in aerosol-induced radiation under climate change.

  5. Effects of Low Light on Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Including Grain Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the basic characteristics of rice development. However, continuously cloudy weather or rainfall, especially during the grain-filling stage, induces a significant loss in yield and results in poor grain quality. Stress caused by low light often creates severe meteorological disasters in some rice-growing regions worldwide. This review was based on our previous research and related research regarding the effects of low light on rice growth, yield and quality as well as the formation of grain, and mainly reviewed the physiological metabolism of rice plants, including characteristics of photosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves and key enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains, as well as the translocations of carbohydrate and nitrogen. These characteristics include various grain yield and rice quality components (milling and appearance as well as cooking, eating and nutritional qualities under different rates of shading imposed at the vegetative or reproductive stages of rice plants. Furthermore, we discussed why grain yield and quality are reduced under the low light environment. Next, we summarized the need for future research that emphasizes methods can effectively improve rice grain yield and quality under low light stress. These research findings can provide a beneficial reference for rice cultivation management and breeding program in low light environments.

  6. Paddy crop yield estimation in Kashmir Himalayan rice bowl using remote sensing and simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Mohammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rather, A Q

    2015-06-01

    The Kashmir Himalayan region of India is expected to be highly prone to the change in agricultural land use because of its geo-ecological fragility, strategic location vis-à-vis the Himalayan landscape, its trans-boundary river basins, and inherent socio-economic instabilities. Food security and sustainability of the region are thus greatly challenged by these impacts. The effect of future climate change, increased competition for land and water, labor from non-agricultural sectors, and increasing population adds to this complex problem. In current study, paddy rice yield at regional level was estimated using GIS-based environment policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model. The general approach of current study involved combining regional level crop database, regional soil data base, farm management data, and climatic data outputs with GEPIC model. The simulated yield showed that estimated production to be 4305.55 kg/ha (43.05 q h(-1)). The crop varieties like Jhelum, K-39, Chenab, China 1039, China-1007, and Shalimar rice-1 grown in plains recorded average yield of 4783.3 kg/ha (47.83 q ha(-1)). Meanwhile, high altitude areas with varieties like Kohsaar, K-78 (Barkat), and K-332 recorded yield of 4102.2 kg/ha (41.02 q ha(-1)). The observed and simulated yield showed a good match with R (2) = 0.95, RMSE = 132.24 kg/ha, respectively.

  7. Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed FIROUZI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1 and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria. Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1. Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain

  8. Estimating the effect of urease inhibitor on rice yield based on NDVI at key growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailou LIU,Yazhen LI,Huiwen HU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the urease inhibitor, N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT at a range of application rates on rice production was examined in a field experiment at Jinxian County, Jiangxi Province, China. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI was measured at key growth stages in both early and late rice. The results showed that the grain yield increased significantly when urea was applied with NBPT, with the highest yield observed at 1.00% NBPT (wt/wt. NDVI differed with the growth stage of rice; it remained steady from the heading to the filling stage. Rice yield could be predicted from the NDVI taken at key rice growing stages, with R2 ranging from 0.34 to 0.69 in early rice and 0.49 to 0.70 in late rice. The validation test showed that RMSE (t·hm-2 values were 0.77 and 0.87 in early and late rice, respectively. Therefore, it was feasible to estimate rice yield for different amounts of urease inhibitor using NDVI.

  9. Assessment of rice yield loss due to exposure to ozone pollution in Southern Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danh, Ngo Thanh; Huy, Lai Nguyen; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim, E-mail: kimoanh@ait.ac.th

    2016-10-01

    The study domain covered the Eastern region of Southern of Vietnam that includes Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and five other provinces. Rice production in the domain accounted for 13% of the national total with three crop cycles per year. We assessed ozone (O{sub 3}) induced rice production loss in the domain for 2010 using simulated hourly surface O{sub 3} concentrations (WRF/CAMx; 4 km resolution). Simulated O{sub 3} was higher in January–February (largely overlaps the first crop) and September–December (third crop), and lower in March–June (second crop). Spatially, O{sub 3} was higher in downwind locations of HCMC and were comparable with observed data. Relative yield loss (RYL) was assessed for each crop over the respective growing period (105 days) using three metrics: AOT40, M7 and flux-based O{sub 3} dose of POD{sub 10}. Higher RYL was estimated for the downwind of HCMC. Overall, the rice production loss due to O{sub 3} exposure in the study domain in 2010 was the highest for the first crop (up to 25,800 metric tons), the second highest for the third crop (up to 21,500 tons) and the least for the second crop (up to 6800 tons). The low RYL obtained for the second crop by POD{sub 10} may be due to the use of a high threshold value (Y = 10 nmol m{sup −2} s{sup −1}). Linear regression between non-null radiation POD{sub 0} and POD{sub 10} had similar slopes for the first and third crop when POD{sub 0} was higher and very low slope for the second crop when POD{sub 0} was low. The results of this study can be used for the rice crop planning to avoid the period of potential high RYL due to O{sub 3} exposure. - Highlights: • Simulated O{sub 3} was used to assess rice yield loss in a domain of Southern Vietnam. • Exposure metrics of AOT40, M7, POD{sub 0} and POD{sub 10} were considered. • POD{sub 10} gave the highest rice production loss. • Higher production loss was found downwind of Ho Chi Minh City.

  10. Rice yield estimation based on weather conditions and on technological level of production systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Boffino de Almeida Monteiro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate an estimation system for rice yield in Brazil, based on simple agrometeorological models and on the technological level of production systems. This estimation system incorporates the conceptual basis proposed by Doorenbos & Kassam for potential and attainable yields with empirical adjusts for maximum yield and crop sensitivity to water deficit, considering five categories of rice yield. Rice yield was estimated from 2000/2001 to 2007/2008, and compared to IBGE yield data. Regression analyses between model estimates and data from IBGE surveys resulted in significant coefficients of determination, with less dispersion in the South than in the North and Northeast regions of the country. Index of model efficiency (E1' ranged from 0.01 in the lower yield classes to 0.45 in higher ones, and mean absolute error ranged from 58 to 250 kg ha‑1, respectively.

  11. Estimation of rice grain yield from dual-polarization Radarsat-2 SAR data by integrating a rice canopy scattering model and a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Bin; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Cuizhen

    2017-05-01

    Fast and accurate estimation of rice yield plays a role in forecasting rice productivity for ensuring regional or national food security. Microwave synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has been proved to have a great potential for rice monitoring and parameters retrieval. In this study, a rice canopy scattering model (RCSM) was revised and then was applied to simulate the backscatter of rice canopy. The combination of RCSM and genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed for retrieving two important rice parameters relating to grain yield, ear length and ear number density, from a C-band, dual-polarization (HH and HV) Radarsat-2 SAR data. The stability of retrieved results of GA inversion was also evaluated by changing various parameter configurations. Results show that RCSM can effectively simulate backscattering coefficients of rice canopy at HH and HV mode with an error of technology with better accuracy. The rice ear length are estimated with error of technology for operational yield estimation.

  12. Super Rice Cropping Will Enhance Rice Yield and Reduce CH4 Emission: A Case Study in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu JIANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was performed to learn the differences in plant productivity and CH4 emission between two rice cultivars, super rice variety Ningjing 1 and traditional variety Zhendao 11, which were currently commercially applied in Nanjing, China. Similar seasonal changes of CH4 emission fluxes and soil solution CH4 contents were found between the tested cultivars. Although there was no significant difference in plant biomass production between the cultivars, the grain yield of Ningjing 1 was significantly higher by 35.0% (P < 0.05 than that of Zhendao 11, whereas the total CH4 emission from Ningjing 1 was 35.2% lower (P < 0.05. The main difference in the amounts of CH4 emission between the cultivars occurred in the period from the tillering stage to the heading stage. The biomass-scaled and yield-scaled CH4 emissions were respectively 3.8 and 5.2 mg/g for Ningjing 1, significantly lower than those for Zhendao 11 (7.4 and 12.8 mg/g, respectively. According to the relationships between the plant growth characteristics and the CH4 emission, a stronger root system contributed mainly to the lower CH4 emission of Ningjing 1, as compared with Zhendao 11. Our results demonstrated that super rice has advantages not only in grain productivity but also in CH4 emission mitigation. Further expansion of super rice cropping will enhance rice yield and reduce greenhouse gas emission in China.

  13. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  14. Impact of Thiamethoxam Seed Treatment on Growth and Yield of Rice, Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanka, S K; Senthil-Nathan, S; Blouin, D J; Stout, M J

    2017-04-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are widely used in agriculture. In rice, Oryza sativa L., in the southern United States, neonicotinoid seed treatments are used to manage early-season populations of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel. In addition to their effects on pests, neonicotinoid seed treatments may benefit crop plants directly by increasing plant growth or altering plant responses to stresses. As part of an effort to assess the overall benefits of thiamethoxam seed treatment in rice, rice emergence, growth, and yield were evaluated. In a growth chamber, rice emergence from the soil was 1-2 d more rapid from treated than untreated seeds. These laboratory results were supported by field experiments that revealed higher stand counts from thiamethoxam-treated plots than from untreated plots. Yields from thiamethoxam treatments were no higher than those from untreated plots under conditions in which weevil larvae were absent, a result inconsistent with the hypothesis that thiamethoxam imparts direct yield benefits. In a series of field experiments conducted to compare the relationship between weevil larval densities and rice yields in plots treated with several rates of thiamethoxam or chlorantraniliprole (another widely used seed treatment insecticide), the relationship between weevil density and yield did not differ markedly among both seed treatments. Overall yields from both seed treatments did not differ significantly, despite more effective control in chlorantraniliprole-treated plots. These results provide strong support for effect of thiamethoxam on early-season growth of rice, but only weak support for its direct effect on rice yields. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Statistical rice yield modeling using blended MODIS-Landsat based crop phenology metrics in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Nguyen, S. T.; Lau, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is a populated island with a majority of residents settled in the western plains where soils are suitable for rice cultivation. Rice is not only the most important commodity, but also plays a critical role for agricultural and food marketing. Information of rice production is thus important for policymakers to devise timely plans for ensuring sustainably socioeconomic development. Because rice fields in Taiwan are generally small and yet crop monitoring requires information of crop phenology associating with the spatiotemporal resolution of satellite data, this study used Landsat-MODIS fusion data for rice yield modeling in Taiwan. We processed the data for the first crop (Feb-Mar to Jun-Jul) and the second (Aug-Sep to Nov-Dec) in 2014 through five main steps: (1) data pre-processing to account for geometric and radiometric errors of Landsat data, (2) Landsat-MODIS data fusion using using the spatial-temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model, (3) construction of the smooth time-series enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2), (4) rice yield modeling using EVI2-based crop phenology metrics, and (5) error verification. The fusion results by a comparison bewteen EVI2 derived from the fusion image and that from the reference Landsat image indicated close agreement between the two datasets (R2 > 0.8). We analysed smooth EVI2 curves to extract phenology metrics or phenological variables for establishment of rice yield models. The results indicated that the established yield models significantly explained more than 70% variability in the data (p-value 0.8), in both cases. The root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) used to measure the model accuracy revealed the consistency between the estimated yields and the government's yield statistics. This study demonstrates advantages of using EVI2-based phenology metrics (derived from Landsat-MODIS fusion data) for rice yield estimation in Taiwan prior to the harvest period.

  16. Assessment of Potential Climate Change Effects on the Rice Yield and Water Footprint in the Nanliujiang Catchment, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nanliujiang catchment is one of major rice production bases of South China. Irrigation districts play an important role in rice production which requires a large quantity of water. There are potential risks on future climate change in response to rice production, agricultural irrigation water use and pollution control locally. The SWAT model was used to quantify the yield and water footprint (WF of rice in this catchment. A combined method of automatic and manual sub-basin delineation was used for the model setup in this work to reflect the differences between irrigation districts in yield and water use of rice. We validated our simulations against observed leaf area index, biomass and yield of rice, evapotranspiration and runoff. The outputs of three GCMs (GFDL-ESM2M, IPSL-CM5A-LR and HadGEM2-ES under three RCPs (RCP2.6, 4.5, 8.5 were fed to the SWAT model. The results showed that: (a the SWAT model is an ideal tool to simulate rice development as well as hydrology; (b there would be increases in rice yield ranged from +1.4 to +10.6% under climate projections of GFDL-ESM2M and IPSL-CM5A-LR but slight decreases ranged from −3.5 to −0.8% under that of HadGEM2-ES; (c the yield and WFs of rice displayed clear differences in the catchment, with a characteristic that high in the south and low in the north, mainly due to the differences in climatic conditions, soil quality and fertilization amount; (d there would be a decrease by 45.5% in blue WF with an increase by 88.1% in green WF, which could provide favorable conditions to enlarge irrigated areas and take technical measures for improving green water use efficiency of irrigation districts; (e a clear rise in future grey WF would present enormous challenges for the protection of water resources and environmental pollution control in this catchment. So it should be to improved nutrient management strategies for the agricultural non-point source pollution control in irrigation districts

  17. Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is prevalent particularly on calcareous soils of arid and semiarid region. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the direct, residual and cumulative effect of zinc on the yield of wheat and rice in permanent layout for two consecutive years, 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan. Soil under study was deficient in Zn (0.8 mg kg-1. Effect of Zn on yield, Zn concentrations in leaf and soils were assessed using wheat variety Naseer-2000 and rice variety IRRI-6. Three rates of Zn, ranging from 0 to 10 kg ha-1 in soil, were applied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4. 7H2O along with basal dose fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Mature leaf and soil samples were collected at panicle initiation stage. The results showed that grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly increased by the direct application of 5 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Highest grain yield of wheat (5467 kg ha-1 was recorded with the direct application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 while 4994 kg ha-1 was recorded with the cumulative application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 but the yield increase due to residual effect of Zn was statistically lower than the cumulative effect of Zn. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the cumulative application ofZn followed by residual and direct applied 10 and 5 kg Zn kg ha-1, respectively. Zn concentration in soils ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in wheat and 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg-1 in rice, while in leaves it ranged from 18-48 mg kg-1 in wheat and 15-52 mg kg-1 in rice. The concentration of Zn in soil and leaves increased due to the treatments in the order; cumulative > residual > direct effect > control (without Zn. The yield attributes like 1000- grain weight, number of spikes, spike length and plant height were increased by the residual, direct and cumulative effect of Zn levels; however, the magnitude of increase was higher in cumulative effect than residual and direct effect of Zn, respectively. Under Zn-deficient soil

  18. Prediction of kharif rice yield at Kharagpur using disaggregated extended range rainfall forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhekale, B. S.; Nageswararao, M. M.; Nair, Archana; Mohanty, U. C.; Swain, D. K.; Singh, K. K.; Arunbabu, T.

    2017-08-01

    The Extended Range Forecasts System (ERFS) has been generating monthly and seasonal forecasts on real-time basis throughout the year over India since 2009. India is one of the major rice producer and consumer in South Asia; more than 50% of the Indian population depends on rice as staple food. Rice is mainly grown in kharif season, which contributed 84% of the total annual rice production of the country. Rice cultivation in India is rainfed, which depends largely on rains, so reliability of the rainfall forecast plays a crucial role for planning the kharif rice crop. In the present study, an attempt has been made to test the reliability of seasonal and sub-seasonal ERFS summer monsoon rainfall forecasts for kharif rice yield predictions at Kharagpur, West Bengal by using CERES-Rice (DSSATv4.5) model. These ERFS forecasts are produced as monthly and seasonal mean values and are converted into daily sequences with stochastic weather generators for use with crop growth models. The daily sequences are generated from ERFS seasonal (June-September) and sub-seasonal (July-September, August-September, and September) summer monsoon (June to September) rainfall forecasts which are considered as input in CERES-rice crop simulation model for the crop yield prediction for hindcast (1985-2008) and real-time mode (2009-2015). The yield simulated using India Meteorological Department (IMD) observed daily rainfall data is considered as baseline yield for evaluating the performance of predicted yields using the ERFS forecasts. The findings revealed that the stochastic disaggregation can be used to disaggregate the monthly/seasonal ERFS forecasts into daily sequences. The year to year variability in rice yield at Kharagpur is efficiently predicted by using the ERFS forecast products in hindcast as well as real time, and significant enhancement in the prediction skill is noticed with advancement in the season due to incorporation of observed weather data which reduces uncertainty of

  19. Yield Of Edible Pleurotus Mushrooms Grown On Rice Straw With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of different species of edible Pleurotus mushrooms grown on rice straw substrate with and without chicken manure supplementation. The Pleurotus species /varieties tested were P. flabellatus of Tanzania, India and Thailand origin, and P. sajor caju from Tanzania ...

  20. Weed competitiveness and yielding ability of aerobic rice genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords:    Broad-sense heritability; Crop vigour; Genetic correlation; Indirect selection index; Plant erectness; Rice germplasm; Seeding rate; Vegetative growth; Weed-suppressive ability.

  1. Influence of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on Grain Yield and Yield Components of Hybrid Rice in Northwestern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanullah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted to assess the impact of various organic sources, inorganic nitrogen (N and the different combinations of inorganic N (urea + organic source on the yield components (YC and grain yield (GY of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L., Pukhraj under rice-wheat system. The experiments were conducted at Batkhela (Malakand, Northwestern Pakistan, in 2011 and 2012. Our results revealed that YC and GY ranked first for the hybrid rice when applied with sole inorganic N (urea, followed by the application of N in mixture (urea + organic sources, while the control plots (no N applied ranked in the bottom. Among the six organic sources (three animal manures: poultry, sheep and cattle; three crop residues: onion, berseem and wheat, application of N in the form of poultry manure was superior in terms of higher YC and GY. When applying 120 kg/hm2 N source, 75% N from urea + 25% N from organic source resulted in higher YC and GY in 2011, while applying 50% N from urea + 50% N from organic sources caused higher YC and GY in 2012. Therefore, the combined application of N sources in the form of urea + organic source can produce good performances in terms of higher YC and GY of rice under rice-wheat cropping system.

  2. Application of Rice Straw Compost with Different Bioactivators on the Growth and Yield of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Barus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnover of organic matters to the soil can increase the efficiency of chemical fertilizers, improve the plant growthand sustain the environment. Field experiment was carried out in the Buyut Udik Village, Gunung Sugih District,Central Lampung from May to August 2009. Rice straw was composted by three kinds of decomposer (bioactivatorA, B, and C. Rice straw compost (2 Mg ha-1 was applied to the paddy-field soil that was planted by rice (Oryzasativa of Ciherang Variety. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. Theresults showed that application of rice straw compost reduced the numbers of empty grain per tiller compared tocontrol (without compost in which control had the highest percentage of empty grain (15.9%. The application ofrice straw compost that was decomposed by bioactivator A gave the highest numbers of grain per panicle and yieldper plot as followed 162.5 seed and 33 kg plot-1, respectively. Application of various rice straw composts that weredecomposed by three kinds of bioactivator increased the rice grain up to 13-26% compared to control.

  3. Spatiotemporal analysis the precipitation extremes affecting rice yield in Jiangsu province, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Islam, A. R. M. Towfiqul; Zhang, Fangmin; Hu, Zhenghua

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing risk of meteorological disasters, it is of great importance to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of precipitation extremes and its possible impact on rice productivity, especially in Jiangsu province, southeast China. In this study, we explored the relationships between rice yield and extreme precipitation indices using Mann-Kendall trend test, Pettitt's test, and K-means clustering methods. This study used 10 extreme precipitation indices of the rice growing season (May to October) based on the daily precipitation records and rice yield data at 52 meteorological stations during 1961-2012 in Jiangsu province. The main findings were as follows: (1) correlation results indicated that precipitation extremes occurred in the months of July, August, and October, which had noticeable adverse effects on rice yield; (2) the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August and October should be considered as three key indicators for the precipitation-induced rice meteorological disasters; and (3) most of the stations showed an increasing trends for the maximum 7-day precipitation of July and the number of rainy days of August, while the number of rainy days of October in all the stations demonstrated a decreasing trend. Moreover, Jiangsu province could be divided into two major sub-regions such as north and south areas with different temporal variations in the three key indicators.

  4. Predicting grain yield in rice using multi-temporal vegetation indices from UAV-based multispectral and digital imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Zheng, H. B.; Xu, X. Q.; He, J. Y.; Ge, X. K.; Yao, X.; Cheng, T.; Zhu, Y.; Cao, W. X.; Tian, Y. C.

    2017-08-01

    Timely and non-destructive assessment of crop yield is an essential part of agricultural remote sensing (RS). The development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided a novel approach for RS, and makes it possible to acquire high spatio-temporal resolution imagery on a regional scale. In this study, the rice grain yield was predicted with single stage vegetation indices (VIs) and multi-temporal VIs derived from the multispectral (MS) and digital images. The results showed that the booting stage was identified as the optimal stage for grain yield prediction with VIs at a single stage for both digital image and MS image. And corresponding optimal color index was VARI with R2 value of 0.71 (Log relationship). While the optimal vegetation index NDVI[800,720] based on MS images showed a linear relationship with the grain yield and gained a higher R2 value (0.75) than color index did. The multi-temporal VIs showed a higher correlation with grain yield than the single stage VIs did. And the VIs at two random growth stage with the multiple linear regression function [MLR(VI)] performed best. The highest correlation coefficient were 0.76 with MLR(NDVI[800,720]) at the booting and heading stages (for the MS image) and 0.73 with MLR(VARI) at the jointing and booting stages (for the digital image). In addition, the VIs that showed a high correlation with LAI performed well for yield prediction, and the VIs composed of red edge band (720 nm) and near infrared band (800 nm) were found to be more effective in predicting yield and LAI at high level. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that both MS and digital sensors mounted on the UAV are reliable platforms for rice growth and grain yield estimation, and determined the best period and optimal VIs for rice grain yield prediction.

  5. Rice Crop Monitoring and Yield Estimation Through Cosmo Skymed and TerraSAR-X: A SAR-Based Experience in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhanivelan, S.; Kannan, P.; Nirmala Mary, P. Christy; Subramanian, E.; Jeyaraman, S.; Nelson, A.; Setiyono, T.; Holecz, F.; Barbieri, M.; Yadav, M.

    2015-04-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop governing food security in Asia. Reliable and regular information on the area under rice production is the basis of policy decisions related to imports, exports and prices which directly affect food security. Recent and planned launches of SAR sensors coupled with automated processing can provide sustainable solutions to the challenges on mapping and monitoring rice systems. High resolution (3m) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imageries were used to map and monitor rice growing areas in selected three sites in TamilNadu, India to determine rice cropping extent, track rice growth and estimate yields. A simple, robust, rule-based classification for mapping rice area with multi-temporal, X-band, HH polarized SAR imagery from COSMO Skymed and TerraSAR X and site specific parameters were used. The robustness of the approach is demonstrated on a very large dataset involving 30 images across 3 footprints obtained during 2013-14. A total of 318 in-season site visits were conducted across 60 monitoring locations for rice classification and 432 field observations were made for accuracy assessment. Rice area and Start of Season (SoS) maps were generated with classification accuracies ranging from 87- 92 per cent. Using ORYZA2000, a weather driven process based crop growth simulation model; yield estimates were made with the inclusion of rice crop parameters derived from the remote sensing products viz., seasonal rice area, SoS and backscatter time series. Yield Simulation accuracy levels of 87 per cent at district level and 85- 96 per cent at block level demonstrated the suitability of remote sensing products for policy decisions ensuring food security and reducing vulnerability of farmers in India.

  6. Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates on Morphological Traits, Yield and Yield Components of Three Cultivars of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gh Moosavi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of N fertilizer rates on morphological traits, yield and yield components of rice cultivars, a study was carried out in Rice Research Institute of Rasht, Iran during 2009. It was a two-variable factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factor was nitrogen fertilization at four rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha-1 and the second factor was rice cultivar at three levels of Hashemi, Ali-Kazemi and Khazar. The results of analysis of variance showed that N fertilizer rates did not significantly affect on panicle length, grain number per panicle, 1000- grain weight and harvest index but significantly affected plant height, tiller number per m2, panicle number per m2, grain yield and biological yield. Means comparison showed that as N rate was increased from 0 to 90 kg ha-1, plant height, tiller number per m2, panicle number per m2, grain yield and biological yield increased by 12.7, 27.6, 32.6, 84.5 and 61.6%, respectively. The cultivar significantly affected morphological traits, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and biological yield. The results indicated that cultivar of Khazar had the highest potential of grain yield (3424.5 kg ha-1. In total, application of 90 kg N ha-1 and cultivar of Khazar treatment was better for having the maximum production under the conditions of the current study.

  7. Specific yield, High Plains aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set represents specific-yield ranges in the High Plains aquifer of the United States. The High Plains aquifer underlies 112.6 million acres (176,000...

  8. Boron Application Improves Growth, Yield and Net Economic Return of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubshar HUSSAIN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to evaluate the role of boron (B application at different growth stages in improving the growth, yield and net economic return of rice at farmer's fields during summer season, 2009. Boron was soil applied (1.5 kg/hm2 at the transplanting, tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice; foliar applied (1.5% B solution at the tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice, and dipped seedling roots in 1.5% B solution before transplanting; while control plots did not apply any B. Boron application (except dipping of seedling roots in B solution, which caused toxicity and reduced the number of tillers and straw yield than control substantially improved the rice growth and yield. However, soil application was better in improving the number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, harvest index, net economic income and ratio of benefit to cost compared with the rest of treatments. Overall, for improving rice performance and maximizing the net economic returns, B might be applied as soil application at flowering.

  9. Impact of Water Management on Rice Varieties, Yield, and Water Productivity under the System of Rice Intensification in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoriano Joseph Pascual

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI uses less water and enhances rice yield through synergy among several agronomic management practices. This claim was investigated to determine the effects of crop growth, yield and irrigation water use, using two thirds of the recommended SRI practices and two rice varieties, namely Tainan11 (TN11 and Tidung30 (TD30. Irrigation regimes were (a intermittent irrigation with three-day intervals (TD303 and TN113; (b intermittent irrigation with seven-day intervals (TD307 and TN117 and (c continuous flooding (TD30F and TN11F. Results showed that intermittent irrigation of three- and seven-day intervals produced water savings of 55% and 74% compared with continuous flooding. Total water productivity was greater with intermittent irrigation at seven-day intervals producing 0.35 kg·grain/m3 (TN117 and 0.46 kg·grain/m3 (TD307. Average daily headed panicle reduced by 166% and 196% for TN113 and TN117 compared with TN11F, with similar reduction recorded for TD303 (150% and TD307 (156% compared with TD30F. Grain yield of TD30 was comparable among irrigation regimes; however, it reduced by 30.29% in TN117 compared to TN11F. Plant height and leaf area were greater in plants exposed to intermittent irrigation of three-day intervals.

  10. Effect of seaweed extracts on growth and yield of rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALUH NIKMATULLAH

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sunarpi, Jupri A, Kurnianingsih R, Julisaniah NI, Nikmatullah A 2010. Effect of seaweed extracts on growth and yield of rice plants. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 73-77. Application of liquid seaweed fertilizers on some plant specieshas been reported to decrease application doses of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on some crop plants, as well as stimulating growth and production of many plants. It has been reported that there are at least 59 species of seaweeds found in coastal zone of West Nusa Tenggara Province, 15 of those species weres able to stimulate germination, growth and production of some horticultural and legume plants. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of seaweed extracts obtained from ten species on growth and production of rice plants. To achive the goal, seaweed (100 g per species wasextracted with 100 mL of water, to obtain the concentration of 100%. Seaweed extract (15% was sprayed into the rice plants during vegetative and generative stages. Subsequently, the growth and yield parameters of rice plants were measured. The results shown that extracts of Sargassum sp.1, Sargassum sp.2, Sargassum polycistum, Hydroclathrus sp., Turbinaria ornata, and Turbinaria murayana, were able to induce growth of rice plants. However, only the Hydroclathrus sp. extract could enhance both growth and production of rice plants.

  11. Optimal fertilizer nitrogen rates and yield-scaled global warming potential in drill seeded rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adviento-Borbe, Maria Arlene; Pittelkow, Cameron M; Anders, Merle; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; McClung, Anna M; Six, Johan; Linquist, Bruce A

    2013-11-01

    Drill seeded rice ( L.) is the dominant rice cultivation practice in the United States. Although drill seeded systems can lead to significant CH and NO emissions due to anaerobic and aerobic soil conditions, the relationship between high-yielding management practices, particularly fertilizer N management, and total global warming potential (GWP) remains unclear. We conducted three field experiments in California and Arkansas to test the hypothesis that by optimizing grain yield through N management, the lowest yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP = GWP Mg grain) is achieved. Each growing season, urea was applied at rates ranging from 0 to 224 kg N ha before the permanent flood. Emissions of CH and NO were measured daily to weekly during growing seasons and fallow periods. Annual CH emissions ranged from 9.3 to 193 kg CH-C ha yr across sites, and annual NO emissions averaged 1.3 kg NO-N ha yr. Relative to NO emissions, CH dominated growing season (82%) and annual (68%) GWP. The impacts of fertilizer N rates on GHG fluxes were confined to the growing season, with increasing N rate having little effect on CH emissions but contributing to greater NO emissions during nonflooded periods. The fallow period contributed between 7 and 39% of annual GWP across sites years. This finding illustrates the need to include fallow period measurements in annual emissions estimates. Growing season GWP ranged from 130 to 686 kg CO eq Mg season across sites and years. Fertilizer N rate had no significant effect on GWP; therefore, achieving the highest productivity is not at the cost of higher GWP. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen dynamics and their relationship to lowland rice yield for site-specific paddy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Gholizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum rate and application timing of Nitrogen (N fertilizer are crucial in achieving a high yield in rice cultivation; however, conventional laboratory testing of plant nutrients is time-consuming and expensive. To develop a site-specific spatial variable rate application method to overcome the limitations of traditional techniques, especially in fields under a double-cropping system, this study focused on the relationship between Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter readings and N content in leaves during different growth stages to introduce the most suitable stage for assessment of crop N and prediction of rice yield. The SPAD readings and leaf N content were measured on the uppermost fully expanded leaf at panicle formation and booting stages. Grain yield was also measured at the end of the season. The analysis of variance, variogram, and kriging were calculated to determine the variability of attributes and their relationship, and finally, variability maps were created. Significant linear relationships were observed between attributes, with the same trends in different sampling dates; however, accuracy of semivariance estimation reduces with the growth stage. Results of the study also implied that there was a better relationship between rice leaf N content (R2 = 0.93, as well as yield (R2 = 0.81, with SPAD readings at the panicle formation stage. Therefore, the SPAD-based evaluation of N status and prediction of rice yield is more reliable on this stage rather than at the booting stage. This study proved that the application of SPAD chlorophyll meter paves the way for real-time paddy N management and grain yield estimation. It can be reliably exploited in precision agriculture of paddy fields under double-cropping cultivation to understand and control spatial variations. Keywords: Spatial variability, Non-invasive measurement, Precision farming, Decision support

  13. Understanding the Spatially Variable Effects of Climate Change on Rice Yield for Three Ecotypes in Bangladesh, 1981–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Ara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will impact on rice food security in many parts of the world, including Bangladesh. Little attention has been given to understanding the impact of climate on rice yield for three main ecotypes (Aus, Aman, and Boro in different areas of the country. The aim of this paper was to analyse the spatiotemporal dynamics of rice yield and climatic variables and the spatially variable climate effects on rice yield for these ecotypes in Bangladesh during 1981–2010 by employing linear mixed models and generalized linear models. The results demonstrated the substantial spatiotemporal variations of rice yield for all ecotypes across the country. Rice yield for ecotypes was more susceptible to temperature changes than rainfall effects. Modelling of a 1°C temperature increase in the country showed strong regional differences in rice yield for these ecotypes. The study concludes that future temperature changes are likely to change regional rice yield for all ecotypes and hence impact food security. The results have important consequences for food security by indicating the need for appropriate region-specific adaptation measures to reduce rice yield variability in the future. The results show the need to consider spatial differences for policy development to improve food security in Bangladesh.

  14. Contribution of environmental factors to tillering and yield of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest (FARO 44) and the lowest (NERICA 7) yielding varieties were used for the study. Tiller number and yield obtained from the response of the two varieties to the environmental factors were correlated and path coefficients were computed. The results showed that day and night soil temperatures with atmospheric ...

  15. Association mapping for yield and grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Association analysis was applied to a panel of accessions of Embrapa Rice Core Collection (ERiCC) with 86 SSR and field data from two experiments. A clear subdivision between lowland and upland accessions was apparent, thereby indicating the presence of population structure. Thirty-two accessions with admixed ancestry were identified through structure analysis, these being discarded from association analysis, thus leaving 210 accessions subdivided into two panels. The association of yield and grain-quality traits with SSR was undertaken with a mixed linear model, with markers and subpopulation as fixed factors, and kinship matrix as a random factor. Eight markers from the two appraised panels showed significant association with four different traits, although only one (RM190) maintained the marker-trait association across years and cultivation. The significant association detected between amylose content and RM190 was in agreement with previous QTL analyses in the literature. Herein, the feasibility of undertaking association analysis in conjunction with germplasm characterization was demonstrated, even when considering low marker density. The high linkage disequilibrium expected in rice lines and cultivars facilitates the detection of marker-trait associations for implementing marker assisted selection, and the mining of alleles related to important traits in germplasm. PMID:21637426

  16. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  17. Effects of delaying transplanting on agronomic traits and grain yield of rice under mechanical transplantation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua Liu

    Full Text Available A delay in the mechanical transplantation (MT of rice seedlings frequently occurs in Huanghuai wheat-rice rotation cropping districts of China, due to the late harvest of wheat, the poor weather conditions and the insufficiency of transplanters, missing the optimum transplanting time and causing seedlings to age. To identify how delaying transplanting rice affects the agronomic characteristics including the growth duration, photosynthetic productivity and dry matter remobilization efficiency and the grain yield under mechanical transplanting pattern, an experiment with a split-plot design was conducted over two consecutive years. The main plot includes two types of cultivation: mechanical transplanting and artificial transplanting (AT. The subplot comprises four japonica rice cultivars. The results indicate that the rice jointing, booting, heading and maturity stages were postponed under MT when using AT as a control. The tiller occurrence number, dry matter weight per tiller, accumulative dry matter for the population, leaf area index, crop growth rate, photosynthetic potential, and dry matter remobilization efficiency of the leaf under MT significantly decreased compared to those under AT. In contrast, the reduction rate of the leaf area during the heading-maturity stage was markedly enhanced under MT. The numbers of effective panicles and filled grains per panicle and the grain yield significantly decreased under MT. A significant correlation was observed between the dry matter production, remobilization and distribution characteristics and the grain yield. We infer that, as with rice from old seedlings, the decrease in the tiller occurrence, the photosynthetic productivity and the assimilate remobilization efficiency may be important agronomic traits that are responsible for the reduced grain yield under MT.

  18. Reducing Soil CO2 Emission and Improving Upland Rice Yield with no-Tillage, Straw Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilization in Northern Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou-Yovo, E.; Brueggemann, N.; Naab, J.; Huat, J.; Ampofo, E.; Ago, E.; Agbossou, E.

    2015-12-01

    To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha-1) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha-1, and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha-1). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6 to 10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO2 emission. Much larger soil CO2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage planting significantly reduced soil CO2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha-1 in combination with 3 Mg ha-1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha-1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

  19. Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petter, F.A.; Madari, B.E.; Silva, da M.A.S.; Carneiro, M.A.C.; Melo Carvalho, de M.T.; Marimon, B.; Pacheco, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar made from Eucalyptus on soil fertility, and on the yield and development of upland rice. The experiment was performed during two years in a randomized block design with four replicates, in a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. Four doses of

  20. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  1. Foliar application effects of beet vinasse on rice yield and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejada, M.; Garcia-Martinez, A. M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Bautista, J.; Parrado, J.

    2009-07-01

    This study presents an account of rice (oriza sativa cv. Puntal) yield quality parameters as influenced by the foliar application of an industrial byproduct (beet vinasse). Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Subsp.vurgaris) vinasse is a product of great agricultural interest, because of its organic matter content, N and K concentrations. (Author)

  2. Quantitative trait loci for rice yield-related traits using recombinant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 90; Issue 2. Quantitative trait loci for rice yield-related traits using recombinant inbred lines derived from two diverse cultivars. Xu Feng Bai Li Jun Luo Wen Hao Yan Mallikarjuna Rao Kovi Yong Zhong Xing. Research Article Volume 90 Issue 2 August 2011 pp 209-215 ...

  3. Comparison of quantitative trait loci for rice yield, panicle length and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 90; Issue 2. Comparison of quantitative trait loci for rice yield, panicle length and spikelet density across three connected populations. Touming Liu Lianzhi Li Yushan Zhang Caiguo Xu Xianghua Li Yongzhong Xing. Research Note Volume 90 Issue 2 August 2011 pp 377-382 ...

  4. Effects of Different Biochar Application Patterns on Rice Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yue-man

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has positive effect on carbon sequestration and soil improvement, consequently biochar application has been attracted more and more attention in recent years. However, so far, few investigations about the effects of biochar application patterns on crop growth, which may have a direct impact on biochar's application and comprehensive environmental effects have been reported. Herein, soil column study was conducted using four biochars, i.e., wheat straw(WBC and wood sawdust(SBC that pyrolyzed at 500℃ and 700℃, respectively, to study the effects of two different biochar application patterns on rice growth. These two typical biochar application patterns were:generally mixed application(mixed treatment and surface application(surface treatment. The results showed that:(1In comparison with CK, all biochar application treatments promoted the growth of rice in terms of plant height and SPAD(Soil Plant Analysis Development value. Plant height of surface treatment was higher than that of mixed treatments at the heading, filling and maturation stages. SPAD and NDVI(Normalized Different Vegetation Index value of surface treatments were slightly lower than mixed treatment.(2Biochar significantly increased rice seeding setting rate by 4.88%~8.39%, moreover, surface treatments were observed higher rice seeding setting rate than mixed treatments. However, no significant difference was observed in the number of effective panicles, grains per spike and 1 000-grain weight between surface and mixed treatment. (3Application of biochar promoted rice yield, and surface treatments were more likely to increase rice yield compared with the conventional mixed treatments. (4All biochar treatments increased rice harvest index by 2.58%~10.56%, and no significant difference was found between surface and mixed treatment.(5All applications of biochar promoted nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium partial productivity, which was 9.81%~36.25% higher than that of CK.

  5. Effect of rice-husk ash on exchange acidity, growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of rice-husk ash on exchange acidity, growth and yield of groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea l.) in an acid ultisol. ... in an acid ultisol. D.O Nottidge, R.B Balogun, N.R Njoku ... Significant increases (P < 0.01) in soil P, K and Ca status relate significantly (P = 0.05) to patterns of growth and kernel yield of the crop. The 3 t ha-1 ...

  6. Impacts of climate change on paddy rice yield in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Yong; Ko, Jonghan; Kang, Suchel; Tenhunen, John

    2013-02-01

    The crop simulation model is a suitable tool for evaluating the potential impacts of climate change on crop production and on the environment. This study investigates the effects of climate change on paddy rice production in the temperate climate regions under the East Asian monsoon system using the CERES-Rice 4.0 crop simulation model. This model was first calibrated and validated for crop production under elevated CO2 and various temperature conditions. Data were obtained from experiments performed using a temperature gradient field chamber (TGFC) with a CO2 enrichment system installed at Chonnam National University in Gwangju, Korea in 2009 and 2010. Based on the empirical calibration and validation, the model was applied to deliver a simulated forecast of paddy rice production for the region, as well as for the other Japonica rice growing regions in East Asia, projecting for years 2050 and 2100. In these climate change projection simulations in Gwangju, Korea, the yield increases (+12.6 and + 22.0%) due to CO2 elevation were adjusted according to temperature increases showing variation dependent upon the cultivars, which resulted in significant yield decreases (-22.1% and -35.0%). The projected yields were determined to increase as latitude increases due to reduced temperature effects, showing the highest increase for any of the study locations (+24%) in Harbin, China. It appears that the potential negative impact on crop production may be mediated by appropriate cultivar selection and cultivation changes such as alteration of the planting date. Results reported in this study using the CERES-Rice 4.0 model demonstrate the promising potential for its further application in simulating the impacts of climate change on rice production from a local to a regional scale under the monsoon climate system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of Image Processing Technique for Measuring of Nitrogen and Yield in Paddy Rice and Comparing it with Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Larijani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to use new and low cost methods in precision agriculture, nitrogen should be supplied for plants on time and precisely. For determining the required nitrogen of paddy rice in the clustering stage, a series of experiments were conducted using three different methods of: image processing, kjeldahl and chlorophyll meter set (SPAD-502, in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 at Rice Research Center of Tonekabon, Iran. Four experimental treatments were different level of fertilizer (Urea with 46% nitrogen. In the clustering stage, some images from rice plants were taken vertically by a digital camera and were analyzed using image processing technique. Simultaneously the chlorophyll index of plants was measured by SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter set and the percentage amount of nitrogen was measured using of the so called kjeldahl laboratory method. The results showed that the three methods of determining nitrogen of rice plant were highly correlated. Moreover, the correlation among the three methods and crop yield were almost the same. In general, the method of image processing could have a high potential for nitrogen management in the field, while this method was low-cost, faster and also nondestructive in comparison to the other methods.

  8. Lime and Zn interactions effects on yield, yield component, and quality of rice in Zn deficit tropical paddy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mahmoud Soltani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the lime and Zn application and interactions on rice, yield and yield components, and rice quality in various Zn deficit tropical paddy soil types. The tiller number, plant height and straw dry matter at maximum tillering and flowering stages significantly increased by the application of lime and both at 5 and 10 kg ha-1 Zn levels in Kundur (KUR (pH= 5.2 and Telemong (TLM (pH=7 soil series, whereas in Tepus (TEP acid sulphate soil (pH=4, they increased in 5 kg ha-1 Zn and decrease at 10 kg ha-1. The grain per panicle(GPP, grain yield(GY, 1000grain weight(1000GW and straw dry matter(SDW significantly increased by application of Zn and increasing its levels. The highest increasing pattern were showed in Kundur (pH= 5.2 and Telemong (pH=7 soil series were recorded at 10 kg ha-1, whereas the highest and lowest values were obtained at 5 kg ha-1 and at 10 kg ha-1 in Tepus acid sulphate soil (pH=4. The highest grain and straw yield were obtained in TEP at 5 kg ha-1Zn level, which were 56 and 23% more than untreated Zn pots. The highest crude protein (CP and grain Zn (GZn were observed by 10 kg ha-1 applied Zn, 44% and 60% more than control, respectively. However, by lime addition CP and GZn decreased about 16 and 22% over the non-treated plots. The agronomic biofortification strategies such as Zn fertilization application and soil amendment addition improved rice MR219grain productivity and biofortification an average of 60%.

  9. Use of Selection Indices Based on Multivariate Analysis for Improving Grain Yield in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein SABOURI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study selection indices for improving rice grain yield, a cross was made between an Iranian traditional rice (Oryza sativa L. variety, Tarommahalli and an improved indica rice variety, Khazar in 2006. The traits of the parents (30 plants, F1 (30 plants and F2 generations (492 individuals were evaluated at the Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII during 2007. Heritabilities of the number of panicles per plant, plant height, days to heading and panicle exsertion were greater than that of grain yield. The selection indices were developed using the results of multivariate analysis. To evaluate selection strategies to maximize grain yield, 14 selection indices were calculated based on two methods (optimum and base and combinations of 12 traits with various economic weights. Results of selection indices showed that selection for grain weight, number of panicles per plant and panicle length by using their phenotypic and/or genotypic direct effects (path coefficient as economic weights should serve as an effective selection criterion for using either the optimum or base index.

  10. Manures Effectivity to Enhanced the Availability of Phosphorus, Crops Growth and Yield of Rice and Corn in Acid Upland Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyo Soelaeman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in Tamanbogo Station Research in the 2007 Rainy Season in upland rice-corn intercropping farming. The research design used Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. The treatments were 1. 15 t ha-1 manures + Residues of rock phosphate (RRP, 2. Without manures + RRP, 3. 15 t ha-1 manures + 150 kg ha-1 SP 36 and 4. Without manures + 150 kg ha-1 SP 36. The upland rice was seeded in planting space of 25 cm x 25 cm, 2-3 seeds/hill. The land was treated with 1 t ha-1 of RP in the last farming year while SP36 was applicated each season. Urea and KCl fertilizers that were used on upland rice were 300 kg ha-1 and 100 kg ha-1, respectively while corns were fertilized with 250 kg ha-1 urea and 100 kg KCl ha-1. The research results showed that the availability of N and K nutrients in the soil at the time of before planting was low but the availability P was high. Application of manures and RRP increased C-organic, availability of P , Ca and Cation Exchangeable Capacity in the soil. Application of 15 t ha-1 of manures with RRP increased dry biomass weight of rice and corn, there were 45.17 % and 49.23 %, respectively. The grain yield of rice and corn on the treatment of manures and RRP were not gave significant different compare to the yield was gained with SP 36 fertilizer.

