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Sample records for high temperature eclogites

  1. Multi-isotopic system geochronology of low temperature eclogite from Huangzhen, Southern Dabie Terrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Daogong; E. Deloule; CHENG Hao; XIA Qunke; WU Yuanbao

    2004-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb thermal ionization mass-spectrometer (TIMS) and secondary ion mass-spectrometer (SIMS) dating, mica and amphibole 40Ar-39Ar dating and mineral Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of Huangzhen Iow temperature eclogite and country granitic gneiss are carried out. The zircon U-Pb weighted average SIMS age is (231.6±9.7) Ma for one eclogite.The mica 40Ar-39Ar isochron age is (232.6±2.1) Ma and the lowest plateau age is (221.7±2.4)Ma from same sample. U-Pb TIMS concordant ages from other eclogite zircons are from (221.3± 1.4) Ma to (222.5±2.3) Ma. U-Pb SIMS low intercept age from country granitic gneiss is (221±35) Ma. The retrograde amphibole 40Ar-39Ar isochron age is (205.9± 1.0) Ma. Except for mica,which may contain excess 40Ar, all the ages represent peak and retrograde metamorphism of low temperature eclogites. It is indicated that the Huangzhen low temperature eclogites differ from Xiongdian low temperature eclogites of north of the Northern Dabie Terrain in metamorphic ages.Huangzhen low temperature eclogites share one coherent HP-UHP terrain with high temperature eclogites from Southern Dabie Terrain and they may have differences in subduction depth and cooling rates during exhumation.

  2. Deciphering Pressure-Temperature path of the Stak eclogites (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre; Vidal, Olivier; Engi, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The Stak massif is located in the NW Himalaya syntaxis (northern Pakistan) and corresponds to a newly recognized occurrence of continental eclogite formed during the subduction of the northern margin of the Indian continent. This high pressure (HP) to ultra-high pressure (UHP) unit was extensively retrogressed during the Himalayan collision. This retrogressed metamorphic event occurs under lower pressure and is associated with the replacement of eclogite-facies minerals by amphibolite-facies minerals. We propose a continuous pressure-temperature (P-T) path assessed from a single thin-section, using a micro-cartographic approach with the program XMapTools (more details at http://www.xmaptools.com). This method uses electron microprobe X-ray compositional maps of a small thin-section area of 520 μm × 670 μm showing three assemblages. The HP assemblage (1) made of garnet + omphacite + phengite. This first assemblage is destabilized into (2) symplectites of clinopyroxene + amphibole + plagioclase. The low-pressure assemblage (3) is made of amphibole + plagioclase +/- biotite and is associated to the late collisional event. The study of the chemical images is followed by the calculations of ~200.000 P-T estimates using for each assemblage appropriate thermometers and barometers from the literature. This study shows that the Stak eclogite underwent prograde metamorphism, increasing from 650°C and 2.4 GPa to the pressure peak conditions of 750°C and 2.5 GPa. Then this unit is retrogressed to 700-650°C and 1.6-0.9 GPa under amphibolite-facies conditions. The estimated peak metamorphic P-T conditions and P-T path are similar to those of the Kaghan and Tso Morari HP/UHP massifs in NW Himalaya. We propose that these two HP/UHP massifs and the Stak massif define a large HP to UHP province covering more than 500 km × 150 km partly covered by the Kohistan-Ladakh arc and metamorphic Tethyan series. This NW Himalayan province is comparable in size to the Dabie-Sulu province

  3. Fluid-rock interaction and evolution of a high-pressure/low-temperature vein system in eclogite from New Caledonia: insights into intraslab fluid flow processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taetz, Stephan; John, Timm; Bröcker, Michael; Spandler, Carl

    2016-11-01

    A complex high-pressure/low-temperature vein system that cross-cuts eclogitic host rocks of the Pouébo Eclogite Melange (northern New Caledonia) records the prograde blueschist-to-eclogite transition and associated formation of garnet-quartz-phengite veins. Geothermobarometry (Grt-Cpx-Ph, Zr-in-rutile) and pseudosection calculations indicate peak metamorphic conditions of ca. 540 °C and 1.9-2.2 GPa. Petrological and geochemical observations as well as pseudosection modelling suggest that the main vein network is formed by dehydration processes that collected internally derived fluids related to the breakdown of hydrous phases (amphibole, chlorite, epidote) during prograde metamorphism. The lower solid volume of the newly formed phases and the associated increase in pore fluid pressure lead to the formation of veins that allowed for accumulation and channelized evacuation of these fluids. Such veins do not show metasomatic alteration selvages because the fluid-rock system had been in chemical equilibrium. A second vein type (transport veins) records the superimposed influx of external fluids with slightly different composition that most likely are related to similar dehydration reactions in other parts of the subducting slab. Due to the source-rock-imposed compositional differences, these fluids are not in equilibrium with the infiltrated rock volume and induce the formation of distinct metasomatic selvages by dissolution-precipitation processes. Mass-balance calculations show that Ca, Na and Li are added to the selvage by the external fluid. LILE and to a lesser extend also HREE are mobilized and removed from the selvage. The LREE are predominantly buffered by newly formed minerals (e.g. epidote). Petrological evidence implies that the studied vein system formed while the sample was still part of a coherent subducting slab. Rb-Sr geochronology indicates that this occurred at 38.2 ± 0.3 Ma. This age is ca. 6 myr younger than the hitherto presumed peak metamorphic

  4. Eclogite-High-Pressure Granulite Belt in Northern Edge of the Archean North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    metamorphic temperature and pressure of symplectitic minerals are 850-900 ℃ and 1.1-1.2 Gpa, and those of the third stage are 600-700 ℃ and 0.6-0.7 Gpa. They indicate a decompressional pTt path. (3) Geochemically, the compositions of the retrograded eclogites and high-pressure basic granulites are the same as those of tholeiite and olivine tholeiite, which are Fe-rich and show the differentiation tendency of tholeiitic cumulate rocks. Connecting with isotopic data, we can prove that the original rocks of retrograded eclogites and high-pressure basic granulites were formed by partial melting of depleted mantle (ε(Nd) =1.2-3.6) in the age of about 2 650-2 510 Ma. It might be formed in the lowermost crust by underplating and underwent high-pressure metamorphism afterwards.

