Sample records for high temperature solubility

  1. Determination of Zinc Sulfide Solubility to High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carolina Figueroa Murcia, Diana; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj


    A new experimental set-up and methodology for the measurement of ZnS solubility in aqueous solutions at 40, 60 and 80 °C (atmospheric pressure) is presented. The methodology implemented includes the preparation of the samples in a reduced oxygen atmosphere, particle size analysis of ZnS, quality...... control of the analytical technique and evaluation of equilibration time. ZnS solubility analyses were run for prolonged times (up to 11 days) to ensure that equilibrium conditions were met. The equilibration time was explored at three temperatures (40, 60 and 80 °C) observing small variations in the time...... required to reach the solid–liquid equilibrium at each temperature. Equilibrium was reached within 72 h. The concentration of zinc and of total sulfur were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The experimental solubility data show an exponential dependency...

  2. Solubility Measurements and Modeling of Zinc, Lead and Iron Sulfides at High Temperatures and High Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carolina Figueroa Murcia, Diana; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    task. Consequently existing data are rare and scattered. The aim of this work is to develop a reliable experimental procedure and to measure solubility of sulfides at high temperature and pressures. Additionally the experimental data are used for estimation of the solid-liquid equilibrium using...... the Extended UNIQUAC model. The experimental determination of the solubility of ZnS, PbS and FeS is carried out at temperatures up to 200°C and pressures up to 60 bars. The minerals in their pure form are added to ultra-pure water previously degassed with nitrogen. The aqueous solution is prepared in a reduced...... oxygen atmosphere to avoid the risk of oxidation of sulfide minerals. The solution is kept in an equilibrium cell at constant temperature and pressure with continuous stirring. The concentration of Zn2+, Pb2+, Fe2+ and S2- are measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission spectrometry (ICP...

  3. Solubility of zinc ferrite in high-temperature oxygenated water (United States)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Hiroishi, Daisuke; Matsuura, Chihiro; Ishigure, Kenkichi


    The solubility of zinc ferrite was measured at 423 K, 473 K, and 523 K in an oxygenated water system, which is rather similar to the chemical condition of boiling water reactors. Thermodynamic analysis was performed by a procedure minimizing standard Gibbs free energy of the system at the final state. From both the analysis and the experimental results it was concluded that the dissolution process of ZnFe 2O 4 in conditions where no redox reaction occurs is described by combination of ZnFe 2O 4 dissolution and Fe 2O 3 precipitation equilibria. By fitting to the experimental results, thermodynamic data of ZnFe 2O 4 are re-analyzed at 423 K, 473 K, and 523 K.

  4. Development of High Temperature Type Vacuum Insulation Panel using Soluble Polyimide and Characteristic Evaluation (United States)

    Araki, Kuninari; Kamoto, Daigorou; Matsuoka, Shin-Ichi

    The utilization is expected from the high-insulated characteristic as a tool for energy saving also in the high temperature insulation fields as in vacuum insulation panels (VIP) in the future. For high temperature, the material composition and process of VIP were reviewed, the SUS foil was adopted as packaging material, and soluble polyimide was developed as the thermo compression bonding material for high temperature VIP at 150°C. To lower the glass-transition temperature (Tg) under 200°C, we elaborated the new soluble polyimide using aliphatic diamine copolymer, and controlled Tg to about 176°C. By making from trial VIP and evaluations, it was possible to be maintain high performance concerning the coefficient of thermal conductivity [λ<0.008 W/(m·K) at 150°C].

  5. Prediction and experimental determination of the solubility of exotic scales at high temperatures - Zinc sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carolina Figueroa Murcia, Diana; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj


    at extreme conditions. The aim of this work is to include ZnS into the group of scale materials that can be modeled with the Extended UNIQUAC model. Solubility data for ZnS are scarce in the open literature. In order to improve the available data, we study the experimental behavior of ZnS solubility at high...... temperatures. The determination of the solubility of ZnS is carried out at temperatures up to 250°C. Zinc sulfide (99.99%) and ultra-pure water are placed in a vial in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. The sample is placed in a controlled bath and stirred until equilibrium is attained. The suspension is filtered...... at the same process temperature and diluted immediately. Afterwards the aqueous solution is analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) as analytical technique. The concentrations of Zn2+ and S2- ions are analyzed. The experimental data are used for parameter estimation...

  6. C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner


    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

  7. Cr(III) solubility in aqueous fluids at high pressures and temperatures (United States)

    Watenphul, Anke; Schmidt, Christian; Jahn, Sandro


    frequencies in the range of the two strongest experimentally observed Raman bands, whereas Cr-O stretching vibrations of hydroxy-chloride complexes occur at wavenumbers above 400 cm-1. Solubility and complexation of Cr(III) depend strongly on the activities of Cl- and H+. At high H+ and Cl- activity, the results are consistent with CrCl(H2O)0-2-1-0 complexes as major Cr(III) species, the Cr coordination number of which increases with pressure by becoming more aquated. At low Cl- activity, i.e. in our study at high-temperature low-pressure conditions, the data indicate mixed CrClx((OH)z3-x-z complexes with Cl-Cr ratios less than three. In situ μ-XRF solubility experiments conducted with eskolaite + (H2O + 29 mass% Na2CO3) and kosmochlor + (H2O + 44 mass% Na2Si3O7) resulted in dissolved Cr concentrations at or below the detection limit of 500 ppm. Thus, acidic chloridic fluids seem to be more efficient agents for Cr(III) mobilization and transport at crustal conditions than aqueous alkali carbonate or silicate solutions.

  8. C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner


    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

  9. Solubility study of nickel ferrite in boric acid using a flow-through autoclave system under high temperature and high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Joon; Choi, Ke Chon; Ha, Yeong Keong [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The solubility of nickel ferrite in an aqueous solution of boric acid was studied by varying the pH at the temperatures ranging from 25 .deg. C to 320 .deg. C. A flow-through autoclave system was specially designed and fabricated to measure the solubility of Fe in hydrothermal solutions under high temperature and pressure. The performance of this flow-through system was directly compared with the conventional static state technique using a batch-type autoclave system. The stability of fluid velocity for the flow-through autoclave system was verified prior to the solubility measurement. The influence of chemical additives, such as boric acid and H2, on the solubility of nickel ferrite was also evaluated.

  10. Determination of oligofructose, a soluble dietary fiber, by high-temperature capillary gas chromatography. (United States)

    Joye, D; Hoebregs, H; Joye, D; Hoebregs, H


    A high-temperature capillary gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of oligofructose in foods and food products. Sample preparation involves oxymation and silylation of the extracted sugars. The oximetrimethylsilyl derivatives are analyzed on an apolar capillary column, with detection by flame ionization. The method is accurate, with recovery of spiked samples at >96%. Repeatability was excellent; RSD values of 1.1% were obtained. Other common oligosaccharides, such as malto-, isomalto-, and galactooligosaccharides, and levan do not interfere, making the method specific and reliable.

  11. Directs measurement of high temperature/high pressure solubility of methane and carbon dioxide in polyamide (PA-11) using a high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Rubin, A; Andersen, Simon Ivar


    Experiments to determine the Solubility of methane and carbon dioxide in PA-11 have been performed in the temperature range 50-90&DEG; C and the pressure ranges 50-150 bar for methane and 20-40 bar for carbon dioxide. In general, the results agree fairly well with previous experiments for similar...

  12. Accumulation of soluble sugars in peel at high temperature leads to stay-green ripe banana fruit. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotang; Pang, Xuequn; Xu, Lanying; Fang, Ruiqiu; Huang, Xuemei; Guan, Peijian; Lu, Wangjin; Zhang, Zhaoqi


    Bananas (Musa acuminata, AAA group) fail to develop a yellow peel and stay green when ripening at temperatures >24 degrees C. The identification of the mechanisms leading to the development of stay-green ripe bananas has practical value and is helpful in revealing pathways involved in the regulation of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation. In the present study, the Chl degradation pathway was characterized and the progress of ripening and senescence was assessed in banana peel at 30 degrees C versus 20 degrees C, by monitoring relevant gene expression and ripening and senescence parameters. A marked reduction in the expression levels of the genes for Chl b reductase, SGR (Stay-green protein), and pheophorbide a oxygenase was detected for the fruit ripening at 30 degrees C, when compared with fruit at 20 degrees C, indicating that Chl degradation was repressed at 30 degrees C at various steps along the Chl catabolic pathway. The repressed Chl degradation was not due to delayed ripening and senescence, since the fruit at 30 degrees C displayed faster onset of various ripening and senescence symptoms, suggesting that the stay-green ripe bananas are of similar phenotype to type C stay-green mutants. Faster accumulation of high levels of fructose and glucose in the peel at 30 degrees C prompted investigation of the roles of soluble sugars in Chl degradation. In vitro incubation of detached pieces of banana peel showed that the pieces of peel stayed green when incubated with 150 mM glucose or fructose, but turned completely yellow in the absence of sugars or with 150 mM mannitol, at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C. The results suggest that accumulation of sugars in the peel induced by a temperature of 30 degrees C may be a major factor regulating Chl degradation independently of fruit senescence.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalal Abedi


    A systematic investigation was conducted to provide an accurate determination of hydrogen solubility in liquid media in temperatures in the range of 25-250 C and pressures in the range of 0.5-8 MPa. Results were obtained by an indirect gas solubility measurement method. The method was intended for use with high-resolution camera. The hydrogen solubility measurements were indirect and were based on pressure changes at constant temperature and measured volumes. Since the volume of the view cell was fixed the volume available for the vapor phase could be determined by measuring the location of the liquid-vapor interface. The interface was located to within the height of one pixel using high-resolution camera, which added {+-} 0.4 ml to the uncertainty of the vapor volume. Liquid-liquid interface locations were measured with equal precision. The accuracy of the method was illustrated through hydrogen solubility measurements in hexadecane and tetralin, which were in close agreement with the values available in the literature. Hydrogen solubilities in Athabasca bitumen vacuum bottoms (ABVB) were reported over a broad range of temperatures (80-250 C) and pressures (0.5-8 MPa).

  14. Non-isothermal scavenging of highly soluble gaseous pollutants by rain in the atmosphere with non-uniform vertical concentration and temperature distributions (United States)

    Elperin, Tov; Fominykh, Andrew; Krasovitov, Boris


    We suggest a non-isothermal one-dimensional model of precipitation scavenging of highly soluble gaseous pollutants in inhomogeneous atmosphere. When gradients of soluble trace gases' concentrations and temperature in the atmosphere are small, scavenging of gaseous pollutants is governed by two linear wave equations that describe propagation of a scavenging and temperature waves in one direction. If wash-down front velocity is much larger than the velocity of the temperature front, scavenging is determined by propagating scavenging front in the atmosphere with inhomogeneous temperature distribution. We solved the derived equation by the method of characteristics and determined scavenging coefficient and the rates of precipitation scavenging for wet removal of sulfur dioxide using measured initial distributions of trace gases and temperature in the atmosphere. It is shown that in the case of exponential initial distribution of soluble trace gases and linear temperature distribution in the atmosphere, scavenging coefficient in the region between the ground and the position of a scavenging front is proportional to rainfall rate, solubility parameter in the under-cloud region, adjacent to a bottom of a cloud and to the growth constant in the formula for the initial profile of a soluble trace gas in the atmosphere. The derived formula yields the same value of scavenging coefficient for sulfur dioxide scavenging by rain as field estimates presented by McMahon and Denison (Atmos Environ 13:571-585, 1979). It is demonstrated that in the case when the altitude variation of temperature in the atmosphere is determined by the environmental lapse rate, scavenging coefficient increases with height in the region between the scavenging front and the ground. In the case when altitude temperature variation in the atmosphere is determined by temperature inversion, scavenging coefficient decreases with height in a region between the scavenging front and the ground. Theoretical

  15. AN-107 entrained solids - Solubility versus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; RC Lettau


    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids entrained in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. BNFL requested Battelle to dilute the AN-107 sample using sodium hydroxide and de-ionized water to mimic expected plant operating conditions. BNFL further requested Battelle to assess the solubility of the solids present in the diluted AN-107 sample versus temperature conditions of 30, 40, and 50 C. BNFL requested these tests to assess the composition of the LAW supernatant and solids versus expected plant-operating conditions.

  16. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan


    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer.

  17. In situ analysis of proteins at high temperatures mediated by capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer with a water-soluble chromogenic reagent. (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Nagayoshi, Hiroki; Yao, Toshio


    In situ monitoring of quantities, interactions, and conformations of proteins is essential for the study of biochemistry under hydrothermal environments and the analysis of hyperthermophilic organisms in natural hydrothermal systems on Earth. We have investigated the potential of a capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer (CHUS) for performing in situ measurements of proteins and determining their behavior at extremely high temperatures, in combination with a chromogenic reagents probe, which interacts with the proteins. The spectral shift obtained using a combination of water-soluble porphyrin (TPPS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was the best among the spectral shifts obtained using different combinations of chromogenic reagents and proteins. The association behavior of TPPS with BSA was investigated in detail using CHUS at temperatures up to 175 degrees C and the association constant (K(ass)) of TPPS with BSA was successfully determined at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. The lnK(ass) values were inversely proportional to the T(-1) values in the temperature range 50-100 degrees C. These analyses showed for the first time that the decrease of association of TPPS with BSA is due to the conformational change, fragmentation, and/or denaturing of BSA rather than the decrease of the hydrophobic association between TPPS and BSA. This study conclusively demonstrates the usability of the CHUS system with a chromogenic reagent as an in situ detection and measurement system for thermostable proteins at extremely high temperatures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan


    ... conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs...

  19. Temperature and curing time affect composite sorption and solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luscino Alves de Castro


    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of temperature and curing time on composite sorption and solubility. Material and Methods: Seventy five specimens (8×2 mm were prepared using a commercial composite resin (ICE, SDI. Three temperatures (10°C, 25°C and 60°C and five curing times (5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 40 s and 60 s were evaluated. The specimens were weighed on an analytical balance three times: A: before storage (M1; B: 7 days after storage (M2; C: 7 days after storage plus 1 day of drying (M3. The storage solution consisted of 75% alcohol/25% water. Sorption and solubility were calculated using these three weights and specimen dimensions. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests (α=5%. Results: The results showed that time, temperature and their interaction influenced the sorption and solubility of the composite (p0.05. The 60°C composite temperature led to lower values of sorption for all curing times when compared with the 10°C temperature (p0.05. Solubility was similar at 40 s and 60 s for all temperatures (p>0.05, but was higher at 10°C than at 60°C for all curing times (p0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, higher temperatures or longer curing times led to lower sorption and solubility values for the composite tested; however, this trend was only significant in specific combinations of temperature and curing times.

  20. Solubility of HCL in sulfuric acid at stratospheric temperatures (United States)

    Williams, Leah R.; Golden, David M.


    The solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid was measured using a Knudsen cell technique. Effective Henry's law constants are reported for sulfuric acid concentrations between 50 and 60 weight percent and for temperatures between 220 and 230 K. The measured values indicate that very little HCl will be dissolved in the stratospheric sulfate aerosol particles.

  1. Solubility and Partitioning of Carbon and Sulfur in Fe-rich Alloy and Silicate Melt Systems at High Pressures and Temperatures: Implications for Earth's Heterogeneous Accretion (United States)

    Li, Y.; Dasgupta, R.; Tsuno, K.; Monteleone, B.; Shimizu, N.


    The partitioning of C and S between Fe-rich alloy and silicate melt are critical to understand the origin and distribution of these two volatile elements in terrestrial planets. Thirty-five experiments in graphite capsule have been performed at 2-8 GPa and 1600-2200 °C to investigate the effects of P, T, fO2, H2O, and melt composition on C and S partitioning in Fe-Ni±S±Si alloy and silicate melt systems. The results show that C-solubility in Si-free alloy melt is ~5.5 wt% and is little affected by P, T, or the presence of 0-5 wt.% S [1]. However, C-solubility in Si-bearing alloy decreases from ~5.5 to ~1.8 wt% with increasing Si content to 10 wt.%. C-solubility in silicate melt is mainly controlled by fO2 and the bulk H2O content. At fO2 from IW-0.6 to IW-1.5, C-solubility drops from ~90 to ~10 ppm. However, at fO2 below IW-1.5, C-solubility increases up to 240 ppm with decreasing fO2 if the melt H2O content is 0.3-0.8 wt.%; whereas C-solubility decreases or only slightly increases if melt H2O is IW-1 CO32- peak was undetectable in IR-spectra and a strong correlation between Raman peak intensities of H2 and CH4 was observed. varied from 130 to 4600 and is mainly controlled by fO2 and melt H2O content, as in the case for C-solubility in silicate melt but in an opposite way. varied from 0.4 to 38, mainly controlled by fO2, P, and T. Our new results along with previous data suggest that in a magma ocean, in particular at dry conditions, much more C than S would have segregated in the core. To satisfy the C/S ratios currently estimated for Earth's core and silicate mantle [2], a C-rich but S-poor material needs to be delivered to the silicate Earth after complete core formation. Alternatively, a C- and S-rich material was delivered to the Earth during the late stage of core formation, but with S preferentially segregated in the core in the form of sulfide. [1] Li et al. (2015), EPSL. [2]McDonough (2014), Treatise Geochem.

  2. Impact of synthetic antioxidants on lipid peroxidation of distiller's dried grains with solubles and distiller's corn oil stored under high temperature and humidity conditions. (United States)

    Hanson, A R; Urriola, P E; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C


    This experiment evaluated the effect of antioxidants, oil content in distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), quality of distiller's corn oil, and storage time on lipid peroxidation. A source of low-oil DDGS (LO-DDGS; 5.0% ether extract [EE], as-fed basis), high-oil DDGS (HO-DDGS; 13.0% EE, as-fed basis), and 2 sources of distiller's corn oil (DCO; 1.20, 0.08, and 0.48% moisture, insoluble impurities, and unsaponifiables [MIU], respectively [DCO-1], and 1.20, 0.01, and 0.10% MIU, respectively [DCO-2]) were obtained. Each of the 4 ingredients was divided into 18 representative subsamples (approximately 908 g for DDGS or 2 kg of DCO). Six subsamples of each ingredient were mixed with either no supplemental antioxidants (CON), Rendox-CQ (REN; 1,000 mg/kg EE; Kemin, Industries, Des Moines, IA), or Santoquin-Q4T (SAN; 1,500 mg/kg EE; Novus International, St. Louis, MO). Each mixture ( = 72) was split into thirds, and 1 portion was immediately frozen at -20°C (d 0). Two portions were stored under hot (38.6 ± 0.1°C) and humid conditions (94.0 ± 0.3% relative humidity) for 14 or 28 d. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used to evaluate the effects of ingredient, antioxidant, storage time, and interactions, with d-0 values used as a covariate. From d 14 to 28, peroxide value (PV), -anisidine value (AnV), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of DCO and DDGS increased by 3- to 4-fold ( oil, respectively) exceeded ( oil, respectively). Adding REN or SAN ( oil and AnV = 6.5 ± 0.2) over the entire period (mean of d 14 and 28), but TBARS and AnV did not differ ( > 0.05) between antioxidants (TBARS = 6.1 ± 0.2 and 5.9 ± 0.2 mg malondialdehyde Eq/kg oil, respectively, and AnV = 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.8 ± 0.2 for REN and SAN, respectively). The PV on d 14 and 28 and overall was less ( oil for SAN and REN, respectively). In summary, antioxidants reduced peroxidation of DDGS and DCO by approximately 50% during 28 d of storage at 38.6°C and 94.0% relative humidity

  3. Modified water solubility of milk protein concentrate powders through the application of static high pressure treatment. (United States)

    Udabage, Punsandani; Puvanenthiran, Amirtha; Yoo, Jin Ah; Versteeg, Cornelis; Augustin, Mary Ann


    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-400 MPa at 10-60 °C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20 °C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (~20 °C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40 °C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (~85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility.

  4. Novel enhanced applications of QSPR models: Temperature dependence of aqueous solubility. (United States)

    Klimenko, Kyrylo; Kuz'min, Victor; Ognichenko, Liudmila; Gorb, Leonid; Shukla, Manoj; Vinas, Natalia; Perkins, Edward; Polishchuk, Pavel; Artemenko, Anatoly; Leszczynski, Jerzy


    A model developed to predict aqueous solubility at different temperatures has been proposed based on quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) methodology. The prediction consists of two steps. The first one predicts the value of k parameter in the linear equation lgSw=kT+c, where Sw is the value of solubility and T is the value of temperature. The second step uses Random Forest technique to create high-efficiency QSPR model. The performance of the model is assessed using cross-validation and external test set prediction. Predictive capacity of developed model is compared with COSMO-RS approximation, which has quantum chemical and thermodynamic foundations. The comparison shows slightly better prediction ability for the QSPR model presented in this publication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Solubility of silicon in hcp-iron at high pressure (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.


    The Earth's outer core is believed to be composed of liquid iron alloy with one or more light elements (e.g., Birch 1952; Poirier 1994). Although a number of elements lighter than iron, including hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, silicon, and sulfur, have been considered by various researchers as potential light elements in the Earth's core, silicon is one of the most attractive candidates for the light element in the core (e.g., Takafuji et al. 2005; Sakai et al. 2006; Ozawa et al. 2008, 2009, Wood et al., 2008). The Earth's inner core is considered to consist mainly of a solid iron-nickel alloy. However, multiple experimental studies revealed that the inner core is also less dense than pure iron, indicating the presence of light components in the inner core (e.g., Jephcoat and Olson 1987; Mao et al. 1998; Lin et al. 2005; Badro et al. 2007). If silicon is indeed a major light element in the liquid outer core, the maximum amount of silicon that can be incorporated in the solid inner core during inner-core solidification is limited by the solubility of silicon in solid iron at the pressure of the inner core boundary. Therefore the phase relations of iron-silicon alloys, especially the solubility of silicon in solid iron at high pressure and temperature, are the key to understanding the composition, structure, and crystallization of the inner core. The phase relations of iron-silicon alloys at high pressure have been extensively studied using a multi-anvil apparatus (Zhang and Guyot 1999; Dobson et al. 2002; Kuwayama and Hirose 2004) and a diamond-anvil cell with in-situ x-ray diffraction measurements (Lin et al. 2002; Lin et al. 2003; Dubrovinsky et al. 2003; Hirao et al. 2004; Asanuma et al. 2008, Lin et al 2009, Kuwayama et al. 2009). Below 200 GPa, the solubility of silicon in solid hcp-iron has been well studied. Solid hcp-iron can contain at least ~10 wt% Si at low temperature, but it decomposed to iron-rich hcp phase and silicon-rich bcc phase at high temperature

  6. High temperature measuring device (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.


    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2, C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  7. A Promising New Method to Estimate Drug-Polymer Solubility at Room Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Gannon, Natasha; Porsch, Ilona


    The established methods to predict drug-polymer solubility at room temperature either rely on extrapolation over a long temperature range or are limited by the availability of a liquid analogue of the polymer. To overcome these issues, this work investigated a new methodology where the drug......-polymer solubility is estimated from the solubility of the drug in a solution of the polymer at room temperature using the shake-flask method. Thus, the new polymer in solution method does not rely on temperature extrapolations and only requires the polymer and a solvent, in which the polymer is soluble, that does...... not affect the molecular structure of the drug and polymer relative to that in the solid state. Consequently, as this method has the potential to provide fast and precise estimates of drug-polymer solubility at room temperature, we encourage the scientific community to further investigate this principle both...

  8. Solubility of crude oil in methane as a function of pressure and temperature (United States)

    Price, L.C.; Wenger, L.M.; Ging, T.; Blount, C.W.


    The solubility of a 44?? API (0.806 sp. gr.) whole crude oil has been measured in methane with water present at temperatures of 50 to 250??C and pressures of 740 to 14,852 psi, as have the solubilities of two high molecular weight petroleum distillation fractions at temperatures of 50 to 250??C and pressures of 4482 to 25,266 psi. Both increases in pressure and temperature increase the solubility of crude oil and petroleum distillation fractions in methane, the effect of pressure being greater than that of temperature. Unexpectedly high solubility levels (0.5-1.5 grams of oil per liter of methane-at laboratory temperature and pressure) were measured at moderate conditions (50-200??C and 5076-14504 psi). Similar results were found for the petroleum distillation fractions, one of which was the highest molecular weight material of petroleum (material boiling above 266??C at 6 microns pressure). Unexpectedly mild conditions (100??C and 15,200 psi; 200??C and 7513 psi) resulted in cosolubility of crude oil and methane. Under these conditions, samples of the gas-rich phase gave solubility values of 4 to 5 g/l, or greater. Qualitative analyses of the crude-oil solute samples showed that at low pressure and temperature equilibration conditions, the solute condensate would be enriched in C5-C15 range hydrocarbons and in saturated hydrocarbons in the C15+ fraction. With increases in temperature and especially pressure, these tendencies were reversed, and the solute condensate became identical to the starting crude oil. The data of this study, compared to that of previous studies, shows that methane, with water present, has a much greater carrying capacity for crude oil than in dry systems. The presence of water also drastically lowers the temperature and pressure conditions required for cosolubility. The data of this and/or previous studies demonstrate that the addition of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane, or butane to methane also has a strong positive effect on crude oil

  9. Effect of varying temperature on growth, morphology and soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 16, 2008 ... soluble protein content of PY79 (wild type) and div mutant strains (IA197, IA292, IA314, IA315) was ... Also protein content decreases at sporulation stages. Hence div-mutations are multifaceted mutations which cause effects on cell morphology, sporulation and ..... Exposure of cells to increased tem-.

  10. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.


    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  11. Pb solubility of the high-temperature superconducting phase Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+d}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaesche, S.; Majewski, P.; Aldinger, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)] [and others


    For the nominal composition of Bi{sub 2.27x}Pb{sub x}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+d} the lead content was varied from x=0.05 to 0.45. The compositions were examined between 830{degrees}C and 890{degrees}C which is supposed to be the temperature range over which the so-called 2223 phase (Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+d}) is stable. Only compositions between x=0.18 to 0.36 could be synthesized in a single phase state. For x>0.36 a lead containing phase with a stoichiometry of Pb{sub 4}(Sr,Ca){sub 5}CuO{sub d} is formed, for x<0.18 mainly Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+d} and cuprates are the equilibrium phases. The temperature range for the 2223 phase was found to be 830{degrees}C to 890{degrees}C but the 2223 phase has extremely varying cation ratios over this temperature range. Former single phase 2223 samples turn to multi phase samples when annealed at slightly higher or lower temperatures. A decrease in the Pb solubility with increasing temperature was found for the 2223 phase.

  12. High temperature structural silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.


    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

  13. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar


    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  14. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... input to the cell then hydrogen is produced giving syngas. This syngas can then be further reacted to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Operating at high temperature gives much higher efficiencies than can be achieved with low temperature electrolysis. Current state of the art SOECs utilise a dense...

  15. High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardo, M P


    I review recent results on QCD at high temperature on a lattice. Steady progress with staggered fermions and Wilson type fermions allow a quantitative description of hot QCD whose accuracy in many cases parallels that of zero temperature studies. Simulations with chiral quarks are coming of age, and togheter with theoretical developments trigger interesting developments in the analysis of the critical region. Issues related with the universality class of the chiral transition and the fate of the axial symmetry are discussed in the light of new numerical and analytical results. Transport coefficients and analysis of bottomonium spectra compare well with results of heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Model field theories, lattice simulations and high temperature systematic expansions help building a coherent picture of the high temperature phase of QCD. The (strongly coupled) Quark Gluon Plasma is heavily investigated, and asserts its role as an inspiring theoretical laboratory.

  16. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard


    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...... electrolysis using SOECs is competitive to H-2 production from fossil fuels at electricity prices below 0.02-0.03 is an element of per kWh. Though promising SOEC results on H-2 production have been reported a substantial R&D is still required to obtain inexpensive, high performing and long-term stable...

  17. Temperature Dependence of Mineral Solubility in Water. Part I. Alkaline and Alkaline Earth Chlorides (United States)

    Krumgalz, B. S.


    A database of alkaline and alkaline earth chloride solubilities in water at various temperatures was created using data from more than 670 publications over about the last two centuries. Statistical critical evaluations of the created database were produced since there were enough independent data sources to justify such evaluations. The reliable experimental data were adequately described by polynomial expressions over various temperature ranges. Using the Pitzer approach for ionic activity and osmotic coefficients, the thermodynamic solubility products for the discussed minerals have been calculated at various temperature intervals and also represented by polynomial expressions. The solubility products calculated in the current study yield excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental mineral solubility values in natural waters over a wide range of temperature and ionic solution matrices.

  18. High temperature superconducting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario-Franco, M.A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas


    The perovskite structure is the basis of all known high-temperature superconducting materials. Many of the most successful (highest T{sub c}) materials are based on mercury and thallium phases but, due to the high toxicity of the component compounds effort has been invested in the substitution of these elements with silver. Progress is reviewed. (orig.)

  19. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.


    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  20. High temperature superconductivity: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, K.S.; Coffey, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Meltzer, D.E. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA)); Pines, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Schrieffer, J.R. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA)) (eds.)


    This book is the result of a symposium at Los Alamos in 1989 on High Temperature Superconductivity. The topics covered include: phenomenology, quantum spin liquids, spin space fluctuations in the insulating and metallic phases, normal state properties, and numerical studies and simulations. (JF)

  1. Life at High Temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. Life at High Temperatures. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 23-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  2. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with solubles: A reaction temperature study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Anders; Christensen, Per Runge; Aarup, David Friis


    The effect of the reaction temperature on hydrothermal liquefaction of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) was investigated using a novel stop-flow reactor system at varying temperatures (300–400 °C), fixed pressure (250 bar), and fixed reaction time (15 min). The stop-flow reactor...

  3. Molecular modeling of temperature dependence of solubility parameters for amorphous polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Yuan, C.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Zhang, G.


    A molecular modeling strategy is proposed to describe the temperature (T) dependence of solubility parameter (?) for the amorphous polymers which exhibit glass-rubber transition behavior. The commercial forcefield “COMPASS” is used to support the atomistic simulations of the polymer. The temperature

  4. High temperature future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinkopf, K. [Solar Energy Research and Education Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)


    During the past few years, there have been dramatic accomplishments and success of high temperature solar thermal systems and significant development of these systems. High temperature technologies, about 500 F and higher, such as dish engines, troughs, central receiver power towers and solar process heat systems, have been tested, demonstrated and used in an array of applications, including many cost-effective utility bulk power production and demand side supply projects in the United States. Large systems provide power and hot water to prisons, schools, nursing homes and other institutions. Joint ventures with industry, utility projects, laboratory design assistance and other activities are building a solid industry of US solar thermal systems ready for use today.

  5. Prediction and correlation of high-pressure gas solubility in polymers with simplified PC-SAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Kontogeorgis, Georgios


    Using simplified PC-SAFT we have modeled gas solubilities at high temperatures and pressures for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in each of the three polymers high-density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon polyamide-11 (PA-11), and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). In general the results...... are satisfactory, using in most cases a single, temperature-independent value of the binary interaction parameter. In the cases of methane in HDPE and PVDF, a temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter was required. New pure component polymer parameters for PA-11 and PVDF were obtained using a recently...

  6. Effect of varying temperature on growth, morphology and soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 16, 2008 ... temperature severely affects cell morphology (cell size, cell types, formation of filaments/minicells and staining behavior of cells). ..... 185(2): 693-697. Hancock IC (1994). Analysis of cell wall constituents of Gram – positive bacteria. In: Chemical Methods in Prokaryotic systematics. Good fellow M, O'Donnel ...

  7. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom


    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  8. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server


    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  9. Structural characteristics of a soluble B-glucan with changes in temperature (United States)

    McRorie, Donald K.; Havard, Trevor; Phoebe, Charles H., Jr.


    The determination of the biophysical properties of polysaccharides is becoming increasingly important in commercial and pharmaceutical applications. molecular weights distributions, conformations, and size distributions are obtainable through experiments with analytical ultracentrifugation. These determinations can be difficult, however, due to the high thermodynamic nonideality and polydispersity with respect to both molecular weight and composition, as well as potential self-association commonly observed with these molecules in solution. Usually, a combination of complementary techniques are needed for the full understanding of the solution characteristic of the macromolecules. Although carbohydrates do not have a chromophore absorbing in either the ultraviolet or visible spectrum, optical systems based on refraction of light by the solute can be used for the study of the macromolecular characteristics. (1 yields 3)-(beta) -Glucans are known to exhibit immunomodulatory and biological activities. These activities are dependent on the conformational structure and molecular weight of the glucan. A soluble (1 yields 6)-(beta) - branched (1 yields 3)-(beta) -glucose homopolymer was isolated from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this paper we describe the preliminary characterization of a purified fraction from this soluble glucan measuring molecular weights using analytical ultracentrifugation, light scattering, and size-exclusion chromatography - and we explore the effects of temperature using these techniques.

  10. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans


    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  11. Temperature and salt addition effects on the solubility behaviour of some phenolic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noubigh, Adel [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia)]. E-mail:; Abderrabba, Manef [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des materiaux, IPEST, BP51, 2070 La MARSA (Tunisia); Provost, Elise [Laboratoire Chimie et procedes, ENSTA, 32 Rue de Boulevard Victor, 75739 Paris, Cedex 15 (France)


    Solubility-temperature dependence data for six phenolic compounds (PhC), contained in olive mill wastewater (OMWW), in water and in some chloride salts (KCl, NaCl, and LiCl) aqueous solutions have been presented and solution standard molar enthalpies ({delta}{sub sol} H {sup 0}) were determined using Van't Hoff plots. The temperature was varied from 293.15 K to 318.15 K. Solubility data were estimated using a thermostated reactor and HPLC analysis. It has been observed that solubility, in pure water and in aqueous chloride solutions, increases with increasing temperature. The salting-out LiCl > NaCl > KCl order obtained at 298.15 K is confirmed. Results were interpreted in terms of the salt hydration shells and the ability of the solute to form hydrogen-bond with water. The standard molar Gibbs free energies of transfer of PhC ({delta}{sub tr} G {sup 0}) from pure water to aqueous solutions of the chloride salts have been calculated from the solubility data. In order to estimate the contribution of enthalpic and entropic terms, standard molar enthalpies ({delta}{sub tr} H {sup 0}) and entropies ({delta}{sub tr} S {sup 0}) of transfer have also been calculated. The decrease in solubility is correlated to the positive {delta}{sub tr} G {sup 0} value which is mainly of enthalpic origin.

  12. High Temperature Aquifer Storage (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas


    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  13. Uptake of hypobromous acid (HOBr by aqueous sulfuric acid solutions: low-temperature solubility and reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Iraci


    Full Text Available Hypobromous acid (HOBr is a key species linking inorganic bromine to the chlorine and odd hydrogen chemical families. We have measured the solubility of HOBr in 45-70wt% sulfuric acid solutions representative of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol composition. Over the temperature range 201-252 K, HOBr is quite soluble in sulfuric acid, with an effective Henry's law coefficient, H*=104-107mol L-1atm-1. H* is inversely dependent on temperature, with ΔH=-45.0±5.4 kJ mol-1 and ΔS=-101±24 J mol-1K-1 for 55-70wt% H2SO4 solutions. Our study includes temperatures which overlap both previous measurements of HOBr solubility. For uptake into 55-70wt% H2SO4, the solubility is described by log H*=(2349±280/T-(5.27±1.24. At temperatures colder than ~213K, the solubility of HOBr in 45wt% H2SO4 is at least a factor of five larger than in 70wt% H2SO4, with log H*=(3665±270/T-(10.63±1.23. The solubility of HOBr is comparable to that of HBr, indicating that upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols should contain equilibrium concentrations of HOBr which equal or exceed those of HBr. Upon uptake of HOBr into aqueous sulfuric acid in the presence of other brominated gases, particularly for 70wt% H2SO4 solution, our measurements demonstrate chemical reaction of HOBr followed by evolution of gaseous products including Br2O and Br2.

  14. Solubility of esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in alcohols at temperatures from 298.15 to 318.15 K (United States)

    Bhesaniya, K.; Baluja, S.


    The solubility of esomeprazole magnesium trihydrate in methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol was determined at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 318.15 K at atmospheric pressure using gravimetrical method. The highest solubility is found in 1-butanol and lowest in ethanol. The experimental solubility data are correlated by the modified Apelblat equation. Thermodynamic properties such as dissolution enthalpy, Gibb's energy, and entropy of mixing have been determined from the solubility data.

  15. High Temperature Hybrid Elastomers (United States)

    Drake, Kerry Anthony

    Conventional high temperature elastomers are produced by chain polymerization of olefinic or fluorinated olefinic monomers. Ultimate thermal stabilities are limited by backbone bond strengths, lower thermal stability of cross-link sites relative to backbone bonds, and depolymerization or "unzipping" at high temperatures. In order to develop elastomers with enhanced thermal stability, hybrid thermally cross-linkable polymers that consisted only of organic-inorganic and aromatic bonds were synthesized and evaluated. The addition of phenylethynyl or phenylacetylinic functional groups to these polymers resulted in conversion of the polymers into high temperature elastomers when cross-linked by thermal curing. Polyphenyoxydiphenylsilanes were synthesized via several different condensation reactions. Results of these synthetic reactions, which utilized both hydroquinone and biphenol as monomers, were systematically evaluated to determine the optimal synthetic conditions for subsequent endcapping reactions. It was determined that dichlorodiphenylsilane condensations with biphenol in toluene or THF were best suited for this work. Use of excess dichlorodiphenylsilane yielded polymers of appropriate molecular weights with terminal reactive chlorosilane groups that could be utilized for coupling with phenylethynyl reagents in a subsequent reaction. Two new synthetic routes were developed to endcap biphenoxysilanes with ethynyl containing substituents, to yield polymers with cross-linkable end groups. Endcapping by lithiumphenylacetylide and 4[(4-fluorophenylethynyl))phenol yielded two new polymers that could be thermally cross-linked on heating above 300 °C. Successful endcapping was verified chemically by 13C NMR, FTIR and Raman analysis. Exothermic peaks consistent with ethynyl curing reactions were observed in endcapped polymers by DSC. A new diacetylinic polymer was prepared through reaction of 4,4'-buta-1,3-diyne-1,4-diyldiphenol and dichlorodiphenylsilane. This


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov


    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the creation of a new type of mixer to produce homogeneous mixtures of dissimilar materials applied to recycling of housing and communal services waste. The article describes the design of a dual-chamber device of the original high-temperature vacuum mixer, there investigated the processes occurring in the chambers of such devices. The results of theoretical and experimental research of the process of mixing recycled polyethylene with a mixture of "grinded food waste – Eco wool” are presented. The problem of the optimum choice of bending the curvilinear blades in the working volume of the seal, which is achieved by setting their profile in the form of involute arc of several circles of different radii, is examined . The dependences, allowing to define the limits of the changes of the main mode parameters the angular velocity of rotation of the working body of the mixer using two ways of setting the profile of the curvilinear blade mixer are obtained. Represented design of the mixer is proposed to use for a wide range of tasks associated with the mixing of the components with a strongly pronounced difference of physic al chemical properties and, in particular, in the production of composites out of housing and communal services waste.

  17. Molecular modeling of temperature dependence of solubility parameters for amorphous polymers


    Chen, X.; Yuan, C.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Zhang, G


    A molecular modeling strategy is proposed to describe the temperature (T) dependence of solubility parameter (δ) for the amorphous polymers which exhibit glass-rubber transition behavior. The commercial forcefield “COMPASS” is used to support the atomistic simulations of the polymer. The temperature dependence behavior of δ for the polymer is modeled by running molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at temperatures ranging from 250 up to 650 K. Comparing the MD predicted δ value at 298 K and the ...

  18. Limited drug solubility can be decisive even for freely soluble drugs in highly swollen matrix tablets. (United States)

    Siepmann, F; Karrout, Y; Gehrke, M; Penz, F K; Siepmann, J


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the importance of potential limited solubility effects for the control of drug release from hydrophilic matrix tablets loaded with a freely water-soluble drug. It is often assumed that the considerable amounts of water penetrating into this type of advanced drug delivery systems are sufficient to rapidly dissolve the entire drug loading, and that limited drug solubility is not playing a role for the control of drug release. Here, we show that this assumption can be erroneous. HPMC/lactose matrix tablets were loaded with 5 to 60% diprophylline (e.g. solubility in 0.1M HCl at 37°C: 235mg/mL), and drug release was measured at low and neutral pH, respectively. A mechanistically realistic mathematical theory was applied, considering drug diffusion in axial and radial direction in the cylindrical matrices and the potential co-existence of dissolved and non-dissolved drug. Importantly, only dissolved drug is available for diffusion. It is demonstrated that during major parts of the release periods, non-dissolved drug excess exists within tablets containing 30% or more diprophylline, despite of the substantial water contents of the systems. This leads to partially almost linear drug concentration distance profiles within the tablets, and reveals a major contribution of limited drug solubility effects to the control of drug release, even in the case of freely water-soluble diprophylline. It can be expected that also in other types of drug delivery systems, e.g. microparticles and implants (containing much less water), limited drug solubility effects play a much more important role than currently recognized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy


    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  20. Solubility Measurements and Predictions of Gypsum, Anhydrite, and Calcite Over Wide Ranges of Temperature, Pressure, and Ionic Strength with Mixed Electrolytes (United States)

    Dai, Zhaoyi; Kan, Amy T.; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Fangfu; Yan, Fei; Bhandari, Narayan; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Ya; Ruan, Gedeng; Tomson, Mason B.