  11. Development of a remote sensing-based rice yield forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosleh, M.K.; Hassan, Q.K.; Chowdhury, E.H.

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to develop a remote sensing-based method for forecasting rice yield by considering vegetation greenness conditions during initial and peak greenness stages of the crop; and implemented for “boro” rice in Bangladeshi context. In this research, we used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived two 16-day composite of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) images at 250 m spatial resolution acquired during the initial (January 1 to January 16) and peak greenness (March 23/24 to April 6/7 depending on leap year) stages in conjunction with secondary datasets (i.e., boro suitability map, and ground-based information) during 2007-2012 period. The method consisted of two components: (i) developing a model for delineating area under rice cultivation before harvesting; and (ii) forecasting rice yield as a function of NDVI. Our results demonstrated strong agreements between the model (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based area estimates during 2010-2012 period, i.e., coefficient of determination (R2); root mean square error (RMSE); and relative error (RE) in between 0.93 to 0.95; 30,519 to 37,451 ha; and ±10% respectively at the 23 district-levels. We also found good agreements between forecasted (i.e., MODIS-based) and ground-based yields during 2010-2012 period (R2 between 0.76 and 0.86; RMSE between 0.21 and 0.29 Mton/ha, and RE between -5.45% and 6.65%) at the 23 district-levels. We believe that our developments of forecasting the boro rice yield would be useful for the decision makers in addressing food security in Bangladesh. (Author)

  12. Using ORYZA2000 to model cold rice yield response to climate change in the Heilongjiang province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingting Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is one of the most important staple crops in China. Increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and associated climate change may greatly affect rice production. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on cold rice production in the Heilongjiang province, one of China's most important rice production regions. Data for a baseline period (1961–1990 and the period 2010–2050 in A2 and B2 scenarios were used as input to drive the rice model ORYZA2000 with and without accounting for the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. The results indicate that mean, maximum, and minimum temperature during the rice growing season, in the future period considered, would increase by 1.8 °C under the A2 scenario and by 2.2 °C under the B2 scenario compared with those in the baseline. The rate of change in average maximum and minimum temperatures would increase by 0.6 °C per 10-year period under the A2 scenario and by 0.4 °C per 10-year period under the B2 scenario. Precipitation would increase slightly in the rice growing season over the next 40 years. The rice growing season would be shortened and the yield would increase in most areas in the Heilongjiang province. Without accounting for CO2 effect, the rice growing season in the period 2010–2050 would be shortened by 4.7 and 5.8 days, and rice yields would increase by 11.9% and 7.9%, under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. Areas with simulated rice yield increases greater than 30.0% were in the Xiaoxing'an Mountain region. The simulation indicated a decrease in yield of less than 15% in the southwestern Songnen Plain. The rate of change in simulated rice yield was 5.0% and 2.5% per 10 years under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. When CO2 effect was accounted for, rice yield increased by 44.5% and 31.3% under the A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. The areas of increasing yield were sharply expanded. The area of decreasing yield in the

  13. Development and validation of allele-specific SNP/indel markers for eight yield-enhancing genes using whole-genome sequencing strategy to increase yield potential of rice, Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ryul; Ramos, Joie; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Virk, Parminder S; Torres, Edgar A; Nissila, Eero; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Mauleon, Ramil; Jena, Kshirod K

    2016-12-01

    Rice is one of the major staple foods in the world, especially in the developing countries of Asia. Its consumption as a dietary source is also increasing in Africa. To meet the demand for rice to feed the increasing human population, increasing rice yield is essential. Improving the genetic yield potential of rice is one ideal solution. It is imperative to introduce the identified yield-enhancing gene(s) into modern rice cultivars for the rapid improvement of yield potential through marker-assisted breeding. We report the development of PCR-gel-based markers for eight yield-related functional genes (Gn1a, OsSPL14, SCM2, Ghd7, DEP1, SPIKE, GS5, and TGW6) to introduce yield-positive alleles from the donor lines. Six rice cultivars, including three each of donor and recipient lines, respectively, were sequenced by next-generation whole-genome sequencing to detect DNA polymorphisms between the genotypes. Additionally, PCR products containing functional nucleotide polymorphism (FNP) or putative FNPs for yield-related genes were sequenced. DNA polymorphisms discriminating yield-positive alleles and non-target alleles for each gene were selected through sequence analysis and the allele-specific PCR-gel-based markers were developed. The markers were validated with our intermediate breeding lines produced from crosses between the donors and 12 elite indica rice cultivars as recipients. Automated capillary electrophoresis was tested and fluorescence-labeled SNP genotyping markers (Fluidigm SNP genotyping platform) for Gn1a, OsSPL14, Ghd7, GS5, and GS3 genes were developed for high-throughput genotyping. The SNP/indel markers linked to yield related genes functioned properly in our marker-assisted breeding program with identified high yield potential lines. These markers can be utilized in local favorite rice cultivars for yield enhancement. The marker designing strategy using both next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing methods can be used for suitable marker

  14. Resequencing 50 accessions of cultivated and wild rice yields markers for identifying agronomically important genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Liu, Xin; Ge, Song

    2012-01-01

    Rice is a staple crop that has undergone substantial phenotypic and physiological changes during domestication. Here we resequenced the genomes of 40 cultivated accessions selected from the major groups of rice and 10 accessions of their wild progenitors (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to >15 x...... raw data coverage. We investigated genome-wide variation patterns in rice and obtained 6.5 million high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding sites with missing data in any accession. Using these population SNP data, we identified thousands of genes with significantly lower...... diversity in cultivated but not wild rice, which represent candidate regions selected during domestication. Some of these variants are associated with important biological features, whereas others have yet to be functionally characterized. The molecular markers we have identified should be valuable...

  15. Silicon fertilization and soil water tensions on rice development and yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline R. de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cultivation of upland rice (Oryza sativa in Brazil occurs mainly in the Cerrado, a region with adverse weather conditions. The use of silicon in its cultivation becomes important, since this nutrient provides higher rigidity, lower transpiration and higher resistance to dry spells in rice plants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of silicon fertilization and soil water tensions on upland rice development and yield in a Cerrado Oxisol. A 5 x 5 fractionated factorial with five soil water tensions (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 kPa and five silicon doses (0, 120, 240, 480 and 960 mg dm-3 was used, which were distributed in a randomized block design, with four replicates. Plant height, number of tillers, number of panicles, number of grains per panicle, numbers of full and empty grains and percentage of empty grains were evaluated. Silicon fertilization promotes increased tillering in rice plants at the dose of 960 mg dm-3. The numbers of tillers and panicles decreased with the application of silicon up to the doses of 460 and 490 mg dm-3, respectively. The increase in soil water tensions reduced plant height and the number of full grains, and increased the percentage of empty grains of upland rice.

  16. High Yielding Microbubble Production Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Fiabane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic approaches to microbubble production are generally disadvantaged by low yield and high susceptibility to (microchannel blockages. This paper presents an alternative method of producing microbubbles of 2.6 μm mean diameter at concentrations in excess of 30 × 106 mL−1. In this method, the nitrogen gas flowing inside the liquid jet is disintegrated into spray of microbubble when air surrounding this coflowing nitrogen gas-liquid jet passes through a 100 μm orifice at high velocity. Resulting microbubble foam has the polydispersity index of 16%. Moreover, a ratio of mean microbubble diameter to channel width ratio was found to be less than 0.025, which substantially alleviates the occurrence of blockages during production.

  17. Effect of algal biofertilizer on yield and protein content of rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antarikanonda, P.; Amarit, P.; Chetsumon; Tancharoenrat, P.

    Four strains of nitrogen fixing blue-green algae, namely Anabaena siamensis, Anabaena lutea, Nostoc sp. 46 and Nostoc sp. 79. Mixed cultures were applied as biofertilizers to four paddy soil samples, taken from Rangsit, Khok Sumrong, Sakhon Nakorn and Surin areas. Pots which were arranged in completely randomized design consisted of 3 replications and 2 treatment in each replication. These treatments comprise an unbiofertilizer and a biofertilizer which biofertilizer rate was applied equally at 4 grams of blue green algae per 10 kilograms of soil sample. The results showed that algal biofertilizer enhanced the growth and yield of the rice significantly, which was noticeable in the dry weight of the straw and grain of rice, for all sources of soil. Grain yield of rice in these soils increased form the check of 32.07, 34.87, 8.86 and 21.49 to 53.14, 49.53, 20.02, and 49.60 grams per pot, respectively. The responsiveness of rice which received algal biofertilizer was different. The percentage increase in yield ranged from 42% in Khok Sumrong soil and 66% in Rangsit soil, to 126 and 131% in Sakhon Nakorn and Surin soil, respectively. Significant increase in protein content of rice with the application of algal biofertilizer was from the check of 5.03, 5.14, 6.75 and 5.25 to 6.45, 6.53, 7.80 and 7.11 percent respectively. The difference in plant N-uptake level, after the application algal biofertilizer gave 383.50, 310.00, 222.20 and 480.70 milligrams per pot, respectively.

  18. Seed Coating with Biological Agent to Increace Plant Growth and Yield of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantri Palupi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality is an important factor in rice production. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo is a seedborne disease of rice that cause serious yield losses in Indonesia. Experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Rice Research Babakan, IPB, Bogor; Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology at IPB, Bogor; and the Laboratory of Seed PT. EWSI, Purwakarta, from April to August 2011. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of coating Xoo contaminated rice seeds with biological agents on plant growth and crop yield. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with one factor (seed coating treatment,i.e. T0 = negative control, healthy seed; T1 = positive control, the seeds contaminated with Xoo; T2 = P. diminuta A6 and B. subtilis 5/B; T3 = alginate 3% + 1% peat + P. diminuta A6 and B. subtilis % 5/B; T4 = arabic gum 3% + 1% gypsum + P. diminuta A6 and B. subtilis 5/B; T5 = CMC 1.5% + 1% talc + P. diminuta A6 and B. subtilis 5/B, and T6 = bactericide streptomycin sulfat 4%. The results showed that seed coating treatment with with 3% alginate + 1% peat + P. diminuta A6 + B. subtilis 5/B was the best treatment based on the percentage of full and empty grain weight per panicle, and the percentage of number of full and empty grains per panicle.

  19. High quality syngas production from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk with char-supported metallic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to obtain the maximum possible gas yield and the high quality syngas production from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk with rice husk char and rice husk char-supported metallic (Ni, Fe and Cu) catalysts. The rice husk char-supported metallic catalysts had developed pore structure and catalytic activity for gas productions and tar conversion. The temperature-rising characteristic, product yields, properties of gas products and tar conversion mechanisms were investigated. It was found that three rice husk char-supported metallic catalysts improved the microwave absorption capability and increased heating rate and final temperature. Rice husk char-supported Ni catalyst presented most effective effects on gas production, e.g. the gas yield is 53.9%, and the volume concentration of desired syngas is 69.96%. Rice husk char-supported Ni and Fe catalysts played pivotal roles in tar conversion that less heavy compounds can be detected along with the reduction of organic compound number. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Weather-Yield Relationships in Rice at Local Scale Using Data Mining Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerce, Sylvain; Dorado, Hugo; Grillon, Alexandre; Rebolledo, Maria Camila; Prager, Steven D; Patiño, Victor Hugo; Garcés Varón, Gabriel; Jiménez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual climate variability have become important issues for farmers, and climate change has been shown to increase them. Simultaneously farmers and agricultural organizations are increasingly collecting observational data about in situ crop performance. Agriculture thus needs new tools to cope with changing environmental conditions and to take advantage of these data. Data mining techniques make it possible to extract embedded knowledge associated with farmer experiences from these large observational datasets in order to identify best practices for adapting to climate variability. We introduce new approaches through a case study on irrigated and rainfed rice in Colombia. Preexisting observational datasets of commercial harvest records were combined with in situ daily weather series. Using Conditional Inference Forest and clustering techniques, we assessed the relationships between climatic factors and crop yield variability at the local scale for specific cultivars and growth stages. The analysis showed clear relationships in the various location-cultivar combinations, with climatic factors explaining 6 to 46% of spatiotemporal variability in yield, and with crop responses to weather being non-linear and cultivar-specific. Climatic factors affected cultivars differently during each stage of development. For instance, one cultivar was affected by high nighttime temperatures in the reproductive stage but responded positively to accumulated solar radiation during the ripening stage. Another was affected by high nighttime temperatures during both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Clustering of the weather patterns corresponding to individual cropping events revealed different groups of weather patterns for irrigated and rainfed systems with contrasting yield levels. Best-suited cultivars were identified for some weather patterns, making weather-site-specific recommendations possible. This study illustrates the potential of data mining for

  1. Targeted yield concept and a framework of fertilizer recommendation in irrigated rice domains of subtropical India*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, R.; Seal, A.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Das, T.H.; Sarkar, D.; Kangjoo, K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil test crop response (STCR) correlation studies were carried out in Vindhyan alluvial plain during 2001 to 2004 taking IR-36 as test crop to quantify rice production in the context of the variability of soil properties and use of balanced fertilizers based on targeted yield concept. The soils were developed on gently sloping alluvial plain with different physiographic settings and notable variation in drainage condition. Soil properties show moderate variation in texture (loamy to clay), organic carbon content (4.4 to 9.8 g/kg), cation exchange capacity (10.2 to 22.4 cmol (p+)/kg) and pH (5.3 to 6.4). Soil fertility status for N is low to medium (224 to 348 kg/ha), P is medium to high (87 to 320 kg/ha) and K ranges from medium to high (158 to 678 kg/ha). Database regarding nutrient requirement in kg/t of grain produce (NR), the percent contribution from the soil available nutrients [CS (%)] and the percent contribution from the applied fertilizer nutrients [CF (%)] were computed for calibrating and formulating fertilizer recommendations. Validity of the yield target for 7 and 8 t/ha was tested in farmers’ fields and yields targets varied at less than 10%. The percent achievement of targets aimed at different level was more than 90%, indicating soil test based fertilizer recommendation approach was economically viable within the agro-ecological zone with relatively uniform cropping practices and socio-economic conditions. PMID:17111464

  2. Uncertainties in Predicting Rice Yield by Current Crop Models Under a Wide Range of Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Yan; Boote, Kenneth; Adam, Myriam; Bregaglio, Simone; Buis, Samuel; Confalonieri, Roberto; Fumoto, Tamon; hide

    2014-01-01

    Predicting rice (Oryza sativa) productivity under future climates is important for global food security. Ecophysiological crop models in combination with climate model outputs are commonly used in yield prediction, but uncertainties associated with crop models remain largely unquantified. We evaluated 13 rice models against multi-year experimental yield data at four sites with diverse climatic conditions in Asia and examined whether different modeling approaches on major physiological processes attribute to the uncertainties of prediction to field measured yields and to the uncertainties of sensitivity to changes in temperature and CO2 concentration [CO2]. We also examined whether a use of an ensemble of crop models can reduce the uncertainties. Individual models did not consistently reproduce both experimental and regional yields well, and uncertainty was larger at the warmest and coolest sites. The variation in yield projections was larger among crop models than variation resulting from 16 global climate model-based scenarios. However, the mean of predictions of all crop models reproduced experimental data, with an uncertainty of less than 10 percent of measured yields. Using an ensemble of eight models calibrated only for phenology or five models calibrated in detail resulted in the uncertainty equivalent to that of the measured yield in well-controlled agronomic field experiments. Sensitivity analysis indicates the necessity to improve the accuracy in predicting both biomass and harvest index in response to increasing [CO2] and temperature.

  3. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  4. Point stresses during reproductive stage rather than warming seasonal temperature determine yield in temperate rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espe, Matthew B; Hill, Jim E; Hijmans, Robert J; McKenzie, Kent; Mutters, Randall; Espino, Luis A; Leinfelder-Miles, Michelle; van Kessel, Chris; Linquist, Bruce A

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is predicted to shift temperature regimes in most agricultural areas with temperature changes expected to impact yields of most crops, including rice. These temperature-driven effects can be classified into point stresses, where a temperature event during a sensitive stage drives a reduction in yield, or seasonal warming losses, where raised temperature is thought to increase maintenance energy demands and thereby decrease available resources for yield formation. Simultaneous estimation of the magnitude of each temperature effect on yield has not been well documented due to the inherent difficulty in separating their effects. We simultaneously quantified the magnitude of each effect for a temperate rice production system using a large data set covering multiple locations with data collected from 1995 to 2015, combined with a unique probability-based modeling approach. Point stresses, primarily cold stress during the reproductive stages (booting and flowering), were found to have the largest impact on yield (over 3 Mg/ha estimated yield losses). Contrary to previous reports, yield losses caused by increased temperatures, both seasonal and during grain-filling, were found to be small (approximately 1-2% loss per °C). Occurrences of cool temperature events during reproductive stages were found to be persistent over the study period, and within season, the likelihood of a cool temperature event increased when flowering occurred later in the season. Short and medium grain types, typically recommended for cool regions, were found to be more tolerant of cool temperatures but more sensitive to heat compared to long grain cultivars. These results suggest that for temperate rice systems, the occurrence of periodic stress events may currently overshadow the impacts of general warming temperature on crop production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genetic, physiological, and gene expression analyses reveal that multiple QTL enhance yield of rice mega-variety IR64 under drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B P Mallikarjuna Swamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice (Oryza sativa L. is a highly drought sensitive crop, and most semi dwarf rice varieties suffer severe yield losses from reproductive stage drought stress. The genetic complexity of drought tolerance has deterred the identification of agronomically relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL that can be deployed to improve rice yield under drought in rice. Convergent evidence from physiological characterization, genetic mapping, and multi-location field evaluation was used to address this challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two pairs of backcross inbred lines (BILs from a cross between drought-tolerant donor Aday Sel and high-yielding but drought-susceptible rice variety IR64 were produced. From six BC4F3 mapping populations produced by crossing the +QTL BILs with the -QTL BILs and IR64, four major-effect QTL--one each on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10--were identified. Meta-analysis of transcriptome data from the +QTL/-QTL BILs identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs significantly associated with QTL on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10. Physiological characterization of BILs showed increased water uptake ability under drought. The enrichment of DEGs associated with root traits points to differential regulation of root development and function as contributing to drought tolerance in these BILs. BC4F3-derived lines with the QTL conferred yield advantages of 528 to 1875 kg ha⁻¹ over IR64 under reproductive-stage drought stress in the targeted ecosystems of South Asia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the importance of rice in daily food consumption and the popularity of IR64, the BC4F3 lines with multiple QTL could provide higher livelihood security to farmers in drought-prone environments. Candidate genes were shortlisted for further characterization to confirm their role in drought tolerance. Differential yield advantages of different combinations of the four QTL reported here indicate that future research should include

  6. Maintaining yields and reducing nitrogen loss in rice-wheat rotation system in Taihu Lake region with proper fertilizer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lihong; Yu, Yingliang; Yang, Linzhang

    2014-11-01

    In the Tailake region of China, heavy nitrogen (N) loss of rice-wheat rotation systems, due to high fertilizer-N input with low N use efficiency (NUE), was widely reported. To alleviate the detrimental impacts caused by N loss, it is necessary to improve the fertilizer management practices. Therefore, a 3 yr field experiments with different N managements including organic combined chemical N treatment (OCN, 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1, 20% organic fertilizer), control-released urea treatment (CRU, 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1, 70% resin-coated urea), reduced chemical N treatment (RCN, 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1, all common chemical fertilizer), and site-specific N management (SSNM, 333 kg N ha-1 yr-1, all common chemical fertilizer) were conducted in the Taihu Lake region with the ‘farmer’s N’ treatment (FN, 510 kg N ha-1 yr-1, all common chemical fertilizer) as a control. Grain yield, plant N uptake (PNU), NUE, and N losses via runoff, leaching, and ammonia volatilization were assessed. In the rice season, the FN treatment had the highest N loss and lowest NUE, which can be attributed to an excessive rate of N application. Treatments of OCN and RCN with a 22% reduced N rate from FN had no significant effect on PNU nor the yield of rice in the 3 yr; however, the NUE was improved and N loss was reduced 20-32%. OCN treatment achieved the highest yield, while SSNM has the lowest N loss and highest NUE due to the lowest N rate. In wheat season, N loss decreased about 28-48% with the continuous reduction of N input, but the yield also declined, with the exception of OCN treatment. N loss through runoff, leaching and ammonia volatilization was positively correlated with the N input rate. When compared with the pure chemical fertilizer treatment of RCN under the same N input, OCN treatment has better NUE, better yield, and lower N loss. 70% of the urea replaced with resin-coated urea had no significant effect on yield and NUE improvement, but decreased the ammonia volatilization loss. Soil

  7. Fertilizer nitrogen, soil chemical properties, and their determinacy on rice yield: Evidence from 92 paddy fields of a large-scale farm in the Kanto Region of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Nanseki, T.; Chomei, Y.; Yokota, S.

    2017-07-01

    Rice, a staple crop in Japan, is at risk of decreasing production and its yield highly depends on soil fertility. This study aimed to investigate determinants of rice yield, from the perspectives of fertilizer nitrogen and soil chemical properties. The data were sampled in 2014 and 2015 from 92 peat soil paddy fields on a large-scale farm located in the Kanto Region of Japan. The rice variety used was the most widely planted Koshihikari in Japan. Regression analysis indicated that fertilizer nitrogen significantly affected the yield, with a significant sustained effect to the subsequent year. Twelve soil chemical properties, including pH, cation exchange capacity, content of pyridine base elements, phosphoric acid, and silicic acid, were estimated. In addition to silicic acid, magnesia, in forms of its exchangeable content, saturation, and ratios to potassium and lime, positively affected the yield, while phosphoric acid negatively affected the yield. We assessed the soil chemical properties by soil quality index and principal component analysis. Positive effects were identified for both approaches, with the former performing better in explaining the rice yield. For soil quality index, the individual standardized soil properties and margins for improvement were indicated for each paddy field. Finally, multivariate regression on the principal components identified the most significant properties.

  8. Impact of ambient and elevated levels of ozone on growth, reproductive development and yield of two cultivars of rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, S. B.; Abhijit, S.

    2009-07-01

    Tow locally grown high yielding varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L. var Malviya dhan 36 and var shivani), were transplanted within the open top chambers (OTCs) at the age of 20 days. five different experimental plots were designed as open plot (OP), non-filtered chamber (NFCs), NFCs with 10 ppb ozone (O{sub 3}), NFCs with 30 ppb O{sub 3} and filtered chamber (FCs) to assess the impact of ambient and elevated levels of O{sub 3} on rice. Twelve hourly monitoring of O{sub 3} and measurements of meteorological variables were done at experimental site during the growth period of rice plants. Morphological, reproductive, physico logical and biochemical parameters were assessed to evaluate the responses of rice cultivars to ambient and elevated levels of O{sub 3}. (Author)

  9. Regulating N application for rice yield and sustainable eco-agro development in the upper reaches of Yellow River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiping; Liu, Ruliang; Gao, Ji; Yang, Shiqi; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    High N fertilizer and flooding irrigation applied to rice on anthropogenic-alluvial soil often result in N leaching and low recovery of applied fertilizer N from the rice fields in Ningxia irrigation region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, which threatens ecological environment, food security, and sustainable agricultural development. This paper reported the regulating N application for rice yield and sustainable Eco-Agro development in the upper reaches of Yellow River basin. The results showed that reducing and postponing N application could maintain crop yields while substantially reducing N leaching losses to the environment and improving the nitrogen use efficiency. Considering the high food production, the minimum environmental threat, and the low labor input, we suggested that regulating N application is an important measure to help sustainable agricultural development in this region.

  10. Regulating N Application for Rice Yield and Sustainable Eco-Agro Development in the Upper Reaches of Yellow River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiping; Liu, Ruliang; Gao, Ji; Yang, Shiqi; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    High N fertilizer and flooding irrigation applied to rice on anthropogenic-alluvial soil often result in N leaching and low recovery of applied fertilizer N from the rice fields in Ningxia irrigation region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, which threatens ecological environment, food security, and sustainable agricultural development. This paper reported the regulating N application for rice yield and sustainable Eco-Agro development in the upper reaches of Yellow River basin. The results showed that reducing and postponing N application could maintain crop yields while substantially reducing N leaching losses to the environment and improving the nitrogen use efficiency. Considering the high food production, the minimum environmental threat, and the low labor input, we suggested that regulating N application is an important measure to help sustainable agricultural development in this region. PMID:25045728

  11. Genome wide association study (GWAS) for grain yield in rice cultivated under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantalião, Gabriel Feresin; Narciso, Marcelo; Guimarães, Cléber; Castro, Adriano; Colombari, José Manoel; Breseghello, Flavio; Rodrigues, Luana; Vianello, Rosana Pereira; Borba, Tereza Oliveira; Brondani, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    The identification of rice drought tolerant materials is crucial for the development of best performing cultivars for the upland cultivation system. This study aimed to identify markers and candidate genes associated with drought tolerance by Genome Wide Association Study analysis, in order to develop tools for use in rice breeding programs. This analysis was made with 175 upland rice accessions (Oryza sativa), evaluated in experiments with and without water restriction, and 150,325 SNPs. Thirteen SNP markers associated with yield under drought conditions were identified. Through stepwise regression analysis, eight SNP markers were selected and validated in silico, and when tested by PCR, two out of the eight SNP markers were able to identify a group of rice genotypes with higher productivity under drought. These results are encouraging for deriving markers for the routine analysis of marker assisted selection. From the drought experiment, including the genes inherited in linkage blocks, 50 genes were identified, from which 30 were annotated, and 10 were previously related to drought and/or abiotic stress tolerance, such as the transcription factors WRKY and Apetala2, and protein kinases.

  12. Effects of single basal application of coated compound fertilizer on yield and nitrogen use efficiency in double-cropped rice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Xiong, Hairong; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Xiong, Yuanfu

    2017-01-01

    Fertilizer plays an important role in increasing rice yield. More than half of all fertilizer applied to the field is not taken up, resulting in environmental damage and substantial economic losses. To address these concerns, a low-cost, coated compound fertilizer named “Xiang Nong Da” (XND), requiring only a single basal application, was studied. A two-year field experiment was conducted to test the effects of XND application on rice yield and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. An ordinary ...

  13. Dynamic of Saline Soil Cations after NaCl Application on Rice Growth and Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanti Mindari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saline soil cation dynamic is determined by the proportion of salt cations dissolved either acidic or alkaline. Common base cations in saline soil are in the proportion of Na > Ca > Mg > K. They affects the availability of water, nutrients, and plant growth. The six level of NaCl were 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mM and two types of soil (saline and non saline from Gununganyar and Mojokerto were evaluated to soil sample cations taken from depth of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm. Rice growth and yields were measured. The experiment indicated that increasing doses of NaCl increased the soil Na after rice harvest and decreased K, Ca and Mg contents, both of non-saline and saline soil, decreased of rice growth and yield (straw, grain, number of tiller. NaCl up to 30 mM caused highest Ca:Mg ratio, about 8, suppressed nutrient available, inhibited root growth and reduced nutrient uptake.

  14. Effect of saline irrigation water on yield and yield components of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaio

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... Key words: Yield, biomass, growth stages, saline soil, salt stress, water salinity. INTRODUCTION. Salinity is an ... principal source of food for more than one third of the world's population (Wu et al., 2004; Joseph et ...... implications for conservation of the endangered species. Plant Sci. 167:35-42. Aref 3513.

  15. Effects of seedling age and cultivation density on agronomic characteristics and grain yield of mechanically transplanted rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qihua; Zhou, Xuebiao; Li, Jingling; Xin, Caiyun

    2017-10-26

    Delayed transplantation frequently occurs in mechanically transplanted rice in China, leading to a significant reduction in grain yield. Thus, determining how to compensate grain yield loss is crucial for improving rice cultivation technology. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of cultivation density and seedling age on agronomic traits and grain yield of mechanically transplanted rice. With increasing seedling age, rice tiller number, pre-anthesis dry matter accumulation, remobilization efficiency and contribution to grain yield, as well as post-anthesis photosynthesis amount decreased, causing reductions in the number of effective panicles, the total number of grains per panicle, the sink capacity per tiller, and grain yield. In rice transplanted at 30- and 35-day seedling ages, increasing cultivation density significantly enhanced the number of effective panicles and grain yield. Additionally, there existed strong, positive correlations between sink capacity per tiller and pre-anthesis dry matter remobilization efficiency and pre-anthesis dry matter contribution to grain yield. We conclude that in addition to cultivation density, enhancing the amount of pre-anthesis dry matter and the remobilization efficiency could be feasible for mitigating grain yield loss caused by delayed transplantation.

  16. Evaluation of Agronomic Characteristics and Grain Yield Stability of Promising Lines of Rice in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Tarang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative characteristics and grain yield stability of 10 promising lines of rice, compared to cultivar Khazar as the checking variety, in Rasht, Roudsar and Talesh cities of Guilan province, Iran, in three years. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Characteristics such as grain yield, plant height, tiller number, panicle length, filled grain in panicle, 1000 grain weight, length, and shape of grain, days to 50% flowering and maturity, amylase content, gel consistency and gelatinization temperature were measured. The simple and combined analyses of variance were performed on grain yield data. Simple analysis of variance revealed significant differences within the genotypes. Results of combined analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences among the grain yield of the genotypes in different years and locations. The interaction effects of location × year and location × genotype weren't significant; however, the interactions effects of genotype × location × year were significant. Stability analysis was also performed with Lin and Binns method. According to the stability analysis, lines no. 4, 7 and 8 were characterized as stable lines because of having low coefficient of variation and mean square within location. It seems, from our data, that appropriate breeding schemes based on hybridization and selection for these traits may bring about an improvement in cooking quality of rice.

  17. Application of perennial legume green manures to improve growth and yield of organic lowland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Winarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment in green house was done to study the effect of the dosage and speciesof perennial legume green manures to the physiological traits, growth and yield of organic lowland rice (Oryza sativaL., and to obtain the optimal dosage as well.  The research was arranged in a factorial randomized block design consistedof two factors with three replications.The first factor was the species of perennial legume thatconsisted of threespecies: Turi (Sesbaniagrandiflora, Glirisidia (Gliricidiasepium, and Lamtoro (Leucaenaleucocephala and cow manure as control treatment. The second factor was the dosage of green manure thatconsisted of four levels: 5, 10, 20 and 40 t/ha.  The results showed that application ofperennial legumesinto the soil significantly improved the growth and yield of rice.  The application of  20 t Glirisidia leaves/haproduced the highest grain yield, followed by 20 t Lamtoro leaves/ha and 20 t Turi leaves/ha.  The optimal dosages of S. grandiflora, G. sepium and L. leucochepala leaves that could yield 58.03 g/hill (equivalent to14.51 t/ha, 53.67 g/hill (equivalent to 13.42 t/ha, and 49.67 g/hill (equivalent to 12.42 t/ha were 28.05, 25.46 and 26.41 t/ha, respectively.

  18. Changes in Grain Yield of Rice and Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Paddy Fields after Application of Organic Fertilizers Made from Maize Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-hu MA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China, to study the effects of organic fertilizers made from maize straw on rice grain yield and the emission of greenhouse gases. Four organic fertilizer treatments were as follows: maize straw (MS, compost made from maize straw (MC, methane-generating maize residue (MR, and black carbon made from maize straw (BC. These organic fertilizers were applied separately to paddy fields before rice transplanting. No organic fertilizer was applied to the control (CK. The effects of each organic fertilizer on rice grain yield and emission of greenhouse gases were investigated under two conditions, namely, no nitrogen (N application (0N and site-specific N management (SSNM. Rice grain yields were significantly higher in the MS, MC and MR treatments than those in CK under either 0N or SSNM. The MS treatment resulted in the highest grain yield and agronomic N use efficiency. However, no significant difference was observed for these parameters between the BC treatment and CK. The changes in the emissions of methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, or nitrous oxide (N2O from the fields were similar among all organic fertilizer treatments during the entire rice growing season. The application of each organic fertilizer significantly increased the emission of each greenhouse gas (except N2O emission in the BC treatment and global warming potential (GWP. Emissions of all the greenhouse gases and GWP increased under the same organic fertilizer treatment in the presence of N fertilizer, whereas GWP per unit grain yield decreased. The results indicate that the application of organic fertilizer (MS, MC or MR could increase grain yield, but also could enhance the emissions of greenhouse gases from paddy fields. High grain yield and environmental efficiency could be achieved by applying SSNM with MR.

  19. SUPPLEMENTAL ULTRAVIOLET-B RADIATION DOES NOT REDUCE GROWTH OR GRAIN YIELD IN RICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negative effects of enhanced UV-B radiation have been demonstrated in plants, but impacts under realistic field conditions remain uncertain. Adverse impacts to major crops, such as rice (Oryza sativa L.), that are grown in areas with currently high ambient levels of UV-B, could h...

  20. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  1. Effect of foliar application of zinc, selenium, and iron fertilizers on nutrients concentration and yield of rice grain in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Wang, Lin; Xin, Zhihong; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Hu, Qiuhui

    2008-03-26

    Zn, Se, and Fe levels in 65 Chinese rice samples were investigated, and the results indicated that these micronutrients contents of rice products from different location varied considerably. The mean contents of Zn, Se and Fe in these rice samples were 21.5+/-1.8, 0.020+/-0.012, and 12.4+/-4.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, which were too low to meet the micronutrient demands for the population feeding on the rice as staple. A field orthogonal experiment L9 (3(4)) was conducted on rice cultivar Wuyunjing 7, to evaluate the effect of Zn, Se, and Fe foliar fertilization on the concentration of these micronutrients, yield, and protein and ash content of rice grain. The results indicated that Zn and Se were the main variables influencing the Zn, Se, and Fe content of rice, and the optimal combination of fertilization for enhancing these micronutrients was 0.90 kg ha(-1) Zn, 0.015 kg ha(-1) Se, and 0.90 kg ha(-1) Fe. Under the optimal application condition, Zn, Se, and Fe content of rice could be significantly increased by 36.7%, 194.1%, and 37.1%, respectively, compared with the control, without affecting grain yield and protein and ash content of rice products. Moreover, in the confirmation experiment on rice cultivar Ninggeng 1, the optimal fertilization could increase the Zn, Se, and Fe content of rice up to 17.4, 0.123, and 14.2 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  2. High day- and night-time temperatures affect grain growth dynamics in contrasting rice genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Wanju; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C.; Solis, Celymar; Xie, Fangming; Schmidt, Ralf C.; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Ye, Changrong; Jagadish, S.V.K.

    2017-01-01

    Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C),

  3. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2017-10-14

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease (P yield, pan evaporation, solar radiation, and wind speed declined significantly. Eight principal components exhibited an eigenvalue > 1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  4. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of four Bangladeshi cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Nahid [United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Inada, Hidetoshi; Hoshino, Daiki; Kondo, Taisuke [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Fukami, Motohiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8505 (Japan); Funada, Ryo [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Izuta, Takeshi, E-mail: izuta@cc.tuat.ac.j [Institute of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    To assess the effects of tropospheric O{sub 3} on rice cultivated in Bangladesh, four Bangladeshi cultivars (BR11, BR14, BR28 and BR29) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O{sub 3} at 60 and 100 nl l{sup -1} (10:00-17:00) from 1 July to 28 November 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the four cultivars were significantly reduced by the exposure to O{sub 3}. The exposure to O{sub 3} significantly reduced net photosynthetic rate of the 12th and flag leaves of the four cultivars. The sensitivity to O{sub 3} of growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates was not significantly different among the four cultivars. The present study suggests that the sensitivity to O{sub 3} of yield of the four Bangladeshi rice cultivars is greater than that of American rice cultivars and is similar to that of Japanese rice cultivars and that O{sub 3} may detrimentally affect rice production in Bangladesh. - Bangladeshi cultivars of rice are sensitive to O{sub 3} below 100 ppb.

  5. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U,. Thawornchinsombut. S,. Pannangpetch P. Rice bran protein hydrolysates improve insulin resistance and decrease pro- inflammatory cytokine gene expression in rats fed a high carbohydrate-high fat diet. Nutrients 2015; 7(8): 6313-. 6329. 20. Kim SM, Rico CW, Lee SC, Kang MY. Modulatory effect of rice bran and phytic ...

  6. Effect of glycerol as co-solvent on yields of bio-oil from rice straw through hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Leichang; Zhang, Cheng; Hao, Shilai; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the effect of glycerol used as a co-solvent on yields of bio-oil derived from rice straw through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The reaction was conducted in a high-pressure batch reactor with different volume ratios of glycerol to water. The quality of the derived bio-oil was analyzed in terms of its elemental composition, heating value, water content, ash content, and acid number. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were conducted to analyze the chemical composition of the derived bio-oils. The following optimal conditions were obtained: 1:1 vol ratio of glycerol to water with 5wt% of Na2CO3 at 260°C for 1h. Under these conditions, 50.31wt% of bio-oil and 26.65wt% of solid residue were produced. Therefore, glycerol can be used as a co-solvent in HTL of rice straw at moderate temperatures to obtain bio-oil with high yield and quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bridging the Yield Gap in Rice Production by Using Leaf Color Chart for Nitrogen Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to optimize nitrogen fertilizer application for rice genotypes with the help of leaf color chart practice under agroclimatic conditions of Malakand division. The experiment was designed in RCB having split plot arrangement. Main plots consisted of rice genotypes, while subplots consisted of various doses of nitrogen. All the recorded parameters were significantly affected by the various N doses. In all treatments N application according to LCC management practice produced maximum tillers/hill, plant height, straw, and paddy yield as compared to N application according to recommended dose and farmer’s practice. This adequate supply of N fertilizer according to LCC management practice resulted in positive response of N fertilizer on the crop and also provided best fertilizer management techniques. Moreover, the interaction between rice genotypes and LCC management practice was the best for all the recorded parameters. The outcome results of the experiment provided an economic package to the farmers in application of N fertilizer on the basis of leaf color chart management practice.

  8. Relationship between rice yield and climate variables in southwest Nigeria using multiple linear regression and support vector machine analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntunde, Philip G.; Lischeid, Gunnar; Dietrich, Ottfried

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the variations of climate variables and rice yield and quantifies the relationships among them using multiple linear regression, principal component analysis, and support vector machine (SVM) analysis in southwest Nigeria. The climate and yield data used was for a period of 36 years between 1980 and 2015. Similar to the observed decrease (P 1 and explained 83.1% of the total variance of predictor variables. The SVM regression function using the scores of the first principal component explained about 75% of the variance in rice yield data and linear regression about 64%. SVM regression between annual solar radiation values and yield explained 67% of the variance. Only the first component of the principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited a clear long-term trend and sometimes short-term variance similar to that of rice yield. Short-term fluctuations of the scores of the PC1 are closely coupled to those of rice yield during the 1986-1993 and the 2006-2013 periods thereby revealing the inter-annual sensitivity of rice production to climate variability. Solar radiation stands out as the climate variable of highest influence on rice yield, and the influence was especially strong during monsoon and post-monsoon periods, which correspond to the vegetative, booting, flowering, and grain filling stages in the study area. The outcome is expected to provide more in-depth regional-specific climate-rice linkage for screening of better cultivars that can positively respond to future climate fluctuations as well as providing information that may help optimized planting dates for improved radiation use efficiency in the study area.

  9. Interferência do arroz vermelho no rendimento de engenho de cultivares de arroz irrigado Red rice interference on milling yield of irrigated rice cultivars

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    Valmir Gaedke Menezes

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O arroz vermelho é considerado a planta daninha que mais danos causa a orizicultura gaúcha. A presença dos grãos desta invasora junto aos grãos das cultivares de arroz contribui para a diminuição da qualidade física do arroz, na medida em que diminui o rendimento de engenho, aumenta o número de grãos rojados, com centro branco e gessados. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de determinar o efeito de diferentes quantidades de arroz vermelho na amostra de arroz sobre a renda do beneficio e sobre o rendimento de grãos inteiros e de quebrados em três cultivares de arroz irrigado (BR-IRGA 410, IRGA 416 e IRGA 417 com classe de grão longo fino. Os tratamentos constaram de diferentes proporções na amostra (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de grãos de arroz vermelho. Os resultados evidenciaram que, para todas as cultivares, à medida que aumentou a presença de grãos de arroz vermelho na amostra no processo de beneficiamento, o rendimento de grãos inteiros e a renda do beneficio diminuíram linearmente, enquanto o rendimento de grãos quebrados aumentou linearmente.Red rice is considered the weed that cause the most significam damage to rice fields in the State of Rio Grande does Soul, Brazil. The presence of red rice grains associated with the grains of the commercial rice cultivars contribute to reduce the physical quality of the rice because reduce the milling yield and increase the number of grains chalky and with white pearly. This experiment was developed with the purpose of determining the effect of different quantities of retrace in the sample on the milling yield of three cultivars of irrigated rice with grains fine long class. The treatments consisted of different proportions in the samples (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of grains red rice and grains of the rice cultivars BR-JRGA 410, IRGA 416 and IRGA 417. As the quantity of grains of red rice increased in the sample in the milling process, the whole

  10. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis Target of Rapamycin (AtTOR) improves water-use efficiency and yield potential in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Achala; Moin, Mazahar; Kumar, M. Udaya; Reddy, Aramati Bindu Madhava; Ren, Maozhi; Datla, Raju; Siddiq, E. A.; Kirti, P. B.

    2017-02-01

    The target of Rapamycin (TOR) present in all eukaryotes is a multifunctional protein, regulating growth, development, protein translation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient, and energy signaling. In the present study, ectopic expression of TOR gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in a widely cultivated indica rice resulted in enhanced plant growth under water-limiting conditions conferring agronomically important water-use efficiency (WUE) trait. The AtTOR high expression lines of rice exhibited profuse tillering, increased panicle length, increased plant height, high photosynthetic efficiency, chlorophyll content and low ∆13C. Δ13C, which is inversely related to high WUE, was as low as 17‰ in two AtTOR high expression lines. These lines were also insensitive to the ABA-mediated inhibition of seed germination. The significant upregulation of 15 stress-specific genes in high expression lines indicates their contribution to abiotic stress tolerance. The constitutive expression of AtTOR is also associated with significant transcriptional upregulation of putative TOR complex-1 components, OsRaptor and OsLST8. Glucose-mediated transcriptional activation of AtTOR gene enhanced lateral root formation. Taken together, our findings indicate that TOR, in addition to its multiple cellular functions, also plays an important role in response to abiotic stress and potentially enhances WUE and yield related attributes.

  11. Transgressive variation for yield components measured throughout the growth cycle of Jefferson rice (Oryza sativa) x O. rufipogon introgression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies demonstrated alleles introduced into elite rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars from the wild ancestral species, O. rufipogon, enhanced yield and yield components as a result of transgressive variation. A study was conducted to unveil phenological and agronomic mechanisms that underlie in...

  12. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve grain yield, As uptake and tolerance of rice grown under aerobic conditions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chan, W.F.; Chen, X.W.; Wu, F.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Environment and Natural Resources, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) -Glomus intraradices and G. geosporum on arsenic (As) and phosphorus (P) uptake by lowland (Guangyinzhan) and upland rice (Handao 502) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 60 mg As kg{sup -1}. In As-contaminated soil, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. intraradices or Handao 502 inoculated with G. geosporum enhanced As tolerance, grain P content, grain yield. However, Guangyinzhan inoculated with G. geosporum or Handao 502 inoculated with G. intraradices decreased grain P content, grain yield and the molar ratio of grain P/As content, and increased the As concentration and the ratio of grain/straw As concentration. These results show that rice/AMF combinations had significant (p < 0.05) effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM (arbuscular mycorrhizal) symbioses. - Highlights: > Rice/AMF combinations had significant effects on grain As concentration, grain yield and grain P uptake. > Rice colonized with suitable AMF can increase grain yield. > The variation in the transfer and uptake of As and P reflected strong functional diversity in AM symbioses. - Different rice/AMF combinations had very different effects on arsenic and phosphorus uptake.