  5. Influence of temperature, pressure, and oxygen fugacity on the electrical conductivity of dry eclogite, and geophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lidong; Hu, Haiying; Li, Heping; Wu, Lei; Hui, Keshi; Jiang, Jianjun; Sun, Wenqing

    2016-06-01

    The electrical conductivity of eclogite was measured at temperatures of 873-1173 K and pressures of 1.0-3.0 GPa within a frequency range of 0.1-106 Hz using a YJ-3000t multianvil press and Solartron-1260 impedance/gain-phase analyzer. Three solid-state oxygen buffers (Cu + CuO, Ni + NiO, and Mo + MoO2) were employed to control the oxygen fugacity. Experimental results indicate that the electrical conductivity of the samples tended to increase with increasing temperature, conforming to an Arrhenius relation. Under the control of a Cu + CuO oxygen buffer, the electrical conductivity of the eclogite decreased with a rise in pressure, and its corresponding activation volume and activation energy at atmospheric pressure were calculated as -2.51 ± 0.29 cm3/mole and 0.86 ± 0.12 eV, respectively. At 2.0 GPa, the electrical conductivity of the eclogite increased with increasing oxygen fugacity, and the preexponential factor increased while the activation enthalpy decreased. The observed positive exponential factor for the dependence of electrical conductivity on oxygen fugacity, as well as the negative activation volume, confirm that the hopping of small polarons is the dominant conduction mechanism in eclogite at high temperatures and pressures. Our results suggest that the electrical conductivity of dry eclogite under various redox conditions cannot explain the high anomalies in conductivity under stable midlower continental crust and under the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt of eastern China.

  6. Omphacite microstructures as time-temperature indicators of blueschist- and eclogite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Michael A.

    1982-03-01

    Omphacites from a wide range of geological environments have been examined by transmission electron-microscopy. Their microstructures are sufficiently variable as to be potential indicators of thermal history for blueschist and eclogite metamorphism. In particular, the average size of equiaxed antiphase domains (APD's) arising from cation ordering appears to be a characteristic feature of each environment and increases in the sequence: Franciscan, blueschist (1) ≈ Turkey, blueschist (2) Wine Complex, Canada, amphibolite (1) behaviour in other systems where: (APD size)n 410_2004_Article_BF00375206_TeX2GIFE1.gif ({text{APD size)}}^{text{n}} ∝ {text{e}}^{{text{(}} - {text{Q/RT)}}} \\cdot {text{ }}time{text{.}} . Most omphacites fit into a self-consistent scheme with n=8±2 if the activation energy ( Q) is assumed to be that of cation disordering (75 kcal mole-1), available estimates of peak metamorphic temperature ( T) are used, and a reasonable geological time-scale is taken as 104 108 years. According to this model, APD sizes are set in a relatively short interval of the total history of a rock when its temperature is close to its peak value. APD sizes are much more sensitive to temperature than to time and may be used as a geothermometer which has the advantage of not being reset by re-equilibration at low temperatures. Petrological implications arising from the model are that Allalin metagabbros were metamorphosed at a similar peak temperature to Zermatt-Saas blueschists, Franciscan eclogites reached higher temperatures than has been previously supposed and that the microstructures in some Sesia-Lanzo omphacites are consistent with a high temperature, pre-blueschist origin. Deviation from an ideal coarsening law with n=2 implies that the APD's are not simply stacking mistakes but have some associated structural or compositional modification locally. Excess titanium concentrated at APD's in Red Wine Complex omphacites may account for their anomalously low

  7. Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphism and low pressure overprint in the Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran: Additional temperature estimates for eclogites, geological significance of U-Pb zircon ages and Rb-Sr constraints on the timing of exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawa, Timon; Bröcker, Michael; Fotoohi Rad, Gholamreza; Berndt, Jasper; Lisker, Frank

    2017-10-01

    The Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran, includes blocks and lenses of eclogite-, blueschist- and/or epidote amphibolite-facies rocks that provide an excellent opportunity to examine the exhumation history of oceanic HP/LT rocks and their retrograde derivatives. Zr-in-rutile thermometry of eclogites corroborates previous interpretations suggesting metamorphic temperatures of ca. 550-600 °C during the HP stage in the Sistan area. Flat HREE distribution patterns and Ti-in-zircon temperatures of ca. 500-600 °C document that zircon in eclogite is of metamorphic origin. REE patterns of zircon from felsic meta-igneous rocks do not allow to distinguish between a magmatic or metamorphic origin, but relatively low temperatures indicated by Ti-in-zircon thermometry (ca. 500-600 °C) and the close similarity of zircon (U-Pb) and white mica (Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar) ages favor a metamorphic zircon origin. Previously published isotopic ages of the felsic rocks cannot unambiguously be linked to the eclogite- and/or blueschist-facies P-T conditions due to the absence of unequivocal mineralogical and petrological evidence. Instead, these rocks may record contemporaneous metamorphic processes that took place at a different depth within the subduction complex, or may indicate active ridge subduction and/or melt formation in the subduction zone at relatively low pressures. Biotite-based internal Rb-Sr isochrons of newly dated epidote amphibolite and biotite-albite gneisses indicate ages of ca. 74-80 Ma, either dating fluid-infiltration-induced formation of biotite during relatively fast uplift, or the time of final passage through the effective biotite closure temperature. Rb-Sr ages of phengite from both an epidote amphibolite and a biotite-albite gneiss yield ages that correspond to the HP/LT stage. This outcome, combined with textural evidence for derivation from eclogitic precursors documents that white mica ages of some strongly overprinted Sistan rocks are compromised by inheritance and do