    Today's oil and gas production from deep reservoirs permits exploitation of more oil and gas reserves but increases risks due to conditions of high temperature and high pressure. Predicting mineral solubility under such extreme conditions is critical for mitigating scaling risks, a common and costly problem. Solubility predictions use solubility products and activity coefficients, commonly from Pitzer theory virial coefficients. However, inaccurate activity coefficients and solubility data have limited accurate mineral solubility predictions and applications of the Pitzer theory. This study measured gypsum solubility under its stable phase conditions up to 1400 bar; it also confirmed the anhydrite solubility reported in the literature. Using a novel method, the virial coefficients for Ca2+ and {{SO}}4^{2 - } (i.e., β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(0)} ,β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)} ,C_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{φ }) were calculated over wide ranges of temperature and pressure (0-250 °C and 1-1400 bar). The determination of this set of virial coefficients widely extends the applicable temperature and pressure ranges of the Pitzer theory in Ca2+ and SO 4 2- systems. These coefficients can be applied to improve the prediction of calcite solubility in the presence of high concentrations of Ca2+ and SO 4 2- ions. These new virial coefficients can also be used to predict the solubilities of gypsum and anhydrite accurately. Moreover, based on the derived β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)} values in this study, the association constants of {{CaSO}}4^{( 0 )} at 1 bar and 25 °C can be estimated by K_{{assoc}} = - 2β_{{{{CaSO}}4 }}^{(2)}. These values match very well with those reported in the literature based on other methods.

  1. Temperature and sodium chloride effects on the solubility of anthracene in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Gonzalez, Israel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Reza, Joel, E-mail: jreza@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion en Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152. 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The solubility of anthracene was measured in pure water and in sodium chloride aqueous solution (salt concentration, m/mol . kg{sup -1} = 0.1006, 0.5056, and 0.6082) at temperatures between (278 and 333) K. Solubility of anthracene in pure water agrees fairly well with values reported in earlier similar studies. Solubility of anthracene in sodium chloride aqueous solutions ranged from (6 . 10{sup -8} to 143 . 10{sup -8}) mol . kg{sup -1}. Sodium chloride had a salting-out effect on the solubility of anthracene. The salting-out coefficients did not vary significantly with temperature over the range studied. The average salting-out coefficient for anthracene was 0.256 kg . mol{sup -1}. The standard molar Gibbs free energies, {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o}, enthalpies, {Delta}{sub tr}H{sup o}, and entropies, {Delta}{sub tr}S{sup o}, for the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solutions were also estimated. Most of the estimated {Delta}{sub tr}G{sup o} values were positive [(20 to 1230) J . mol{sup -1}]. The analysis of the thermodynamic parameters shows that the transfer of anthracene from pure water to sodium chloride aqueous solution is thermodynamically unfavorable, and that this unfavorable condition is caused by a decrease in entropy.

  2. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  3. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  4. The Solubility of Tugarinovite (MoO2) in H2O at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Pritam; Anderson, Alan J.; Lee, Thomas; Klemm, Matthias (SFX); (Augsburg)


    The solubility of tugarinovite (MoO2) in pure water was investigated at temperatures between 400 and 800°C and at pressures ranging between 95 and 480 MPa by using in situ synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) to separately analyze high temperature aqueous solutions in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The concentration of molybdenum in the fluid at 400 and 500°C was below detection; however, at temperatures between 600 and 800°C, the solubility of tugarinovite increased with increasing temperature by two orders of magnitude. The molybdenum concentration at 600°C and 800°C is 44 ppm and 658 ppm, respectively. The results complement the data of Kudrin (1985) and provide the first measurement of MoO2solubility at pressure and temperature conditions comparable to intrusion-related Mo deposit formation. The data are also relevant to the study of water chemistry and corrosion product transport in supercritical-water-cooled reactors, where Mo-bearing steel alloys interact with aqueous solutions at temperatures greater than 600°C. The application of in situ SXRF to solubility measurements of sparingly soluble minerals is recommended because it circumvents analytical uncertainties inherent in determinations obtained by quenching and weight loss measurements.

  5. Life at High Temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 15, 2005 ... or more in the vicinity of geothermal vents in the deep sea and the plant Tidestromia oblongifolia (Amaranthaceae) found in Death. Valley in California, where the hottest temperature on earth ever recorded during 43 consecutive days in 1917 was >48 °C. (Guinness Book of W orId Records, 1999).

  6. Dissolution Model of Multiple Species: Leaching of Highly Soluble Minerals (United States)

    Moreno, Luis; Ordóñez, Javier I.; Cisternas, Luis A.


    Dissolution of multi-species from a solid matrix is widely extended in different processes such as leaching of minerals; however, its modeling is often focused on a single species. A model for the simultaneous dissolution of soluble species was developed, which considers different solubilities and dissolution rates and considers that particle collapses when the rapidly soluble species is depleted. The collapsed matter is formed by inert material and a fraction of the soluble species with lower dissolution rate that has not dissolved yet. The model is applied to the leaching of a water-soluble mineral (caliche) with two soluble species dissolving simultaneously with different rates. Measured outlet concentrations of nitrate and magnesium were used to validate the model. Results showed that the model reproduced adequately the leaching of species with rapid and intermediate dissolution rate. Effect of the operating and kinetic parameters on the leaching process is also shown using the actual conditions of heap leaching for caliche mineral.

  7. Controlled initial surge despite high drug fraction and high solubility. (United States)

    Sarkar Das, Srilekha; Lucas, Anne D; Carlin, Alan S; Zheng, Jiwen; Patwardhan, Dinesh V; Saylor, David M


    Potential connections between release profiles and solvent evaporation rates alongside polymer chemistry were elucidated for the release of tetracycline hydrochloride from two different poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) film matrices containing high drug fractions (50%, 30%, and 15%), and prepared at two distinct solvent evaporation rates. At highest tetracycline concentrations (50%), (i) the early release rates were ≤0.5 μg/min in all cases; (ii) release was linear from systems fabricated with lower lactic content and slower solvent evaporation rate and bimodal from systems fabricated with higher lactic content and faster evaporation rate; (iii) surface fractions covered by the drug were similar at both evaporation rates for 85:15 PLGA but very different for 50:50 PLGA, leading to unexpectedly reduced early release from 50:50 PLGA than from 85:15 PLGA when both the matrices were fabricated using a slower evaporation rate. These features remained unaffected in case of low drug concentration. Results suggested that during the formation of the drug-polymer microstructure, the combined effect of polymer chemistry and solvent evaporation rate sets apart the surface characteristics and the initial release profiles of systems containing high drug fraction, and an appropriate combination of these parameters may be utilized to control the early stage of drug release.

  8. Novel high/low solubility classification methods for new molecular entities. (United States)

    Dave, Rutwij A; Morris, Marilyn E


    This research describes a rapid solubility classification approach that could be used in the discovery and development of new molecular entities. Compounds (N=635) were divided into two groups based on information available in the literature: high solubility (BDDCS/BCS 1/3) and low solubility (BDDCS/BCS 2/4). We established decision rules for determining solubility classes using measured log solubility in molar units (MLogSM) or measured solubility (MSol) in mg/ml units. ROC curve analysis was applied to determine statistically significant threshold values of MSol and MLogSM. Results indicated that NMEs with MLogSM>-3.05 or MSol>0.30mg/mL will have ≥85% probability of being highly soluble and new molecular entities with MLogSM≤-3.05 or MSol≤0.30mg/mL will have ≥85% probability of being poorly soluble. When comparing solubility classification using the threshold values of MLogSM or MSol with BDDCS, we were able to correctly classify 85% of compounds. We also evaluated solubility classification of an independent set of 108 orally administered drugs using MSol (0.3mg/mL) and our method correctly classified 81% and 95% of compounds into high and low solubility classes, respectively. The high/low solubility classification using MLogSM or MSol is novel and independent of traditionally used dose number criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  10. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten


    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  11. High Molecular Weight Polybenzimidazole Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Steenberg, T.


    High temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells under ambient pressure has been achieved by using phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes. To optimize the membrane and fuel cells, high performance polymers were synthesized of molecular weights from 30 to 94 k......Da with good solubility in organic solvents. Membranes fabricated from the polymers were systematically characterized in terms of oxidative stability, acid doping and swelling, conductivity, mechanical strength and fuel cell performance and durability. With increased molecular weights the polymer membranes...

  12. High-Temperature Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar


    This book presents the current knowledge about superconductivity in high Tc cuprate superconductors. There is a large scientific interest and great potential for technological applications. The book discusses all the aspects related to all families of cuprate superconductors discovered so far. Beginning with the phenomenon of superconductivity, the book covers: the structure of cuprate HTSCs, critical currents, flux pinning, synthesis of HTSCs, proximity effect and SQUIDs, possible applications of high Tc superconductors and theories of superconductivity. Though a high Tc theory is still awaited, this book describes the present scenario and BCS and RVB theories. The second edition was  significantly extended by including film-substrate lattice matching and buffer layer considerations in thin film HTSCs, brick-wall microstructure in the epitaxial films, electronic structure of the CuO2 layer in cuprates, s-wave and d-wave coupling in HTSCs and possible scenarios of theories of high Tc superconductivity.

  13. Effects of pH, temperature and osmolality on the level and composition of soluble N in feedstuffs for ruminants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de L.H.; Spek, J.W.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.


    Solubility of N is an important parameter in many protein evaluation systems for ruminants. The influence of different rumen conditions, such as pH, osmolality and temperature of solvents, on solubility of N compounds in various animal feed ingredients was examined in two experiments. In the first

  14. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  15. Influence of Vanadium and Cast Temperature on Nitrogen Solubility of Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ghali


    Full Text Available Three stainless steel grades with different vanadium content were produced in open induction furnace. The base chemical composition of investigated stainless steel has contained 18.48–18.75% Cr, 5.17–5.62% Mn, 2.47–2.58% Mo, and 6.39–6.64% Ni. The vanadium contents of the three stainless steel grades were 0.009%, 0.112%, and 0.189%. The proposed stainless steels were casted at temperatures 1753 K and 1833 K. The nitrogen contents were determined for the produced steel grades at every cast temperature. The determined nitrogen contents were compared with those calculated from the developed equation of Grigorenko and Pomarin. The influence of cast temperature and vanadium content on nitrogen solubility was investigated. Interpretation between experimental and calculated nitrogen content was carried out. Increasing vanadium content and decreasing cast temperature were found to have positive significant effect on the nitrogen solubility. There were great deviations between experimental results and those calculated by Grigorenko and Pomarin equation.

  16. High Temperature Surface Interactions (United States)


    oxidation rate of "pure SiC* in air (from compilation of data by Schlichting6). For T < 14001C, partial cristobalite formation; T > 1400"C, decreased...aluminium content is high enough, the beta phase percolates and contains a dispersion of -- Ni particles. Such a tructure is certainly less favourable


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This work describes a method to predict the solubility of essential oils in supercritical carbon dioxide. The method is based on the formulation proposed in 1979 by Asselineau, Bogdanic and Vidal. The Peng-Robinson and Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equations of state were used with the van der Waals mixing rules with two interaction parameters. Method validation was accomplished calculating orange essential oil solubility in pressurized carbon dioxide. The solubility of orange essential oil in carbon dioxide calculated at 308.15 K for pressures of 50 to 70 bar varied from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.6± 0.1 mg/g. For same the range of conditions, experimental solubility varied from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.6± 0.1 mg/g. Predicted values were not very sensitive to initial oil composition.

  18. Influence of Growth Temperature on Lipid and Soluble Carbohydrate Synthesis by Fungi Isolated from Fellfield Soil in the Maritime Antarctic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard N. Weinstein; Pedro O. Montiel; Keith Johnstone


    The effects of growth temperature on soluble carbohydrate and lipid content of Humicola marvinii, Geomyces pannorum and Mortierella elongata isolated from the Antarctic (Signy Island; 60° 43′S, 45° 38′W) were investigated...

  19. Fluorine-functionalized ionic liquids with high oxygen solubility


    Vanhoutte, Gijs; Hojniak, Sandra; Bardé, Fanny; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan


    Eight fluorine-functionalized ionic liquids were synthesized and the oxygen solubility was compared to commercial ionic liquids without the extra fluorinated chain. The concentration of dissolved oxygen increased with the fluorine content of the alkyl chain, which can be attached either to the cation or the anion. This approach maintains the freedom to design an ionic liquid for a specific application, while at the same time the oxygen solubility is increased.

  20. Correlation between hydrogen bond basicity and acetylene solubility in room temperature ionic liquids. (United States)

    Palgunadi, Jelliarko; Hong, Sung Yun; Lee, Jin Kyu; Lee, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sang Deuk; Cheong, Minserk; Kim, Hoon Sik


    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are proposed as the alternative solvents for the acetylene separation in ethylene generated from the naphtha cracking process. The solubility behavior of acetylene in RTILs was examined using a linear solvation energy relationship based on Kamlet-Taft solvent parameters including the hydrogen-bond acidity or donor ability (α), the hydrogen-bond basicity or acceptor ability (β), and the polarity/polarizability (π*). It is found that the solubility of acetylene linearly correlates with β value and is almost independent of α or π*. The solubility of acetylene in RTILs increases with increasing hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA) ability of the anion, but is little affected by the nature of the cation. Quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that the acidic proton of acetylene specifically forms hydrogen bond with a basic oxygen atom on the anion of a RTIL. On the other hand, although C-H···π interaction is plausible, all optimized structures indicate that the acidic protons on the cation do not specifically associate with the π cloud of acetylene. Thermodynamic analysis agrees well with the proposed correlation: the higher the β value of a RTIL is, the more negative the enthalpy of acetylene absorption in the RTIL is.

  1. Solubility of losartan potassium in several mono-solvents at different temperatures


    Eghrary, Shadi H.; Zarghami, Reza; Jouyban,Abolghasem


    The solubilities of losartan potassium in eight solvents; 1,4-dioxane, acetonitrile, propylene glycol, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, and 1-octanol, were measured at temperatures ranging from 293.2 to 318.2 K at atmospheric pressure using shake-flask method of Higuchi and Connors. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone dissolved the highest amount of losartan potassium and 1,4-dioxane possessed the lowest solubilization power among the investigated solvents. The generated data was ...

  2. Differential solubility of ethylene and acetylene in room-temperature ionic liquids: a theoretical study. (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Qiwei; Li, Rulong; Su, Baogen; Bao, Zongbi; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong


    The room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have potential in realizing the ethylene (C(2)H(4)) and acetylene (C(2)H(2)) separation and avoiding solvent loss and environmental pollution compared with traditional solvents. The interaction mechanisms between gases and RTILs are important for the exploration of new RTILs for gas separation; thus, they were studied by quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamics simulation in this work. The optimized geometries were obtained for the complexes of C(2)H(4)/C(2)H(2) with anions (Tf(2)N(-), BF(4)(-), and OAc(-)), cation (bmim(+)), and their ion pairs, and the analysis for geometry, interaction energy, natural bond orbital (NBO), and atoms in molecules (AIM) was performed. The quantum chemical calculation results show that the hydrogen-bonding interaction between the gas molecule and anion is the dominant factor in determining the solubility of C(2)H(2) in RTILs. However, the hydrogen-bonding interaction, the p-π interaction in C(2)H(4)-anion, and the π-π interaction in C(2)H(4)-cation are weak and comparable, which all affect the solubility of C(2)H(4) in RTILs with comparable contribution. The calculated results for the distance of H(gas)···X (X = O or F in anions), the BSSE-corrected interaction energy, the electron density of H(gas)···X at the bond critical point (ρ(BCP)), and the relative second-order perturbation stabilization energy (E(2)) are consistent with the experimental data that C(2)H(2) is more soluble than C(2)H(4) in the same RTILs and the solubility of C(2)H(4) in RTILs has the following order: [bmim][Tf(2)N] > [bmim][OAc] > [bmim][BF(4)]. The calculated results also agree with the order of C(2)H(2) solubility in different RTILs that [bmim][OAc] > [bmim][BF(4)] > [bmim][Tf(2)N]. Furthermore, the calculation results indicate that there is strong C(2)H(2)-RTIL interaction, which cannot be negligible compared to the RTIL-RTIL interaction; thus, the regular solution theory is probably not

  3. (Krauss) at constant high temperatures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snail Research Unit of the SAMRC and Department of Zoology, Potchefstroom University for CHE,. Potchefstroom. The survival of the freshwater snail species Bulinus africanus, Bulinus g/obosus and Biompha/aria pfeifferi at extreme high temperatures was experimentally investigated. Snails were exposed to temperatures ...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan


    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  5. Molecular modeling of temperature dependence of solubility parameters for amorphous polymers. (United States)

    Chen, Xianping; Yuan, Cadmus; Wong, Cell K Y; Zhang, Guoqi


    A molecular modeling strategy is proposed to describe the temperature (T) dependence of solubility parameter (δ) for the amorphous polymers which exhibit glass-rubber transition behavior. The commercial forcefield "COMPASS" is used to support the atomistic simulations of the polymer. The temperature dependence behavior of δ for the polymer is modeled by running molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at temperatures ranging from 250 up to 650 K. Comparing the MD predicted δ value at 298 K and the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the polymer determined from δ-T curve with the experimental value confirm the accuracy of our method. The MD modeled relationship between δ and T agrees well with the previous theoretical works. We also observe the specific volume (v), cohesive energy (U(coh)), cohesive energy density (E(CED)) and δ shows a similar temperature dependence characteristics and a drastic change around the T(g). Meanwhile, the applications of δ and its temperature dependence property are addressed and discussed.

  6. High Temperature Bell Motor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Research Council (NRC) has identified the need for motors and actuators that can operate in extreme high and low temperature environments as a technical...

  7. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  8. Direct measurement of gas solubility and diffusivity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) with a high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Zecchin, Nicoletta; Rubin, Adam


    We present solubility and diffusion data for the gases methane and carbon dioxide in the polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride). The polymer was cut from extruded piping intended for use in offshore oil and gas applications. Measurements were carried out using a purpose-built high-pressure microbalance....... These properties were determined in the temperature range 80-120degreesC and in the pressure range 50-150bar for methane and 20-40bar for carbon dioxide. In general, good agreement was obtained for similar measurements reported in the literature. Solubility follows a Henry's law (linear) dependence with pressure...

  9. Highly Active Water-Soluble Olefin Metathesis Catalyst


    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H


    A novel water-soluble ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst supported by a poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated saturated 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene ligand is reported. The catalyst displays improved activity in ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing metathesis, and cross-metathesis reactions in aqueous media.

  10. Solubility of natural gases in water under high pressure; Solubilite des gaz naturels dans l`eau a pression elevee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhima, A.


    Under high pressure (up to 1200 bar) and high temperature (up to 200 deg C) petroleum reservoir conditions the hydrocarbon-water mutual solubilities may become important. Under such conditions, the prediction of hydrocarbon water solubilities is a challenge for petroleum engineers. Indeed, very few studies have been done ar pressures higher that 700 bars. New solubility data for methane, ethane, n-butane, CO{sub 2} and their mixtures in pure water were obtained at 344.25 K and from 2.5 to 100 MPa. The results agree very well with those of the literature in the case of pure hydrocarbons in water, but differ for the hydrocarbon mixtures. A rigorous thermodynamic analysis allows the elaboration of a model that combines a cubic equation of state (Peng-Robinson with k{sub ij} given in literature) with the Henry`s law approach. The (P,T) functional form of Henry`s constant is given by the Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky equation which involves two important parameters: partial molar volume at infinite dilution and Henry`s constant at the vapour pressure of water. For a given solute both parameters are only functions of temperature. A critical selection of binary solubility data for a large number of solutes has been used as a basis for a new correlation for calculating both this partial molar volume and the corresponding Henry`s constants as a function of temperature. (author) 169 refs.

  11. Temperature optimization of high con

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabry


    Full Text Available Active cooling is essential for solar cells operating under high optical concentration ratios. A system comprises four solar cells that are in thermal contact on top of a copper tube is proposed. Water is flowing inside the tube in order to reduce solar cells temperature for increasing their performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation of such system has been performed in order to investigate the effect of water flow rate, tube internal diameter, and convective heat transfer coefficient on the temperature of the solar cells. It is found that increasing convective heat transfer coefficient has a significant effect on reducing solar cells temperatures operating at low flow rates and high optical concentration ratios. Also, a further increase of water flow rate has no effect on reducing cells temperatures.

  12. RPC operation at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Paoloni, A; Pastori, E; Santonico, R


    The resistive electrodes of RPCs utilised in several current experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, BABAR and ARGO) are made of phenolic /melaminic polymers, with room temperature resistivities ranging from 10**1**0 Omega cm, for high rate operation in avalanche mode, to 5 multiplied by 10**1**1 Omega cm, for streamer mode operation at low rate. The resistivity has however a strong temperature dependence, decreasing exponentially with increasing temperature. We have tested several RPCs with different electrode resistivities in avalanche as well as in streamer mode operation. The behaviours of the operating current and of the counting rate have been studied at different temperatures. Long-term operation has also been studied at T = 45 degree C and 35 degree C, respectively, for high and low resistivity electrodes RPCs.

  13. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors (United States)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  14. High solubilities of small hydrocarbons in trihexyl tetradecylphosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate. (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Afzal, Waheed; Yu, Guangren; He, Maogang; Prausnitz, John M


    Experimental solubilities are reported for methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, and propylene in trihexyl tetradecylphosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate [P(14)666][TMPP] from 313 to 353 K up to 6.7 MPa. A literature review on solubilities of small hydrocarbons in ionic liquids shows that solubilities in [P(14)666][TMPP] are appreciably larger than those in other ionic liquids. Contrary to solubilities in ionic liquids studied earlier, solubilities of paraffins (ethane and propane) in [P(14)666][TMPP] are larger than those of the corresponding olefins (ethylene and propylene). Because, at fixed temperature, the vapor pressure of an olefin is larger than that of the corresponding paraffin, the relative volatility of the olefin exceeds that of the corresponding paraffin, contrary to the relative volatility observed in conventional extractive distillation with polar solvents where the volatility of the paraffin exceeds that of the corresponding olefin.

  15. Moire interferometry at high temperatures (United States)

    Wu, Jau-Je


    The objective of this study was to provide an optical technique allowing full-field in-plane deformation measurements at high temperature by using high-sensitivity moire interferometry. This was achieved by a new approach of performing deformation measurements at high temperatures in a vacuum oven using an achromatic interferometer. The moire system setup was designed with particular consideration for the stability, compactness, flexibility, and ease of control. A vacuum testing environment was provided to minimize the instability of the patterns by protecting the optical instruments from the thermal convection currents. Also, a preparation procedure for the high-temperature specimen grating was developed with the use of the plasma-etched technique. Gold was used as a metallic layer in this procedure. This method was demonstrated on a ceramic block, metal/matrix composite, and quartz. Thermal deformation of a quartz specimen was successfully measured in vacuum at 980 degrees Celsius, with the sensitivity of 417 nm per fringe. The stable and well-defined interference patterns confirmed the feasibility of the developments, including the high-temperature moire system and high-temperature specimen grating. The moire system was demonstrated to be vibration-insensitive. Also, the contrast of interference fringes at high temperature was enhanced by means of a spatial filter and a narrow band interference filter to minimize the background noise from the flow of the specimen and heater. The system was verified by a free thermal expansion test of an aluminum block. Good agreement demonstrated the validity of the optical design. The measurements of thermal deformation mismatch were performed on a graphite/epoxy composite, a metal/matrix composite equipped with an optical fiber, and a cutting tool bit. A high-resolution data-reduction technique was used to measure the strain distribution of the cutting tool bit.

  16. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets


    van Nugteren, J.


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is ...

  17. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets


    Van Nugteren, Jeroen; ten Kate, Herman; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet ...

  18. High-Temperature Optical Sensor (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.


    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  19. Solute strengthening at high temperatures (United States)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.


    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  20. High temperature superconductor current leads (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.


    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  1. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wate Bakker


    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  2. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures (United States)

    Sivan, Yonatan; Chu, Shi-Wei


    We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  3. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Yonatan


    Full Text Available We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  4. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server


    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  5. High temperature component life assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A


    The aim of this book is to investigate and explain the rapid advances in the characterization of high temperature crack growth behaviour which have been made in recent years, with reference to industrial applications. Complicated mathematics has been minimized with the emphasis placed instead on finding solutions using simplified procedures without the need for complex numerical analysis.

  6. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, C. M.; Wu, C. T.


    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb/sub 3/Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take.

  7. High-temperature flooding injury (United States)

    This problem, also called scald, is most serious in the hot desert valleys of the southwestern United States, subtropical regions in eastern Australia, and western Asia and northern Africa (Middle East) where fields are established and irrigated under high temperatures. The disorder also occurs to...

  8. Equations for O2 and CO2 solubilities in saline and plasma: combining temperature and density dependences. (United States)

    Christmas, Kevin M; Bassingthwaighte, James B


    Solubilities of respiratory gasses in water, saline, and plasma decrease with rising temperatures and solute concentrations. Henry's Law, C = α·P, states that the equilibrium concentration of a dissolved gas is solubility times partial pressure. Solubilities in the water of a solution depend on temperature and the content of other solutes. Blood temperatures may differ more than 20°C between skin and heart, and an erythrocyte will undergo that range as blood circulates. The concentrations of O2 and CO2 are the driving forces for diffusion, exchanges, and for reactions. We provide an equation for O2 and CO2 solubilities, α, that allows for continuous changes in temperature, T, and solution density, ρ, in dynamically changing states:[Formula: see text]This two-exponential expression with a density scalar γ, and a density exponent β, accounts for solubility changes due to density changes of an aqueous solution. It fits experimental data on solubilities in water, saline, and plasma over temperatures from 20 to 40°C, and for plasma densities, ρsol up to 1.020 g/ml with ~0.3% error. The amounts of additional bound O2 (to Hb) and CO2 (bicarbonate and carbamino) depend on the concentrations in the local water space and the reaction parameters. During exercise, solubility changes are large; both ρsol and T change rapidly with spatial position and with time. In exercise hemoconcentration plasma, ρsol exceeds 1.02, whereas T may range over 20°C. The six parameters for O2 and the six for CO2 are constants, so solubilities are calculable continuously as T and ρsol change.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Solubilities for oxygen and carbon dioxide are dependent on the density of the solution, on temperature, and on the partial pressure. We provide a brief equation suitable for hand calculators or mathematical modeling, accounting for these factors over a wide range of temperatures and solution densities for use in rapidly changing conditions, such as extreme exercise or osmotic

  9. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion (United States)

    Wood, Charles


    The theory and current status of materials research for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion are reviewed. Semiconductors are shown to be the preferred class of materials for this application. Optimization of the figure of merit of both broadband and narrow-band semiconductors is discussed as a function of temperature. Phonon scattering mechanisms are discussed, and basic material guidelines are given for reduction of thermal conductivity. Two general classes of materials show promise for high temperature figure of merit (Z) values, namely the rare earth chalcogenides and the boron-rich borides. The electronic transport properties of the rare earth chalcogenides are explicable on the basis of degenerate or partially degenerate n-type semiconductors. Boron and boron-rich borides exhibit p-type hopping conductivity, with detailed explanations proposed for the transport differing from compound to compound. Some discussion is presented on the reasons for the low thermal conductivities in these materials. Also, ZTs greater than one appear to have been realized at high temperature in many of these compounds.

  10. Prediction of acetaminophen's solubility in poly(ethylene oxide) at room temperature using the Flory-Huggins theory. (United States)

    Yang, Min; Wang, Peng; Gogos, Costas


    Solid dispersion technologies such as hot-melt extrusion and spray drying are often used to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. The biggest challenge associated with solid dispersion systems is that amorphous drugs may phase-separate from the polymeric matrix and recrystallize during storage. A more fundamental understanding of drug-polymer mixtures is needed for the industry to embrace the solid dispersion technologies. In this study, a theoretical model based on Flory-Huggins lattice theory was utilized to predict the solubility of a model drug acetaminophen (APAP) in a semi-crystalline polymer poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) at 300 K. The interaction parameter χ was calculated to be -1.65 from the depression of drug's melting temperature determined from rheological and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The equilibrium solubility in amorphous PEO was estimated to be 11.7% at 300 K. Assuming no APAP molecules dissolve in the crystalline part of PEO, the adjusted theoretical solubility is around 2.3% considering PEO being 80% crystalline. The solubility of APAP in PEG 400 was calculated to be 14.6% by using the same χ value, close to the experimental measurement 17.1%. The drug's solubility could be altered noticeably by the change of both χ and polymer molecular weight. The study also suggests that the depression of drug's melting point is a good indicator for preliminary polymer screening. The polymer that reduces the melting point the most is likely to be most miscible with the drug.

  11. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers. (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart


    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  12. High Temperature Composite Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.


    High temperature composite heat exchangers are an enabling technology for a number of aeropropulsion applications. They offer the potential for mass reductions of greater than fifty percent over traditional metallics designs and enable vehicle and engine designs. Since they offer the ability to operate at significantly higher operating temperatures, they facilitate operation at reduced coolant flows and make possible temporary uncooled operation in temperature regimes, such as experienced during vehicle reentry, where traditional heat exchangers require coolant flow. This reduction in coolant requirements can translate into enhanced range or system payload. A brief review of the approaches and challengers to exploiting this important technology are presented, along with a status of recent government-funded projects.

  13. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  14. High temperature two component explosive (United States)

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles


    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of K. At temperatures on the order of K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  15. High temperature structural sandwich panels (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  16. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.


    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  17. Motor for High Temperature Applications (United States)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)


    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  18. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...

  19. Nanoscale high-temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, P.; Wei, J.Y.T.; Ananth, V.; Morales, P.; Skocpol, W


    We discuss the exciting prospects of studying high-temperature superconductivity in the nanometer scale from the perspective of experiments, theory and simulation. In addition to enabling studies of novel quantum phases in an unexplored regime of system dimensions and parameters, nanoscale high-temperature superconducting structures will allow exploration of fundamental mechanisms with unprecedented insight. The prospects include, spin-charge separation, detection of electron fractionalization via novel excitations such as vison, stripe states and their dynamics, preformed cooper pairs or bose-condensation in the underdoped regime, and other quantum-ordered states. Towards this initiative, we present the successful development of a novel nanofabrication technique for the epitaxial growth of nanoscale cuprates. Combining the techniques of e-beam lithography and nanomachining, we have been able to fabricate the first generation of high-temperature superconducting nanoscale devices, including Y-junctions, four-probe wires and rings. Their initial transport characterization and scanning tunneling microscopy reveal the integrity of the crystal structure, grown on nanometer scale lateral dimensions. Here, we present atomic force micrographs and electrical characterization of a few nanoscale YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) samples.

  20. High-temperature enzymatic breakdown of cellulose. (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Squina, Fabio; Segato, Fernando; Mort, Andrew; Lee, David; Pappan, Kirk; Prade, Rolf


    Cellulose is an abundant and renewable biopolymer that can be used for biofuel generation; however, structural entrapment with other cell wall components hinders enzyme-substrate interactions, a key bottleneck for ethanol production. Biomass is routinely subjected to treatments that facilitate cellulase-cellulose contacts. Cellulases and glucosidases act by hydrolyzing glycosidic bonds of linear glucose β-1,4-linked polymers, producing glucose. Here we describe eight high-temperature-operating cellulases (TCel enzymes) identified from a survey of thermobacterial and archaeal genomes. Three TCel enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed soluble cellulose, while two preferred insoluble cellulose such as cotton linters and filter paper. TCel enzymes had temperature optima ranging from 85°C to 102°C. TCel enzymes were stable, retaining 80% of initial activity after 120 h at 85°C. Two modes of cellulose breakdown, i.e., with endo- and exo-acting glucanases, were detected, and with two-enzyme combinations at 85°C, synergistic cellulase activity was observed for some enzyme combinations.

  1. Facile synthesis of highly water-soluble fullerenes more than half-covered by hydroxyl groups. (United States)

    Kokubo, Ken; Matsubayashi, Kenji; Tategaki, Hiroshi; Takada, Hiroya; Oshima, Takumi


    Using a novel hydrogen peroxide heating method, we synthesized milky white, water-soluble polyhydroxylated fullerenes (fullerenols) with 36-40 hydroxyl groups (estimated average) along with 8-9 secondary bound water molecules. The fullerenols exhibited high water solubility up to 58.9 mg/mL in a neutral (pH = 7) condition. Dynamic light scattering analysis showed a high dispersion property, to give a narrow particle size distribution within 0.7-2.0 nm.

  2. High temperature PEM fuel cells (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H 2/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100 °C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for ∼90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation.

  3. Triple helical structure of acid-soluble collagen derived from Nile tilapia skin as affected by extraction temperature. (United States)

    Thuanthong, Mantaka; Sirinupong, Nualpun; Youravong, Wirote


    Fish skin has become a new source of collagen. It is usually extracted at low temperature. Increasing the extraction temperature can increase the collagen yield. However, high temperature might cause degradation of the triple helical structure of collagen, which is related to its functional biomaterial. This work thus aimed to investigate the effect of extraction temperature on the extraction efficiency and characteristics of acid-soluble collagen (ASC), particularly its triple helical structure. ASC was extracted at 5 ± 1, 15 ± 1 and 25 ± 1 °C for 0-24 h with 0.3 or 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid. The results showed that extraction with 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid gave a higher extraction efficiency than that in 0.3 mol L(-1) acetic acid (P < 0.5). Extraction at 25 ± 1 °C for 5 h with 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid gave a higher extraction efficiency (73.73 ± 1.28%), which is higher than that of 5 ± 1 °C by about 1.7-fold. All ASC obtained were identified as type I collagen and showed similar physicochemical properties. The results showed that extraction temperature strongly affected extraction efficiency. Extraction at 25 °C did not affect the triple helical structure, which was confirmed by the results of Fourier transform infrared, circular dichroism spectrum and collagen self-assembly. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Additives for high temperature liquid lubricants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavrouian, A.H.; Repar, J.; Moran, C.M.; Lawton, E.A.; Anderson, M.S.


    The purpose of this task was to perform research for the Department of Energy (DOE) on the synthesis and characterization of additives for liquid lubricants which could lead to significant improvements in the major tribological task area of friction and wear reduction at high temperature. To this end JPL surveyed candidate precursor compounds which are soluble in liquid lubricants, synthesized the most promising of these materials, characterized them and submitted these additives to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for evaluation.

  5. Temperature uniformity mapping in a high pressure high temperature reactor using a temperature sensitive indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwet, T.; Plancken, van der I.; Vervoort, L.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.


    Recently, the first prototype ovomucoid-based pressure–temperature–time indicator (pTTI) for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing was described. However, for temperature uniformity mapping of high pressure (HP) vessels under HPHT sterilization conditions, this prototype needs to be

  6. A novel formulation for solubility and content uniformity enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs using highly-porous mannitol. (United States)

    Saffari, Morteza; Ebrahimi, Amirali; Langrish, Timothy


    The present study investigates the enhancement of the dissolution rates for poorly-water soluble drugs by a new adsorption method. The results show that the current adsorption method enhanced the dissolution rate of both nifedipine and indomethacin to a significant extent by nano-confinement of drugs into the pore spaces of highly-porous excipients. Porous mannitol particles with a surface area and pore volume of 6.3 ± 0.1 m(2) g(-1) and 0.036 ± 0.002 ml g(-1), respectively, were drug loaded in two different concentrations of indomethacin and nifedipine. The results of drug loading for nifedipine showed an increase from 3.2 ± 0.1% w/w for a 0.08 M drug solution to 9.1 ± 0.3% w/w drug loading for a 0.16 M drug solution, while indomethacin had slightly better performance for the adsorption process, with 4.1 ± 0.2% w/w and 12.6 ± 0.4% w/w for 0.08 M and 0.16 M concentrations of indomethacin, respectively, in the final formulation. This result also indicated highly-uniform blends with a percentage relative standard deviation of less than 4% for drug-loaded mannitol in both nifedipine and indomethacin. This method gave a significant enhancement of the dissolution rate for both drugs due to nano-confinement of drugs into porous excipients and high solubility of porous mannitol, with 80% drug release within the first 15 min for the drug-loaded samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  8. How to design a good photoresist solvent package using solubility parameters and high-throughput research (United States)

    Tate, Michael P.; Cutler, Charlotte; Sakillaris, Mike; Kaufman, Michael; Estelle, Thomas; Mohler, Carol; Tucker, Chris; Thackeray, Jim


    Understanding fundamental properties of photoresists and how interactions between photoresist components affect performance targets are crucial to the continued success of photoresists. More specifically, polymer solubility is critical to the overall performance capability of the photoresist formulation. While several theories describe polymer solvent solubility, the most common industrially applied method is Hansen's solubility parameters. Hansen's method, based on regular solution theory, describes a solute's ability to dissolve in a solvent or solvent blend using four physical properties determined experimentally through regression of solubility data in many known solvents. The four physical parameters are dispersion, polarity, hydrogen bonding, and radius of interaction. Using these parameters a relative cohesive energy difference (RED), which describes a polymer's likelihood to dissolve in a given solvent blend, may be calculated. Leveraging a high throughput workflow to prepare and analyze the thousands of samples necessary to calculate the Hansen's solubility parameters from many different methacrylate-based polymers, we compare the physical descriptors to reveal a large range of polarities and hydrogen bonding. Further, we find that Hansen's model correctly predicts the soluble/insoluble state of 3-component solvent blends where the dispersion, polar, hydrogen-bonding, and radius of interaction values were determined through regression of experimental values. These modeling capabilities have allowed for optimization of the photoresist solubility from initial blending through application providing valuable insights into the nature of photoresist.

  9. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders. (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen


    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  10. HOBr in sulfuric acid solutions: Solubility and reaction with HCl as a function of temperature and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waschewsky, G.C.G.; Abbatt, J.P.D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of the Geophysical Sciences


    Although the total atmospheric loading of inorganic bromine is relatively low, not exceeding a few tens of parts per trillion, there has been considerable interest in recent years in the heterogeneous interactions which brominated species undergo in the atmosphere. A detailed study of the interaction of HOBr and HCl in cold sulfuric acid solutions has been performed using a coated-wall flow tube coupled to an electron-impact mass spectrometer. The liquid-phase bimolecular rate constants, measured over a temperature range from 213 to 238 K and in solutions from 59.7 to 70.1 wt % composition, show a strong positive dependence on both acid composition and temperature. The solubility of HOBr has also been measured in these solutions by analyzing its time-dependent uptake. Henry`s Law constants (H) determined from the measured values of HD{sup 1/2} and the liquid-phase diffusion coefficient (D) are independent of acid composition over the above range of solution compositions. The values of H demonstrate a clear Clausius-Clapeyron temperature dependence, with a heat of solution of {minus}9 {+-} 1 kcal/mol. When the atmospheric importance of these data is assessed, two conclusions are reached. In the stratosphere, under aerosol conditions observed soon after the Mt. Pinatubo volcano eruption, the rates of HCl activation via the HOBr/HCl heterogeneous reaction are comparable with the rate of activation via gas-phase reaction with OH at relatively warm temperatures (205--220 K), where other HCl-activating heterogeneous reactions occur slowly. In the high Arctic boundary layer, it is possible that significant HCl activation could occur when elevated levels of photochemically active bromine are present.

  11. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I


    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  12. Chemical synthesis and characterization of highly soluble conducting polyaniline in the mixtures of common solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeghioud Hichem


    Full Text Available This work presents the synthesis and characterization of soluble and conducting polyaniline PANI-PIA according to chemical polymerization route. This polymerization pathway leads to the formation of poly(itaconic acid doped polyaniline salts, which are highly soluble in a number of mixtures between organic common polar solvents and water, the solubility reaches 4 mg mL-1. The effect of synthesis parameters such as doping level on the conductivity and the study of solubility and other properties of the resulting PANI salts were also undertaken. The maximum of conductivity was found equal to 2.48×10-4 S cm-1 for fully protonated PANI-EB. In addition, various characterizations of the synthesized materials were also done with the help of viscosity measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR and finally TGA for the thermal properties behaviour.

  13. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  14. Faraday imaging at high temperatures (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick


    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  15. Highly potent soluble amyloid-β seeds in human Alzheimer brain but not cerebrospinal fluid. (United States)

    Fritschi, Sarah K; Langer, Franziska; Kaeser, Stephan A; Maia, Luis F; Portelius, Erik; Pinotsi, Dorothea; Kaminski, Clemens F; Winkler, David T; Maetzler, Walter; Keyvani, Kathy; Spitzer, Philipp; Wiltfang, Jens; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S; Zetterberg, Henrik; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Jucker, Mathias


    The soluble fraction of brain samples from patients with Alzheimer's disease contains highly biologically active amyloid-β seeds. In this study, we sought to assess the potency of soluble amyloid-β seeds derived from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Soluble Alzheimer's disease brain extracts were serially diluted and then injected into the hippocampus of young, APP transgenic mice. Eight months later, seeded amyloid-β deposition was evident even when the hippocampus received subattomole amounts of brain-derived amyloid-β. In contrast, cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Alzheimer's disease, which contained more than 10-fold higher levels of amyloid-β peptide than the most concentrated soluble brain extracts, did not induce detectable seeding activity in vivo. Similarly, cerebrospinal fluid from aged APP-transgenic donor mice failed to induce cerebral amyloid-β deposition. In comparison to the soluble brain fraction, cerebrospinal fluid largely lacked N-terminally truncated amyloid-β species and exhibited smaller amyloid-β-positive particles, features that may contribute to the lack of in vivo seeding by cerebrospinal fluid. Interestingly, the same cerebrospinal fluid showed at least some seeding activity in an in vitro assay. The present results indicate that the biological seeding activity of soluble amyloid-β species is orders of magnitude greater in brain extracts than in the cerebrospinal fluid. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. High temperature autoclave vacuum seals (United States)

    Hoffman, J. R.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.