  13. Spatial variability of climate change impacts on yield of rice and wheat in the Indian Ganga Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok; Singh, R; Raghuwanshi, N S; Chatterjee, C; Froebrich, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Indian Ganga Basin (IGB), one of the most densely populated areas in the world, is facing a significant threat to food grain production, besides increased yield gap between actual and potential production, due to climate change. We have analyzed the spatial variability of climate change impacts on rice and wheat yields at three different locations representing the upper, middle and lower IGB. The DSSAT model is used to simulate the effects of climate variability and climate change on rice and wheat yields by analyzing: (i) spatial crop yield response to current climate, and (ii) impact of a changing climate as projected by two regional climate models, REMO and HadRM3, based on SRES A1B emission scenarios for the period 2011-2040. Results for current climate demonstrate a significant gap between actual and potential yield for upper, middle and lower IGB stations. The analysis based on RCM projections shows that during 2011-2040, the largest reduction in rice and wheat yields will occur in the upper IGB (reduction of potential rice and wheat yield respectively by 43.2% and 20.9% by REMO, and 24.8% and 17.2% by HadRM3). In the lower IGB, however, contrasting results are obtained, with HadRM3 based projections showing an increase in the potential rice and wheat yields, whereas, REMO based projections show decreased potential yields. We discuss the influence of agro-climatic factors; variation in temperature, length of maturity period and leaf area index which are responsible for modeled spatial variability in crop yield response within the IGB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Irrigation Water Discharge Frequency on Soil Salt Removal and Rice Yield in a Semi-Arid and Saline-Sodic Area

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    Zhigang Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation practice for rice culture can be especially challenging in areas with limited water supply and soil salinization. In this study, we carried out a field experiment to assess the effects of different water discharge frequencies on soil salt content, rice yield and water use efficiency on a saline-sodic soil in a semi-arid region of Northeast China. The experiment comprised of three frequency levels of discharge [9-time (I-9-30, 6-time (I-6-30 and 3-time (I-3-30 discharge, all followed with a 30-mm irrigation] in comparison with the traditional irrigation practice of 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation (I-2-80. Our initial hypothesis was that increasing discharge frequency would increase both salt reduction and rice yield. Daily precipitation was recorded by a nearby weather station, and evapotranspiration and soil water percolation rates were measured at experimental sites using soil pits. The measurements were used to establish a water balance for each treatment. Our results showed that soil salt reduction increased with the increasing discharge frequency at a 30-mm irrigation water depth. The 9-time discharge reduced a large amount of soil salt (995.0 kg ha−1 after five months of the study. Rice yield also increased with the increasing discharge frequency with a 30-mm irrigation water depth; however, when compared to the traditional 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation, rice yield at the sites with more frequent discharge (i.e., I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30 was 11%–18% lower. Because of this, rice yield and irrigation water use efficiency were significantly higher under the traditional practice of high-irrigation with low-frequency discharge (I-2-80 than under I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30. These results indicate a need for a trade-off amongst salt reduction, rice yield and water use when considering selection of irrigation and discharge schedules.

  15. Quantitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis of Rice Anther Proteins after Exposure to High Temperature

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    Mijeong Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In rice, the stage of development most sensitive to high temperature stress is flowering, and exposure at this stage can result in spikelet sterility, thereby leading to significant yield losses. In this study, protein expression patterns of rice anthers from Dianxi4, a high temperature tolerant Japonica rice variety, were compared between samples exposed to high temperature and those grown in natural field conditions in Korea. Shotgun proteomics analysis of three replicate control and high-temperature-treated samples identified 3,266 nonredundant rice anther proteins (false discovery rate < 0.01. We found that high levels of ATP synthase, cupin domain-containing proteins, and pollen allergen proteins were present in rice anthers. Comparative analyses of 1,944 reproducibly expressed proteins identified 139 differentially expressed proteins, with 95 increased and 44 decreased in response to high temperature conditions. Heat shock, DnaK family, and chaperone proteins showed highly increased expression, suggesting that the high temperature tolerance of Dianxi4 is achieved by stabilization of proteins in pollen cells. Trehalose synthase was also highly increased after heat treatment, suggesting a possible role for trehalose in preventing protein denaturation through desiccation.

  16. Proteomics of Rice Grain under High Temperature Stress

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    Toshiaki eMitsui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent proteomic analyses revealed dynamic changes of metabolisms during rice grain development. Interestingly, proteins involved in glycolysis, citric acid cycle, lipid metabolism, and proteolysis were accumulated at higher levels in mature grain than those of developing stages. High temperature stress in rice ripening period causes damaged (chalky grains which have loosely packed round shape starch granules. The high temperature stress response on protein expression is complicated, and the molecular mechanism of the chalking of grain is obscure yet. Here, the current state on the proteomics research of rice grain grown under high temperature stress is briefly overviewed.

  17. Effect of N Fertilization Pattern on Rice Yield, N Use Efficiency and Fertilizer-N Fate in the Yangtze River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Wang, Huoyan; Zhou, Jianmin; Hu, Fengqin; Zhu, Dejin; Chen, Zhaoming; Liu, Yongzhe

    2016-01-01

    High N loss and low N use efficiency (NUE), caused by high N fertilizer inputs and inappropriate fertilization patterns, have become important issues in the rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing regions of southern China. Changing current farmer fertilizer practice (FFP, 225 kg ha-1 N as three applications, 40% as basal fertilizer, 30% as tillering fertilizer and 30% as jointing fertilizer) to one-time root-zone fertilization (RZF, 225 kg ha-1 N applied once into 10 cm deep holes positioned 5 cm from the rice root as basal fertilizer) will address this problem. A two-year field experiment covering two rice growing regions was conducted to investigate the effect of urea one-time RZF on rice growth, nutrient uptake, and NUE. The highest NH4+-N content for RZF at fertilizer point at 30 d and 60 d after fertilization were 861.8 and 369.9 mg kg-1 higher than FFP, respectively. Rice yield and total N accumulation of RZF increased by 4.3-44.9% and 12.7-111.2% compared to FFP, respectively. RZF reduced fertilizer-N loss by 56.3-81.9% compared to FFP. The NUEs following RZF (mean of 65.8% for the difference method and 43.7% for the labelled method) were significantly higher than FFP (mean of 35.7% for the difference method and 14.4% for the labelled method). In conclusion, RZF maintained substantial levels of fertilizer-N in the root-zone, which led to enhanced rice biomass and N uptake during the early growth stages, increased fertilizer-N residual levels and reduced fertilizer-N loss at harvest. RZF produced a higher yield increment and showed an increased capacity to resist environmental threats than FFP in sandy soils. Therefore, adopting suitable fertilizer patterns plays a key role in enhancing agricultural benefits.

  18. Gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice as affected by plant regulators

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    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice, as affected by type and application time of plant growth regulators. A randomized block design, in a 4x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates was used. Treatments consisted of three growth regulators (mepiquat chloride, trinexapac-ethyl, and paclobutrazol, besides a control treatment applied at two different phenological stages: early tillering or panicle primordial differentiation. The experiment was performed under sprinkler-irrigated field conditions. Net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, plant transpiration, and water-use efficiency were measured four times in Primavera upland rice cultivar, between booting and milky grain phenophases. Gas exchange rates were neither influenced by growth regulators nor by application time. There was, however, interaction between these factors on the other variables. Application of trinexapac-ethyl at both tillering and differentiation stages reduced plant height and negatively affected yield components and rice productivity. However, paclobutrazol and mepiquat chloride applied at tillering, reduced plant height without affecting rice yield. Mepiquat chloride acted as a growth stimulator when applied at the differentiation stage, and significantly increased plant height, panicle number, and grain yield of upland rice.

  19. Yield loss and economic thresholds of yellow nutsedge in irrigated rice as a function of the onset of flood irrigation

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    Nixon da Rosa Westendorff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus is adapted to flooding and reduces yield in irrigated rice. Information on the competitive ability of this weed with the crop and the size of the economic damage caused is lacking. Mathematical models quantify the damage to crops and support control decision-making. This study aimed to determine yield losses and economic thresholds (ET of this weed in the culture according to weed population and time of onset of irrigation of the crop. The field study was conducted in the agricultural year of 2010/2011 in Pelotas/RS to evaluate the competitive ability of BRS Querência in competition with different population levels of yellow nutsedge and two periods of onset of flood irrigation (14 and 21 days after emergence. The hyperbolic model satisfactorily estimated yield losses caused by yellow nutsedge. Population of yellow nutsedge was the variable most fitted to the model. The delay of seven days for the beginning of rice irrigation causes decrease in competitive ability of BRS Querência, and based on the ET calculated to the price paid for rice, it is necessary between two and thirteen plants m-2 weed to justify the control in the first and second period of irrigation, respectively. Increases in yield, price paid for rice and control efficiency of the herbicide, besides reduction of costs of controlling promote reduction of ET of yellow nutsedge in rice crops, justifying the adoption of control measures even at smaller weed population.

  20. The effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies without compromising yield by early-season drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Syed Faiz-Ul; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2018-01-15

    Global rice production systems face two opposing challenges: the need to increase production to accommodate the world's growing population while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adaptations to drainage regimes are one of the most promising options for methane mitigation in rice production. Whereas several studies have focused on mid-season drainage (MD) to mitigate GHG emissions, early-season drainage (ED) varying in timing and duration has not been extensively studied. However, such ED periods could potentially be very effective since initial available C levels (and thereby the potential for methanogenesis) can be very high in paddy systems with rice straw incorporation. This study tested the effectiveness of seven drainage regimes varying in their timing and duration (combinations of ED and MD) to mitigate CH4 and N2O emissions in a 101-day growth chamber experiment. Emissions were considerably reduced by early-season drainage compared to both conventional continuous flooding (CF) and the MD drainage regime. The results suggest that ED+MD drainage may have the potential to reduce CH4 emissions and yield-scaled GWP by 85-90% compared to CF and by 75-77% compared to MD only. A combination of (short or long) ED drainage and one MD drainage episode was found to be the most effective in mitigating CH4 emissions without negatively affecting yield. In particular, compared with CF, the long early-season drainage treatments LE+SM and LE+LM significantly (p<0.01) decreased yield-scaled GWP by 85% and 87% respectively. This was associated with carbon being stabilised early in the season, thereby reducing available C for methanogenesis. Overall N2O emissions were small and not significantly affected by ED. It is concluded that ED+MD drainage might be an effective low-tech option for small-scale farmers to reduce GHG emissions and save water while maintaining yield. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Soil amendments and cultivar selection can improve rice yield in salt-influenced (tsunami-affected) paddy fields in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenauer, Thomas G; Panamulla, Sunil; Subasinghe, Siripala; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2009-10-01

    The tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean in December 2004 caused devastation of agricultural soils by salt water over wide areas. Many rice fields located close to the coast were affected by the flood of seawater. Electric conductivity (EC) of soils in tsunami-affected rice fields was found to be higher compared to unaffected fields 2 years after the tsunami. Four soil amendments (gypsum, dolomite, cinnamon ash and rice-husk-charcoal) were tested for their influence on improving the yield parameters of rice grown in a tsunami-affected and a non-affected area. Yield parameters were compared with an untreated control of the same cultivar (AT362) and with a salt resistant rice variety (AT354). The salt resistant variety had the highest grain yield. The two amendments gypsum and rice-husk-charcoal led to an increase in grain yield compared to the untreated control, whereas dolomite and cinnamon ash had no significant effect on grain yield.

  2. Polycomb Protein OsFIE2 Affects Plant Height and Grain Yield in Rice.

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    Xianbo Liu

    Full Text Available Polycomb group (PcG proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2 protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type. In addition, compared to wild-type, the number of large and small vascular bundles decreased in osfie2-1, as well as cell number and cell size in spikelet hulls. OsFIE2 is expressed in most tissues and the coded protein localizes in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that OsFIE2 interacts with OsiEZ1 which encodes an enhancer of zeste protein previously identified as a histone methylation enzyme. RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that some homeotic genes and genes involved in endosperm starch synthesis, cell division/expansion and hormone synthesis and signaling are differentially expressed between osfie2-1 and wild-type. In addition, the contents of IAA, GA3, ABA, JA and SA in osfie2-1 are significantly different from those in wild-type. Taken together, these results indicate that OsFIE2 plays an important role in the regulation of plant height and grain yield in rice.

  3. Mapping QTL for Grain Yield under Moisture Stress Environments in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Polygenes (QTLs for grain yield were mapped on rice chromosomes under two moisture stress environments by multiple interval mapping (MIM method in a double haploid (DH population derived from a cross between a deep-rooted japonica and a shallow-rooted indica genotype. In environment 1 (E1, the MIM detected a total of six QTLs for grain yield on chromosomes-two QTLs on chromosome 1 and four QTLs on chromosome 5 along with one additive x additive epistasis. But in environment 2 (E2, the MIM detected five QTLs for grain yield on two chromosomes-three QTLs on chromosome 1 and two QTLs on chromosome 7. One common QTL on chromosome 1 flanked by the markers RG109-ME1014 was detected in both the environments, although the other detected QTLs differed between environments. The magnitude of QTL effect, percent genetic variance and percent phenotypic variance explained by each QTL was also estimated in both environments. The common QTL explained about 26.05 and 13.93% of genetic variance in E1 and E2, respectively. Estimated broad sense heritability for grain yield was 48.01 in E1 and 25.27% in E2.

  4. Effects of Mineral N and P Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Flooded Lowland Rice on Vertisols of Fogera Plain, Ethiopia

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    Heluf Gebrekidan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite its very recent history of cultivation in Ethiopia, rice is one of the potential grain crops that could contribute to the efforts for the realization of food security in the country. However, the scientific information available with regards to the response of flooded rice to N and P fertilizers for its optimum production on Vertisols of Fogera Plain is very limited. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted on Vertisols of Fogera plain, northern Ethiopia to study the yield and yield components response of rice and to establish the optimum N and P fertilizer levels required for improved grain yield of flooded rice. Six levels of N (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha−1 and five levels of P (0, 13.2, 26.4, 39.6 and 52.8 kg ha−1 laid down in a randomized complete block design with four replications were used as treatments. Nitrogen was applied in two equal splits (50% basal and 50% at maximum tillering as urea and the entire dose of P was applied basal as triple super phosphate at sowing. The main effects of N and P fertilizer levels showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.01 for all yield and yield components studied. The effects of N by P interaction were significant only for grain yield (P ≤ 0.05, number of panicles per m2 (P ≤ 0.01, number of spikelets per panicle (P ≤ 0.05 and plant height (P ≤ 0.01 among the different yield and yield components studied. Application of N and P significantly (P ≤ 0.01 increased grain yield of rice up to the levels of 60 kg N and 13.2 kg P ha−1. However, maximum grain yield (4282 kg ha−1 was obtained with the combined application of 60 kg N and 13.2 kg P ha−1, and the yield advantage over the control was 38.49% (1190 kg ha−1. Moreover, application of both N and P fertilizers have increased the magnitudes of the important yield attributes including number of panicles per m2, number of spikelets per panicle, panicle length, dry matter accumulation, straw yield and plant height

  5. Different effects of night versus day high temperature on rice quality and accumulation profiling of rice grain proteins during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Chen, Zhen; Hu, Meixia; Wang, Zhenmei; Hua, Hua; Yin, Changxi; Zeng, Hanlai

    2011-09-01

    High temperature has adverse effects on rice yield and quality. The different influences of night high temperature (NHT) and day high temperature (DHT) on rice quality and seed protein accumulation profiles during grain filling in indica rice '9311' were studied in this research. The treatment temperatures of the control, NHT, and DHT were 28°C/20°C, 27°C/35°C, and 35°C/27°C, respectively, and all the treatments were maintained for 20 days. The result of rice quality analysis indicated that compared with DHT, NHT exerted less effect on head rice rate and chalkiness, whereas greater effect on grain weight. Moreover, the dynamic accumulation change profiles of 61 protein spots, differentially accumulated and successfully identified under NHT and DHT conditions, were performed by proteomic approach. The results also showed that the different suppressed extent of accumulation amount of cyPPDKB might result in different grain chalkiness between NHT and DHT. Most identified isoforms of proteins, such as PPDK and pullulanase, displayed different accumulation change patterns between NHT and DHT. In addition, compared with DHT, NHT resulted in the unique accumulation patterns of stress and defense proteins. Taken together, the mechanisms of seed protein accumulation profiles induced by NHT and DHT during grain filling should be different in rice, and the potential molecular basis is discussed in this study.

  6. Simulating Phenology, Growth and Yield of Transplanted Rice at Different Seedling Ages in Northern Iran Using ORYZA2000

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    B. Amiri LARIJANI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice crop growth and yield in the north Iran are affected by crop duration and phenology. The purpose of this study was to calibrate and validate the ORYZA2000 model under potential production based on experimental data for simulating and quantifying the phenological development, crop duration and yield prediction of rice crop influenced by different seedling ages. In order to calibrate and validate the crop parameters of ORYZA2000 model, a two-year field experiment was conducted under potential growth condition for transplanted lowland rice during the 2008–2009 rice growing seasons, using three rice varieties with three seedling ages (17, 24 and 33 days old. The results showed that the seedling age changed crop duration from 7 to 10 d. The ORYZA2000 model could predict well, but consistently underestimated the length of growing period. The range in normalized root mean square error (RMSEn values for each phenological stage was between 4% and 6%. From our evaluation, we concluded that ORYZA2000 was sufficiently accurate in simulation of yield, leaf area index (LAI and biomass of crop organs over time. On average, RMSEn values were 13%–15% for total biomass, 18%–21% for green leaf biomass, 17%–20% for stem biomass, 16%–23% for panicle biomass and 24%–26% for LAI. The RMSEn values for final yield and biomass were 12%–16% and 6%–9%, respectively. Generally, the model simulated LAI, an exceeded measured value for younger seedlings, and best-fit was observed for older seedlings of short-duration varieties. The results revealed that the ORYZA2000 model can be applied as a supportive research tool for selecting the most appropriate strategies for rice yield improvement across the north Iran.

  7. Path Analysis of Rice (Oryza sativa L. Grain Yield and its Related Components in Competition with Barnyard Grass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. Beauv.

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    H. Aminpanah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One component of integrated weed management is use of cultivars with high competitive ability against weeds. Balance between competitiveness and productivity of rice under condition of presence or absence of weeds, is complicated the breeding of rice cultivars to increase competitiveness against weeds. Path coefficient analysis has been widely used in crop breeding to determine the nature of relationships between the grain yield (GY and its contributing components. To study the weed-suppressive ability by rice, an experimental was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications in Chprsr, Tonekabon Rice Research Station at 2009. The experimental treatments include seven varieties (Daylamani, Khazar, Sepeedrud, Neamat, Dorfak, Fajr and Shiroodi and three lines (830, 841 and 843 of rice that were cultured in the presence of barnyard grass. The results of path analysis showed ability withstands competition (AWC, thousand grain weight (THGW, fertile tiller number m-2 (FT, filled grain number panicle-1 (FG and competitive index (CI as the first-order variables for GY. The traits such as specific leaf area of rice at 25 days after transplanting (Rsla25, ear length (EL, Filled grain percentage (FGP, specific leaf area of rice at heading stage (RslaHD were as the second-order variables for GY and influenced positively this response variable. Dry weight of barnyard grass biomass was negatively correlated with CI and RslaHD. However, these traits have a positive effect on grain yield, but fertile tiller number and specific leaf area at heading stage are measurable before maturity of grain. Thus, select of cultivar with high grain yield is possible before heading of grain, through these two traits. The variety of Shiroodi and line of 843 with highest value of specific leaf area at 25 days after transplanting and heading stage, high ability withstands competition and competitive index have a high capacity to compete with barnyard

  8. Effect of organic manure on Cd and As accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in Cd-As-contaminated paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Anwen; Ouyang, Yun; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2017-04-01

    Large areas of paddy fields in mining areas in south China have been contaminated by mixed Cd and As. To test the possibility of using organic manure (OM) as a method of reducing Cd and As accumulation in brown rice and increase the grain yield in such paddy fields, two rice cultivars [Jianyou G2 (JY) and Fengyousimiao (FY)] and three amounts of OM (0, 0.5, 1.5 kg/m(2)) were examined in three Cd-As-contaminated paddy fields (Fogang, Dabaoshan, Fankou) in Guangdong Province. The results show that the application of OM can effectively increase the grain yield and reduce Cd. However, the As concentration was found to increase in brown rice, especially when high levels of OM were used. The addition of OM increased the soil pH and organic matter content in the soils and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in plant tissues. Our results suggest that OM can be used as an amendment to effectively decrease Cd accumulation in brown rice in Cd-contaminated paddy fields. However, it is necessary to consider the negative effects of OM amendments when adding OM to As-contaminated paddy fields.

  9. Supporting Crop Loss Insurance Policy of Indonesia through Rice Yield Modelling and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Verseveld, Willem; Weerts, Albrecht; Trambauer, Patricia; de Vries, Sander; Conijn, Sjaak; van Valkengoed, Eric; Hoekman, Dirk; Grondard, Nicolas; Hengsdijk, Huib; Schrevel, Aart; Vlasbloem, Pieter; Klauser, Dominik

    2017-04-01

    The Government of Indonesia has decided on a crop insurance policy to assist Indonesia's farmers and to boost food security. To support the Indonesian government, the G4INDO project (www.g4indo.org) is developing/constructing an integrated platform implemented in the Delft-FEWS forecasting system (Werner et al., 2013). The integrated platform brings together remote sensed data (both visible and radar) and hydrologic, crop and reservoir modelling and forecasting to improve the modelling and forecasting of rice yield. The hydrological model (wflow_sbm), crop model (wflow_lintul) and reservoir models (RTC-Tools) are coupled on time stepping basis in the OpenStreams framework (see https://github.com/openstreams/wflow) and deployed in the integrated platform to support seasonal forecasting of water availability and crop yield. First we will show the general idea about the G4INDO project, the integrated platform (including Sentinel 1 & 2 data) followed by first (reforecast) results of the coupled models for predicting water availability and crop yield in the Brantas catchment in Java, Indonesia. Werner, M., Schellekens, J., Gijsbers, P., Van Dijk, M., Van den Akker, O. and Heynert K, 2013. The Delft-FEWS flow forecasting system, Environmental Modelling & Software; 40:65-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.07.010.

  10. Greenhouse validation of yield component transgressive variation effects of wild Oryza species introgressions in an elite US rice cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of global studies have been conducted which have shown that the wild ancestral species, Oryza rufipogon, possesses beneficial alleles that can be used to improve cultivated rice, O. sativa, for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance as well as yield. Introgression lines (IL) were developed thr...

  11. Interactive effects of pH, EC and nitrogen on yields and nutrient absorption of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil salinity and sodicity can not only directly restrain crop growth by osmotic and specific ion stresses, it also may reduce grain yield indirectly by impacting plant absorption of essential nutrients. Ensuring adequate nitrogen is an important management aspect of rice production in saline-sodic ...

  12. Ideal Menu and Boil Conditions for High Content Amilose Rice

    OpenAIRE

    坂井,堅太郎; 山内,真知子; 水羽,陽子; 清水池,綾子; 鉄穴森,陽子; 谷廣,佳奈子; 高松,寛子; 井原,久美; 井上, 明美; 中西,弘子; 谷田,真奈美; 出戸,綾子; 普家,由香理; 高橋,恵里; 渡邉,奈奈

    2007-01-01

    Dietetic therapy is a primary base for diabetes mellitus, therefore food items should be selected for the patients with this disease to control blood glucose level, which lightens the burden of the other medical treatment they need. High amilose content rice is an ideal food to supply carbohydrate as nutrient for the patients with diabetes mellitus, based on our recent research showing moderate increase of blood glucose level after eating cooked rice with this race in human and ra...

  13. The Application of Rice Hull Mulch and Potassium Nitrate on Growth and Yield of Kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Long Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ramadiana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K is absorbed by plants in larger amounts than any other mineral element except N to optimalize plant growth. Mulches may be influenced an available K at vegetative growth phase of plant. The research was conducted in Simpang Kanan Village, Gisting, Tanggamus Lampung Province. The objectives of this research were to study the application of KNO3 and rice hull mulch on growth and yield of kailan. Fields experiments were arranged by a factorial in a completely randomized block design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. A first factor was (1 dosages of KNO3 (150, 175, 200, 225, and 250 kg ha-1 and the second factor was mulch of the rice hull (with and without the rice hull. The results showed that the application of the rice hull did not significantly affected the yield of kailan, however the application of KNO3 till 250 kg ha-1 increased the level of greenness up to 6.10% and the wide of leaf up to 18,57%. In addition, the present of potassium fertilizer suspended with the rice hull significantly affected the width of kalian leaf.

  14. Growth and yield of rice submergence stress conditions in two types of swampy lowland of South Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribaldi, Nurlaili, Danial, E.; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine the best fertilizer treatment at vegetative stage for the growth and yield of rice submergence stress conditions on two types of swampy lowland. The experimental design used in this research was spilt-plot design with three replications. The main plot was fertilization treatment consisting of P1 = base fertilization, P2 = fertilizer before being submerged, P3 = fertilizer after being submerged + PPC Micro, P4 = fertilization before and after being submerged. The subplots are varieties of rice, V1 = Inpara 5, V2 = IR 64. The subplot was rice variety which consisted of V1 = Inpara 5, V2 = IR 64. The results showed fertilization treatment can increase rice production growth and submergence stress conditions, varieties of Inpara 5 added with fertilization before flooded can suppress a decrease in grain yield for 16 % in the shallow-backswamp and 6 % in middle-backswamps or with each production of 2.9 and 5.1 tons per hectare, varieties of Inpara 5 which is giving fertilization before flooded, tends to be a good treatment to be developed in rice submergence cultivation both in the the shallow-backswamp and middle-backswamps.

  15. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, Jean-Paul; Curmi, Patrick; Jelezko, Fedor; Wrachtrup, Joerg; Aubert, Pascal; Sennour, Mohamed; Balasubramanian, Gopalakrischnan; Reuter, Rolf; Thorel, Alain; Gaffet, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new fabrication method to produce homogeneously fluorescent nanodiamonds with high yields is described. The powder obtained by high energy ball milling of fluorescent high pressure, high temperature diamond microcrystals was converted in a pure concentrated aqueous colloidal dispersion of highly crystalline ultrasmall nanoparticles with a mean size less than or equal to 10 nm. The whole fabrication yield of colloidal quasi-spherical nanodiamonds was several orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported starting from microdiamonds. The results open up avenues for the industrial cost-effective production of fluorescent nanodiamonds with well-controlled properties. PMID:19451687

  16. Plant architecture and grain yield are regulated by the novel DHHC-type zinc finger protein genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Lin, Jian Zhong; Peng, Dan; Yang, Yuan Zhu; Guo, Ming; Tang, Dong Ying; Tan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xuan Ming

    2017-01-01

    In many plants, architecture and grain yield are affected by both the environment and genetics. In rice, the tiller is a vital factor impacting plant architecture and regulated by many genes. In this study, we cloned a novel DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene Os02g0819100 and its alternative splice variant OsDHHC1 from the cDNA of rice (Oryza sativa L.), which regulate plant architecture by altering the tiller in rice. The tillers increased by about 40% when this type of DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene was over-expressed in Zhong Hua 11 (ZH11) rice plants. Moreover, the grain yield of transgenic rice increased approximately by 10% compared with wild-type ZH11. These findings provide an important genetic engineering approach for increasing rice yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simple techniques to increase the production yield and enhance the quality of organic rice bran oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikaeo, Khongsak; Pradit, Maythawinee

    2011-01-01

    This study develops simple techniques for increasing production yield and refining of crude RBO (CRBO). It was found that pre-heating of rice bran by hot air oven to reach 60°C before being extracted by screw press machine increased the yield from 4.8 to 8.3%w/w. This paper suggested three simple steps for refining of organic CRBO: (1) filtering using filter papers (2) sedimentation by adding 4%w/v fuller's earth and (3) bleaching by running through a packed column of activated carbon. These steps significantly enhanced the qualities of RBO when compared to CRBO before treatment. It was found that the lightness of oil as indicated by color value (L*) increased from 22.8 to 28.7, gum and wax decreased from 3.6 to 1.3%w/w. However, the simple refining method had no effect on peroxide value and free fatty acid content. Moreover, it slightly induced the loss of oryzanol content from 2.8 to 2.2%w/w.

  18. Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano André Petter

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar made from Eucalyptus on soil fertility, and on the yield and development of upland rice. The experiment was performed during two years in a randomized block design with four replicates, in a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. Four doses of NPK 05-25-15, annually distributed in stripes (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1, and four doses of biochar (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha-1, applied once in the first year - alone or with NPK - were evaluated. In the first year, biochar positively affected soil fertility [total organic carbon (TOC, Ca, P, Al, H+Al, and pH], at 0-10 cm soil depth, and it was the only factor with significant effect on yield. In the second year, the effect of biochar diminished or was overcome by the fertilizer. TOC moved down in the soil profile to the 0-20 cm depth, influencing K availability in this layer. In the second year, there was a significant interaction between biochar and the fertilizer on plant growth and biomass dry matter accumulation.

  19. Biochemical and Anatomical Changes and Yield Reduction in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Varied Salinity Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, M. A.; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Hanafi, M. M.; Ismail, Mohd Razi; Selamat, Ahmad; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Five Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties, MR33, MR52, MR211, MR219, and MR232, were tested in pot culture under different salinity regimes for biochemical response, physiological activity, and grain yield. Three different levels of salt stresses, namely, 4, 8, and 12 dS m−1, were used in a randomized complete block design with four replications under glass house conditions. The results revealed that the chlorophyll content, proline, sugar content, soluble protein, free amino acid, and yield per plant of all the genotypes were influenced by different salinity levels. The chlorophyll content was observed to decrease with salinity level but the proline increased with salinity levels in all varieties. Reducing sugar and total sugar increased up to 8 dS m−1 and decreased up to 12 dS m−1. Nonreducing sugar decreased with increasing the salinity levels in all varieties. Soluble protein and free amino acid also decreased with increasing salinity levels. Cortical cells of MR211 and MR232 did not show cell collapse up to 8 dS m−1 salinity levels compared to susceptible checks (IR20 and BRRI dhan29). Therefore, considering all parameters, MR211 and MR232 showed better salinity tolerance among the tested varieties. Both cluster and principal component analyses depict the similar results. PMID:24579076

  20. Development of instant noodles from high-iron rice and iron-fortified rice flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparat Reungmaneepaitoon

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Instant high-iron noodles, prepared from wheat flour and high iron brown rice flour, were developed. Three varieties of rice flour, Suphan Buri 90 (SB, Homnin 313 (HW and Homnin 1000 (HP, containing amylose content of 30.40, 19.10 and 15.74% (w/w and iron content of 1.24, 2.04 and 2.22 (mg/100 g respectively, were used to replace wheat flour for instant fried noodle production. To determine the physicochemical properties and acceptability of instant fried noodles,different percentages (30, 40, 50% (w/w of each rice flour sample were used. The instant fried noodles were fortified with ferrous sulphate at levels of 0, 32, 64% iron of RDI per serving. Increasing amount of iron content in the mixtures decreased the L* value, b* value and increased a* value for the color of the instant fried noodle with brown rice flour. The texture characteristic of the noodles with 30, 40, 50% replacement with each variety of brown rice flour were significantly different from those of wheat noodle. Tensile force of the noodles decreased from 11.57±1.30 g to 6.38±1.45 g (SB, 8.36±0.96 g to 5.71±0.57 g (HP and 10.09±1.20 g to 5.46±1.31 g (HW as the rice flour content increased from 30 to 50%. The sensoryacceptability of the noodles made from each variety of 30% brown rice flour fortified with 32% iron of RDI had higher preference scores for elasticity, firmness, color and overall acceptability, than those with 64% iron of RDI. Instant fried noodles with HW and HP brown rice flour were subjected to consumer test using 100 rural primary school children. The frequency percent of the acceptability scores of the noodle with HP and HW were 88 and 84% respectively. Shelf life studyrevealed that the developed products were still acceptable up to 4 months. These products were claimed to be high iron noodle.

  1. Induction of rice mutations by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xuncheng; Zheng, Feng; Zeng, Songjun; Wu, Kunlin; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Duan, Jun

    2013-09-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is an extreme thermo-physical factor that affects the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins and induces mutagenesis in microorganisms. Our previous studies showed that exposure to 25-100 MPa HHP for 12 h retarded the germination and affected the viability of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds, increased the tolerance of rice plants to cold stress and altered gene expression patterns in germinating rice seeds. However, the mutagenic effect of HHP on rice remains unknown. In this study, exposure to 25, 50, 75 or 100 MPa for 12 h HHP could efficiently induce variation in rice plants. Furthermore, presoaking time and HHP strength during HHP treatment affected the efficiency of mutation. In addition, the Comet assay revealed that exposure to 25-100 MPa HHP for 12 h induced DNA strand breakage in germinating seeds and may have been the source of mutations. Our results suggest that HHP is a promising physical mutagen in rice breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of water stress effects in different growth stages on yield and yield components of different rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvestani, Zinolabedin Tahmasebi; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Balouchi, Hamidreza

    2008-05-15

    A field experiment was conducted during 2001-2003 to evaluate the effect of water stress on the yield and yield components of four rice cultivars commonly grown in Mazandaran province, Iran. In northern Iran irrigated lowland rice usually experiences water deficit during the growing season include of land preparation time, planting, tillering stage, flowering and grain filing period. Recently drought affected 20 of 28 provinces in Iran; with the southeastern, central and eastern parts of the country being most severely affected. The local and improved cultivars used were Tarom, Khazar, Fajr and Nemat. The different water stress conditions were water stress during vegetative, flowering and grain filling stages and well watered was the control. Water stress at vegetative stage significantly reduced plant height of all cultivars. Water stress at flowering stage had a greater grain yield reduction than water stress at other times. The reduction of grain yield largely resulted from the reduction in fertile panicle and filled grain percentage. Water deficit during vegetative, flowering and grain filling stages reduced mean grain yield by 21, 50 and 21% on average in comparison to control respectively. The yield advantage of two semidwarf varieties, Fajr and Nemat, were not maintained under drought stress. Total biomass, harvest index, plant height, filled grain, unfilled grain and 1000 grain weight were reduced under water stress in all cultivars. Water stress at vegetative stage effectively reduced total biomass due to decrease of photosynthesis rate and dry matter accumulation.

  3. Breeding of high nutrition function rice line ″Jupeihongjing No.1″ and its nutrition and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Dongzhi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ″Jupeihongjing No.1″ is an early late-maturity japonica rice variiety with high fuctional nutritions,which was developed by Development Center of Plant Germplasm Resources,Shanghai Normal University,China.″Jupeihongjing No.1″ is of high-yielding,giant embryo and red brown-rice grains and high anthocyanins.Further analyses showed that ″Jupeihongjing No.1″ have higher nutritions than common rice varieties espicallly for γ-amino butyric Acid (GABA and vitamin E have twice content of common rice varieties.The results showed that the ″Jupeihongjing No.1″ is of significant nutritions and application value.

  4. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia B. Agostinho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2 evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha−1 combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha−1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L−1 and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As (P < 0.01, but not on rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si (P < 0.001. While there was an improvement in biomass (42% and tiller production (25% for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  5. Effect of Pseudomonas Sp. Bacteria on Soil Chemical and Biological Properties, Yield and Its Components of Two Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. AminDeldar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB on soil physical and chemical indices, yield and its components of two rice cultivars, an experiment was arranged in Rice Researches Institute of Guilan Province during 2009. The experiment design consisted of four randomized complete blocks in a factorial arrangement having 16 treatments in every block. In this research, two factors were evaluated: first, two cultivars (Khazar and Hashemi and second, eight levels of seed inoculation with PGPB (P.fluorescens strain 168, P.fluorescens strain 93, P.fluorescens strain 177, P.fluorescens strain 136, P.fluorescens strain 103, P.fluorescens strain 169, P.fluorescens strain 4 and control (without inoculation. Investigated characteristics consisted of: soil minerals, no.microorganisms in soil, grain yield, number of seed per panicle, number of seed per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological and economic yield. In this experiment, effect of cultivar and bacteria were significant in the most of studied characteristics, but effect of cultivar*bacteria (except yield components wasn’t significant. The results of experiment showed that inoculation with bacterial strains had a stimulating effect on growth and development of rice cultivars. In this experiment, Khazar had positive effect on the most of studied characteristics in compared with Hashemi. Between bacterial different strains, seed inoculation with 168, 177 and 93 strains in compared with other strains increased evaluated characteristics significantly. Seed inoculation with PGPB improved studied characteristics and microorganisms in soil, too.

  6. Effects of single basal application of coated compound fertilizer on yield and nitrogen use efficiency in double-cropped rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiana Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer plays an important role in increasing rice yield. More than half of all fertilizer applied to the field is not taken up, resulting in environmental damage and substantial economic losses. To address these concerns, a low-cost, coated compound fertilizer named “Xiang Nong Da” (XND, requiring only a single basal application, was studied. A two-year field experiment was conducted to test the effects of XND application on rice yield and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. An ordinary uncoated compound fertilizer (UNCF, with 20% more nutrients and split application was selected as the control. The yield of XND-treated rice was only 3.1% lower than that of the control, an insignificant difference. There were no significant differences between N use efficiency indices of the two fertilizer treatments except for N partial factor productivity (PFPN. PFPN of XND treatment was 19.7%–23.2% higher than the control, a significant difference. This result indicates that a 20% decrease in N application rate is possible with XND without yield reduction and with savings in both labor and time.

  7. OsPIN5b modulates rice (Oryza sativa) plant architecture and yield by changing auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangwen; Coneva, Viktoriya; Casaretto, José A; Ying, Shan; Mahmood, Kashif; Liu, Fang; Nambara, Eiji; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2015-09-01

    Plant architecture attributes such as tillering, plant height and panicle size are important agronomic traits that determine rice (Oryza sativa) productivity. Here, we report that altered auxin content, transport and distribution affect these traits, and hence rice yield. Overexpression of the auxin efflux carrier-like gene OsPIN5b causes pleiotropic effects, mainly reducing plant height, leaf and tiller number, shoot and root biomass, seed-setting rate, panicle length and yield parameters. Conversely, reduced expression of OsPIN5b results in higher tiller number, more vigorous root system, longer panicles and increased yield. We show that OsPIN5b is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -localized protein that participates in auxin homeostasis, transport and distribution in vivo. This work describes an example of an auxin-related gene where modulating its expression can simultaneously improve plant architecture and yield potential in rice, and reveals an important effect of hormonal signaling on these traits. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Impacts of management alternatives on rice yield and nitrogen losses to the environment: A case study in rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth C; Hornberger, George M

    2016-01-15

    Maintaining crop yields is vital as populations increase, but environmental degradation resulting from cultivation must be prevented. In particular, freshwater resources are at risk of nitrate leaching from superfluous fertilization. This research explores the tradeoffs between maximizing yield and limiting environmental impacts of rice production in Sri Lanka. The DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model was used to examine how various combinations of fertilization and irrigation management affect yield, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and nitrogen (N) leaching in paddy systems under climate and soil conditions in the dry zone of Sri Lanka from 1991 to 2010. Simulated fertilizer application rates ranged from zero to 2700 kgN/ha and simulated irrigation schemes were continuously flooded, marginally flooded, and rain-fed. Increasing fertilizer levels from zero to 300 kgN/ha per year increased yield but application of fertilizer beyond that amount ceased to affect yield for any of the three irrigation schemes. The combination of management options for obtaining the maximum grain yield, near 9000 kgC/ha, with the greatest amount of N uptake and relatively low nitrate leaching was using 225 kgN/ha under a continuously flooded regime. This research explores how cultivation in rice-growing regions in south Asia affects the environment and the N cycle, and demonstrates how informed management of these systems can reduce external inputs of N fertilizer without impacting yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing grain yields reduces CH4 emissions from rice paddy fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Kropff, M.J.; Breemen, van N.; Wassmann, R.; Lantin, R.S.; Aduna, E.; Corton, T.M.; Laar, van H.H.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial production in anoxic wetland rice soils is a major source of atmospheric CH4, the most important non-CO2 greenhouse gas. Much higher CH4 emissions from well managed irrigated rice fields in the wet than in the dry season could not be explained by seasonal differences in temperature. We

  10. Effects of extraction period on yield of rice straw compost humic acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, their isolation differs in terms of origin or source because of wetting and solubilization factors. This study was conducted to determine extraction period for HA from composted rice straw. Standard procedures were used to extract HA from rice straw compost at different extraction periods of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h.

  11. High frequency plant regeneration from desiccated calli of indica rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and reproducible protocol is required to achieve high frequency transformation from transformed calli. We report here high frequency plant regeneration from mature seed derived embryogenic calli of two recalcitrant indica rice cultivars HKR-46 and HKR-126 after partial desiccation treatment. Embryogenic and ...

  12. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  13. QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marathi Balram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.. Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs for days to 50% flowering (R2 = 25%, LOD = 14.3, panicles per plant (R2 = 19%, LOD = 9.74, flag leaf length (R2 = 22%, LOD = 3.05, flag leaf width (R2 = 53%, LOD = 46.5, spikelets per panicle (R2 = 16%, LOD = 13.8, filled grains per panicle (R2 = 22%, LOD = 15.3, percent spikelet sterility (R2 = 18%, LOD = 14.24, thousand grain weight (R2 = 25%, LOD = 12.9 and spikelet setting density (R2 = 23%, LOD = 15 expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2 ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709 on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for

  14. Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under Two Rice Cultivation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. SINGH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement, less pest attack, shorter crop duration, higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation. With this background, SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during two wet seasons (2009–2011. In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design, two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44 were used under seven crop nutrition treatments, viz. T1, 120 kg/hm2 N, 26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2, 20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM; T3, 10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA; T6, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla, and T7, N0P0K0 (control, no NPK application to study the effect on seed quality, yield and water use. In SRI, soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2–3 cm was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice, however, in CT, standing water was maintained in crop growing season. Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI. Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT. Integrated nutrient management (INM resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties. Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill, panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer. The grain yield

  15. High quantum yield III-V photoanodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erne, B.H.

    1995-09-01

    The morphological and electrochemical aspects of the (photo)anodic etching of the n-type 3-5 semiconductors GaP, GaAs, and InP are examined. The etched surfaces are characterized experimentally by electrochemical and other methods. Particular attention is paid to the anodic photocurrent quantum yield. The processes investigated lead to a large enhancement of the quantum yield or give a quantum yield in excess of unity, hence the title of the thesis. The quantum yield of a photoanode is determined by processes both in the bulk and at the surface of the semiconductor. The competition between charge separation and recombination in the bulk of the semiconductor determines the fraction of the photogenerated holes which reaches the surface, and surface processes determine the fraction of those holes which contributes to current in the external circuit. Chapter 2 examines the increased effective absorption due to surface roughness and the increase in the diffusion length of holes associated with photocurrent flow, two effects which can cause charge separation to compete more effectively with bulk recombination. Chapter 3 considers the influence of the wavelength of the light used for photoanodic etching on the morphology. Chapter 4 demonstrates that porous etching may lead to an enormous enhancement of the photoresponse. The influence of surface (electro)chemistry on the quantum yield is investigated for n-type InP electrodes by means of optoelectrical impedance spectroscopy. Even in indifferent electrolyte, InP photoanodes have remarkably high quantum yields in excess of unity, due to electron injection by dissolution intermediates (Chapter 5). Interaction with a chemical etchant can increase the quantum yield even further (Chapter 6). The main conclusions of the thesis are summarized in Chapter 7. 52 figs., 180 refs., 1 appendix

  16. Moderate wetting and drying increases rice yield and reduces water use, grain arsenic level, and methane emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the major challenge of increasing rice production to feed a growing population under increasing water scarcity, many water-saving regimes have been introduced in irrigated rice, such as an aerobic rice system, non-flooded mulching cultivation, and alternate wetting and drying (AWD. These regimes could substantially enhance water use efficiency (WUE by reducing irrigation water. However, such enhancements greatly compromise grain yield. Recent work has shown that moderate AWD, in which photosynthesis is not severely inhibited and plants can rehydrate overnight during the soil drying period, or plants are rewatered at a soil water potential of −10 to −15 kPa, or midday leaf potential is approximately −0.60 to −0.80 MPa, or the water table is maintained at 10 to 15 cm below the soil surface, could increase not only WUE but also grain yield. Increases in grain yield WUE under moderate AWD are due mainly to reduced redundant vegetative growth; improved canopy structure and root growth; elevated hormonal levels, in particular increases in abscisic acid levels during soil drying and cytokinin levels during rewatering; and enhanced carbon remobilization from vegetative tissues to grain. Moderate AWD could also improve rice quality, including reductions in grain arsenic accumulation, and reduce methane emissions from paddies. Adoption of moderate AWD with an appropriate nitrogen application rate may exert a synergistic effect on grain yield and result in higher WUE and nitrogen use efficiency. Further research is needed to understand root–soil interaction and evaluate the long-term effects of moderate AWD on sustainable agriculture.