  8. Preliminary Statistics of Temperatures and Pressures for Formation of Eclogites,Granulites and Peridotites in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Baoqun; Wang Fangzheng; Sun Zhanxue; Liu Chengdong; Bai Lihong

    2004-01-01

    The rock-forming temperatures and pressures represent the p-T points of the local regions in the lithosphere at a certain age, providing some important information on rock formation. Based on the preliminary statistics on the temperatures and pressures for the formation of eclogites, granulites and peridotites in China, the variant ranges are given, in this paper, of temperatures, pressures and linear geothermal gradients of eclogites, granulites and peridotites. In addition, since the eclogite is different from granulite and peridotite in the p-T diagram, these three rocks can be classified into two groups: the first group includes eclogites and the second group granulites and peridotites. Then, the p-T correlation functions of these two groups of rocks are provided. Finally, the two groups of rocks have different geothermal gradients at the same pressure gradient or have different pressure gradients at the same geothermal gradient. The temperatures and pressures for the formation of the rocks can be calculated from the mineral chemical compositions, but the depths (H) for the rock formation can be calculated only under the hypotheses of given p-H (or T-H) correlation functions. The explanations for the ultrahigh pressure metamorphism vary obviously with different hypotheses.

  9. Kyanite Formation and Element Fractionation in the High-Al Eclogites from the Sulu UHP Metamorphic Terrane

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    Yung-Hsin Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eclogite compositions are critical parameters for under standing chemical evolution in the Earth, particularly in subduction zones. A group of eclogites from the Sulu ultra-high pres sure (UHP metamorphic terrane in eastern China shows uncommon petrographic and compositional features. They are characterized by (1 zoisite porphyroblasts coexisting with inclusion-free, inclusion-containing, and net work kyanite, (2 high Al2O3 of 18.4 - 29.2% with high MgO of 8.59 - 11.3%, and (3 intensive HFSE-REE fractionations represented by [Zr/Sm]ch and [Ti/Gd]ch ratios of 0.1 - 3.9 and 1.1 - 9.0, respectively. High-pressure fluids played a major role on developing these features. Kyanite shows two textural varieties. KyI is inclusion-free and in apparent textural equilibrium with gar net and omphacite, implying formation from plagioclase break down. KyII includes kyanite networks and porphyroblasts; the former occurs mostly in gar net, whereas the latter encloses gar net and omphacite grains. KyII were crystallized at the expense of gar net and omphacite during eclogite-fluid interaction. The low [HREE]ch ratios of 1 - 2 indicate that the protoliths were arc cumulates. The well-de fined in verse Al2O3-SiO2 and Al2O3-CaO correlations are not the characteristics of igneous precursors; there fore, must reflect metamorphic modifications. The comparison to mafic cumulates shows that the low-Al samples are compositionally better representatives of protoliths. Mass balance calculations point to anolivine gabbronoritic protolith. The intensive HFSE-REE fractionations reflect compositional differences between two sample groups. Group I samples have superchondritic HFSE-REE ratios [(Nb/La, Zr/Sm, Ti/Gdch = 2 - 7] with depletions in LREE. In contrast, group II samples show HFSE depletions and LREE enrichments. These compositional differences were explained as reflecting element mobility during eclogite-fluid inter action. Released at temperatures > _ the high-pres sure

  10. Eclogite-high-pressure granulite metamorphism records early collision in West Gondwana: new data from the Southern Brasilia Belt, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reno II, Barry Len; Brown, Michael; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2009-01-01

    constrain the age of. (1) retrograded eclogite from a block along the tectonic contact beneath the uppermost nappe in a stack of passive margin-derived nappes; (2) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the uppermost passive margin-derived nappe; (3) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism...... in the overlying arc-derived nappe. Rare zircons from a retrograded eclogite yield a Pb-206/U-238 age of 678 +/- 29 Ma. which we interpret as most likely to (late close-to-peak-P metamorphism and to provide a minimum age for detachment of the overlying passive margin-derived nappe from the subducting plate. Zircon...

  11. Chromium-rich lawsonite in high-Cr eclogites from the Făgăras Massif (South Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negulescu, E.; Săbău, G.