    Aluminum sheet forms effective sealing film at temperatures up to 728 K. Soft aluminum wire rings provide positive seal between foil and platen. For applications at temperatures above aluminum's service temperature, stainless steel is used as film material and copper wire as sealant.

  17. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating for High Temperature Wear Applications (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Edmonds, Brian J (Inventor)


    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite useful over a wide temperature range is described herein. The composite includes metal bonded chromium oxide dispersed in a metal binder having a substantial amount of nickel. The composite contains a fluoride of at least one Group I, Group II, or rare earth metal, and optionally a low temperature lubricant metal.

  18. Direct measurement of gas solubilities in polymers with a high-pressure microbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Nielsen, Johannes Kristoffer; Hassager, Ole


    Solubility and diffusion data are presented for methane and carbon dioxide gases in high-density polyethylene. The polymer was cut from extruded piping intended for use in offshore oil and gas applications. The measurements were carried out with a high-pressure microbalance. The properties were...... determined from 25 to 50degreesC and from 50 to 150 bar for methane and from 20 to 40 bar for carbon dioxide. In general, a good agreement was obtained with similar measurements reported in the literature. The solubility followed Henry's law (linear) dependence with pressure, except at high pressures...... for methane, for which negative deviations from Henry's law behavior were observed. The diffusion coefficients for each of the gases in the polymer were also measured with the balance, although the uncertainty was greater than for the solubility measurements. (C) 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polyrn Sci...

  19. A family of E. coli expression vectors for laboratory scale and high throughput soluble protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottomley Stephen P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, both automated and manual high-throughput protein expression and purification has become an accessible means to rapidly screen and produce soluble proteins for structural and functional studies. However, many of the commercial vectors encoding different solubility tags require different cloning and purification steps for each vector, considerably slowing down expression screening. We have developed a set of E. coli expression vectors with different solubility tags that allow for parallel cloning from a single PCR product and can be purified using the same protocol. Results The set of E. coli expression vectors, encode for either a hexa-histidine tag or the three most commonly used solubility tags (GST, MBP, NusA and all with an N-terminal hexa-histidine sequence. The result is two-fold: the His-tag facilitates purification by immobilised metal affinity chromatography, whilst the fusion domains act primarily as solubility aids during expression, in addition to providing an optional purification step. We have also incorporated a TEV recognition sequence following the solubility tag domain, which allows for highly specific cleavage (using TEV protease of the fusion protein to yield native protein. These vectors are also designed for ligation-independent cloning and they possess a high-level expressing T7 promoter, which is suitable for auto-induction. To validate our vector system, we have cloned four different genes and also one gene into all four vectors and used small-scale expression and purification techniques. We demonstrate that the vectors are capable of high levels of expression and that efficient screening of new proteins can be readily achieved at the laboratory level. Conclusion The result is a set of four rationally designed vectors, which can be used for streamlined cloning, expression and purification of target proteins in the laboratory and have the potential for being adaptable to a high

  20. High-temperature borehole instrumentation (United States)

    Dennis, B. R.; Koczan, S. P.; Stephani, E. L.


    A new method of extracting natural heat from the Earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320(0)C (610(0)F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resources to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules.

  1. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.


    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  2. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.


    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  3. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John


    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  4. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)


    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  5. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points (United States)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.


    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 "Radiation Thermometry". The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  6. (Krauss) at constant high temperatures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of opinions are held on the relative importance of the various physical ... optimum as well as extreme temperatures on vital functions such as survival, egg ..... solids on the biology of certain freshwater molluscs. D .Sc. thesis,. Potch.

  7. Enzymatic production of highly soluble myricitrin glycosides using beta-galactosidase. (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryosuke; Shimabayashi, Hiroshi; Moriwaki, Masamitsu


    Myricitrin, a botanical flavonol glycoside, could be a useful ingredient of functional foods, cosmetics, and medicines because of its high anti-oxidative activity. However, due to its insolubility in water, it has a limited range of use. To improve this solubility, we glycosylated myricitrin by an enzymatic transglycosylate reaction. Myricitrin was galactosylated by beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans using lactose as a sugar donor. The reaction product was 480 times more soluble than myricitrin. Four myricitrin galactosides were isolated from the reaction products by column chromatography, and their molecular structures were identified by using ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C HMQC and 1H-13C HMBC analysis. The solubility of these four myricitrin galactosides was more than 3.9 x 10(3) fold that of myricitrin, and each had similar anti-oxidative activity to that of myricitrin.

  8. Highly water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes amine-functionalized by supercritical water oxidation. (United States)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Moon, In-Kyu; Han, Joo-Hee; Do, Seung-Hoe; Lee, Jin-Seo; Jeon, Seong-Yun


    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been amine-functionalized by eco-friendly supercritical water oxidation. The facilely functionalized MWNTs have high solubility (~84 mg L(-1)) in water and 78% transmittance at 30-fold dilution. The Tyndall effect is also shown for several liquids.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The present study reports on the successful incorporation of a highly soluble drug, procaine HCl, in a programmed-release megaloporous system. This solid two-phase system is composed of housing phase matrix granules (HMG), controlling liquid penetration into the system, and of restraining phase

  10. Comparison of high performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic analysis of soluble carbohydrates in loblolly pine (United States)

    Patricia L. Faulkner; Michele M. Schoeneberger; Kim H. Ludovici


    Foliar tissue was collected from a field study designed to test impacts of atmospheric pollutants on loblolIy pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings. Standard enzymatic (ENZ) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to analyze the tissue for soluble sugars. A comparison of the methods revealed no significant diffennces in accuracy...

  11. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeners, Maarten P.; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Ulu, Arzu; Lopez Sepulveda, Rocio; Morisseau, Christophe; Braam, Branko; Hammock, Bruce D.; Joles, Jaap A.

    Koeners MP, Wesseling S, Ulu A, Sepulveda RL, Morisseau C, Braam B, Hammock BD, Joles JA. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300: E691-E698, 2011. First published January 25, 2011; doi:

  12. Cell model of in-cloud scavenging of highly soluble gases (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Elperin, Tov; Fominykh, Andrew; Krasovitov, Boris


    We investigate mass transfer during absorption of highly soluble gases such as HNO3, H2O2 by stagnant cloud droplets in the presence of inert admixtures. Thermophysical properties of the gases and liquids are assumed to be constant. Diffusion interactions between droplets, caused by the overlap of depleted of soluble gas regions around the neighboring droplets, are taken into account in the approximation of a cellular model of a gas-droplet suspension whereby a suspension is viewed as a periodic structure consisting of the identical spherical cells with periodic boundary conditions at the cell boundary. Using this model we determined temporal and spatial dependencies of the concentration of the soluble trace gas in a gaseous phase and in a droplet and calculated the dependence of the scavenging coefficient on time. We found that scavenging coefficient for gas absorption by cloud droplets remains constant and sharply decreases only at the final stage of absorption. In the calculations we employed a Monte Carlo method and assumed gamma size distribution of cloud droplets. It is shown that despite of the comparable values of Henry's law constants for the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the nitric acid (HNO3), the nitric acid is scavenged more effectively by cloud droplets than the hydrogen peroxide due to a major affect of the dissociation reaction on HNO3 scavenging. It is demonstrated that scavenging of highly soluble gases by cloud droplets leads to strong decrease of soluble trace gas concentration in the interstitial air. We obtained also analytical expressions for the “equilibrium values” of concentration of the soluble trace gas in a gaseous phase and for concentration of the dissolved gas in a liquid phase for the case of hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid absorption by cloud droplets.

  13. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter (United States)

    Hull, John R.


    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  14. Technological Evolution of High Temperature Superconductors (United States)




    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Justel


    Full Text Available AbstractIn Chile, the most important economic activity is mining, concentrated in the north of the country. This is a desert region with limited water resources; therefore, the mining sector requires research and identification of alternative sources of water. One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different temperatures (293.15 to 318.15 K, and its effect on physical properties (density, viscosity, and solubility. Knowledge of these properties and solubility data are useful in the leaching process and in the design of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystallization plants from the leaching process using seawater by means of the addition of sulfuric acid.

  16. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.


    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  17. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme


    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  18. Highly Acidic Ambient Particles, Soluble Metals, and Oxidative Potential: A Link between Sulfate and Aerosol Toxicity. (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Guo, Hongyu; Zeng, Linghan; Verma, Vishal; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney J


    Soluble transition metals in particulate matter (PM) can generate reactive oxygen species in vivo by redox cycling, leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Most metals, such as those from roadway traffic, are emitted in an insoluble form, but must be soluble for redox cycling. Here we present the mechanism of metals dissolution by highly acidic sulfate aerosol and the effect on particle oxidative potential (OP) through analysis of size distributions. Size-segregated ambient PM were collected from a road-side and representative urban site in Atlanta, GA. Elemental and organic carbon, ions, total and water-soluble metals, and water-soluble OP were measured. Particle pH was determined with a thermodynamic model using measured ionic species. Sulfate was spatially uniform and found mainly in the fine mode, whereas total metals and mineral dust cations were highest at the road-side site and in the coarse mode, resulting in a fine mode pH metals and OP peaked at the intersection of these modes demonstrating that sulfate plays a key role in producing highly acidic fine aerosols capable of dissolving primary transition metals that contribute to aerosol OP. Sulfate-driven metals dissolution may account for sulfate-health associations reported in past studies.

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography of water-soluble choline metabolites. (United States)

    Liscovitch, M; Freese, A; Blusztajn, J K; Wurtman, R J


    We have developed a new method for the separation of [3H]choline metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography. Using this method it is possible to separate, in one step, all of the known major water-soluble choline metabolites present in crude acid extracts of cells that have been incubated with [3H]choline, with baseline or near-baseline resolution. We use a gradient HPLC system with a normal-phase silica column as the stationary phase, and a linear gradient of increasing polarity and ionic strength as the mobile phase. The mobile phase is composed of two buffers: Buffer A, containing acetonitrile/water/ethyl alcohol/acetic acid/0.83 M sodium acetate (800/127/68/2/3), and buffer B (400/400/68/53/79), pH 3.6. A linear gradient from 0 to 100% buffer B, with a slope of 5%/min, is started 15 min after injection. At a flow rate of 2.7 ml/min and column temperature of 45 degrees C, typical retention times for the following compounds are (in min): betaine, 10; acetylcholine, 18; choline, 22; glycerophosphocholine, 26; CDP-choline, 31; and phosphorylcholine, 40. This procedure has been applied in tracer studies of choline metabolism utilizing the neuronal NG108-15 cell line and rat hippocampal slices as model systems. While the compounds labeled in the NG108-15 cells were primarily phosphorylcholine and glycerophosphocholine, reflecting high rates of phospholipid turnover, in the hippocampal slices choline and acetylcholine were the major labeled species. Identification of individual peaks was confirmed by comparing the elution profiles of untreated cell extracts with extracts that had been treated with hydrolyzing enzymes of differing specificities. This HPLC method may be useful in studies of acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine metabolism, and of the possible interrelationships of these compounds in cholinergic cells.

  20. Influence of manufacturing factors on physical stability and solubility of solid dispersions containing a low glass transition temperature drug. (United States)

    Sakurai, Atsushi; Sako, Kazuhiro; Maitani, Yoshie


    In this study, we investigated the effect of manufacturing factors such as particle size, water content and manufacturing method on the physical stability and solubility of solid dispersion formulations of a low-glass-transition-temperature (T(g)) drug. Solid dispersions were prepared from polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) by hot melt extrusion or spray drying. Water content of solid dispersions prepared by hot melt extrusion determined by dynamic moisture sorption measurement was increased drastically with relative humidity below a certain level of particle size. The blends with a lower water content (0.8%) prepared by hot melt extrusion during storage were more stable than those with a higher water content (3.5%) prepared by spray drying, which caused rapid recrystallization. Physical stability in the hot melt blends may be attributed to reduced molecular mobility due to a higher T(g). Dissolution study revealed that solid dispersions prepared by hot melt extrusion with the smallest particle size showed decreased solubility, attributed to reduced wetting properties (surface energy), which is not predictable by the Noyes-Whitney equation. Taken together, these results indicate that the control of particle size concerned in water content or wetting properties is critical to ensuring the physical stability or enhancing solubility of low-T(g) drugs. Further, hot melt extrusion, which can reduce water content, is a suitable manufacturing method for solid dispersions of low-T(g) drugs.

  1. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant (Cij ) and bulk modulus. (KT) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (δT) as temperature-independent and then by treating δT as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when δT is ...

  2. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies has developed several new dielectrics for high temperature applications including signal conditioning, filtering and energy...

  3. Advances in high temperature chemistry 1

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy


    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 1 describes the complexities and special and changing characteristics of high temperature chemistry. After providing a brief definition of high temperature chemistry, this nine-chapter book goes on describing the experiments and calculations of diatomic transition metal molecules, as well as the advances in applied wave mechanics that may contribute to an understanding of the bonding, structure, and spectra of the molecules of high temperature interest. The next chapter provides a summary of gaseous ternary compounds of the alkali metals used in

  4. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng


    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  5. High-Temperature Test Technology (United States)


    Do any of your facilities have vacuum test capability? YesO No~l If yes, What is the minimum vacuum chamber pressure? What is the maximum allowable...available? YesO N[-- If "yes," please Indicate the following: Vaporizer Superheater Capacity Capacity Max Temperature LH2 LN2 Are gaseous hydrogen...personnel safety? 5. Does the facility have radiant heating capability? YesO NoF- If "yes," please provide the following information: Lamp types Tungsten

  6. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Materials. (United States)


    temperatures In the present range have also been obtained by Krauss and Warncke [8] and by Vollmer et al. [9], using adiabatic calorimetry, and by Kollie [10...value for heat capacity. The electrical resistivity results reported by Kollie [10] and by Powell et al. [13] are respectively about 1 and 1.5% lower...extensive annealing of the specimens used in the measurements: the specimen (>99.89% pure) used by Kollie was annealed at 1100 K for 24 h and Laubitz et al

  7. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.


    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  8. High temperature skin friction measurement (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.


    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  9. Mechanical and thermal properties of high density polyethylene - dried distillers grains with solubles composites


    Brent Tisserat; Louis Reifschneider; Rogers Harry O’Kuru; Victoria L. Finkenstadt


    Dried Distillers Grain with Solubles (DDGS) was evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composed of 25% by weight DDGS and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding and injection molding. An improved DDGS bio-filler was produced by solvent treating DDGS (STDDGS). Injection-molded test specimens were evaluated for their tensile, flexural, impact, and thermal properties. Composite blends...

  10. The solubility of sulfur in high-TiO2 mare basalts (United States)

    Danckwerth, P. A.; Hess, P. C.; Rutherford, M. J.


    The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of the solubility of sulfur of the high-TiO2 mare basalt 74275 at 1 atm, 1250 C. The data indicate that at saturation, 74275 is capable of dissolving 3400 ppm sulfur at 10 to 15 degrees below its liquidus. The analyzed samples of 74275 show sulfur contents of 1650 ppm S, which indicates that 74275 was 50% undersaturated at the time of eruption.

  11. High Temperature Solid State Lithium Battery Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable energy systems with high energy density capable of operating at high temperatures, pressures and radiation levels are needed for certain NASA missions....

  12. Copper Alloy For High-Temperature Uses (United States)

    Dreshfield, Robert L.; Ellis, David L.; Michal, Gary


    Alloy of Cu/8Cr/4Nb (numbers indicate parts by atom percent) improved over older high-temperature copper-based alloys in that it offers enhanced high temperature strength, resistance to creep, and ductility while retaining most of thermal conductivity of pure copper; in addition, alloy does not become embrittled upon exposure to hydrogen at temperatures as high as 705 degrees C. Designed for use in presence of high heat fluxes and active cooling; for example, in heat exchangers in advanced aircraft and spacecraft engines, and other high-temperature applications in which there is need for such material. High conductivity and hardness of alloy exploited in welding electrodes and in high-voltage and high-current switches and other applications in which wear poses design problem.

  13. Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator Panels Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, high-temperature radiators are needed for future, high-efficiency power conversion systems for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Creare has developed...

  14. High Temperature Rechargeable Battery Development Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting...

  15. Application of a PEG precipitation method for solubility screening: A tool for developing high protein concentration formulations (United States)

    Li, Li; Kantor, Angela; Warne, Nicholas


    Previous publications demonstrated that the extrapolated solubility by polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation method (Middaugh et al., J Biol Chem 1979; 254:367–370; Juckes, Biochim Biophys Acta 1971; 229:535–546; Foster et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1973; 317:505; Mahadevan and Hall, AIChE J 1990; 36:1517–1528; Stevenson and Hageman, Pharm Res 1995; 12:1671–1676) has a strong correlation to experimentally measured solubility of proteins. Here, we explored the utility of extrapolated solubility as a method to compare multiple protein drug candidates when nonideality of a highly soluble protein prohibits accurate quantitative solubility prediction. To achieve high efficiency and reduce the amount of protein required, the method is miniaturized to microwell plate format for high-throughput screening application. In this simplified version of the method, comparative solubility of proteins can be obtained without the need of concentration measurement of the supernatant following the precipitation step in the conventional method. The monoclonal antibodies with the lowest apparent solubilities determined by this method are the most difficult to be concentrated, indicating a good correlation between the prediction and empirical observations. This study also shows that the PEG precipitation method gives results for opalescence prediction that favorably compares to experimentally determined opalescence levels at high concentration. This approach may be useful in detecting proteins with potential solubility and opalescence problems prior to the time-consuming and expensive development process of high concentration formulation. PMID:23740802

  16. The flavoured BFSS model at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Yuhma; Filev, Veselin G. [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies,10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kováčik, Samuel [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies,10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics,Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynská dolina, Bratislava, 842 48 (Slovakia); O’Connor, Denjoe [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies,10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland)


    We study the high-temperature series expansion of the Berkooz-Douglas matrix model, which describes the D0/D4-brane system. At high temperature the model is weakly coupled and we develop the series to second order. We check our results against the high-temperature regime of the bosonic model (without fermions) and find excellent agreement. We track the temperature dependence of the bosonic model and find backreaction of the fundamental fields lifts the zero-temperature adjoint mass degeneracy. In the low-temperature phase the system is well described by a gaussian model with three masses m{sub A}{sup t}=1.964±0.003, m{sub A}{sup l}=2.001±0.003 and m{sub f}=1.463±0.001, the adjoint longitudinal and transverse masses and the mass of the fundamental fields respectively.

  17. A thermodynamic data base for Tc to calculate equilibrium solubilities at temperatures up to 300 deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdomenech, I. [Studsvik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Bruno, J. [Intera Information Technologies SL, Cerdanyola (Spain)


    Thermodynamic data has been selected for solids and aqueous species of technetium. Equilibrium constants have been calculated in the temperature range 0 to 300 deg C at a pressure of 1 bar for T<100 deg C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. For aqueous species, the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers model is used for temperature extrapolations. The data base contains a large amount of estimated data, and the methods used for these estimations are described in detail. A new equation is presented that allows the estimation of {Delta}{sub r}Cdeg{sub pm} values for mononuclear hydrolysis reactions. The formation constants for chloro complexes of Tc(V) and Tc(IV), whose existence is well established, have been estimated. The majority of entropy and heat capacity values in the data base have also been estimated, and therefore temperature extrapolations are largely based on estimations. The uncertainties derived from these calculations are described. Using the data base developed in this work, technetium solubilities have been calculated as a function of temperature for different chemical conditions. The implications for the mobility of Tc under nuclear repository conditions are discussed. 70 refs.

  18. The influence of high temperatures on milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maćej Ognjen D.


    Full Text Available High temperatures Induce certain changes in milk constituents, but the degree of these changes depends on both the temperature and time of heat treatment. The most pronounced changes take place in milk proteins. The forewarming of milk causes an increase in acidity, the precipitation of soluble Ca-phosphate, whey protein denaturation and coagulation, as well as the interaction with casein micelles, the Maillard browning reaction, the dephosphorylation of casein, the hydrolysis of casein micelles, changes in whey proteins, an extension of the rennet coagulation time and an exchange of the rheological properties of the acid and rennet casein gels, changes in the zeta-potential and casein micelle hydration, the interaction between the milk proteins and proteins of milk fat globule membrane.

  19. Application of High Temperature Superconductors to Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A


    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, a large effort has been made by the scientific community to investigate this field towards a possible application of the new oxide superconductors to different devices like SMES, magnetic bearings, flywheels energy storage, magnetic shielding, transmission cables, fault current limiters, etc. However, all present day large scale applications using superconductivity in accelerator technology are based on conventional materials operating at liquid helium temperatures. Poor mechanical properties, low critical current density and sensitivity to the magnetic field at high temperature are the key parameters whose improvement is essential for a large scale application of high temperature superconductors to such devices. Current leads, used for transferring currents from the power converters, working at room temperature, into the liquid helium environment, where the magnets are operating, represent an immediate application of the emerging technology of high t...

  20. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    The present work involves the development of a model for predicting the dynamic temperature of a high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The model is developed to test different thermal control strategies before implementing them in the actual system. The test system consists of a prototype...... cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running...... the stack at a high stoichiometric air flow. This is possible because of the PBI fuel cell membranes used, and the very low pressure drop in the stack. The model consists of a discrete thermal model dividing the stack into three parts: inlet, middle and end and predicting the temperatures in these three...

  1. High-temperature heat-pump fluids (United States)

    Bertinat, M. P.


    Heat pumps could be immensely useful in many industrial processes, but standard working fluids are unsuitable for the high temperatures involved. The ideal high-temperature heat-pump fluid should have a high (but not too high) critical temperature, a moderate critical pressure ( approximately=5.0 MPa) and a low (but not too low) boiling point. There are many organic fluids that do meet the above thermodynamic criteria The author's list of 250 contained dozens of them including many of the common laboratory solvents such as ethanol, ether and especially acetone. Unfortunately most of them are highly flammable. The ideal work fluid for high-temperature heat pumps will probably always remain elusive and water, despite its drawbacks will continue to be the best choice in most applications

  2. Solubility of manganotantalite, zircon and hafnon in highly fluxed peralkaline to peraluminous pegmatitic melts (United States)

    van Lichtervelde, Marieke; Holtz, Francois; Hanchar, John M.


    The behavior of tantalum and zirconium in pegmatitic systems has been investigated through the determination of Ta and Zr solubilities at manganotantalite and zircon saturation from dissolution and crystallization experiments in hydrous, Li-, F-, P- and B-bearing pegmatitic melts. The pegmatitic melts are synthetic and enriched in flux elements: 0.7-1.3 wt% Li2O, 2-5.5 wt% F, 2.8-4 wt% P2O5 and 0-2.8 wt% B2O3, and their aluminum saturation index ranges from peralkaline to peraluminous (ASILi = Al/[Na + K + Li] = 0.8 to 1.3) with various K/Na ratios. Dissolution and crystallization experiments were conducted at temperatures varying between 700 and 1,150°C, at 200 MPa and nearly water-saturated conditions. For dissolution experiments, pure synthetic, end member manganotantalite and zircon were used in order to avoid problems with slow solid-state kinetics, but additional experiments using natural manganotantalite and zircon of relatively pure composition (i.e., close to end member composition) displayed similar solubility results. Zircon and manganotantalite solubilities considerably increase from peraluminous to peralkaline compositions, and are more sensitive to changes in temperature or ASI of the melt than to flux content. A model relating the enthalpy of dissolution of manganotantalite to the ASILi of the melt is proposed: ∆ H diss (kJ/mol) = 304 × ASILi - 176 in the peralkaline field, and ∆ H diss (kJ/mol) = -111 × ASILi + 245 in the peraluminous field. The solubility data reveal a small but detectable competitivity between Zr and Ta in the melt, i.e., lower amounts of Zr are incorporated in a Ta-bearing melt compared to a Ta-free melt under the same conditions. A similar behavior is observed for Hf and Ta. The competitivity between Zr (or Hf) and Ta increases from peraluminous to peralkaline compositions, and suggests that Ta is preferentially bonded to non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) with Al as first-neighbors, whereas Zr is preferentially bonded to NBOs

  3. A Simple Guiding Principle for the Temperature Dependence of the Solubility of Light Gases in Imidazolium-based Ionic Liquids Derived from Molecular Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kerlé, Daniela; Ludwig, Ralf; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Paschek, Dietmar


    We have determined the temperature dependence of the solvation behavior of a large collection of light gases in imidazolium-based Ionic Liquids (ILs) with the help of extensive molecular dynamics simulations. The solubility of molecular hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, krypton, argon, neon and carbon dioxide in the imidazolium based ILs of type 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C$_n$mim][NTf$_2$]) with varying chain lengths $n\\!=\\!2,4,6,8$ are computed for a temperature range between $300\\,\\mbox{K}$ and $500\\,\\mbox{K}$ at $1\\,\\mbox{bar}$. By applying Widom's particle insertion technique and Bennet's overlapping distribution method, we are able to determine the temperature dependent solvation free energies for those selected light gases in simulated imidazolium based ILs with high statistical accuracy. Our simulations show that the magnitude of the solvation free energy of a gas molecule at a chosen reference temperature and its temperature-derivatives are intimately related...

  4. Sandia_HighTemperatureComponentEvaluation_2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, Avery T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The objective of this project is to perform independent evaluation of high temperature components to determine their suitability for use in high temperature geothermal tools. Development of high temperature components has been increasing rapidly due to demand from the high temperature oil and gas exploration and aerospace industries. Many of these new components are at the late prototype or first production stage of development and could benefit from third party evaluation of functionality and lifetime at elevated temperatures. In addition to independent testing of new components, this project recognizes that there is a paucity of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components rated for geothermal temperatures. As such, high-temperature circuit designers often must dedicate considerable time and resources to determine if a component exists that they may be able to knead performance out of to meet their requirements. This project aids tool developers by characterization of select COTS component performances beyond published temperature specifications. The process for selecting components includes public announcements of project intent (e.g., FedBizOps), direct discussions with candidate manufacturers,and coordination with other DOE funded programs.

  5. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Kim, Rosalind [Moraga, CA; Jancarik, Jamila [Walnut Creek, CA


    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  6. Salt effect in the solubility of hydrogen in n-alcohols at pressures up to 10 MPa and temperatures up to 498.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V.H. d’Angelo


    Full Text Available Gas-liquid solubility of hydrogen in methanol and ethanol systems with electrolytes was studied in the temperature range from 305.15 K to 498.15 K and pressures from 4 to 10 MPa. The experimental method used was the Total Pressure Method, which eliminates sampling and analysis of the phases, determining their composition at equilibrium using the following experimental data: moles of solute and solvent in the system; pressure, temperature and volume of the system at equilibrium; together with thermodynamic equations for fluid-phase equilibria. The salts used were lithium chloride and potassium acetate. The solubility of hydrogen increases with increasing temperature and pressure and the presence of salts causes a decrease in the solubility of hydrogen, when compared with the results of systems without salts, characterizing a "salting-out" effect, which is greater in conditions of lower temperature and pressure, specially for potassium acetate.

  7. Aeronautical applications of high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Turney, George E.; Luidens, Roger W.; Uherka, Kenneth; Hull, John


    The successful development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. A preliminary examination of the potential application of HTS for aeronautics indicates that significant benefits may be realized through the development and implementation of these newly discovered materials. Applications of high-temperature superconductors (currently substantiated at 95 k) were envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft, and solar, microwave and laser powered aircraft. Introduced and described are the particular applications and potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors as related to aeronautics and/or aeronautical systems.

  8. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  9. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures (United States)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming


    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  10. The "high solubility" definition of the current FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System may be too strict for acidic drugs. (United States)

    Yazdanian, Mehran; Briggs, Katherine; Jankovsky, Corinne; Hawi, Amale


    The purpose of this study was to assess if the definition of high solubility as proposed in the FDA Guidance on Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) is too strict for highly permeable acidic drugs. The solubility and permeability values of 20 (18 acidic and 2 non-acidic) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were determined. The NSAIDs were grouped into three different sets having acetic acid, propionic acid, or other acidic moieties such as fenamate, oxicam, and salicylate. Two nonacidic NSAIDs (celecoxib and rofecoxib) were also included for comparison purposes. Equilibrium solubility values were determined at pH 1.2, 5.0, 7.4, and in biorelevant media simulating fed intestinal fluid at pH 5.0. For a select number of acids, we also measured solubility values in media simulating gastric and fasted intestinal fluids. Permeability classification was established relative to that of reference drugs in the Caco-2 cell permeability model. Permeability coefficients for all drugs were measured at concentrations corresponding to the lowest and highest marketed dose strengths dissolved in 250 ml volume, and their potential interaction with cellular efflux pumps was investigated. All NSAIDs with different acidic functional groups were classified as highly permeable based on their Caco-2 cell permeability. Only ketorolac appeared to have a potential for interaction with cellular efflux pumps. Solubility classification was based on comparison of equilibrium solubility at pH 1.2, 5.0. and 7.4 relative to marketed dose strengths in 250 ml. The pKa values for the acidic NSAIDs studied were between 3.5 and 5.1. and, as expected, their solubility increased dramatically at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. Only three NSAIDs, ketorolac, ketoprofen. and acetyl salicylic acid, meet the current criteria for high solubility over the entire pH range. However, with the exception of ibuprofen, oxaprozin, and mefenamic acid, the remaining compounds can be classified as Class I drugs

  11. High temperature spectral gamma well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, R.A.; Henfling, J.A.


    A high temperature spectral gamma tool has been designed and built for use in small-diameter geothermal exploration wells. Several engineering judgments are discussed regarding operating parameters, well model selection, and signal processing. An actual well log at elevated temperatures is given with spectral gamma reading showing repeatability.

  12. Novel High Temperature Strain Gauge Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced high-temperature sensor technology and bonding methods are of great interests in designing and developing advanced future aircraft. Current state-of-the-art...

  13. High Temperature Fiberoptic Thermal Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will fabricate and demonstrate a small diameter single fiber endoscope that can perform high temperature thermal imaging in a jet engine...

  14. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature power electronics have become a vital aspect of future designs for power converters in spacecraft, battle zone electric power, satellite power...

  15. Ion Based High-Temperature Pressure Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zdenek, Jeffrey S; Anthenien, Ralph A


    .... The environment encountered in such engines necessitates high temperature and durable (vibration resistant) devices. Traditional pressure sensors can be used, however thermal insulating materials must be used to protect the diaphragm...

  16. NASA High Operating Temperature Technology Program Overview (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. V.; Hunter, G. W.


    NASA’s Planetary Science Division has begun the High Operating Temperature Technology (HOTTech) program to address Venus surface technology challenges by investing in new technology development. This presentation reviews this HOTTech program.

  17. Panel report on high temperature ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, T C [ed.


    Fundamental research is reported concerning high temperature ceramics for application in turbines, engines, batteries, gasifiers, MHD, fuel cells, heat exchangers, and hot wall combustors. Ceramics microstructure and behavior are included. (FS)

  18. Mechanical Proprieties of Steel at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Diana Ancaş


    Full Text Available The experimental test results obtained in the study of steel mechanical proprieties variation in case of high temperatures (fire are presented. The proprieties are referring to: Young’s modulus, E, the elastic limit, σe, and the characteristic diagram of the material (the rotation stress-strain. Theoretical laws that the model the steel behaviour at high temperature have been elaborated based on the most significant studies presented in the literature.

  19. High temperature superconductors and other superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, A S


    Written by eminent researchers in the field, this text describes the theory of superconductivity and superfluidity starting from liquid helium and a charged Bose-gas. It also discusses the modern bipolaron theory of strongly coupled superconductors, which explains the basic physical properties of high-temperature superconductors. This book will be of interest to fourth year graduate and postgraduate students, specialist libraries, information centres and chemists working in high-temperature superconductivity.

  20. Laser Plasma Coupling for High Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruer, W.


    Simple scaling models indicate that quite high radiation temperatures can be achieved in hohlraums driven with the National Ignition Facility. A scaling estimate for the radiation temperature versus pulse duration for different size NIF hohlraums is shown in Figure 1. Note that a radiation temperature of about 650 ev is projected for a so-called scale 1 hohlraum (length 2.6mm, diameter 1.6mm). With such high temperature hohlraums, for example, opacity experiments could be carried out using more relevant high Z materials rather than low Z surrogates. These projections of high temperature hohlraums are uncertain, since the scaling model does not allow for the very strongly-driven laser plasma coupling physics. Lasnex calculations have been carried out to estimate the plasma and irradiation conditions in a scale 1 hohlraum driven by NIF. Linear instability gains as high as exp(100) have been found for stimulated Brillouin scattering, and other laser-driven instabilities are also far above their thresholds. More understanding of the very strongly-driven coupling physics is clearly needed in order to more realistically assess and improve the prospects for high temperature hohlraums. Not surprisingly, this regime has been avoided for inertial fusion applications and so is relatively unexplored.

  1. Electrons and Phonons in High Temperature Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Singh


    Full Text Available The defect-induced anharmonic phonon-electron problem in high-temperature superconductors has been investigated with the help of double time thermodynamic electron and phonon Green’s function theory using a comprehensive Hamiltonian which includes the contribution due to unperturbed electrons and phonons, anharmonic phonons, impurities, and interactions of electrons and phonons. This formulation enables one to resolve the problem of electronic heat transport and equilibrium phenomenon in high-temperature superconductors in an amicable way. The problem of electronic heat capacity and electron-phonon problem has been taken up with special reference to the anharmonicity, defect concentration electron-phonon coupling, and temperature dependence.

  2. Highly Efficient Soluble Blue Delayed Fluorescent and Hyperfluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by Host Engineering. (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Kyu; Park, Hee-Jun; Lee, Jun Yeob


    Solution-processed high-efficiency fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes with an external quantum efficiency over 18% were developed by engineering a host material and device structure designed for solution process. A high triplet energy host material designed for the solution process, (oxybis(3-(tert-butyl)-6,1-phenylene))bis(diphenylphosphine oxide) (DPOBBPE), worked efficiently as the host of blue fluorescent devices because of good solubility, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and good film properties. The DPOBBPE host enabled a high external quantum efficiency of 18.8% in the fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes by the solution process. Moreover, 25.8% external quantum efficiency in the soluble blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent devices was also realized. The 25.8% external quantum efficiency of the DPOBBPE delayed fluorescent device and 18.8% external quantum efficiency of the fluorescent device are the highest efficiency values achieved in the solution-processed blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes. Moreover, the solution-processed fluorescent device showed an improved blue color coordinate of (0.14, 0.20) compared to (0.17, 0.31) of the delayed fluorescent device.

  3. Diverse response of tomato fruit explants to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Starck


    Full Text Available Tomato explants (fruit with a pedicel and a piece of peduncle, with fruit growth stimulated by treating the flowers with NOA + GA3 (NG-series were used as a model system for studying the effect of high temperature on C-sucrose uptake, its distribution and Ca retranslocation. Two cultivars with contrasting responses to high temperature were compared. In sensitive cv. Roma heat stress during 22h (40oC for 10h and 30oC for 12h, drastically depressed the uptake of 14C-sucrose coinciding with diminished fruit 14C-supply. It also decreased the specific activity of soluble acid invertase and the calcium content. All these strong negative responses to high temperature were markedly reduced in the NG-treated series involving remobilization of Ca to the fruits and a higher stability of the invertase activity. This indicates the indirect role of flower treatment with NG in addaptation to heat stress. In tolerant cv. Robin even higher temperatures (42oC for 10h and 34oC for 12h were not stressful. They did not affect the 14C-sucrose uptake and stimulated 14C-supply to the fruit. Increased specific activity of acid invertase and a higher calcium content were also recorded but only in the control explants. In contrast to cv. Roma elevated temperature was slightly stressful for cv. Robin explants of NG-series. The differences in response of both cultivar explants to elevated temperature, based on unequal fruit supply with 14C-sucrose, seem to be causaly connected with two factors: the invertase activity being more or less sensitive to the heat stress, the ability to translocate Ca to the heated fruits.

  4. Melt processed high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server


    The achievement of large critical currents is critical to the applications of high-temperature superconductors. Recent developments have shown that melt processing is suitable for producing high J c oxide superconductors. Using magnetic forces between such high J c oxide superconductors and magnets, a person could be levitated.This book has grown largely out of research works on melt processing of high-temperature superconductors conducted at ISTEC Superconductivity Research Laboratory. The chapters build on melt processing, microstructural characterization, fundamentals of flux pinning, criti

  5. Neutron experiments on high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Mook, H. A., Jr.


    This report details the trip to the ILL to perform neutron scattering research on high-temperature superconductivity. The trip was very successful because of the excellent users' facilities available at the ILL. The data we accumulated were of high quality and will make an impact on our understanding of high-temperature superconductivity. However, we cannot continue to run a research program in this field with the limited beam time available at the ILL. To make substantial progress in this field, we must restart the High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  6. High Temperature, Wireless Seismometer Sensor for Venus (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter Gary W.; Kiefer, Walter S.


    Space agency mission plans state the need to measure the seismic activity on Venus. Because of the high temperature on Venus (462? C average surface temperature) and the difficulty in placing and wiring multiple sensors using robots, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents the description and proof of concept measurements of a high temperature, wireless seismometer sensor for Venus. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by the movement of an aluminum probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 700 Hz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator/sensor system at 426? C. This result indicates that the concept may be used on Venus.

  7. High-temperature granulites and supercontinents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.R. Touret


    Full Text Available The formation of continents involves a combination of magmatic and metamorphic processes. These processes become indistinguishable at the crust-mantle interface, where the pressure-temperature (P-T conditions of (ultra high-temperature granulites and magmatic rocks are similar. Continents grow laterally, by magmatic activity above oceanic subduction zones (high-pressure metamorphic setting, and vertically by accumulation of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the crust (high-temperature metamorphic setting. Both events are separated from each other in time; the vertical accretion postdating lateral growth by several tens of millions of years. Fluid inclusion data indicate that during the high-temperature metamorphic episode the granulite lower crust is invaded by large amounts of low H2O-activity fluids including high-density CO2 and concentrated saline solutions (brines. These fluids are expelled from the lower crust to higher crustal levels at the end of the high-grade metamorphic event. The final amalgamation of supercontinents corresponds to episodes of ultra-high temperature metamorphism involving large-scale accumulation of these low-water activity fluids in the lower crust. This accumulation causes tectonic instability, which together with the heat input from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, leads to the disruption of supercontinents. Thus, the fragmentation of a supercontinent is already programmed at the time of its amalgamation.

  8. Simultaneous detection of water-soluble vitamins using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemond Godbless Dadzie


    Full Text Available The water-soluble vitamins (WSV: ascorbic acid (vitamin C, thiamine (B1, riboflavin (B2, niacin (B3, panthothenic acid (B5, pyridoxine, and pyridoxal (B6, folic acid (B9, biotin(B8 , and B12 are very essential in the diet of humankind. As a result of ever increasing pressures from both consumers and legal enforcers, to specify accurately nutritive compositions of WSV that are present in food materials, many researchers have attempted to fill this niche through the provision of highly sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedures. In view of the health benefits of WSV, a replete of HPLC methods have been developed for simultaneous determination of their contents in nature and fortified food samples, nutritional supplements, as well as blood plasmas. The rate of losses of these vitamins during food processing and analysis, in addition to their transient dynamics, presents complexities in developing a highly sensitive HPLC procedure for their simultaneous separations and assays. This review critically assesses the different HPLC procedures developed by researchers and available in the open literature for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (WSV in dried tropical fruits materials. The study revealed that not a single chromatographic run developed by researchers can simultaneously elute all the WSV at a time. However, the HPLC procedures that are capable of determining all the WSV were coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS, thus making the set-up expensive.

  9. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William


    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  10. Glycol-Water Interactions and co-existing phases and Temperature Dependent Solubility. An Example Of Carbon-Hydrogen Chemistry In Water

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, Fredrick


    Recently there has been great interest in Glycol-Water chemistry and solubility and temperature dependent phase dynamics. The Glycol-Water biochemistry of interactions is present in plant biology and chemistry, is of great interest to chemical engineers and biochemists as it is a paradigm of Carbon-Hydrogen Water organic chemistry. There is an interest moreover in formulating a simpler theory and computation model for the Glycol-Water interaction and phase dynamics, that is not fully quantum mechanical yet has the high accuracy available from a fully quantum mechanical theory of phase transitions of fluids and Fermi systems. Along these lines of research interest we have derived a Lennard-Jones -like theory of interacting molecules-Water in a dissolved adducts of Glycol-Water system interacting by Hydrogen bonds whose validity is supported at the scale of interactions by other independent molecular dynamics investigations that utilize force fields dependent on their experimental fittings to the Lennard-Jones ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi


    It is well known that the fluid phase equilibria can be represented by a number of {gamma}-models , but unfortunately most of them do not function well under high temperature. In this calculation, we mainly investigate the performance of UNIQUAC and NRTL models under high temperature, using temperature dependent parameters rather than using the original formulas. the other feature of this calculation is that we try to relate the excess Gibbs energy G{sup E}and enthalpy of mixing H{sup E}simultaneously. In other words, we will use the high temperature and pressure G{sup E} and H{sup E}data to regress the temperature dependant parameters to find out which model and what kind of temperature dependant parameters should be used.