  17. Indices to screen for grain yield and grain-zinc mass concentrations in aerobic rice at different soil-Zn levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.; Zhao, M.; Keulen, van H.; Fan, T.Q.; Stomph, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    Zinc is an important micronutrient for both crop growth and human nutrition. In rice production, yields are often reduced and Zn mass concentrations in the grains are often low when Zn is in short supply to the crop. This may result in malnutrition of people dependent on a rice-based diet. Plant

  18. Plant phenomics and high-throughput phenotyping: accelerating rice functional genomics using multidisciplinary technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanneng; Duan, Lingfeng; Chen, Guoxing; Xiong, Lizhong; Liu, Qian

    2013-05-01

    The functional analysis of the rice genome has entered into a high-throughput stage, and a project named RICE2020 has been proposed to determine the function of every gene in the rice genome by the year 2020. However, as compared with the robustness of genetic techniques, the evaluation of rice phenotypic traits is still performed manually, and the process is subjective, inefficient, destructive and error-prone. To overcome these limitations and help rice phenomics more closely parallel rice genomics, reliable, automatic, multifunctional, and high-throughput phenotyping platforms should be developed. In this article, we discuss the key plant phenotyping technologies, particularly photonics-based technologies, and then introduce their current applications in rice (wheat or barley) phenomics. We also note the major challenges in rice phenomics and are confident that these reliable high-throughput phenotyping tools will give plant scientists new perspectives on the information encoded in the rice genome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Field Experiment on Enhancement of Crop Yield by Rice Straw and Corn Stalk-Derived Biochar in Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a green way to deal with burning and burying biomass, has attracted more attention in recent years. To fill the gap of the effects of different biochar on crop yield in Northern China, the first field experiment was conducted in farmland located in Hebei Province. Biochars derived from two kinds of feedstocks (rice straw and corn stalk were added into an Inceptisols area with different dosages (1 ton/ha, 2 ton/ha or 4 ton/ha in April 2014. The crop yields were collected for corn, peanut, and sweet potato during one crop season from spring to autumn 2014, and the wheat from winter 2014 to summer 2015, respectively. The results showed biochar amendment could enhance yields, and biochar from rice straw showed a more positive effect on the yield of corn, peanut, and winter wheat than corn stalk biochar. The dosage of biochar of 2 ton/ha or 1 ton/ha could enhance the yield by 5%–15% and biochar of 4 ton/ha could increase the yield by about 20%. The properties of N/P/K, CEC, and pH of soils amended with biochar were not changed, while biochar effects could be related to improvement of soil water content.

  20. Constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred enhanced growth and grain yield in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Youl; Kim, Eun Yu; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Woo Taek

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids are not only important components of cell membranes, but participate in diverse processes in higher plants. In this study, we generated Capsicum annuum phospholipiase A1 (CaPLA1) overexpressing transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants under the control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The T4 CaPLA1-overexpressing rice plants (Ubi:CaPLA1) had a higher root:shoot mass ratio than the wild-type plants in the vegetative stage. Leaf epidermal cells from transgenic plants had more cells than wild-type plants. Genes that code for cyclin and lipid metabolic enzymes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines. When grown under typical paddy field conditions, the transgenic plants produced more tillers, longer panicles and more branches per panicle than the wild-type plants, all of which resulted in greater grain yield. Microarray analysis suggests that gene expressions that are related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, and redox state were widely altered in CaPLA1-overexpressing transgenic rice plants. Ubi:CaPLA1 plants had a reduced membrane peroxidation state, as determined by malondialdehyde and conjugated diene levels and higher peroxidase activity than wild-type rice plants. Furthermore, three isoprenoid synthetic genes encoding terpenoid synthase, hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase were up-regulated in CaPLA1-overexpressing plants. We suggest that constitutive expression of CaPLA1 conferred increased grain yield with enhanced growth in transgenic rice plants by alteration of gene activities related with cell proliferation, lipid metabolism, membrane peroxidation state and isoprenoid biosynthesis.

  1. Study on Climate Change Effect on Net Irrigation Requirement and Yield for Rice Crop (Case Study: Tajan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sheidaeian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, impact of climate change on net irrigation requirement (In and yield of Rice Crop using HadCM3 climate projection model, one of the AOGCM models, in Tajan Plain area is evaluated. Changes in temperature and precipitation were simulated run under the IPCC scenario A2 for 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 periods. This work was done by using statistical and proportional downscaling techniques. For estimating Net Irrigation Requirement, Potential evapotranspiration (ETo and effective rainfall (Pe were calculated using Penman Monteith equation and USDA method With Cropwat Model, respectively. Impact of water deficit on crop yield was estimated using the linear crop-water production function developed by FAO. The results of downscaling by using SDSM model and proportional method indicate that the decrease in rainfall and increase in the temperature are in future periods. CROPWAT model results indicate that the effect of climate change with increased Potential evapotranspiration and decreased effective Rainfall and increased water consumption of the plant, can be increased, the net irrigation requirement of rice plants in the basin duration years future to come by the year 2100. As a result of climate change and rising temperatures and reduced rainfall, the yield reduction percent to low levels to rise in the coming years. So it can be conclude that the effect of climate change closer to the year 2100 when effective rainfall is less could provide water consumption and net irrigation requirement of rice in the area.

  2. The Short-Term Effects of Rice Straw Biochar, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer on Rice Yield and Soil Properties in a Cold Waterlogged Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Si

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity in cold waterlogged paddy fields can be constrained by chronic flooding stress and low temperature. Farmers typically use chemical fertilizer to improve crop production, but this conventional fertilization is not very effective in a cold waterlogged paddy field. Biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising management approach to eliminating these obstacles. However, little is known about the performance of biochar when combined with N fertilizer and P fertilizer in cold waterlogged soils. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the main effects and interactive effects of rice straw biochar, N and P fertilizer on rice growth and soil properties in a cold waterlogged paddy field. The field treatments consisted of a factorial combination of two biochar levels (0 and 2.25 t ha−1, two N fertilizer levels (120.0 and 180.0 kg ha−1 and two P fertilizer levels (37.5 and 67.5 kg ha−1 which were arranged in a randomized block design, with three replicates. Results confirmed that biochar application caused a significant increase in the soil pH due to its liming effect, while this application resulted in a significant decrease in soil exchangeable cations, such as exchangeable Ca, Mg, Al and base cations. The interactive effect of N fertilizer, P fertilizer and biochar was significant for soil total N. Moreover, a negative effect of biochar on the internal K use efficiency suggested that K uptake into rice may benefit from biochar application. According to the partial Eta squared values, the combined application of N fertilizer and biochar was as effective as pure P fertilization at increasing straw P uptake. The addition of biochar to farmers’ fertilization practice treatment (180.0 kg N ha−1, 67.5 kg P2O5 ha−1 and 67.5 kg K2O ha−1 significantly increased rice yield, mainly owing to improvements in grains per panicle. However, notable effects of biochar on rice yield and biomass production were not detected

  3. Weed management through herbicide application in direct-seeded rice and yield modeling by artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.; Singh, U.P.; Ray, K.; Das, A.

    2016-11-01

    In direct seeded rice (DSR) cultivation, weed is the major constraint mainly due to absence of puddling in field. The yield loss due to weed interference is huge, may be up to 100%. In this perspective, the present experiment was conducted to study the efficacy of selected herbicides, and to predict the rice yield using artificial neural network (ANN) models. The dry weight and density of weeds were recorded at different growth stages and consequently herbicidal efficacy was evaluated. Experimental results revealed that pre-emergence (PRE) herbicide effectively controlled the germination of grassy weeds. Application bispyribac-sodium as post-emergence (POST) following PRE herbicides (clomazone or pendimethalin) or as tank-mixture with clomazone effectively reduced the density and biomass accumulation of diverse weed flora in DSR. Herbicidal treatments improved the plant height, yield attributes and grain yield (2.7 to 5.5 times) over weedy check. The sensitivity of the best ANN model clearly depicts that the weed control index (WCI) of herbicides was most important than their weed control efficiency (WCE). Besides, the early control of weeds is a better prescription to improve rice yield. Differences in sensitivity values of WCI and WCE across the crop growth stages also suggest that at 15, 30 and 60 days after sowing, herbicides most effectively controlled sedges, broad leaves and grasses, respectively. Based on the grain yield and herbicidal WCE, it can be concluded that the combined application of pendimethalin or clomazone as PRE followed by bispyribac-sodium as POST or tank-mixture of clomazone + bispyribac sodium can effectively control different weed flushes throughout the crop growth period in DSR. (Author)

  4. Increasing Growth and Yield of Upland Rice by Application of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Potassium Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Natawijaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment with a split plot design has been carried out in order to assess the growth characteristics andyields, and effectiveness of MVA upland rice which were given potassium fertilizer in two growing seasons. MVAinoculation consisted of three treatments (without MVA, Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. while potassium fertilizerconsisted of five levels (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, and 50 kg ha-1 K. The results showed that plant growth variable which wasinoculated by MVA at any levels of K fertilizer was higher in the dry season than that in the wet season, whereas theopposite occurred for net assimilation rate. Potassium content of leaf tissue, shoot/root ratio, and grain weight perhill was determined and mutually dependent on genus MVA, dosages of K fertilizer, and growing season. Harvestindex and grain dry weight per hill were influenced by the growing season and the genus MVA but the effect did notdepend on each other. At all dosages of K fertilizer and any MVA genera, Gigaspora sp. inoculation was better thanthat of Glomus sp. Dry weight of grains per hill was affected by the contribution of grain content per hill, weight of1000 grains and number of productive seedlings per hill. The optimum dosage of K fertilizer in the dry season was32.4 kg ha-1 K with grain yield 3.12 Mg ha-1 for inoculation of Gigaspora sp., whereas the optimum dosage in the wetseason was 34.2 kg ha-1 K for the treatment Glomus sp. inoculation with Gigaspora sp. in the wet season did notreach dosages of optimum K fertilizer.

  5. Effects of Silicon-Based Fertilizer on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Rice in Tropical Zone of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Xuan Cuong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of silicon (Si could greatly boost rice yield and mitigate abiotic stress, especially drought. A field experiment was conducted during 2015 at the research farm of Hong Duc University, Thanh Hoa City, Vietnam, to evaluate the effects of five different combined doses of standard fertilizer practice and Si fertilizer on growth, yield and yield components, as well as nutrient uptake of rice. The treatments consisted of the recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF, 110 kg/hm2 N + 90 kg/hm2 P2O5 + 80 kg/hm2 K2O as the control, RDF + 100 kg/hm2 SiO2, RDF + 200 kg/hm2 SiO2, RDF + 300 kg/hm2 SiO2 and RDF + 400 kg/hm2 SiO2. The results showed that the growth, grain and straw yields as well as yield components (number of grains per panicle, seed-setting rate and 1000-grain weight were significantly affected by Si application. The highest grain yield of 3 705 kg/hm2 was obtained with the highest level of Si fertilizer in combination with RDF (RDF + 400 kg/hm2 SiO2, however, it was statistically at par with the yields obtained with RDF + 300 kg/hm2 SiO2 (3 664 kg/hm2 and RDF + 200 kg/hm2 SiO2 (3 621 kg/hm2. The optimum dose of Si fertilizer with maximized grain yield (3 716 kg/hm2 was 329 kg/hm2 SiO2. The nutrient (Si, N, P and K uptakes of rice were also significantly enhanced by Si application. Si application at the level of 329 kg/hm2 along with RDF would help in the sustainable production of rice in the tropical zone of Vietnam.

  6. Methods for high yield production of terpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni; Higashi, Yasuhiro; Feng, Xiaohong

    2017-01-03

    Provided are enhanced high yield production systems for producing terpenes in plants via the expression of fusion proteins comprising various combinations of geranyl diphosphate synthase large and small subunits and limonene synthases. Also provided are engineered oilseed plants that accumulate monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in their seeds, as well as methods for producing such plants, providing a system for rapidly engineering oilseed crop production platforms for terpene-based biofuels.

  7. Effects of Mulching Mode on Canopy Physiological, Ecological Characteristics and Yield of Upland Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Xiang; Chen, Kai-Lin; Ze-hui HUANG; Hong-ke XIE

    2011-01-01

    The effects of mulching mode on population physiology and ecology of rice were studied using a combination P88S/1128 as the material under three mulching cultivation modes including plastic film mulching, straw mulching and liquid film mulching, as well as bare cultivation (control). The results indicated that mulching mode had significant effects on micro-meteorological factors and individual growth of rice, as shown by an increase of relative humidity, a better internal micro-meteorological...

  8. Roles of plant growth regulators on yield, grain qualities and antioxidant enzyme activities in super hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shenggang; Rasul, Fahd; Li, Wu; Tian, Hua; Mo, Zhaowen; Duan, Meiyang; Tang, Xiangru

    2013-04-16

    Plant growth regulators play important roles in plant growth and development, but little is known about roles of plant growth regulators in yield, grain qualities and antioxidant enzyme activities in super hybrid rice. In this study, gibberellic acid(GA3), paclobutrazol (PBZ), 6-Benzylaminopurine(6-BA) treatments and distilled water (control) were sprayed to two hybrid rice cultivars (Peizataifeng and Huayou 86) at the heading stage in the field experiments in both early and late season in 2007. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with four replications. Cultivars treatments with two newly developed super hybrid rice Peizataifeng and Huayou86 were the main plots and plant growth regulators treatments were the subplots. Subplot treatments included (1) plots sprayed with distilled water(CK), (2) plots sprayed with 20 mg L-1 GA3 prepared using 95% ethanol as surfactant(GA3), (3) plots sprayed with 50 mg L-1 PBZ(PBZ), (4) plots sprayed with 30 mg L-1 6-BA(6-BA). Spraying PBZ with 50 mg L-1 or 6-BA with 30 mg L-1 at the heading stage could increase the number of spikelets per panicle, seed setting rate and grain yields in Peizataifeng and Huayou86 in both seasons. PBZ treatment also significantly improved head rice rate and amylose content in Peizataifeng and Huayou86 in early season. Furthermore, it was observed that spraying PBZ or 6-BA could increase super oxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, decrease accumulation of malendialdehyde (MDA) in flag leaves at the late growth stage. Application of PBZ or 6-BA partially alleviated the detrimental effects of rice senescence by modulating the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, and improving antioxidant system, which helped in sustaining plant growth. Therefore, spraying PBZ with 50 mg L-1 or 6-BA with 30 mg L-1 at the heading stage could increase grain yields and improve grain qualities in the two super hybrid rice.

  9. RESTRUKTURISASI MENIR MENJADI BERAS BERKALSIUM TINGGI DENGAN METODE EKSTRUSI Restructured Fine Grain Rice to High Calcium Rice by Extrusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatarina Wariyah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian calcium intake is still low. So, calcium fortification  in such as rice is important. Rice fortification by extru- sion method was conducted by mixing rice flour with fortificant solution, molding and drying. The rice that was resulted from this process is called ultra rice. Menir (finely ground grain rice will be used as raw material of ultra rice. The purposed of this research was to produce high calcium extrusion rice or ultra rice with physical, organoleptic properties and cooking  quality  as normal rice. The specific purposes were to evaluate the effect of the type and amount of binder(gluten and tapioca on the characteristics of ultra rice, to determine type and amount of binder that resulted high cal- cium ultra rice with high acceptability. The result showed that high calcium ultra rice with tapioca as binder had colour,texture and organoleptic properties as normal rice. The ultra rice texture tended harder than IR-64, but cooked-ultra ricewas softer. The colour of ultra rice with tapioca as binder was similar with IR-64, but ultra rice with gluten as binderwas more yellowness. The cooking quality of ultra rice was less acceptable than IR-64. The high acceptability of ultra rice  was made with 4 % tapioca as binder, and the characterictics of this ultra rice were : hardness 140.43N, deforma- tion 63.70 %, the colour with lightness (L 71.08,  yellowness (b 11.00, redness (a -0.27 and good cooking quality. ABSTRAK Angka kecukupan asupan kalsium masyarakat Indonesia saat ini masih rendah. Untuk itu perlu dilakukan fortifikasi pada pangan yang umum  dikonsumsi  masyarakat luas seperti beras. Salah satu cara fortifikasi beras adalah dengan metode ekstrusi yaitu mencampur larutan fortifikan dengan tepung beras, kemudian dicetak dan dikeringkan.  Berasyang dihasilkan sering disebut sebagai beras ultra. Untuk meningkatkan kemanfaatan hasil samping penggilingan padi,maka digunakan menir sebagai bahan baku beras ultra

  10. Influence of ultrasonic pretreatment on the yield of bio-oil prepared by thermo-chemical conversion of rice husk in hot-compressed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Jia, Jingfu; Gao, Yahui; Zhao, Yaping

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of thermo-chemical conversion of rice husk in hot-compressed water via ultrasonic pretreatment to increase the bio-oil yield. The results show that ultrasonic pretreatment remarkably changes the structures of the rice husk, such as enhancing swelling and surface area, eroding lignin structure, and resulting in more exposure of the cellulose and hemicellulose. The highest bio-oil yield of 42.8% was obtained from the thermo-chemical conversion at 300 °C and 0 min of the residence time for the 1 h pretreated rice husk. GC-MS analysis indicates that the relative contents of phenols, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, and lactic acid are higher in bio-oils obtained from the pretreated rice husks than that from the raw rice husk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of short-term high temperature on grain quality and starch granules of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at post-anthesis stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Liang; Shi, Peihua; Yang, Baohua; Sun, Ting; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2017-03-01

    High temperature causes negative effects on grain yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, the effects of short-term high temperature (SHT) on grain quality and starch granules were investigated in two rice cultivars Nanjing 41 (NJ41, heat-sensitive) and Wuxiangjing 14 (WJ14, heat-tolerant) at post-anthesis stage (anthesis and early grain-filling stage). The results of rice quality analysis showed that chalky rate and chalkiness increased while brown rice rate, milled rice rate, and head rice rate decreased in two rice cultivars with the increase of high temperature and prolonged duration. Moreover, SHT stress reduced the accumulation of amylose as well as starch accumulation. The starch accumulation and eating quality were more sensitive to SHT than the appearance and milling quality. The starch structure data observed by scanning electron microscope further showed that the starch granules are arranged loosely and more single starch granules appeared after SHT treatment. The extent of change in rice quality and starch traits of WJ14 under SHT was lower than that of NJ41. The effects of SHT at anthesis stage were greater than that at grain-filling stage. Taken together, the results could help further understand the physiological and biochemical processes governing rice quality under high-temperature conditions.

  12. Identification of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes Controlling Biomass Characteristics and Yield in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Zhaohua PEng [Mississippi State University; Ronald, Palmela [UC-Davis; Wang, Guo-Liang [The Ohio State University

    2013-04-26

    This project aims to identify the regulatory genes of rice cell wall synthesis pathways using a cell wall removal and regeneration system. We completed the gene expression profiling studies following the time course from cell wall removal to cell wall regeneration in rice suspension cells. We also completed, total proteome, nuclear subproteome and histone modification studies following the course from cell wall removal and cell wall regeneration process. A large number of differentially expressed regulatory genes and proteins were identified. Meanwhile, we generated RNAi and over-expression transgenic rice for 45 genes with at least 10 independent transgenic lines for each gene. In addition, we ordered T-DNA and transposon insertion mutants for 60 genes from Korea, Japan, and France and characterized the mutants. Overall, we have mutants and transgenic lines for over 90 genes, exceeded our proposed goal of generating mutants for 50 genes. Interesting Discoveries a) Cell wall re-synthesis in protoplasts may involve a novel cell wall synthesis mechanism. The synthesis of the primary cell wall is initiated in late cytokinesis with further modification during cell expansion. Phragmoplast plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis. It services as a scaffold for building the cell plate and formation of a new cell wall. Only one phragmoplast and one new cell wall is produced for each dividing cell. When the cell wall was removed enzymatically, we found that cell wall re-synthesis started from multiple locations simultaneously, suggesting that a novel mechanism is involved in cell wall re-synthesis. This observation raised many interesting questions, such as how the starting sites of cell wall synthesis are determined, whether phragmoplast and cell plate like structures are involved in cell wall re-synthesis, and more importantly whether the same set of enzymes and apparatus are used in cell wall re-synthesis as during cytokinesis. Given that many known cell wall

  13. Critical Values of Porosity in Rice Cultures of Isaria fumosorosea by Adding Water Hyacinth: Effect on Conidial Yields and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Cuapio, Alejandro; Figueroa-Montero, Arturo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto; Viniegra-González, Gustavo; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Loera, Octavio

    2015-09-01

    Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea are used to control insect pests in crops. Commercially available mycoinsecticides manufactured with this fungus are produced on a large scale via solid-state cultures (SSC). In order to favour gaseous exchange in SCC, texturizers can be added to increase porosity fraction (ε). This work presents results of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a novel texturizer. A mixture of parboiled rice (PR), with a ε = 0.23, was used as a substrate, which was then mixed with water hyacinth (WH amendment) as a texturizer at different proportions affecting ε. Strains CNRCB1 and ARSEF3302 of I. fumosorosea yielded 1.6 (1.49-1.71) × 10(9) and 7.3 (7.02-7.58) × 10(9) conidia per gram of initial dry rice after 8 days, at ε values of 0.34 and 0.36, respectively. Improvement of conidial yields corresponded to 1.33 and 1.55 times, respectively, compared to rice alone using WH amendment in the mixtures PR:WH (%) at 90-10 and 80-20. In addition, infectivity against Galleria mellonella larvae was maintained. This is the first report of the use of water hyacinth as a texturizer in SSC, affecting ε, which is proposed a key parameter in conidia production by I. fumosorosea, without affecting conidial infectivity.

  14. Expression of Arabidopsis glycine-rich RNA-binding protein AtGRP2 or AtGRP7 improves grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deok Hee; Kwak, Kyung Jin; Kim, Min Kyung; Park, Su Jung; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although posttranscriptional regulation of RNA metabolism is increasingly recognized as a key regulatory process in plant response to environmental stresses, reports demonstrating the importance of RNA metabolism control in crop improvement under adverse environmental stresses are severely limited. To investigate the potential use of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in developing stress-tolerant transgenic crops, we generated transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) that express Arabidopsis thaliana glycine-rich RBP (AtGRP) 2 or 7, which have been determined to harbor RNA chaperone activity and confer stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, and analyzed the response of the transgenic rice plants to abiotic stresses. AtGRP2- or AtGRP7-expressing transgenic rice plants displayed similar phenotypes comparable with the wild-type plants under high salt or cold stress conditions. By contrast, AtGRP2- or AtGRP7-expressing transgenic rice plants showed much higher recovery rates and grain yields compared with the wild-type plants under drought stress conditions. The higher grain yield of the transgenic rice plants was due to the increases in filled grain numbers per panicle. Collectively, the present results show the importance of posttranscriptional regulation of RNA metabolism in plant response to environmental stress and suggest that GRPs can be utilized to improve the yield potential of crops under stress conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  16. Impact of water management on root morphology, growth and yield component of lowland rice varieties under the organic system of rice intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Aziez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management is one of the keys to success in increasing rice production in paddy fields. Paddy rice production will decrease if the rice plants suffer from water stress, and conversely conventional cultivation is very wasteful of water. Local aromatic varieties have deeper rooting character than improved varieties making it more efficient in using water. The purpose of this study was to obtain more efficient and more productive aromatic local varieties in the use of irrigation water in the SRI organic cultivation system. This research was conducted in organic rice fields in Kebonagung village, Imogiri, Bantul with split plot design of 2 factors with 4 replications. Factor I: The mode of irrigation consists of (a intermittent irrigation, and (b continuous irrigation and Factor II: varieties consisting of (a Mentikwangi, (b Gabusan, (c Sintanur and (d IR64. The observation parameters included (1 root characters i.e. surface area of root, total length of root, and dry weight of root, (2 plant growth analysis i.e. specific leaf weight, net assimilation rate, plant growth rate, (3 and yield components i.e. weight 1000 grains, grain weight per hill, and grain weight per plot. The results showed that intermittent irrigation increased the surface area of root and the dry weight of root of Mentikwangi variety, and increased the specific leaf weight and weight of 1000 grains of IR64 variety, and increased the specific leaf weight and the net assimilation rate of Sintanur variety. Grain weight per hill and per plot showed no difference between intermittent irrigation and continuous irrigation. Grain weight per hill and per plot in intermittent irrigation achieved by Gabusan variety were 35.69 g and 14.28 kg respectively, while in continuous irrigation the grain weight achieved by Gabusan variety were 37.69 g and 15.08 kg respectively. In conclusion, there was no difference in yield between intermittent irrigation and continuous irrigation, so that the

  17. Evaluating Non-Aromatic Rice Varieties for Growth and Yield under Different Rates of Soil Applied Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Ahmed Shah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Balanced boron (B fertilization has prime importance to obtain maximum paddy yield. The range between B deficiency and toxicity is smaller than most plant nutrients, though B requirement among different crops varies widely. The adequate dose of B for one genotype can either be insufficient or toxic to other. Hence, without knowing the actual requirements of crop varieties, B application can be risky due to the toxicity hazards. A field experiment was undertaken at experimental farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA Tandojam during 2013, to evaluate the B requirement of two non-aromatic rice varieties. The experiment was arranged in split plot design with three repeats. Two rice varieties Sarshar and Shandar were grown in main plots with four rates of B: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha-1 and control (0 kg ha-1 in sub plots. Both the varieties responded differently to B rates. Sarshar produced the highest paddy yield (5691 kg ha-1 at a rate of 1.5 kg B ha-1 and was 18% greater than control, Shandar produced the highest yield (6075 kg ha-1 at a rate of 1.0 kg B ha-1and was 5% greater than control. B accumulation in paddy and straw of both varieties increased with the increasing B rates. Both varieties were also significantly (p<0.05 varied in B accumulations. Comparatively, rice variety Sarshar accumulated 9% and 22% more B in straw and paddy than the Shandar. Thus, the B requirement of Sarshar was relatively higher than the Shandar. Shandar can be grown without the additional B application, whereas, Sarshar requires additional B for its maximum harvest in B deficient soils.

  18. Effect of rice-husk ash on exchange acidity, growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of groundnut grown on acidic soil to rice-husk ash applied at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 t ha-1 was studied in two field experiments in 2005 and 2006 at Ishiagu in the derived savanna zone of southeast Nigeria. Treatments were fitted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. Effects of treatments ...

  19. Rice Water use efficiency and yield under continuous and intermittent irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, rice (Oryza sativa L.) is predominantly grown using continuous fl ood irrigation, which requires large quantities of fresh water. Due to increasing scarcity and demand for water, modern agricultural systems need to produce more food with less water. Th e ...

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Pollen Fertility under High Temperature Stress at Flowering Stage in Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hui XIAO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available High temperature stress (HTS, an increasingly important problem in rice production, significantly reduces rice yield by reducing pollen fertility and seed setting rate. Breeding rice varieties with tolerance to HTS at the flowering stage is therefore essential for maintaining rice production as the climate continues to become warm. In this study, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs underlying tolerance to HTS were identified using recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an HTS-tolerant rice cultivar 996 and a sensitive cultivar 4628. Pollen fertility was used as a heat-tolerance indicator for the lines subjected to HTS at the flowering stage in field experiments. Two QTLs that affected pollen fertility, qPF4 and qPF6, were detected between RM5687 and RM471 on chromosome 4, and between RM190 and RM225 on chromosome 6, by using the composite interval mapping (CIM analysis. The two QTLs explained 15.1% and 9.31% of the total phenotypic variation in pollen fertility, and increased the pollen fertility of the plants subjected to HTS by 7.15% and 5.25%, respectively. The positive additive effects of the two QTLs were derived from the 996 alleles. The two major QTLs identified would be useful for further fine mapping and cloning of these genes and for molecular marker-assistant breeding of heat-tolerant rice varieties.

  1. Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supitcha Rungrodnimitchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0 min than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L. The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax. As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

  2. [Change characteristics of rice yield and soil organic matter and nitrogen contents under various long-term fertilization regimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Yang-Zhu; Qin, Dao-Zhu; Xu, Ming-Gang

    2013-07-01

    A long-term (1982-2010) field experiment was conducted in the Red Soil Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Qiyang County of Hunan Province, South-central China to investigate the dynamic changes of rice yield and soil organic matter (OM) and nitrogen contents under different fertilization treatments. The treatments included NPK, NPKM (M: manure), NPM, NKM, PKM, M, and CK. Fertilization increased the soil OM, total N, and alkaline-hydrolysable N contents and the rice yield. In treatment NPKM, the rice yield across the 28 years maintained at the highest level; while in treatment NPK, the yield showed a decreasing trend, being lower than that in other fertilization treatments. In the treatments applied with manure only or in combining with chemical fertilizers, the soil OM content increased rapidly in the first 16 years, and then fluctuated around a constant level (29.42-39.32 g x kg(-1)). In the treatments of chemical fertilization, the soil OM content only had a quicker increase in the first 8 years, and then fluctuated within a relatively stable range. Fertilization with manure increased the soil OM significantly, as compared to fertilization with chemical fertilizers only. The soil total N content in all fertilization treatments showed a rapid increase in the first 8 years, and the increment was the highest in treatment NPKM. The soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in all fertilization treatments had a slower increase in the first 12 years, with an average annual increment of 0.66-2.25 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1). In 1994-1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content in fertilization treatments had a quicker increase, with an average annual increment of 6.45-32.45 mg x kg(-1) x a(-1); but after 1998, the soil alkaline-hydrolysable N content had a slight decrease. It was concluded that organic fertilization was the key measure to stably improve the physical and chemical properties and the productivity of red paddy soils by increasing their

  3. Urea deep placement reduces yield-scaled greenhouse gas (CH4and N2O) and NO emissions from a ground cover rice production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Rui; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-09-12

    Ground cover rice production system (GCRPS), i.e., paddy soils being covered by thin plastic films with soil moisture being maintained nearly saturated status, is a promising technology as increased yields are achieved with less irrigation water. However, increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may cause pollution swapping in greenhouse gas (GHG) from CH 4 to N 2 O emissions. A 2-year experiment was performed, taking traditional rice cultivation as a reference, to assess the impacts of N-fertilizer placement methods on CH 4 , N 2 O and NO emissions and rice yields under GCRPS. Averaging across all rice seasons and N-fertilizer treatments, the GHG emissions for GCRPS were 1973 kg CO 2 -eq ha -1 (or 256 kg CO 2 -eq Mg -1 ), which is significantly lower than that of traditional cultivation (4186 kg CO 2 -eq ha -1 or 646 kg CO 2 -eq Mg -1 ). Furthermore, if urea was placed at a 10-15 cm soil depth instead of broadcasting, the yield-scaled GHG emissions from GCRPS were further reduced from 377 to 222 kg CO 2 -eq Mg -1 , as N 2 O emissions greatly decreased while yields increased. Urea deep placement also reduced yield-scaled NO emissions by 54%. Therefore, GCRPS with urea deep placement is a climate- and environment-smart management, which allows for maximal rice yields at minimal GHG and NO emissions.

  4. High-Yield Functional Molecular Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyunhak; Kim, Dongku; Xiang, Dong; Lee, Takhee

    2017-07-25

    An ultimate goal of molecular electronics, which seeks to incorporate molecular components into electronic circuit units, is to generate functional molecular electronic devices using individual or ensemble molecules to fulfill the increasing technical demands of the miniaturization of traditional silicon-based electronics. This review article presents a summary of recent efforts to pursue this ultimate aim, covering the development of reliable device platforms for high-yield ensemble molecular junctions and their utilization in functional molecular electronic devices, in which distinctive electronic functionalities are observed due to the functional molecules. In addition, other aspects pertaining to the practical application of molecular devices such as manufacturing compatibility with existing complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, their integration, and flexible device applications are also discussed. These advances may contribute to a deeper understanding of charge transport characteristics through functional molecular junctions and provide a desirable roadmap for future practical molecular electronics applications.

  5. Inorganic arsenic contents in ready-to-eat rice products and various Korean rice determined by a highly sensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mun Yhung; Kang, Ju Hee; Jung, Hyun Jeong; Ma, Sang Yong

    2018-02-01

    Rice and rice products have been reported to contain high contents of toxic inorganic arsenic (iAs). The inorganic arsenic contents in microwavable ready-to-eat rice products (n=30) and different types of Korean rice (n=102) were determined by a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The method showed low limit of detection (0.015pg), high intra- and inter-day repeatability (rice products was 59μgkg-1 (dry weight basis). The mean iAs contents in polished white, brown, black, and waxy rice were 65, 109, 91, and 66μgkg-1, respectively. The percentages of ready-to-eat rice products, white, brown, black, and waxy rice containing iAs over the maximum level (100μgkg-1) set by EU for the infant foods were 17, 4, 70, 36 and 0%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth, Metabolism and Yield of Rice Cultivated in Soils Amended with Fly Ash and Cyanobacteria and Metal Loads in Plant Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Padhy, Rabindra N.; Nayak, Nabakishore; Dash-Mohini, Rajesh R.; Rath, Shakti; Sahu, Rajani K

    2016-01-01

    Soil amendment with fly ash (FA) and combined supplementation with N2-fixing cyanobacteria masses as biofertilizer were done in field experiments with rice. Amendments with FA levels, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kg/m2, caused increase in growth and yield of rice up to 8.0 kg/m2, monitored with several parameters. Pigment contents and enzyme activities of leaves were enhanced by FA, with the maximum level of FA at 10.0 kg/m2. Protein content of rice seeds was the highest in plants grow...

  7. Sewage sludge biochar influence upon rice (Oryza sativa L) yield, metal bioaccumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from acidic paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sardar; Chao, Cai; Waqas, Muhammad; Arp, Hans Peter H; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-08-06

    Biochar addition to soil has been proposed to improve plant growth by increasing soil fertility, minimizing bioaccumulation of toxic metal(liod)s and mitigating climate change. Sewage sludge (SS) is an attractive, though potentially problematic, feedstock of biochar. It is attractive because of its large abundance; however, it contains elevated concentrations of metal(loid)s and other contaminants. The pyrolysis of SS to biochar (SSBC) may be a way to reduce the availability of these contaminants to the soil and plants. Using rice plant pot experiments, we investigated the influence of SSBC upon biomass yield, bioaccumulation of nutrients, and metal(loid)s, and green housegas (GHG) emissions. SSBC amendments increased soil pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon and available nutrients and decreased bioavailable As, Cr, Co, Ni, and Pb (but not Cd, Cu, and Zn). Regarding rice plant properties, SSBC amendments significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased shoot biomass (71.3-92.2%), grain yield (148.8-175.1%), and the bioaccumulation of phosphorus and sodium, though decreased the bioaccumulation of nitrogen (except in grain) and potassium. Amendments of SSBC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the bioaccumulation of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb, but increased that of Cd and Zn, though not above limits set by Chinese regulations. Finally regarding GHG emissions, SSBC significantly (P < 0.01) reduced N2O emissions and stimulated the uptake/oxidation of CH4 enough to make both the cultivated and uncultivated paddy soil a CH4 sink. SSBC can be beneficial in rice paddy soil but the actual associated benefits will depend on site-specific conditions and source of SS; long-term effects remain a further unknown.

  8. Implication of blue green algae on yield attributes and economics of rice cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjana Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Indian agriculture is presently at cross roads as it has to increase output at one hand and has to take care of environmental aspects on the other hand. Rice cultivation is also facing the same dilemma. Use of blue green algae as bio fertilizer is one possible way to minimize application of synthetic fertilizers which have far reaching implications on environment and health. Present research study was formulated to screen most suitable combination of different species of cyanobacteria on yiel...

  9. Effect of rice-husk incorporation rates on the growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plots were treated with 3 rates (10, 20 and 30 kg equivalent to 25, 50 and 75 tons/ha) of rice-husk and a control (0 kg) that were replicated 4 times in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Data collected on the plant growth parameters was analyzed using the generalized linear model of Statistix 9.1 for the ...

  10. Cytokinin-mediated source/sink modifications improve drought tolerance and increase grain yield in rice under water-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Zvi; Reguera, Maria; Tumimbang, Ellen; Walia, Harkamal; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2011-09-01

    Drought is the major environmental factor limiting crop productivity worldwide. We hypothesized that it is possible to enhance drought tolerance by delaying stress-induced senescence through the stress-induced synthesis of cytokinins in crop-plants. We generated transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants expressing an isopentenyltransferase (IPT) gene driven by P(SARK) , a stress- and maturation-induced promoter. Plants were tested for drought tolerance at two yield-sensitive developmental stages: pre- and post-anthesis. Under both treatments, the transgenic rice plants exhibited delayed response to stress with significantly higher grain yield (GY) when compared to wild-type plants. Gene expression analysis revealed a significant shift in expression of hormone-associated genes in the transgenic plants. During water-stress (WS), P(SARK)::IPT plants displayed increased expression of brassinosteroid-related genes and repression of jasmonate-related genes. Changes in hormone homeostasis were associated with resource(s) mobilization during stress. The transgenic plants displayed differential expression of genes encoding enzymes associated with hormone synthesis and hormone-regulated pathways. These changes and associated hormonal crosstalk resulted in the modification of source/sink relationships and a stronger sink capacity of the P(SARK)::IPT plants during WS. As a result, the transgenic plants had higher GY with improved quality (nutrients and starch content). © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effect of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. GR-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, G.A.; Prakash, L.; Devasia, Preston; Modi, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. GR-3) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, total proteins, total soluble sugars, starch and chlorophyll content of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated or gamma-irradiated sludge were found to be significantly increased. Irradiation of sludge significantly stimulated the linear growth of shoot and root systems as well as fresh and dry weights of plants, compared to those grown in soil containing unirradiated sludge. There was also an improvement in the grain yield (weight of seed) when plants were grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge. The results obtained suggest that the gamma-irradiated sewage sludge can be beneficially recycled for agricultural uses.

  12. Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Yann; Barkmann, Jan; Juhrbandt, Jana; Kessler, Michael; Wanger, Thomas Cherico; Anshary, Alam; Buchori, Damayanti; Cicuzza, Daniele; Darras, Kevin; Putra, Dadang Dwi; Erasmi, Stefan; Pitopang, Ramadhanil; Schmidt, Carsten; Schulze, Christian H.; Seidel, Dominik; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stenchly, Kathrin; Vidal, Stefan; Weist, Maria; Wielgoss, Arno Christian; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Local and landscape-scale agricultural intensification is a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Controversially discussed solutions include wildlife-friendly farming or combining high-intensity farming with land-sparing for nature. Here, we integrate biodiversity and crop productivity data for smallholder cacao in Indonesia to exemplify for tropical agroforests that there is little relationship between yield and biodiversity under current management, opening substantial opportunities for wildlife-friendly management. Species richness of trees, fungi, invertebrates, and vertebrates did not decrease with yield. Moderate shade, adequate labor, and input level can be combined with a complex habitat structure to provide high biodiversity as well as high yields. Although livelihood impacts are held up as a major obstacle for wildlife-friendly farming in the tropics, our results suggest that in some situations, agroforests can be designed to optimize both biodiversity and crop production benefits without adding pressure to convert natural habitat to farmland. PMID:21536873

  13. Influence of tillage practices and straw incorporation on soil aggregates, organic carbon, and crop yields in a rice-wheat rotation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ke; Yang, Jianjun; Xue, Yong; Lv, Weiguang; Zheng, Xianqing; Pan, Jianjun

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a fixed-site field experiment was conducted to study the influence of different combinations of tillage and straw incorporation management on carbon storage in different-sized soil aggregates and on crop yield after three years of rice-wheat rotation. Compared to conventional tillage, the percentages of >2 mm macroaggregates and water-stable macroaggregates in rice-wheat double-conservation tillage (zero-tillage and straw incorporation) were increased 17.22% and 36.38% in the 0-15 cm soil layer and 28.93% and 66.34% in the 15-30 cm soil layer, respectively. Zero tillage and straw incorporation also increased the mean weight diameter and stability of the soil aggregates. In surface soil (0-15 cm), the maximum proportion of total aggregated carbon was retained with 0.25-0.106 mm aggregates, and rice-wheat double-conservation tillage had the greatest ability to hold the organic carbon (33.64 g kg-1). However, different forms occurred at higher levels in the 15-30 cm soil layer under the conventional tillage. In terms of crop yield, the rice grown under conventional tillage and the wheat under zero tillage showed improved equivalent rice yields of 8.77% and 6.17% compared to rice-wheat double-cropping under zero tillage or conventional tillage, respectively.

  14. A Multidisciplinary Phenotyping and Genotyping Analysis of a Mapping Population Enables Quality to Be Combined with Yield in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariafe Calingacion

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study a mapping population (F8 of ca 200 progeny from a cross between the commercial rice varieties Apo and IR64 has been both genotyped and phenotyped. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was first used to identify 2,681 polymorphic SNP markers which gave dense coverage of the genome with a good distribution across all 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of parentage was also low, at 0.13, confirming that the parents are genetically distant from each other. The progeny, together with both parents, were grown under irrigated and water restricted conditions in a randomised block design. All grain was harvested to determine variation in yield across the population. The grains were then polished following standard procedures prior to performing the phenotyping analyses. A Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry approach was used to determine the volatile biochemical profiles of each line and after data curation and processing, discriminatory metabolites were putatively identified based on in-house and commercial spectral libraries. These data were used to predict the potential role of these metabolites in determining differences in aroma between genotypes. A number of QTLs for yield and for individual metabolites have been identified. Following these combined multi-disciplinary analyses, it proved possible to identify a number of lines which appeared to combine the favourable aroma attributes of IR64 with the favourable (higher yield potential of Apo. As such, these lines are excellent candidates to assess further as potential genotypes to work up into a new variety of rice which has both good yield and good quality, thus meeting the needs of both farmer and consumer alike.

  15. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    Full Text Available The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w (EC1 produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0. EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1 to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate. Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1 improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2 increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  16. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Zhou, Xuefeng; Xie, Xiaobing; Zhao, Chunrong; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Zou, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w) (EC1) produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0). EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1) to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate). Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1) improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2) increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  17. High-throughput measurement of rice tillers using a conveyor equipped with x-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanneng; Xu, Xiaochun; Duan, Lingfeng; Luo, Qingming; Chen, Shangbin; Zeng, Shaoqun; Liu, Qian

    2011-02-01

    Tillering is one of the most important agronomic traits because the number of shoots per plant determines panicle number, a key component of grain yield. The conventional method of counting tillers is still manual. Under the condition of mass measurement, the accuracy and efficiency could be gradually degraded along with fatigue of experienced staff. Thus, manual measurement, including counting and recording, is not only time consuming but also lack objectivity. To automate this process, we developed a high-throughput facility, dubbed high-throughput system for measuring automatically rice tillers (H-SMART), for measuring rice tillers based on a conventional x-ray computed tomography (CT) system and industrial conveyor. Each pot-grown rice plant was delivered into the CT system for scanning via the conveyor equipment. A filtered back-projection algorithm was used to reconstruct the transverse section image of the rice culms. The number of tillers was then automatically extracted by image segmentation. To evaluate the accuracy of this system, three batches of rice at different growth stages (tillering, heading, or filling) were tested, yielding absolute mean absolute errors of 0.22, 0.36, and 0.36, respectively. Subsequently, the complete machine was used under industry conditions to estimate its efficiency, which was 4320 pots per continuous 24 h workday. Thus, the H-SMART could determine the number of tillers of pot-grown rice plants, providing three advantages over the manual tillering method: absence of human disturbance, automation, and high throughput. This facility expands the application of agricultural photonics in plant phenomics.

  18. Applications of systems simulation for understanding and increasing yield potential of wheat and rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aggarwal, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding and increasing yield potential of cereals is essential to meet the growing food demand in Asia. A crop growth simulation model -WTGROWS- was developed to quantify the climatically determined potential grain yields and yield gaps in wheat in tropics and sub-tropics. The model

  19. High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

    To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ω6/ω3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

  20. Improvement of enzymatic saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana by ectopic expression of the rice SUB1A-1 transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Núñez-López

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharification of polysaccharides releases monosaccharides that can be used by ethanol-producing microorganisms in biofuel production. To improve plant biomass as a raw material for saccharification, factors controlling the accumulation and structure of carbohydrates must be identified. Rice SUB1A-1 is a transcription factor that represses the turnover of starch and postpones energy-consuming growth processes under submergence stress. Arabidopsis was employed to test if heterologous expression of SUB1A-1 or SUB1C-1 (a related gene can be used to improve saccharification. Cellulolytic and amylolytic enzymatic treatments confirmed that SUB1A-1 transgenics had better saccharification yield than wild-type (Col-0, mainly from accumulated starch. This improved saccharification yield was developmentally controlled; when compared to Col-0, young transgenic vegetative plants yielded 200–300% more glucose, adult vegetative plants yielded 40–90% more glucose and plants in reproductive stage had no difference in yield. We measured photosynthetic parameters, starch granule microstructure, and transcript abundance of genes involved in starch degradation (SEX4, GWD1, juvenile transition (SPL3-5 and meristematic identity (FUL, SOC1 but found no differences to Col-0, indicating that starch accumulation may be controlled by down-regulation of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T by SUB1A-1 as previously reported. SUB1A-1 transgenics also offered less resistance to deformation than wild-type concomitant to up-regulation of AtEXP2 expansin and BGL2 glucan-1,3,-beta-glucosidase. We conclude that heterologous SUB1A-1 expression can improve saccharification yield and softness, two traits needed in bioethanol production.