    2012-12-01

    Lawsonite is a relatively rare phase in natural rocks, because of its thermal decomposition during exhumation, and Cr-bearing lawsonite being restricted to only a few occurrences worldwide. Here we report Cr-lawsonite in eclogites hosted in a medium-grade metamorphic complex. Several high-Cr eclogite lenses occur in the Topolog Complex (Făgăras Massif) of dominantly gneissic-amphibolitic composition. High Cr contents are the result of emerald-green mm-sized nodules containing Cr-rich minerals, embedded in a gray-green matrix of kyanite, clinopyroxene, garnet, amphibole, zoisite, and rutile. Garnets occur as porphyroblasts or in coronas around clinopyroxene aggregates probably replacing former magmatic pyroxene. Relict gabbroic textures (sometimes pegmatoid) and whole rock geochemistry indicate a gabbroic cumulate origin. The REE pattern, displaying a slight positive Eu anomaly and a tea spoon-shaped LREE depletion is also indicative of a cumulate origin, as also noted by Pe Piper & Piper (2002) for the Othrys gabbro (as well as others in the Vourinos and Pindos ophiolitic suites) with the same unusual REE-pattern. The emerald-green Cr-rich nodules are unevenly distributed in the rock, and always enclosed in Cr-rich clinopyroxenes (up to 5.46% Cr2O3) which may exhibit Cr-diffusion haloes towards normal Cr-free matrix pyroxene. The nodules consist of diablastic chromite, rutile and Cr-rich kyanite of up to 15.67 wt% Cr2O3, Cr-bearing epidote, to which Cr-rich staurolite (up to 10.45% Cr2O3; XMg up to 0.68) and Cr-rich lawsonite (up to 9.17% Cr2O3) may exceptionally associate. Cr concentrations in kyanite and lawsonite are, to our knowledge, the highest reported so far. Cr-lawsonite was identified in a single sample, as small single phase inclusions armoured in Cr-kyanite. Equilibrium PT-conditions of 2.6 GPa and 610o C were derived from the garnet-mantled clinopyroxene aggregates using multi-equilibria calculation with the PTGIBBS routine of Brandelik & Massonne

  12. Eclogite inclusions from subducted metaigneous continental crust (Malpica-Tui Allochthonous Complex, NW Spain): Petrofabric, geochronology, and calculated seismic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, P.; Beranoaguirre, A.; Ábalos, B.; Gil Ibarguchi, J. I.; García de Madinabeitia, S.; Rodríguez, J.; Fernández-Armas, S.

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the strain geometry, crystal-plastic deformational features, isotopic age of metamorphism, and calculated seismic properties of two medium-temperature eclogite types from the Malpica-Tui Allochthonous Complex of Variscan NW Iberia. The eclogite types are eclogites with coronitic garnets and eclogites with a planolinear fabric. Both of them were buried, deformed and recrystallized under maximum pressure and temperature of 2.6 GPa and 610-640°C, and subsequently exhumed in a late Devonian subduction channel. The metamorphic peak of the subduction-exhumation cycle occurred 375 Ma ago. Omphacite petrofabric ties eclogites with coronitic garnet to noncoaxial constrictional strain and eclogites with planolinear fabrics to noncoaxial flattening strain and stretching along the lineation. We also used omphacite crystallographic preferred orientations to calculate and constrain the seismic properties of the eclogites. The slight variations in petrophysical properties observed are interpreted to result from variations in the strain regime recorded by pristine eclogites, or from variations in the modal proportions of the constituent high-pressure minerals. We foresee that eclogite in subduction metamorphic complexes might be either seismically undetectable or detected as planar features with high impedance contrasts relative to their host rocks.

  13. Rheological Strength of UHP Eclogite from Dabieshan: Evidences from High p-T Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We present here experimental study of the rheological properties of UHP eclogite from Dabie at apressure of 3 GPa by utilizing the 5 GPa Griggs type piston cylinder apparatus. The rheological consti-tutive equation of eclogite is determined with a stress exponent of 3.4, an activation energy of 480 k J/mol and a preexponential factor of 103,3. Our study shows that: (1) As a typical two-phase rock, theflow strength of eclogite depends on the proportions of the strong phase (garnet) and the weak phase(omphacite); (2) The plastic deformation of eclogite is dominated by dislocation creep; (3) Based onthat eelogite has the same strength as the upper mantle harzburgite, our study suggests that the delami-nation of the subclucting crust component from the underlying upper mantle is unlikely. Therefore, thestretching after the collision orogeny coupled with the upwelling of the upper mantle may play a moreimportant role in the exhumation of UHP rocks.

  14. Viscosity Measurements of Eclogite Melt up to 5.6 GPa and 2000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Fei, Y.; Han, L.; Kono, Y.; Hou, M.; Zhao, Z.; Du, J.

    2014-12-01

    The melting and rheology of eclogite is critical for understanding the dynamics of the subduction zone and plate tectonic. Viscosity of eclogite melt as a function of depth is a key parameter to model the long-term chemical evolution of the subduction zone and volcanic magma. It also plays an important role in earthquakes and continent formation. However, the viscosity and rheology of eclogite melt remain poorly understood at high pressure and temperature. In this study, we have carried out in-situ falling-sphere viscometry measurements to determine the viscosity of eclogite melt from 1.3 to 5.6 GPa at temperatures between 1500 and 2000 K, using the Paris-Edinburgh cell at the 16-BM-B beamline of the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) at the Advanced Photon Source. We used a natural eclogite sample with 47.7wt% SiO2. The viscosity (η) was calculated with the Stokes' equation. The viscosity of eclogite melt decreases between 1.3 and 5.6 GPa at 2000K. At 1.4 GPa and 2000K the viscosity is 0.43 Pa·s, whereas at 5.6 GPa and 2000 K it is 0.13Pa·s. No minimum in the viscosity of eclogite was found in the measured pressure range up to 5.6 GPa.