  12. A high throughput solubility assay for drug discovery using microscale shake-flask and rapid UHPLC-UV-CLND quantification. (United States)

    Lin, Baiwei; Pease, Joseph H


    The rapid determination of key physical properties of lead compounds is essential to the drug discovery process. Solubility is one of the most important properties since good solubility is needed not only for obtaining reliable in vitro and in vivo assay results in early discovery but also to ensure sufficient concentration of the drug being in circulation to get the desired therapeutic exposure at the target of interest. In order for medicinal chemists to tune solubility of lead compounds, a rapid assay is needed to provide solubility data that is accurate and predictive so that it can be reliably used for designing the next generation of compounds with improved properties. To ensure speed and data quality, we developed a high throughput solubility assay that utilizes a single calibration UHPLC-UV-CLND method and a 24h shake-flask format for rapid quantification. A set of 46 model compounds was used to demonstrate that the method is accurate, reproducible and predictive. Here we present development of the assay, including evaluation of quantification method, filtration membranes, equilibrium times, DMSO concentrations, and buffer conditions. A comparison of thermodynamic solubility results to our high throughput 24h shake-flask solubility assay results is also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of polymethacrylates and compritol on release profile of a highly water soluble drug metformin hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Dahiya


    Full Text Available Aims: The present investigation studied effect of polymethacrylates Eudragit RSPO, Eudragit RLPO and compritol 888 ATO on release profile of highly water soluble drug metformin hydrochloride (MET. Materials and Methods: The solid dispersions were prepared using drug:polymer ratios 1:1 and 1:5 by coevaporation and coprecipitation techniques. Solid dispersions were characterized by infrared Spectroscopy (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffractometry (XRD as well as content uniformity, in vitro dissolution studies in 0.1 N HCl pH 1.2, phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Results and Discussion: Results of the studies suggested that there were progressive disappearance or changes of prominent peaks in IR, X-ray diffraction and thermotropic drug signals in coevaporates and coprecipitates with increased amount of polymers. Moreover, the in vitro release of highly water soluble MET could be extended at higher drug:polymer ratios. Conclusion: It was summarized that Eudragit RLPO had greater capacity of drug release than Eudragit RSPO and Comproitol 888 and its coevaporates in 1:5 drug:polymer ratio (F11 displayed extended drug release with comparatively higher dissolution rates (92.15 % drug release at 12 hour following near Zero order kinetics (r² =0.9822.

  14. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    , a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets and equipped with a radiant water-based floor heating and cooling system was studied by means of full-scale measurements, dynamic building simulations and thermodynamic evaluation tools. Thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house......A heating and cooling system could be divided into three parts: terminal units (emission system), distribution system, and heating and cooling plant (generation system). The choice of terminal unit directly affects the energy performance, and the indoor environment in that space. Therefore......, a holistic system evaluation is necessary to ensure an optimal indoor environment for the occupants and to achieve energy efficiency simultaneously. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling systems are one of the possible approaches to heat or cool indoor spaces in buildings. In this thesis...

  15. Direct dimethyl ether high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng

    A high temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer fuel cell was fed with dimethyl ether (DME) and water vapour mixture on the anode at ambient pressure with air as oxidant. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was achieved at 200°C. A conventional polymer based direct DME fuel cell is liquid fed an......V higher than that of methanol, indicating less fuel crossover.......A high temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer fuel cell was fed with dimethyl ether (DME) and water vapour mixture on the anode at ambient pressure with air as oxidant. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was achieved at 200°C. A conventional polymer based direct DME fuel cell is liquid fed...... and suffers from low DME solubility in water. When the DME - water mixture is fed as vapour miscibility is no longer a problem. The increased temperature is more beneficial for the kinetics of the direct oxidation of DME than of methanol. The Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) with DME operation was 50 to 100 m...

  16. High temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (United States)

    Chazen, Melvin L. (Inventor); Mueller, Thomas J. (Inventor); Kruse, William D. (Inventor)


    A high temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (20) is provided herein. The high temperature thrust chamber comprises a hollow body member (12) having an outer surface and an internal surface (16) defining the high temperature chamber (10). The body member (12) is made substantially of rhenium. An alloy (18) consisting of iridium and at least alloying metal selected of the group consisting of rhodium, platinum and palladium is deposited on at least a portion of the internal surface (16) of the body member (12). The iridium and the alloying metal are electrodeposited onto the body member (12). A HIP cycle is performed upon the body member (12) to cause the coating of iridium and the alloying metal to form the alloy (18) which protects the body member (12) from oxidation.

  17. Stability projections for high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquer, H.L.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Wipf, S.L.


    The stability of the new high temperature superconducting oxides has been analyzed, using the methodology developed over the last 25 years for conventional Type II superconductors. The results are presented in graphical form for the temperature range from 4 to 100 K. For a 90 K superconductor the first flux jump field peaks above 7 T at 60 K, ( and for a 120 k superconductor it peaks above 12 T at 75 K). The maximum adiabatically stable thickness increases dramatically. The linear dimension of the minimum propagating zone increases by a factor of 3 to 5, and the quench propagation velocity drops by 4 orders of magnitude. The high temperature superconducting materials will, therefore, have much higher stability than conventional Type II superconductors; their high flux jump fields will make ultra-fine multifilamentary conductors unnecessary and improve the outlook for tape conductors; the energy to create a propagating zone is increased; however, methods of coil protection will have to be modified.

  18. Preparation and evaluation of high dispersion stable nanocrystal formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds by using povacoat. (United States)

    Yuminoki, Kayo; Seko, Fuko; Horii, Shota; Takeuchi, Haruka; Teramoto, Katsuya; Nakada, Yuichiro; Hashimoto, Naofumi


    In this study, we reported the application of Povacoat®, a hydrophilic polyvinylalcohol copolymer, as a dispersion stabilizer of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble compounds. In addition, the influence of aggregation of the nanoparticles on their solubility and oral absorption was studied. Griseofulvin (GF) was used as a model compound with poor water solubility and was milled to nanoparticles by wet bead milling. The dispersion stability of GF milled with Povacoat® or the generally used polymers (polyvinylalcohol, hydroxypropylcellulose SSL, and polyvinylpyrrolidone K30) was compared. Milled GF suspended in Povacoat® aqueous solution with D-mannitol, added to improve the disintegration rate of freeze-dried GF, exhibited high dispersion stability without aggregation (D90 = ca. 0.220 μm), whereas milled GF suspended in aqueous solutions of the other polymers aggregated (D90 > 5 μm). Milled GF with Povacoat® showed improved aqueous solubility and bioavailability compared with the other polymers. The aggregation of nanoparticles had significant impact on the solubility and bioavailability of GF. Povacoat® also prevented the aggregation of the various milled poorly water-soluble compounds (hydrochlorothiazide and tolbutamide, etc.) more effectively than the other polymers. These results showed that Povacoat® could have wide applicability to the development of nanoformulations of poorly water-soluble compounds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. High temperature superconductivity the road to higher critical temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, Shin-ichi


    This book presents an overview of material-specific factors that influence Tc and give rise to diverse Tc values for copper oxides and iron-based high- Tc superconductors on the basis of more than 25 years of experimental data, to most of which the author has made important contributions. The book then explains why both compounds are distinct from others with similar crystal structure and whether or not one can enhance Tc, which in turn gives a hint on the unresolved pairing mechanism. This is an unprecedented new approach to the problem of high-temperature superconductivity and thus will be inspiring to both specialists and non-specialists interested in this field.   Readers will receive in-depth information on the past, present, and future of high-temperature superconductors, along with special, updated information on what the real highest Tc values are and particularly on the possibility of enhancing Tc for each member material, which is important for application. At this time, the highest Tc has not been...

  20. Temperature measurements of high power LEDs (United States)

    Badalan (Draghici), Niculina; Svasta, Paul; Drumea, Andrei


    Measurement of a LED junction temperature is very important in designing a LED lighting system. Depending on the junction temperature we will be able to determine the type of cooling system and the size of the lighting system. There are several indirect methods for junction temperature measurement. The method used in this paper is based on the thermal resistance model. The aim of this study is to identify the best device that would allow measuring the solder point temperature and the temperature on the lens of power LEDs. For this purpose four devices for measuring temperature on a high-power LED are presented and compared according to the acquired measurements: an infrared thermal camera from FLIR Systems, a multimeter with K type thermocouple (Velleman DVM4200), an infrared-spot based noncontact thermometer (Raynger ST) and a measurement system based on a digital temperature sensor (DS1821 type) connected to a PC. The measurements were conducted on an 18W COB (chip-on-board) LED. The measurement points are the supply terminals and the lens of the LED.

  1. Solubility of carbamazepine co-crystals in ethanolic solution (United States)

    Ramle, Noor Ashila; Rahim, Syarifah Abd; Anuar, Nornizar; El-Hadad, Omar


    The study aimed to determine the solubility of carbamazepine (CBZ) co-crystals formed from co-crystal formers (CCFs) of nicotinamide (NIC), saccharin (SAC), succinic acid (SUC) and fumaric acid (FUM) at various temperatures (25-50°C). High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the solubility and the X-Ray Powder Diffraction was used to characterize the crystals. The solubility of CBZ-NIC and CBZ-FUM co-crystals were found to be higher than the solubility of the CBZ for the range of studied temperatures. However, opposite findings was obtained for CBZ-SUC co-crystal as its solubility is lower than the solubility of CBZ. Different trend was found for CBZ-SAC co-crystal in which for temperature lower than 40°C, the solubility of CBZ crystal is higher than the CBZ-SAC co-crystal. The solubility of CBZ-SAC co-crystal is higher than the solubility of CBZ at a temperature above 40°C. CBZ co-crystals with NIC and FUM have shown to increase the solubility of CBZ by solubility ratio of 1.95 and 1.24 respectively. However, the CBZ co-crystal with SAC was found to have similar solubility value as the CBZ.

  2. Fiber Bragg Grating Filter High Temperature Sensors (United States)

    Lyons, Donald R.; Brass, Eric D.; Pencil, Eric (Technical Monitor)


    We present a scaled-down method for determining high temperatures using fiber-based Bragg gratings. Bragg gratings are distributed along the length of the optical fiber, and have high reflectivities whenever the optical wavelength is twice the grating spacing. These spatially distinct Bragg regions (located in the core of a fiber) are sensitive to local temperature changes. Since these fibers are silica-based they are easily affected by localized changes in temperature, which results in changes to both the grating spacing and the wavelength reflectivity. We exploit the shift in wavelength reflectivity to measure the change in the local temperature. Note that the Bragg region (sensing area) is some distance away from where the temperature is being measured. This is done so that we can measure temperatures that are much higher than the damage threshold of the fiber. We do this by affixing the fiber with the Bragg sensor to a material with a well-known coefficient of thermal expansion, and model the heat gradient from the region of interest to the actual sensor. The research described in this paper will culminate in a working device as well as be the second portion of a publication pending submission to Optics Letters.

  3. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max


    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  4. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 ◦C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive......, to the electrochemical characterization of high temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis cells and the use of pseudo-reference electrodes for the separation of each electrode contribution. A future perspective of various electrochemical processes and devices that can be developed with the use of the established...

  5. The soluble "high potential" type iron-sulfur protein from mitochondria is aconitase. (United States)

    Ruzicka, F J; Beinert, H


    Properties of soluble high potential type iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) from beef heart mitochondria were compared to those of aconitase from pig heart. The two proteins when purified to homogeneity by the criteria of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide electrophoresis show identical light absorption characteristics. EPR signals of the HiPIP type centered at g = 2.01 when oxidized, isoelectric points at pH 8.5 to 8.6, are inseparable by SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and exhibit aconitase activity when activated by reducing agents in the presence of ferrous iron. The requirement for activation goes parallel to the intensity of the signal from the oxidized iron-sulfur cluster, i.e. the cluster is reduced in the active enzyme. We conclude that the soluble mitochondrial HiPIP is identical with aconitase. The relationships of iron to labile sulfide, molecular weight and unpaired spins in the EPR signal, and implications of our findings for the role of iron in aconitase are discussed.

  6. High temperature reactors for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik (LRST)


    There is a large potential for nuclear energy also in the non-electric heat market. Many industrial sectors have a high demand for process heat and steam at various levels of temperature and pressure to be provided for desalination of seawater, district heating, or chemical processes. The future generation of nuclear plants will be capable to enter the wide field of cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), to reduce waste heat and to increase efficiency. This requires an adjustment to multiple needs of the customers in terms of size and application. All Generation-IV concepts proposed are designed for coolant outlet temperatures above 500 C, which allow applications in the low and medium temperature range. A VHTR would even be able to cover the whole temperature range up to approx. 1 000 C.

  7. On-wafer high temperature characterization system (United States)

    Teodorescu, L.; ǎghici, F., Dr; Rusu, I.; Brezeanu, G.


    In this work a on-wafer high temperature characterization system for wide bandgap semiconductor devices and circuits has been designed, implemented and tested. The proposed system can perform the wafer temperature adjustment in a large domain, from the room temperature up to 3000C with a resolution better than +/-0.50C. In order to obtain both low-noise measurements and low EMI, the heating element of the wafer chuck is supplied in two ways: one is from a DC linear power supply connected to the mains electricity, another one is from a second DC unit powered by batteries. An original temperature control algorithm, different from classical PID, is used to modify the power applied to the chuck.

  8. High Temperature Mechanisms for Venus Exploration (United States)

    Ji, Jerri; Narine, Roop; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Gorevan, Steven

    Future Venus missions, including New Frontiers Venus In-Situ Explorer and three Flagship Missions - Venus Geophysical Network, Venus Mobile Explorer and Venus Surface Sample Return all focus on searching for evidence of past climate change both on the surface and in the atmospheric composition as well as in the interior dynamics of the planet. In order to achieve these goals and objectives, many key technologies need to be developed for the Venus extreme environment. These key technologies include sample acquisition systems and other high-temperature mechanisms and mobility systems capable of extended operation when directly exposed to the Venus surface or lower atmosphere environment. Honeybee Robotics has developed two types of high temperature motors, the materials and components in both motors were selected based on the requirement to survive temperatures above a minimum of 460° C, at earth atmosphere. The prototype Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) has been operated non-continuously for over 20 hours at Venus-like conditions (460° C temperature, mostly CO2 gas environment) and it remains functional. A drilling system, actuated by two SRMs was tested in Venus-like conditions, 460° C temperature and mostly CO2 gas environment, for more than 15 hours. The drill successfully completed three tests by drilling into chalk up to 6 inches deep in each test. A first generation Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor and high temperature resolver were also tested and the feasibility of the designs was demonstrated by the extended operation of both devices under Venus-like condition. Further development of the BLDC motor and resolver continues and these devices will, ultimately, be integrated into the development of a high temperature sample acquisition scoop and high temperature joint (awarded SBIR Phase II in October, 2007). Both the SR and BLDC motors will undergo extensive testing at Venus temperature and pressure (TRL6) and are expected to be mission ready before the next New

  9. High-Temperature Shape Memory Polymers (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Weiss, Robert A.


    physical conformation changes when exposed to an external stimulus, such as a change in temperature. Such materials have a permanent shape, but can be reshaped above a critical temperature and fixed into a temporary shape when cooled under stress to below the critical temperature. When reheated above the critical temperature (Tc, also sometimes called the triggering or switching temperature), the materials revert to the permanent shape. The current innovation involves a chemically treated (sulfonated, carboxylated, phosphonated, or other polar function group), high-temperature, semicrystalline thermoplastic poly(ether ether ketone) (Tg .140 C, Tm = 340 C) mix containing organometallic complexes (Zn++, Li+, or other metal, ammonium, or phosphonium salts), or high-temperature ionic liquids (e.g. hexafluorosilicate salt with 1-propyl-3- methyl imidazolium, Tm = 210 C) to form a network where dipolar or ionic interactions between the polymer and the low-molecular-weight or inorganic compound forms a complex that provides a physical crosslink. Hereafter, these compounds will be referred to as "additives". The polymer is semicrystalline, and the high-melt-point crystals provide a temporary crosslink that acts as a permanent crosslink just so long as the melting temperature is not exceeded. In this example case, the melting point is .340 C, and the shape memory critical temperature is between 150 and 250 C. PEEK is an engineering thermoplastic with a high Young fs modulus, nominally 3.6 GPa. An important aspect of the invention is the control of the PEEK functionalization (in this example, the sulfonation degree), and the thermal properties (i.e. melting point) of the additive, which determines the switching temperature. Because the compound is thermoplastic, it can be formed into the "permanent" shape by conventional plastics processing operations. In addition, the compound may be covalently cross - linked after forming the permanent shape by S-PEEK by applying ionizing

  10. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oudin Åström

    Full Text Available On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia.We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia.We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement.We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  11. Measuring nanowire thermal conductivity at high temperatures (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Yang, Juekuan; Xiong, Yucheng; Huang, Baoling; Xu, Terry T.; Li, Deyu; Xu, Dongyan


    This work extends the micro-thermal-bridge method for thermal conductivity measurements of nanowires to high temperatures. The thermal-bridge method, based on a microfabricated device with two side-by-side suspended membranes with integrated platinum resistance heaters/thermometers, has been used to determine thermal conductivity of various nanowires/nanotubes/nanoribbons at relatively low temperatures. However, to date, thermal conductivity characterization of nanowires at temperatures above 600 K has seldom been reported presumably due to several technical difficulties including the instability of the microfabricated thermometers, radiation heat loss, and the effect of the background conductance on the measurement. Here we report on our attempt to address the aforementioned challenges and demonstrate thermal conductivity measurement of boron nanoribbons up to 740 K. To eliminate high temperature resistance instability, the device is first annealed at 1023 K for 5 min in an argon atmosphere. Two radiation shields are installed in the measurement chamber to minimize radiation heat loss from the measurement device to the surroundings; and the temperature of the device at each set point is calibrated by an additional thermocouple directly mounted on the chip carrier. The effect of the background conductance is eliminated by adopting a differential measurement scheme. With all these modifications, we successfully measured the thermal conductivity of boron nanoribbons over a wide temperature range from 27 K to 740 K. The measured thermal conductivity increases monotonically with temperature and reaches a plateau of ~2.5 W m‑1 K‑1 at approximately 400 K, with no clear signature of Umklapp scattering observed in the whole measurement temperature range.

  12. High Summer Temperatures and Mortality in Estonia. (United States)

    Oudin Åström, Daniel; Åström, Christofer; Rekker, Kaidi; Indermitte, Ene; Orru, Hans


    On-going climate change is predicted to result in a growing number of extreme weather events-such as heat waves-throughout Europe. The effect of high temperatures and heat waves are already having an important impact on public health in terms of increased mortality, but studies from an Estonian setting are almost entirely missing. We investigated mortality in relation to high summer temperatures and the time course of mortality in a coastal and inland region of Estonia. We collected daily mortality data and daily maximum temperature for a coastal and an inland region of Estonia. We applied a distributed lag non-linear model to investigate heat related mortality and the time course of mortality in Estonia. We found an immediate increase in mortality associated with temperatures exceeding the 75th percentile of summer maximum temperatures, corresponding to approximately 23°C. This increase lasted for a couple of days in both regions. The total effect of elevated temperatures was not lessened by significant mortality displacement. We observed significantly increased mortality in Estonia, both on a country level as well as for a coastal region and an inland region with a more continental climate. Heat related mortality was higher in the inland region as compared to the coastal region, however, no statistically significant differences were observed. The lower risks in coastal areas could be due to lower maximum temperatures and cooling effects of the sea, but also better socioeconomic condition. Our results suggest that region specific estimates of the impacts of temperature extremes on mortality are needed.

  13. Gravimeter using high-temperature superconductor bearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J. R.


    We have developed a sensitive gravimeter concept that uses an extremely low-friction bearing based on a permanent magnet (PM) levitated over a high-temperature superconductor (HTS). A mass is attached to the PM by means of a cantilevered beam, and the combination of PM and HTS forms a bearing platform that has low resistance to rotational motion but high resistance to horizontal, vertical, or tilting motion. The combination acts as a low-loss torsional pendulum that can be operated in any orientation. Gravity acts on the cantilevered beam and attached mass, accelerating them. Variations in gravity can be detected by time-of-flight acceleration, or by a control coil or electrode that would keep the mass stationary. Calculations suggest that the HTS gravimeter would be as sensitive as present-day superconducting gravimeters that need cooling to liquid helium temperatures, but the HTS gravimeter needs cooling only to liquid nitrogen temperatures.

  14. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  15. Research at Very High Pressures and High Temperatures (United States)

    Bundy, Francis P.


    Reviews research and apparatus utilized in the study of the states and characteristics of materials at very high temperatures and pressures. Includes three examples of the research being conducted. (SL)

  16. Lightweight High-Temperature Thermal Insulation (United States)

    Wagner, W. R.; Fasheh, J. I.


    Fine Ni/Cr fibers sintered into corrosion-resistant, fireproof batt. Possible applications include stoves, furnaces, safes, fire clothing, draperies in public buildings, wall firebreaks, airplane walls, and jetengine components. New insulation takes advantage of some of same properties of nickel/chromium alloy useful in heating elements in toasters, namely, corrosion and oxidation resistance even at high temperatures.

  17. High temperatures influence sexual development differentially in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although sex determination in amphibians is believed to be a genetic process, environmental factors such as temperatureare known to influence the sex differentiation and development. Extremely low and high temperatures influence gonadaldevelopment and sex ratio in amphibians but the mechanism of action is not ...

  18. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.


    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  19. High Temperature Resistant Exhaust Valve Spindle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev

    of the engine, new high temperature alloys are required for a specific engine component, the exhaust valve spindle. Two alloys are used for an exhaust valve spindle; one for the bottom of the spindle, and one for the spindle seat. Being placed in the exhaust gas stream, combustion products such as V2O5 and Na2...

  20. Helium-cooled high temperature reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D.B.


    Experience with several helium cooled reactors has been favorable, and two commercial plants are now operating. Both of these units are of the High Temperature Graphite Gas Cooled concept, one in the United States and the other in the Federal Republic of Germany. The initial helium charge for a reactor of the 1000 MW(e) size is modest, approx.15,000 kg.

  1. Complex performance during exposure to high temperatures. (United States)


    The effects of high temperature on psychomotor performance and physiological function were studied on male pilots (age 30-51) holding a current medical certificate. A total of 41 runs were made at neutral (23.8C (75F), or hot (60.0C (140F), 71.1C (16...

  2. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended ...

  3. High temperature fatigue behaviour of intermetallics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There would be considerable benefits in developing new structural materials where high use temperatures and strength coupled with low density are minimum capabilities. Nickel and titanium aluminides exhibit considerable potential for near-term application in various branches of modern industry due to the number of ...

  4. High pressure and high temperature behaviour of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Nilesh A. [K. K. Shah Jarodwala Maninagar Science College, Rambaug, Maninagar, Ahmedabad-380008 (India); Bhatt, Apoorva D. [Department of Physics, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-380009 (India); Pandya, Tushar C., E-mail: [St. Xavier' s College, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380009 (India)


    The thermodynamic properties with the wurtzite (B4) and rocksalt (B1) phases of ZnO under high pressures and high temperatures have been investigated using Tait's Equation of state (EOS). The effects of pressures and temperatures on thermodynamic properties such as bulk modulus, thermal expansivity and thermal pressure are explored for both two structures. It is found that ZnO material gradually softens with increase of temperature while it hardens with the increment of the pressure. Our predicted results of thermodynamics properties for both the phases of ZnO are in overall agreement with the available data in the literature.

  5. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Royen, J V


    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  6. High temperature superconductors applications in telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, M.F. [Prairie View A& M Univ., Texas (United States)


    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss high temperature superconductors with specific reference to their employment in telecommunications applications; and to discuss a few of the limitations of the normally employed two-fluid model. While the debate on the actual usage of high temperature superconductors in the design of electronic and telecommunications devices-obvious advantages versus practical difficulties-needs to be settled in the near future, it is of great interest to investigate the parameters and the assumptions that will be employed in such designs. This paper deals with the issue of providing the microwave design engineer with performance data for such superconducting waveguides. The values of conductivity and surface resistance, which are the primary determining factors of a waveguide performance, are computed based on the two-fluid model. A comparison between two models-a theoretical one in terms of microscopic parameters (termed Model A) and an experimental fit in terms of macroscopic parameters (termed Model B)-shows the limitations and the resulting ambiguities of the two-fluid model at high frequencies and at temperatures close to the transition temperature. The validity of the two-fluid model is then discussed. Our preliminary results show that the electrical transport description in the normal and superconducting phases as they are formulated in the two-fluid model needs to be modified to incorporate the new and special features of high temperature superconductors. Parameters describing the waveguide performance-conductivity, surface resistance and attenuation constant-will be computed. Potential applications in communications networks and large scale integrated circuits will be discussed. Some of the ongoing work will be reported. In particular, a brief proposal is made to investigate of the effects of electromagnetic interference and the concomitant notion of electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) of high T{sub c} superconductors.

  7. Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, Fabien [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Stines-Chaumeil, Claire [Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, Institut de Biochimie et de Genetique Cellulaires, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Flexer, Victoria [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Andre, Isabelle [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Mano, Nicolas, E-mail: [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)


    Research highlights: {yields} A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. {yields} First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. {yields} Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. {yields} Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

  8. A water-soluble and highly phosphorescent cyclometallated iridium complex with versatile sensing capability. (United States)

    Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Chan; Song, Qijun; Pang, Qingfeng


    A water-soluble and highly phosphorescent cyclometallated iridium complex [(pq)2Ir(bpy-COOK)](+)Cl(-) (where pq=2-phenylquinoline, bpy-COOK= potassium 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylate) (Ir) has been synthesized and characterized. Its phosphorescence can be sensitively and selectively quenched by tryptophan through a photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) process. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of Ir is drastically increased upon binding with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the enhanced signal is effectively quenched in the presence of Cu(2+). Thus, Ir can be used as a multifunctional chemosensor for tryptophan, BSA, and Cu(2+) determination as well as for cell imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Equilibrium solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions of 1-amino-2-propanol as function of concentration, temperature, and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebolledo-Morales, Miguel Angel; Rebolledo-Libreros, Maria Esther [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion de Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Trejo, Arturo, E-mail: atrejo@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Direccion de Investigacion y Posgrado, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Area de Investigacion de Termofisica, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, 07730 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Research highlights: Gas solubility of CO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions of 1-amino-2-propanol was measured. Solubility increases as pressure and concentration of 1-amino-2-propanol increase. The Kent-Eisenberg model was used to correlate all the experimental results. Aqueous solutions of MIPA are an excellent alternative to use in gas purification. - Abstract: Using a dynamic method with recirculation of the vapour phase, experimental values for the gas solubility of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of 1-amino-2-propanol (MIPA) were measured at T = (313.15 and 393.15) K, over the pressure range of (0.2 to 2436.4) kPa. The concentrations of the studied aqueous MIPA solutions were (0.20, 0.30, 0.40, and 0.50) mass fraction. The results of gas solubility are given as the partial pressure of CO{sub 2}, p{sub CO{sub 2}}, against its mole ratio, {alpha}{sub CO{sub 2}} (mol CO{sub 2} {center_dot} mol{sup -1} MIPA), and its mole fraction, x{sub CO{sub 2}}. It is observed that the solubility of CO{sub 2} increases as the concentration of MIPA in solution increases, at a given temperature throughout the pressure range considered; also the solubility values increase, under constant temperature, as the pressure increases in the studied concentration range of MIPA. The physicochemical model of Kent and Eisenberg was used to correlate simultaneously all the experimental results of the solubility of CO{sub 2} in the studied aqueous solutions of MIPA. The model correlates satisfactorily the experimental results. The deviation for pressure was 96.9 kPa using 62 experimental solubility points. The solubility results of carbon dioxide presented in this work are compared with those reported in the literature for aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diisopropanolamine (DIPA), and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and it is possible to conclude that the aqueous solutions of MIPA are an excellent alternative to use in gas purification processes, since the

  10. Sorbents Remove Oxygen At High Temperatures (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.


    Cobalt-exchanged, platinized zeolites 13X and L found conveniently reducible in hot gaseous mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen and thereafter useful as sorbents of trace amounts of oxygen at high temperatures. Aided by catalytic action of platinum, sorbents exhibit rapid oxygen-sorption kinetics and, according to thermodynamic properties of O2/CoO system, capable of lowering level of oxygen in otherwise inert gaseous atmosphere to less than 1 part per trillion in temperature range of 400 to 800 degrees C. Inert atmospheres with these oxygen levels required for processing of certain materials in semiconductor industry.

  11. A review of high-temperature adhesives (United States)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.


    The development of high temperature adhesives and polyphenylquinoxalines (PPQ) is reported. Thermoplastic polyimides and linear PPQ adhesive are shown to have potential for bonding both metals and composite structures. A nadic terminated addition polyimide adhesive, LARC-13, and an acetylene terminated phenylquinoxaline (ATPQ) were developed. Both of the addition type adhesives are shown to be more readily processable than linear materials but less thermooxidatively stable and more brittle. It is found that the addition type adhesives are able to perform, at elevated temperatures up to 595 C where linear systems fail thermoplastically.

  12. High temperature dynamic engine seal technology development (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Machinchick, Michael; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank; Sirocky, Paul J.; Miller, Jeffrey H.


    Combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines being designed for advanced hypersonic vehicles, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), require innovative high temperature dynamic seals to seal the sliding interfaces of the articulated engine panels. New seals are required that will operate hot (1200 to 2000 F), seal pressures ranging from 0 to 100 psi, remain flexible to accommodate significant sidewall distortions, and resist abrasion over the engine's operational life. This report reviews the recent high temperature durability screening assessments of a new braided rope seal concept, braided of emerging high temperature materials, that shows promise of meeting many of the seal demands of hypersonic engines. The paper presents durability data for: (1) the fundamental seal building blocks, a range of candidate ceramic fiber tows; and for (2) braided rope seal subelements scrubbed under engine simulated sliding, temperature, and preload conditions. Seal material/architecture attributes and limitations are identified through the investigations performed. The paper summarizes the current seal technology development status and presents areas in which future work will be performed.

  13. Polymer-free nanofibers from vanillin/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes: high thermal stability, enhanced solubility and antioxidant property. (United States)

    Celebioglu, Asli; Kayaci-Senirmak, Fatma; İpek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Uyar, Tamer


    Vanillin/cyclodextrin inclusion complex nanofibers (vanillin/CD-IC NFs) were successfully obtained from three modified CD types (HPβCD, HPγCD and MβCD) in three different solvent systems (water, DMF and DMAc) via an electrospinning technique without using a carrier polymeric matrix. Vanillin/CD-IC NFs with uniform and bead-free fiber morphology were successfully produced and their free-standing nanofibrous webs were obtained. The polymer-free CD/vanillin-IC-NFs allow us to accomplish a much higher vanillin loading (∼12%, w/w) when compared to electrospun polymeric nanofibers containing CD/vanillin-IC (∼5%, w/w). Vanillin has a volatile nature yet, after electrospinning, a significant amount of vanillin was preserved due to complex formation depending on the CD types. Maximum preservation of vanillin was observed for vanillin/MβCD-IC NFs which is up to ∼85% w/w, besides, a considerable amount of vanillin (∼75% w/w) was also preserved for vanillin/HPβCD-IC NFs and vanillin/HPγCD-IC NFs. Phase solubility studies suggested a 1 : 1 molar complexation tendency between guest vanillin and host CD molecules. Molecular modelling studies and experimental findings revealed that vanillin : CD complexation was strongest for MβCD when compared to HPβCD and HPγCD in vanillin/CD-IC NFs. For vanillin/CD-IC NFs, water solubility and the antioxidant property of vanillin was improved significantly owing to inclusion complexation. In brief, polymer-free vanillin/CD-IC NFs are capable of incorporating a much higher loading of vanillin and effectively preserve volatile vanillin. Hence, encapsulation of volatile active agents such as flavor, fragrance and essential oils in electrospun polymer-free CD-IC NFs may have potential for food related applications by integrating the particularly large surface area of NFs with the non-toxic nature of CD and inclusion complexation benefits, such as high temperature stability, improved water solubility and an enhanced

  14. Solubility and spectroscopic studies of the interaction of palladium with simple carboxylic acids and fulvic acid at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, S.A. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)); Tait, C.D.; Janecky, D.R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)); Vlassopoulos, D. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States))


    The interaction of Pd with some O-donor organic acid anions has been investigated using solubility measurements and a variety of spectroscopic techniques (UV-visible, Raman, FTIR, [sup 13]C NMR). Some of the ligands investigated (acetate, oxalate, and fulvic acid) occur naturally in relatively high concentrations, whereas others (phthalate and salicylate) serve as models of potential binding sites on humic and fulvic acids. Solubility measurements show that the presence of acetate, phthalate, salicylate, and fulvic acid (oxalate was not studied via solubility methods) can increase the mobility of Pd over various pH ranges, depending on the organic ligand. In the case of acetate, UV-visible and Raman spectroscopy provide strong evidence for the formation of electrostatically bound, possibly outer-sphere palladium acetate complexes. Oxalate was confirmed by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy to compete favorably with chloride (0.56 M NaCl) for Pd even at oxalate concentrations as low as 1 mM at pH = 6-7. Available data from the literature suggest that oxalate may have an influence on Pd mobility at free oxalate concentrations as low as 10[sup [minus]8]=10[sup [minus]9] M. UV-visible spectroscopy provides evidence of an initially rapid, followed by a slower, reaction between PdCl[sup 2-][sub 4] and o-phthalate ion. These findings lend support to the idea that similar bindings sites on fulvic acid may be capable of complexing and solubilizing Pd in the natural environment. Although thermodynamic data are required to fully quantify the extent, it is concluded that simple carboxylic acid anions and/or fulvic and humic acids should be capable of significantly enhancing Pd transport in the surficial environment by forming truly dissolved complexes. On the other hand, flocculation of fulvic/humic acids, owing to changing ionic strengths or pH, or adsorption of these acids onto mineral surfaces, may also provide effective means of immobilizing Pd.

  15. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.


    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  16. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik


    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  17. Association between high-dose erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, inflammatory biomarkers, and soluble erythropoietin receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inrig Jula K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-dose erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA for anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes and do not always improve erythropoiesis. We hypothesized that high-dose ESA requirement would be associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers, decreased adipokines, and increased circulating, endogenous soluble erythropoietin receptors (sEpoR. Methods A cross-sectional cohort of anemic 32 CKD participants receiving ESA were enrolled at a single center and cytokine profiles, adipokines, and sEpoR were compared between participants stratified by ESA dose requirement (usual-dose darbepoetin-α ( Results Baseline characteristics were similar between groups; however, hemoglobin was lower among participants on high-dose (1.4 μg/kg/week vs usual-dose (0.5 μg/kg/week ESA. In adjusted analyses, high-dose ESA was associated with an increased odds for elevations in c-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (p s = 0.39, p = 0.03. In adjusted analyses, higher ESA dose (per μcg/kg/week was associated with a 53% greater odds of sEpoR being above the median (p Conclusion High-dose ESA requirement among anemic CKD participants was associated with elevated inflammatory biomarkers and higher levels of circulating sEpoR, an inhibitor of erythropoiesis. Further research confirming these findings is warranted. Trial registration NCT00526747

  18. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleige, Michael

    This thesis presents the development and application of electrochemical half-cell setups to study the catalytic reactions taking place in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (HTPEM-FCs): (i) a pressurized electrochemical cell with integrated magnetically coupled rotating disk electrode...... to 140 ºC and oxygen pressures up to ~100 bar at room temperature. The GDE cell is successfully tested at 130 ºC by means of direct oxidation of methanol and ethanol, respectively. In the second part of the thesis, the emphasis is put on the ORR in H3PO4 with particular focus on the mass transport...... oxidation of ethanol is in principle a promising concept to supply HTPEM-FCs with a sustainable and on large scale available fuel (ethanol from biomass). However, the intermediate temperature tests in the GDE setup show that even on Pt-based catalysts the reaction rates become first significant...

  19. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  20. Quench in high temperature superconductor magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, J.


    High field superconducting magnets using high temperature superconductors are being developed for high energy physics, nuclear magnetic resonance and energy storage applications. Although the conductor technology has progressed to the point where such large magnets can be readily envisioned, quench protection remains a key challenge. It is well-established that quench propagation in HTS magnets is very slow and this brings new challenges that must be addressed. In this paper, these challenges are discussed and potential solutions, driven by new technologies such as optical fiber based sensors and thermally conducting electrical insulators, are reviewed.

  1. Energy storage via high temperature superconductivity (SMES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkonen, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    The technology concerning high temperature superconductors (HTS) is matured to enabling different kind of prototype applications including SMES. Nowadays when speaking about HTS systems, attention is focused on the operating temperature of 20-30 K, where the critical current and flux density are fairly close to 4.2 K values. In addition by defining the ratio of the energy content of a novel HTS magnetic system and the required power to keep the system at the desired temperature, the optimum settles to the above mentioned temperature range. In the frame of these viewpoints a 5 kJ HTS SMES system has been designed and tested at Tampere University of Technology with a coil manufactured by American Superconductor (AMSC). The HTS magnet has inside and outside diameters of 252 mm and 317 mm, respectively and axial length of 66 mm. It operates at 160 A and carries a total of 160 kA-turns to store the required amount of energy. The effective magnetic inductance is 0.4 H and the peak axial field is 1.7 T. The magnet is cooled to the operating temperature of 20 K with a two stage Gifford-McMahon type cryocooler with a cooling power of 60 W at 77 K and 8 W at 20 K. The magnetic system has been demonstrated to compensate a short term loss of power of a sensitive consumer

  2. High temperature deformation of silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Calvillo, Pablo, E-mail: [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Cataluna (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain); Houbaert, Yvan, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Petrov, Roumen, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Kestens, Leo, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)


    The microstructure and texture development during high temperature plane strain compression of 2% in weight silicon steel was studied. The tests were carried out at a constant strain rate of 5 s{sup -1} with reductions of 25, 35 and 75% at temperatures varying from 800 to 1100 Degree-Sign C. The changes in microstructure and texture were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction. The microstructure close to the surface of the samples was equiaxed, which is attributed to the shear caused by friction, whereas that at the centre of the specimens was made of a mixture of elongated and fine equiaxed grains, the last ones attributed to the action of dynamic recovery followed by recrystallization. It was found that the volume fraction of these equiaxed grains augmented as reduction and temperature increased; a 0.7 volume fraction was accomplished with a 75% reduction at 1100 Degree-Sign C. The texture of the equiaxed and elongated grains was found to vary with the increase of deformation and temperature, as the {gamma}-fibre tends to disappear and the {alpha}-fibre to increase towards the higher temperature range. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plastic deformation of a silicon containing steel is studied by plane strain compression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equiaxed and elongated grains develop in different regions of the sample due to recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Texture, by EBSD, is revealed to be similar in either type of grains.

  3. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang


    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in C. to C. range as well as in excess of C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  4. Electrochemical high-temperature gas sensors (United States)

    Saruhan, B.; Stranzenbach, M.; Yüce, A.; Gönüllü, Y.


    Combustion produced common air pollutant, NOx associates with greenhouse effects. Its high temperature detection is essential for protection of nature. Component-integration capable high-temperature sensors enable the control of combustion products. The requirements are quantitative detection of total NOx and high selectivity at temperatures above 500°C. This study reports various approaches to detect NO and NO2 selectively under lean and humid conditions at temperatures from 300°C to 800°C. All tested electrochemical sensors were fabricated in planar design to enable componentintegration. We suggest first an impedance-metric gas sensor for total NOx-detection consisting of NiO- or NiCr2O4-SE and PYSZ-electrolyte. The electrolyte-layer is about 200μm thickness and constructed of quasi-single crystalline columns. The sensing-electrode (SE) is magnetron sputtered thin-layers of NiO or NiCr2O4. Sensor sensitivity for detection of total NOx has been measured by applying impedance analysis. The cross-sensitivity to other emission gases such as CO, CO2, CH4 and oxygen (5 vol.%) has been determined under 0-1000ppm NO. Sensor maintains its high sensitivity at temperatures up to 550°C and 600°C, depending on the sensing-electrode. NiO-SE yields better selectivity to NO in the presence of oxygen and have shorter response times comparing to NiCr2O4-SE. For higher temperature NO2-sensing capability, a resistive DC-sensor having Al-doped TiO2-sensing layers has been employed. Sensor-sensitivity towards NO2 and cross-sensitivity to CO has been determined in the presence of H2O at temperatures 600°C and 800°C. NO2 concentrations varying from 25 to 100ppm and CO concentrations from 25 to 75ppm can be detected. By nano-tubular structuring of TiO2, NO2 sensitivity of the sensor was increased.