  1. Simulation of rice yield under different irrigation and nitrogen application managements by CropSyst model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes ZARE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the calibration and validation of CropSyst model for rice in the city of Rasht. The necessary data were extracted from a field experiment which was carried out during 2005-2007 in a split-plot design. The main plots were irrigation regimes including continuous flooding irrigation and 5-day irrigation intervals. The subplots consisted of four nitrogen levels: zero N application, 45, 60 and 75 kg N ha-1. Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (nRMSE and Residual Mass Coefficient (Crm in calibration years were 9.3 % and 0.06, respectively. In validation year, nRMSE and Crm were 9.7 % and 0.11, respectively. According to other indices to assess irrigation regimes and fertilizer levels, the most suitable treatments regarding environmental aspect were 5-day irrigation regime and 45 kg N ha-1.

  2. Genome-wide association mapping for yield and other agronomic traits in an elite breeding population of tropical rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasina; Spindel, Jennifer E; Lalusin, Antonio; Borromeo, Teresita; Gregorio, Glenn; Hernandez, Jose; Virk, Parminder; Collard, Bertrand; McCouch, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) are frequently used to detect QTL in diverse collections of crop germplasm, based on historic recombination events and linkage disequilibrium across the genome. Generally, diversity panels genotyped with high density SNP panels are utilized in order to assay a wide range of alleles and haplotypes and to monitor recombination breakpoints across the genome. By contrast, GWAS have not generally been performed in breeding populations. In this study we performed association mapping for 19 agronomic traits including yield and yield components in a breeding population of elite irrigated tropical rice breeding lines so that the results would be more directly applicable to breeding than those from a diversity panel. The population was genotyped with 71,710 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and GWAS performed with the explicit goal of expediting selection in the breeding program. Using this breeding panel we identified 52 QTL for 11 agronomic traits, including large effect QTLs for flowering time and grain length/grain width/grain-length-breadth ratio. We also identified haplotypes that can be used to select plants in our population for short stature (plant height), early flowering time, and high yield, and thus demonstrate the utility of association mapping in breeding populations for informing breeding decisions. We conclude by exploring how the newly identified significant SNPs and insights into the genetic architecture of these quantitative traits can be leveraged to build genomic-assisted selection models.

  3. [Effects of wheat-straw returning into paddy soil on dissolved organic carbon contents and rice grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jing-du; Gu, Hai-yan; Dai, Qi-gen; Ma, Ke-qiang; Jiang, Feng; He, Li

    2015-02-01

    A tank experiment using conventional rice cultivar Nanjing 44 as experimental material was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Yangzhou University to investigate the dynamics of wheat straw decomposition rate and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils, as well as its effects on the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and rice yield. The two rates of wheat straw returning were 0 and 6000 kg · hm(-2), and three N application levels were 0, 225, 300 kg · hm(-2). The results showed that, the rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils were highest during the initial 30 days after wheat straw returning, and then slowed down after, which could be promoted by a higher level of nitrogen application. The rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay soil were higher than that in sandy soil. The DOC content in soil increased gradually with wheat straw returning into paddy soil and at the twenty-fifth day, and then decreased gradually to a stable value. The DOC content at the soil depth of 15 cm was significantly increased by wheat straw returning, but not at the soil depth of 30 cm and 45 cm. It was concluded that wheat straw returning increased the DOC content in the soil depth of 0-15 cm mainly. N application decreased the DOC content and there was no difference between the two N application levels. Straw returning decreased the number of tillers in the early growth period, resulted in significantly reduced panicles per unit area, but increased spikelets per panicle, filled-grain percentages, 1000-grain mass, and then enhanced grain yield.

  4. Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests

    OpenAIRE

    Clough, Y; Barkmann, J.; Juhrbandt, J.; Kessler, M.; Wanger, T.C.; Anshary, A.; Buchori, D.; Cicuzza, D.; Darras, K; Putra, D. D.; S. Erasmi; Pitopang, R.; Schmidt, C; Schulze, C H; Seidel, D

    2011-01-01

    Local and landscape-scale agricultural intensification is a major driver of global biodiversity loss. Controversially discussed solutions include wildlife-friendly farming or combining high-intensity farming with land-sparing for nature. Here, we integrate biodiversity and crop productivity data for smallholder cacao in Indonesia to exemplify for tropical agroforests that there is little relationship between yield and biodiversity under current management, opening substan...

  5. Quantitative approaches for illustrating correlations among the mechanical fragmentation scales, crystallinity and enzymatic hydrolysis glucose yield of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guanya; Han, Lujia; Gao, Chongfeng; Xiao, Weihua; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Yaoyao

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical fragmentation is an important pretreatment in the biomass biotransformation process. Mechanical fragmentation at the tissue scale significantly reduced the particle size of rice straw but did not significantly change its crystalline properties; the increase in the glucose yield was limited from 28.75% (95.55mg/g substrate) to 35.29% (115.28mg/g substrate). Mechanical fragmentation at the cellular scale destroyed the cell wall structure and reduced its crystalline properties. Thus, the glucose yield also showed a significant increase from 35.29% (115.28mg/g substrate) to 81.71% (287.07mg/g of substrate). The quantitative equations among the particle size, crystalline properties and glucose yield (mg/g substrate) are as follows: CrI=44.14×[1-exp(-0.03658×D50)] and CP=(8.403×logD50-24.1836)/(1-4.225/D50^0.5); GY=-5.636CrI+343.7 and GY=-14.62CP+512.1; and GY=97.218+247.5×exp(-0.03824×D50). The quantitative correlations among the mechanical fragmentation scales and crystalline properties can determine the effect and mechanism of mechanical fragmentation on biomass and can further promote the construction of a cost-competitive biotransformation process for biomass. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Estimating rice yield related traits and quantitative trait loci analysis under different nitrogen treatments using a simple tower-based field phenotyping system with modified single-lens reflex cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Hiroki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Mohri, Hiroki; Urano, Yutaka; Hosoi, Fumiki; Shimizu, Yo; Chavez, Alba Lucia; Ishitani, Manabu; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Omasa, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Application of field based high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP) methods for monitoring plant performance in real field conditions has a high potential to accelerate the breeding process. In this paper, we discuss the use of a simple tower based remote sensing platform using modified single-lens reflex cameras for phenotyping yield traits in rice under different nitrogen (N) treatments over three years. This tower based phenotyping platform has the advantages of simplicity, ease and stability in terms of introduction, maintenance and continual operation under field conditions. Out of six phenological stages of rice analyzed, the flowering stage was the most useful in the estimation of yield performance under field conditions. We found a high correlation between several vegetation indices (simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), corrected transformed vegetation index (CTVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI)) and multiple yield traits (panicle number, grain weight and shoot biomass) across a three trials. Among all of the indices studied, SR exhibited the best performance in regards to the estimation of grain weight (R2 = 0.80). Under our tower-based field phenotyping system (TBFPS), we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield related traits using a mapping population of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and a single nucleotide polymorphism data set. Our findings suggest the TBFPS can be useful for the estimation of yield performance during early crop development. This can be a major opportunity for rice breeders whom desire high throughput phenotypic selection for yield performance traits.

  7. Genetic Improvements in Rice Yield and Concomitant Increases in Radiation- and Nitrogen-Use Efficiency in Middle Reaches of Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanglong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao; Wang, Fei

    2016-02-15

    The yield potential of rice (Oryza sativa L.) has experienced two significant growth periods that coincide with the introduction of semi-dwarfism and the utilization of heterosis. In present study, we determined the annual increase in the grain yield of rice varieties grown from 1936 to 2005 in Middle Reaches of Yangtze River and examined the contributions of RUE (radiation-use efficiency, the conversion efficiency of pre-anthesis intercepted global radiation to biomass) and NUE (nitrogen-use efficiency, the ratio of grain yield to aboveground N accumulation) to these improvements. An examination of the 70-year period showed that the annual gains of 61.9 and 75.3 kg ha(-1) in 2013 and 2014, respectively, corresponded to an annual increase of 1.18 and 1.16% in grain yields, respectively. The improvements in grain yield resulted from increases in the harvest index and biomass, and the sink size (spikelets per panicle) was significantly enlarged because of breeding for larger panicles. Improvements were observed in RUE and NUE through advancements in breeding. Moreover, both RUE and NUE were significantly correlated with the grain yield. Thus, our study suggests that genetic improvements in rice grain yield are associated with increased RUE and NUE.

  8. High Temperature During Rice Grain Filling Enhances Aspartate Metabolism in Grains and Results in Accumulation of Aspartate-Family Amino Acids and Protein Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-gang LIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming causes the exacerbation of rice growing environment, which seriously affects rice growth and reproduction, and finally results in the decrease of rice yield and quality. We investigated the activities of aspartate metabolism enzymes in grains, and the contents of Aspartate-family amino acids and protein components to further understand the effects of high temperature (HT on rice nutritional quality during rice grain filling. Under HT, the average activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and aspartokinase (AK in grains significantly increased, the amino acid contents of aspartate (Asp, lysine (Lys, threonine (Thr, methionine (Met and isoleucine (Ile and the protein contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin also significantly increased. The results indicated that HT enhanced Asp metabolism during rice grain filling and the enhancement of Asp metabolism might play an important role in the increase of Asp-family amino acids and protein components in grains. In case of the partial appraisal of the change of Asp-family amino acids and protein components under HT, we introduced eight indicators (amino acid or protein content, ratio of amino acid or protein, amino acid or protein content per grain and amino acid or protein content per panicle to estimate the effects of HT. It is suggested that HT during rice grain filling was benefit for the accumulation of Asp-family amino acids and protein components. Combined with the improvement of Asp-family amino acid ratio in grains under HT, it is suggested that HT during grain filling may improve the rice nutritional quality. However, the yields of parts of Asp-family amino acids and protein components were decreased under HT during rice grain filling.

  9. Effects of Different Application Methods of Methane Fermentation Digested Liquid into the Paddy Plot on Soil Nitrogen Behavior and Rice Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoko; Nakamura, Kimihito; Seok Ryu, Chan; Iida, Michihisa; Kawashima, Shigeto

    Methane fermentation technique with the treatment of animal waste and food waste is drawing public attention as a good option for the utilization of biomass resources and it is investigated how to apply the by-product of fermentation (methane fermentation digested liquid) to agricultural fields as a fertilizer. It is important to determine an adequate method of applying digested liquid to a paddy plot as fertilizer taking into account the concentrations of soil nitrogen components and rice yield. The objective of this study is to compare the performances of three methods of applying digested liquid to paddy plots in terms of the nitrogen transformation in soil, rice yield, and nitrogen load in effluent. The three methods were pouring (with irrigation water), spreading onto the surface of a plot, and injection into paddy soil. It was found that the ammonium nitrogen concentration and the dissolved organic nitrogen concentration in soil of the spreading plot were higher than that for the pouring plot and that for the injecting plot. The rice yield was higher in the spreading plot than in the injecting and pouring plots. And, there was a significant correlation between the rice yield and the dissolved organic nitrogen just before and after the panicle initiation stage. There were no differences in the nitrogen effluent loads with surface drainage.

  10. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on carbon and nitrogen distribution and grain yield and nutritional quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Yang, Jixian; Su, Meng

    2017-07-01

    The importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for nutrient uptake and growth in rice has been widely recognized. However, little is known about the distribution of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in rice under AMF inoculation, which can affect grain yield and quality. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of C and N within rice plants under AMF inoculation and the effects on grain yield and quality. AMF inoculation significantly increased N accumulation and distribution in vegetative tissues at tillering, and N translocation into seeds from heading to maturity. Consequently, AMF inoculation more strongly impacted the distribution of N than that of C in seeds, with significantly reduced C:N ratios and increased protein content (by 7.4%). Additionally, AMF inoculation significantly increased grain yield by 28.2% through increasing the grain:straw ratio by 18.4%. In addition, the roots of inoculated rice exhibited greater change in C distribution, with significantly higher C concentrations, C accumulations, and C:N ratios at tillering and maturity. AMF inoculation affected the distribution of N in seeds and C in roots. As such, AMF inoculation may be a potential method for improving grain yield and quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Mid-Season High-Resolution Satellite Imagery for Forecasting Site-Specific Corn Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel R. Peralta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A timely and accurate crop yield forecast is crucial to make better decisions on crop management, marketing, and storage by assessing ahead and implementing based on expected crop performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of high-resolution satellite imagery data collected at mid-growing season for identification of within-field variability and to forecast corn yield at different sites within a field. A test was conducted on yield monitor data and RapidEye satellite imagery obtained for 22 cornfields located in five different counties (Clay, Dickinson, Rice, Saline, and Washington of Kansas (total of 457 ha. Three basic tests were conducted on the data: (1 spatial dependence on each of the yield and vegetation indices (VIs using Moran’s I test; (2 model selection for the relationship between imagery data and actual yield using ordinary least square regression (OLS and spatial econometric (SPL models; and (3 model validation for yield forecasting purposes. Spatial autocorrelation analysis (Moran’s I test for both yield and VIs (red edge NDVI = NDVIre, normalized difference vegetation index = NDVIr, SRre = red-edge simple ratio, near infrared = NIR and green-NDVI = NDVIG was tested positive and statistically significant for most of the fields (p < 0.05, except for one. Inclusion of spatial adjustment to model improved the model fit on most fields as compared to OLS models, with the spatial adjustment coefficient significant for half of the fields studied. When selected models were used for prediction to validate dataset, a striking similarity (RMSE = 0.02 was obtained between predicted and observed yield within a field. Yield maps could assist implementing more effective site-specific management tools and could be utilized as a proxy of yield monitor data. In summary, high-resolution satellite imagery data can be reasonably used to forecast yield via utilization of models that include spatial adjustment to

  12. High level expression of Acidothermus cellulolyticus β-1, 4-endoglucanase in transgenic rice enhances the hydrolysis of its straw by cultured cow gastric fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hong L.; Dai, Ziyu; Hsieh, Chia W.; Ku, Maurice S.

    2011-12-10

    Large-scale production of effective cellulose hydrolytic enzymes is the key to the bioconversion of agricultural residues to ethanol. The goal of this study was to develop a rice plant as a bioreactor for the large-scale production of cellulose hydrolytic enzymes via genetic transformation, and to simultaneously improve rice straw as an efficient biomass feedstock for conversion of cellulose to glucose. In this study, the cellulose hydrolytic enzyme {beta}-1, 4-endoglucanase (E1) from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus was overexpressed in rice through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The expression of the bacterial gene in rice was driven by the constitutive Mac promoter, a hybrid promoter of Ti plasmid mannopine synthetase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer with the signal peptide of tobacco pathogenesis-related protein for targeting the protein to the apoplastic compartment for storage. A total of 52 transgenic rice plants from six independent lines expressing the bacterial enzyme were obtained, which expressed the gene at high levels with a normal phenotype. The specific activities of E1 in the leaves of the highest expressing transgenic rice lines were about 20 fold higher than those of various transgenic plants obtained in previous studies and the protein amounts accounted for up to 6.1% of the total leaf soluble protein. Zymogram and temperature-dependent activity analyses demonstrated the thermostability of the enzyme and its substrate specificity against cellulose, and a simple heat treatment can be used to purify the protein. In addition, hydrolysis of transgenic rice straw with cultured cow gastric fluid yielded almost twice more reducing sugars than wild type straw. Taken together, these data suggest that transgenic rice can effectively serve as a bioreactor for large-scale production of active, thermostable cellulose hydrolytic enzymes. As a feedstock, direct expression of large amount of cellulases in

  13. Page 1 A note On the weather and rice yield relationship at some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this case first, the linear multiple regression equation of the dependent variable (weather factors) is worked out in the form: y are G1 -- blac -- bac2 -- b3ac3 + . . . -- (2). Keywords. Curvilinear technique; graphical approximation; yield-response curve. Proc, Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth. Planet. Sci.), 108, No. 4, December 1999 ...

  14. High day- and night-time temperatures affect grain growth dynamics in contrasting rice genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wanju; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C; Solis, Celymar; Xie, Fangming; Schmidt, Ralf C; Huang, Min; Zou, Yingbin; Ye, Changrong; Jagadish, S V Krishna

    2017-11-02

    Rice grain yield and quality are predicted to be highly vulnerable to global warming. Five genotypes including heat-tolerant and susceptible checks, a heat-tolerant near-isogenic line and two hybrids were exposed to control (31 °C/23 °C, day/night), high night-time temperature (HNT; 31 °C/30 °C), high day-time temperature (HDT; 38 °C/23 °C) and high day- and night-time temperature (HNDT; 38 °C/30 °C) treatments for 20 consecutive days during the grain-filling stage. Grain-filling dynamics, starch metabolism enzymes, temporal starch accumulation patterns and the process of chalk formation were quantified. Compensation between the rate and duration of grain filling minimized the impact of HNT, but irreversible impacts on seed-set, grain filling and ultimately grain weight were recorded with HDT and HNDT. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated irregular and smaller starch granule formation affecting amyloplast build-up with HDT and HNDT, while a quicker but normal amylopast build-up was recorded with HNT. Our findings revealed temporal variation in the starch metabolism enzymes in all three stress treatments. Changes in the enzymatic activity did not derail starch accumulation under HNT when assimilates were sufficiently available, while both sucrose supply and the conversion of sucrose into starch were affected by HDT and HNDT. The findings indicate differential mechanisms leading to high day and high night temperature stress-induced loss in yield and quality. Additional genetic improvement is needed to sustain rice productivity and quality under future climates. © Society for Experimental Biology 2017.

  15. Regulatory role of OsMADS34 in the determination of glumes fate, grain yield and quality in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyong Ren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grasses produce seeds on spikelets, a unique type of inflorescence. Despite the importance of grass crops for food, the genetic mechanisms that control spikelet development remain poorly understood. In this study, we used m34-z, a new mutant allele of the rice (Oryza sativa E-class gene OsMADS34, to examine OsMADS34 function in determining the identities of glumes (rudimentary glume and sterile lemma and grain size. In the m34-z mutant, both the rudimentary glume and sterile lemma were homeotically converted to the lemma-like organs and acquired the lemma identity, suggesting that OsMADS34 plays important roles in the development of glumes. In the m34-z mutant, most of the grains from the secondary panicle branches were decreased in size, compared with grains from wild type, but no differences were observed in the grains from the primary panicle branches. The amylose content and gel consistency, and a seed-setting rate from the secondary panicle branches were reduced in the m34-z mutant. Interesting, transcriptional activity analysis revealed that OsMADS34 protein was a transcription repressor and it may influence grain yield by suppressing the expressions of BG1, GW8, GW2 and GL7 in the m34-z mutant. These findings revealed that OsMADS34 largely affects grain yield by affecting the size of grains from the secondary branches.

  16. Fed-Batch Enzymatic Saccharification of High Solids Pretreated Lignocellulose for Obtaining High Titers and High Yields of Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yang, Jungwoo; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-07-01

    To reduce the distillation costs of cellulosic ethanol, it is necessary to produce high sugar titers in the enzymatic saccharification step. To obtain high sugar titers, high biomass loadings of lignocellulose are necessary. In this study, to overcome the low saccharification yields and the low operability of high biomass loadings, a fed-batch saccharification process was developed using an enzyme reactor that was designed and built in-house. After optimizing the cellulase and biomass feeding profiles and the agitation speed, 132.6 g/L glucose and 76.0% theoretical maximum glucose were obtained from the 60 h saccharification of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw at a 30% (w/v) solids loading with 15 filter paper units (FPU) of Cellic CTec2/g glucan. This study demonstrated that through the proper optimization of fed-batch saccharification, both high sugar titers and high saccharification yields are possible, even with using the high solids loading (i.e., ≥30%) with the moderate enzyme loading (i.e., high solids saccharification process in cellulosic fuel and chemical production.

  17. The Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Highly Filled Rice Husk Biochar/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rice husk biochar/high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites were prepared via melt mixing followed by extrusion. Effects of biochar content and testing temperature on the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA of the composites were studied. Morphological analysis of the rice husk biochar and composites were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that biochar had a positive effect on dynamic viscoelasticity, creep resistance and stress relaxation properties of the composites, but the creep resistance and stress relaxation of the composites decreased with the increase of temperature. SEM analysis showed that HDPE components were embedded in the holes of the rice husk biochar, and it is believed that strong interaction was achieved.

  18. Breeding elite japonica-type soft rice with high protein content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... The T5 transgenic rice seeds were developed, in which amylose content and protein content ... amylose content and high protein content was obtained through the introduction of an anti-Waxy gene. ... fragment of Waxy gene from rice cv.232; LB, RB: left and right boarder of T-DNA, respectively; Nos-ter:.

  19. Combinations of the Ghd7, Ghd8 and Hd1 genes largely define the ecogeographical adaptation and yield potential of cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Xiangchun; Yan, Wenhao; Zhang, Zhanyi; Lu, Li; Han, Zhongmin; Zhao, Hu; Liu, Haiyang; Song, Pan; Hu, Yong; Shen, Guojing; He, Qin; Guo, Sibin; Gao, Guoqing; Wang, Gongwei; Xing, Yongzhong

    2015-12-01

    Rice cultivars have been adapted to favorable ecological regions and cropping seasons. Although several heading date genes have separately made contributions to this adaptation, the roles of gene combinations are still unclear. We employed a map-based cloning approach to isolate a heading date gene, which coordinated the interaction between Ghd7 and Ghd8 to greatly delay rice heading. We resequenced these three genes in a germplasm collection to analyze natural variation. Map-based cloning demonstrated that the gene largely affecting the interaction between Ghd7 and Ghd8 was Hd1. Natural variation analysis showed that a combination of loss-of-function alleles of Ghd7, Ghd8 and Hd1 contributes to the expansion of rice cultivars to higher latitudes; by contrast, a combination of pre-existing strong alleles of Ghd7, Ghd8 and functional Hd1 (referred as SSF) is exclusively found where ancestral Asian cultivars originated. Other combinations have comparatively larger favorable ecological scopes and acceptable grain yield. Our results indicate that the combinations of Ghd7, Ghd8 and Hd1 largely define the ecogeographical adaptation and yield potential in rice cultivars. Breeding varieties with the SSF combination are recommended for tropical regions to fully utilize available energy and light resources and thus produce greater yields. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    , differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... to the best site, yield level was up to 51 % lower on other sites across all clones, probably due to combined effects of differences in soil type, climate and management. Thus, willow yield depends both on the use of high-yielding clones and on the combined site effects of soil, climate, and management.......Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites...

  1. Preparation of High Grade Silica from Rice Husk for Zeolite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Silica powder with approximately 96% purity was extracted from rice husk (RH) and used as a silica source for the synthesis of zeolite Y ... produced commercially, the ones produced from plant origins such as rice husks have ... About 1.7g sodium hydroxide pellets were dissolved in. 7.5ml deionized water and ...

  2. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiwei; He, Wei; Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23-26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes.

  3. High Temperature-Induced Expression of Rice α-Amylases in Developing Endosperm Produces Chalky Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Nakata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming impairs grain filling in rice and reduces starch accumulation in the endosperm, leading to chalky-appearing grains, which damages their market value. We found previously that high temperature-induced expression of starch-lytic α-amylases during ripening is crucial for grain chalkiness. Because the rice genome carries at least eight functional α-amylase genes, identification of the α-amylase(s that contribute most strongly to the production of chalky grains could accelerate efficient breeding. To identify α-amylase genes responsible for the production of chalky grains, we characterized the histological expression pattern of eight α-amylase genes and the influences of their overexpression on grain appearance and carbohydrate components through a series of experiments with transgenic rice plants. The promoter activity of most α-amylase genes was elevated to various extents at high temperature. Among them, the expression of Amy1A and Amy3C was induced in the internal, especially basal to dorsal, region of developing endosperm, whereas that of Amy3D was confined near the ventral aleurone. These regions coincided with the site of occurrence of chalkiness, which was in clear contrast to conventionally known expression patterns of the enzyme in the scutellum and aleurone during seed germination. Furthermore, overexpression of α-amylase genes, except for Amy3E, in developing endosperm produced various degrees of chalky grains without heat exposure, whereas that of Amy3E yielded normal translucent grains, as was the case in the vector control, even though Amy3E-overexpressing grains contained enhanced α-amylase activities. The weight of the chalky grains was decreased due to reduced amounts of starch, and microscopic observation of the chalky part of these grains revealed that their endosperm consisted of loosely packed round starch granules that had numerous pits on their surface, confirming the hydrolysis of the starch reserve by

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. A high-density SNP genotyping array for rice biology and molecular breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haodong; Xie, Weibo; He, Hang; Yu, Huihui; Chen, Wei; Li, Jing; Yu, Renbo; Yao, Yue; Zhang, Wenhui; He, Yuqing; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Fasong; Deng, Xing Wang; Zhang, Qifa

    2014-03-01

    A high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array is critically important for geneticists and molecular breeders. With the accumulation of huge amounts of genomic re-sequencing data and available technologies for accurate SNP detection, it is possible to design high-density and high-quality rice SNP arrays. Here we report the development of a high-density rice SNP array and its utility. SNP probes were designed by screening more than 10 000 000 SNP loci extracted from the re-sequencing data of 801 rice varieties and an array named RiceSNP50 was produced on the Illumina Infinium platform. The array contained 51 478 evenly distributed markers, 68% of which were within genic regions. Several hundred rice plants with parent/F1 relationships were used to generate a high-quality cluster file for accurate SNP calling. Application tests showed that this array had high genotyping accuracy, and could be used for different objectives. For example, a core collection of elite rice varieties was clustered with fine resolution. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis correctly identified a characterized QTL. Further, this array was successfully used for variety verification and trait introgression. As an accurate high-throughput genotyping tool, RiceSNP50 will play an important role in both functional genomics studies and molecular breeding.

  6. Overexpression of a glyoxalase gene, OsGly I, improves abiotic stress tolerance and grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhengming; Xiong, Fangjie; Yu, Xiaohong; Gong, Xiaoping; Luo, Juntao; Jiang, Yudong; Kuang, Haochi; Gao, Bijun; Niu, Xiangli; Liu, Yongsheng

    2016-12-01

    Glyoxalase I (Gly I) is a component of the glyoxalase system which is involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a byproduct of glycolysis. In the present study, a gene of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Nipponbare) encoding Gly I was cloned and characterized. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that rice Gly I (OsGly I) was ubiquitously expressed in root, stem, leaf, leaf sheath and spikelet with varying abundance. OsGly I was markedly upregulated in response to NaCl, ZnCl2 and mannitol in rice seedlings. For further functional investigation, OsGly I was overexpressed in rice using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic rice lines exhibited increased glyoxalase enzyme activity, decreased methylglyoxal level and improved tolerance to NaCl, ZnCl2 and mannitol compared to wild-type plants. Enhancement of stress tolerance in transgenic lines was associated with reduction of malondialdehyde content which was derived from cellular lipid peroxidation. In addition, the OsGly I-overexpression transgenic plants performed higher seed setting rate and yield. Collectively, these results indicate the potential of bioengineering the Gly I gene in crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Integration of crop rotation and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) inoculum application for enhancing AM activity to improve phosphorus nutrition and yield of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Dipankar; Toppo, Neha Nancy; Variar, Mukund

    2011-11-01

    Upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a major crop of Eastern India grown during the wet season (June/July to September/October). Aerobic soils of the upland rice system, which are acidic and inherently phosphorus (P) limiting, support native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) activity. Attempts were made to improve P nutrition of upland rice by exploiting this natural situation through different crop rotations and application of AM fungal (AMF) inoculum. The effect of a 2-year crop rotation of maize (Zea mays L.) followed by horse gram (Dolichos biflorus L.) in the first year and upland rice in the second year on native AM activity was compared to three existing systems, with and without application of a soil-root-based inoculum. Integration of AM fungal inoculation with the maize-horse gram rotation had synergistic/additive effects in terms of AMF colonization (+22.7 to +42.7%), plant P acquisition (+11.2 to +23.7%), and grain yield of rice variety Vandana (+25.7 to +34.3%).

  8. Glycemic index of American-grown jasmine rice classified as high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Teresa H; Yuet, Wei Cheng; Hall, Micki D

    2014-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine the glycemic index (GI) of jasmine rice grown in the United States (US). Secondary objective was to compare the GI of US grown jasmine rice to those grown in Thailand. Twelve healthy subjects were served all four brands of jasmine rice and a reference food (glucose), each containing 50 g of available carbohydrate. Fingerstick blood glucose was measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after consumption following a fasting state. The GI was calculated using the standard equation. The GI values for test foods ranged from 96 to 116 and were all classified as high GI foods. No difference in GI was found between American-grown and Thailand-grown jasmine rice. Although not statistically significant, observations show glycemic response among Asian American participants may be different. GI should be considered when planning meals with jasmine rice as the main source carbohydrate.

  9. Identification of a Rice stripe necrosis virus resistance locus and yield component QTLs using Oryza sativa × O. glaberrima introgression lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Developing new population types based on interspecific introgressions has been suggested by several authors to facilitate the discovery of novel allelic sources for traits of agronomic importance. Chromosome segment substitution lines from interspecific crosses represent a powerful and useful genetic resource for QTL detection and breeding programs. Results We built a set of 64 chromosome segment substitution lines carrying contiguous chromosomal segments of African rice Oryza glaberrima MG12 (acc. IRGC103544) in the genetic background of Oryza sativa ssp. tropical japonica (cv. Caiapó). Well-distributed simple-sequence repeats markers were used to characterize the introgression events. Average size of the substituted chromosomal segments in the substitution lines was about 10 cM and covered the whole donor genome, except for small regions on chromosome 2 and 4. Proportions of recurrent and donor genome in the substitution lines were 87.59% and 7.64%, respectively. The remaining 4.78% corresponded to heterozygotes and missing data. Strong segregation distortion was found on chromosomes 3 and 6, indicating the presence of interspecific sterility genes. To illustrate the advantages and the power of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection using substitution lines, a QTL detection was performed for scored traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for several traits measured in the population. Fourteen QTLs for plant height, tiller number per plant, panicle length, sterility percentage, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were located on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 6 and 9. Furthermore, a highly significant QTL controlling resistance to the Rice stripe necrosis virus was located between SSR markers RM202-RM26406 (44.5-44.8 cM) on chromosome 11. Conclusions Development and phenotyping of CSSL libraries with entire genome coverage represents a useful strategy for QTL discovery. Mapping of the RSNV locus represents the first identification of a genetic factor

  10. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondrade, Rosa Fe; Hondrade, Edwin; Zheng, Lianqing; Elazegui, Francisco; Duque, Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E; Mundt, Christopher C; Vera Cruz, Casiana M; Garrett, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant), the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta) abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley.

  11. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Fe Hondrade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant, the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley.

  12. Ozone-Induced Rice Grain Yield Loss Is Triggered via a Change in Panicle Morphology That Is Controlled by ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Keita; Sawada, Hiroko; Kohno, Yoshihisa; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C.; Terao, Tomio; Ioki, Motohide; Tamaoki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Rice grain yield is predicted to decrease in the future because of an increase in tropospheric ozone concentration. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the responses to ozone of two rice (Oryza Sativa L.) cultivars, Sasanishiki and Habataki. Sasanishiki showed ozone-induced leaf injury, but no grain yield loss. By contrast, Habataki showed grain yield loss with minimal leaf injury. A QTL associated with grain yield loss caused by ozone was identified in Sasanishiki/Habataki chromosome segment substitution lines and included the ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 (APO1) gene. The Habataki allele of the APO1 locus in a near-isogenic line also resulted in grain yield loss upon ozone exposure, suggesting APO1 involvement in ozone-induced yield loss. Only a few differences in the APO1 amino acid sequences were detected between the cultivars, but the APO1 transcript level was oppositely regulated by ozone exposure: i.e., it increased in Sasanishiki and decreased in Habataki. Interestingly, the levels of some phytohormones (jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, and abscisic acid) known to be involved in attenuation of ozone-induced leaf injury tended to decrease in Sasanishiki but to increase in Habataki upon ozone exposure. These data indicate that ozone-induced grain yield loss in Habataki is caused by a reduction in the APO1 transcript level through an increase in the levels of phytohormones that reduce leaf damage. PMID:25923431

  13. Validation of yield component traits identified by GWA mapping in a rice tropical japonica x tropical japonica RIL mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) was developed for genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to explore the five diverse rice (Oryza sativa) subpopulations (indica, aus, aromatic, temperate japonica and tropical japonica). RDP1 was evaluated for over 30 agronomic and morphological traits, most of whic...

  14. Comparing rice germplasm groups for growth, grain yield and weed-suppressive ability under aerobic soil conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Atlin, G.N.; Bastiaans, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Germplasm and cultivars need to be selected as parents for breeding weed-competitive aerobic rice in the tropics. Forty rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars belonging to the aus, indica and tropical japonica germplasm groups, or derived from crosses among them, were evaluated in adjacent weed-free and

  15. High level of expression of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in transgenic rice cell suspension culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Yun-Ji; Hong, Shin-Young; Kwon, Tae-Ho

    2003-01-01

    this problem, we sought an expression system in which heterologous gene expression could be induced at high levels. We selected a rice amylase expression system in which the promoter Ramy3D is induced to express recombinant protein by sucrose starvation. This induction system was found to give good yield......Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) has been previously produced in tobacco cell suspension cultures. However, the amount of hGM-CSF accumulated in the culture medium dropped quickly from its maximum of 150 microg/L at 5 d after incubation. To overcome...... of recombinant hGM-CSF in transgenic rice cell suspension culture and protease activity of this culture medium was low compared to that of tobacco culture system....

  16. Effects of different dates of transplanting on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield and its components as second crop after rice in Ghilan (Rasht) conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad javad Golmohammadi; Majid Nahvi

    2016-01-01

    An experiment conducted to study the effects of transplanting dates on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield and its components as second crop after rice in Agriculture Faculty of Ghlilan University. This research was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications on the PF (sarigol) cultivar. Treatments consisted various dates of transplanting in cluding 1st November, 21st November, 11st December and 31st December. The results showed that the effect of different date...

  17. A three generation reproduction study with Sprague-Dawley rats consuming high-amylose transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing Hua; Dong, Ying; Zhao, Yan Sheng; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Yun; He, Yuan Qing; Liu, Qiao Quan

    2014-12-01

    The transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched with amylose and resistant starch (RS) was developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch-branching enzymes. Cereal starch with high amylose has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch. In order to evaluate the effect of transgenic rice on rats, the rats were fed diets containing 70% TRS rice flour, its near-isogenic rice flour or the standard diet as the control through three generations. In the present study, clinical performance, reproductive capacity and pathological responses including body weight, food consumption, reproductive data, hematological parameters, serum chemistry components, organ relative weights and histopathology were examined. Some statistically significant differences were observed in rats consuming the high amylose rice diet when compared to rats fed the near-isogenic control rice diet or the conventional (non-rice) standard diet. These differences were generally of small magnitude, appeared to be random in nature, and were within normal limits for the strain of rat used, and were therefore not considered to be biologically meaningful or treatment related. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrothermal Synthesis of High Crystalline Silicalite from Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Kongmanklang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to evaluate the hydrothermal synthesis of silicalite with high crystallinity within a small particle size. The current study focused on investigating the effects of silica sources such as rice husk ash (RHA and silica gel (SG, crystallization time, and ratios of NaOH/SiO2, H2O/NaOH, and SiO2/TPABr. The crystallinity, particle size, and morphology were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, particle size analyser, and SEM. The conclusion of the main findings indicated that the XRD patterns of these samples clearly showed a pure phase of MFI structure corresponding to FT-IR spectra with vibration mode at 550 and 1223 cm−1. The highest crystallinity was obtained at reaction time only 6 hours with the mole ratios of NaOH/SiO2, H2O/NaOH and SiO2/TPABr as 0.24, 155, and 30, respectively. When SG was used as a silica source, it was found that the particle size was smaller than that from RHA. The morphologies of all silicalite samples were coffin and cubic-like shape.

  19. Survey of Rice Cropping Systems in Kampong Chhnang Province, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker KLEINHENZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Cambodia might have achieved self-sufficiency and an exported surplus in rice production, its rice-based farming systems are widely associated with low productivity, low farmer income and rural poverty. The study is based on a questionnaire village survey in 14 communes containing 97 villages of Kampong Chhnang Province from March to June, 2011. It analyzes the prevailing rice-based cropping systems and evaluates options for their improvement. Differences in cropping systems depend on the distance from the Tonle Sap water bodies. At distances greater than 10 km, transplanted wet-season rice cropping system with low productivity of about 1.6 t/hm2 prevails. This deficiency can be primarily attributed to soils with high coarse sand fractions and low pH ( 4.0. Farmers predominantly cultivate dry-season recession rice between January and April. Seventy-nine percent of the area is sown directly and harvested by combines. Adoption ratio of commercial rice seeds is 59% and yields average 3.2 t/hm2. Introduction of the second dry-season rice between April and July may double annual yields in this rice cropping system. Besides upgrading other cultivation technologies, using seeds from commercial sources will improve yield and rice quality. Along with rice, farmers grow non-rice crops at different intensities ranging from single annual crops to intensive sequences at low yields.

  20. High yield DNA fragmentation using cyclical hydrodynamic shearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Spang, Peter; Roeser, Tina; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Corbera, Antoni Homs; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We report a new DNA fragmentation technique that significantly simplifies conventional hydrodynamic shearing fragmentation by eliminating the need for sample recirculation while maintaining high fragmentation yield and low fragment length variation, and therefore, reduces instrument complexity and

  1. Super-fine rice-flour production by enzymatic treatment with high hydrostatic pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Kaneto; Chino, Shuji; Nishiwaki, Toshikazu; Homma, Noriyuki; Hayashi, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Shigematsu, Toru

    2013-06-01

    In response to the recent expansion of rice-flour use, we established a new rice-flour manufacturing process through the application of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) to the enzyme-treated milling method. HP improved both the activity of pectinase, which is used in the enzyme-treated milling method and the water absorption capacity of rice grains. These results indicate improved damage to the tissue structures of rice grains. In contrast, HP suppressed the increase in glucose, which may have led to less starch damage. The manufacturing process was optimized to HP treatment at 200 MPa (40°C) for 1 h and subsequent wet-pulverization at 11,000 rpm. Using this process, rice flour with an exclusively fine mean particle size less than 20 μm and starch damage less than 5% was obtained from rice grains soaked in an enzyme solution and distilled water. This super-fine rice flour is suitable for bread, pasta, noodles and Western-style sweets.

  2. Environmental Response and Genomic Regions Correlated with Rice Root Growth and Yield under Drought in the OryzaSNP Panel across Multiple Study Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Len J Wade

    Full Text Available The rapid progress in rice genotyping must be matched by advances in phenotyping. A better understanding of genetic variation in rice for drought response, root traits, and practical methods for studying them are needed. In this study, the OryzaSNP set (20 diverse genotypes that have been genotyped for SNP markers was phenotyped in a range of field and container studies to study the diversity of rice root growth and response to drought. Of the root traits measured across more than 20 root experiments, root dry weight showed the most stable genotypic performance across studies. The environment (E component had the strongest effect on yield and root traits. We identified genomic regions correlated with root dry weight, percent deep roots, maximum root depth, and grain yield based on a correlation analysis with the phenotypes and aus, indica, or japonica introgression regions using the SNP data. Two genomic regions were identified as hot spots in which root traits and grain yield were co-located; on chromosome 1 (39.7-40.7 Mb and on chromosome 8 (20.3-21.9 Mb. Across experiments, the soil type/ growth medium showed more correlations with plant growth than the container dimensions. Although the correlations among studies and genetic co-location of root traits from a range of study systems points to their potential utility to represent responses in field studies, the best correlations were observed when the two setups had some similar properties. Due to the co-location of the identified genomic regions (from introgression block analysis with QTL for a number of previously reported root and drought traits, these regions are good candidates for detailed characterization to contribute to understanding rice improvement for response to drought. This study also highlights the utility of characterizing a small set of 20 genotypes for root growth, drought response, and related genomic regions.

  3. Evaluation of Image Processing Technique for Measuring of Nitrogen and Yield in Paddy Rice and Comparing it with Standard Methods

    OpenAIRE

    M.R Larijani; R Farrokhi Teimourlou

    2011-01-01

    In order to use new and low cost methods in precision agriculture, nitrogen should be supplied for plants on time and precisely. For determining the required nitrogen of paddy rice in the clustering stage, a series of experiments were conducted using three different methods of: image processing, kjeldahl and chlorophyll meter set (SPAD-502), in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 at Rice Research Center of Tonekabon, Iran. Four experimental treatments were d...

  4. Effects of soaking seed and fertilizer placement on growth and yield of soybean grown after rice in the post-monsoon season in Khon Kaen Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Polthanee

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in a farmer’s field in Ban Fang District, Khon Kaen Province in 1999- 2000. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soaking seed in water or not soaking before seeding, and fertilizer placement (surface broadcast at seeding, banding below the seed at seeding and banding beside the plant row 10 days after seeding on growth and yield of soybean grown after rice in the postmonsoon season. The results showed that soaking seed before seeding had no significant effect on leaf area per plant, total top dry weight, root length density, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, 100-seed weight and seed yield of soybean. However, soybean growth, yield components and seed yields tended to be higher with no soaking. Therefore, soaking seeds in water before seeding had no advantage over no soaking in terms of early emergence and early maturity before the plant was subjected to water stress at grain filling phase. Fertilizer placement had a significant effect on growth nd yield of soybean. Banding application gave higher leaf area per plant, total top dry weight, root length density, pod number per plant and seed yield than those of broadcast application. Banding generally increased leaf N, P and K concentration. There was no significant difference in seed yield between belowband and sideband application. Belowband application tended to produce higher seed yield than that of sideband application. Belowband application at planting saved labour as compared with sideband application. To obtain a satisfactory yield of soybean grown following rice in the post-monsoon season during the rainless period, however, shallow depth of groundwater table to provide upward movement of water to the root zone should be considered.

  5. Genetic diversity of high performance cultivars of upland and irrigated Brazilian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, G R C; Brondani, C; Hoffmann, L V; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Mendonça, J A; Rodrigues, L A; de Menezes, I P P

    2017-09-21

    The objective of this study was to analyze the diversity and discrimination of high-performance Brazilian rice cultivars using microsatellite markers. Twenty-nine rice cultivars belonging to EMBRAPA Arroz e Feijão germplasm bank in Brazil were genotyped by 24 SSR markers to establish their structure and genetic discrimination. It was demonstrated that the analyzed germplasm of rice presents an expressive and significant genetic diversity with low heterogeneity among the cultivars. All 29 cultivars were differentiated genetically, and were organized into two groups related to their upland and irrigated cultivation systems. These groups showed a high genetic differentiation, with greater diversity within the group that includes the cultivars for irrigated system. The genotyping data of these cultivars, with the morphological e phenotypical data, are valuable information to be used by rice breeding programs to develop new improved cultivars.

  6. Salinity tolerance loci revealed in rice using high-throughput non-invasive phenotyping

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Tamimi, Nadia Ali

    2016-11-17

    High-throughput phenotyping produces multiple measurements over time, which require new methods of analyses that are flexible in their quantification of plant growth and transpiration, yet are computationally economic. Here we develop such analyses and apply this to a rice population genotyped with a 700k SNP high-density array. Two rice diversity panels, indica and aus, containing a total of 553 genotypes, are phenotyped in waterlogged conditions. Using cubic smoothing splines to estimate plant growth and transpiration, we identify four time intervals that characterize the early responses of rice to salinity. Relative growth rate, transpiration rate and transpiration use efficiency (TUE) are analysed using a new association model that takes into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic marker. This model allows the identification of previously undetected loci affecting TUE on chromosome 11, providing insights into the early responses of rice to salinity, in particular into the effects of salinity on plant growth and transpiration.

  7. Salinity tolerance loci revealed in rice using high-throughput non-invasive phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Nadia; Brien, Chris; Oakey, Helena; Berger, Bettina; Saade, Stephanie; Ho, Yung Shwen; Schmöckel, Sandra M; Tester, Mark; Negrão, Sónia

    2016-11-17

    High-throughput phenotyping produces multiple measurements over time, which require new methods of analyses that are flexible in their quantification of plant growth and transpiration, yet are computationally economic. Here we develop such analyses and apply this to a rice population genotyped with a 700k SNP high-density array. Two rice diversity panels, indica and aus, containing a total of 553 genotypes, are phenotyped in waterlogged conditions. Using cubic smoothing splines to estimate plant growth and transpiration, we identify four time intervals that characterize the early responses of rice to salinity. Relative growth rate, transpiration rate and transpiration use efficiency (TUE) are analysed using a new association model that takes into account the interaction between treatment (control and salt) and genetic marker. This model allows the identification of previously undetected loci affecting TUE on chromosome 11, providing insights into the early responses of rice to salinity, in particular into the effects of salinity on plant growth and transpiration.