  15. Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Suzanne L; Monteleone, Brian D; Webb, Laura E; Fitzgerald, Paul G; Grove, Marty; Hill, E June

    2004-09-16

    As lithospheric plates are subducted, rocks are metamorphosed under high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure conditions to produce eclogites and eclogite facies metamorphic rocks. Because chemical equilibrium is rarely fully achieved, eclogites may preserve in their distinctive mineral assemblages and textures a record of the pressures, temperatures and deformation the rock was subjected to during subduction and subsequent exhumation. Radioactive parent-daughter isotopic variations within minerals reveal the timing of these events. Here we present in situ zircon U/Pb ion microprobe data that dates the timing of eclogite facies metamorphism in eastern Papua New Guinea at 4.3 +/- 0.4 Myr ago, making this the youngest documented eclogite exposed at the Earth's surface. Eclogite exhumation from depths of approximately 75 km was extremely rapid and occurred at plate tectonic rates (cm yr(-1)). The eclogite was exhumed within a portion of the obliquely convergent Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, in an extending region located west of the Woodlark basin sea floor spreading centre. Such rapid exhumation (> 1 cm yr(-1)) of high-pressure and, we infer, ultrahigh-pressure rocks is facilitated by extension within transient plate boundary zones associated with rapid oblique plate convergence.

  16. An experimental study of dehydration melting of phengite-bearing eclogite at 1.5-3.0 GPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiang; JIN ZhenMin; ZHANG JunFeng

    2009-01-01

    Dehydration melting experiments were performed on ultrahigh-pressure eclogite from Bixiling in the Dabie orogen at 1.5-3.0 GPa and 800-950℃ using piston cylinder apparatus. The results show that (1)eclogite with ~5% phengite started to melt at T≤800-850℃ and P=1.5-2.0 GPa and produced about 3% granitic melt; (2) the products of dehydration melting of phengite-bearing eclogite vary with temperature and pressure. Fluid released from dehydration of phengite and zoisite leads to partial melting of eclogite and formation of plagioclase reaction rim around kyanite at pressures of 1.5-2.0 GPa and temperatures of 800-850℃; (3) phengite reacted with omphacite and quartz and produced oligoclase,kyanite and melt at elevated temperatures. Oligoclase is the primary reaction product produced by partial melting of phengite in the eclogite; and (4) the dehydration melting of phengite-bearing eclogite at pressures of 1.5-3.0 GPa and temperatures ≥900℃ results in formation of garnets with higher molar fraction of pyrope (37.67 wt.%-45.94 wt.%). Potassium feldspar and jadeite occur at P = 2.4-3.0GPa and T≥900℃, indicating higher pressure and fluid-absent conditions. Our results constrain the solidus for dehydration melting of phengite-bearing eclogite at pressures of 1.5-3.0 GPa. Combining experi- mental results with field observations of partial melting in natural eclogites, we concluded that phengite-bearing eclogites from the Dabie-Sulu orogen were able to partially molten at P= 1.5-2.0 GPa and T= 800-850℃ during exhumation. The ultrahigh-high pressure eclogites would have experienced partial melting in association with metamorphic phase transformation under different fluid conditions.

  17. Hydroxyl induced eclogite fabric and deformation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junfeng; JIN Zhenmin; Harry W. Green II

    2005-01-01

    Eclogites from orogens often show strong plastic deformation and high hydroxyl content. We have studied the correlation between crystallographic preferred orientations of garnet and omphacite from natural eclogites with their hydroxyl contents using the electron back-scat- tered diffraction technique. The results show: 1) Omphacite has typical L-type or SL-type crystrallographic preferred orientations, that is, [001] is distributed in a girdle in the foliation plane with a maximum parallel to lineation; (010) is distributed in a girdle normal to the lineation with a maximum parallel to the foliation plane, suggesting a shear dominant deformation regime. Omphacite fabrics do not vary significantly with hydroxyl content, although the hydrous component may cause lower flow strength. 2) Hydroxyl can influence significantly flow properties of garnet in eclogite. Garnets behave as rigid bodies under low temperature and dry conditions. Grain boundary processes will dominate the deformation and lower the flow strength of garnet under high water fugacity conditions. Garnets show no crystallographic preferred orientation in both cases. These results may have important implications for a better understanding of deformation mechanisms and associated fluid activities during deep subduction and exhumation processes.

  18. Oxygen isotopes in Indian Plate eclogites (Kaghan Valley, Pakistan): Negative δ18O values from a high latitude protolith reset by Himalayan metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hafiz Ur; Tanaka, Ryoji; O'Brien, Patrick J.; Kobayashi, Katsura; Tsujimori, Tatsuki; Nakamura, Eizo; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Khan, Tahseenullah; Kaneko, Yoshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    Oxygen isotope compositions are reported for the first time for the Himalayan metabasites of the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan in this study. The highest metamorphic grades are recorded in the north of the valley, near the India-Asia collision boundary, in the form of high-pressure (HP: Group I) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP: Group II) eclogites. The rocks show a step-wise decrease in grade from the UHP to HP eclogites and amphibolites. The protoliths of these metabasites were the Permian Panjal Trap basalts (ca. 267 ± 2.4 Ma), which were emplaced along the northern margin of India when it was part of Gondwana. After the break-up of Gondwana, India drifted northward, subducted beneath Asia and underwent UHP metamorphism during the Eocene (ca. 45 ± 1.2 Ma). At the regional scale, amphibolites, Group I and II eclogites yielded δ18O values of + 5.84 and + 5.91‰, + 1.66 to + 4.24‰, and - 2.25 to + 0.76‰, respectively, relative to VSMOW. On a more local scale, within a single eclogite body, the δ18O values were the lowest (- 2.25 to- 1.44‰) in the central, the best preserved (least retrograded) parts, and show a systematic increase outward into more retrograded rocks, reaching up to + 0.12‰. These values are significantly lower than the typical mantle values for basalts of + 5.7 ± 0.3‰. The unusually low or negative δ18O values in Group II eclogites potentially resulted from hydrothermal alteration of the protoliths by interactions with meteoric water when the Indian plate was at southern high latitudes (~ 60°S). The stepwise increase in δ18O values, among different eclogite bodies in general and at single outcrop-scales in particular, reflects differing degrees of resetting of the oxygen isotope compositions during exhumation-related retrogression.