  5. Vapor phase lubrication of high temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyaloglu, B.F.; Graham, E.E.; Oreskovic, T.; Hajj, C.G. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)


    In a previous study, it was found that when a nickel-based superalloy IN750 was heated to high temperatures, a passive layer of aluminum oxide formed on the surface, preventing vapor phase lubrication. In this study, two nickel-chrome-iron alloys and a nickel-copper alloy were studied for high temperature lubrication to see if these alloys, which contained small amounts of aluminum, would exhibit similar behavior. It was found that under static conditions, all three alloys formed a lubricious nodular coating when exposed to a vapor of aryl phosphate. Under dynamic sliding conditions at 500{degrees}C, these alloys were successfully lubricated with a coefficient of friction of 0.1 and no detectable wear. In order to explain these results, a direct correlation between successful vapor phase lubrication and the composition of the alloys containing aluminum has been proposed. If the ratio of copper/aluminum or iron/aluminum is greater that 100 vapor phase, lubrication will be successful. If the ratio is less than 10, a passive aluminum oxide layer will prevent vapor phase lubrication. By selecting alloys with a high iron or copper content, vapor phase lubrication can provide excellent lubrication at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Medium Deep High Temperature Heat Storage (United States)

    Bär, Kristian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel; Welsch, Bastian; Chauhan, Swarup; Homuth, Sebastian; Sass, Ingo


    Heating of buildings requires more than 25 % of the total end energy consumption in Germany. Shallow geothermal systems for indirect use as well as shallow geothermal heat storage systems like aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) or borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) typically provide low exergy heat. The temperature levels and ranges typically require a coupling with heat pumps. By storing hot water from solar panels or thermal power stations with temperatures of up to 110 °C a medium deep high temperature heat storage (MDHTS) can be operated on relatively high temperature levels of more than 45 °C. Storage depths of 500 m to 1,500 m below surface avoid conflicts with groundwater use for drinking water or other purposes. Permeability is typically also decreasing with greater depth; especially in the crystalline basement therefore conduction becomes the dominant heat transport process. Solar-thermal charging of a MDHTS is a very beneficial option for supplying heat in urban and rural systems. Feasibility and design criteria of different system configurations (depth, distance and number of BHE) are discussed. One system is designed to store and supply heat (300 kW) for an office building. The required boreholes are located in granodioritic bedrock. Resulting from this setup several challenges have to be addressed. The drilling and completion has to be planned carefully under consideration of the geological and tectonical situation at the specific site.

  7. Comprehensive assessment of aquatic community responses to a new anionic surfactant, high-solubility alkyl sulfate. (United States)

    Belanger, Scott E; Bowling, John W; Leblanc, Ellen M; Price, Bradford B; Herzog, Ron R; Bozso, E


    High-solubility alkyl sulfate (HSAS) is a new anionic surfactant for use in consumer product applications that provides enhanced water solubility and improved water hardness tolerance. A comprehensive model stream ecosystem investigation was conducted to assess ecological and toxicological effects of HSAS on stream invertebrates. Model streams were dosed with HSAS for a period of 56 days following 56 days of colonization in a single-pass, flow-through system. Exposures were control and 9.1, 24.1, 64.0, 165.8, and 426.5 microg/L based on specific analytical detection methods. Benthic abundance on gravel substrates, drift, and insect emergence were assessed. Several taxonomically unrelated taxa were found sensitive to HSAS and formed the basis of toxicological conclusions. Abundance or biomass of a limpet (Ferrissea), a bivalve (Corbicula), flatworms (Turbellaria), and a mayfly (Stenonema) was reduced at concentrations ranging from 165.8 to 426.5 microg/L. Principal response curve analysis, a constrained form of principal components analysis, demonstrated consistency with univariate analyses and identified similar populations as being sensitive to HSAS. Comparison with historical studies from the same testing site, streams, and experimental design, but with structurally related alkyl sulfate and alkyl ethoxysulfate anionic surfactants, revealed several similar trends in response profiles at the population level for both tolerant and sensitive species. Based on the comprehensive nature of the study, strength of data trends, and demonstrated sensitivity of the aquatic communities contained in the experimental system, the no-observed-effect concentration for HSAS was concluded to be 64.0 microg/L. An application factor of 1 is justified for deriving a predicted no-effect concentration) for HSAS in aquatic systems.

  8. High temperature superconductors for magnetic suspension applications (United States)

    Mcmichael, C. K.; Cooley, R. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Ma, K. B.; Lamb, M. A.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.; Chu, W. K.


    High temperature superconductors (HTS) hold the promise for applications in magnetic levitation bearings, vibration damping, and torque coupling. Traditional magnetic suspension systems require active feedback and vibration controls in which power consumption and low frequency vibration are among the major engineering concerns. HTS materials have been demonstrated to be an enabling approach towards such problems due to their flux trapping properties. In our laboratory at TCSUH, we have been conducting a series of experiments to explore various mechanical applications using HTS. We have constructed a 30 lb. model flywheel levitated by a hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing (HSMB). We are also developing a levitated and vibration-dampled platform for high precision instrumentation. These applications would be ideal for space usages where ambient temperature is adequate for HTS to operate properly under greatly reduced cryogenic requirements. We will give a general overview of these potential applications and discuss the operating principles of the HTS devices we have developed.

  9. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico


    Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  10. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server


    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  11. Trends in Surface Temperature at High Latitudes (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.


    The earliest signal of a climate change is expected to be found in the polar regions where warming is expected to be amplified on account of ice-albedo feedbacks associated with the high reflectivity of snow and ice. Because of general inaccessibility, there is a general paucity of in situ data and hence the need to use satellite data to observe the large-scale variability and trends in surface temperature in the region. Among the most important sensors for monitoring surface temperature has been the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) which was first launched in 1978 and has provided continuous thermal infrared data since 1981. The top of the atmosphere data are converted to surface temperature data through various schemes that accounts for the unique atmospheric and surface conditions in the polar regions. Among the highest source of error in the data is cloud masking which is made more difficult in the polar region because of similar Signatures of clouds and snow lice covered areas. The availability of many more channels in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) launched on board Terra satellite in December 1999 and on board Aqua in May 2002 (e.g., 36 visible and infrared channels compared to 5 for AVHRR) made it possible to minimize the error. Further capabilities were introduced with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) which has the appropriate frequency channels for the retrieval of sea surface temperature (SST). The results of analysis of the data show an amplified warming in the Arctic region, compared with global warming. The spatial distribution of warming is, however, not uniform and during the last 3 decades, positive temperature anomalies have been most pronounced in North America, Greenland and the Arctic basin. Some regions of the Arctic such as Siberia and the Bering Sea surprisingly show moderate cooling but this may be because these regions were anomalously warm in the 1980s when the satellite record

  12. The apparent solubility of aluminum (III) in Hanford high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.


    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford nuclear waste impacts on the process ability of the waste by a number of proposed treatment options. For many years, Hanford staff has anecdotally noted that aluminum appears to be considerably more soluble in Hanford waste than the simpler electrolyte solutions used as analogues. There has been minimal scientific study to confirm these anecdotal observations, however. The present study determines the apparent solubility product for gibbsite in 50 tank samples. The ratio of hydroxide to aluminum in the liquid phase for the samples is calculated and plotted as a function of total sodium molarity. Total sodium molarity is used as a surrogate for ionic strength, because the relative ratios of mono, di and trivalent anions are not available for all of the samples. These results were compared to the simple NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})H{sub 2}O system, and the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})NaCl-H{sub 2}O system data retrieved from the literature. The results show that gibbsite is apparently more soluble in the samples than in the simple systems whenever the sodium molarity is greater than two. This apparent enhanced solubility cannot be explained solely by differences in ionic strength. The change in solubility with ionic strength in simple systems is small compared to the difference between aluminum solubility in Hanford waste and the simple systems. The reason for the apparent enhanced solubility is unknown, but could include. kinetic or thermodynamic factors that are not present in the simple electrolyte systems. Any kinetic explanation would have to explain why the samples are always supersaturated whenever the sodium molarity is above two. Real waste characterization data should not be used to validate thermodynamic solubility models until it can be confirmed that the apparent enhanced gibbsite solubility is a thermodynamic effect and not a kinetic effect.

  13. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed only electromagnets. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  14. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed electromagnets only. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  15. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Polycrystalline powder of BaSnO3 was prepared at 1300 ◦C using a high-temperature solid-state reac- tion technique. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the formation of a single-phase cubic structure with lattice parameter: a = (4·1158 ± 0·0003) Å. The synthesized powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction ...

  16. High temperature mechanical properties of iron aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris, D. G.


    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been given to the iron aluminide family of intermetallics over the past years since they offer considerable potential as engineering materials for intermediate to high temperature applications, particularly in cases where extreme oxidation or corrosion resistance is required. Despite efforts at alloy development, however, high temperature strength remains low and creep resistance poor. Reasons for the poor high-temperature strength of iron aluminides will be discussed, based on the ordered crystal structure, the dislocation structure found in the material, and the mechanisms of dislocation pinning operating. Alternative ways of improving high temperature strength by microstructural modification and the inclusion of second phase particles will also be considered.

    Durante los últimos años se ha prestado mucha atención a la familia de intermetálicos Fe-Al, puesto que estos constituyen un considerable potencial como materiales de ingeniería en aplicaciones a temperaturas intermedias o altas, sobre todo en casos donde se necesita alta resistencia a la oxidación o corrosión. A pesar del considerable esfuerzo desarrollado para obtener aleaciones con mejores propiedades, su resistencia mecánica a alta temperatura no es muy elevada. Se discutirán los aspectos que contribuyen a la baja resistencia mecánica a temperatura elevada en función de la estructura de dislocaciones y los mecanismos de anclaje que operan en este intermetálico. Se considerarán, también, maneras alternativas para mejorar la resistencia a temperatura elevada mediante la modificación de la microestructura y la incorporación de partículas de segunda fase.

  17. Fundamental aspects of high-temperature corrosion


    Rapp, Robert


    Some recent considerations in three widely different aspects of high-temperature corrosion are summarized: 1) reactions at the metal/scale interface in support of scale growth; 2) mass transfer effects in the control of evaporation of volatile reaction products; and 3) the codeposition of multiple elements for diffusion coatings using halide-activated cementation packs. The climb of misfit edge dislocations from the metal/scale interface can achieve the annihilation of vacancies associated wi...

  18. Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries (United States)

    Jungst, Rudolph G.; Armijo, James R.; Frear, Darrel R.


    A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately C. and C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

  19. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion (United States)

    Wood, C.


    Theory of thermoelectric energy conversion at high temperatures and status of research on conversion materials reviewed in report. Shows highest values of thermoelectric figure of merit, Z, found in semiconductor materials. Semiconductors keep wide choice of elements and compounds. Electrical properties tailored to particular application by impurity doping and control of stoichiometry. Report develops definition of Z useful for comparing materials and uses it to evaluate potentials of different classes of materialsmetals, semiconductors, and insulators.

  20. High Temperature Perforating System for Geothermal Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Moises E. [Schlumberger Technology Corporation, Sugar Land, TX (United States)


    The objective of this project is to develop a perforating system consisting of all the explosive components and hardware, capable of reliable performance in high temperatures geothermal wells (>200 ºC). In this light we will focused on engineering development of these components, characterization of the explosive raw powder and developing the internal infrastructure to increase the production of the explosive from laboratory scale to industrial scale.

  1. High-temperature technological processes: Thermophysical principles (United States)

    Rykalin, N. N.; Uglov, A. A.; Anishchenko, L. M.

    The book is concerned with the principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer theory underlying high-temperature technological processes. Some characteristics of electromagnetic radiation and heat transfer in solids, liquids, and gases are reviewed, and boundary layer theory, surface phenomena, and phase transitions are examined. The discussion includes an analysis of a number of specific processes, such as treatment by concentrated energy fluxes (electron-beam and laser processing) and plasma machining.

  2. Brittle Materials Design, High Temperature Gas Turbine (United States)


    Modulus and Poisson’s Ratio were determined by sonic techniques: thermal expansion values were measured on a differential dilatometer and thermal...accumulation of potentially explosive gases. 4. Thermal conductivity of the nitriding atmosphere is important for production of high quality RBSN...of varying MgO content. Measurements were conducted on a differential dilatometer from room temperatures up to 900°C, and are shown in Figure 3.2.3

  3. High temperature inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)


    Effort has continued to accumulate data on the transport of gases over the temperature range from room temperature to 275{degrees}C with inorganic membranes having a range of pore radii from approximately 0.25 nm to 3 mn. An experimental alumina membrane having an estimated mean pore radius of 0.25 nm has been fabricated and tested. Extensive testing of this membrane indicated that the separation factor for helium and carbon tetrafluoride at 250{degrees}C was 59 and the extrapolated high temperature separation factor was 1,193. For safety reasons, earlier flow measurements concentrated on helium, carbon dioxide, and carbon tetrafluoride. New data have been acquired with hydrogen to verify the agreement with the other gases. During the measurements with hydrogen, it was noted that a considerable amount of moisture was present in the test gas. The source of this moisture and its effect on permeance was examined. Improvements were implemented to the flow test system to minimize the water content of the hydrogen test gas, and subsequent flow measurements have shown excellent results with hydrogen. The extrapolation of separation factors as a function of temperature continues to show promise as a means of using the hard sphere model to determine the pore size of membranes. The temperature dependence of helium transport through membranes appears to be considerably greater than other gases for the smallest pore sizes. The effort to extend temperature dependence to the hard sphere model continues to be delayed, primarily because of a lack of adequate adsorption data.

  4. New fluid for high temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M.; Flohr, F. [Solvay Fluor GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Froeba, A.P. [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik (LTT), Univ. Erlangen (Germany)


    As a result of the worldwide increased consumption of energy, energy saving measures come more and more in the focus of commercial acting. Besides the efficiency enhancement of energy consuming systems the utilization of waste heat is an additional possibility of saving energy. Areas where this might be feasible are geothermal power plants, local combined heat and power plants, solar-thermal-systems and high temperature heat pumps (HTHP). All these applications need a transfer fluid which secures the transport of the energy from it's source to the place where it is needed at high temperatures. The paper will start with a description or overview of promising energy sources and their utilization. The thermophysical properties of an azeotropic binary mixture of HFC-365mfc and a per-fluoro-poly-ether (PFPE) which fulfils the requirements on a high temperature working fluid are introduced in the second part of the paper. First results and practical experiences in an ORC process are shown in this context followed by an estimation regarding the saved energy or the improved efficiency respectively for other applications The paper will end with a brief outlook on possible new applications e.g. autarkic systems or immersion cooling of electrical parts. (orig.)

  5. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    for immobilization of aqueous KOH solutions. Electrolysis cells with this electrolyte and metal foam based gas diffusion electrodes were successfully demonstrated at temperatures up to 250 °C at 40 bar. Different electro-catalysts were tested in order to reduce the oxygen and hydrogen overpotentials. Current...... the operational temperature and pressure to produce pressurized hydrogen at high rate (m3 H2·h-1·m-2 cell area) and high electrical efficiency. This work describes an exploratory technical study of the possibility to produce hydrogen and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures...... densities of 1.1 A cm-2 and 2.3 A cm-2 have been measured at a cell voltage of 1.5 V and 1.75 V, respectively, without noble metal catalysts. Electrical efficiencies of almost 99 % at 1.1 A cm-2 and 85 % at 2.3 A cm-2 were obtained....

  6. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kofoed, Kristian


    Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflects the immune and pro-inflammatory status of the HIV-infected patient. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses suPAR. Independent of the immune response to HAART, suPAR remains elevated in some HIV-infected......Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflects the immune and pro-inflammatory status of the HIV-infected patient. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses suPAR. Independent of the immune response to HAART, suPAR remains elevated in some HIV......-HDL-cholesterol and inversely with Rd, NOGM and limb fat (P

  7. High-Temperature Enzymatic Breakdown of Cellulose▿† (United States)

    Wang, Hongliang; Squina, Fabio; Segato, Fernando; Mort, Andrew; Lee, David; Pappan, Kirk; Prade, Rolf


    Cellulose is an abundant and renewable biopolymer that can be used for biofuel generation; however, structural entrapment with other cell wall components hinders enzyme-substrate interactions, a key bottleneck for ethanol production. Biomass is routinely subjected to treatments that facilitate cellulase-cellulose contacts. Cellulases and glucosidases act by hydrolyzing glycosidic bonds of linear glucose β-1,4-linked polymers, producing glucose. Here we describe eight high-temperature-operating cellulases (TCel enzymes) identified from a survey of thermobacterial and archaeal genomes. Three TCel enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed soluble cellulose, while two preferred insoluble cellulose such as cotton linters and filter paper. TCel enzymes had temperature optima ranging from 85°C to 102°C. TCel enzymes were stable, retaining 80% of initial activity after 120 h at 85°C. Two modes of cellulose breakdown, i.e., with endo- and exo-acting glucanases, were detected, and with two-enzyme combinations at 85°C, synergistic cellulase activity was observed for some enzyme combinations. PMID:21685160

  8. High temperature superconducting digital circuits and subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, J.S.; Pance, A.; Whiteley, S.R.; Char, K.; Johansson, M.F.; Lee, L. [Conductus, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Hietala, V.M.; Wendt, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)


    The advances in the fabrication of high temperature superconducting devices have enabled the demonstration of high performance and useful digital circuits and subsystems. The yield and uniformity of the devices is sufficient for circuit fabrication at the medium scale integration (MSI) level with performance not seen before at 77 K. The circuits demonstrated to date include simple gates, counters, analog to digital converters, and shift registers. All of these are mid-sized building blocks for potential applications in commercial and military systems. The processes used for these circuits and blocks will be discussed along with observed performance data.

  9. Synthesis of highly reactive polyisobutylene catalyzed by EtAlCl 2/Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether soluble complex in hexanes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rajeev Ananda


    The polymerization of isobutylene (IB) to yield highly reactive polyisobutylene (HR PIB) with high exo-olefin content using GaCl3 or FeCl3·diisopropyl ether complexes has been previously reported.1 In an effort to further improve polymerization rates and exo-olefin content, we have studied ethylaluminum dichloride (EADC) complexes with diisopropyl ether, 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether (CEEE), and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (CEE) as catalysts in conjunction with tert-butyl chloride as initiator in hexanes at different temperatures. All three complexes were readily soluble in hexanes. Polymerization, however, was only observed with CEE. At 0 °C polymerization was complete in 5 min at [t-BuCl] = [EADC·CEE] = 10 mM and resulted in PIB with ∼70% exo-olefin content. Studies on complexation using ATR FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that at 1:1 stoichiometry a small amount of EADC remains uncomplexed. By employing an excess of CEE, exo-olefin contents increased up to 90%, while polymerization rates decreased only slightly. With decreasing temperature, polymerization rates decreased while molecular weights as well as exo-olefin contents increased, suggesting that isomerization has a higher activation energy than β-proton abstraction. Density functional theory (DFT) studies on the Lewis acid·ether binding energies indicated a trend consistent with the polymerization results. The polymerization mechanism proposed previously for Lewis acid·ether complexes1 adequately explains all the findings. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. High-temperature alloys for high-power thermionic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang S.; Jacobson, D.L.; D' cruz, L.; Luo, Anhua; Chen, Bor-Ling.


    The need for structural materials with useful strength above 1600 k has stimulated interest in refractory-metal alloys. Tungsten possesses an extreme high modulus of elasticity as well as the highest melting temperature among metals, and hence is being considered as one of the most promising candidate materials for high temperature structural applications such as space nuclear power systems. This report is divided into three chapters covering the following: (1) the processing of tungsten base alloys; (2) the tensile properties of tungsten base alloys; and (3) creep behavior of tungsten base alloys. Separate abstracts were prepared for each chapter. (SC)

  11. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of High Temperature Solders: Effects of High Temperature Aging (United States)

    Hasnine, M.; Tolla, B.; Vahora, N.


    This paper explores the effects of aging on the mechanical behavior, microstructure evolution and IMC formation on different surface finishes of two high temperature solders, Sn-5 wt.% Ag and Sn-5 wt.% Sb. High temperature aging showed significant degradation of Sn-5 wt.% Ag solder hardness (34%) while aging has little effect on Sn-5 wt.% Sb solder. Sn-5 wt.% Ag experienced rapid grain growth as well as the coarsening of particles during aging. Sn-5 wt.% Sb showed a stable microstructure due to solid solution strengthening and the stable nature of SnSb precipitates. The increase of intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness during aging follows a parabolic relationship with time. Regression analysis (time exponent, n) indicated that IMC growth kinetics is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. The results have important implications in the selection of high temperature solders used in high temperature applications.

  12. High-temperature brushless DC motor controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslewski, Crzegorz; Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Eckert, Michael Nathan


    A motor control system for deployment in high temperature environments includes a controller; a first half-bridge circuit that includes a first high-side switching element and a first low-side switching element; a second half-bridge circuit that includes a second high-side switching element and a second low-side switching element; and a third half-bridge circuit that includes a third high-side switching element and a third; low-side switching element. The motor controller is arranged to apply a pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme to switch the first half-bridge circuit, second half-bridge circuit, and third half-bridge circuit to power a motor.

  13. High Pressure and Temperature Effects in Polymers (United States)

    Bucknall, David; Arrighi, Valeria; Johnston, Kim; Condie, Iain

    Elastomers are widely exploited as the basis for seals in gas and fluid pipelines. The underlying behaviour of these elastomer at the high pressure, elevated temperatures they experience in operation is poorly understood. Consequently, the duty cycle of these materials is often deliberately limited to a few hours, and in order to prevent failure, production is stopped in order to change the seals in critical joints. The result is significant time lost due to bringing down production to change the seals as well as knock on financial costs. In order to address the fundamental nature of the elastomers at their intended operating conditions, we are studying the gas permeation behaviour of hydrogenated natural butyl rubber (HNBR) and fluorinated elastomers (FKM) at a high pressure and elevated temperature. We have developed a pressure system that permits gas permeation studies at gas pressures of up to 5000 psi and operating temperatures up to 150° C. In this paper, we will discuss the nature of the permeation behaviour at these extreme operating conditions, and how this relates to the changes in the polymer structure. We will also discuss the use of graphene-polymer thin layer coatings to modify the gas permeation behaviour of the elastomers.

  14. Conformal Properties in High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, K -I; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, T


    We investigate the properties of quarks and gluons above the chiral phase transition temperature $T_c,$ using the RG improved gauge action and the Wilson quark action with two degenerate quarks mainly on a $32^3\\times 16$ lattice. In the one-loop perturbation theory, the thermal ensemble is dominated by the gauge configurations with effectively $Z(3)$ center twisted boundary conditions, making the thermal expectation value of the spatial Polyakov loop take a non-trivial $Z(3)$ center. This is in agreement with our lattice simulation of high temperature QCD. We further observe that the temporal propagator of massless quarks at extremely high temperature $\\beta=100.0 \\, (T \\simeq10^{58} T_c)$ remarkably agrees with the temporal propagator of free quarks with the $Z(3)$ twisted boundary condition for $t/L_t \\geq 0.2$, but differs from that with the $Z(3)$ trivial boundary condition. As we increase the mass of quarks $m_q$, we find that the thermal ensemble continues to be dominated by the $Z(3)$ twisted gauge fi...

  15. Highly Water-Soluble Magnetic Nanoparticles as Novel Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Ming Ming


    Highly hydrophilic magnetic nanoparticles have been molecularly designed. For the first time, the application of highly water-soluble magnetic nanoparticles as novel draw solutes in forward osmosis (FO) was systematically investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by various groups were synthesized to explore the correlation between the surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles and the achieved osmolality. We verified that magnetic nanoparticles capped with polyacrylic acid can yield the highest driving force and subsequently highest water flux among others. The used magnetic nanoparticles can be captured by the magnetic field and recycled back into the stream as draw solutes in the FO process. In addition, magnetic nanoparticles of different diameters were also synthesized to study the effect of particles size on FO performance. We demonstrate that the engineering of surface hydrophilicity and magnetic nanoparticle size is crucial in the application of nanoparticles as draw solutes in FO. It is believed that magnetic nanoparticles will soon be extensively used in this area. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Highly Soluble Monoamino-Substituted Perylene Tetracarboxylic Dianhydrides: Synthesis, Optical and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew-Yu Chen


    Full Text Available Three dialkylamino-substituted perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydrides with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 6, 12 or 18, 1a–1c, were synthesized under mild conditions in high yields and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopy. Their optical and electrochemical properties were measured using UV-Vis and emission spectroscopic techniques, as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV. This is the first time that the structures and the properties of monoamino-substituted perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydrides have been reported. These molecules show a deep green color in both solution and the solid state and are soluble in most organic solvents. They all show a unique charge transfer emission in the near-infrared region, and the associated peaks exhibit solvatochromism. The dipole moments of the compounds have been estimated using the Lippert-Mataga equation, and upon excitation, they show slightly larger dipole moment changes than those of corresponding perylene diimides, 2a–2c. Additionally, Compounds 1a–1c undergo two quasi-reversible one-electron oxidations and two quasi-reversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. Complementary density functional theory calculations performed on these chromophores are reported in order to gain more insight into their molecular structures and optical properties.

  17. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  18. Amyloid Fibril Solubility. (United States)

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S


    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  19. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    . Different particle shapes of beechwood and leached wheat straw chars produced in the drop tube reactor which have similar potassium content suggested a stronger influence of the major biomass cell wall compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives) and silicates on the char morphology than...... multi core structures compared to pinewood soot generated at 1400°C, combining both single and multi core particles.Beechwood and wheat straw soot samples had multi and single core particles at both temperatures.In thermogravimetric analysis, the maximal reaction rate of pinewood soot was shifted...... pyrolysis at high temperatures plays a significant role in the overall combustion process since the biomass type, the reaction kinetics and heat transfer rates during pyrolysis influence the volatile gas release. The solid residue yield and its properties in suspension firing, including particle size...

  20. High Temperature Battery for Drilling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josip Caja


    In this project rechargeable cells based on the high temperature electrochemical system Na/beta''-alumina/S(IV) in AlCl3/NaCl were developed for application as an autonomous power source in oil/gas deep drilling wells. The cells operate in the temperature range from 150 C to 250 C. A prototype DD size cell was designed and built based on the results of finite element analysis and vibration testing. The cell consisted of stainless steel case serving as anode compartment with cathode compartment installed in it and a seal closing the cell. Critical element in cell design and fabrication was hermetically sealing the cell. The seal had to be leak tight, thermally and vibration stable and compatible with electrode materials. Cathode compartment was built of beta''-alumina tube which served as an electrolyte, separator and cathode compartment.

  1. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.


    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6 carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around C.

  2. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.


    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, copper, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around C.

  3. FY16 ASME High Temperature Code Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, M. J. [Chromtech Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jetter, R. I. [R. I Jetter Consulting, Pebble Beach, CA (United States); Sham, T. -L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    One of the objectives of the ASME high temperature Code activities is to develop and validate both improvements and the basic features of Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). The overall scope of this task is to develop a computer program to be used to assess whether or not a specific component under specified loading conditions will satisfy the elevated temperature design requirements for Class A components in Section III, Division 5, Subsection HB, Subpart B (HBB). There are many features and alternative paths of varying complexity in HBB. The initial focus of this task is a basic path through the various options for a single reference material, 316H stainless steel. However, the program will be structured for eventual incorporation all the features and permitted materials of HBB. Since this task has recently been initiated, this report focuses on the description of the initial path forward and an overall description of the approach to computer program development.

  4. Diamond switches for high temperature electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, R.R.; Rondeau, G.; Qi, Niansheng [Alameda Applied Sciences Corp., San Leandro, CA (United States)] [and others


    Diamond switches are well suited for use in high temperature electronics. Laboratory feasibility of diamond switching at 1 kV and 18 A was demonstrated. DC blocking voltages up to 1 kV were demonstrated. A 50 {Omega} load line was switched using a diamond switch, with switch on-state resistivity {approx}7 {Omega}-cm. An electron beam, {approx}150 keV energy, {approx}2 {mu}s full width at half maximum was used to control the 5 mm x 5 mm x 100 {mu}m thick diamond switch. The conduction current temporal history mimics that of the electron beam. These data were taken at room temperature.

  5. Development of a new generation of waste form for entrapment and immobilization of highly volatile and soluble radionuclides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Murphy, Andrew Wilson; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Turnham, Rigney; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole; Tellez, Hernesto; Miller, Andy; Xiong, Yongliang; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Ockwig, Nathan W.; Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen


    isotopes I and Re as analogs to {sup 129}I and {sup 99}Tc. The results have confirmed our original finding that nanoporous Al oxide and its derivatives have high I sorption capabilities due to the combined effects of surface chemistry and nanopore confinement. We have developed a suite of techniques for the fixation of radionuclides in metal oxide nanopores. The key to this fixation is to chemically convert a target radionuclide into a less volatile or soluble form. We have developed a technique to convert a radionuclide-loaded nanoporous material into a durable glass-ceramic waste form through calcination. We have shown that mixing a radionuclide-loaded getter material with a Na-silicate solution can effectively seal the nanopores in the material, thus enhancing radionuclide retention during waste form formation. Our leaching tests have demonstrated the existence of an optimal vitrification temperature for the enhancement of waste form durability. Our work also indicates that silver may not be needed for I immobilization and encapsulation.

  6. Electrical Conductivity of Micas at High Temperatures (United States)

    Watanabe, T.


    Electrical conductivity, along with seismic velocity, gives us clues to infer constituent materials and temperatures in the Earth's interior. Dry rocks have been considered to be electrically insulating at crustal temperatures. Observed high conductivity has been ascribed to the existence of fluids. However, Fuji-ta et al. (2007) recently reported that a dry gneiss shows relatively high conductivity (10-4-10-3 S/m) at the temperature of 300-400°C, and that it is strongly anisotropic in conductivity. They suggested that the alignment of biotite grains governs conductivity of the gneiss sample. Electrical properties of rock forming minerals are still poorly understood. We thus have measured electrical properties of biotite single crystals up to 700°C. In order to get a good understanding of conduction mechanisms, measurements have been also made on phlogopite and muscovite, which are common micas with similar crystallographic structures. Thin plates parallel to cleavages (thickness~0.1mm) were prepared from mica single crystals. Electrical impedance was measured by 2-electrode method. The specimen was kept in nitrogen or argon atmosphere. The conductivity measured parallel to cleavages is higher than that measured perpendicular to cleavages by 3-4 orders of magnitude. However, no significant difference in the activation energy of conductivity was observed between two directions. The activation energy of conductivity is ~50 kJ/mol for biotite and ~100 kJ/mol for phlogopite and muscovite. The conductivity of biotite is higher than those of phlogopite and muscovite by several orders of magnitude at the same temperature. The conductivity of biotite parallel to cleavages is ~10-1 S/m at 400°C. The conductivity of biotite increases irreversibly by heating. The irreversible change was not significant below 450°C. Remarkable increase is observed at the temperature of 450-550°C. No significant change was observed in the second heating. Such an increase in conductivity

  7. Temperature Prediction for High Pressure High Temperature Condensate Gas Flow Through Chokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Li


    Full Text Available This study developed a theoretical model for predicting the downstream temperatures of high pressure high temperature condensate gas flowing through chokes. The model is composed of three parts: the iso-enthalpy choke model derived from continuity equation and energy conservation equation; the liquid-vapor equilibrium model based on the SRK equation of state (EoS; and the enthalpy model based on the Lee-Kesler EoS. Pseudocritical properties of mixtures, which are obtained by mixing rules, are very important in the enthalpy model, so the Lee-Kesler, Plocker-Knapp, Wong-Sandler and Prausnitz-Gunn mixing rules were all researched, and the combination mixing rules with satisfactory accuracy for high pressure high temperature condensate gases were proposed. The temperature prediction model is valid for both the critical and subcritical flows through different kinds of choke valves. The applications show the model is reliable for predicting the downstream temperatures of condensate gases with upstream pressures up to 85.54 MPa and temperatures up to 93.23 °C. The average absolute errors between the measured and calculated temperatures are expected for less than 2 °C by using the model.

  8. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)


    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  9. Diamond based detectors for high temperature, high radiation environments (United States)

    Metcalfe, A.; Fern, G. R.; Hobson, P. R.; Smith, D. R.; Lefeuvre, G.; Saenger, R.


    Single crystal CVD diamond has many desirable properties as a radiation detector; exceptional radiation hardness and physical hardness, chemical inertness, low Z (close to human tissue, good for dosimetry and transmission mode applications), wide bandgap (high temperature operation with low noise and solar blind), an intrinsic pathway to fast neutron detection through the 12C(n,α)9Be reaction. This combination of radiation hardness, temperature tolerance and ability to detect mixed radiation types with a single sensor makes diamond particularly attractive as a detector material for harsh environments such as nuclear power station monitoring (fission and fusion) and oil well logging. Effective exploitation of these properties requires the development of a metallisation scheme to give contacts that remain stable over extended periods at elevated temperatures (up to 250°C in this instance). Due to the cost of the primary detector material, computational modelling is essential to best utilise the available processing methods for optimising sensor response through geometry and conversion media configurations and to fully interpret experimental data. Monte Carlo simulations of our diamond based sensor have been developed, using MCNP6 and FLUKA2011, assessing the sensor performance in terms of spectral response and overall efficiency as a function of the detector and converter geometry. Sensors with varying metallisation schemes for high temperature operation have been fabricated at Brunel University London and by Micron Semiconductor Limited. These sensors have been tested under a varied set of conditions including irradiation with fast neutrons and alpha particles at high temperatures. The presented study indicates that viable metallisation schemes for high temperature contacts have been successfully developed and the modelling results, supported by preliminary experimental data from partners, indicate that the simulations provide a reasonable representation of

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer for simultaneous extraction and determination of water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants in chilli products by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Long, Chaoyang; Mai, Zhibin; Yang, Yingfen; Zhu, Binghui; Xu, Xiumin; Lu, Lin; Zou, Xiaoyong


    A sorbent was synthesized and investigated for molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE). Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were synthesized via precipitation polymerization procedure, where 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) was used as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The imprinting effect of the MISPE was evaluated by elution experiments. The resulting MISPE showed high extraction selectivity to water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants. The determination of multi-residue for three kinds of water-soluble and six kinds of fat-soluble synthetic colorants in chilli products was also investigated by HPLC coupled with MISPE. The mean recoveries calculated by solvent calibration curve for water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants were from 72.1% to 95.6% for chilli spice and 72.1% to 92.3% for chilli powder. The decision limit (CCalpha) and the detection capability (CCbeta) obtained for water-soluble and fat-soluble synthetic colorants were in the range of 1.2-1.6 and 1.9-2.4 microg kg(-1) in chilli spice and chilli powder. The resulting MISPE was successfully used off-line for the determination of nine kinds of synthetic colorants in chilli products.

  11. High-level expression of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using an HE-maltotriose-binding protein fusion tag. (United States)

    Han, Yingqian; Guo, Wanying; Su, Bingqian; Guo, Yujie; Wang, Jiang; Chu, Beibei; Yang, Guoyu


    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in prokaryotic expression systems for large-scale production. The use of genetically engineered affinity and solubility enhancing fusion proteins has increased greatly in recent years, and there now exists a considerable repertoire of these that can be used to enhance the expression, stability, solubility, folding, and purification of their fusion partner. Here, a modified histidine tag (HE) used as an affinity tag was employed together with a truncated maltotriose-binding protein (MBP; consisting of residues 59-433) from Pyrococcus furiosus as a solubility enhancing tag accompanying a tobacco etch virus protease-recognition site for protein expression and purification in Escherichia coli. Various proteins tagged at the N-terminus with HE-MBP(Pyr) were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells to determine expression and solubility relative to those tagged with His6-MBP or His6-MBP(Pyr). Furthermore, four HE-MBP(Pyr)-fused proteins were purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography to assess the affinity of HE with immobilized Ni2+. Our results showed that HE-MBP(Pyr) represents an attractive fusion protein allowing high levels of soluble expression and purification of recombinant protein in E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad

    With dwindling easily accessible oil and gas resources, more and more exploration and production activities in the oil industry are driven to technically challenging environments such as unconventional resources and deeper formations. The temperature and pressure can become extremely high, e.g., up...

  13. High serum soluble CD200 levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. (United States)

    Sari, Funda; Gumuslu, Saadet; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Sarikaya, Metin; Yalcin, Arzu Didem


    CD200 is a novel immune-effective molecule, existing in a cell membrane-bound form, as well as in a soluble form in serum, which performs to modulate inflammatory and acquired immune responses. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by the development of large renal cysts and progressive loss of renal function. As defects in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells occur in ADPKD, we asked whether serum soluble CD200 might underlie and effect on ADPKD. Serum soluble CD200 levels were measured in 44 patients with ADPKD and 24 healthy volunteers. Concentrations of soluble CD200 in the serum samples were quantified using an ELISA kit. The mean serum soluble CD200 levels were higher in patients with ADPKD than in the control group (71.4±29.2 and 21.4±5.6 pg/mL, psoluble CD200 levels and glomerular filtration rate (r=0.772, psoluble CD200 levels and serum creatinine levels (r=-0.761, psoluble CD200 levels were lower in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) than in patients with stages 1-2 (psoluble CD200 levels were similar in patients with stages 1-2, 3, and 4 CKD (p>0.05). Our results show that patients with ADPKD have activated soluble CD200 levels which were related to renal function and inflammation. Copyright © 2017 American Federation for Medical Research.

  14. Assessment of high-temperature filtering elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monica Lupion; Francisco J. Gutierrez Ortiz; Benito Navarrete; Vicente J. Cortes [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). E.T.S. Ingenieros


    A complete experimental campaign has been carried out in a hot gas filtration test facility so as to test several filtering elements and configurations, particularly, three different types of bag filters and one ceramic candle. The facility was designed to operate under a wide range of conditions, thus providing an excellent tool for the investigation of hot gas filtration applications for the advanced electrical power generation industry such as IGCC, PFBC or fuel cell technologies. Relevant parameters for the characterization and optimization of the performance of the filters have been studied for a variety of operation conditions such as filtration velocity, particle concentration, pressure and temperature among others. Pressure drop across the filter, cleaning pulse interval, baseline pressure drop, filtration efficiency and durability of the filter have been investigated for each type considered and dependences on parameters have been established. On top of that, optimal operating conditions and cleaning strategies were determined. The tests results show that bag filters are a suitable alternative for the hot gas filtration due to the better performance and the high efficiency observed, which makes them suitable for industrial applications operating under high temperature high pressure conditions considered within the study (200-370{degree}C and 4-7.5 barg respectively). 7 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. High-temperature superconductors make major progress

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    This month's Nature Materials featured an important breakthrough for high-temperature superconductors. A new method has been found for processing Bi-2212 high-temperature superconducting round wire in order to drastically increase its critical current density. The result confirms that this conductor is a serious candidate for future very-high-field magnets.   This image shows the cross-section of two Bi-2212 wires. The bottom wire has less leakage and void porosity due to a heat treatment done at an overpressure of 100 bar - about 100 times the pressure used to produce the top wire (image from [Nature Materials, Vol. 13 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3887]). The workhorse for building superconducting accelerator magnets has been, so far, the Niobium-Titanium (Nb-Ti) alloy superconductor. But with Nb-Ti having reached its full potential, other conductors must be used to operate in higher magnetic fields beyond those reached with the LHC magnets. Today, the intermetallic Niobium-Tin (Nb3Sn) is th...

  16. Pulse Radiolysis at High Temperatures and High Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Sehested, Knud


    A set-up enabling pulse radiolysis measurements at high temperatures (up to 320°C) and high pressures (up to 140 bar) has been constructed in collaboration between Risö National Laboratory and Studsvik Energiteknik. The cell has been used for experiments with aqueous solutions with the purpose.......2 kcal.mol−1) and OH+OH (tentatively 8 kJ·mol−1, 1.9 kcal·mol−1) have been determined. The absorption spectrum of the OH radical has been determined up to temperatures of 200°C. The absorption maximum is found at 230 nm at all temperatures. The reaction between Fe2+ and OH radicals has been studied up...... to a temperature of 220°C. An activation energy of 9 kJ·mol−1 (2.2 kcal·mol−1) has been determined and the spectrum of the transient formed in the reaction has been determined at different temperatures....

  17. High temperature behaviour of a zircon ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonneau, X.; Olagnon, C.; Fantozzi, G. [INSA, Villeurbanne (France). GEMMPM; Hamidouche, M. [Lab. Science des Materiaux, Univ. de Setif (Algeria); Torrecillas, R. [Inst. Nacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)


    The high temperature properties of a sintered zircon material has been tested up to 1200 C. A significant creep rate is observed, mainly attributed to the presence of glassy phase. The sub-critical crack growth measured in double torsion showed that above 1000 C, the crack velocity is reduced either by stress relaxation or by crack healing. The thermal shock analysis under a heat exchange coefficient of 600 W/m{sup 2}/K showed a regular decrease rather that a sudden fall off of properties. (orig.) 3 refs.

  18. Encapsulation of high temperature molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxley, James D.; Mathur, Anoop Kumar


    The present disclosure relates to a method of encapsulating microcapsules containing relatively high temperature phase change materials and the microcapsules so produced. The microcapsules are coated with an inorganic binder, film former and an inorganic filler. The microcapsules may include a sacrificial layer that is disposed between the particle and the coating. The microcapsules may also include an inner coating layer, sacrificial layer and outer coating layer. The microcapsules are particularly useful for thermal energy storage in connection with, e.g., heat collected from concentrating solar collectors.

  19. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.


    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  20. Highly soluble benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide derivatives: stable and air-insensitive electron acceptors for artificial photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.; Hsu, C.P.; Reek, J.N.H.; Williams, R.M.; Brouwer, A.M.


    A series of new benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide (BPTI) derivatives has been synthesized and characterized. These remarkably soluble BPTI derivatives show strong optical absorption in the range of =300-500nm and have a high triplet-state energy of 1.67eV. A cyanophenyl substituent renders BPTI such a

  1. Improving co-amorphous drug formulations by the addition of the highly water soluble amino acid proline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas


    by combining the model drug, naproxen (NAP), with an amino acid to physically stabilize the co-amorphous system (tryptophan, TRP, or arginine, ARG) and a second highly soluble amino acid (proline, PRO) for an additional improvement of the dissolution rate. Co-amorphous drug-amino acid blends were prepared...