  8. High levels of inorganic arsenic in rice in areas where arsenic-contaminated water is used for irrigation and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H

    2011-10-15

    Rice is the staple food for the people of arsenic endemic South (S) and South-East (SE) Asian countries. In this region, arsenic contaminated groundwater has been used not only for drinking and cooking purposes but also for rice cultivation during dry season. Irrigation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater for rice cultivation has resulted high deposition of arsenic in topsoil and uptake in rice grain posing a serious threat to the sustainable agriculture in this region. In addition, cooking rice with arsenic-contaminated water also increases arsenic burden in cooked rice. Inorganic arsenic is the main species of S and SE Asian rice (80 to 91% of the total arsenic), and the concentration of this toxic species is increased in cooked rice from inorganic arsenic-rich cooking water. The people of Bangladesh and West Bengal (India), the arsenic hot spots in the world, eat an average of 450g rice a day. Therefore, in addition to drinking water, dietary intake of arsenic from rice is supposed to be another potential source of exposure, and to be a new disaster for the population of S and SE Asian countries. Arsenic speciation in raw and cooked rice, its bioavailability and the possible health hazard of inorganic arsenic in rice for the population of S and SE Asia have been discussed in this review. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Discovery of microorganisms and enzymes involved in high-solids decomposition of rice straw using metagenomic analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha P Reddy

    Full Text Available High-solids incubations were performed to enrich for microbial communities and enzymes that decompose rice straw under mesophilic (35°C and thermophilic (55°C conditions. Thermophilic enrichments yielded a community that was 7.5 times more metabolically active on rice straw than mesophilic enrichments. Extracted xylanase and endoglucanse activities were also 2.6 and 13.4 times greater, respectively, for thermophilic enrichments. Metagenome sequencing was performed on enriched communities to determine community composition and mine for genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes. Proteobacteria were found to dominate the mesophilic community while Actinobacteria were most abundant in the thermophilic community. Analysis of protein family representation in each metagenome indicated that cellobiohydrolases containing carbohydrate binding module 2 (CBM2 were significantly overrepresented in the thermophilic community. Micromonospora, a member of Actinobacteria, primarily housed these genes in the thermophilic community. In light of these findings, Micromonospora and other closely related Actinobacteria genera appear to be promising sources of thermophilic lignocellulolytic enzymes for rice straw deconstruction under high-solids conditions. Furthermore, these discoveries warrant future research to determine if exoglucanases with CBM2 represent thermostable enzymes tolerant to the process conditions expected to be encountered during industrial biofuel production.

  10. Effects of timing and severity of salinity stress on rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield, grain composition, and starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitisaksakul, Maysaya; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Shoemaker, Charles F; Chun, Areum; Tanadul, Orn-u-ma; Labavitch, John M; Beckles, Diane M

    2015-03-04

    documents the specific response of rice under defined conditions, and illustrates that the plasticity of plant response to mild stress is complex and highly context-dependent, even under greenhouse conditions in which other potential environmental stress impacts are minimized.

  11. [Study on High-yield Cultivation Measures for Arctii Fructus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-yong; Jiang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Tao; Sun, Ji-ye; Hu, Shang-qin; Zhang, Li

    2015-02-01

    To find out the high yield cultivation measures for Arctii Fructus. Completely randomized block experiment design method was used in the field planting, to analyze the effect of different cultivation way on agronomic characters, phenological phase,quality and quantity of Arctii Fructus. Arctium lappa planted on August 28 had the best results of plant height, thousand seeds weight and yield. The highest yield of Arctii Fructus was got at the density of 1,482 plants/667 m2. Arctiin content was in an increase trend with the planting time delay and planting density increasing. The plant height, thousand seeds weight, yield and arctiin content by split application of fertilizer were significantly higher than that by one-time fertilization. Compared with open field Arctium lappa, plant height, yield, arctiin content and relative water content of plastic film mulching Arctium lappa was higher by 7.74%, 10.87%, 6.38% and 24.20%, respectively. In the topping Arctium lappa, the yield was increased by 11.09%, with 39. 89% less branching number. Early planting time and topping shortened the growth cycle of Arctium lappa plant. The high-yield cultivation measures of Arctii Fructus are: around August 28 to sowing, planting density of 1 482 plants/667 m2, split application of fertilizer for four times, covering film on surface of the soil and topping in bolting.

  12. Deep RNA sequencing at single base-pair resolution reveals high complexity of the rice transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Guo, Guangwu; Hu, Xueda

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of eukaryotic transcriptome is essential for studying the complexity of transcriptional regulation and its impact on phenotype. However, comprehensive studies of transcriptomes at single base resolution are rare, even for modern organisms, and lacking for rice. Here, we...... present the first transcriptome atlas for eight organs of cultivated rice. Using high-throughput paired-end RNA-seq, we unambiguously detected transcripts expressing at an extremely low level, as well as a substantial number of novel transcripts, exons, and untranslated regions. An analysis of alternative...... splicing in the rice transcriptome revealed that alternative cis-splicing occurred in approximately 33% of all rice genes. This is far more than previously reported. In addition, we also identified 234 putative chimeric transcripts that seem to be produced by trans-splicing, indicating that transcript...

  13. High-solid Anaerobic Co-digestion of Food Waste and Rice Straw for Biogas Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Zhan-jiang; Liu Jie; Shi Feng-mei; Wang Su; GaoYa-bing; Zhang Da-lei

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste (FW) and rice straw (RS) in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at high organic loading rate (OLR) was investigated. Co-digestion studies of FW and RS with six different mixing ratios were conducted at an initial volatile solid (VS) concentration of more than 3 gVS•L-1. The biogas production, methane contents, degradation efficiency of VS, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were determined to evaluate the stability and performance of the system. The results showed that the co-digestion process had higher system stability and higher volumetric biogas production than mono-digestions. Increase in FW content in the feedstock could increase the methane yield and shorten retention time. The efficiency of co-digestion systems mainly relied on the mixing ratios of FW and RS to some extent. The highest methane yield was 60.55 mL•gV•S-1•d-1 at a mass ratio (FW/RS) of 3: 1, which was 178% and 70% higher than that of mono-digestions of FW and RS, respectively. Consequently, the anaerobic co-digestion of FW and RS could have superior stability and better performance than mono-digestions in higher organic loading system.

  14. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  15. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  16. Grain Yield, Dry Weight and Phosphorus Accumulation and Translocation in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties as Affected by Salt-Alkali and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkali is the main threat to global crop production. The functioning of phosphorus (P in alleviating damage to crops from saline-alkaline stress may be dependent on the variety of crop but there is little published research on the topic. This pot experiment was conducted to study if P has any effect on rice (Oryza sativa L. yield, dry matter and P accumulation and translocation in salt-alkaline soils. Plant dry weight and P content at heading and harvest stages of two contrasting saline-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and sensitive (Tongyu-315 rice varieties were examined under two saline-alkaline (light versus severe soils and five P supplements (P0, P50, P100, P150 and P200 kg ha−1. The results were: in light saline-alkaline soil, the optimal P levels were found for P150 for Dongdao-4 and for P100 for Tongyu-315 with the greatest grain dry weight and P content. Two rice varieties obtained relatively higher dry weight and P accumulation and translocation in P0. In severe saline-alkaline soil, however, dry weight and P accumulation and translocation, 1000-grain weight, seed-setting rate and grain yield significantly decreased, but effectively increased with P application for Dongdao-4. Tongyu-315 showed lower sensitivity to P nutrition. Thus, a more tolerant variety could have a stronger capacity to absorb and translocate P for grain filling, especially in severe salt-alkaline soils. This should be helpful for consideration in rice breeding and deciding a reasonable P application in saline-alkaline soil.

  17. Agronomic evaluation of rain fed rice varieties in Seke - Banza area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six rain fed rice varieties from INERA (National Institute for Agronomic Study and Research) YANGAMBI center were cultivated at INERA GIMBI station. The objective was to get high yield rain fed rice varieties adapted to Seke-Banza area conditions in view to increase farmers' production and to reduce import of rice in the ...

  18. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Fast-Growing and High Oil Content Chlorella pyrenoidosa in Rice Straw Hydrolysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penglin; Miao, Xiaoling; Li, Rongxiu; Zhong, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Rice straw hydrolysate was used as lignocellulose-based carbon source for Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation and the feasibility of in situ biodiesel production was investigated. 13.7 g/L sugar was obtained by enzymatic hydrolyzation of rice straw. Chlorella pyrenoidosa showed a rapid growth in the rice straw hydrolysate medium, the maximum biomass concentration of 2.83 g/L was obtained in only 48 hours. The lipid content of the cells reached as high as 56.3%. In situ transesterification was performed for biodiesel production. The optimized condition was 1 g algal powder, 6 mL n-hexane, and 4 mL methanol with 0.5 M sulfuric acid at the temperature of 90°C in 2-hour reaction time, under which over 99% methyl ester content and about 95% biodiesel yield were obtained. The results suggested that the method has great potential in the production of biofuels with lignocellulose as an alternative carbon source for microalgae cultivation. PMID:21318171

  19. In situ biodiesel production from fast-growing and high oil content Chlorella pyrenoidosa in rice straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Penglin; Miao, Xiaoling; Li, Rongxiu; Zhong, Jianjiang

    2011-01-01

    Rice straw hydrolysate was used as lignocellulose-based carbon source for Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultivation and the feasibility of in situ biodiesel production was investigated. 13.7 g/L sugar was obtained by enzymatic hydrolyzation of rice straw. Chlorella pyrenoidosa showed a rapid growth in the rice straw hydrolysate medium, the maximum biomass concentration of 2.83 g/L was obtained in only 48 hours. The lipid content of the cells reached as high as 56.3%. In situ transesterification was performed for biodiesel production. The optimized condition was 1 g algal powder, 6 mL n-hexane, and 4 mL methanol with 0.5 M sulfuric acid at the temperature of 90°C in 2-hour reaction time, under which over 99% methyl ester content and about 95% biodiesel yield were obtained. The results suggested that the method has great potential in the production of biofuels with lignocellulose as an alternative carbon source for microalgae cultivation.

  20. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  1. Fertilização silicatada na severidade de brusone e na incidência de insetos-praga em arroz irrigado Silicon fertilization on rice blast severity, insect pest incidence, and grain yield of irrigated rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto B. dos Santos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de brusone e insetos-praga tem limitado a produtividade de arroz irrigado na região tropical, razão que este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do serpentinito calcinado e da volastonita na severidade de brusone, na incidência de insetos-praga e na produtividade de arroz no cultivo principal e na soca. Em casa-de-vegetação foram avaliados os efeitos das doses 0, 1, 2, 4 e 8 Mg ha-1 de serpentinito calcinado e volastonita na severidade de brusone nas folhas da cv. Metica 1. No campo, se conduziram dois experimentos em várzeas no município de Dueré, TO, e dois no Formoso do Araguaia, TO. Os tratamentos consistiram das doses 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Mg ha-1 de serpentinito, com e sem aplicação de produtos fitossanitários e dos genótipos CNA 8502 e BRS Formoso. O serpentinito calcinado foi tão ou mais eficiente que a volastonita na redução da severidade de brusone e aumentou a fitomassa, a produtividade de arroz e a porcentagem de endosperma sem manchas causadas por picadas de percevejo-dos-grãos. A aplicação de Si contribui para o manejo sustentável de brusone e de insetos-praga pela redução das doses de defensivos agrícolas e por um número menor de aplicações foliares, além de melhorar a qualidade do arroz.Rice blast and insect pests have laid a ceiling on the grain yield of irrigated rice in tropical regions. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of calcinated serpentinite and wallastonite on rice blast severity and insect pest incidence as well as grain yield of rice, in the main and ratoon crops. The effect of calcinated serpentinite and wollastonite rates (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Mg ha-1 on leaf blast severity were assessed on cultivar Metica 1, under greenhouse conditions. Two field experiments were conducted in the municipality of Dueré, and two in Formoso do Araguaia, in the State of Tocantins. The treatments consisted of five doses of calcinated serpentinite (0, 2, 4

  2. Production of transgenic rice with agronomically useful genes: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C C; Vijaya Laxmi, G

    2000-12-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Yield enhancement to increase rice production is one of the essential strategies to meet the demand for food of the growing population. Both abiotic and biotic features limit adversely the productivity of rice growing areas. Conventional breeding has been an effective means for developing high yielding varieties, however; it is associated with its own limitations. It is envisaged that recent trends in biotechnology can contribute to the agronomic improvement of rice in terms of yield and nutritional quality as a supplement to traditional breeding methods. Genetic transformation of rice has demonstrated numerous important opportunities resulting in the genetic improvement of existing elite rice varieties and production of new plant types. Significant advances have been made in the genetic engineering of rice since the first transgenic rice plant production in the late 1980s. Several gene transfer protocols have been employed successfully for the introduction of foreign genes to rice. In more than 60 rice cultivars belonging to indica, japonica, javanica, and elite African cultivars, the protocol has been standardized for transgenic rice production. Selection and use of appropriate promoters, selectable markers, and reporter genes has been helpful for development of efficient protocols for transgenic rice in a number of rice cultivars. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in transgenic rice for the transfer of agronomically useful genes, emphasizing the application and future prospects of transgenic rice production for the genetic improvement of this food crop.

  3. High yielding synthesis of N-ethyl dehydroamino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís S; Suárez, Ana S

    2012-10-01

    Recently we reported the use of a sequence of alkylation and dehydration methodologies to obtain N-ethyl-α, β-dehydroamino acid derivatives. The application of this N-alkylation procedure to several methyl esters of β,β-dibromo and β-bromo, β-substituted dehydroamino acids protected with standard amine protecting groups was subsequently reported. The corresponding N-ethyl, β-bromo dehydroamino acid derivatives were obtained in fair to high yields and some were used as substrates in Suzuki cross-coupling reactions to give N-ethyl, β,β-disubstituted dehydroalanine derivatives. Herein, we further explore N-ethylation of β-halo dehydroamino acid derivatives using triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate as alkylating agent, but substituting N,N-diisopropylethylamine for potassium tert-butoxide as auxiliary base. In these conditions, for all β-halo dehydroamino acid derivatives, reactions were complete and the N-ethylated derivative could be isolated in high yield. This method was also applied for N-ethylation of non-halogenated dehydroamino acids. Again, with all compounds the reactions were complete and the N-ethyl dehydroamino acid derivatives could be isolated in high yields. Some of these N-ethyl dehydroamino acid methyl ester derivatives were converted in high yields to their corresponding acids and coupled to an amino acid methyl ester to give N-ethyl dehydrodipeptide derivatives in good yields. Thus, this method constitutes a general procedure for high yielding synthesis of N-ethylated dehydroamino acids, which can be further applied in peptide synthesis.

  4. Overexpression of OsmiR164b-resistant OsNAC2 improves plant architecture and grain yield in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dagang; Chen, Weiting; Dong, Jingfang; Li, Jing; Yang, Fen; Wu, Zhichao; Zhou, Hai; Wang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Chuxiong

    2018-01-20

    Plant architecture is a major target of rice (Oryza sativa) breeding and selection, but the underlying regulatory networks remain unclear. Here, we overexpressed a OsNAC2 mutant (OErN) that cannot be cleaved by the microRNA miR164b. OErN plants had better plant architecture, longer panicles, and produced more grains. The parental line averaged 12.2 primary and 31.5 secondary branches in the main panicles; two OErN lines averaged 15.0 and 15.2 primary, and 41.5 and 44.3 secondary branches. In large-scale field trials, OErN plants produced at least 58.62% more total grain (by weight) compared with the parental line. They also had more large and small vascular bundles in the stem internodes and leaves. Overexpression of miR164b or down-regulation of OsNAC2 led to decreased panicle length and grain yield in the main panicle. The OErN plants showed significant up-regulation of the grain number and plant architecture related genes IPA1 and DEP1. A survey of more than 3,000 rice varieties found no natural mutations in the miR164b binding site of OsNAC2. OErN increased yield in Nipponbare and the commonly grown Yangyujing 3 cultivars. In summary, we identified an efficient new strategy to substantially increase rice yield and improve plant architecture through over-expression of OsmiR164b-resistant OsNAC2. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. The effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies without compromising yield by early-season drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Syed Faiz Ul; Groenigen, van Jan Willem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Sander, Bjoern Ole; Neergaard, de Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Global rice production systems face two opposing challenges: the need to increase production to accommodate the world's growing population while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adaptations to drainage regimes are one of the most promising options for methane mitigation in

  6. Yield and its attributes responses of drought tolerant upland ‘NERICA’ rice to different nutrient supplying treatments in rainforest transitory agroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Suleiman Sakariyawo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A screen house trial was conducted to evaluate reproductive growth responses of drought tolerant upland rice cultivars (NERICAs 1-4, WAB 56-104 and Moroberekan to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF inoculation under water deficit. A field trial was organized in randomized complete block test with three replicates, conducted in the late cropping season of 2012. We evaluated upland rice cultivars to different nutrient sources (AMF, AMF + 60 kg N ha-1 + 30 kg K ha-1, 60 kg N ha-1+ 30 kg K ha-1 and control. In the screen house inoculated rice had higher (P < 0.05 grain yield plant-1 (19.29 g plant-1 and its attributes than non-inoculated, except number of grain per panicle (108. On the field combination of AMF + 60 kg N ha-1 + 30 kg K ha-1 produced higher (P < 0.05 reproductive growth. Varietal variability (P < 0.05 was observed on AM colonisation and reproductive growth in both trials, with ‘NERICA 2’was the most promising cultivar under tested agroecology condition.

  7. Growth, Metabolism and Yield of Rice Cultivated in Soils Amended with Fly Ash and Cyanobacteria and Metal Loads in Plant Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra N. Padhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment with fly ash (FA and combined supplementation with N2-fixing cyanobacteria masses as biofertilizer were done in field experiments with rice. Amendments with FA levels, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kg/m2, caused increase in growth and yield of rice up to 8.0 kg/m2, monitored with several parameters. Pigment contents and enzyme activities of leaves were enhanced by FA, with the maximum level of FA at 10.0 kg/m2. Protein content of rice seeds was the highest in plants grown at FA level 4.0 kg/m2. Basic soil properties, pH value, percentage of silt, percentage of clay, water-holding capacity, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content increased due to the FA amendment. Parallel supplementation of FA amended plots with 1.0 kg/m2 N2-fixing cyanobacteria mass caused further significant increments of the most soil properties, and rice growth and yield parameters. 1000-grain weight of rice plants grown at FA level 4.0 kg/m2 along with cyanobacteria supplementation was the maximum. Cyanobacteria supplementation caused increase of important basic properties of soil including the total N-content. Estimations of elemental content in soils and plant parts (root and seed were done by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Accumulations of K, P, Fe and several plant micronutrients (Mn, Ni, Co, Zn and Cu and toxic elements (Pb, Cr and Cd increased in soils and plant parts as a function of the FA gradation, but Na content remained almost unchanged in soils and seeds. Supplementation of cyanobacteria had ameliorating effect on toxic metal contents of soils and plant parts. The FA level 4.0 kg/m2, with 1.0 kg/m2 cyanobacteria mass supplementation, could be taken ideal, since there would be recharging of the soil with essential micronutrients as well as toxic chemicals in comparative lesser proportions, and cyanobacteria mass would cause lessening toxic metal loads with usual N2-fixation.

  8. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  9. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam, E-mail: litonaslam@yahoo.com [Dept. of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan); Kim, P.J., E-mail: pjkim@nongae.gsnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Inubushi, K. [Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and

  10. Accelerated solvent extraction of monacolin K from red yeast rice and purification by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqin; Guo, Xingfeng; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Du, Jinhua

    2010-10-15

    Monacolin K from red yeast rice was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The effects of various extraction parameters including extraction temperature, static extraction time and cycle index on yield were investigated using a DIONEX ASE 300 system to select the optimal conditions by an orthogonal test design L(9) (3)(3). The optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: extraction temperature 120°C, static extraction time 7min, and cycle index 3. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of ASE extract and monacolin K was 5.35% and 9.26mg/g of dry red yeast rice, respectively. A separation and purification method of monacolin K was then established using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (8:2:5:5, v/v/v/v). From 300mg of crude extract, 51.2mg of monacolin K was obtained with the purity of 98.7%. The chemical structure of isolated compound was identified by UV, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Subchronic feeding study of high-free-lysine transgenic rice in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Qing; He, Xiao-Yun; Wu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Zou, Shi-Ying; Lang, Tian-Qi; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2017-07-01

    Lysine is considered to be the first essential amino acid in rice. An elite High-Free-Lysine transgenic line HFL1 was previously produced by metabolic engineering to regulate lysine metabolism. In this study, a 90-day toxicology experiment was undertaken to investigate the potential health effect of feeding different doses of HFL1 rice to Sprague-Dawley rats. During the trial, body weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency were recorded, and no adverse effect was observed in rats fed transgenic (T) rice diets compared with non-transgenic (N) or control diets. At both midterm and final assessments, hematological parameters and serum chemistry were measured, and organ weights and histopathology were examined at the end of the trial. There was no diet-related difference in most hematological or serum chemistry parameters or organ weights between rats fed the T diets and those fed the N or control diets. Some parameters were found to differ between T groups and their corresponding N and/or control groups, but no adverse histological effect was observed. Taken together, the data from the current trial demonstrates that high lysine transgenic rice led to no adverse effect in Sprague-Dawley rats given a diet containing up to 70% HFL1 rice in 90 days. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The QTL GNP1 Encodes GA20ox1, Which Increases Grain Number and Yield by Increasing Cytokinin Activity in Rice Panicle Meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Mi, Xue-Fei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Li, Xin-Min; Xu, Jian-Long; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-10-01

    Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem. However, little is known about the crosstalk among cytokinin and GA regulators together with KNOX proteins and how KNOX-mediated dynamic balancing of hormonal activity functions. Through map-based cloning of QTLs, we cloned a GA biosynthesis gene, Grain Number per Panicle1 (GNP1), which encodes rice GA20ox1. The grain number and yield of NIL-GNP1TQ were significantly higher than those of isogenic control (Lemont). Sequence variations in its promoter region increased the levels of GNP1 transcripts, which were enriched in the apical regions of inflorescence meristems in NIL-GNP1TQ. We propose that cytokinin activity increased due to a KNOX-mediated transcriptional feedback loop resulting from the higher GNP1 transcript levels, in turn leading to increased expression of the GA catabolism genes GA2oxs and reduced GA1 and GA3 accumulation. This rebalancing process increased cytokinin activity, thereby increasing grain number and grain yield in rice. These findings uncover important, novel roles of GAs in rice florescence meristem development and provide new insights into the crosstalk between cytokinin and GA underlying development process.

  13. Análise de coeficiente de trilha para os componentes de produção em arroz Path coefficient analysis of rice yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Marchezan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência dos componentes de produção de arroz no rendimento de grãos através da análise de trilha, avaliaram-se 88 genótipos de arroz em quatro anos agrícolas. Em cada ano, os experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento em blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições. As variáveis analisadas foram: estatura de plantas, rendimento de grãos, esterilidade de espiguetas, número de grãos por panícula, massa de mil grãos e rendimento de engenho. As análises de variância, correlação e de trilha (Path Analysis foram realizadas para cada variável, utilizando-se o programa computacional GENES. Os genótipos avaliados apresentaram diferenças significativas para todas as variáveis analisadas, nos quatro anos de experimento. A seleção de variáveis deve ser realizada em grupos de cultivares semelhantes entre si e a utilização de um maior número de variáveis possibilita melhores inferências sobre os componentes da produção do arroz. A massa de grãos é o componente de produção que mais afeta o rendimento da cultura do arroz.Eighty eight rice genotypes were evaluated during four years aiming to study the relationship among yield components. In each year, the experimental design was a completely randomized block design with four replications and the variables studied were: plant height, seed yield, spikelet sterility, number of seeds per panicle, 1000 seeds weight and head grains. The estimation of correlations and the path coefficient analysis were conducted with the GENES software. The genotypes showed significant variability for all the variables analyzed within each one of years. It was concluded that variable selection must be carried out among the cultivars that are more similar and using a greater number of variables allows better inferences about rice yield components. Grain weight was the yield of component that most affected seed yield rice plants.

  14. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, P J; Inubushi, K

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK+fly ash, NPK+silicate slag, NPK+phosphogypsum(PG), NPK+blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK+revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK+silicate slag (50%)+RFS (50%), NPK+biochar, NPK+biochar+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+silicate slag+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+phosphogypsum (PG)+Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N2O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5-14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0-12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0-30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43-50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of mucoadhesive buccal films from rice for pharmaceutical delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Jaturasitha, Sanchai

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the suitable rice varieties for developing pharmaceutical buccal films. Two rice varieties with extreme difference in amylose content were used. Rice powders were chemically modified to yield the carboxymethyl rice prior to film preparation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to investigate the solid structure of rice powders. The results indicated that amylose content in the rice grains played the effects on the morphology and crystalline structure of the modified rice powders as well as the film properties. The modified rice powders of low amylose content showed halo pattern XRD whereas some crystalline peaks could be observed from the high amylose content modified rice powders. Adding of glycerin caused the films better properties of more transparency and getting rid of air bubbles. High amylose rice films showed more transparency and higher mucoadhesive property and was considered to be suitable for incorporating the drug. Adding of surfactant caused the increase in tensile strength and decrease in elongation of the rice films. The most suitable surfactant for diclofenac buccal rice film is Tween 20. This study demonstrates that rice grains are the promising natural source for pharmaceutical film forming agent. Suitable pharmaceutical buccal films could be developed from the rice with high amylose content.

  16. Interactions between the oomycete Pythium arrhenomanes and the rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola in aerobic Asian rice varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, R E M; Banaay, C G B; Sikder, M; De Waele, D; Vera Cruz, C M; Gheysen, G; Höfte, M; Kyndt, Tina

    2016-12-01

    Aerobic rice fields are frequently infested by pathogenic oomycetes (Pythium spp.) and the rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola. Here, the interaction between Pythium arrhenomanes and Meloidogyne graminicola was studied in rice roots of two aerobic rice varieties. In different experimental set-ups and infection regimes, plant growth, rice yield, Pythium colonization, as well as establishment, development and reproduction of M. graminicola were studied. In this study, it is shown that the presence of P. arrhenomanes delays the establishment, development and reproduction of M. graminicola compared to single nematode infected plants. The delay in establishment and development of M. graminicola becomes stronger with higher P. arrhenomanes infection pressure. Our data indicate that P. arrhenomanes antagonizes M. graminicola in the rice root and that the plant benefits from this antagonism as shown by the yield data, especially when either of the pathogens is present in high levels.

  17. Development of high-yield influenza A virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Nidom, Chairul A; Ghedin, Elodie; Macken, Catherine A; Fitch, Adam; Imai, Masaki; Maher, Eileen A; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-09-02

    Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways to prevent infection. Influenza vaccines propagated in cultured cells are approved for use in humans, but their yields are often suboptimal. Here, we screened A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus mutant libraries to develop vaccine backbones (defined here as the six viral RNA segments not encoding haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that support high yield in cell culture. We also tested mutations in the coding and regulatory regions of the virus, and chimeric haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. A combination of high-yield mutations from these screens led to a PR8 backbone that improved the titres of H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 vaccine viruses in African green monkey kidney and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. This PR8 backbone also improves titres in embryonated chicken eggs, a common propagation system for influenza viruses. This PR8 vaccine backbone thus represents an advance in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccine development.

  18. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Lorenzo Quibod

    Full Text Available Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  19. OsHAK1, a High-Affinity Potassium Transporter, Positively Regulates Responses to Drought Stress in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the environmental factors that severely restrict plant distribution and crop production. Recently, we reported that the high-affinity potassium transporter OsHAK1 plays important roles in K acquisition and translocation in rice over low and high K concentration ranges, however, knowledge on the regulatory roles of OsHAK1 in osmotic/drought stress is limited. Here, transcript levels of OsHAK1 were found transiently elevated by water deficit in roots and shoots, consistent with the enhanced GUS activity in transgenic plants under stress. Under drought conditions, OsHAK1 knockout mutants (KO presented lower tolerance to the stress and displayed stunted growth at both the vegetative and reproductive stages. Phenotypic analysis of OsHAK1 overexpression seedlings (Ox demonstrated that they present better tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT. Compared to WT seedlings, OsHAK1 overexpressors had lower level of lipid peroxidation, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (POX and CAT and higher proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR analysis revealed that OsHAK1 act as a positive regulator of the expression of stress-responsive genes as well as of two well-known rice channel genes (OsTPKb and OsAKT1 involved in K homeostasis and stress responses in transgenic plants under dehydration. Most important, OsHAK1-Ox plants displayed enhanced drought tolerance at the reproductive stage, resulting in 35% more grain yield than WT under drought conditions, and without exhibiting significant differences under normal growth conditions. Consequently, OsHAK1 can be considered to be used in molecular breeding for improvement of drought tolerance in rice.

  20. Overexpression of glycolate oxidase confers improved photosynthesis under high light and high temperature in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Cui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While glycolate oxidase (GLO is well known as a key enzyme for the photorespiratory metabolism in plants, its physiological function and mechanism remains to be further clarified. Our previous studies have shown that suppression of GLO in rice leads to stunted growth and inhibited photosynthesis (Pn which is positively and linearly correlated with decreased GLO activities. It is, therefore, of interest to further understand whether photosynthesis can be improved when GLO is up-regulated? In this study, four independent overexpression rice lines, with gradient increases in GLO activity, were generated and functionally analyzed. Phenotypic observations showed that the growth could be improved when GLO activities were increased by 60% or 100%, whereas reduced growth was noticed when the activity was further increased by 150% or 210%. As compared with WT plants, all the overexpression plants exhibited significantly improved photosynthesis under conditions of high light and high temperature, but not under normal conditions. In addition, the overexpression plants were more resistant to the MV-induced photooxidative stress. It was further demonstrated that the antioxidant enzymes, and the antioxidant metabolite glutathione was not significantly altered in the overexpression plants. In contrast, H2O2 and salicylic acid (SA were correspondingly induced upon the GLO overexpression. Taken together, the results suggest that GLO may play an important role for plants to cope with high light and high temperature, and that H2O2 and SA may serve as signaling molecules to trigger stress defense responses but antioxidant reactions appear not to be involved in the defense.

  1. Resistant Starch: Variation among High Amylose Rice Varieties and Its Relationship with Apparent Amylose Content, Pasting Properties and Cooking Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestines, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated a set of 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS levels in cooked rice and approximately a 1.9-fold difference was found. The highest ones had more than two-fold greater RS concentration ...

  2. Major gaseous and PAH emissions from a fluidized-bed combustor firing rice husk with high combustion efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janvijitsakul, Kasama; Kuprianov, Vladimir I. [School of Manufacturing Systems and Mechanical Engineering, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Thammasat Rangsit Post Office, Pathum Thani 12121 (Thailand)

    2008-08-15

    This experimental work investigated major gaseous (CO and NO{sub x}) and PAH emissions from a 400 kW{sub th} fluidized-bed combustor with a cone-shaped bed (referred to as 'conical FBC') firing rice husk with high, over 99%, combustion efficiency. Experimental tests were carried out at the fuel feed rate of 80 kg/h for different values of excess air (EA). As revealed by the experimental results, EA had substantial effects on the axial CO and NO{sub x} concentration profiles and corresponding emissions from the combustor. The concentration (mg/kg-ash) and specific emission ({mu}g/kW h) of twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were quantified in this work for different size fractions of ash emitted from the conical FBC firing rice husk at EA = 20.9%. The total PAHs emission was found to be predominant for the coarsest ash particles, due to the effects of a highly developed internal surface in a particle volume. The highest emission was shown by acenaphthylene, 4.1 {mu}g/kW h, when the total yield of PAHs via fly ash was about 10 {mu}g/kW h. (author)

  3. Tunable porous structure of carbon nanosheets derived from puffed rice for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Jiang, Kun; Tahir, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoge; Idrees, Faryal; Shen, Ming; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-12-01

    The development of green and clean synthetic techniques to overcome energy requirements have motivated the researchers for the utilization of sustainable biomass. Driven by this desire we choose rice as starting materials source. After the explosion effect, the precursor is converted into puffed rice with a honeycomb-like structures composed of thin sheets. These honeycomb-like macrostructures, effectively prevent the cross-linking tendency towards the adjacent nanosheets during activation process. Furthermore, tuneable micro/mesoporous structures with ultrahigh specific surface areas (SBET) are successfully designed by KOH activation. The highest SBET of 3326 m2 g-1 with optimized proportion of small-mesopores is achieved at 850 °C. The rice-derived porous N-doped carbon nanosheets (NCS-850) are used as the active electrode materials for supercapacitors. It exhibites high specific capacitance specifically of 218 F g-1 at 80 A g-1 in 6 M KOH and a high-energy density of 104 Wh kg-1 (53 Wh L-1) in the ionic liquid electrolytes. These are the highest values among the reported biomass-derived carbon materials for the best of our knowledge. The present work demonstrates that the combination of ;puffing effect; and common chemical activation can turn natural products such as rice into functional products with prospective applications in high-performance energy storage devices.

  4. Improving methane yield from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with magnetic rice-straw biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yong; Wang, Haoshu; Li, Xiangru; Cheng, Jay Jiayang; Wu, Weixiang

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic biochar is a potential economical anaerobic digestion (AD) additive. To better understand the possible role of magnetic biochar for the improvement of biomethanization performance and the retention of methanogens, magnetic biochar fabricated under different precursor concentrations were introduced into organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) slurry AD system. Results showed that methane production in AD treatment with magnetic biochar fabricated under 3.2g FeCl3:100g rice-straw ratio increased by 11.69% compared with control treatment without biochar addition, due to selective enrichment of microorganisms participating in anaerobic digestion on magnetic biochar. AD treatment with magnetic biochar fabricated under 32g FeCl3:100g rice-straw ratio resulted in 38.34% decreasement of methane production because of the competition of iron oxide for electron. Furthermore, 25% of total methanogens were absorbed on magnetic biochar and can be harvested with magnet, which can offer a potential solution for preventing the methanogens loss in the anaerobic digesters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of plant extracts and an essential oil on the control of brown spot disease, tillering, number of panicles and yield increase in rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, Julienne; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Dongmo, J. Blaise Lekagne

    2013-01-01

    The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown sp......, we concluded that the EO and solvent extracts of C. citrinus and C. citratus have potential as control agents against brown spot and other seed-borne fungal diseases in rice under both conventional and organic farming.......The effects of essential oils (EO), cold water (CWE), hot water (HWE) and ethanol (ETHE) extracts of Callistemon citrinus L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf on the radial growth of Alternaria padwickii (Ganguly) M.B. Ellis and Bipolaris oryzae (Breda de Haan) Shoemaker, the control of brown spot...... disease, the tillering, the number of panicles and the yield increase in rice were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. In vitro, the growth of both fungi was completely inhibited by the EO of C. citrinus and C. citratus at 4,520 mu g/ml and 452 mu g/ml, respectively. For solvent extracts...

  6. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfei; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Li, Zhikang; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhiqin; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-01-01

    Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl) and a normally pigmented control (Z802) were subjected to high (HL) and low light (LL). Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC) binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR), photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size.

  7. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl and a normally pigmented control (Z802 were subjected to high (HL and low light (LL. Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size.

  8. High-Resolution Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Contrasting Subcellular Distribution of Arsenic and Silicon in Rice Roots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katie L. Moore; Markus Schröder; Zhongchang Wu; Barry G.H. Martin; Chris R. Hawes; Steve P. McGrath; Malcolm J. Hawkesford; Jian Feng Ma; Fang-Jie Zhao; Chris R.M. Grovenor

    2011-01-01

    .... In this study, the cellular and subcellular distributions of As and silicon (Si) in rice roots were investigated using high-pressure freezing, high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy...

  9. Effect of Transplanting Times on Rate and Duration of Grain Filling, Final Grain Weight and Grain Yield of Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vahdati-Rad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of temperature and radiation on rate and duration of grain filling and final grain weight in rice cultivars, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at different transplanting times at the research field of University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran in 2013. Factors were: transplanting dates in main plots (5 May, 20 May and 5 June and rice cultivars (Hashemi, Ali Kazemi, Sangejo, Khazar, Dorfak and Gouhar in sub plots. The greatest grain weight (31.9 mg was obtained in Gouhar at 20 May and the smallest grain weight (20.4 mg was observed in Sangejo at 5 June transplanting dates. The longest effective filling period (32.9 days was achieved in Gouhar at 5 May transplanting date and the shortest grain filling duration (13.9 days was obtained in Hashemi. The greatest grain filling rate (1.62 mg day-1 was obtained in the Hashemi and the smallest rate (0.92 mg day-1 was observed in Gouhar. Significant correlations were observed between cumulative temperature and radiation with final grain weight (R = 0.689. There were significant and positive correlations between the cumulative temperature and irradiance with grain filling duration, in contrary to negative correlations with grain filling rate and grain filling period. The results of this experiment showed that the grain filling duration plays a greater role, than grain filling rate, in determination of the grain weight. It could be concluded that an early transplanting (5 May brings about favorable temperature and radiation conditions for an appropriate grain filling period and a greater final grain weight.

  10. Development of high-yield influenza B virus vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jihui; Lopes, Tiago J S; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-20

    The burden of human infections with influenza A and B viruses is substantial, and the impact of influenza B virus infections can exceed that of influenza A virus infections in some seasons. Over the past few decades, viruses of two influenza B virus lineages (Victoria and Yamagata) have circulated in humans, and both lineages are now represented in influenza vaccines, as recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza B virus vaccines for humans have been available for more than half a century, yet no systematic efforts have been undertaken to develop high-yield candidates. Therefore, we screened virus libraries possessing random mutations in the six "internal" influenza B viral RNA segments [i.e., those not encoding the major viral antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase NA)] for mutants that confer efficient replication. Candidate viruses that supported high yield in cell culture were tested with the HA and NA genes of eight different viruses of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. We identified combinations of mutations that increased the titers of candidate vaccine viruses in mammalian cells used for human influenza vaccine virus propagation and in embryonated chicken eggs, the most common propagation system for influenza viruses. These influenza B virus vaccine backbones can be used for improved vaccine virus production.

  11. Salt Tolerance in Rice: Focus on Mechanisms and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inja Naga Bheema Lingeswara Reddy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance is an important constrain for rice, which is generally categorized as a typical glycophyte. Soil salinity is one of the major constraints affecting rice production worldwide, especially in the coastal areas. Susceptibility or tolerance of rice plants to high salinity is a coordinated action of multiple stress responsive genes, which also interacts with other components of stress signal transduction pathways. Salt tolerant varieties can be produced by marker-assisted selection or genetic engineering by introducing salt-tolerance genes. In this review, we have updated on mechanisms and genes which can help in transferring of the salt tolerance into high-yielding rice varieties. We have focused on the need for integrating phenotyping, genomics, metabolic profiling and phenomics into transgenic and breeding approaches to develop high-yielding as well as salt tolerant rice varieties.

  12. High-yield secretion of multiple client proteins in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segato, Fernando; Damásio, André R L; Gonçalves, Thiago A; de Lucas, Rosymar C; Squina, Fabio M; Decker, Stephen R; Prade, Rolf A

    2012-07-15

    Production of pure and high-yield client proteins is an important technology that addresses the need for industrial applications of enzymes as well as scientific experiments in protein chemistry and crystallization. Fungi are utilized in industrial protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of proteins. In this study, we engineered a high-expression-secretion vector, pEXPYR that directs proteins towards the extracellular medium in two Aspergillii host strains, examine the effect of maltose-induced over-expression and protein secretion as well as time and pH-dependent protein stability in the medium. We describe five client proteins representing a core set of hemicellulose degrading enzymes that accumulated up to 50-100 mg/L of protein. Using a recyclable genetic marker that allows serial insertion of multiple genes, simultaneous hyper-secretion of three client proteins in a single host strain was accomplished. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Yield Secretion of Multiple Client Proteins in Aspergillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, F.; Damasio, A. R. L.; Goncalves, T. A.; de Lucas, R. C.; Squina, F. M.; Decker, S. R.; Prade, R. A.

    2012-07-15

    Production of pure and high-yield client proteins is an important technology that addresses the need for industrial applications of enzymes as well as scientific experiments in protein chemistry and crystallization. Fungi are utilized in industrial protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of proteins. In this study, we engineered a high-expression-secretion vector, pEXPYR that directs proteins towards the extracellular medium in two Aspergillii host strains, examine the effect of maltose-induced over-expression and protein secretion as well as time and pH-dependent protein stability in the medium. We describe five client proteins representing a core set of hemicellulose degrading enzymes that accumulated up to 50-100 mg/L of protein. Using a recyclable genetic marker that allows serial insertion of multiple genes, simultaneous hyper-secretion of three client proteins in a single host strain was accomplished.

  14. High yield production of extracellular recombinant levansucrase by Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneli, Claudia; Biedendieck, Rebekka; David, Florian; Jahn, Dieter; Wittmann, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a high yield production bioprocess with recombinant Bacillus megaterium for the production of the extracellular enzyme levansucrase (SacB) was developed. For basic optimization of culture parameters and nutrients, a recombinant B. megaterium reporter strain that produced green fluorescent protein under control of a vector-based xylose-inducible promoter was used. It enabled efficient microtiter plate-based screening via fluorescence analysis. A pH value of pH 6, 20 % of dissolved oxygen, 37 °C, and elevated levels of biotin (100 μg L(-1)) were found optimal with regard to high protein yield and reduced overflow metabolism. Among the different compounds tested, fructose and glycerol were identified as the preferred source of carbon. Subsequently, the settings were transferred to a B. megaterium strain recombinantly producing levansucrase SacB based on the plasmid-located xylose-inducible expression system. In shake flask culture under the optimized conditions, the novel strain already secreted the target enzyme in high amounts (14 U mL(-1) on fructose and 17.2 U mL(-1) on glycerol). This was further increased in high cell density fed-batch processes up to 55 U mL(-1), reflecting a levansucrase concentration of 0.52 g L(-1). This is 100-fold more than previous efforts for this enzyme in B. megaterium and more than 10-fold higher than reported values of other extracellular protein produced in this microorganism so far. The recombinant strain could also handle raw glycerol from biodiesel industry which provided the same amount and quality of the recombinant protein and suggests future implementation into existing biorefinery concepts.

  15. Enhanced Gene Expression Rather than Natural Polymorphism in Coding Sequence of the OsbZIP23 Determines Drought Tolerance and Yield Improvement in Rice Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Avishek; Samanta, Milan Kumar; Gayen, Srimonta; Sen, Soumitra K; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the major limiting factors for productivity of crops including rice (Oryza sativa L.). Understanding the role of allelic variations of key regulatory genes involved in stress-tolerance is essential for developing an effective strategy to combat drought. The bZIP transcription factors play a crucial role in abiotic-stress adaptation in plants via abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway. The present study aimed to search for allelic polymorphism in the OsbZIP23 gene across selected drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive rice genotypes, and to characterize the new allele through overexpression (OE) and gene-silencing (RNAi). Analyses of the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of the cloned OsbZIP23 gene revealed single nucleotide polymorphism at four places and a 15-nucleotide deletion at one place. The single-copy OsbZIP23 gene is expressed at relatively higher level in leaf tissues of drought-tolerant genotypes, and its abundance is more in reproductive stage. Cloning and sequence analyses of the OsbZIP23-promoter from drought-tolerant O. rufipogon and drought-sensitive IR20 cultivar showed variation in the number of stress-responsive cis-elements and a 35-nucleotide deletion at 5'-UTR in IR20. Analysis of the GFP reporter gene function revealed that the promoter activity of O. rufipogon is comparatively higher than that of IR20. The overexpression of any of the two polymorphic forms (1083 bp and 1068 bp CDS) of OsbZIP23 improved drought tolerance and yield-related traits significantly by retaining higher content of cellular water, soluble sugar and proline; and exhibited decrease in membrane lipid peroxidation in comparison to RNAi lines and non-transgenic plants. The OE lines showed higher expression of target genes-OsRab16B, OsRab21 and OsLEA3-1 and increased ABA sensitivity; indicating that OsbZIP23 is a positive transcriptional-regulator of the ABA-signaling pathway. Taken together, the present study concludes that the enhanced gene expression rather than

  16. Effect of N Fertilization Pattern on Rice Yield, N Use Efficiency and Fertilizer–N Fate in the Yangtze River Basin, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Xiaowei; Wang, Huoyan; Zhou, Jianmin; Hu, Fengqin; Zhu, Dejin; Chen, Zhaoming; Liu, Yongzhe

    2016-01-01

    ...) will address this problem. A two--year field experiment covering two rice growing regions was conducted to investigate the effect of urea one--time RZF on rice growth, nutrient uptake, and NUE. The highest NH4...