  19. An eclogite-bearing continental tectonic slice in the Zermatt-Saas high-pressure ophiolites at Trockener Steg (Zermatt, Swiss Western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sebastian; Bucher, Kurt

    2015-09-01

    The Theodul Glacier Unit (TGU) at "Trockener Steg" represents a continental slice, embedded within the ophiolitic Zermatt-Saas Zone. The Zermatt-Saas Zone is the remnant of the Piemonte-Liguria oceanic lithosphere, formed in the middle Jurassic and subducted up to eclogite facies conditions in the Early Tertiary. The close spatial association of the TGU to the Zermatt-Saas Zone permits a comparison of the metamorphic evolution of the units by detailed field mapping and a petrological investigation of eclogites. The eclogites from both tectono-metamorphic units can be clearly distinguished by their textures, mineral assemblages and by mineral and bulk-rock composition. Geothermobarometry and computed assemblage stability diagrams for the TGU eclogites indicate P-T conditions of 2.2 ± 0.1 GPa and 580 ± 50 °C. These derived P-T conditions must be considered as minimum peak metamorphic conditions the rocks achieved during subduction. The P-T data are different from those derived for eclogites of Zermatt-Saas Zone adjacent to the Theodul Glacier Unit, that reached maximal burial depths at 2.3-2.4 GPa and 500 ± 50 °C. While the estimates of the eclogites of Zermatt-Saas Zone are in good agreement with some of the previous studies, the contrasting P-T estimates for the TGU eclogites suggest that the Zermatt-Saas complex must be subdivided into several tectonic subunits. The non-uniform peak conditions over the "Trockener Steg" area and the maximum pressures conditions reported from ultra-high pressure localities within Zermatt-Saas Zone suggest, that individual tectonic slices have been assembled after detachment from the slab at the return-point, i.e. along the exhumation path. Detached packages of rocks may range from small tectonic slices up to several kilometer-sized fragments. The TGU is separated from the surrounding rocks of the ophiolite unit by two major tectonic contacts. In addition, the formation of biotite-rich crusts along the basal contact of the TGU

  20. Post-peak metamorphic evolution of the Sumdo eclogite from the Lhasa terrane of southeast Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dadi; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Lingmin; Wang, Ke

    2017-08-01

    A reconstruction of the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of high-pressure eclogite-facies rocks in subduction zones may reveal important information about the tectono-metamorphic processes that occur at great depths along the plate interface. The majority of studies have focused on prograde to peak metamorphism of these rocks, whereas after-peak metamorphism has received less attention. Herein, we present a detailed petrological, pseudosection modeling and radiometric dating study of a retrograded eclogite sample from the Sumdo ultrahigh pressure belt of the Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Mineral chemical variations, textural discontinuities and thermodynamic modeling suggest that the eclogite underwent an exhumation-heating period. Petrographic observations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the garnet cores formed at the pressure peak (∼2.5 GPa and ∼520 °C) within the lawsonite eclogite-facies and garnet rims (∼1.5 GPa and growth of garnet spans an interval of ∼7 million years, which is a minimum estimate of the duration of the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Sumdo eclogite.

  1. Komsomolskaya diamondiferous eclogites: evidence for oceanic crustal protoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet-Fisher, John F.; Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Liu, Yang; Barry, Peter H.; Carmody, Laura; Valley, John W.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Spetsius, Zdislav V.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2014-03-01

    The Komsomolskaya kimberlite is one of numerous (>1,000) kimberlite pipes that host eclogite xenoliths on the Siberian craton. Eclogite xenoliths from the adjacent Udachnaya kimberlite pipe have previously been geochemically well characterized; however, data from surrounding diamond-bearing kimberlite pipes from the center of the craton are relatively sparse. Here, we report major- and trace-element data, as well as oxygen isotope systematics, for mineral separates of diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths from the Komsomolskaya kimberlite, suggesting two distinct subgroups of a metamorphosed, subducted oceanic crustal protolith. Using almandine contents, this suite can be divided into two subgroups: group B1, with a high almandine component (>20 mol%) and group B2, with a low almandine component (oxygen isotope values, which are interpreted to reflect isotopic exchange with seawater at low temperatures (oxygen isotope values, suggesting an origin deep within the crustal pile, where little-to-no interaction with hydrothermal fluids has occurred. Major-element systematics were reconstructed based on mineral modes; group B1 eclogites have higher MgO wt% and lower SiO2 wt%, with respect to typical oceanic basalts, reflecting a partial melting event during slab subduction. Calculated residues from batch partial melt modeling of a range of Precambrian basalts overlap with group B1 trace-element chemistry. When taken together with the respective partial melt trajectories, these melting events are clearly linked to the formation of Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) complexes. As a result, we propose that many, if not all, diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths from Komsomolskaya represent mantle `restites' that preserve chemical signatures of Precambrian oceanic crust.

  2. The 2.0 Ga Usagaran eclogites, Tanzania: the onset of modern plate tectonics or a continuation of the norm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, C.; Collins, A. S.; Reddy, S. M.; Mruma, A.