  2. Alcohol-soluble Star-shaped Oligofluorenes as Interlayer for High Performance Polymer Solar Cells (United States)

    Zou, Yang; He, Zhicai; Zhao, Baofeng; Liu, Yuan; Yang, Chuluo; Wu, Hongbin; Cao, Yong


    Two star-shaped oligofluorenes with hexakis(fluoren-2-yl)benzene as core are designed and sythesized for interfacial materials in polymer solar cell. Diethanolamino groups are attached to the side chain of fluorene units for T0-OH and T1-OH to enable the alcohol solubility, and additional hydrophobic n-hexyl chains are also grafted on the increased fluorene arms for T1-OH. In conventional device with PCDTBT/PC71BM as active layer, a 50% enhanced PCE is obtained by incorporating T0-OH and T1-OH as the interlayer compared with device without interlayer. By optimizing the active material with PTB7 and with the inverted device structure, a maximum PCE of 9.30% is achieved, which is among the highest efficiencies for PTB7 based polymer solar cells. The work function of modified electrode, the surface morphology and the suraface properties are systematically studied. By modifying the structures of the star-shaped molecules, a balance between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic property is finely tuned, and thus facilitate the interlayer for high performance of PSCs.

  3. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.


    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization.

  4. High point for CERN and high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Multimedia


    Amalia Ballarino is named the Superconductor Industry Person of the year 2006. Amalia Ballarino showing a tape of high-superconducting material used for the LHC current leads.The CERN project leader for the high-temperature superconducting current leads for the LHC, Amalia Ballarino, has received the award for "Superconductor Industry Person of the Year". This award, the most prestigious international award in the development and commercialization of superconductors, is presented by the leading industry newsletter "Superconductor Week". Amalia Ballarino was selected from dozens of nominations from around the world by a panel of recognized leading experts in superconductivity. "It is a great honour for me," says Amalia Ballarino. "It has been many years of hard work, and it’s a great satisfaction to see that the work has been completed successfully." Amalia Ballarino has been working on high-temperature superconducting materials sin...

  5. High temperature deformation of 6061 Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyungtae Park; Lavernia, E.J.; Mohamed, F.A. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering)


    The creep behavior of powder metallurgy (PM) 6061 Al, which has been used as a metal matrix alloy in the development of discontinuous silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (SiC-Al) composites, has been studied over six orders of magnitude of strain rate. The experimental data show that the steady-state stage of the creep curve is of short duration; that the stress dependence of creep rate is high and variable; and that the temperature dependence of creep rate is much higher than that for self-diffusion in aluminum. The above creep characteristics are different from those documented for aluminum based solid-solution alloys but are similar to those reported for discontinuous SiC-Al composites and dispersion-strengthened (DS) alloys. Analysis of the experimental data shows that while the high stress dependence of creep rate in 6061 Al, like that in DS alloys, can be explained in terms of a threshold stress for creep, the strong temperature dependence of creep rate in the alloy is incompatible with the predictions of available threshold stress models and theoretical treatments proposed for DS alloys.

  6. Development of High Temperature Gas Sensor Technology (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun


    The measurement of engine emissions is important for their monitoring and control. However, the ability to measure these emissions in-situ is limited. We are developing a family of high temperature gas sensors which are intended to operate in harsh environments such as those in an engine. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) The development of SiC-based semiconductor technology; and (2) Improvements in micromachining and microfabrication technology. These technologies are being used to develop point-contact sensors to measure gases which are important in emission control especially hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this point-contact sensor technology. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. Of particular importance is sensor sensitivity, selectivity, and stability in long-term, high temperature operation. An overview is presented of each sensor type with an evaluation of its stage of development. It is concluded that this technology has significant potential for use in engine applications but further development is necessary.

  7. Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.W.; Deng, L.Z.; Lv, B.


    Highlights: • Historical discoveries of hole-doped cuprates and representative milestone work. • Several simple and universal scaling laws of the hole-doped cuprates. • A comprehensive classification list with references for hole-doped cuprates. • Representative physical parameters for selected hole-doped cuprates. - Abstract: Hole-doped cuprate high temperature superconductors have ushered in the modern era of high temperature superconductivity (HTS) and have continued to be at center stage in the field. Extensive studies have been made, many compounds discovered, voluminous data compiled, numerous models proposed, many review articles written, and various prototype devices made and tested with better performance than their nonsuperconducting counterparts. The field is indeed vast. We have therefore decided to focus on the major cuprate materials systems that have laid the foundation of HTS science and technology and present several simple scaling laws that show the systematic and universal simplicity amid the complexity of these material systems, while referring readers interested in the HTS physics and devices to the review articles. Developments in the field are mostly presented in chronological order, sometimes with anecdotes, in an attempt to share some of the moments of excitement and despair in the history of HTS with readers, especially the younger ones.

  8. High-temperature ordered intermetallic alloys V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, I. (ed.) (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Thayer School of Engineering); Darolia, R. (ed.) (GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Whittenberger, J.D. (ed.) (NASA, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center); Yoo, M.H. (ed.) (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    These proceedings represent the written record of the High-Temperature Ordered Intermetallic Alloys 5 Symposium which was held in conjunction with the 1992 Fall Materials Research Society meeting in Boston, Massachusetts. This symposium, which was the fifth in the series originated by C.C Koch, C.T. Liu and N.S. Stoloff in 1984, was very successful with 86 oral presentations over four days, and approximately 140 posters given during two lively evening sessions. Such a response, in view of the increasing number of conferences being held on intermetallics each year, reveals the continued high regard for this series of symposia. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  9. Thermomechanics of composite structures under high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yu I


    This pioneering book presents new models for the thermomechanical behavior of composite materials and structures taking into account internal physico-chemical transformations such as thermodecomposition, sublimation and melting at high temperatures (up to 3000 K). It is of great importance for the design of new thermostable materials and for the investigation of reliability and fire safety of composite structures. It also supports the investigation of interaction of composites with laser irradiation and the design of heat-shield systems. Structural methods are presented for calculating the effective mechanical and thermal properties of matrices, fibres and unidirectional, reinforced by dispersed particles and textile composites, in terms of properties of their constituent phases. Useful calculation methods are developed for characteristics such as the rate of thermomechanical erosion of composites under high-speed flow and the heat deformation of composites with account of chemical shrinkage. The author expan...

  10. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.


    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  11. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  12. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders


    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  13. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)


    Ceramic gas separation membranes can provide very high separation factors if the pore size is sufficiently small to separate gas molecules by molecular sieving and if oversized pores are adequately limited. Ceramic membranes typically have some pores that are substantially larger than the mean pore size and that should be regarded as defects. To assess the effects of such defects on the performance of ceramic membranes, a simple mathematical model has been developed to describe flow through a gas separation membrane that has a primary mode of flow through very small pores but that has a secondary mode of flow through undesirably large pores. This model permits separation factors to be calculated for a specified gas pair as a function of the molecular weights and molecular diameters of the gases, the membrane pore diameter, and the diameter and number of defects. This model will be described, and key results from the model will be presented. The separation factors of the authors membranes continue to be determined using a permeance test system that measures flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275{degrees}C. A primary goal of this project for FY 1996 is to develop a mixed gas separation system for measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at higher temperatures. Performance criteria have been established for the planned mixed gas separation system and design of the system has been completed. The test system is designed to measure the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600{degrees}C and pressures up to 100 psi by separating the constituents of a gas mixture containing hydrogen. The system will accommodate the authors typical experimental membrane that is tubular and has a diameter of about 9 mm and a length of about 23 cm. The design of the new test system and its expected performance will be discussed.

  14. [Fast separation and analysis of water-soluble vitamins in spinach by capillary electrophoresis with high voltage]. (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqin; You, Huiyan


    In capillary electrophoresis, 0-40 kV (even higher) voltage can be reached by a connecting double-model high voltage power supply. In the article, water-soluble vitamins, VB1, VB2, VB6, VC, calcium D-pantothenate, D-biotin, nicotinic acid and folic acid in vegetable, were separated by using the high voltage power supply under the condition of electrolyte water solution as running buffer. The separation conditions, such as voltage, the concentration of buffer and pH value etc. , were optimized during the experiments. The results showed that eight water-soluble vitamins could be baseline separated in 2.2 min at 40 kV applied voltage, 25 mmol/L sodium tetraborate buffer solution (pH 8.8). The water-soluble vitamins in spinach were quantified and the results were satisfied. The linear correlation coefficients of the water-soluble vitamins ranged from 0.9981 to 0.9999. The detection limits ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 100.6% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) range of 1.15%-4.13% for the spinach samples.

  15. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine at high pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Negar; Thomsen, Kaj; Solbraa, Even


    A static-analytic method was used to measure the H2S solubility in 50 wt% MDEA and in presence of methane as a makeup gas. The solubility was measured at 7000 kPa total pressure, and at 50 and 70 degrees C, for H2S partial pressures from 31 to 974 kPa. Measurements were also performed at 1500 k......Pa total pressure and 50 degrees C for H2S partial pressure span of 53-386 kPa. The measured data were compared to predictions using the Extended UNIQUAC model. The experimental data showed that the total pressure has a significant effect on H2S solubility in aqueous MDEA. The observed effect is shown...

  16. Single-step preparation of selected biological fluids for the high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants. (United States)

    Lazzarino, Giacomo; Longo, Salvatore; Amorini, Angela Maria; Di Pietro, Valentina; D'Urso, Serafina; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Belli, Antonio; Tavazzi, Barbara


    Fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants are of relevance in health and disease. Current methods to extract these compounds from biological fluids mainly need use of multi-steps and multi organic solvents. They are time-consuming and difficult to apply to treat simultaneously large sample number. We here describe a single-step, one solvent extraction of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants from biological fluids, and the chromatographic separation of all-trans-retinoic acid, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, all-trans-retinol, astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, trans-β-apo-8'-carotenal, γ-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, α-tocopherol, phylloquinone, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene and coenzyme Q 10 . Extraction is obtained by adding one volume of biological fluid to two acetonitrile volumes, vortexing for 60s and incubating for 60min at 37°C under agitation. HPLC separation occurs in 30min using Hypersil C18, 100×4.6mm, 5μm particle size column, gradient from 70% methanol+30% H 2 O to 100% acetonitrile, flow rate of 1.0ml/min and 37°C column temperature. Compounds are revealed using highly sensitive UV-VIS diode array detector. The HPLC method suitability was assessed in terms of sensitivity, reproducibility and recovery. Using the present extraction and chromatographic conditions we obtained values of the fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants in serum from 50 healthy controls similar to those found in literature. Additionally, the profile of these compounds was also measured in seminal plasma from 20 healthy fertile donors. Results indicate that this simple, rapid and low cost sample processing is suitable to extract fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants from biological fluids and can be applied in clinical and nutritional studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J


    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  18. Soluble transferrin receptor as a marker of erythropoiesis in patients undergoing high-flux hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Yin


    Full Text Available Anemia is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients receiving hemodialysis. The effect of high-flux dialysis (HFD on anemia remains unclear. This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of HFD on anemia, and the potential of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR as a marker of iron status and erythropoiesis in CKD patients on hemodialysis. Forty patients, who switched from conventional low-flux dialysis to HFD for 12 months, were enrolled in this study. The levels of sTfR, hemoglobin (Hb, iron, and nutritional markers, as well as the dose of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO and use of chalybeate were determined at 0, 2, 6, and 12 months after starting HFD. HFD significantly increased the hemoglobin level and reduced sTfR level in CKD patients (p < 0.05. In addition, significant decreasing linear trends were observed for rhEPO dosage and chalybeate use (p < 0.05. The level of sTfR was positively correlated with the percentage of reticulocytes (RET%, rhEPO dose, and chalybeate use, while it was negatively correlated with Hb levels and total iron-binding capacity results (all p < 0.05. A univariate generalized estimating equation (GEE model showed that the Hb level, RET%, rhEPO dose, and chalybeate use were the variables associated with sTfR levels. A multivariate GEE model showed that the time points when hemodialysis was performed were the variables associated significantly with sTfR levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HFD can effectively improve renal anemia in hemodialysis patients, and sTfR could be used as a marker of erythropoiesis in HFD patients.

  19. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  20. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    reaction kinetics. At oxygen partial pressures below 10-6 bar at 700 C, the mass transport processes dominated the response time. The response time increased with decreasing oxygen partial pressure and inlet gas flow rate. A series of porous platinum electrodes were impregnated with the ionically...... conducting gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (CGO). The addition of CGO was found to decrease the polarisation resistance of the oxygen reaction by up to an order of magnitude compared with a single phase platinum electrode by increasing the effective triple phase boundary (TPB) length. It did not have any......Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...

  1. Filter unit for use at high temperatures (United States)

    Ciliberti, David F.; Lippert, Thomas E.


    A filtering unit for filtering particulates from high temperature gases uses a spiral ceramic spring to bias a ceramic, tubular filter element into sealing contact with a flange about an aperture of a metallic tube sheet. The ceramic spiral spring may contact the upper edge of the filter element and be restrained by a stop member spaced from one end of the tube sheet, or the spring may contact the bottom of the filter element and be restrained by a support member spaced from the opposite end of the tube sheet. The stop member and support member are adjustably secured to the tube sheet. A filtering system uses the ceramic spiral spring to bias a plurality of ceramic, tubular filter elements in a respective plurality of apertures in a tube sheet which divides a vessel into upper and lower enclosed sections.

  2. Toroidal high temperature superconducting coils for ISTTOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, H., E-mail: [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Goemoery, F. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Corte, A. della; Celentano, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Souc, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Silva, C.; Carvalho, I.; Gomes, R. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Di Zenobio, A.; Messina, G. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)


    High temperature superconductors (HTS) are very attractive to be used in fusion devices mainly due to lower operations costs. The HTS technology has reached a point where the construction of toroidal field coils for a tokamak is possible. The feasibility of a tokamak operating with HTS is extremely relevant and ISTTOK is the ideal candidate for a meaningful test due to its small size (and consequently lower cost) and the possibility to operate in a steady-state inductive regime. In this paper, a conceptual study of the ISTTOK upgrade to a superconducting device is presented, along with the relevant boundary conditions to achieve a permanent toroidal field with HTS. It is shown that the actual state of the art in HTS allows the design of a toroidal field coil capable of generating the appropriate field on plasma axis while respecting the structural specification of the machine.

  3. High temperature triaxial tests on Rochester shale (United States)

    Bruijn, Rolf; Burlini, Luigi; Misra, Santanu


    Phyllosilicates are one of the major components of the crust, responsible for strength weakening during deformation. High pressure and temperature experiments of natural samples rich in phyllosilicates are needed to test the relevance of proposed weakening mechanisms induced by phyllosilicates, derived from lab experiments on single phase and synthetic polyphase rocks and single crystals. Here, we present the preliminary results of a series of high temperature triaxial tests performed on the illite-rich Rochester Shale (USA - New York) using a Paterson type gas-medium HPT testing machine. Cylindrical samples with homogeneous microstructure and 12-14% porosity were fabricated by cold and hot-isostatically pressing, hot-pressed samples were deformed up to a total shortening of 7.5 to 13%. To study the significance of mica dehydration, iron or copper jackets were used in combination with non-porous or porous spacers. Water content was measured before and after experiments using Karl Fischer Titration (KFT). All experiments show, after yielding at 0.6% strain, rapid hardening in nearly linear fashion until about 4-5% strain, from where stress increases at reducing rates to values at 10% strain, between 400 and 675 MPa, depending on experimental conditions. Neither failure nor steady state however, is achieved within the maximum strain of 13%. Experiments performed under 500 °C and 300 MPa confining pressure show weak strain rate dependence. In addition, iron-jacketed samples appear harder than copper-jacketed ones. At 700 °C samples are 17 to 37% weaker and more sensitive to strain rate than during 500 °C experiments. Although, iron-jacketed samples behave stronger than copper-jacketed ones. By visual inspection, samples appear homogeneously shortened. Preliminary analysis suggests that deformation is mostly accommodated by pore collapse. Although, with finite strain, pore collapse becomes less significant. A temperature, strain rate and jacket material dependent


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi


    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  5. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu


    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  6. Effects of Temperature and Water Soluble Fraction of Palm Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel on Hatchability and Survival of First Stage Larvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puncharas Gorcharoenwat


    Full Text Available Effects of temperature and water soluble fraction (WSF of biodiesel and diesel on hatchability and survival of early stage Macrobrachium rosenbergii were investigated at the temperature of 25, 28, 31 and 34oC. The purpose of this study was to determine toxic effects of biodiesel and diesel on incubation period, hatchability, and survival of the first larval stage. The results showed a significant difference of incubation period among temperatures. The highest temperature (34°C resulted in the shortest incubation period (15 days while the lowest temperature (25°C gave the longest incubation period (19 days. One hundred percent of hatchability was found at temperature 28 and 31°C in the control group. The lowest hatchability occurred at 100% of WSF of palm biodiesel. The hatchability and survival of eggs through the first stage larvae in control and WSF of biodiesel decreased in higher temperature. However, in 50% WSF of diesel, the highest temperature (34°C increased the hatchability and survival whereas 100% WSF of diesel, no larval survival could be found. In comparison between WSF of biodiesel and diesel on newly hatched larvae, the diesel was more toxic to the larvae than that of the biodiesel. Regarding temperature and WSF of biodiesel and diesel effects on the first larval stage of M. rosenbergii, clearly diesel was more harmful to the larvae than biodiesel.

  7. High sensitivity analysis of water-soluble, cyanine dye labeled proteins by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Xiaoqiang [CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang Li [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Ma Junfeng [CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Deng Qiliang; Liang Zhen [CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang Lihua, E-mail: [CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Peng Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, 158 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116012 (China); Zhang Yukui [CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, National Chromatographic Research and Analysis Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)


    A water-soluble sulfo-3H-indocyanine dye, the active N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of 3H-Indolium,1-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methyl]-2-[3-[1-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methyl] -1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-2H-indol-2-ylidene]-1-propenyl] -3,3-dimethyl-5-sulfo-(9CI) (sb-cy3-NHS), containing two p-carboxybenzyl groups on nitrogen atoms, previously developed by our laboratory, was for the first time used for protein derivatization, followed by HPLC separation and fluorescence detection. With bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, effects of various experimental conditions, including denaturant concentration, reaction time and temperature, the pH value of buffer, and the molar ratio of fluorescence reagent to protein, on protein derivatization efficiency were systematically investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for derivatized BSA was decreased to 12.8 nM, about 100-fold lower than that by UV and fluorescence detection with commercial fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as labeling reagent. For HPLC analysis, an on-column excess fluorescence reagent depletion technique was developed based on the hydrophilicity of sb-cy3-NHS, which could avoid the interference on the analysis of target compounds. In addition, sb-cy3-NHS was applied for the derivatization of a three-protein mixture and egg white proteins. Compared to the results labeled by FITC, more proteins with low concentrations could be labeled by sb-cy3-NHS, resulting in improved detection sensitivity for protein analysis. All these results demonstrated that sb-cy3-NHS might be promising in detecting low abundance proteins, especially in the quantitative analysis of proteins.

  8. Elastohydrodynamics of oil-soluble PAGs, high-oleic sunflower oil and their blends (United States)

    Recent reports indicate that the oxidative stability of vegetable oils can be improved for lubrication purposes by mixing them with oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (OS-PAG). This inspired a study of other lubrication-related properties of their blends. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic fi...

  9. Tuning ionic liquids for high gas solubility and reversible gas sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jun; Riisager, Anders; Berg, Rolf W.


    a moderate association between gas and liquid, which also could be confirmed by Raman and UV–vis spectroscopy on the gas-saturated (1 bar) ionic liquids. Knowledge of gas solubilities and the reversible gas absorption capacity of ionic liquids are believed to have importance for their possible application...

  10. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask


    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...... the influence of enzyme type, dosage, substrate level, incubation time, and temperature on the enzyme catalyzed solubilization to define the optimal minimal enzyme treatment for maximal fiber solubilization. The result was a method that within 1 min released 75% [weight/weight (w/w)] dry matter from 1% (w...

  11. Assessing the Salting-Out Behavior of 2,4-Dinitrobenzaldehyde and 2,6-Dinitrobenzaldehyde from Solubility Values in Pure Water and Seawater at Temperatures between (280 and 313) K (United States)


    Assessing the Salting-out Behavior of Nitrobenzene, 2- Nitrotoluene , and 3- Nitrotoluene from Solubility Values in Pure Water and Seawater at...Temperatures Between (277 and 314)K. J. Chem. Eng. Data 2009, 54, 1231–1235. (17) Sada, E.; Kito, S.; Ito, Y. Solubility of Toluene in Aqueous Salt Solutions

  12. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Insert for High Temperature Environments (United States)

    Black, Richard James (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Zarnescu, Livia (Inventor)


    A thermal protection system (TPS) test plug has optical fibers with FBGs embedded in the optical fiber arranged in a helix, an axial fiber, and a combination of the two. Optionally, one of the optical fibers is a sapphire FBG for measurement of the highest temperatures in the TPS plug. The test plug may include an ablating surface and a non-ablating surface, with an engagement surface with threads formed, the threads having a groove for placement of the optical fiber. The test plug may also include an optical connector positioned at the non-ablating surface for protection of the optical fiber during insertion and removal.

  13. Study Progress of Physiological Responses in High Temperature Environment (United States)

    Li, K.; Zheng, G. Z.; Bu, W. T.; Wang, Y. J.; Lu, Y. Z.


    Certain workers are exposed to high temperatures for a long time. Heat stress will result in a series of physiological responses, and cause adverse effects on the health and safety of workers. This paper summarizes the physiological changes of cardiovascular system, core temperature, skin temperature, water-electrolyte metabolism, alimentary system, neuroendocrine system, reaction time and thermal fatigue in high temperature environments. It can provide a theoretical guidance for labor safety in high temperature environment.

  14. High serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. (United States)

    Sari, Funda; Inci, Ayca; Dolu, Suleyman; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Ersoy, Fettah Fevzi


    This study aims to determine fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. A total of 76 patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and 32 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 and soluble α-Klotho levels were measured with ELISA kits. Parathyroid hormone, phosphate, calcium, creatinine, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels, urinary protein to creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate were also measured or calculated. Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease had significantly higher serum parathyroid hormone (psoluble α-Klotho levels (p=0.001) and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (psoluble α-Klotho and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were similar in all five chronic kidney disease stages of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (p>0.05). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (r=-0.251, p=0.034) and soluble α-Klotho levels (r=-0.251, p=0.034) were found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. This study shows increased fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease which is in harmony with the general trend in patients with chronic kidney disease of other aetiologies, but, unlike them, also a significant increase in serum soluble α-Klotho levels in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease suggesting an aberrant production or a decreased clearance of α-Klotho molecule. Considering the unique increases in erythropoietin levels due to erythropoietin production in renal cysts, we assume, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may potentially have different soluble α-Klotho production/clearance characteristics than the patients with other parenchymal renal diseases. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  15. High Temperature High Pressure Thermodynamic Measurements for Coal Model Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Chen; Vinayak N. Kabadi


    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for thk project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have been completed. The vapor and liquid samples were analysed using the Perkin-Elmer Autosystem gas chromatography.


    Stoddard, S.D.


    An improved foundry mold coating for use with graphite molds used in the casting of uranium is presented. The refractory mold coating serves to keep the molten uranium from contact with graphite of the mold and thus prevents carbon pickup by the molten metal. The refractory coating is made by dry mixing certain specific amounts of aluminum oxide, bentonite, Tennessee ball clay, and a soluble silicate salt. Water is then added to the mixture and the suspension thus formed is applied by spraying onto the mold.

  17. Rapid sulfur capture studies at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, G.A.; Lawson, W.F.; Maloney, D.J.; Shaw, D.W.


    Determine conditions that would reproduce optimum sulfur capture ( super-equilibrium'') behavior. No attempt was made to extract kinetic data for calcination or sulfur capture, as might be done in a comprehensive study of sorbent behavior. While some interesting anomalies are present in the calcination data and in the limited surface area data, no attempt was made to pursue those issues. Since little sulfur capture was observed at operating conditions where super-equilibrium'' might be expected to occur, tests were stopped when the wide range of parameters that were studied failed to produce significant sulfur capture via the super-equilibrium mechanism. Considerable space in this report is devoted to a description of the experiment, including details of the GTRC construction. This description is included because we have received requests for a detailed description of the GTRC itself, as well as the pressurized dry powder feed system. In addition, many questions about accurately sampling the sulfur species from a high-temperature, high-pressure reactor were raised during the course of this investigation. A full account of the development of the gas and particulate sampling train in thus provided. 8 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. High temperature superconductors in electromagnetic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Richens, P E


    powder-in-tube and dip-coated, have been made using a novel single loop tensometer that enables the insertion of a reasonably long length of conductor into the bore of a high-field magnet. The design, construction, and characterization of a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is described. The design stage has involved the development of computer software for the calculation of the critical current of a solenoid wound from anisotropic HTS conductor. This calculation can be performed for a variety of problems including those involving magnetic materials such as iron by the incorporation of finite element electromagnetic analysis software. This has enabled the optimization of the magnet's performance. The HTS magnet is wound from 190 m of silver-matrix Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 1 sub 0 powder-in-tube tape conductor supplied by Intermagnetics General Corporation. The dimensions are 70 mm bore and 70 mm length, and it consists of 728 turns. Iron end-plates were utilized in order to reduc...

  19. High temperature superconductors at optimal doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Pickett


    Full Text Available   Intensive study of the high temperature superconductors has been ongoing for two decades. A great deal of this effort has been devoted to the underdoped regime, where the new and difficult physics of the doped Mott insulator has met extra complications including bilayer coupling/splitting, shadow bands, and hot spots. While these complications continue to unfold, in this short overview the focus is moved to the region of actual high-Tc, that of optimal doping. The focus here also is not on the superconducting state itself, but primarily on the characteristics of the normal state from which the superconducting instability arises, and even these can be given only a broad-brush description. A reminder is given of two issues,(i why the “optimal Tc” varies,for n-layered systems it increases for n up to 3, then decreases for a given n, Tc increases according to the ‘basis’ atom in the order Bi, Tl, Hg (ii how does pressure, or a particular uniaxial strain, increase Tc when the zero-strain system is already optimally doped?

  20. Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, F.


    This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

  1. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela


    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T{sub c} superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T{sub c} cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.55} samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T{sub c} as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B{sub 1g}-like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group

  2. Analytic Models of High-Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stygar, W.A.; Olson, R.E.; Spielman, R.B.; Leeper, R.J.


    A unified set of high-temperature-hohlraum models has been developed. For a simple hohlraum, P{sub s} = [A{sub s}+(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4} + (4V{sigma}/c)(dT{sub R}{sup r}/dt) where P{sub S} is the total power radiated by the source, A{sub s} is the source area, A{sub W} is the area of the cavity wall excluding the source and holes in the wall, A{sub H} is the area of the holes, {sigma} is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T{sub R} is the radiation brightness temperature, V is the hohlraum volume, and c is the speed of light. The wall albedo {alpha}{sub W} {triple_bond} (T{sub W}/T{sub R}){sup 4} where T{sub W} is the brightness temperature of area A{sub W}. The net power radiated by the source P{sub N} = P{sub S}-A{sub S}{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4}, which suggests that for laser-driven hohlraums the conversion efficiency {eta}{sub CE} be defined as P{sub N}/P{sub LASER}. The characteristic time required to change T{sub R}{sup 4} in response to a change in P{sub N} is 4V/C[(l{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]. Using this model, T{sub R}, {alpha}{sub W}, and {eta}{sub CE} can be expressed in terms of quantities directly measurable in a hohlraum experiment. For a steady-state hohlraum that encloses a convex capsule, P{sub N} = {l_brace}(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}+[(1{minus}{alpha}{sub C})(A{sub S}+A{sub W}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub C}/A{sub T}]{r_brace}{sigma}T{sub RC}{sup 4} where {alpha}{sub C} is the capsule albedo, A{sub C} is the capsule area, A{sub T} {triple_bond} (A{sub S}+A{sub W}+A{sub H}), and T{sub RC} is the brightness temperature of the radiation that drives the capsule. According to this relation, the capsule-coupling efficiency of the baseline National-Ignition-Facility (NIF) hohlraum is 15% higher than predicted by previous analytic expressions. A model of a hohlraum that encloses a z pinch is also presented.

  3. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  4. High Temperature Fatigue Life Evaluation Using Small Specimen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NOGAMI, Shuhei; HISAKA, Chiaki; FUJIWARA, Masaharu; WAKAI, Eichi; HASEGAWA, Akira


    For developing the high temperature fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen, the effect of specimen size and test environment on the high temperature fatigue life of the reduced activation...

  5. Laser Brazing of High Temperature Braze Alloy (United States)

    Gao, Y. P.; Seaman, R. F.; McQuillan, T. J.; Martiens, R. F.


    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) consists of 1080 conical tubes, which are furnace brazed themselves, manifolds, and surrounding structural jacket making almost four miles of braze joints. Subsequent furnace braze cycles are performed due to localized braze voids between the coolant tubes. SSME nozzle experiences extremely high heat flux (180 mW/sq m) during hot fire. Braze voids between coolant tubes may result in hot combustion gas escape causing jacket bulges. The nozzle can be disqualified for flight or result in mission failure if the braze voids exceed the limits. Localized braze processes were considered to eliminate braze voids, however, damage to the parent materials often prohibited use of such process. Being the only manned flight reusable rocket engine, it has stringent requirement on the braze process. Poor braze quality or damage to the parent materials limits the nozzle service life. The objective of this study was to develop a laser brazing process to provide quality, localized braze joints without adverse affect on the parent materials. Gold (Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Mn) based high temperature braze alloys were used in both powder and wire form. Thin section iron base superalloy A286 tube was used as substrate materials. Different Laser Systems including CO2 (10.6 micrometers, 1kW), ND:YAG (1.06 micrometers, 4kW). and direct diode laser (808nm. 150W) were investigated for brazing process. The laser process variables including wavelength. laser power, travel speed and angle of inclination were optimized according to bead geometry and braze alloy wetting at minimum heat input level, The properties of laser brazing were compared to that of furnace brazing. Microhardness profiles were used for braze joint property comparison between laser and furnace brazing. The cooling rate of laser brazing was compared to furnace brazing based on secondary dendritic arm spacing, Both optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructures of

  6. Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles


    Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

  7. Thermoelectric Powered High Temperature Wireless Sensing (United States)

    Kucukkomurler, Ahmet

    This study describes use of a thermoelectric power converter to transform waste heat into electrical energy to power an RF receiver and transmitter, for use in harsh environment wireless temperature sensing and telemetry. The sensing and transmitting module employs a DS-1820 low power digital temperature sensor to perform temperature to voltage conversion, an ATX-34 RF transmitter, an ARX-34 RF receiver module, and a PIC16f84A microcontroller to synchronize data communication between them. The unit has been tested in a laboratory environment, and promising results have been obtained for an actual automotive wireless under hood temperature sensing and telemetry implementation.

  8. The solubility of hen egg-white lysozyme (United States)

    Howard, Sandra B.; Twigg, Pamela J.; Baird, James K.; Meehan, Edward J.


    The equilibrium solubility of chicken egg-white lysozyme in the presence of crystalline solid state was determined as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and temperature. The solubility curves obtained represent a region of the lysozyme phase diagram. This diagram makes it possible to determine the supersaturation of a given set of conditions or to achieve identical supersaturations by different combinations of parameters. The temperature dependence of the solubility permits the evaluation of Delta-H of crystallization. The data indicate a negative heat of crystallization for the tetragonal crystal form but a positive heat of crystallization for the high-temperature orthorhombic form.

  9. Two-Stage Crystallizer Design for High Loading of Poorly Water-Soluble Pharmaceuticals in Porous Silica Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leia Dwyer


    Full Text Available While porous silica supports have been previously studied as carriers for nanocrystalline forms of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs, increasing the loading of API in these matrices is of great importance if these carriers are to be used in drug formulations. A dual-stage mixed-suspension, mixed-product removal (MSMPR crystallizer was designed in which the poorly soluble API fenofibrate was loaded into the porous matrices of pore sizes 35 nm–300 nm in the first stage, and then fed to a second stage in which the crystals were further grown in the pores. This resulted in high loadings of over 50 wt % while still producing nanocrystals confined to the pores without the formation of bulk-sized crystals on the surface of the porous silica. The principle was extended to another highly insoluble API, griseofulvin, to improve its loading in porous silica in a benchtop procedure. This work demonstrates a multi-step crystallization principle API in porous silica matrices with loadings high enough to produce final dosage forms of these poorly water-soluble APIs.

  10. High-temperature archeointensity measurements from Mesopotamia (United States)

    Gallet, Yves; Le Goff, Maxime


    We present new archeointensity results obtained from 127 potsherds and baked brick fragments dated from the last four millennia BC which were collected from different Syrian archeological excavations. High temperature magnetization measurements were carried out using a laboratory-built triaxial vibrating sample magnetometer (Triaxe), and ancient field intensity determinations were derived from the experimental procedure described by Le Goff and Gallet [Le Goff and Gallet. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 229 (2004) 31-43]. As some of the studied samples were previously analyzed using the classical Thellier and Thellier [Thellier and Thellier . Ann. Geophys. 15 (1959) 285-376] method revised by Coe [Coe. J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262], a comparison of the results is made from the two methods. The differences both at the fragment and site levels are mostly within ± 5%, which strengthens the validity of the experimental procedure developed for the Triaxe. The new data help to better constrain the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Mesopotamia during archeological times, with the probable occurrence of an archeomagnetic jerk around 2800-2600 BC.

  11. Electronic phase separation and high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelson, S.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    The authors review the extensive evidence from model calculations that neutral holes in an antiferromagnet separate into hole-rich and hole-poor phases. All known solvable limits of models of holes in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet exhibit this behavior. The authors show that when the phase separation is frustrated by the introduction of long-range Coulomb interactions, the typical consequence is either a modulated (charge density wave) state or a superconducting phase. The authors then review some of the strong experimental evidence supporting an electronically-driven phase separation of the holes in the cuprate superconductors and the related Ni oxides. Finally, the authors argue that frustrated phase separation in these materials can account for many of the anomalous normal state properties of the high temperature superconductors and provide the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, it is shown that the T-linear resistivity of the normal state is a paraconductivity associated with a novel composite pairing, although the ordered superconducting state is more conventional.

  12. A high-throughput method for membrane protein solubility screening: The ultracentrifugation dispersity sedimentation assay


    Gutmann, Daniel A. P.; Mizohata, Eiichi; Newstead, Simon; Ferrandon, Sebastian; Peter J. F. Henderson; van Veen, Hendrik W; Byrne, Bernadette


    One key to successful crystallization of membrane proteins is the identification of detergents that maintain the protein in a soluble, monodispersed state. Because of their hydrophobic nature, membrane proteins are particularly prone to forming insoluble aggregates over time. This nonspecific aggregation of the molecules reduces the likelihood of the regular association of the protein molecules essential for crystal lattice formation. Critical buffer components affecting the aggregation of me...

  13. High-temperature spreading kinetics of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, N.


    In this PhD work a drop transfer setup combined with high speed photography has been used to analyze the spreading of Ag on polished polycrystalline Mo and single crystalline Mo (110) and (100) substrates. The objective of this work was to unveil the basic phenomena controlling spreading in metal-metal systems. The observed spreading kinetics were compared with current theories of low and high temperature spreading such as a molecular kinetic model and a fluid flow model. Analyses of the data reveal that the molecular model does describe the fastest velocity data well for all the investigated systems. Therefore, the energy which is dissipated during the spreading process is a dissipation at the triple line rather than dissipation due to the viscosity in the liquid. A comparison of the determined free activation energy for wetting of {delta}G95{approx}145kJ/mol with literature values allows the statement that the rate determining step seems to be a surface diffusion of the Ag atoms along the triple line. In order to investigate possible ridge formation, due to local atomic diffusion of atoms of the substrate at the triple during the spreading process, grooving experiments of the polycrystalline Mo were performed to calculate the surface diffusities that will control ridge evolution. The analyses of this work showed that a ridge formation at the fastest reported wetting velocities was not possible if there is no initial perturbation for a ridge. If there was an initial perturbation for a ridge the ridge had to be much smaller than 1 nm in order to be able to move with the liquid font. Therefore ridge formation does not influence the spreading kinetics for the studied system and the chosen conditions. SEM, AFM and TEM investigations of the triple line showed that ridge formation does also not occur at the end of the wetting experiment when the drop is close to equilibrium and the wetting velocity is slow. (orig.)

  14. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Electrical properties were studied using a.c. impedance spectroscopy technique in the temperature range of 50–650 °C and frequency range of 10 Hz–13 MHz. The complex impedance plots at temperature ≥ 300 °C show ...

  15. High temperatures influence sexual development differentially in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samadhan Krushna Phuge


    Jun 20, 2017 ... temperatures on gonadal development, sex ratio and metamorphosis was studied in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis ..... Table 1. Effect of rearing water temperature on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis .... tures (28, 30 and 32°C) induced female to male sex reversal.

  16. Problem aspects of high temperature referral metrology (United States)

    Khodunkov, V. P.


    The main problematic aspects of the reproduction and transmission of a unit of temperature by a direct method are considered. The methodology and hardware for its implementation are considered. An estimate of the expected uncertainty in the measurement of the thermodynamic temperature is given.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi


    The Vapor Liquid Equilibrium measurement setup of this work was first established several years ago. It is a flow type high temperature high pressure apparatus which was designed to operate below 500 C temperature and 2000 psia pressure. Compared with the static method, this method has three major advantages: the first is that large quantity of sample can be obtained from the system without disturbing the equilibrium state which was established before; the second is that the residence time of the sample in the equilibrium cell is greatly reduced, thus decomposition or contamination of the sample can be effectively prevented; the third is that the flow system allows the sample to degas as it heats up since any non condensable gas will exit in the vapor stream, accumulate in the vapor condenser, and not be recirculated. The first few runs were made with Quinoline-Tetralin system, the results were fairly in agreement with the literature data . The former graduate student Amad used the same apparatus acquired the Benzene-Ethylbenzene system VLE data. This work used basically the same setup (several modifications had been made) to get the VLE data of Ethylbenzene-Quinoline system.

  18. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen [Sandy Hook, CT; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan [New Milford, CT; Novacco, Lawrence J [Brookfield, CT


    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  19. Vortices in high-performance high-temperature superconductors (United States)

    Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Welp, Ulrich; Glatz, Andreas; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Kihlstrom, Karen J.; Crabtree, George W.


    The behavior of vortex matter in high-temperature superconductors (HTS) controls the entire electromagnetic response of the material, including its current carrying capacity. Here, we review the basic concepts of vortex pinning and its application to a complex mixed pinning landscape to enhance the critical current and to reduce its anisotropy. We focus on recent scientific advances that have resulted in large enhancements of the in-field critical current in state-of-the-art second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors and on the prospect of an isotropic, high-critical current superconductor in the iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we discuss an emerging new paradigm of critical current by design—a drive to achieve a quantitative correlation between the observed critical current density and mesoscale mixed pinning landscapes by using realistic input parameters in an innovative and powerful large-scale time dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach to simulating vortex dynamics.

  20. Spectral emissivity of candidate alloys for very high temperature reactors in high temperature air environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, G., E-mail:; Weber, S.J.; Martin, S.O.; Sridharan, K.; Anderson, M.H.; Allen, T.R.


    Emissivity measurements for candidate alloys for very high temperature reactors were carried out in a custom-built experimental facility, capable of both efficient and reliable measurements of spectral emissivities of multiple samples at high temperatures. The alloys studied include 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels, Alloy 617, and SA508 ferritic steel. The oxidation of alloys plays an important role in dictating emissivity values. The higher chromium content of 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels, and Alloy 617 results in an oxide layer only of sub-micron thickness even at 700 °C and consequently the emissivity of these alloys remains low. In contrast, the low alloy SA508 ferritic steel which contains no chromium develops a thicker oxide layer, and consequently exhibits higher emissivity values.

  1. Spectral emissivity of candidate alloys for very high temperature reactors in high temperature air environment (United States)

    Cao, G.; Weber, S. J.; Martin, S. O.; Sridharan, K.; Anderson, M. H.; Allen, T. R.


    Emissivity measurements for candidate alloys for very high temperature reactors were carried out in a custom-built experimental facility, capable of both efficient and reliable measurements of spectral emissivities of multiple samples at high temperatures. The alloys studied include 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels, Alloy 617, and SA508 ferritic steel. The oxidation of alloys plays an important role in dictating emissivity values. The higher chromium content of 304 and 316 austenitic stainless steels, and Alloy 617 results in an oxide layer only of sub-micron thickness even at 700 °C and consequently the emissivity of these alloys remains low. In contrast, the low alloy SA508 ferritic steel which contains no chromium develops a thicker oxide layer, and consequently exhibits higher emissivity values.