  17. Ethanol Enhances High-Salinity Stress Tolerance by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Mai Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available High-salinity stress considerably affects plant growth and crop yield. Thus, developing techniques to enhance high-salinity stress tolerance in plants is important. In this study, we revealed that ethanol enhances high-salinity stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the ethanol-induced tolerance, we performed microarray analyses using A. thaliana seedlings. Our data indicated that the expression levels of 1,323 and 1,293 genes were upregulated by ethanol in the presence and absence of NaCl, respectively. The expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS signaling-related genes associated with high-salinity tolerance was upregulated by ethanol under salt stress condition. Some of these genes encode ROS scavengers and transcription factors (e.g., AtZAT10 and AtZAT12. A RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that the expression levels of AtZAT10 and AtZAT12 as well as AtAPX1 and AtAPX2, which encode cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases (APX, were higher in ethanol-treated plants than in untreated control plants, when exposure to high-salinity stress. Additionally, A. thaliana cytosolic APX activity increased by ethanol in response to salinity stress. Moreover, histochemical analyses with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT revealed that ROS accumulation was inhibited by ethanol under salt stress condition in A. thaliana and rice, in which DAB staining data was further confirmed by Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content. These results suggest that ethanol enhances high-salinity stress tolerance by detoxifying ROS. Our findings may have implications for improving salt-stress tolerance of agriculturally important field-grown crops.

  18. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhanguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome, and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. Results We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. Conclusion A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  19. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhanguo; Chen, Junping

    2012-07-28

    Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome), and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  20. Film quantum yields of EUV& ultra-high PAG photoresists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, Elsayed; Higgins, Craig; Naulleau, Patrick; Matyi, Richard; Gallatin, Greg; Denbeaux, Gregory; Antohe, Alin; Thackery, Jim; Spear, Kathleen; Szmanda, Charles; Anderson, Christopher N.; Niakoula, Dimitra; Malloy, Matthew; Khurshid, Anwar; Montgomery, Cecilia; Piscani, Emil C.; Rudack, Andrew; Byers, Jeff; Ma, Andy; Dean, Kim; Brainard, Robert

    2008-01-10

    Base titration methods are used to determine C-parameters for three industrial EUV photoresist platforms (EUV-2D, MET-2D, XP5496) and twenty academic EUV photoresist platforms. X-ray reflectometry is used to measure the density of these resists, and leads to the determination of absorbance and film quantum yields (FQY). Ultrahigh levels ofPAG show divergent mechanisms for production of photo acids beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter. The FQY of sulfonium PAGs level off, whereas resists prepared with iodonium PAG show FQY s that increase beyond PAG concentrations of 0.35 moles/liter, reaching record highs of 8-13 acids generatedlEUV photons absorbed.

  1. A 90-day toxicology study of high-amylose transgenic rice grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing Hua; Dong, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Yun; Xu, Yong; Xu, Bin; Shi, Wei Dong; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Li Jia; Liu, Qiao Quan

    2011-12-01

    A transgenic rice line (TRS) with high amylose level has been developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes. Compositional analysis of TRS demonstrated that the content of resistant starch (RS) was significantly higher compared to conventional non-transgenic rice. High level of RS is an important raw material in food industry and has various physiological effects for human health. In order to provide the reliable theory basis for field release of TRS rice, we evaluated the potential health effects of long-term consumption of the TRS. The 90-day toxicology feeding experiment was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with diets containing 70% of either TRS rice flour, its near-isogenic rice flour or the control diet. The clinical performance variables (body weight, body weight gain and food consumption) were measured and pathological responses (hematological parameters and serum chemistry at the midterm and the completion of the experiment, urinalysis profile and serum sex hormone response at the completion of the experiment) were performed. Besides, clinical signs, relative organ weights and microscopic observations were also compared between TRS group and its near-isogenic rice group. The combined data indicates that high-amylose TRS grain is as safe as the conventional non-transgenic rice for rat consumption. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Maximize rhamnolipid production with low foaming and high yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodagari, Maysam; Invally, Krutika; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2018-03-01

    Rhamnolipids are well-known microbial surfactants with many potential applications. Their production cost, however, remains high due to the severe foaming tendency in aerobic fermentation and the relatively low productivity and yield. In this study, we assessed the boundaries set by these constraints after optimization of basic parameters such as dissolved oxygen concentration (DO), pH and carbon sources. DO 10% and pH 5.5-5.7 were found optimal; cell growth and/or rhamnolipid production were slower at lower DO (5%) or pH (5.0) while foaming became hard to control at higher DO (30%) or pH (6.0 and 6.5). Although the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain used was selected for its high rhamnolipid production from glycerol as substrate, soybean oil was still found to be a better substrate that increased specific rhamnolipid productivity to 25.8mg/g cells-h from the glycerol-supported maximum of 8.9mg/g cells-h. In addition, the foam volume was approximately halved by using soybean oil instead of glycerol as substrate. Analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that rhamnolipid compositions from the two carbon sources were also very different, with primarily (82%) monorhamnolipids from soybean oil and more (64%) dirhamnolipids from glycerol. The optimized fermentation produced 42g/l rhamnolipids at a yield of approximately 47% and a volumetric productivity of 220mg/l-h. These values are among the highest reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Doses of corrective phosphating in land rice high in first year of culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Lange

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of phosphorus levels in coverage of the morphological and productive components in rice plant upland. The study was conducted in the municipality of Alta Floresta - MT, in the agricultural year 2007/2008 in a randomized block design with five treatments (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5 following the recommendations of Sousa et al., (2006 , with four replications. They evaluated the length between node, plant height, stem diameter, number of tillers, number of panicles, number of grains per panicle, percentage of grains " full ", weight of 100 grains and grain yield . The match only had no influence on weight of 100 grains and length from node. The highest yield was obtained in corrective dose of 168 kg ha-1 of P2O5.

  4. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  5. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Li, Yu'e; Wang, Hong; Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu; Fan, Fenliang; Liao, Yulin

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5tha(-1) biochar (BC1), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC2), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH4) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH4 flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p<0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20tha(-1)) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance at high temperature of alkali-activated slag pastes produced with silica fume and rice husk ash based activators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernal, S. A; Rodríguez, E. D; Mejía de Gutiérrez, R; Provis, J. L

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the mechanical properties, and structural changes induced by high temperature exposure, of alkali-silicate activated slag cements produced with sodium silicates derived from silica fume (SF) and rice husk ash (RHA...

  7. Influência da escória silicatada na acidez do solo e na produtividade de grãos do arroz de terras altas Influence of calcium silicate slag on soil acidity and upland rice grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Pereira Barbosa Filho

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos elevados teores de SiO2 total geralmente encontrados nos solos brasileiros, o teor na solução do solo pode ser baixo, em conseqüência do processo de dessilicificação que ocorre durante a intemperização dos solos. A aplicação de escórias de processamento industrial, ricas em silicatos de cálcio, tem mostrado efeitos positivos quanto à ação corretiva da acidez do solo e ao fornecimento de Si às plantas acumuladoras desse elemento, com aumentos significativos de produtividade. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o seguinte objetivo: avaliar em dois anos de cultivo sucessivos a ação corretiva, a produtividade de grãos e a absorção de Si pelo arroz de terras altas. Foram aplicadas ao solo de cerrado classificado como latossolo vermelho distroférrico de cerrado seis doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 t ha-1 de uma escória silicatada com 20% de SiO2 total, proveniente do processo de fabricação de superfosfatos em forno elétrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com cinco repetições. Foram detectados aumentos significativos de produtividade de grãos, teor e acumulação de Si na palha e da porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula, nos dois anos de cultivo do arroz. Houve ação corretiva no solo das doses de escória, reduzindo a acidez e aumentando a disponibilidade de P, Si, Ca trocável e a porcentagem de saturação por bases. O nível crítico de Si na palha por ocasião da colheita, para obtenção de produtividade satisfatória de grãos, foi estabelecido em 2,25 g kg-1 de matéria seca.Despite the high SiO2 total content often found in Brazilian soils, the soluble silicon content in soil solution can be low due to weathering that occur in soils. The application of calcium silicate slags, under these conditions, has demonstrated positive effects in relation to correction of soil acidity, the supply of Si to plants that accumulate this element and significant yield increase. The objectives of

  8. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiaobo [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian district, Beijing 100081 (China); Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 1030, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S9H 3X2 (Canada); Li, Yu' e, E-mail: liyue@caas.cn [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian district, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Hong [Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 1030, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S9H 3X2 (Canada); Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian district, Beijing 100081 (China); Fan, Fenliang [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liao, Yulin [Soils and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha 410125 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5 t ha{sup −} {sup 1} biochar (BC1), application of 10 t ha{sup −} {sup 1} biochar (BC2), application of 10 t ha{sup −} {sup 1} biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400 kg ha{sup −} {sup 1}(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400 kg ha{sup −} {sup 1}(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH{sub 4}) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH{sub 4} flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p < 0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20 t ha{sup −} {sup 1}) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. - Graphical abstract: Relative change ratio of different biochar amendments and rice straw residues to CK treatment during the

  9. High rates of gasified rice hull biochar affect geranium and tomato growth in a soilless substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasified rice hull biochar (GRHB) is a byproduct of rice production, where rice hulls are gasified to generate energy for other aspects of rice processing. Other research has shown that GRHB up to 10% (v/v) in a soilless substrate can provide much, but not all, of a potted floriculture crops’ phosp...

  10. Improvement of direct-wet-seeding rice yield and methane mitigation under water and fertilizer managements and comparison of its economic returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saisompan, C.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase rice yields (RY while reducing methane gas emissions (ME, several strategies for methane mitigation were compared in a trial during the second rice growing season of 2003. A split plot design was used, consisting of 2 water management (WM treatments in main plots: 1 continuous flooding and 2 intermittent drainage (by letting water evapotranspirate or drain away so as to maintain the soil moisture content approximately at field capacity during a part of the maximum tillering and flowering stages; and five introgen (N fertilizer treatments in sub plots: 1 no top- dressing of ferlilizers, 2 top-dressing of ammonium fulfate (AS, 21% N at 15 kg per rai, 3 AS at 30 kg per rai, 4 urea (46%N at 7 kg per rai and 5 urea at 14 kg per rai. All plots received 16-16-8 at the rate of 20 kg per rai as a basal application. Results indicate that WM had no significant effect on RY, but that intermittent flooding resulted in significantly less methane emission than continuous flooding. Top-dressing of N fertilizers had significant effect on both RY and ME. Top-dressing of urea at the rate of 14 kg per rai resulted in the highest RY, 912 kg per rai,followed by top-dressing of AS at 30 kg per rai, which produced a yield of 874 kg per rai. Application of 30 kg per rai of AS was more effective in decreasing in both total methane emission (TME and methane emission per unit grain yield (MPG than the application of 14 kg per rai of urea. However, the highest benefit of 1,920 baht per rai and the highest income-cost ratio (I/C of 2.11 were obtained by top-dressing of 14 kg per rai of urea. The next best treatment was the application of AS at the rate of 30 kg per rai which resulted in a benefit of 1,727 baht per rai, and I/C of 1.98. It was concluded that a basal application of 16-16-8 at the rate of 20 kg per rai, followed by to-dressing with eith AS at 30 kg per rai or urea at 14 kg per rai (both equivalent to approximately 6 kg N per rai and

  11. Effect of silicon sources on rice diseases and yield in the State of Tocantins, Brazil = Efeito de fontes de silício sobre as doenças e produtividade do arroz no Estado do Tocantins, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rodrigues dos Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of rice diseases in regions with poor levels of silicates (Si in the soil, together with high control costs, can make the cultivation of rice unfeasible. Surprisingly, there are scarce research data available regarding the influence of Si on ricediseases in tropical lowland regions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of three silicon sources on rice yield and disease management. Three experiments were carried out from December 2005 to April 2006 at an experimental field area located inFormoso do Araguaia, Tocantins state, Brazil. Each experiment consisted of one silicon source (powder, granular or liquid and the treatments consisted of six Si doses. All the treatments were performed in a completely randomized block design. The data presented in this study provide evidence that Si applications in Si-deficient soils of lowland regions, depending on the application source, dose and disease intensity, can decrease the severity of brown spot and the incidence of panicle blast. Calcium silicate effectively reduced the brown spot and the panicle blast, which resulted in an increased rice yield. In contrast, Ca and Mg silicate and potassium silicate did not show an efficient control of rice diseases nor an increase in productivity.A intensidade de doenças do arroz em regiões com solos pobres em silício, aliada aos altos custos de controle, podem inviabilizar economicamente o cultivo do arroz. Por existir poucas pesquisas avaliando a influência do silício nas doenças do arroz em regiões tropicais de terras baixas, esse estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito de três fontes de silício na produção e manejo de doenças do arroz. Três experimentos foram realizados entre dezembro de 2005 e abril de 2006, em um campo experimental localizado em Formoso do Araguaia, Estado do Tocantins, Brasil. Cada experimento consistiu da avaliação de um fator (fonte de silício em pó, granular ou líquido, conduzido

  12. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  13. Identification of QTL Associated with Nitrogen Uptake and Nitrogen Use Efficiency Using High Throughput Genotyped CSSLs in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N availability is a major factor limiting crop growth and development. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL for N uptake (NUP and N use efficiency (NUE can provide useful information regarding the genetic basis of these traits and their associated effects on yield production. In this study, a set of high throughput genotyped chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs derived from a cross between recipient 9311 and donor Nipponbare were used to identify QTL for rice NUP and NUE. Using high throughput sequencing, each CSSL were genotyped and an ultra-high-quality physical map was constructed. A total of 13 QTL, seven for NUP and six for NUE, were identified in plants under hydroponic culture with all nutrients supplied in sufficient quantities. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by these QTL for NUP and NUE ranged from 3.16–13.99% and 3.76–12.34%, respectively. We also identified several QTL for biomass yield (BY and grain yield (GY, which were responsible for 3.21–45.54% and 6.28–7.31%, respectively, of observed phenotypic variation. GY were significantly positively correlated with NUP and NUE, with NUP more closely correlated than NUE. Our results contribute information to NUP and NUE improvement in rice.

  14. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  15. SCS118 Marques – New rice cultivar obtained through induced mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Antonio Schiocchet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new rice cultivar, SCS118 Marques, was obtained through gamma irradiation of SCSBRS Tio Taka cultivar. SCS118 Marques presents modern architecture, lodging resistance, late maturity cycle, moderate resistance to blast, high yield potential, long grains and very high cooking quality. Industrial tests performed with SCS118 Marques showed that grains are suitable for parboiling and white rice, and it is recommended to all rice-producing regions of Santa Catarina

  16. Diagnostics of Shiva Nova produced high yield thermonuclear events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.; Banner, D.L.; Boyle, M.J.; Campbell, E.M.; Coleman, L.W.; Koppel, L.N.; Kornblum, H.N. Jr.; Rienecker, F.; Severyn, J.R.; Slivinsky, V.W.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments with the Shiva Nova laser facility which produce yield levels of scientific breakeven and above will result in neutron, x-ray and particle fluxes which will require specific attention to the survivability of diagnostic instrumentation. These yield levels will also allow the utilization of new diagnotics techniques which can provide detailed information on the state of the imploded fuel and pusher shells.

  17. Transgenic rice seed synthesizing diverse flavonoids at high levels: a new platform for flavonoid production with associated health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogo, Yuko; Ozawa, Kenjiro; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Murayama, Tsugiya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2013-08-01

    Flavonoids possess diverse health-promoting benefits but are nearly absent from rice, because most of the genes encoding enzymes for flavonoid biosynthesis are not expressed in rice seeds. In the present study, a transgenic rice plant producing several classes of flavonoids in seeds was developed by introducing multiple genes encoding enzymes involved in flavonoid synthesis, from phenylalanine to the target flavonoids, into rice. Rice accumulating naringenin was developed by introducing phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Rice producing other classes of flavonoids, kaempferol, genistein, and apigenin, was developed by introducing, together with PAL and CHS, genes encoding flavonol synthase/flavanone-3-hydroxylase, isoflavone synthase, and flavone synthases, respectively. The endosperm-specific GluB-1 promoter or embryo- and aleurone-specific 18-kDa oleosin promoters were used to express these biosynthetic genes in seed. The target flavonoids of naringenin, kaempferol, genistein, and apigenin were highly accumulated in each transgenic rice, respectively. Furthermore, tricin was accumulated by introducing hydroxylase and methyltransferase, demonstrating that modification to flavonoid backbones can be also well manipulated in rice seeds. The flavonoids accumulated as both aglycones and several types of glycosides, and flavonoids in the endosperm were deposited into PB-II-type protein bodies. Therefore, these rice seeds provide an ideal platform for the production of particular flavonoids due to efficient glycosylation, the presence of appropriate organelles for flavonoid accumulation, and the small effect of endogenous enzymes on the production of flavonoids by exogenous enzymes. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ovarian cysts in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braw-Tal, R; Pen, S; Roth, Z

    2009-09-15

    We examined the hormonal and morphologic changes associated with ovarian cyst formation in high-yielding dairy cows. Follicle fluid was aspirated from 90 cysts and 15 preovulatory and 18 subordinate follicles and used for hormonal determination. Pieces of cystic wall were subjected to morphologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Cysts were characterized by low concentrations of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and glucose and high activity of IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Insulin and IGF-I levels were (mean+/-SEM) 205+/-22 pg/mL and 146+/-42 ng/mL in preovulatory follicles and 3+/-1 pg/mL and 61+/-6 ng/mL in cysts, respectively (Pcysts than in preovulatory follicles. Cysts were classified into three types according to their estradiol-to-progesterone (E/P) ratio. Type 1 cysts (n=23) exhibited the highest E/P ratio (10.8+/-2.3), partial loss of granulosa cells, and severe morphologic changes in the theca interna. Expression of P(450) side-chain cleavage and P(450) 17 alpha-hydroxylase was noted in theca cells and expression of inhibin-alpha in granulosa cells. Type 2 cysts (n=35) had a low E/P ratio (0.07+/-0.02), and patches of luteal-like tissue in the cystic wall. Type 3 cysts (n=32) had an E/P ratio of 0.91+/-0.17, and no recognizable granulosa or theca cells. In summary, intrafollicular steroid levels as expressed by E/P ratio, together with IGF-I and insulin levels and morphologic changes in the follicular wall, may serve as accurate cyst-classification parameters. Because IGF-I and/or insulin play an essential role in the final stage of follicle development, it can be speculated that abnormal levels of these metabolic hormones might lead to follicle dysfunction, resulting in follicular regression or cyst formation.

  19. Nutritional status of high yielding crossbred cow around parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousuf

    2016-03-01

    Materials and methods: Nutritional status of cows around the peri-parturient period was investigated for six months in dairy farm. Seven to eight months' pregnant cows were selected for this study. Blood samples from 24 randomly selected cows were collected at stage-1, -2 and -3. The serum was stored at -20C until analyzing glucose, total protein (TP, albumin (Alb, triglycerides (Tg, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and phosphorus (P. Results: An increasing trend of glucose level was evidenced (P=0.07 during stage-1. Instead, higher levels of TP were found during stage-3 as compared to the stage-1 and -2. The Alb levels differed significantly (P<0.01 among different stages. A significantly increased (P<0.01 cholesterol, Tg, and HDL were found after parturition (stage-2 and -3 than before parturition (stage-1. LDL was significantly (P=0.02 increased during stage-2 and -3. A significantly higher level of Ca (P<0.01, Mg (P<0.01 and P (P=0.03 were present during stage-1. Glucose, TP, cholesterol and Tg were significantly higher (P<0.01 in cows two months after parturition, while Alb was found to be the highest (P<0.01 in cows immediately after parturition. An increasing trend of LDL (P=0.07 and HDL (P=0.07 were found in the cows two months after parturition. However, Ca levels were significantly (P=0.04 higher in cows two months after parturition. Conclusion: The results indicate that there is alteration of biochemical levels among the study population at three different stages, and these data may be helpful in using the necessary nutrients to the the high yielding cows around their parturition. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 68-74

  20. The Radioactive Waste Management course: 14 High-yield editions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A.; Gallego, E.; Marco, M. L.; Falcon, S.

    2003-07-01

    The doctorate course on Radioactive Waste Management was initiated in February 1988, by initiative of the Chair of Nuclear Technology, under the sponsoring of the national radioactive waste management company (ENRESA), in a fruitful collaboration between the Institute Artigas of the Technical School of Industrial Engineering and the Institute of Formation on Energy of the research centre CIEMAT. The course is also offered as a post-graduate through both institutes. After completion of fourteen consecutive editions in 2002, the course constituted a landmark in the field of nuclear education in Spain. The last edition offered, along 35 lessons published in two books, the general aspects of generation, treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes, the basic Safety and Radiological Protection criteria, the detailed technical questions of the management of both low-intermediate.activity and the high-activity level, together with the wastes generated during decommissioning and dismantling of installations, as well as the general and institutional aspects. Experts in each field, belonging either to ENRESA, CIEMAT, the Nuclear Safety Council, the UPM and the industry, present such wide programme. A technical visit to the low and intermediate radioactive waste repository of El Cabril was also offered to the participants as part of the course, as in previous years the visit to the dismantling workers of Vandellos I NPP. More than 500 engineers and graduates in different science branches have participated in the course along 14 years, with both students and professionals belonging to ENRESA, the Nuclear Safety Council, CIEMAT and other research centers, hospitals, civil protection at different levels, service and engineering companies related with the radioactive waste management. Altogether, it is possible to say, as the title is expressed, that the course has given in these 14 years a high-production yield. (Author)

  1. The promoter and the 5'-untranslated region of rice metallothionein OsMT2b gene are capable of directing high-level gene expression in germinated rice embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shen; Chen, Dai-Yin; Chang, Chung-Fu; Li, Min-Jeng; Hung, Kuei-Yu; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Chen, Peng-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Critical regions within the rice metallothionein OsMT2b gene promoter are identified and the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) is found essential for the high-level promoter activity in germinated transgenic rice embryos. Many metallothionein (MT) genes are highly expressed in plant tissues. A rice subfamily p2 (type 2) MT gene, OsMT2b, has been shown previously to exhibit the most abundant gene expression in young rice seedling. In the present study, transient expression assays and a transgenic approach were employed to characterize the expression of the OsMT2b gene in rice. We found that the OsMT2b gene is strongly and differentially expressed in germinated rice embryos during seed germination and seedling development. Histochemical staining analysis of transgenic rice carrying OsMT2b::GUS chimeric gene showed that high-level GUS activity was detected in germinated embryos and at the meristematic part of other tissues during germination. Deletion analysis of the OsMT2b promoter revealed that the 5'-flanking region of the OsMT2b between nucleotides -351 and -121 relative to the transcriptional initiation site is important for promoter activity in rice embryos, and this region contains the consensus sequences of G box and TA box. Our study demonstrates that the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of OsMT2b gene is not only necessary for the OsMT2b promoter activity, but also sufficient to augment the activity of a minimal promoter in both transformed cell cultures and germinated transgenic embryos in rice. We also found that addition of the maize Ubi intron 1 significantly enhanced the OsMT2b promoter activity in rice embryos. Our studies reveal that OsMT2b351-ubi(In) promoter can be applied in plant transformation and represents potential for driving high-level production of foreign proteins in transgenic rice.

  2. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Swee Keong Yeap; Boon Kee Beh; Joan Kong; Wan Yong Ho; Hamidah Mohd Yusof; Nurul Elyani Mohamad; Aminuddin bin Hussin; Indu Bala Jaganath; Noorjahan Banu Alitheen; Anisah Jamaluddin; Kamariah Long

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities w...

  3. Match sources of manure in corrective land rice high in first year of culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Lange

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of phosphorus sources as a partial corrective fertilization and maintenance in upland rice cultivation. The experiment was conducted in the municipality of Alta Floresta/MT in crop year 2007/08, using the experimental design of randomized blocks with five treatments (control, simple superphosphate, triple superphosphate, Arad reactive rock phosphate and bone meal, and four replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, tiller number per meter, panicle number per m2, Internode length, number of grains per panicle, percentage of filled grains, voids, weight of 100 grains, return on beans, whole grain yield and productivity. Applying phosphorus influenced most of the morphological characteristics of the rice, except the stem diameter and length of the internode. There was influence of phosphate sources for the number of grains per panicle and productivity and that the two variables for the treatments with superphosphate and triple superphosphate were higher than the control. The use of triple superphosphate provided greater productivity and higher economic return in the first year of cultivation.

  4. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-01-01

    Background Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which ~21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Results Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. Conclusion In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high

  5. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vudem Dasavantha

    2008-10-01

    plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic effects, imparted appreciable resistance against three major sap-sucking insects. Our results amply demonstrate that transgenic indica rice harbouring asal exhibit surpassing resistance against BPH, GLH and WBPH insects. The prototypic asal transgenic rice lines appear promising for direct commercial cultivation besides serving as a potential genetic resource in recombination breeding.

  6. Transgenic rice expressing Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) exhibits high-level resistance against major sap-sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarasi, Bharathi; Sadumpati, Vijayakumar; Immanni, China Pasalu; Vudem, Dasavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2008-10-14

    Rice (Oryza sativa) productivity is adversely impacted by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. An approximate 52% of the global production of rice is lost annually owing to the damage caused by biotic factors, of which approximately 21% is attributed to the attack of insect pests. In this paper we report the isolation, cloning and characterization of Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (asal) gene, and its expression in elite indica rice cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. The stable transgenic lines, expressing ASAL, showed explicit resistance against major sap-sucking pests. Allium sativum leaf lectin gene (asal), coding for mannose binding homodimeric protein (ASAL) from garlic plants, has been isolated and introduced into elite indica rice cultivars susceptible to sap-sucking insects, viz., brown planthopper (BPH), green leafhopper (GLH) and whitebacked planthopper (WBPH). Embryogenic calli of rice were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium harbouring pSB111 super-binary vector comprising garlic lectin gene asal along with the herbicide resistance gene bar, both under the control of CaMV35S promoter. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the genomes of rice plants. Northern and western blot analyses revealed expression of ASAL in different transgenic rice lines. In primary transformants, the level of ASAL protein, as estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, varied between 0.74% and 1.45% of the total soluble proteins. In planta insect bioassays on transgenic rice lines revealed potent entomotoxic effects of ASAL on BPH, GLH and WBPH insects, as evidenced by significant decreases in the survival, development and fecundity of the insects. In planta insect bioassays were carried out on asal transgenic rice lines employing standard screening techniques followed in conventional breeding for selection of insect resistant plants. The ASAL expressing rice plants, bestowed with high entomotoxic

  7. Molecular diversity in rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta makes it highly effective against dynamic population of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S; Gupta, Y K; Singh, P K; Rathour, R; Variar, M; Prashanthi, S K; Singh, A K; Singh, U D; Chand, D; Rana, J C; Singh, N K; Sharma, T R

    2013-08-01

    Rice blast is one of the important diseases of rice which can be effectively managed by the deployment of resistance genes. Pi-ta is one of the major blast resistant genes effective against pathogen populations in different parts of India. We analysed allelic variants of Pi-ta from 48 rice lines selected after phenotyping of 529 rice landraces across three eco-geographical blast hot spot regions. Besides, Pi-ta orthologue sequences of 220 rice accessions belonging to wild and cultivated species of rice were also included in the study for a better evo-devo perspective of the diversity present in the gene and the selection pressures acting on this locus. We obtained high nucleotide variations (SNPs and insertion-deletions) in the intronic region. We also identified 64 haplotypes based on nucleotide polymorphism in these alleles. Pi-ta orthologues of Indian landraces were scattered in eight major haplotypes indicating its heterogenous nature. We identified a total of 47 different Pi-ta protein variants on the basis of deduced amino acid residues amongst the orthologues. Five unique and novel Pi-ta variants were identified for the first time in rice landraces exhibiting different reaction types against the Magnaporthe oryzae population. A high value of Pi(non/syn) was observed only in the leucine-rich domain of the alleles cloned from Indian landraces, indicating strong selective forces acting on this region. The detailed molecular analysis of the Pi-ta orthologues provides insights to a high degree of inter- and intraspecific relationships amongst the Oryza species. We identified rice landraces possessing the effective alleles of this resistance gene which can be used in future blast resistance breeding programmes.

  8. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  9. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  10. Effect of cassava hay and rice bran oil supplementation on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsin, R; Wanapat, M; Rowlinson, P

    2012-10-01

    Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH) and rice bran oil (RBO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1) control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C), (T2) Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH), (T3) Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO), and (T4) Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO). The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH)2 (purchased as hydrated lime) in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM) straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05). Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05). Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05). In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05) F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  11. Effect of Cassava Hay and Rice Bran Oil Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Milk Yield and Milk Composition in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lunsin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian lactating dairy cows, with an average live weight of 418±5 kg and 36±10 d in milk were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of cassava hay (CH and rice bran oil (RBO on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk yield, and milk composition. Factor A was non-supplementation or supplementation with CH in the concentrate. Factor B was supplementation with RBO at 0% or 4% in the concentrate mixture. The four dietary treatments were (T1 control (Concentrate with non-CH plus 0% RBO; C, (T2 Concentrate with CH plus 0% RBO (CH, (T3 Concentrate with non-CH plus 4% RBO (RBO, and (T4 Concentrate with CH plus 4% RBO (CHRBO. The cows were offered concentrate, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and urea-lime treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. Urea-lime treated rice straw involved 2.5 g urea and 2.5 g Ca(OH2 (purchased as hydrated lime in 100 ml water, the relevant volume of solution was sprayed onto a 100 g air-dry (91% DM straw, and then covering the stack with a plastic sheet for a minimum of 10 d before feeding directly to animals. The CH based concentrate resulted in significantly higher roughage intake and total DM intake expressed as a percentage of BW (p<0.05. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, BUN and total VFA did not differ among treatments, while RBO supplementation increased propionate, but decreased acetate concentration (p<0.05. Furthermore, the population of total ruminal bacteria was significantly lower on the RBO diet (p<0.05. In contrast, the total ruminal bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria on the CH diet were higher than on the other treatments. Supplementation with CH increased (p<0.05 F. succinogens and R. flavefaciens populations, whereas the populations of B. fibrisolvens and M. elsdenii were increased on the RBO diet. In addition, supplementation with CH and RBO had no effect on milk production

  12. Selection of common bean lines with high grain yield and high grain calcium and iron concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerinéia Dalfollo Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of common bean nutritional quality has advantages in marketing and can contribute to society as a food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability for grain yield, calcium and iron concentrations in grains of inbred common bean lines obtained by different breeding methods. For this, 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Pedigree method and 136 F7 inbred lines were obtained using the Single-Seed Descent (SSD method. The lines showed genetic variability for grain yield, and concentrations of calcium and iron independently of the method of advancing segregating populations. The Pedigree method allows obtaining a greater number of lines with high grain yield. Selection using the SSD method allows the identification of a larger number of lines with high concentrations of calcium and iron in grains. Weak negative correlations were found between grain yield and calcium concentration (r = -0.0994 and grain yield and iron concentration (r = -0.3926. Several lines show genetic superiority for grain yield and concentrations of calcium and iron in grains and their selection can result in new common bean cultivars with high nutritional quality.

  13. Absorción de nitrógeno y rendimiento de arroz con diferentes formas de nitrógeno aplicado previo al riego Nitrogen uptake and rice yield with different forms of nitrogen applied before irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Eugenio Quintero

    2011-12-01

    . A field trial was conducted to evaluate the responsiveness and absorption efficiency of different sources and forms of nitrogen. Urea, ammonium sulfate (AS, calcium nitrate (CN, solution of urea-ammonium nitrate-thiosulfate (UAN + ATS and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN were tested. A fertilizer rate of 60 kg N/ha was applied before irrigation and a control treatment with no N was included. Rice N uptake and yield was measured. The control treatment yielded 9756 kg/ha and total N uptake was 137 kg/ha, while the fertilized treatments absorbed from 164 to 185 kg N/ha. Pure fertilizer sources (urea, SA, CN showed a high rate of initial N uptake, with an 80 to 100% apparent recovery of N fertilizer at the panicle differentiation stage. Surprisingly, the greatest response was observed in the treatment with CN, presenting a high fertilizer use efficiency. The mixed sources (UAN+ATS, CAN showed a lower N uptake and fertilizer recovery. The results of this field trial indicate that denitrification losses were not significant and nitric sources could be used in rice fertilization.

  14. CG FARRAPO: a sudangrass cultivar with high biomass and grain yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ghisleni Arenhardt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The new sudangrass cultivar [Sorghum sudanense (Piper Stapf.] was developed by the method of selection of individual plants with progeny testing. The most important traits are high biomass yield with high grain yield.

  15. [Isolation, identification and characterization of rice rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1201 producing high level of biopesticide "Shenqinmycin" and phenazine-1-carboxamide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lian; Jiang, Haixia; Jin, Kaiming; Sun, Shuang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-04-04

    To identify bacterial strains with the inhibitory activity to rice pathogens, and to evaluate their potentials for the development of new biopesticides. Rice rhizosphere Pseudomonas strains were isolated using 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole carbon source. Strain PA1201 was further identified through morphological analysis, biochemical characterization, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phospholipid fatty acid profiling. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the production of the green pesticide Shenqinmycin as well as phenazine-1-carboxamide produced by PA1201 was done by HPLC. Cytotoxicity of PA1201 was evaluated using human alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and Drosophila melanogaster as hosts. Strain PA1201 inhibited Rhizotonia solani Kuhn and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agents of rice sheath blight and bacterial blight, respectively. It was further identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1201, which produces shenqinmycin and phenazine-1-carboxamide. The fermentation titer of shenqinmycin and phenazine-1-carboxamide in the PPM medium was 81.7 mg/L and 18. 1 mg/L, respectively. In the medium supplemented with soybean meal and corn steep liquor, the level of shenqinmycin and phenazine-1-carboxamide reached 926. 9 mg/L and 489. 5 mg/L. PA1201 also produced high level of extracellular protease and was toxic to human cell line and fruit fly. Strain PA1201 could be engineered for higher yield of Shenqinmycin or for a new biopesticide.

  16. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Khan, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ullah, Abid; Wu, Chao; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharby, Hesham; Amanullah; Nasim, Wajid; Shahzad, Babar; Tanveer, Mohsin; Huang, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT) and high night temperatures (HNT) under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC) was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT). Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  17. Biocontrol potential of Halotolerant bacterial chitinase from high yielding novel Bacillus Pumilus MCB-7 autochthonous to mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishad, K S; Rebello, Sharrel; Shabanamol, P S; Jisha, M S

    2017-04-01

    The multifaceted role of chitinase in medicine, agriculture, environmental remediation and various other industries greatly demands the isolation of high yielding chitinase producing microorganisms with improved properties. The current study aimed to investigate the isolation, characterization and biocontrol prospective of chitinase producing bacterial strains autochthonous to the extreme conditions of mangrove ecosystems. Among the 51 bacterial isolates screened, Bacillus pumilus MCB-7 with highest chitinase production potential was identified and confirmed by 16S rDNA typing. Chitinase enzyme of MCB-7 was purified; the chitin degradation was evaluated by SEM and LC-MS. Unlike previously reported B.pumilus isolates, MCB-7 exhibited highest chitinase activity of 3.36U/mL, active even at high salt concentrations and temperature up to 60°C. The crude as well as purified enzyme showed significant antimycotic activity against agricultural pathogens such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Ceratorhiza hydrophila and Fusarium oxysporum. The enzyme also exhibited biopesticidal role against larvae of Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker). [Lep.: Pyralidae], a serious agricultural pest of rice. The high chitinolytic and antimycotic potential of MCB-7 increases the prospects of the isolate as an excellent biocontrol agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high chitinase yielding Bacillus pumilus strain from mangrove ecosystem with a biocontrol role against phytopathogenic fungi and insect larval pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Manejo do solo e o rendimento de soja, milho, feijão e arroz em plantio direto Yield of soybean, corn, common bean and rice under no-tillage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Kluthcouski

    2000-03-01

    soil management associated with three levels of phosphorus and potassium fertilization (no fertilizer application, recommended fertilization, reposition of nutrients removed by grains on the yield of corn, soybean, bean and rice crops in area submitted to eight years of no-tillage. The experiments of corn, soybean, upland rice and bean were conducted using a randomized complete block design, in strip plots with four replications on a Oxisol of high fertility. Soil management or fertility did not affect soybean yield while moldboard plowing significantly increased corn, rice and common bean yields. The bean crop also showed positive effects of phosphorus and potsassium applications.

  19. Evaluation of high yielding mutants of Hordeumvulgare cultivar Izgrev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dyulgerova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Seeds of Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar Izgrev were treated with different concentrations of sodium azide to induce genetic variability for the selection of genotypes with improved traits. After passing through different stages of selection, 18 promising mutants were selected for further studies. Eighteen mutants and their parent and national standard cultivar Veslets were evaluated in Complete Block Design with four replications. The research was conducted in 2013 – 2014 and 2014 – 2015 growing seasons in the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture Karnobat, Southeastern Bulgaria. The characters studied included days to heading, plant height, lodging, peduncle length, spike length, awn length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight and grain yield. Wide variation among mutant lines was observed for different traits. Mutant lines M4/16 and M 3/14 produced significantly greater grain yield than the parent and standard cultivar. Positive changes in lodging tolerance, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weightwere also observed. This study showed positive effects in the use of mutation in inducing improvement for grain yield and some yield related traits.

  20. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea. (Cicer arietinum). ..... between photosynthesis and seed number at phloem isolated nodes in soybean. Crop. Science39: 1769-1775. Carlson, J.B. 1973. Morphology. pp. 17-95. In: Wilcox, J.R. (Ed.).

  1. Effect of nano packaging on preservation quality of Nanjing 9108 rice variety at high temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Hu, Qiuhui; Mugambi Mariga, Alfred; Cao, Chongjiang; Yang, Wenjian

    2018-01-15

    A nano packaging material containing nano Ag, nano TiO2, nano attapulgite and SiO2 was prepared, and its impact on quality of Nanjing 9108 rice at 37°C and 85% relative humidity was studied. Effects of the packaging on ambient gases and chromatic aberration of rice were determined. Moreover, oxidation level, molds growth and flavor of rice were also analyzed. Results showed that nano packaging material had antimicrobial effects and maintained low O2 and high CO2 content in the packages. The packages thereby inhibited the growth of molds and the production of fatty acids, restrained the increase of lipase activity, and reduced the oxidation of fats and proteins. As a result, the production of yellow and white-belly rice were inhibited. Furthermore, the color and flavor of rice were maintained. Therefore, the nano-packing material could be applied for preservation of rice to improve preservation quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Willingness-to-accept and purchase genetically modified rice with high folate content in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, H; Gellynck, X; Storozhenko, S; Liqun, G; Lambert, W; Van Der Straeten, D; Viaene, J

    2010-02-01

    Neural-tube defects (NTDs) are considered to be the most common congenital malformations. As Shanxi Province, a poor region in the North of China, has one of the highest reported prevalence rates of NTDs in the world, folate fortification of rice is an excellent alternative to low intake of folate acid pills in this region. This paper investigates the relations between socio-demographic indicators, consumer characteristics (knowledge, consumer perceptions on benefits, risks, safety and price), willingness-to-accept and willingness-to-pay genetically modified (GM) rice. The consumer survey compromises 944 face-to-face interviews with rice consumers in Shanxi Province, China. Multivariate analyses consist of multinomial logistic regression and multiple regression. The results indicate that consumers generally are willing-to-accept GM rice, with an acceptance rate of 62.2%. Acceptance is influenced by objective knowledge and consumers' perceptions on benefits and risks. Willingness-to-pay GM rice is influenced by objective knowledge, risk perception and acceptance. Communication towards the use of GM rice should target mainly improving knowledge and consumers' perceptions on high-risk groups within Shanxi Province, in particular low educated women. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Breeding elite japonica-type soft rice with high protein content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... raw material for processing rice refreshments or pastries and the raw material for making the famous Chinese. “rice-flour noodles”. However, the agronomic characteristics of native varie- ties of soft rice in Yunnan are poor. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Plant strain and construction of plasmid vector.

  4. Multigene Engineering in Rice Using High-Capacity Agrobacterium tumefaciens BIBAC Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruifeng

    2016-01-01

    The high-capacity binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) vector system permits the insertion of large fragments of DNA, up to 150 kb, into plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for transformation of japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) using this system. Calli derived from mature embryos are transformed using Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 that carries the BIBAC vector and the super-virulent helper plasmid pCH32. Transformed calli are then regenerated using optimized media and tested for transgene integration by PCR, GUS assay, and Southern blot analyses.

  5. Crop and varietal diversification of rainfed rice based cropping systems for higher productivity and profitability in Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, B; Gautam, Priyanka; Panda, B B; Raja, R; Singh, Teekam; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Nayak, A K

    2017-01-01

    Rice-rice system and rice fallows are no longer productive in Southeast Asia. Crop and varietal diversification of the rice based cropping systems may improve the productivity and profitability of the systems. Diversification is also a viable option to mitigate the risk of climate change. In Eastern India, farmers cultivate rice during rainy season (June-September) and land leftovers fallow after rice harvest in the post-rainy season (November-May) due to lack of sufficient rainfall or irrigation amenities. However, in lowland areas, sufficient residual soil moistures are available in rice fallow in the post-rainy season (November-March), which can be utilized for raising second crops in the region. Implementation of suitable crop/varietal diversification is thus very much vital to achieve this objective. To assess the yield performance of rice varieties under timely and late sown conditions and to evaluate the performance of dry season crops following them, three different duration rice cultivars were transplanted in July and August. In dry season several non-rice crops were sown in rice fallow to constitute a cropping system. The results revealed that tiller occurrence, biomass accumulation, dry matter remobilization, crop growth rate, and ultimately yield were significantly decreased under late transplanting. On an average, around 30% yield reduction obtained under late sowing may be due to low temperature stress and high rainfall at reproductive stages of the crop. Dry season crops following short duration rice cultivars performed better in terms of grain yield. In the dry season, toria was profitable when sown earlier and if sowing was delayed greengram was suitable. Highest system productivity and profitability under timely sown rice may be due to higher dry matter remobilization from source to sink. A significant correlation was observed between biomass production and grain yield. We infer that late transplanting decrease the tiller occurrence and assimilate

  6. Rice husks as a sustainable source of nanostructured silicon for high performance Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nian; Huo, Kaifu; McDowell, Matthew T.; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of useful materials from earth-abundant substances is of strategic importance for industrial processes. Despite the fact that Si is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust, processes to form Si nanomaterials is usually complex, costly and energy-intensive. Here we show that pure Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) can be derived directly from rice husks (RHs), an abundant agricultural byproduct produced at a rate of 1.2 × 108 tons/year, with a conversion yield as high as 5% by mass. And owing to their small size (10–40 nm) and porous nature, these recovered SiNPs exhibits high performance as Li-ion battery anodes, with high reversible capacity (2,790 mA h g−1, seven times greater than graphite anodes) and long cycle life (86% capacity retention over 300 cycles). Using RHs as the raw material source, overall energy-efficient, green, and large scale synthesis of low-cost and functional Si nanomaterials is possible. PMID:23715238

  7. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds accumulated in brown rice grains ripened under high air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Ono, Hiroshi; Iwasawa, Norio; Takai, Toshiyuki; Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Kondo, Motohiko

    2013-12-11

    This study aimed to examine the compounds increasing or decreasing in concentration in brown rice grains ripened under high air temperature during ripening using a heat-tolerant cultivar Fusaotome, a heat-intolerant cultivar Hatsuboshi, and an intermediate cultivar Koshihikari. 6-O-Feruloylsucrose (1), 3',6-di-O-sinapoylsucrose (2), 3'-O-sinapoyl-6-O-feruloylsucrose (3), 3',6-di-O-feruloylsucrose (4), cycloartenyl ferulate (5), and 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (6) were isolated from the extracts of brown rice grains. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. The mean concentrations of compounds 2, 3, and 6 in the grains ripened under high air temperature were markedly higher than those ripened under normal air temperature. In contrast, the mean concentration of compound 5 in the grains ripened under high air temperature was markedly lower than those ripened under normal air temperature. Thus, compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 constitute potential biomarkers of heat stress in the cultivars used. The mean concentrations of compound 4 in the grains of Fusaotome were the highest in all cultivars. In contrast, the mean concentration of compound 5 in the grains of Fusaotome was the lowest. Therefore, the unique composition of heat-tolerant Fusaotome combines a high concentration of compound 4 with a low concentration of compound 5.