    2003-04-01

    Phanerozoic eclogites are widely interpreted to have formed in subduction zone environments where fragments of oceanic crust have been buried to depths greater than 50 km. The formation and preservation of Phanerozoic eclogites is demonstrably linked to plate convergence and their study of eclogite-facies rocks underpins our understanding of subduction zones and plate tectonic models. Our understanding of more ancient, Precambrian tectonics is based on a uniformitarian model, which assumes that modern day tectonic processes are good analogues of those in the past. This assumption is limited because numerical modelling has shown that the driving force of plate tectonics, the thermal structure of the Earth, has changed dramatically over geological time. For example, at the start of the Palaeoproterozoic (2.5 Ga) the Earth's heat production was twice as high as at present. If these models are true then it is difficult to reconcile the formation of low-med temperature eclogite facies rocks in the Early Earth. The Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran orogenic belt of Tanzania contains the Earth’s oldest reported examples (2.0 Ga) of low/med temperature eclogites. The eclogites are reported to have MORB-like geochemical characteristics, which coupled with P-T estimates for their formation, suggests that they are subduction related. In this study detailed structural analysis and U-Th-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating of gneisses exposed in the high-grade, eclogite bearing part of the orogen (the Isimani Suite), has demonstrated that detrital grains in paragneisses yield ages between 2.4 &2.9 Ga. These are intercalated with 2.7 Ga orthogneisses of a similar age to the Tanzanian craton. The extensive distribution of 2.7 Ga crust in both the footwall and hangingwall of the Usagaran Orogen suggests that the most likely tectonic setting for the protoliths of the mafic eclogites was as oceanic crust in a marginal basin. The identification of Palaeoproterozoic subduction related eclogites that

  3. Monomineral universal clinopyroxene and garnet barometers for peridotitic, eclogitic and basaltic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Ashchepkov

    2017-07-01

    eclogites in lower apart of mantle sections are remelted and trace the high temperature convective branch. The Mg- and Fe-rich pyroxenites also show the extending in pressure trends which suggest the anatexic melting under the influence of volatiles or under the interaction with plums.

  4. High-pressure metamorphic age and significance of eclogite-facies continental fragments associated with oceanic lithosphere in the Western Alps (Etirol-Levaz Slice, Valtournenche, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassmer, Kathrin; Obermüller, Gerrit; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Kirst, Frederik; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Sandmann, Sascha; Miladinova, Irena; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Etirol-Levaz Slice in the Penninic Alps (Valtournenche, Italy) is a piece of eclogite-facies continental basement sandwiched between two oceanic units, the blueschist-facies Combin Zone in the hanging wall and the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas Zone in the footwall. It has been interpreted as an extensional allochthon from the continental margin of Adria, emplaced onto ultramafic and mafic basement of the future Zermatt-Saas Zone by Jurassic, rifting-related detachment faulting, and later subducted together with the future Zermatt-Saas Zone. Alternatively, the Etirol-Levaz Slice could be derived from a different paleogeographic domain and be separated from the Zermatt-Saas Zone by an Alpine shear zone. We present Lu-Hf whole rock-garnet ages of two eclogite samples, one from the center of the unit and one from the border to the Zermatt-Saas Zone below. These data are accompanied by a new geological map of the Etirol-Levaz Slice and the surrounding area, as well as detailed petrology of these two samples. Assemblages, mineral compositions and garnet zoning in both samples indicate a clockwise PT-path and peak-metamorphic conditions of about 550-600 °C/20-25 kbar, similar to conditions proposed for the underlying Zermatt-Saas Zone. Prograde garnet ages of the two samples are 61.8 ± 1.8 Ma and 52.4 ± 2.1 Ma and reflect different timing of subduction. One of these is significantly older than published ages of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Zermatt-Saas Zone and thus contradicts the hypothesis of Mesozoic emplacement. The occurrence of serpentinite and metagabbro bodies possibly derived from the Zermatt-Saas Zone inside the Etirol-Levaz Slice suggests that the latter is a tectonic composite. The basement slivers forming the Etirol-Levaz Slice and other continental fragments were subducted earlier than the Zermatt-Saas Zone, but nonetheless experienced similar pressure-temperature histories. Our results support the hypothesis that the Zermatt-Saas Zone and the

  5. Metamorphic evolution, mineral chemistry and thermobarometry of schists and orthogneisses hosting ultra-high pressure eclogites in the Dabieshan of central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, D. A.; Wilson, R. N.; Zhai, M.

    2000-04-01

    As is typical of ultra-high pressure (UHP) terrains, the regional extent of the UHP terrain in the Dabieshan of central China is highly speculative, since the volume of eclogites and paragneisses preserving unequivocal evidence of coesite and/or diamond stability is very small. By contrast, the common garnet ( XMn=0.18-0.45)-phengite (Si=3.2-3.35)-zoned epidote (Ps 38-97)-biotite-titanite-two feldspars-quartz assemblages in the more extensive orthogneisses have been previously thought to have formed under low P- T conditions of ca. 400±50°C at 4 kbar. However, certain orthogneiss samples preserve garnets with XCa up to 0.50, rutile inclusions within titanite or epidote and relict phengite inclusions within epidote with Si contents p.f.u. of up to 3.49 — overlapping with the highest values (3.49-3.62) recorded for phengites in samples of undoubted UHP schists. These and other mineral composition features (such as A-site deficiencies in the highest Si phengites, Na in garnets linked to Y+Yb substitution and Al F Ti -1 O -1 substitution in titanites) are taken to be pointers towards the orthogneisses having experienced a similar metamorphic evolution to the associated UHP schists and eclogites. Re-evaluated garnet-phengite and garnet-biotite Fe/Mg exchange thermometry and calculated 5 rutile+3 grossular+2SiO 2+H 2O=5 titanite+2 zoisite equilibria indicate that the orthogneisses may indeed have followed a common subduction-related clockwise P- T path with the UHP paragneisses and eclogites through conditions of Pmax at ca. 690°C-715°C and 36 kbar to Tmax at ca. 710°C-755°C and 18 kbar, prior to extensive re-crystallisation and re-equilibration of these ductile orthogneisses at ca. 400°C-450°C and 6 kbar. The consequential conclusion, that it is no longer necessary to resort to models of tectonic juxtapositioning to explain the spatial association of these Dabieshan orthogneisses with undoubted UHP lithologies, has far-reaching implications for the

  6. Syn-collapse eclogite metamorphism and exhumation of deep crust in a migmatite dome: The P-T-t record of the youngest Variscan eclogite (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Donna L.; Roger, Françoise; Teyssier, Christian; Rey, Patrice F.; Respaut, J.-P.