  2. Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Russell; Rumpf, Raymond; Coggin, John; Davis, Williams; Yang, Taeyoung; O' Donnell, Alan; Bresnahan, Peter


    Research was conducted towards the development of a passive wireless sensor for measurement of temperature in coal gasifiers and coal-fired boiler plants. Approaches investigated included metamaterial sensors based on guided mode resonance filters, and temperature-sensitive antennas that modulate the frequency of incident radio waves as they are re-radiated by the antenna. In the guided mode resonant filter metamaterial approach, temperature is encoded as changes in the sharpness of the filter response, which changes with temperature because the dielectric loss of the guided mode resonance filter is temperature-dependent. In the mechanically modulated antenna approach, the resonant frequency of a vibrating cantilever beam attached to the antenna changes with temperature. The vibration of the beam perturbs the electrical impedance of the antenna, so that incident radio waves are phase modulated at a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the vibrating beam. Since the beam resonant frequency depends on temperature, a Doppler radar can be used to remotely measure the temperature of the antenna. Laboratory testing of the guided mode resonance filter failed to produce the spectral response predicted by simulations. It was concluded that the spectral response was dominated by spectral reflections of radio waves incident on the filter. Laboratory testing of the mechanically modulated antenna demonstrated that the device frequency shifted incident radio waves, and that the frequency of the re-radiated waves varied linearly with temperature. Radio wave propagation tests in the convection pass of a small research boiler plant identified a spectral window between 10 and 13 GHz for low loss propagation of radio waves in the interior of the boiler.

  3. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.


    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.

  4. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim


    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  5. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  6. High Temperature Characterization of Ceramic Pressure Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fonseca, Michael A; English, Jennifer M; Von Arx, Martin; Allen, Mark G


    This work reports functional wireless ceramic micromachined pressure sensors operating at 450 C, with demonstrated materials and readout capability indicating potential extension to temperatures in excess of 600 C...

  7. High Temperature Acoustic Noise Reduction Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use combustion synthesis techniques to manufacture ceramic-based acoustic liners capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2500?C....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin


    Full Text Available The results of investigations of physical-mechanical characteristics of cast iron slugs, received by semicontinuos way of casting, at temperatures from 850 up to 1100^ С are given. 

  9. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)


    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  10. High-level soluble expression of Serratia marcescens H30 lipase in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Su, Erzheng; Xu, Jingjing; Wu, Xiangping


    Serratia marcescens lipase (SmL) is an important biocatalyst used to enantioselectively hydrolyze (±)-trans-3-(4-methoxyphynyl) glycidic acid methyl ester. However, the economically justified level recombinant soluble expression of SmL in Escherichia coli has not been established. Thus, fusion genes of lipase from S. marcescens H30 with different fusion tags were constructed and expressed in E. coli. The effects of fusion tags were revealed. A significant increase in recombinant lipase solubility showed that E. coli BL21 (DE3)/pET32a-SmL was a suitable choice for SmL production. To optimize the performance of recombinant SmL production, changes in culture medium compositions and induction conditions were systematically tested. Finally, the recombinant SmL activity and productivity reached approximately 23,000 U/L and 1,278 U/L/H in shake flasks, respectively. This value is the highest SmL activity attained by heterogeneous recombinant expression in E. coli. Lipase activity and productivity reached 19,650 U/L and 1,228 U/L/H, respectively, by scaling up SmL production in a 7.0 L fermenter. The existence of the Trx tag did not influence the chiral selectivity of recombinant SmL. These findings indicate a possibility for soluble and economical SmL expression in E. coli to meet industrial needs. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Design of High Field Solenoids made of High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalesi, Antonio; /Pisa U.


    This thesis starts from the analytical mechanical analysis of a superconducting solenoid, loaded by self generated Lorentz forces. Also, a finite element model is proposed and verified with the analytical results. To study the anisotropic behavior of a coil made by layers of superconductor and insulation, a finite element meso-mechanic model is proposed and designed. The resulting material properties are then used in the main solenoid analysis. In parallel, design work is performed as well: an existing Insert Test Facility (ITF) is adapted and structurally verified to support a coil made of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS). Finally, a technological winding process was proposed and the required tooling is designed.

  12. Effect of microstructure on the high temperature strength of nitride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of these parameters on room temperature and high temperature strength of the composite up to 1300°C in ambient condition were studied. The high temperature flexural strength of the composite of all compositions increased at 1200 and 1300°C because of oxidation of Si3N4 phase and blunting crack front.

  13. 46 CFR 56.60-5 - Steel (High temperature applications). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel (High temperature applications). 56.60-5 Section... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Materials § 56.60-5 Steel (High temperature applications). (a) (Reproduces 124.2.A.) Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 775 °F (412 °C), the carbide phase of plain carbon...

  14. The impact of high temperatures on foraging behaviour and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High temperatures can pose significant thermoregulation challenges for endotherms, and determining how individual species respond to high temperatures will be important for predicting the impact of global warming on wild populations. Animals can adjust their behaviour or physiology to cope with higher temperatures, ...

  15. Pargasite at high pressure and temperature (United States)

    Comboni, Davide; Lotti, Paolo; Gatta, G. Diego; Merlini, Marco; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Frost, Daniel J.


    The P-T phase stability field, the thermoelastic behavior and the P-induced deformation mechanisms at the atomic scale of pargasite crystals, from the "phlogopite peridotite unit" of the Finero mafic-ultramafic complex (Ivrea-Verbano Formation, Italy), have been investigated by a series of in situ experiments: (a) at high pressure (up to 20.1 GPa), by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a diamond anvil cell, (b) at high temperature (up to 823 K), by powder synchrotron X-ray diffraction using a hot air blower device, and (c) at simultaneous HP-HT conditions, by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction with a resistive-heated diamond anvil cell (P max = 16.5 GPa, T max = 1200 K). No phase transition has been observed within the P-T range investigated. At ambient T, the refined compressional parameters, calculated by fitting a second-order Birch-Murnaghan Equation of State (BM-EoS), are: V 0 = 915.2(8) Å3 and K P0,T0 = 95(2) GPa (β P0,T0 = 0.0121(2) GPa-1) for the unit-cell volume; a 0 = 9.909(4) Å and K(a) P0,T0 = 76(2) GPa for the a-axis; b 0 = 18.066(7) Å and K(b) P0,T0 = 111(2) GPa for the b-axis; c 0 = 5.299(5) Å and K(c) P0,T0 = 122(12) GPa for the c-axis [K(c) P0,T0 K(b) P0,T0 > K(a) P0,T0]. The high-pressure structure refinements (at ambient T) show a moderate contraction of the TO4 double chain and a decrease of its bending in response to the hydrostatic compression, along with a pronounced compressibility of the A- and M(4)-polyhedra [K P0, T0(A) = 38(2) GPa, K P0, T0(M4) = 79(5) GPa] if compared to the M(1)-, M(2)-, M(3)-octahedra [K P0, T0(M1,2,3) ≤ 120 GPa] and to the rigid tetrahedra [K P0, T0(T1,T2) 300 GPa]. The thermal behavior, at ambient pressure up to 823 K, was modelled with Berman's formalism, which gives: V 0 = 909.1(2) Å3, α0 = 2.7(2)·10-5 K-1 and α1 = 1.4(6)·10-9 K-2 [with α0(a) = 0.47(6)·10-5 K-1, α0(b) = 1.07(4)·10-5 K-1, and α0(c) = 0.97(7)·10-5 K-1]. The petrological implications for the experimental

  16. The novel synthesis of highly water-soluble few-layer graphene nanosheets by a simple one-pot chemical route and without any modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh, E-mail:; Ferdowsi, Somayeh Moazen


    In this study, a simple one-pot and scalable process including mild oxidation of graphite in mixture of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/KMnO{sub 4} at 60 °C was developed to synthesize water-soluble graphene. In this process, effects of the oxidant amount and reaction time on oxidation and exfoliation degree of graphite were explored. At this temperature, most oxygen-containing functional groups were introduced at the edges of graphite by preserving the pristine sp{sup 2}carbon-bonded structure. These functional groups were responsible for exfoliation of edge-functionalized graphite (EFG) sheets to edge-graphene oxide (EGO). Various techniques including atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and direct-current measurements proved that resulting EGO was formed from few-layer graphene nanosheets (GNS) with sub-2 nm thickness, low-defect sites in basal plane owing good solubility in water from pH 6 to 11 through electrostatic stabilization, as determined by zeta-potentiometry. This low-cost and high-efficiency solution processing techniques has enabled to produce aqueous graphene dispersions without need to use polymeric or surfactant stabilizers for many technological applications. - Highlights: • Water-soluble graphene was synthesized by a simple one-pot and scalable process. • This process did not utilize any reduction agents, stabilizer and ultrasonication. • The effects of oxidant amount and reaction time on process were explored.

  17. Transport Processes in High Temperature QCD Plasmas (United States)

    Hong, Juhee

    The transport properties of high temperature QCD plasmas can be described by kinetic theory based on the Boltzmann equation. At a leading-log approximation, the Boltzmann equation is reformulated as a Fokker-Planck equation. First, we compute the spectral densities of Tµν and Jµ by perturbing the system with weak gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The spectral densities exhibit a smooth transition from free-streaming quasi-particles to hydrodynamics. This transition is analyzed with hydrodynamics and diffusion equation up to second order. We determine all of the first and second order transport coefficients which characterize the linear response in the hydrodynamic regime. Second, we simulate the wake of a heavy quark moving through the plasmas. At long distances, the energy density and flux distributions show sound waves and a diffusion wake. The kinetic theory calculations based on the Boltzmann equation at weak coupling are compared to the strong coupling results given by the AdS/CFT correspondence. By using the hard-thermal-loop effective theory, we determine the photon emission rate at next-to-leading order (NLO), i.e., at order g2mD /T. There are three mechanisms which contribute to the leading-order photon emission: (2 ↔ 2) elastic scatterings, (1 ↔ 2) collinear bremsstrahlung, and (1 ↔ 1) quark-photon conversion due to soft fermion exchange. At NLO, these three mechanisms are not completely independent. When the transverse momentum between quark and photon becomes soft, the Compton scattering with a soft gluon reduces to wide-angle bremsstrahlung. Similarly, bremsstrahlung reduces to the quark-photon conversion process when the photon carries most of the incoming momentum. Therefore, the rates should be matched to determine the wide-angle NLO correction. Collinear bremsstrahlung can be accounted for by solving an integral equation which corresponds to summing ladder diagrams. With O(g) corrections in the collision kernel and the asymptotic

  18. Protein solubility modeling (United States)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.


    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Magnesium Diecasting Alloys for High Temperature Applications (United States)

    Pekguleryuz, Mihriban O.; Kaya, A. Arslan

    New growth area for automotive use of magnesium is powertrain applications such as the transmission case and engine block. These applications see service conditions in the temperature range of 150-200C under 50-70 MPa of tensile and compressive loads. In addition, metallurgical stability, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance and castability requirements need to be met. A decade of research and development has resulted in a number of creep- resistant magnesium alloys that are potential candidates for elevated-temperature automotive applications. These alloys are mostly based on rare-earth and alkaline earth element additions to magnesium. This paper gives an overview of the various magnesium alloy systems for use in elevated-temperature applications.

  20. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank

    temperatures and pressures. Aqueous potassium hydroxide immobilized electrolyte in porous SrTiO3 was used in those cells. Electrolysis cells with metal foam based gas diffusion electrodes and the immobilized electrolyte were successfully demonstrated at temperatures up to 250 °C and 40 bar. Different electro-catalysts...... were tested in order to reduce the oxygen and hydrogen overpotentials. Current densities of 1.1 A cm-2 and 2.3 A cm-2 have been measured at a cell voltage of 1.5 V and 1.75 V, respectively, without using expensive noble metal catalysts. Electrical efficiencies of almost 99 % at 1.1 A cm-2 and 85 % at 2...... against conventional technologies for hydrogen production, such as natural gas reforming, the production and investment costs have to be reduced. A reduction of the investment costs may be achieved by increasing the operational pressure and temperature of the electrolyzer, as this will result in: 1...

  1. A high-throughput method for membrane protein solubility screening: the ultracentrifugation dispersity sedimentation assay. (United States)

    Gutmann, Daniel A P; Mizohata, Eiichi; Newstead, Simon; Ferrandon, Sebastian; Postis, Vincent; Xia, Xiaobing; Henderson, Peter J F; van Veen, Hendrik W; Byrne, Bernadette


    One key to successful crystallization of membrane proteins is the identification of detergents that maintain the protein in a soluble, monodispersed state. Because of their hydrophobic nature, membrane proteins are particularly prone to forming insoluble aggregates over time. This nonspecific aggregation of the molecules reduces the likelihood of the regular association of the protein molecules essential for crystal lattice formation. Critical buffer components affecting the aggregation of membrane proteins include detergent choice, salt concentration, and presence of glycerol. The optimization of these parameters is often a time- and protein-consuming process. Here we describe a novel ultracentrifugation dispersity sedimentation (UDS) assay in which ultracentrifugation of very small (5 microL) volumes of purified, soluble membrane protein is combined with SDS-PAGE analysis to rapidly assess the degree of protein aggregation. The results from the UDS method correlate very well with established methods like size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while consuming considerably less protein. In addition, the UDS method allows rapid screening of detergents for membrane protein crystallization in a fraction of the time required by SEC. Here we use the UDS method in the identification of suitable detergents and buffer compositions for the crystallization of three recombinant prokaryotic membrane proteins. The implications of our results for membrane protein crystallization prescreening are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.


    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  3. A Versatile System for High-Throughput In Situ X-ray Screening and Data Collection of Soluble and Membrane-Protein Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broecker, Jana; Klingel, Viviane; Ou, Wei-Lin; Balo, Aidin R.; Kissick, David J.; Ogata, Craig M.; Kuo, Anling; Ernst, Oliver P.


    In recent years, in situ data collection has been a major focus of progress in protein crystallography. Here, we introduce the Mylar in situ method using Mylar-based sandwich plates that are inexpensive, easy to make and handle, and show significantly less background scattering than other setups. A variety of cognate holders for patches of Mylar in situ sandwich films corresponding to one or more wells makes the method robust and versatile, allows for storage and shipping of entire wells, and enables automated crystal imaging, screening, and goniometerbased X-ray diffraction data-collection at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions for soluble and membrane-protein crystals grown in or transferred to these plates. We validated the Mylar in situ method using crystals of the water-soluble proteins hen egg-white lysozyme and sperm whale myoglobin as well as the 7-transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin from Haloquadratum walsbyi. In conjunction with current developments at synchrotrons, this approach promises high-resolution structural studies of membrane proteins to become faster and more routine.

  4. High incubation temperatures enhance mitochondrial energy metabolism in reptile embryos. (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Teng; Gao, Jing; Ma, Liang; Du, Wei-Guo


    Developmental rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature in ectothermic animals, but the biochemical basis underlying this thermal dependence is largely unexplored. We measured mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities of turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) incubated at different temperatures to identify the metabolic basis of the rapid development occurring at high temperatures in reptile embryos. Developmental rate increased with increasing incubation temperatures in the embryos of P. sinensis. Correspondingly, in addition to the thermal dependence of mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities, high-temperature incubation further enhanced mitochondrial respiration and COX activities in the embryos. This suggests that embryos may adjust mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities in response to developmental temperature to achieve high developmental rates at high temperatures. Our study highlights the importance of biochemical investigations in understanding the proximate mechanisms by which temperature affects embryonic development.

  5. Solubility Database (United States)

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  6. High temperature superconductor cable concepts for fusion magnets

    CERN Document Server



    Three concepts of high temperature superconductor cables carrying kA currents (RACC, CORC and TSTC) are investigated, optimized and evaluated in the scope of their applicability as conductor in fusion magnets. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cables is measured; the thermal expansion and conductivity of structure, insulation and filling materials are investigated. High temperature superconductor winding packs for fusion magnets are calculated and compared with corresponding low temperature superconductor cases.

  7. Maintenance in Service of High Temperature Parts (United States)


    program activities. io4 6-1 DEFECTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF GAS TIURBNE DISCS Robert H Jeal Head of Materials Engineering Rolls-Royce Limited...temperature sulphidatien and hot forrosal. m 5.• ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to thank N. Swindells of the University of Livernool for his efforts in

  8. Micromechanics of high temperature hydrogen attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlögl, Sabine M.; Giessen, Erik van der


    Hydrogen attack is a material degradation process that occurs at elevated temperatures in hydrogen-rich environments, such as found in petro-chemical installations. Weldments in components such as reactor vessels are particularly susceptible to hydrogen attack. This paper discusses a multi-scale

  9. Improving the high performance concrete (HPC behaviour in high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattelan Antocheves De Lima, R.


    Full Text Available High performance concrete (HPC is an interesting material that has been long attracting the interest from the scientific and technical community, due to the clear advantages obtained in terms of mechanical strength and durability. Given these better characteristics, HFC, in its various forms, has been gradually replacing normal strength concrete, especially in structures exposed to severe environments. However, the veiy dense microstructure and low permeability typical of HPC can result in explosive spalling under certain thermal and mechanical conditions, such as when concrete is subject to rapid temperature rises, during a f¡re. This behaviour is caused by the build-up of internal water pressure, in the pore structure, during heating, and by stresses originating from thermal deformation gradients. Although there are still a limited number of experimental programs in this area, some researchers have reported that the addition of polypropylene fibers to HPC is a suitable way to avoid explosive spalling under f re conditions. This change in behavior is derived from the fact that polypropylene fibers melt in high temperatures and leave a pathway for heated gas to escape the concrete matrix, therefore allowing the outward migration of water vapor and resulting in the reduction of interned pore pressure. The present research investigates the behavior of high performance concrete on high temperatures, especially when polypropylene fibers are added to the mix.

    El hormigón de alta resistencia (HAR es un material de gran interés para la comunidad científica y técnica, debido a las claras ventajas obtenidas en término de resistencia mecánica y durabilidad. A causa de estas características, el HAR, en sus diversas formas, en algunas aplicaciones está reemplazando gradualmente al hormigón de resistencia normal, especialmente en estructuras expuestas a ambientes severos. Sin embargo, la microestructura muy densa y la baja permeabilidad t

  10. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, K.D.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L.; Powell, L.E.; Raj, T.; Roettger, G.E.; Sutton, T.G. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The separative performance of the authors` ceramic membranes has been determined in the past using a permeance test system that measured flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275 C. From these data, the separation factor was determined for a particular gas pair from the ratio of the pure gas specific flows. An important project goal this year has been to build a Mixed Gas Separation System (MGSS) for measuring the separation efficiencies of membranes at higher temperatures and using mixed gases. The MGSS test system has been built, and initial operation has been achieved. The MGSS is capable of measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 100 psi using a binary gas mixture such as hydrogen/methane. The mixed gas is fed into a tubular membrane at pressures up to 100 psi, and the membrane separates the feed gas mixture into a permeate stream and a raffinate stream. The test membrane is sealed in a stainless steel holder that is mounted in a split tube furnace to permit membrane separations to be evaluated at temperatures up to 600 C. The compositions of the three gas streams are measured by a gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors. The test system also measures the temperatures and pressures of all three gas streams as well as the flow rate of the feed stream. These data taken over a range of flows and pressures permit the separation efficiency to be determined as a function of the operating conditions. A mathematical model of the separation has been developed that permits the data to be reduced and the separation factor for the membrane to be determined.

  11. High CO{sub 2} solubility in ionic liquids and a tetraalkylammonium-based poly(ionic liquid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supasitmongkol, S.; Styring, P. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) absorption in several imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), pyridinium-based ionic liquids and a tetraalkylammonium-based poly(ionic liquid) (PIL), poly((p-vinylbenzyl) trimethylammonium hexafluorophosphate) P((VBTMA)(PF6)), was studied. The trend of CO{sub 2} solubility in all of the ILs increases dramatically with decreasing absorption temperature. Based on the same bis(triflamide) (Tf2N) anion, imidazolium, pyridinium and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium-based ionic liquids all show relatively similar CO{sub 2} solubilities, which were higher than for the ES anion. The highest CO{sub 2} absorption was found in a poly(ionic liquid) P((VBTMA)(PF6)); however, the monomer also showed higher CO{sub 2} capacity than the other ionic liquids. The poly(ionic liquid) is remarkable in that it can adsorb 77% of its body weight of CO{sub 2} with a selectivity over nitrogen of 70:1. The absorbed CO{sub 2} gas can be readily desorbed from ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid) and the selectivity for CO{sub 2} over N{sub 2} was consistent over repeated cycles. The materials can be reused several times for consecutive sorption/desorption cycles, without loss of performance in a large-scale reactor and therefore represent serious candidates for use in commercial adsorbers.

  12. [Variability of soil water soluble organic carbon content and its response to temperature change in green spaces along urban-to-rural gradient of Nanchang, China]. (United States)

    Li, Pei-qing; Fang, Xiang-min; Chen, Fu-sheng; Wang, Fang-chao; Yu, Jin-rong; Wan, Song-ze; Li, Zu-yao


    Topsoil of green space including typical forest, shrub and grassland were collected to measure their water soluble organic carbon ( WSOC) before and after incubation of 30 days at 5, 15, 25, 35 and, 45 °C. The results showed the average values of WSOC were higher in urban than in rural green spaces, but the percentage of WSOC to total organic carbon (TOC) showed an opposite trend. No significant changes were found among the three green space types in WSOC and WSOC/TOC. Response of WSOC in green space to incubation temperature was generally highest in urban sites, followed by suburban sites, and lowest in rural sites at the incubation temperature of 5 °C, but showed an opposite trend at the temperature of 45 °C. Response coefficient of WSOC to temperature change was lower in forest and shrub than in grassland, but increased along the urban-rural gradient. Further analysis showed that WSOC positively correlated with TOC, total nitrogen and available phosphorus, and the response coefficient of WSOC to temperature change negatively correlated with available phosphorus. In summary, exogenous substances input might lead to the accumulation of WSOC in urban green space, however, urban environment was helpful to maintain the stability of WSOC, which might be due to the enrichment of available phosphorus in urban sites.

  13. Probing thermodynamic fluctuations in high temperature superconductors (United States)

    Vidal, Felix; Veira, J. A.; Maza, J.; Miguélez, F.; Morán, E.; Alario, M. A.


    We probe thermodynamic fluctuations in HTSC by measuring the excess electrical conductivity, Δσ, abovr T c in single-phase (within 4%) Ba 2LnCu 3O 7-δ compounds, with LnY, Ho and Sm. As expected, the measured relative effect, Δσ / σ (300 K), is much more important in HTSC than for low-temperature superconductors (at least one order of magnitude). In the reduced temperature region -5=-0.47 ± 0.06. This result confirms an universal critical behaviour of Δσ in HTSC, and the value of agrees with that predicted by the Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) theory for three-dimensional BCS superconductivity. However, A shows a normal conductivity dependence which is not accounted for by the AL theory.

  14. Analysis of water-soluble azo dyes in soft drinks by high resolution UPLC-MS. (United States)

    Liu, X; Yang, J L; Li, J H; Li, X L; Li, J; Lu, X Y; Shen, J Z; Wang, Y W; Zhang, Z H


    An UPLC-Orbitrap MS system was exploited to develop and validate a method for the simultaneous determination of 11 water-soluble azo dyes (Acid Yellow 17, Acid Red 14, Acid Red 26, Acid Red 73, Acid Orange 52, Acid Orange 7, Acid Orange 12, Acid Yellow 36, Acid Orange 5, Acid Red 88 and Acid Red 9) in soft drinks. Three pairs of isomers and four disulphonated azo dyes were among a total of 11 water-soluble azo dyes obtained and purified using an SPE cartridge. They were well separated using optimized UPLC conditions with a RP18 column and a MS detector with a compatible mobile phase system. All these dyes were detected by the Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer in negative ion mode. HCD tandem MS fragment ions are first reported in this paper, and these fragment ions can be used for identification of isomers of azo dyes. According to SANCO/10684/2009, one quasi-molecular ion in full scan mode as quantification ion and one or two HCD tandem MS fragment ions as identification ions are required for compound confirmation. Matrix-matched calibration was employed for quantification. The linear matrix-matched calibration for the 11 dyes was in the range 5-200 ng g(-1) with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9939-0.9988. Recoveries were 68.9-110.8% with coefficients of variation of 0.9-12.0%. Depending on the dye and matrix involved, the LODs were between 1.0 and 3.2 ng g(-1) and LOQs were between 5.2 and 9.8 ng g(-1).

  15. Elastic properties and stress-temperature phase diagrams of high-temperature phases with low-temperature lattice instabilities (United States)

    Thomas, John C.; Van der Ven, Anton


    The crystal structures of many technologically important high-temperature phases are predicted to have lattice instabilities at low temperature, making their thermodynamic and mechanical properties inaccessible to standard first principles approaches that rely on the (quasi) harmonic approximation. Here, we use the recently developed anharmonic potential cluster expansion within Monte Carlo simulations to predict the effect of temperature and anisotropic stress on the elastic properties of ZrH2, a material that undergoes diffusionless transitions among cubic, tetragonal, and orthorhombic phases. Our analysis shows that the mechanical properties of high-temperature phases with low-temperature vibrational instabilities are very sensitive to temperature and stress state. These findings have important implications for materials characterization and multi-scale simulations and suggest opportunities for enhanced strain engineering of high-temperature phases exhibiting soft-mode instabilities.

  16. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cost and size are limiting factors in efforts to produce high strength, high stiffness, and high temperature composite parts. To address these issues, new processes...

  17. Confinement Studies in High Temperature Spheromak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D N; Mclean, H S; Wood, R D; Casper, T A; Cohen, B I; Hooper, E B; LoDestro, L L; Pearlstein, L D; Romero-Talamas, C


    Recent results from the SSPX spheromak experiment demonstrate the potential for obtaining good energy confinement (Te > 350eV and radial electron thermal diffusivity comparable to tokamak L-mode values) in a completely self-organized toroidal plasma. A strong decrease in thermal conductivity with temperature is observed and at the highest temperatures, transport is well below that expected from the Rechester-Rosenbluth model. Addition of a new capacitor bank has produced 60% higher magnetic fields and almost tripled the pulse length to 11ms. For plasmas with T{sub e} > 300eV, it becomes feasible to use modest (1.8MW) neutral beam injection (NBI) heating to significantly change the power balance in the core plasma, making it an effective tool for improving transport analysis. We are now developing detailed designs for adding NBI to SSPX and have developed a new module for the CORSICA transport code to compute the correct fast-ion orbits in SSPX so that we can simulate the effect of adding NBI; initial results predict that such heating can raise the electron temperature and total plasma pressure in the core by a factor of two.

  18. Preparation of pellets containing highly soluble drug by extrusion/spheronisation and coating with Kollicoat® SR 30D


    Andreazza,Itamar Francisco; Ferraz,Humberto Gomes


    The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the pellets, containing a highly soluble drug (ascorbic acid), by the extrusion-spheronization process and coated with a release controlling polymer. The coating (undertaken in a fluid bed) was applied to three batches of the pellets with a dispersion of Kollicoat® SR 30 D, with each batch of pellets receiving a different level of polymer (5.07; 8.26 and 10.35%). The coated pellets were evaluated for sphericity by imaging analysis and comparat...

  19. High pressure solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in aqueous solution of piperazine (PZ) activated N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solvent for CO2 capture (United States)

    Khan, Saleem Nawaz; Hailegiorgis, Sintayehu Mekuria; Man, Zakaria; Shariff, Azmi Mohd


    In this study, the solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the aqueous solution of piperazine (PZ) activated N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was investigated. In the aqueous solution the concentrations of the N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and piperazine (PZ) were kept constant at 30 wt. % and 3 wt. %, respectively. The solubility experiments were carried out between the temperatures ranges of 303.15 to 333.15 K. The pressure range was selected as 2-50 bar for solubility of carbon dioxide in the aqueous solution. The solubility of the CO2 is reported in terms of CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. The loading capacity of the solvent is the ratio between the numbers of moles of CO2 absorbed to the numbers of moles of solvent used. The experimental data showed that the CO2 loading increased with increase in CO2 partial pressure, while it decreased with increase in system's temperature. It was also observed from the experimental data that the higher pressure favors the absorption process while the increased temperature hinders the absorption process of CO2 capture. The loading capacity of the investigated solvent was compared with the loading capacity of the solvents reported in the literature. The investigated solvent showed better solubility in terms of loading capacity.

  20. ACBC to Balcite: Bioinspired Synthesis of a Highly Substituted High-Temperature Phase from an Amorphous Precursor. (United States)

    Whittaker, Michael L; Joester, Derk


    Energy-efficient synthesis of materials locked in compositional and structural states far from equilibrium remains a challenging goal, yet biomineralizing organisms routinely assemble such materials with sophisticated designs and advanced functional properties, often using amorphous precursors. However, incorporation of organics limits the useful temperature range of these materials. Herein, the bioinspired synthesis of a highly supersaturated calcite (Ca0.5 Ba0.5 CO3 ) called balcite is reported, at mild conditions and using an amorphous calcium-barium carbonate (ACBC) (Ca1-x Ba x CO3 ·1.2H2 O) precursor. Balcite not only contains 50 times more barium than the solubility limit in calcite but also displays the rotational disorder on carbonate sites that is typical for high-temperature calcite. It is significantly harder (30%) and less stiff than calcite, and retains these properties after heating to elevated temperatures. Analysis of balcite local order suggests that it may require the formation of the ACBC precursor and could therefore be an example of nonclassical nucleation. These findings demonstrate that amorphous precursor pathways are powerfully enabling and provide unprecedented access to materials far from equilibrium, including high-temperature modifications by room-temperature synthesis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. ACBC to Balcite: Bioinspired Synthesis of a Highly Substituted High-Temperature Phase from an Amorphous Precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, Michael L.; Joester, Derk (NWU)


    Energy-efficient synthesis of materials locked in compositional and structural states far from equilibrium remains a challenging goal, yet biomineralizing organisms routinely assemble such materials with sophisticated designs and advanced functional properties, often using amorphous precursors. However, incorporation of organics limits the useful temperature range of these materials. Herein, the bioinspired synthesis of a highly supersaturated calcite (Ca0.5Ba0.5CO3) called balcite is reported, at mild conditions and using an amorphous calcium–barium carbonate (ACBC) (Ca1- x Ba x CO3·1.2H2O) precursor. Balcite not only contains 50 times more barium than the solubility limit in calcite but also displays the rotational disorder on carbonate sites that is typical for high-temperature calcite. It is significantly harder (30%) and less stiff than calcite, and retains these properties after heating to elevated temperatures. Analysis of balcite local order suggests that it may require the formation of the ACBC precursor and could therefore be an example of nonclassical nucleation. These findings demonstrate that amorphous precursor pathways are powerfully enabling and provide unprecedented access to materials far from equilibrium, including high-temperature modifications by room-temperature synthesis.

  2. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods


    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  3. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy Allen


    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  4. Evaluation of chitosan–anionic polymers based tablets for extended-release of highly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shao


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop chitosan–anionic polymers based extended-release tablets and test the feasibility of using this system for the sustained release of highly water-soluble drugs with high drug loading. Here, the combination of sodium valproate (VPS and valproic acid (VPA were chosen as the model drugs. Anionic polymers studied include xanthan gum (XG, carrageenan (CG, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na and sodium alginate (SA. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. In vitro drug release was carried out under simulated gastrointestinal condition. Drug release mechanism was studied. Compared with single polymers, chitosan–anionic polymers based system caused a further slowdown of drug release rate. Among them, CS–xanthan gum matrix system exhibited the best extended-release behavior and could extend drug release for up to 24 h. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies demonstrated that polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs were formed on the tablet surface, which played an important role on retarding erosion and swelling of the matrix in the later stage. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that it is possible to develop highly water-soluble drugs loaded extended-release tablets using chitosan–anionic polymers based system.

  5. A model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have presented a model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high temperature superconductors using paraconductivity approach. The theoretical analysis is based on the crossing point technique of the conductivity expressions. The pseudogap temperature T ∗ is found to depend on dimension and is ...

  6. Predicting High Temperature Dislocation Physics in HCP Crystal Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Abigail [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carpenter, John S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez Saez, Enrique [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report applies models and experiments to answer key questions about the way materials deform; specifics regarding phase field dislocations dynamics; as well as high temperature rolling experiments.

  7. Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintalapalle, Ramana V. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)


    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were produced by sputter deposition by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (Ts=25-800 °C). The structural characteristics and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of growth temperature is significant on the chemistry, crystal structure and morphology of Ga2O3 films. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 films grown at lower temperatures were amorphous while those grown at Ts≥500 oC were nanocrystalline. RBS measurements indicate the well-maintained stoichiometry of Ga2O3 films at Ts=300-800 °C. The electronic structure determination indicated that the nanocrystalline Ga2O3films exhibit a band gap of ~5 eV. Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga2O3 films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga2O3 films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films. The band gap of Ga2O3 films without W-incorporation was ~5 eV. Oxygen sensor characteristics evaluated using optical and electrical methods indicate a faster response in W-doped Ga2O3 films compared to intrinsic Ga2O3 films. The results demonstrate the applicability of both intrinsic and W-doped Ga-oxide films for oxygen sensor application at temperatures ≥700 °C.

  8. High temperature lithium cells with solid polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Singh, Mohit


    Electrochemical cells that use electrolytes made from new polymer compositions based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and other high-softening-temperature polymers are disclosed. These materials have a microphase domain structure that has an ionically-conductive phase and a phase with good mechanical strength and a high softening temperature. In one arrangement, the structural block has a softening temperature of about C. These materials can be made with either homopolymers or with block copolymers. Such electrochemical cells can operate safely at higher temperatures than have been possible before, especially in lithium cells. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes increases with increasing temperature.

  9. Highly water soluble nanoparticles as a draw solute in forward osmosis for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Heeman; Choi, Hye Min; Jang, Sungchan; Seo, Bumkyoung; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    . In this study, we introduced highly water-soluble hyperbranched caroboxylated polyglycerol-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CPG-MNPs). It is known that the highly branched, globular architecture of PG significantly increase solubility compared to linear polymer and they are eco-friendly. The CPG-MNPs showed no aggregate of particles in water even after placing external magnet, and exhibited a high water flux in FO process. The CPG-MNPs are, therefore, potentially useful as a draw solute in FO processes. The operation of nuclear pressurized water reactors (PWRs) results in numerous radioactive waste streams which vary in radioactivity content. Most PWR stations have experienced leakages of boric acid into liquid radioactive waste systems. These wastes contain about 0.3∼0.8 wt% of boric acid. It is known that reverse osmosis (RO) membrane can eliminate boron at high pH and boron of 40∼90% can be removed by RO membrane in pH condition. RO uses hydraulic pressure to oppose, and exceed, the osmotic pressure of an aqueous feed solution containing boric acid. Forward osmosis (FO), a low energy technique based on membrane technologies, has recently garnered attention for its utility in wastewater treatment and desalination applications. In the FO process, water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a solution with a low osmotic pressure (the feed solution) to a solution with a high osmotic pressure (the draw solution). The driving force in FO processes is provided by the osmotic gradient between the two solutions. Low energy costs and low degrees of membrane fouling are two of the advantages conveyed by FO processes over other processes, such as reverse osmosis processes that rely on a hydraulic pressure driving force. However, the challenges of FO still lie in the fabrication of eligible FO membranes and the readily separable draw solutes of high osmotic pressures. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be separated from water by an external magnet field

  10. High Work Output Ni-Ti-Pt High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys and Associated Processing Methods (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Garg, Anita (Inventor)


    According to the invention, compositions of Ni-Ti-Pt high temperature, high force, shape memory alloys are disclosed that have transition temperatures above 100 C.; have narrow hysteresis; and produce a high specific work output.

  11. A modeling-based evaluation of isothermal rebreathing for breath gas analyses of highly soluble volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    King, J; Unterkofler, K; Teschl, G; Teschl, S; Mochalski, P; Koç, H; Hinterhuber, H; Amann, A


    Isothermal rebreathing has been proposed as an experimental technique for estimating the alveolar levels of hydrophilic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath. Using the prototypic test compounds acetone and methanol, we demonstrate that the end-tidal breath profiles of such substances during isothermal rebreathing show a characteristic increase that contradicts the conventional pulmonary inert gas elimination theory due to Farhi. On the other hand, these profiles can reliably be captured by virtue of a previously developed mathematical model for the general exhalation kinetics of highly soluble, blood-borne VOCs, which explicitly takes into account airway gas exchange as a major determinant of the observable breath output. This model allows for a mechanistic analysis of various rebreathing protocols suggested in the literature. In particular, it predicts that the end-exhaled levels of acetone and methanol measured during free tidal breathing will underestimate the underlying alveolar concentration by a factor of up to 1.5. Moreover, it clarifies the discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo blood-breath ratios of hydrophilic VOCs and yields further quantitative insights into the physiological components of isothermal rebreathing and highly soluble gas exchange in general.

  12. Spectroscopic diagnostics of high temperature plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, W.


    A three-year research program for the development of novel XUV spectroscopic diagnostics for magnetically confined fusion plasmas is proposed. The new diagnostic system will use layered synthetic microstructures (LSM) coated, flat and curved surfaces as dispersive elements in spectrometers and narrow band XUV filter arrays. In the framework of the proposed program we will develop impurity monitors for poloidal and toroidal resolved measurements on PBX-M and Alcator C-Mod, imaging XUV spectrometers for electron density and temperature fluctuation measurements in the hot plasma core in TEXT or other similar tokamaks and plasma imaging devices in soft x-ray light for impurity behavior studies during RF heating on Phaedrus T and carbon pellet ablation in Alcator C-Mod. Recent results related to use of multilayer in XUV plasma spectroscopy are presented. We also discuss the latest results reviewed to q{sub o} and local poloidal field measurements using Zeeman polarimetry.

  13. High Temperature Processable Flexible Polymer Films (United States)

    Sundar, D. Shanmuga; Raja, A. Sivanantha; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Jeyakumar, D.

    Recent developments in the field of flexible electronics motivated the researchers to start working in verdict of new flexible substrate for replacing the existing rigid glass and flexible plastics. Flexible substrates offer significant rewards in terms of being able to fabricate flexible electronic devices that are robust, thinner, conformable, lighter and can be rolled away when needed. In this work, a new flexible and transparent substrate with the help of organic materials such as Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and tetra ethoxy orthosilicate (TEOS) is synthesized. Transmittance of about 90-95% is acquired in the visible region (400-700nm) and the synthesized substrate shows better thermal characteristics and withstands temperature up to 200∘C without any significant degradation. Characteristics such as transmittance (T), absorption (A), reflectance (R), refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) are also reported.

  14. High Temperature Superconductivity in Cuprates: a model

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, P R


    A model is proposed such that quasi-particles (electrons or holes) residing in the CuO2 planes of cuprates may interact leading to metallic or superconducting behaviors. The metallic phase is obtained when the quasi-particles are treated as having classical kinetic energies and the superconducting phase occurs when the quasi-particles are taken as extremely relativistic objects. The interaction between both kinds of particles is provided by a force dependent-on-velocity. In the case of the superconducting behavior, the motion of apical oxygen ions provides the glue to establish the Cooper pair. The model furnishes explicit relations for the Fermi velocity, the perpendicular and the in-plane coherence lengths, the zero-temperature energy gap, the critical current density, the critical parallel and perpendicular magnetic fields. All these mentioned quantities are expressed in terms of fundamental physical constants as: charge and mass of the electron, light velocity in vacuum, Planck constant, electric permitti...

  15. Study of High Temperature Insulation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaclav Mentlik


    Full Text Available One of current objectives of the electro insulating technology is the development of the material for extreme conditions. There is a need to operate some devices in extreme temperatures, for example the propulsion of the nuclear fuel bars. In these cases there is necessary to provide not just insulating property, but also the thermal endurance with the required durability of the insulating materials. Critical is the determination of the limit stress for the irreversible structure modification with relation to material property changes. For this purpose there is necessary to conduct lot of test on chosen materials to determine the limits mentioned above. Content of this article is the definition of diagnostic mode, including the definition of the exposure factors, definitions of the diagnostic system for data acquisition and first result of examinations.

  16. High temperature performance of polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Thomas


    The authors explain the changes in the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of polymer composites under elevated temperatures and fire conditions. Using microscale physical and chemical concepts they allow researchers to find reliable solutions to their engineering needs on the macroscale. In a unique combination of experimental results and quantitative models, a framework is developed to realistically predict the behavior of a variety of polymer composite materials over a wide range of thermal and mechanical loads. In addition, the authors treat extreme fire scenarios up to more than 1000°C for two hours, presenting heat-protection methods to improve the fire resistance of composite materials and full-scale structural members, and discuss their performance after fire exposure. Thanks to the microscopic approach, the developed models are valid for a variety of polymer composites and structural members, making this work applicable to a wide audience, including materials scientists, polymer chemist...

  17. High-Temperature Coatings Offer Energy Savings (United States)


    The U.S. X-Plane Program included the first-of-its-kind research in aerodynamics and astronautics with experimental vehicles, including the first aircraft to break the sound barrier; the first aircraft to fly in excess of 100,000, then 200,000, and then 300,000 feet; and the first aircraft to fly at three, four, five, and then six times the speed of sound. During the 1990s, NASA started developing a new thermal protection material to test on the X-33 and X-34 supersonic aircraft. The X-33 was intended to demonstrate the technologies needed for a new reusable launch vehicle and was projected to reach an altitude of approximately 50 miles and speeds of more than Mach 11. The X-34, a small, reusable technology demonstrator for a launch vehicle, was intended to reach an altitude of 250,000 feet and fly at speeds of Mach 8. As a result of its research and development efforts, NASA s Ames Research Center invented the Protective Ceramic Coating Material (PCCM). Applied to a surface, the thin, lightweight coating could protect the material underneath from extreme temperatures. The capability of the technology came from its emissivity, which radiated heat away from the surface it covered, thereby decreasing the amount of heat transferred to the underlying material. PCCM not only increased the capability of materials to withstand higher temperatures, it also exhibited impressive thermal shock, vibration, and acoustic performance. In addition, it proved to be resistant to abrasion and mechanical damage and was also environmentally safe, due to it being water-based and containing no solvents. Even though funding for the X-33 and X-34 ended in 2001, PCCM continued on a path of innovation.