  8. Comparison of saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded rice straw and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ian P; Cao, Huong-Giang; Tran, Long; Cook, Nicola; Ryden, Peter; Wilson, David R; Moates, Graham K; Collins, Samuel R A; Elliston, Adam; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation produces two waste streams, straw and husk, which could be exploited more effectively. Chemical pretreatment studies using rice residues have largely focussed on straw exploitation alone, and often at low substrate concentrations. Moreover, it is currently not known how rice husk, the more recalcitrant residue, responds to steam explosion without the addition of chemicals. The aim of this study has been to systematically compare the effects of steam explosion severity on the enzymatic saccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice straw and husk produced from a variety widely grown in Vietnam (Oryza sativa, cv. KhangDan18). Rice straw and husk were steam exploded (180-230 °C for 10 min) into hot water and washed to remove fermentation inhibitors. In both cases, pretreatment at 210 °C and above removed most of the noncellulosic sugars. Prolonged saccharification at high cellulase doses showed that rice straw could be saccharified most effectively after steam explosion at 210 °C for 10 min. In contrast, rice husk required more severe pretreatment conditions (220 °C for 10 min), and achieved a much lower yield (75 %), even at optimal conditions. Rice husk also required a higher cellulase dose for optimal saccharification (10 instead of 6 FPU/g DM). Hemicellulase addition failed to improve saccharification. Small pilot scale saccharification at 20 % (w/v) substrate loading in a 10 L high torque bioreactor resulted in similarly high glucose yields for straw (reaching 9 % w/v), but much less for husk. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under optimal pretreatment and saccharification conditions showed similar trends, but the ethanol yield from the rice husk was less than 40 % of the theoretical yield. Despite having similar carbohydrate compositions, pretreated rice husk is much less amenable to saccharification than pretreated rice straw. This is likely to attenuate its use as a biorefinery

  9. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  10. Rice root curling, a response to mechanosensing, is modulated by the rice E3-ubiquitin ligase HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (OsHOS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, T F; Serra, T S; Cordeiro, A M; Swanson, S J; Gilroy, S; Saibo, N J M; Oliveira, M M

    2016-08-02

    Plant development depends on the perception of external cues, such as light, gravity, touch, wind or nutrients, among others. Nevertheless, little is known regarding signal transduction pathways integrating these stimuli. Recently, we have reported the involvement of a rice E3-ubiquitin ligase (OsHOS1, HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1), previously associated with abiotic stress response, in root responses to mechanical stimuli. We showed that OsHOS1 is involved in the regulation of root curling after mechanosensing and that RNAi::OsHOS1 plants failed to exhibit the root curling phenotype observed in WT. Interestingly, the straight root phenotype of these transgenics correlated with the up-regulation of rice ROOT MEANDER CURLING (OsRMC, a negative regulator of rice root curling) and was reverted by the exogenous application of jasmonic acid. Altogether, our results highlight the role of the proteasome modulating plant responses to mechanical stimuli and suggest that OsHOS1 is a hub integrating environmental and hormonal signaling into plant growth and development.

  11. Differences in rumen fermentation characteristics between low-yield and high-yield dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, Ahmad; Mitsumori, Makoto; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Uyeno, Yutaka; Hasunuma, Toshiya; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yokokawa, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Tsuneko; Shinkai, Takumi; Hirako, Makoto; Kushibiki, Shiro

    2017-07-01

    Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate : propionate ratio were changed (P cholesterol, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in the HY group were higher (P milk yield and milk compositions were differently clustered between groups. These parameters showed similar direction with dry matter intake in the HY group and adverse direction in the LY group. Linear regression analysis indicated that butyrate was positively correlated with BHBA (P cows in the HY group seem to accommodate appropriately to negative energy balance in early lactation through rumen fermentation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Overexpressing of OsAMT1-3, a High Affinity Ammonium Transporter Gene, Modifies Rice Growth and Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Aili; Liang, Zhijun; Zhao, Zhuqing; Cai, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    AMT1-3 encodes the high affinity NH4+ transporter in rice roots and is predominantly expressed under nitrogen starvation. In order to evaluate the effect of AMT1-3 gene on rice growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism, we generated AMT1-3-overexpressing plants and analyzed the growth phenotype, yield, carbon and nitrogen metabolic status, and gene expression profiles. Although AMT1-3 mRNA accumulated in transgenic plants, these plants displayed significant decreases in growth when compared to the wild-type plants. The nitrogen uptake assay using a 15N tracer revealed poor nitrogen uptake ability in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. We found significant decreases in AMT1-3-overexpressing plant leaf carbon and nitrogen content accompanied with a higher leaf C/N ratio. Significant changes in soluble proteins and carbohydrates were also observed in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. In addition, metabolite profile analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of genes that participate in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Additionally, the correlation between the metabolites and gene expression patterns was consistent in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants under both low and high nitrogen growth conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the carbon and nitrogen metabolic imbalance caused by AMT1-3 overexpressing attributed to the poor growth and yield of transgenic plants. PMID:25915023

  13. Overexpressing of OsAMT1-3, a High Affinity Ammonium Transporter Gene, Modifies Rice Growth and Carbon-Nitrogen Metabolic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Bao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AMT1-3 encodes the high affinity NH4+ transporter in rice roots and is predominantly expressed under nitrogen starvation. In order to evaluate the effect of AMT1-3 gene on rice growth, nitrogen absorption and metabolism, we generated AMT1-3-overexpressing plants and analyzed the growth phenotype, yield, carbon and nitrogen metabolic status, and gene expression profiles. Although AMT1-3 mRNA accumulated in transgenic plants, these plants displayed significant decreases in growth when compared to the wild-type plants. The nitrogen uptake assay using a 15N tracer revealed poor nitrogen uptake ability in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. We found significant decreases in AMT1-3-overexpressing plant leaf carbon and nitrogen content accompanied with a higher leaf C/N ratio. Significant changes in soluble proteins and carbohydrates were also observed in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants. In addition, metabolite profile analysis demonstrated significant changes in individual sugars, organic acids and free amino acids. Gene expression analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of genes that participate in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Additionally, the correlation between the metabolites and gene expression patterns was consistent in AMT1-3-overexpressing plants under both low and high nitrogen growth conditions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the carbon and nitrogen metabolic imbalance caused by AMT1-3 overexpressing attributed to the poor growth and yield of transgenic plants.

  14. Carbon materials derived from rice husks at low and high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, G. J. H.; Wang, Z.; Siambun, N. J.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-07-01

    Rice husk (RH) can be classified as an agriculture residue, majorly produced from by-product of rice milling industries. However, RHs are only mainly utilized for low value energy resource. A great number of researches and innovations have shown that heat treated RHs can turn into valuable carbon materials. In this study, the RHs were carbonized at 800°C and 2500°C, respectively. Their structure, morphology, elemental composition, and quality were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The carbon materials obtained from low and high temperature carbonization processes showed different characteristics. High purity and crystallinity of carbon materials were obtained from RHs carbonized at 2500°C. Furthermore, from Raman results, RHs carbonized at 2500°C exhibited low D/G ratio. This further reveals that the RHs carbonized at 2500°C possess minimal defects. The unique characteristics of RHs carbonized at high temperature indicate that they could be a promising material to be utilized in particular or various applications.

  15. Comparative analysis of the transcriptional responses to low and high temperatures in three rice planthopper species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Jian; Xue, Jian; Zhuo, Ji-Chong; Cheng, Ruo-Lin; Xu, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2017-05-01

    The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH), white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera, WBPH) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) are important rice pests in Asia. These three species differ in thermal tolerance and exhibit quite different migration and overwintering strategies. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we sequenced and compared the transcriptome of the three species under different temperature treatments. We found that metabolism-, exoskeleton- and chemosensory-related genes were modulated. In high temperature (37 °C), heat shock protein (HSP) genes were the most co-regulated; other genes related with fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and transportation were also differentially expressed. In low temperature (5 °C), the differences in gene expression of the genes for fatty acid synthesis, transport proteins and cytochrome P450 might explain why SBPH can overwinter in high latitudes, while BPH and WBPH cannot. In addition, other genes related with moulting, and membrane lipid composition might also play roles in resistance to low and high temperatures. Our study illustrates the common responses and different tolerance mechanisms of three rice planthoppers in coping with temperature change, and provides a potential strategy for pest management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Consumo e eficiência do uso da água e componentes do rendimento do arroz irrigado Water use ifficiency, water consumiption and rice yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gregório Ramos Hernandez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de manejo da água, preparo do solo e de herbicidas no rendimento de grãos, consumo de água, eficiência do uso da água e nos componentes do rendimento do arroz irrigado. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola 1993/1994 em área da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS. A cultivar de arroz BR-IRGA-414 foi semeada em linhas, em 22 de dezembro de 1993. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, trifatorial (2³, constituído de duas épocas do início da irrigação (15 e 30 dias após a emergência - DAE, dois sistemas de preparo do solo (preparo convencional e cultivo mínimo e controle de plantas invasoras (com e sem uso de herbicidas. Os resultados demonstraram que o consumo de água não diferiu significativamente entre os tratamentos. A associação entre o início da irrigação aos 30 DAE e o cultivo mínimo promoveu menor eficiência do uso da água. O inicio da irrigação aos 15 DAE proporcionou maior índice de colheita com maior número de panículas por metro quadrado e também menor esterilidade de espiguetas em relação à irrigação com início aos 30 DAE.The objective of this experiment was to study the effect oftwo water managments, tiliage systems and weed contral on rice yield, water use and water use efficiency and crop yield components. The experiment was conducted in 1993/94 crop growing season in the experimental field ofthe Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria - RS. Rice cultivar BR-IRGA-414 was sowed in rows in December 22, 1993. A factorial (23 experiment in a completely randomized block design was used wiih two irrigation dates (15 and 30 days after emergency - DAE, two soil tillage system (minimum and conventional and two weed control leveis (with and withoul herbicide appiication. The results indicate that the water consumption was similar among ali treatments. The interaction between irrigation at 30 DAE

  17. Change in Localizations of Arsenic in Rice Grains After Cooking with High Arsenic Waters - µXRF and XANES studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, S.; Ryan, B.; Kumar, N.; Bortz, T.; Bolen, Z. T.

    2016-12-01

    Threats of Arsenic (As) through food uptake, via consumption of rice, is a potential pathway that presents a concern not only for the millions of inhabitants who reside in river valleys and irrigate their soil with contaminated water, but the global rice market as well. This study focuses on high As rice from India and Bangladesh grown in such soils, and the effect of boiling rice with As-contaminated water in preparation for dietary intake. Husked and unhusked rice grains were boiled with >500 µg/L As-bearing water from the field to simulate local cooking methods. The resulting cooked water was analyzed using iCAP low limit detection via ICP-MS to understand the changes in dissolved elemental concentrations before and after cooking, and HPLC was introduced to measure for changes in As speciation in the waters. Using spectroscopic methods such as µXRF mapping associated with µXANES, distribution/localization and speciation changes of As in rice grains were identified. Further, with Linear Combination Fitting (LCF) of XANES spectra utilizing relevant reference compounds (As-S, AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA), organic and inorganic As species were able to be mapped within rice grains. The results for uncooked/raw grains showed that predominantly As-S combined with AsIII and AsV accounted for 90% of speciation in most samples, localized in areas such as the outer aleurone layer. When analyzing cooked rice grains, the speciation appears to be an unidentified As species while the best LCF shows between 63-93% of As as MMA. Arsenic was found less localized throughout the cooked grains but rather heterogeneously distributed when compared to the uncooked/raw samples. The analyses of boiled/cooked water resulted in a significant decrease in dissolved As post-cooking (90%), but a subsequent increase in elements such as K, La, Li, Mo, Na, Ni, and Zr was observed; As-V was shown to be the main in-As species in the cooked water. The impact that this study portrays is consuming rice

  18. Structural changes of high-amylose rice starch residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Changquan; Zhou, Xinghua; Dong, Ying; Zhang, Fengmin; Liu, Qiaoquan; Wei, Cunxu

    2012-09-12

    High-amylose cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch content. In this paper, starches were isolated from mature grains of high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) and its wild-type rice cultivar Te-qing (TQ) and digested in vitro and in vivo. The structural changes of digestive starch residues were characterized using DSC, XRD, (13)C CP/MAS NMR, and ATR-FTIR. TQ starch was very susceptible to digestion; its residues following in vitro and in vivo digestion showed similar structural characteristics with TQ control starch, which suggested that both amorphous and crystalline structures were simultaneously digested. Both amorphous and the long-range order structures were also simultaneously hydrolyzed in TRS starch, but the short-range order (double helix) structure in the external region of TRS starch granule increased with increasing digestion time. The A-type polymorph of TRS C-type starch was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the B-type polymorph. These results suggested that B-type crystallinity and short-range order structure in the external region of starch granule made TRS starch resistant to digestion.

  19. Developing high throughput genotyped chromosome segment substitution lines based on population whole-genome re-sequencing in rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Gu Minghong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic populations provide the basis for a wide range of genetic and genomic studies and have been widely used in genetic mapping, gene discovery and genomics-assisted breeding. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs are the most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs, for the analysis of complex traits in plant molecular genetics. Results In this study, a wide population consisting of 128 CSSLs was developed, derived from the crossing and back-crossing of two sequenced rice cultivars: 9311, an elite indica cultivar as the recipient and Nipponbare, a japonica cultivar as the donor. First, a physical map of the 128 CSSLs was constructed on the basis of estimates of the lengths and locations of the substituted chromosome segments using 254 PCR-based molecular markers. From this map, the total size of the 142 substituted segments in the population was 882.2 Mb, was 2.37 times that of the rice genome. Second, every CSSL underwent high-throughput genotyping by whole-genome re-sequencing with a 0.13× genome sequence, and an ultrahigh-quality physical map was constructed. This sequencing-based physical map indicated that 117 new segments were detected; almost all were shorter than 3 Mb and were not apparent in the molecular marker map. Furthermore, relative to the molecular marker-based map, the sequencing-based map yielded more precise recombination breakpoint determination and greater accuracy of the lengths of the substituted segments, and provided more accurate background information. Third, using the 128 CSSLs combined with the bin-map converted from the sequencing-based physical map, a multiple linear regression QTL analysis mapped nine QTLs, which explained 89.50% of the phenotypic variance for culm length. A large-effect QTL was located in a 791,655 bp region that contained the rice 'green revolution' gene. Conclusions The present results demonstrated that high

  20. Developing high throughput genotyped chromosome segment substitution lines based on population whole-genome re-sequencing in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianjun; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Peina; Xu, Chenwu; Wang, Baohe; Feng, Qi; Liu, Qiaoquan; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Han, Bin; Liang, Guohua

    2010-11-24

    Genetic populations provide the basis for a wide range of genetic and genomic studies and have been widely used in genetic mapping, gene discovery and genomics-assisted breeding. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are the most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), for the analysis of complex traits in plant molecular genetics. In this study, a wide population consisting of 128 CSSLs was developed, derived from the crossing and back-crossing of two sequenced rice cultivars: 9311, an elite indica cultivar as the recipient and Nipponbare, a japonica cultivar as the donor. First, a physical map of the 128 CSSLs was constructed on the basis of estimates of the lengths and locations of the substituted chromosome segments using 254 PCR-based molecular markers. From this map, the total size of the 142 substituted segments in the population was 882.2 Mb, was 2.37 times that of the rice genome. Second, every CSSL underwent high-throughput genotyping by whole-genome re-sequencing with a 0.13× genome sequence, and an ultrahigh-quality physical map was constructed. This sequencing-based physical map indicated that 117 new segments were detected; almost all were shorter than 3 Mb and were not apparent in the molecular marker map. Furthermore, relative to the molecular marker-based map, the sequencing-based map yielded more precise recombination breakpoint determination and greater accuracy of the lengths of the substituted segments, and provided more accurate background information. Third, using the 128 CSSLs combined with the bin-map converted from the sequencing-based physical map, a multiple linear regression QTL analysis mapped nine QTLs, which explained 89.50% of the phenotypic variance for culm length. A large-effect QTL was located in a 791,655 bp region that contained the rice 'green revolution' gene. The present results demonstrated that high throughput genotyped CSSLs combine the advantages of an ultrahigh

  1. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  2. Rendimento do arroz e manejo da irrigação e da palha de azevém no sistema mix de pré-germinado Rice yield and management of irrigation and ryegrass straw on flooded rice in no tillage and water seed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González Pinto

    2003-04-01

    limiting factor in many agricultural areas, when high productivity is the objective. Alternative system of crop cultivation using no tillage on flooded water seed system can be used to minimize the problem. Although this system has technical and economical advantages on the production chain, especially on red rice control, anaerobic process of ryegrass straw decomposition may produce toxic substances to rice plants establishment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different water irrigation management and the amount of ryegrass straw on grain yield and yield components on paddy rice cultivated. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, during the 1998/99 crop growing season, on Hidromorphy Planosoil, sandy Eutrophic, soil mapping unit "Vacacaí", over ryegrass crop residue at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS. The rice cultivar IRGA 417 was used. A completely randomized design factorial (3x3, three water management (with neither vertical nor surface in-out water flow over the soil, with drainage and surface water flow and three amount of ryegrass straw (0.0 t ha-1, 3.43 t ha-1 and 6.86 t ha-1. The data demonstrated that a permanent flooding with neither vertical nor surface in-out water flow reduce dry matter above ground and grain yield when compared to the treatments with drainage and surface in-out water flow. Increasing the amount of ryegrass straw on the no-tillage water seed system, with neither vertical nor surface in-out water flow, on the flooded water the grain yield is reduced.

  3. Mapping QTL for Seed Germinability under Low Temperature Using a New High-Density Genetic Map of Rice

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    Ningfei Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping major quantitative trait loci (QTL responsible for rice seed germinability under low temperature (GULT can provide valuable genetic source for improving cold tolerance in rice breeding. In this study, 124 rice backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRILs derived from a cross indica cv. Changhui 891 and japonica cv. 02428 were genotyped through re-sequencing technology. A bin map was generated which includes 3057 bins covering distance of 1266.5 cM with an average of 0.41 cM between markers. On the basis of newly constructed high-density genetic map, six QTL were detected ranging from 40 to 140 kb on Nipponbare genome. Among these, two QTL qCGR8 and qGRR11 alleles shared by 02428 could increase GULT and seed germination recovery rate after cold stress, respectively. However, qNGR1 and qNGR4 may be two major QTL affecting indica Changhui 891germination under normal condition. QTL qGRR1 and qGRR8 affected the seed germination recovery rate after cold stress and the alleles with increasing effects were shared by the Changhui 891 could improve seed germination rate after cold stress dramatically. These QTL could be a highly valuable genetic factors for cold tolerance improvement in rice lines. Moreover, the BRILs developed in this study will serve as an appropriate choice for mapping and studying genetic basis of rice complex traits.

  4. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

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    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  5. Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in high and low- yielding dairy cows

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    Afshin Jafari Dehkordi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiography (ECG may be used to recognize cardiac disorders. Levels of milk production may change the serum electrolytes which its imbalance has a role in cardiac arrhythmia. Fifty high yielding and fifty low yielding Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Electrocardiography was recorded by base-apex lead and blood samples were collected from jugular vein for measurement of serum elements such as sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium. Cardiac dysrhythmias were detected more frequent in low yielding Holstein cows (62.00% compared to high yielding Holstein cows (46.00%. The cardiac dysrhythmias that were observed in low yielding Holstein cows included sinus arrhythmia (34.70%, wandering pacemaker (22.45 %, bradycardia (18.37%, tachycardia (10.20%, atrial premature beat (2.04%, sinoatrial block (2.04%, atrial fibrillation (8.16% and atrial tachycardia (2.04%. The cardiac dysrhythmias were observed in high yielding Holstein cows including, sinus arrhythmia (86.95% and wandering pacemaker (13.05%. Also, notched P wave was observed to be 30% and 14% in high- and low- yielding Holstein cows respectively. The serum calcium concentration of low yielding Holstein cows was significantly lower than that of high yielding Holstein cows. There was not any detectable significant difference in other serum elements between high- and low- yielding Holstein cows. Based on the result of present study, could be concluded that low serum concentration of calcium results to more frequent dysrhythmias in low yielding Holstein cows.

  6. Effect of fertiliser on functional properties of flour from four rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anil; Sirisena, Nihal; Ratnayaka, Upul Kumari; Ratnayaka, Jennet; Kong, Xiangli; Vidhana Arachchi, Lal Peruma; Corke, Harold

    2011-05-01

    Fertiliser is an essential agro-chemical input in modern rice farming. Fertiliser affects the grain quality and yield of rice. Although much research has been carried out to investigate the influence of fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) on yield and quality of rice grain, little is known about the effect of fertiliser on thermal, pasting, gelling and retrogradation properties of rice flour. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of recommended fertilisation on functional properties of rice flour from four popular high yielding rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka. Fertiliser (recommended NPK addition) increased the protein content but reduced the apparent amylose content in rice flour except in BG 357. Swelling power and amylose leaching were decreased by fertilizer. [corrected] Pasting onset temperature, cold paste viscosity and setback were increased but peak viscosity and granular breakdown decreased. In response to the fertiliser application, gelatinisation peak temperature was reduced in all varieties except BG 300. However, compared to pasting properties, gelatinisation parameters were not much affected by fertilisation. The extent of amylopectin retrogradation was decreased by fertiliser in BG 305 and BG 352 but unchanged in the other two varieties. Except in BG 305, fertiliser reduced the gel hardness of rice flour but increased the gel cohesiveness. It is apparent that the increased protein and reduced amylose content caused by fertiliser affect the functional properties of rice flour. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Specific Effects of Carbofuran on Rice Agrosystem in Yogyakarta Plant Growth and Rice Stem Borer Populations

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    Eddy Mahrub

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of carbofuran in controlling lowland rice stem borers in traditional farming systems was studied by looking at its impact on the whole rice agroecosystem. Levels of infestation, rice yield, damage to the plant, parasitism rates, and distribution of damage were compared after medium, high, and no (control dosages were applied to lowland rice fields near Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Although larvae were found to be more numerous in control plots, the damage attributable to them was not significantly different. Their spatial distribution, however, differed radically. The authors concluded that carbofuran might affect pest populations at two different levels: by discouraging or preventing rice stem borers from laying their eggs on rice, and by delaying or eliminating natural enemies attacks on rice stem borers. Both levels were determined by comparing the distribution of damage in treated fields with untreated fields. In the treated fields, distributions of larvae seemed to reflect initial grouping of eggs, producing a random distribution of groups, while in the control fields larvae were found in random distribution of individuals.

  8. Down-regulation of OsSPX1 causes high sensitivity to cold and oxidative stresses in rice seedlings.

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    Chunchao Wang

    Full Text Available Rice SPX domain gene, OsSPX1, plays an important role in the phosphate (Pi signaling network. Our previous work showed that constitutive overexpression of OsSPX1 in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants improved cold tolerance while also decreasing total leaf Pi. In the present study, we generated rice antisense and sense transgenic lines of OsSPX1 and found that down-regulation of OsSPX1 caused high sensitivity to cold and oxidative stresses in rice seedlings. Compared to wild-type and OsSPX1-sense transgenic lines, more hydrogen peroxide accumulated in seedling leaves of OsSPX1-antisense transgenic lines for controls, cold and methyl viologen (MV treatments. Glutathione as a ROS scavenger could protect the antisense transgenic lines from cold and MV stress. Rice whole genome GeneChip analysis showed that some oxidative-stress marker genes (e.g. glutathione S-transferase and P450s and Pi-signaling pathway related genes (e.g. OsPHO2 were significantly down-regulated by the antisense of OsSPX1. The microarray results were validated by real-time RT-PCR. Our study indicated that OsSPX1 may be involved in cross-talks between oxidative stress, cold stress and phosphate homeostasis in rice seedling leaves.

  9. The competitiveness of domestic rice production in East Africa: A domestic resource cost approach in Uganda

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    Masao Kikuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of rice imports in sub-Saharan Africa under the unstable situation in the world rice market during the 2000s has made it an important policy target for the countries in the region to increase self-sufficiency in rice in order to enhance food security. Whether domestic rice production can be competitive with imported rice is a serious question in East African countries that lie close, just across the Arabian Sea, to major rice exporting countries in South Asia. This study investigates the international competitiveness of domestic rice production in Uganda in terms of the domestic resource cost ratio. The results show that rainfed rice cultivation, which accounts for 95% of domestic rice production, does not have a comparative advantage with respect to rice imported from Pakistan, the largest supplier of imported rice to Uganda. However, the degree of non-competitiveness is not serious, and a high possibility exists for Uganda’s rainfed rice cultivation to become internationally competitive by improving yield levels by applying more modern inputs and enhancing labour productivity. Irrigated rice cultivation, though very limited in area, is competitive even under the present input-output structure when the cost of irrigation infrastructure is treated as a sunk cost. If the cost of installing irrigation infrastructure and its operation and maintenance is taken into account, the types of irrigation development that are economically feasible are not large-scale irrigation projects, but are small- and microscale projects for lowland rice cultivation and rain-water harvesting for upland rice cultivation.

  10. Nanoporous Activated Carbon Derived from Rice Husk for High Performance Supercapacitor

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    Huaxing Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous activated carbon material was produced from the waste rice husks (RHs by precarbonizing RHs and activating with KOH. The morphology, structure, and specific surface area were investigated. The nanoporous carbon has the average pore size of 2.2 nm and high specific area of 2523.4 m2 g−1. The specific capacitance of the nanoporous carbon is calculated to be 250 F g−1 at the current density of 1 A g−1 and remains 80% for 198 F g−1 at the current density of 20 A g−1. The nanoporous carbon electrode exhibits long-term cycle life and could keep stable capacitance till 10,000 cycles. The consistently high specific capacitance, rate capacity, and long-term cycle life ability makes it a potential candidate as electrode material for supercapacitor.

  11. Display of cellulases on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high yield ethanol production from high-solid lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Yuki; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-03-01

    Economically feasible processes for industrial cellulosic ethanol production requires increasing the final ethanol titer during fermentation due to the high energy demands of the subsequent ethanol distillation. In the present study, high-yield ethanol production was achieved by short-term liquefaction and fermentation of lignocellulose biomass in a novel drum-type rotary fermentation system using a yeast strain developed for cell-surface display of fungal endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and β-glucosidase. In the presence of 10 FPU/g-biomass cellulase added, the recombinant cellulolytic strain produced 1.4-fold higher ethanol (89% of theoretical yield) from high-solid (200 g-dry weight/L) rice straw within 72 h of fermentation than wild type strain. Cell-surface engineering successfully reduced the amount of commercial enzyme required for the fermentation of cellulose. This study demonstrates that cellulases displayed on the yeast cell surface are capable of hydrolyzing cellulose that was not hydrolyzed by commercial cellulases, leading to increased sugar utilization for improved ethanol production. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  13. Ganho de produtividade pelo melhoramento genético do arroz irrigado no nordeste do Brasil Yield gain through irrigated rice breeding in the northeast Brazil

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    Flávio Breseghello

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Os ganhos genéticos para produtividade obtidos pelo programa de melhoramento do arroz irrigado por inundação na Região Nordeste do Brasil no período de 1984 a 1993 foram estimados visando avaliar a eficiência do programa e traçar novas estratégias. Esta estimativa foi feita a partir dos dados de 59 ensaios regionais de rendimento conduzidos pelas empresas de pesquisa agropecuária do Nordeste, em cooperação com a Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão (CNPAF, Goiânia, GO. O método estatístico utilizado baseia-se em médias ajustadas por modelo linear generalizado. O ganho genético médio estimado foi de 54,9 ± 14,4 kg/ha/ano (0,8%. Nos últimos três anos houve uma tendência de interrupção dos ganhos. A pequena magnitude dos ganhos para produção nesta região podem ser atribuídos ao direcionamento do programa de geração de linhagens da Embrapa para qualidade de grãos e resistência a doenças, às diferenças ambientais existentes entre Goiânia e a Região Nordeste e ao pequeno número de ensaios conduzidos. A genealogia das linhagens foi traçada e verificou-se que os principais ancestrais são os mesmos das cultivares recomendadas. A base genética das linhagens é estreita, o que também pode estar contribuindo para a obtenção de pequenos ganhos genéticos para produtividade.The genetic gains for yield obtained by the breeding program of irrigated rice in the Northeast Region of Brazil from 1984 to 1993 were estimated to evaluate the program efficiency. This estimation was done based on data from 59 regional field trials conducted by the Northeastern farm research institutions in cooperation with Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão (CNPAF, Goiânia, GO, Brazil. The statistical method used was based on adjusted means by generalized linear model. The estimated mean genetic gain was 54.9 ± 14.4 kg/ha-1/yr-1 (0,8%. However, in the last three years, there was a tendency of interrupting

  14. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Uddin, Md. Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L). Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice) ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg) linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg) and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg). The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis), with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg), campesterol (116–242 mg/kg), Δ5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg) were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data), identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods. PMID:22605998

  15. STORAGE, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FAT FISH AND RICE FLOUR COEXTRUDATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; Amarender Singh Bawa

    2013-10-01

    The present research is on understanding the storage, nutritional and sensory characteristics of high-fat fish (khoira) and rice flour coextrudates at storage temperature of 30C. The extruder processing conditions used are barrel temperature (200C), screw speed (109 rpm), fish content of feed (44%) and feed moisture content (39%). Sorption isotherm data indicated that the safe aw level was about 0.4–0.7. Guggenheim -Anderson -de Boer model described the sorption data adequately with an r2 value of 0.99. During the initial 15 days of storage, there was a loss of vitamin A and total tocopherols by 64.4 and 20.6%, and an increase in peroxides and free fatty acid content by about 116 mg/kg and 21.7%. The nonlinear mathematical model developed has adequately described the changes in nutritional and storage properties. Sensory attributes indicated that the product fried for 15 s was most acceptable.

  16. Linear correlation between components production and yield of rice upland in no-tillage Correlação linear entre componentes da produção e produtividade do arroz de terras altas em sistema plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira da Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rice is one of the main sources of the humanity’s feeding. During the agricultural year 2009/2010, in Selvíria County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, in the Brazilian Savannah, an experiment was installed with rice upland in a Dystropherric Red Latosol (Typic Acrustox under no-tillage, irrigated by central pivot, with the purpose of selecting the best components production to explain the variability the irrigated rice yield upland. The geostatistical grid was installed, to collect the data, with 120 sampling points, in an area of 3.0 ha and and homogeneous slope of 0.055 m m-1. The medium rice yield was of the 5980 kg ha-1. For the simple lineal regressions, the number of spikelets grenades for panicle presented the best direct potential correlation with the yield rice, given for: PGO = 115,5.NEG0,770. However, for the multiple lineal regressions, the equation equação PGO = 2754,30-411,55.NEG-461,07.NEC+436,59. NET it was the one that better she came to esteem the yield rice. However, spatial, it was not possible to establish correlation between the yield rice and the components production, once none of those it presented spatial dependence in their data.O arroz é uma das principais fontes de alimentação da humanidade. Durante o ano agrícola 2009/2010, no município de Selvíria (MS, no Cerrado Brasileiro, foi instalado um experimento com arroz de terras altas em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob sistema plantio direto, irrigado por pivô central, com o objetivo de selecionar os melhores componentes da produção para explicar a variabilidade da produtividade do arroz de terras altas irrigado. Foi instalada a malha geoestatística, para a coleta de dados, com 120 pontos amostrais, numa área de 3,0 ha e declive homogêneo de 0,055 m m-1. A produtividade média de grãos de arroz foi de 5980 kg ha-1. Para as regressões lineares simples, o número de espiguetas granadas por panícula apresentou a melhor correlação potencial

  17. Improved completion practices yield high productivity wells. [Louisiana Gulf Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    In the mid-1960's, a special in-house task force was assembled in response to a number of sand ups and casing failures in Shell's production complex at the mouth of the Mississippi River. This task force developed concepts and techniques for better completions. The techniques have been modified and adjusted to specific situations, but the concepts remain the fundamental backbone of Shell's high success ratio and excellent response from completions in the shallow unconsolidated sands in the Louisiana Gulf Coast. Five major steps leading to high performance producers are identified as the following: clean fluids, adequate perforation, effective perforation cleanup, efficient gravel pack, and proper initiation of production.

  18. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  19. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  20. Comparação de modelos matemáticos na estimativa das perdas de produtividade de grãos em arroz irrigado Comparison of mathematical models in estimating flooded rice grain yield losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Agostinetto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram comparar modelos matemáticos e identificar, entre variáveis morfológicas, a de melhor ajuste na previsão de perdas de produtividade em arroz irrigado por interferência da cultivar EEA 406, simuladora de arroz-vermelho. Foram realizados quatro experimentos, sendo um no campo e os demais em casa de vegetação. Três cultivares de arroz, BRS-38 Ligeirinho, IRGA 417 e BR-IRGA 409, foram estudadas no campo, com espaçamento entrelinhas de 15 e 25 cm, além de populações da cultivar competidora (dez níveis. Em casa de vegetação, realizaram-se experimentos em monocultivos e em série de substituição. A análise dos dados foi realizada com aplicação de modelos lineares e não lineares de regressão. O melhor ajuste dos dados de perdas de produtividade em arroz foi encontrado com o modelo de dois parâmetros. Área foliar e cobertura do solo estimaram melhor as perdas de produtividade de grãos do que a massa seca da cultivar simuladora. Os modelos testados indicam que a redução do espaçamento entrelinhas aumenta a habilidade competitiva das cultivares de arroz em relação à cultivar concorrente.The objectives of this work were to compare mathematical models and identify, among morphologic variables, the one better adjusted to rice grain yield losses by interference of EEA 406 cultivar, simulating red rice. Four experiments were carried out, one in the field and the others in a greenhouse. Rice cultivars BRS-38 Ligeirinho, IRGA 417, and BR-IRGA 409, were studied in the field in row widths of 15 and 25 cm, and populations (ten levels of concurrent cultivar. In greenhouse, tests in monocultures were carried out in a replacement series model. Data analysis were accomplished with application of linear and non linear regression models. The best adjustment of rice grain yield losses data was attained using the model with two parameters. Leaf area and soil coverage estimated better grain yield loss than dry

  1. Rice husk ash with high carbon content proves favourable for soil stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, P.V.; van der Star, WRL; van Paassen, L.A.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    Rice husk ash is a promising pozzolanic material produced from rice husk burning and has significant potential a sustainable replacement for cement in construction and ground improvement applications. In this study the effect of burning conditions on the ash reactivity and its potential for soil

  2. Not just a grain of rice: the quest for quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fizgerald, M.A.; McCouch, S.R.; Hall, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of the factors that contribute to the overall grain quality of rice (Oryza sativa) will lay the foundation for developing new breeding and selection strategies for combining high quality, with high yield. This is necessary to meet the growing global demand for high quality

  3. Reassessment of the four yield-related genes Gn1a, DEP1, GS3 and IPA1 in rice using a CRISPR/Cas9 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiru eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR-associated (Cas systems have been successfully used as efficient tools for genome editing in a variety of species. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate the Gn1a (Os01g0197700, DEP1 (Os09g0441900, GS3 (Os03g0407400 and IPA1 (Os08g0509600 genes of rice cultivar Zhonghua 11, genes which have been reported to function as regulators of grain number, panicle architecture, grain size and plant architecture, respectively. Analysis of the phenotypes and frequencies of edited genes in the first generation of transformed plants (T0 showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was highly efficient in inducing targeted gene editing, with the desired genes being edited in 42.5% (Gn1a, 67.5% (DEP1, 57.5% (GS3 and 27.5% (IPA1 of the transformed plants. The T2 generation of the gn1a, dep1, and gs3 mutants featured enhanced grain number,dense erect panicles and larger grain size, respectively. Furthermore, semi-dwarf, and grain with long awn, phenotypes were observed in dep1 and gs3 mutants, respectively. The ipa1 mutants showed two contrasting phenotypes, having either fewer tillers or more tillers, depending on the changes induced in the OsmiR156 target region. In addition, we found that mutants with deletions occurred more frequently than previous reports had indicated and that off-targeting had taken place in highly similar target sequences. These results proved that multiple regulators of important traits can be modified in a single cultivar by CRISPR/Cas9, and thus facilitate the dissection of complex gene regulatory networks in the same genomic background and the stacking of important traits in cultivated varieties.

  4. The production and shelf life of high-iron, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowladda Teangpook

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The production and shelf life of high-iron, dried, pre-cooked rice porridge with ferrous sulphate and other high-iron materials was studied. Broken brown rice was soaked in water and ferrous sulphate was added at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15% of the dried brown rice. The mixture was steamed for 20 min and dried in a double drum dryer. Green shallot, young ginger and cooked chicken fillet were dried in an electric cabinet dryer. Chicken blood and edible fern were dried in a double drum dryer and vacuum freezer respectively. The optimum ferrous sulphate added to the rice was 0.05% and the developed formulation of dried porridge consisted of ferrous sulphate rice (67.80%, chicken fillet (20%, chicken blood (3%, green shallot (0.7%, young ginger (1%, edible fern (0.5%, pepper powder (0.5%, sucrose (3%, salt (3% and monosodium glutamate (0.5%.The dried porridge had a high iron content of 10.18 mg/50 g and the shelf life was three months at room temperature when stored in either aluminum foil laminated bag or metalite bag.

  5. Evaluation of Rice Resistance to Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus through Combined Field Tests, Quantitative Real-Time PCR, and Proteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenchao; Yu, Lu; Jin, Linhong; Wang, Wenli; Zhao, Qi; Ran, Longlu; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Guo, Rong; Wei, Yongtian; Yang, Zhongcheng; Liu, Enlong; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-02-22

    Diseases caused by southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) considerably decrease grain yield. Therefore, determining rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV is necessary. In this study, rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV were evaluated through field trials in Shidian and Mangshi county, Yunnan province, China. SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to quantitatively detect virus gene expression levels in different rice varieties. The following parameters were applied to evaluate rice resistance: acre yield (A.Y.), incidence of infected plants (I.I.P.), virus load (V.L.), disease index (D.I.), and insect quantity (I.Q.) per 100 clusters. Zhongzheyou1 (Z1) and Liangyou2186 (L2186) were considered the most suitable varieties with integrated higher A.Y., lower I.I.P., V.L., D.I. and I.Q. In order to investigate the mechanism of rice resistance, comparative label-free shotgun liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic approaches were applied to comprehensively describe the proteomics of rice varieties' SRBSDV tolerance. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-related proteins in Z1 and L2186 may result in the superior resistance of these varieties compared with Fengyouxiangzhan (FYXZ).

  6. Evaluation of Rice Resistance to Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus through Combined Field Tests, Quantitative Real-Time PCR, and Proteome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV considerably decrease grain yield. Therefore, determining rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV is necessary. In this study, rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV were evaluated through field trials in Shidian and Mangshi county, Yunnan province, China. SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis was used to quantitatively detect virus gene expression levels in different rice varieties. The following parameters were applied to evaluate rice resistance: acre yield (A.Y., incidence of infected plants (I.I.P., virus load (V.L., disease index (D.I., and insect quantity (I.Q. per 100 clusters. Zhongzheyou1 (Z1 and Liangyou2186 (L2186 were considered the most suitable varieties with integrated higher A.Y., lower I.I.P., V.L., D.I. and I.Q. features. In order to investigate the mechanism of rice resistance, comparative label-free shotgun liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS proteomic approaches were applied to comprehensively describe the proteomics of rice varieties’ SRBSDV tolerance. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR-related proteins in Z1 and L2186 may result in the superior resistance of these varieties compared with Fengyouxiangzhan (FYXZ.

  7. Molecular physiological aspects of chalking mechanism in rice grains under high-temperature stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Mitsui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature stress during grain filling hastens the growth rate of endosperm and causes grain chalkiness. Scanning microscopy of chalky areas reveals loosely packed, rounded starch granules with occasional small pits. Intensive investigation of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome in developing caryopses under high-temperature stress revealed the downregulation of starch synthesis enzymes and the upregulation of α-amylases. High-temperature ripening may unbalance the synthesis and degradation of starch in the developing endosperm cells. In addition to starches, storage proteins are synthesized, assembled, and stored in developing seeds. Several lines of evidence suggest that redox regulation affects seed maturation, including the accumulation of storage starches and proteins, and thus grain quality. A heat-tolerant cultivar of rice shows a characteristic high expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD. H2O2 produced by SOD under high-temperature stress possibly acts as a signal that rapidly can promote the expression of stress-response proteins. Herein, we will discuss the possible molecular physiology of grain chalking under high-temperature stress.

  8. High confinement, high yield Si3N4 waveguides for nonlinear optical application

    CERN Document Server

    Epping, Jörn P; Mateman, Richard; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René G; van Rees, Albert; van der Slot, Peter J M; Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel fabrication technique for silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides with a thickness of up to 900 nm, which are suitable for nonlinear optical applications. The fabrication method is based on etching trenches in thermally oxidized silicon and filling the trenches with Si3N4. Using this technique no stress-induced cracks in the Si3N4 layer were observed resulting in a high yield of devices on the wafer. The propagation losses of the obtained waveguides were measured to be as low as 0.4 dB/cm at a wavelength of around 1550 nm.

  9. Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-11

    Aug 11, 2014 ... Abstract. Blast disease caused by the pathogen Pyricularia oryzae is a serious threat to rice production. Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1,. F2, B1 and B2 of a cross between blast susceptible high-yielding rice cultivar ADT 43 and resistant near isogenic line (NIL). CT13432-3R, carrying four blast resistance ...

  10. Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Blast disease caused by the pathogen Pyricularia oryzae is a serious threat to rice production. Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, B1 and B2 of a cross between blast susceptible high-yielding rice cultivar ADT 43 and resistant near isogenic line (NIL) CT13432-3R, carrying four blast resistance genes Pi1, Pi2, Pi33 and Pi54 ...

  11. Determination of rice canopy growth based on high resolution satellite images: a case study using RapidEye imagery in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Processing to correct atmospheric effects and classify all constituent pixels in a remote sensing image is required before the image is used to monitor plant growth. The raw image contains artifacts due to atmospheric conditions at the time of acquisition. This study sought to distinguish the canopy growth of paddy rice using RapidEye (BlackBridge, Berlin, Germany satellite data and investigate practical image correction and classification methods. The RapidEye images were taken over experimental fields of paddy rice at Chonnam National University (CNU, Gwangju, and at TaeAn, Choongcheongnam-do, Korea. The CNU RapidEye images were used to evaluate the atmospheric correction methods. Atmospheric correction of the RapidEye images was performed using three different methods, QUick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC, Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH, and Atmospheric and Topographic Correction (ATCOR. To minimize errors in utilizing observed growth and yield estimation of paddy rice, the paddy fields were classified using a supervised classification method and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds, using the NDVI time-series features of the paddy fields. The results of the atmospheric correction using ATCOR on the satellite images were favorable, which correspond to those from reference UAV images. Meanwhile, the classification method using the NDVI threshold accurately classified the same pixels from each of the time-series images. We have demonstrated that the image correction and classification methods investigated here should be applicable to high resolution satellite images used in monitoring other crop growth conditions.

  12. Response of rice genotypes to weed competition in dry direct-seeded rice in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Gulshan; Ramesha, Mugalodi S; Chauhan, Bhagirath S

    2014-01-01

    The differential weed-competitive abilities of eight rice genotypes and the traits that may confer such attributes were investigated under partial weedy and weed-free conditions in naturally occurring weed flora in dry direct-seeded rice during the rainy seasons of 2011 and 2012 at Ludhiana, Punjab, India. The results showed genotypic differences in competitiveness against weeds. In weed-free plots, grain yield varied from 6.6 to 8.9 t ha(-1) across different genotypes; it was lowest for PR-115 and highest for the hybrid H-97158. In partial weedy plots, grain yield and weed biomass at flowering varied from 3.6 to 6.7 t ha(-1) and from 174 to 419 g m(-2), respectively. In partial weedy plots, grain yield was lowest for PR-115 and highest for PR-120. Average yield loss due to weed competition ranged from 21 to 46% in different rice genotypes. The study showed that early canopy closure, high leaf area index at early stage, and high root biomass and volume correlated positively with competitiveness. This study suggests that some traits (root biomass, leaf area index, and shoot biomass at the early stage) could play an important role in conferring weed competitiveness and these traits can be explored for dry-seeded rice.

  13. Effects of compost and chicken litter on soil nutrition, and sugarcane physiochemistry, yield, and injury caused by Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), infestation in sugarcane have bee