  18. The solubility of carbon monoxide in silicate melts at high pressures and its effect on silicate phase relations. [in terrestrial and other planetary interiors (United States)

    Eggler, D. H.; Mysen, B. O.; Hoering, T. C.; Holloway, J. R.


    Autoradiographic analysis and gas chromatography were used to measure the solubility in silicate melts of CO-CO2 vapors (30 to 40% CO by thermodynamic calculation) in equilibrium with graphite at temperatures up to 1700 deg C and pressures to 30 kbar. At near-liquidus temperatures CO-CO2 vapors were found to be slightly more soluble than CO2 alone. As a result of the apparently negative temperature dependence of CO solubility, the solubility of CO-CO2 at superliquidus temperatures is less than that of CO2. Melting points of two silicates were depressed more by CO than by CO2. Phase boundary orientations suggest that CO/CO + CO2 is greater in the liquid than in the vapor. The effect of the presence of CO on periodotite phase relations was investigated, and it was found that melts containing both CO and CO2 are nearly as polymerized as those containing only CO2. These results suggest that crystallization processes in planetary interiors can be expected to be about the same, whether the melts contain CO2 alone or CO2 and CO.

  19. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal


    . Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

  20. Photochemistry at high temperatures - potential of ZnO as a high temperature photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubnell, M.; Beaud, P.; Kamber, I. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Direct conversion of solar radiation into useful, storeable and transportable chemical products is the primary goal of solar chemistry. In this paper we discuss some fundamental aspects of photochemistry at elevated temperatures. We show that luminescence can serve as an indicator of the potential use of a system as a photoconverter. As an example we present experimental data on the chemical potential and on the lifetime of the excited states of ZnO. The low luminescence quantum yield together with a lifetime of about 200 ps indicate that an efficient photochemical conversion on ZnO is highly improbable. We believe this to be a general feature of chemical systems based on a semiconductor photocatalyst, in particular of photoreactions at a solid/gas interface. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs

  1. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a well-established need for more sensitive detectors in the 10 - 200 um wavelength range with high detectivity, D*>1010 cm-Hz1/2/W to increase the...

  2. Dynamic mechanical response and a constitutive model of Fe-based high temperature alloy at high temperatures and strain rates. (United States)

    Su, Xiang; Wang, Gang; Li, Jianfeng; Rong, Yiming


    The effects of strain rate and temperature on the dynamic behavior of Fe-based high temperature alloy was studied. The strain rates were 0.001-12,000 s(-1), at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 800 °C. A phenomenological constitutive model (Power-Law constitutive model) was proposed considering adiabatic temperature rise and accurate material thermal physical properties. During which, the effects of the specific heat capacity on the adiabatic temperature rise was studied. The constitutive model was verified to be accurate by comparison between predicted and experimental results.

  3. SiC device development for high temperature sensor applications (United States)

    Shor, J. S.; Goldstein, David; Kurtz, A. D.; Osgood, R. M.


    Progress made in the processing and characterization of 3C-SiC for high temperature sensor applications is reviewed. Piezoresistance properties of silicon carbide and the temperature coefficient of resistivity of n-type beta-SiC are presented. In addition, photoelectrical etching and dopant selective etch-stops in SiC and high temperature Ohmic contacts for n-type beta-SiC sensors are discussed.

  4. Dynamic high-temperature Kolsky tension bar techniques


    Song Bo; Nelson Kevin; Lipinski Ronald; Bignell John; Ulrich G.B.; George E.P.


    Kolsky tension bar techniques were modified for dynamic high-temperature tensile characterization of thin-sheet alloys. An induction coil heater was used to heat the specimen while a cooling system was applied to keep the bars at room temperature during heating. A preload system was developed to generate a small pretension load in the bar system during heating in order to compensate for the effect of thermal expansion generated in the high-temperature tensile specimen. A laser system was appl...

  5. Extruded Self-Lubricating Solid For High-Temperature Use (United States)

    Sliney, H. E.; Waters, W. J.; Soltis, R. F.; Bemis, K.


    "EX-212" denotes high-density extruded form of composite solid material self-lubricating over wide range of temperatures. Properties equal or exceed those of powder-metallurgy version of this material. Developed for use in advanced engines at high temperatures at which ordinary lubricants destroyed.

  6. High temperature heat exchange: nuclear process heat applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrable, D.L.


    The unique element of the HTGR system is the high-temperature operation and the need for heat exchanger equipment to transfer nuclear heat from the reactor to the process application. This paper discusses the potential applications of the HTGR in both synthetic fuel production and nuclear steel making and presents the design considerations for the high-temperature heat exchanger equipment.

  7. Electron beam damage in high temperature polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. (Dayton Univ., OH (USA). Research Inst.); Adams, W.W. (Air Force Materials Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (USA))


    Electron microscopic studies of polymers are limited due to beam damage. Two concerns are the damage mechanism in a particular material, and the maximum dose for a material before damage effects are observed. From the knowledge of the dose required for damage to the polymer structure, optimum parameters for electron microscopy imaging can be determined. In the present study, electron beam damage of polymers has been quantified by monitoring changes in the diffraction intensity as a function of electron dose. The beam damage characteristics of the following polymers were studied: poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBZT); poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO); poly(benzoxazole) (ABPBO); poly(benzimidazole) (ABPBI); poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA); and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Previously published literature results on polyethylene (PE), polyoxymethylene (POM), nylon-6, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PBZT, PPTA, PPX, iPS, poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), and poly(phenylene sulphide) (PPS) were reviewed. This study demonstrates the strong dependence of the electron beam resistivity of a polymer on its thermal stability/melt temperature. (author).

  8. InGaN High Temperature Photovoltaic Cells Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this Phase II project are to develop InGaN photovoltaic cells for high temperature and/or high radiation environments to TRL 4 and to define the...

  9. Soluble NCAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Thomas


    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein involved in homophilic interactions that facilitate cell-cell adhesion. In addition to a number of membrane-bound isoforms, NCAM also exists in several soluble isoforms that have been identified in cerebrospinal fluid, blood...... serum, brain tissue, and cell culture media. Soluble NCAM can be produced in a number of ways, such as alternative splicing of the transcript from NCAM1 and enzymatic processing of the extracellular domain at the cell membrane. Soluble NCAM interferes with homophilic NCAM interactions mediated...... by membrane-bound NCAM, thereby reducing NCAM-dependent adhesion, and can modulate neurite outgrowth in vitro-a property that likely is dose-dependent. The biological effects of overexpressing soluble NCAM in transgenic animals include a perturbation of synaptic connectivity and the development of abnormal...

  10. Grain boundaries in high temperature superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Mannhart, J.


    Since the first days of high-Tc superconductivity, the materials science and the physics of grain boundaries in superconducting compounds have developed into fascinating fields of research. Unique electronic properties, different from those of the grain boundaries in conventional metallic

  11. Anaerobic stabilization of waste activated sludge at different temperatures and solid retention times: Evaluation by sludge reduction, soluble chemical oxygen demand release and dehydration capability. (United States)

    Li, Xiyao; Peng, Yongzhen; He, Yuelan; Wang, Shuying; Guo, Siyu; Li, Lukai


    Anaerobic treatment is the most widely used method of waste activated sludge (WAS) stabilization. Using a semi-continuous stirring tank with condensed WAS, we investigated effects of decreasing the solid retention time (SRT) from 32days to 6.4days on sludge reduction, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release and dehydration capability, along with anaerobic digestion operated at medium temperature (MT-AD) or anaerobic digestion operated at room temperature (RT-AD). Results showed that effects of temperature on SCOD release were greater at SRT of 32d and 6.4d. When SRT was less than 8d, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS) and capillary suction time (CST) did not change significantly. CST was lowest at SRT of 10.7days, indicating best condition for sludge dehydration. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the most optimum SRT was higher than 10.7d both in MT-AD or RT-AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of different drying temperatures on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of water-soluble tomato powders and on their use in pork patties. (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok


    Tomato and tomato products provide various antioxidant activities, which could be changed by the processing method. This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of water-soluble tomato powder (WSTP) as affected by different oven temperatures (60, 80 and 100°C), and to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and antioxidative activities of pork patties containing these powders. The contents of total phenolic compounds of WSTP ranged from 22.2 to 69.6 g kg(-1) dry matter. The antioxidant activities increased significantly with increasing drying temperatures (P tomato powders were also evaluated. WSTP at 100°C showed the highest redness value compared to those dried at 60 and 80°C. Lipid oxidation of pork patties was retarded by 7 days with the addition of WSTP. In particular, pork patties containing WSTP showed antimicrobial activity at 14 days of refrigerated storage, regardless of drying temperatures. WSTP, especially prepared at 100°C, could be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in meat products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Determination of soluble bromine in an extra-high-pressure mercury discharge lamp by sodium hydroxide decomposition-suppressed ion chromatography. (United States)

    Mitsumata, Hiroshi; Mori, Toshio; Maeda, Tatsuo; Kita, Yoshiyuki; Kohatsu, Osamu


    We have established a simple method for assaying the quantity of soluble bromine in the discharge tubes of an extra-high-pressure mercury discharge lamp. Each discharge tube is destroyed in 5 ml of 10 mM sodium hydroxide, and the recovered sodium hydroxide solution is analyzed by suppressed-ion chromatography using gradient elution. We have clarified that this method can assay less than 1 microg of soluble bromine in a discharge tube.

  14. Highly efficient production of soluble proteins from insoluble inclusion bodies by a two-step-denaturing and refolding method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Yang

    Full Text Available The production of recombinant proteins in a large scale is important for protein functional and structural studies, particularly by using Escherichia coli over-expression systems; however, approximate 70% of recombinant proteins are over-expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies. Here we presented an efficient method for generating soluble proteins from inclusion bodies by using two steps of denaturation and one step of refolding. We first demonstrated the advantages of this method over a conventional procedure with one denaturation step and one refolding step using three proteins with different folding properties. The refolded proteins were found to be active using in vitro tests and a bioassay. We then tested the general applicability of this method by analyzing 88 proteins from human and other organisms, all of which were expressed as inclusion bodies. We found that about 76% of these proteins were refolded with an average of >75% yield of soluble proteins. This "two-step-denaturing and refolding" (2DR method is simple, highly efficient and generally applicable; it can be utilized to obtain active recombinant proteins for both basic research and industrial purposes.

  15. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program


    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  16. Synthesis and properties of a highly soluble dihydoxo(tetra-tert-butylphthalocyaninato)antimony(V) complex as a precursor toward water-soluble phthalocyanines. (United States)

    Isago, Hiroaki; Miura, Kyoko; Oyama, Youichi


    The title complex cation, [Sb(tbpc)(OH)(2)](+) (where tbpc denotes tetra(tert-butyl)phthalocyaninate, C(48)H(48)N(8)(2-)), has been prepared by oxidizing [Sb(tbpc)]I(3) with tert-butyl perbenzoate in CH(2)Cl(2), CHCl(3), o-dichlorobenzene and also without solvent in the range of 20-80 degrees C. This species has been isolated as I(3)(-) salt and characterized by elemental analysis, ESI-MS, FT-IR, optical absorption and emission, and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. This compound is quite well soluble in common polar organic solvents (e.g., CH(2)Cl(2), acetonitrile, acetone) without detectable aggregation at least up to ca. 10(-4)M while much less soluble (e.g., benzene, chloronaphthalene) or insoluble (hexane) in non-polar solvents. Although this compound is insoluble in water, it makes hydrophilic colloids in acetone-water mixtures. The most intense absorption band (Q-band) in a specific solvent red-shifts with an increase in the refractive index of the solvent. However, considerable deviation of the Q-band positions in donor-solvents from linear correlation between the positions and Onsager's solvent polarity function suggests that there are significant specific chemical interactions between the axial hydroxyl groups and the surrounding donor molecules. The low fluorescence quantum yield (ca. 0.01) for [Sb(tbpc)(OH)(2)](+) suggests that the singlet excited state of this species is considerably quenched by the presence of antimony ion in the chromophore.

  17. Low temperature superconductor and aligned high temperature superconductor magnetic dipole system and method for producing high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ramesh; Scanlan, Ronald; Ghosh, Arup K.; Weggel, Robert J.; Palmer, Robert; Anerella, Michael D.; Schmalzle, Jesse


    A dipole-magnet system and method for producing high-magnetic-fields, including an open-region located in a radially-central-region to allow particle-beam transport and other uses, low-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of low-temperature-superconducting-wire located in radially-outward-regions to generate high magnetic-fields, high-temperature-superconducting-coils comprised of high-temperature-superconducting-tape located in radially-inward-regions to generate even higher magnetic-fields and to reduce erroneous fields, support-structures to support the coils against large Lorentz-forces, a liquid-helium-system to cool the coils, and electrical-contacts to allow electric-current into and out of the coils. The high-temperature-superconducting-tape may be comprised of bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper-oxide or rare-earth-metal, barium-copper-oxide (ReBCO) where the rare-earth-metal may be yttrium, samarium, neodymium, or gadolinium. Advantageously, alignment of the large-dimension of the rectangular-cross-section or curved-cross-section of the high-temperature-superconducting-tape with the high-magnetic-field minimizes unwanted erroneous magnetic fields. Alignment may be accomplished by proper positioning, tilting the high-temperature-superconducting-coils, forming the high-temperature-superconducting-coils into a curved-cross-section, placing nonconducting wedge-shaped-material between windings, placing nonconducting curved-and-wedge-shaped-material between windings, or by a combination of these techniques.

  18. Probing High Temperature Superconductors with Magnetometry in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lu [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    The objective of this research is to investigate the high-field magnetic properties of high temperature superconductors, materials that conduct electricity without loss. A technique known as high-resolution torque magnetometry that was developed to directly measure the magnetization of high temperature superconductors. This technique was implemented using the 65 Tesla pulsed magnetic field facility that is part of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research addressed unanswered questions about the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity, determine the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors, and shed light on the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity and on potential applications of these materials in areas such as energy generation and power transmission. Further applications of the technology resolve the novel physical phenomena such as correlated topological insulators, and spin liquid state in quantum magnets.

  19. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.


    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  20. High-level expression and purification of soluble recombinant FGF21 protein by SUMO fusion in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yadong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a promising drug candidate to combat metabolic diseases. However, high-level expression and purification of recombinant FGF21 (rFGF21 in Escherichia coli (E. coli is difficult because rFGF21 forms inclusion bodies in the bacteria making it difficult to purify and obtain high concentrations of bioactive rFGF21. To overcome this problem, we fused the FGF21 with SUMO (Small ubiquitin-related modifier by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and expressed the fused gene in E. coli BL21(DE3. Results By inducing with IPTG, SUMO-FGF21 was expressed at a high level. Its concentration reached 30% of total protein, and exceeded 95% of all soluble proteins. The fused protein was purified by DEAE sepharose FF and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Once cleaved by the SUMO protease, the purity of rFGF21 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was shown to be higher than 96% with low endotoxin level (in vivo animal experiments showed that rFGF21 produced by using this method, could decrease the concentration of plasma glucose in diabetic rats by streptozotocin (STZ injection. Conclusions This study demonstrated that SUMO, when fused with FGF21, was able to promote its soluble expression of the latter in E. coli, making it more convenient to purify rFGF21 than previously. This may be a better method to produce rFGF21 for pharmaceutical research and development.

  1. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  2. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef


    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni , Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (TL) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition and the spinel solubility (c0) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of TL as a function of composition are based on TL measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c0 versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates TL as a function of composition based on c0 data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  3. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}d) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition, and the spinel solubility (c{sub o}) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of T{sub L} as a function of composition are based on T{sub L} measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c{sub o} versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates T{sub L} as a function of composition based on c{sub o} data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  4. Analysis of the high-temperature particulate collection problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razgaitis, R.


    Particulate agglomeration and separation at high temperatures and pressures are examined, with particular emphasis on the unique features of the direct-cycle application of fluidized-bed combustion. The basic long-range mechanisms of aerosol separation are examined, and the effects of high temperature and high pressure on usable collection techniques are assessed. Primary emphasis is placed on those avenues that are not currently attracting widespread research. The high-temperature, particulate-collection problem is surveyed, together with the peculiar requirements associated with operation of turbines with particulate-bearing gas streams. 238 references.

  5. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth (United States)


    electrolyzers, solid state fuel cells, gas separation membranes, moisture sensors and high-density energy storage applications, among others (1-5...A.R. de Arellano-López, A. Sayir. “Microestructura y Comportamiento Plástico de Perovsquitas Conductoras Protónicas de Alta Temperatura ”. Bol. Soc...Conductores Protónicos de Alta Temperatura Crecidos por Fusión de Zona Flotante”. VII Reunión Nacional y VI Conferencia Iberoamericana (Electrocerámica

  6. Temperature and Voltage Offsets in High-ZT Thermoelectrics (United States)

    Levy, George S.


    Thermodynamic temperature can take on different meanings. Kinetic temperature is an expectation value and a function of the kinetic energy distribution. Statistical temperature is a parameter of the distribution. Kinetic temperature and statistical temperature, identical in Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, can differ in other statistics such as those of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein when a field is present. Thermal equilibrium corresponds to zero statistical temperature gradient, not zero kinetic temperature gradient. Since heat carriers in thermoelectrics are fermions, the difference between these two temperatures may explain voltage and temperature offsets observed during meticulous Seebeck measurements in which the temperature-voltage curve does not go through the origin. In conventional semiconductors, temperature offsets produced by fermionic electrical carriers are not observable because they are shorted by heat phonons in the lattice. In high-ZT materials, however, these offsets have been detected but attributed to faulty laboratory procedures. Additional supporting evidence for spontaneous voltages and temperature gradients includes data collected in epistatic experiments and in the plasma Q-machine. Device fabrication guidelines for testing the hypothesis are suggested including using unipolar junctions stacked in a superlattice, alternating n/n + and p/p + junctions, selecting appropriate dimensions, doping, and loading.

  7. High Temperature Corrosion on Biodust Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi

    The high content of alkali metals and chlorine in biomass gives rise to fouling/slagging and corrosion of heat exchange components, such as superheaters, in biomass fired power plants. Increasing the lifetime of these components, and in addition, preventing unwarranted plant shutdowns due...... to their failure, requires understanding of the complex corrosion mechanisms, as well as development of materials that are resistant to corrosion under biomass firing conditions, thereby motivating the current work. To understand the mechanisms of corrosion attack, comprehensive analysis of corrosion products...... was necessary. In the present work, two complementary methodologies based on analysis of cross sections and plan views were applied to achieve comprehensive characterization of corrosion products. The suitability of these methods for both laboratory scale and full scale corrosion investigations was demonstrated...

  8. High Temperature Superconductor Josephson Weak Links (United States)

    Hunt, B. D.; Barner, J. B.; Foote, M. C.; Vasquez, R. C.


    High T_c edge-geometry SNS microbridges have been fabricated using ion-damaged YBa_2Cu_3O_(7-x) (YBCO) and a nonsuperconducting phase of YBCO (N-YBCO) as normal metals. Optimization of the ion milling process used for YBCO edge formation and cleaning has resulted in ion-damage barrier devices which exhibit I-V characteristics consistent with the Resistively-Shunted-Junction (RSJ) model, with typical current densities (J_c) of approximately 5 x 10^6 A/cm^2 at 4.2 K. Characterization of N-YBCO films suggests that N-YBCO is the orthorhombic YBCO phase with oxygen disorder suppressing T_c...

  9. High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance. (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W


    This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone (with a modest core temperature elevation) impairs submaximal aerobic performance. Conversely, aerobic performance is sustained with core temperatures >40°C if skin temperatures are cool-warm when euhydrated. No study has demonstrated that high core temperature (∼40°C) alone, without coexisting hot skin, will impair aerobic performance. In hypohydrated subjects, aerobic performance begins to be impaired when skin temperatures exceed 27°C, and even warmer skin exacerbates the aerobic performance impairment (-1.5% for each 1°C skin temperature). We conclude that hot skin (high skin blood flow requirements from narrow skin temperature to core temperature gradients), not high core temperature, is the 'primary' factor impairing aerobic exercise performance when euhydrated and that hypohydration exacerbates this effect.

  10. Airlift-reactor design and test for aerobic environmental bioprocesses with extremely high solid contents at high temperatures. (United States)

    Feitkenhauer, H; Maleski, R; Märkl, H


    Bioprocesses at high temperatures gained considerably in importance within the last years and several new applications for aerobic, extreme thermophilic environmental bioprocesses are emerging. However, this development is not yet matched by adequate bioreactor designs, especially if it comes to the treatment of solids. In this communication we propose the use of airlift reactors to bridge this gap. The design of an internal draught tube bioreactor (Area(Riser)/Area(Downcomer) . 1; Height/Diameter . 8) is described in detail. The influence of the temperature on gas hold-up, liquid velocity and mixing characteristics was investigated. It was shown that this reactor could hold up to 1 t quartz sand per m3 in suspension at moderate aeration rates. Despite the decreasing oxygen solubility, the oxygen transfer rate increased with rising temperature due to the improved mass transfer parameters. With rising solid content, the oxygen transfer rate increased and reached a maximum at a solid content of about 140 kg m(-3) before it decreased again. However, it is only slightly reduced at the highest solid contents. The results demonstrate that aerobic bioprocesses at high temperatures are not only feasible, but can be very efficient if carried out in proper bioreactors.

  11. Quantitative Temperature Dependence of Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichi Uchida


    Full Text Available We report temperature-dependent measurements of longitudinal spin Seebeck effects (LSSEs in Pt/Y_{3}Fe_{5}O_{12} (YIG/Pt systems in a high temperature range from room temperature to above the Curie temperature of YIG. The experimental results show that the magnitude of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/YIG/Pt systems rapidly decreases with increasing the temperature and disappears above the Curie temperature. The critical exponent of the LSSE voltage in the Pt/YIG/Pt systems at the Curie temperature is estimated to be 3, which is much greater than that for the magnetization curve of YIG. This difference highlights the fact that the mechanism of the LSSE cannot be explained in terms of simple static magnetic properties in YIG.

  12. High Precision Infrared Temperature Measurement System Based on Distance Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing


    Full Text Available To meet the need of real-time remote monitoring of human body surface temperature for optical rehabilitation therapy, a non-contact high-precision real-time temperature measurement method based on distance compensation was proposed, and the system design was carried out. The microcontroller controls the infrared temperature measurement module and the laser range module to collect temperature and distance data. The compensation formula of temperature with distance wass fitted according to the least square method. Testing had been performed on different individuals to verify the accuracy of the system. The results indicate that the designed non-contact infrared temperature measurement system has a residual error of less than 0.2°C and the response time isless than 0.1s in the range of 0 to 60cm. This provides a reference for developing long-distance temperature measurement equipment in optical rehabilitation therapy.

  13. Synthesis of Soluble Fluorene-polyimino Ketone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO,Xuan; CHANG,Guanjun; WANG,Qingfu; JIAO,Wenxiu; ZHANG,Lin; LIN,Runxiong


    Based on the 9,9-di(4-anilinyl)fluorene,structurally different fluorene-polyimino ketones have been obtained by the Buchwald-Hartwig cross coupling reaction.Their structure and performance have been characterized by FT-IR,1 H NMR,UV-vis and thermal analysis.The results show an agreement with the proposed structure,which possesses high glass transition temperature (Tg>250 ℃) and good thermal stability with high decomposition temperatures in nitrogen atmosphere (TD>520 ℃).Additionally,the polymers synthesized showed good solubility,which can be dissolved in common organic solvent CHCl3 at room temperature.

  14. Experimental Research on High Temperature Resistance of Modified Lightweight Concrete after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures


    Ke-cheng He; Rong-xin Guo; Qian-min Ma; Feng Yan; Zhi-wei Lin; Yan-Lin Sun


    In order to improve the spalling resistance of lightweight aggregate concrete at high temperature, two types of modified materials were used to modify clay ceramsite lightweight aggregates by adopting the surface coating modification method. Spalling of the concrete specimens manufactured by using the modified aggregates was observed during a temperature elevation. Mass loss and residual axial compressive strength of the modified concrete specimens after exposure to elevated temperatures were...

  15. Test plans of the high temperature test operation at HTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Takada, Eiji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others


    HTTR plans a high temperature test operation as the fifth step of the rise-to-power tests to achieve a reactor outlet coolant temperature of 950 degrees centigrade in the 2003 fiscal year. Since HTTR is the first HTGR in Japan which uses coated particle fuel as its fuel and helium gas as its coolant, it is necessary that the plan of the high temperature test operation is based on the previous rise-to-power tests with a thermal power of 30 MW and a reactor outlet coolant temperature at 850 degrees centigrade. During the high temperature test operation, reactor characteristics, reactor performances and reactor operations are confirmed for the safety and stability of operations. This report describes the evaluation result of the safety confirmations of the fuel, the control rods and the intermediate heat exchanger for the high temperature test operation. Also, problems which were identified during the previous operations are shown with their solution methods. Additionally, there is a discussion on the contents of the high temperature test operation. As a result of this study, it is shown that the HTTR can safely achieve a thermal power of 30 MW with the reactor outlet coolant temperature at 950 degrees centigrade. (author)

  16. Effects of long-term soluble vs. insoluble dietary fiber intake on high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice. (United States)

    Isken, Frank; Klaus, Susanne; Osterhoff, Martin; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Weickert, Martin O


    Although most of the proposed beneficial effects of fiber consumption have been attributed to viscous and gel-forming properties of soluble fiber, it is mainly insoluble cereal fiber and whole grains that are strongly associated with reduced diabetes risk in prospective cohort studies, indicating that other unknown mechanisms are likely to be involved. We performed a long-term study investigating potential protective effects of adding soluble guar fiber (10% w/w) vs. insoluble cereal fiber (10% w/w) to an isoenergetic and macronutrient matched high-fat diet in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. After 45 weeks, mice fed soluble vs. insoluble fiber showed both significantly increased body weight (41.8+/-3.0 vs. 33.6+/-1.5 g, P=.03) and elevated markers of insulin resistance. In mice fed soluble fiber, energy loss via the feces was significantly lower and colonic fermentation with production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) was markedly increased. Gene expression analysis in white adipose tissue showed significantly increased levels of the fatty acid target G-protein coupled receptor-40 in soluble fiber-fed mice. Liver gene expression in the insoluble fiber group showed a pattern consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation. The present results show that soluble vs insoluble dietary fiber added to a high-fat, Western-style diet differently affected body weight and estimates of insulin sensitivity in obesity-prone mice. Soluble fiber intake with increased SCFA production significantly contributed to digested energy, thereby potentially outweighing the well known short-term beneficial effects of soluble fiber consumption. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heat conductivity of high-temperature thermal insulators (United States)

    Kharlamov, A. G.

    The book deals essentially with the mechanisms of heat transfer by conduction, convection, and thermal radiation in absorbing and transmitting media. Particular attention is given to materials for gas-cooled reactor systems, the temperature dependent conductivities of high-temperature insulations in vacuum, and the thermal conductivities of MgO, Al2O3, ZrO2, and other powders at temperatures up to 2000 C. The thermal conductivity of pyrolitic graphite and graphite foam are studied.

  18. Aqueous Geochemistry at High Pressures and High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Jay D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)


    This project is aimed at experimental characterization of the sound velocities, equations of state (EOS), and derived physical and chemical properties of aqueous solutions and carbon dioxide at extreme pressure and temperature conditions relevant to processes occurring in the interior of the Earth. Chemical transport, phase changes (including melting), fluid-solid reactions, and formation of magmatic liquids at convergent plat boundaries are a key motivation for this project. Research in this area has long been limited by the extreme experimental challenges and lack of data under the appropriate pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions. The vast majority of studies of aqueous geochemistry relevant to terrestrial problems of fluid-rock interactions have been conducted at 0.3 GPa or less, and the widely used Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state for aqueous species is applicable only at ~ < 0.5 GPa. These limits are unfortunate because fluid flow and reactions plays a central role in many deeper environments. Recent efforts including our own, have resulted in new experimental techniques that now make it possible to investigate properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria involving aqueous species and minerals over a much broader range of pressure and temperature appropriate for deep crustal and upper mantle processes involving water-rich fluids. We carried out 1) Brillouin scattering measurements of the equations of state and molar volume of water and carbon dioxide to over 10 GPa and 870K using precise resistance heating of samples under pressure in the diamond anvil cell, and 2) the phase diagrams of the water and CO2, and 3) Exploring new experimental approaches, including CO2 laser heating of samples in a diamond cell, to measurements of sound velocities, EOS, and phase relations by Brillouin scattering to far greater pressures and temperatures.

  19. Pulse Radiolysis at High Temperatures and High Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Sehested, Knud


    A cell for pulse radiolytic measurements up to temperatures of 320°C and pressures of 14 MPa is constructed. The activation energy of the reaction OH + Cu2+ is determined to 13.3 kJ × mol−1 (3.2 kcal × mol−1). A preliminary study of the reaction e−aq + e−aq yields an activation energy of 22 k...

  20. Preparation of pellets containing highly soluble drug by extrusion/spheronisation and coating with Kollicoat® SR 30D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Francisco Andreazza


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the pellets, containing a highly soluble drug (ascorbic acid, by the extrusion-spheronization process and coated with a release controlling polymer. The coating (undertaken in a fluid bed was applied to three batches of the pellets with a dispersion of Kollicoat® SR 30 D, with each batch of pellets receiving a different level of polymer (5.07; 8.26 and 10.35%. The coated pellets were evaluated for sphericity by imaging analysis and comparative dissolution profile with a product commercially available in Brazil. All of the evaluated samples presented adequate physical properties and the dissolution profile of those coated with 5.07% of polymer proved to be similar to that of the commercially available brand name.

  1. Bright, highly water-soluble triazacyclononane europium complexes to detect ligand binding with time-resolved FRET microscopy. (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Sadovnikova, Victoria; Bourrier, Emmanuel; Mathis, Gérard; Lamarque, Laurent; Zwier, Jurriaan M; Parker, David


    Luminescent europium complexes are used in a broad range of applications as a result of their particular emissive properties. The synthesis and application of bright, highly water-soluble, and negatively charged sulfonic- or carboxylic acid derivatives of para-substituted aryl-alkynyl triazacyclononane complexes are described. Introduction of the charged solubilizing moieties suppresses cellular uptake or adsorption to living cells making them applicable for labeling and performing assays on membrane receptors. These europium complexes are applied to monitor fluorescent ligand binding on cell-surface proteins with time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assays in plate-based format and using TR-FRET microscopy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Proteomics of Rice Grain under High Temperature Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki eMitsui


    Full Text Available Recent proteomic analyses revealed dynamic changes of metabolisms during rice grain development. Interestingly, proteins involved in glycolysis, citric acid cycle, lipid metabolism, and proteolysis were accumulated at higher levels in mature grain than those of developing stages. High temperature stress in rice ripening period causes damaged (chalky grains which have loosely packed round shape starch granules. The high temperature stress response on protein expression is complicated, and the molecular mechanism of the chalking of grain is obscure yet. Here, the current state on the proteomics research of rice grain grown under high temperature stress is briefly overviewed.

  3. Production of a highly active, soluble form of the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR A) from Candida tropicalis (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark


    The present invention provides soluble cytochrome p450 reductase (CPR) proteins from Candida sp. having an altered N-terminal region which results in reduced hydrophobicity of the N-terminal region. Also provided are host cells comprising the subject soluble CPR proteins. In addition, the present invention provides nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences for soluble CPR proteins and vectors comprising the nucleotide sequences. Methods for producing a soluble CPR, for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid, and for detecting a cytochrome P450 are also provided.

  4. Processing of extraterrestrial materials by high temperature vacuum vaporization (United States)

    Grimley, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.


    It is noted that problems associated with the extraction and concentration of elements and commpounds important for the construction and operation of space habitats have received little attention. High temperature vacuum vaporization is considered a promising approach; this is a technique for which the space environment offers advantages in the form of low ambient pressures and temperatures and the possibility of sustained high temperatures via solar thermal energy. To establish and refine this new technology, experimental determinations must be made of the material release profiles as a function of temperature, of the release kinetics and chemical forms of material being transported, and of the various means of altering release kinetics. Trace element data determined by neutron activation analysis of meteorites heated to 1400 C in vacuum is summarized. The principal tool, high temperature spectrometry, is used to examine the vaporization thermodynamics and kinetics of major and minor elements from complex multicomponent extraterrestrial materials.

  5. Solar Power for Near Sun, High-Temperature Missions (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    Existing solar cells lose performance at the high temperatures encountered in Mercury orbit and inward toward the sun. For future missions designed to probe environments close to the sun, it is desirable to develop array technologies for high temperature and high light intensity. Approaches to solar array design for near-sun missions include modifying the terms governing temperature of the cell and the efficiency at elevated temperature, or use of techniques to reduce the incident solar energy to limit operating temperature. An additional problem is found in missions that involve a range of intensities, such as the Solar Probe + mission, which ranges from a starting distance of 1 AU from the sun to a minimum distance of 9.5 solar radii, or 0.044 AU. During the mission, the solar intensity ranges from one to about 500 times AM0. This requires a power system to operate over nearly three orders of magnitude of incident intensity.

  6. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar


    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  7. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan


    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  8. genetic analysis for high temperature tolerance in bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    selection (Reynolds et al., 1994). A number of high temperature stress-related traits have received considerable attention, in particular membrane thermostability (Saadalla et al., 1990), canopy temperature depression (Blum et al., 1982), proline content and chlorophyll content. Information on the genetic control of ...

  9. High-temperature thermoelectric behavior of lead telluride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usefulness of a material in thermoelectric devices is temperature specific. The central problem in thermoelectric material research is the selection of materials with high figure-of-merit in the given temperature range of operation. It is of considerable interest to know the utility range of the material, which is decided by the ...

  10. A model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI: 10.1007/s12043-015-1088-3; ePublication: 30 September 2015. Abstract. We have presented a model of evaluating the pseudogap temperature for high- temperature superconductors using paraconductivity approach. The theoretical analysis is based on the crossing point technique of the conductivity expressions.

  11. Core Physics of Pebble Bed High Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auwerda, G.J.


    To more accurately predict the temperature distribution inside the reactor core of pebble bed type high temperature reactors, in this thesis we investigated the stochastic properties of randomly stacked beds and the effects of the non-homogeneity of these beds on the neutronics and

  12. Influence of temperature on denitrification of an industrial high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperature effect on denitrification rate of a two-sludge system has been studied. An industrial high-strength wastewater and an industrial by-product containing mainly methanol, as external carbon source, were used in this study. The maximum denitrification rate (MDR) was determined at six different temperatures: 6, ...

  13. Tetrazole substituted polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkensmeier, Dirk; My Hanh Duong, Ngoc; Brela, Mateusz


    interesting for use in a high temperature fuel cell (HT PEMFC). Based on these findings, two polymers incorporating the proposed TZ groups were synthesised, formed into membranes, doped with PA and tested for fuel cell relevant properties. At room temperature, TZ-PEEN and commercial meta-PBI showed...

  14. Adaptation of microorganisms and their transport systems to high temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolner, B; Poolman, B.; Konings, W.N


    Growth of Bacteria and Archaea has been observed at temperatures up to 95 and 110 degrees C, respectively. These thermophiles are adapted to environments of high temperature by changes in the membrane lipid composition, higher thermostabilities of the (membrane) proteins, higher turnover rates of

  15. Application of multi-pass high pressure homogenization under variable temperature regimes to induce autolysis of wine yeasts. (United States)

    Comuzzo, Piergiorgio; Calligaris, Sonia; Iacumin, Lucilla; Ginaldi, Federica; Voce, Sabrina; Zironi, Roberto


    The effects of the number of passes and processing temperature management (controlled vs. uncontrolled) were investigated during high pressure homogenization-induced autolysis of Saccharomyces bayanus wine yeasts, treated at 150MPa. Both variables were able to affect cell viability, and the release of soluble molecules (free amino acids, proteins and glucidic colloids), but the effect of temperature was more important. S. bayanus cells were completely inactivated in 10 passes without temperature control (corresponding to a processing temperature of 75°C). The two processing variables also affected the volatile composition of the autolysates produced: higher temperatures led to a lower concentration of volatile compounds. The management of the operating conditions may allow the compositional characteristics of the products to be modulated, making them suitable for different winemaking applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Miniature High Stability High Temperature Space Rated Blackbody Radiance Source (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Beswick, A. G.


    This paper presents the design and test performance of a conical cavity type blackbody radiance source that will meet the requirements of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the NASA Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite program (UARS). Since a radiance source meeting the requirements of this experiment was unavailable in the commercial market, a development effort was undertaken by the HALOE Project. The blackbody radiance source operates in vacuum at 1300 K + 0.5 K over any 15-minute interval, uses less than 7.5 watts of power, maintains a 49°C outer case temperature, and fits within the 2.5 x 2.5 x 3.0 inch envelope allocated inside the HALOE instrument. Also, the unit operates in air, during ground testing of the HALOE instrument, where it uses 17 watts of power with an outer case temperature of 66°C. The thrust of this design effort was to minimize the heat losses, in order to keep the power usage under 7.5 watts, and to minimize the amount of silica in the materials. Silica in the presence of the platinum heater winding used in this design would cause the platinum to erode, changing the operating temperature set-point. The design required the development of fabrication techniques which would provide very small, close tolerance parts from extremely difficult-to-machine materials. Also, a space rated ceramic core and unique, low thermal conductance, ceramic-to-metal joint was developed, tested and incorporated in this design. The completed flight qualification hardware has undergone performance, environmental and life testing. The design configuration and test results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  17. Soluble I/sup 131/ fibrin form high molecular weight complexes in prothrombin-depleted, recalcified plasma at +37degC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosstad, F. (Research Institute for Internal Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway); Kierulf, P. (Haematological Research Laboratory and Central Laboratory, Ullevaal University Hospital, Norway)


    Gel filtation of plasma samples containing I/sup 125/fibrinogen and either I/sup 131/des-AA soluble fibrin or I/sup 131/des-AABB soluble fibrin, were performed on Sepharose 6B C1 columns at +37degC, equilibrated and developed with prothrombin-depleted plasma, either recalcified or containing EDTA. With EDTA, des-AA fibrin eluted in a homogenous, monometric form, while des-AABB fibrin had an elution profile indicating high molecular weight derivatives. In the presence of calcium ions, both des-AA and des-AABB soluble fibrin eluted mainly as high molecular weight derivatives. It could not, however, be decided whether the high molecular weight derivatives consisted of fibrin molecules alone, or of co-polymers of fibrin-fibrinogen. It is concluded that soluble des-AA fibrin and soluble des-AABB fibrin in plasma at +37degC and in the presence of calcium ions, participate in the formation of high molecular weight derivatives of fibrin.

  18. High-temperature transport in the Hubbard Model (United States)

    Shastry, B. Sriram; Perepelitsky, Edward; Galatas, Andrew; Khatami, Ehsan; Mravlje, Jernej; Georges, Antoine

    We examine the general behavior of the frequency and momentum dependent single-particle scattering rate and the transport coefficients, of many-body systems in the high-temperature limit. We find that the single-particle scattering rate always saturates in temperature, while the transport coefficients always decay like 1/T, where T is the temperature. A consequence of this is a resistivity which is ubiquitously linear in T at high temperatures. For the Hubbard model, by using the high-temperature series, we are able to calculate the first few moments of the single particle scattering rate Σ (k --> , ω) and the conductivity σ (k --> , ω) in the high-temperature regime in d spatial dimensions. Further in the case of d --> ∞ , we are able to calculate a large number of moments using symbolic computation. We make a direct comparison between these moments and those obtained through Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT). Finally, we use the moments to reconstruct the ω-dependent optical conductivity σ (ω) =limk-->0 σ (k --> , ω) in the high-temperature regime. The work at UCSC was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES) under Award # FG02-06ER46319.

  19. Decomposition of silicon carbide at high pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daviau, Kierstin; Lee, Kanani K. M.


    We measure the onset of decomposition of silicon carbide, SiC, to silicon and carbon (e.g., diamond) at high pressures and high temperatures in a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. We identify decomposition through x-ray diffraction and multiwavelength imaging radiometry coupled with electron microscopy analyses on quenched samples. We find that B3 SiC (also known as 3C or zinc blende SiC) decomposes at high pressures and high temperatures, following a phase boundary with a negative slope. The high-pressure decomposition temperatures measured are considerably lower than those at ambient, with our measurements indicating that SiC begins to decompose at ~ 2000 K at 60 GPa as compared to ~ 2800 K at ambient pressure. Once B3 SiC transitions to the high-pressure B1 (rocksalt) structure, we no longer observe decomposition, despite heating to temperatures in excess of ~ 3200 K. The temperature of decomposition and the nature of the decomposition phase boundary appear to be strongly influenced by the pressure-induced phase transitions to higher-density structures in SiC, silicon, and carbon. The decomposition of SiC at high pressure and temperature has implications for the stability of naturally forming moissanite on Earth and in carbon-rich exoplanets.

  20. Properties of thin films for high temperature flow sensors (United States)

    Albin, Sacharia


    Requirements of material parameters of high temperature flow sensors are identified. Refractory metal silicides offer high temperature sensitivity and high frequency response and are stable up to 1000 C. Intrinsic semiconductors of high band gap are also considered as sensor elements. SiC and diamond are identified. Combined with substrates of low thermal and electrical conductivity, such as quartz or Al2O3, these materials meet several requirements of high sensitivity and frequency response. Film deposition and patterning techniques suitable for these materials are identified.