    2015-11-01

    In many orogens, high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks such as eclogite occur as lenses in quartzofeldspathic gneiss that equilibrated at much lower pressures. The pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) history of eclogite relative to host gneiss provides information about mechanisms and timescales of exhumation of orogenic crust. The Montagne Noire of the southern Massif Central, France, is an eclogite-bearing gneiss (migmatite) dome located at the orogen-foreland transition of the Variscan belt. Results of our study show that it contains the youngest eclogite in the orogen, similar in age to migmatite and granite that crystallized under low-pressure conditions. P-T conditions for an exceptionally unaltered eclogite from the central Montagne Noire were estimated using a pseudosection supplemented by garnet-clinopyroxene and Zr-in-rutile thermometry. Results indicate peak P ∼ 1.4 GPa and T ∼ 725°C for Mg-rich garnet rim (50 mol% pyrope) + omphacite (36 mol% jadeite) + rutile + quartz. U-Pb geochronology (LA-ICP-MS) of 16 zoned zircon grains yielded ∼360 Ma (4 cores) and ∼315 Ma (12 rims and cores). Rare earth element abundances determined by LA-ICP-MS for dated zircon are consistent with crystallization of ∼315 Ma zircon under garnet-stable, plagioclase-unstable conditions that we interpret to indicate high pressure; in contrast, the ∼360 Ma zircon core corresponds to crystallization under lower pressure plagioclase-stable conditions. Based on garnet zoning and inclusion suites, rutile textures and Zr zoning, P-T results, and zircon petrochronology, we interpret the ∼315 Ma date as the age of eclogite-facies metamorphism that only slightly preceded dome formation and crystallization at 315-300 Ma. This age relation indicates that eclogite formation at high pressure and migmatite dome emplacement at low pressure were closely spaced in time. We propose that collapse-driven material transfer from the hot orogen to the cool foreland resulted in thickening of

  7. P-T evolution and fluid inclusion characteristics of retrograded eclogites, Münchberg Gneiss Complex, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemd, Reiner

    1989-06-01

    Kyanite eclogites occur as part of the Münchberger nappe pile in NE-Bavaria, West Germany. Eclogites are overprinted by subsequent amphibolite facies metamorphism. The preservation of primary eclogitic textures as well as symplectitic textures are indicative of rapid decompression. Eclogite formation is estimated to have occurred under conditions of high H2O-activities at pressures between 20 and 26 kbar and temperatures ranging between 590 and 660° C, as is shown by the coexistence of omphacite (Jd 50), kyanite, zoisite and quartz. Minimum pressure estimates, independent of the water activity, range between 9 and 16 kbar at the relevant temperatures. Detailed studies of fluid inclusion reveal two predominant groups of aqueous-brine inclusions: high salinity (14 17 wt% NaCl equiv.) and low salinity (0 8 wt% NaCl equiv.) inclusions. Fluid compositions of both groups of inclusions yield isochores passing close to the estimated amphibolite facies PT-field. The compositions of these fluids are in good agreement with fluid compositions considered from mineral equilibria. None of the fluid inclusions has densities appropriate for eclogite facies metamorphism, but probably reflect later amphibolite facies metamorphism.

  8. Implication of the monomineral eclogite thermobarometry for the reconstruction of the PT conditions and origin of mantle eclogites in the structure of Siberian and other cratons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Logvinova, Alla; Spetsius, Zdislav; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ravi, Subramanaian; Vladykin, Nikolai; Stegnitsky, Yuri; Babushkina, Svetlana; Ovchinnikov, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    ) or deep cumulates from tonalite- trondhjemite or Mg-rich boninitic arc magmas (Horodytskyi et al., 2007; Barth et al., 2002); A4 a group derived by crystallization of differentiated protokimberlite melts (Haggerty et al., 1979; Kamenetsky et al., 2009). The largest group B with Fe# (~ 0.15-0.25, moderate in Al and Na values, commonly reveal Eu anomalies. The GrB1 interpreted as subducted metagrabbro close to MORB (Jagoutz et al., 1974; Beard et al., 1996; Pearson, 1995; Snyder et al., 1997) reacted with oceanic water (Neal et al., 1990). Enriched Group B2 eclogites are thought to be products of fluid melting of ancient oceanic crust and interaction with peridotites during subduction (Aulbach et al., 2007). Group B3 eclogites (>3 GPa) may be basaltic cumulates derived from plume or ancient arc magmas in cratonic margins (Wyman and Kerrich, 2009); those near Moho may be eclogitized lower crustal cumulates (Shu et al., 2014). Group B4 eclogites are results of hybridization of subducted basalts with protokimberlite and other plume melts (Shatsky et al., 2008 -2015). High-Fe -Na Group C1 eclogites (Fe# > 0.27) may be subducted Fe- basalts; Ca-enriched varieties may be meta-tonalites or trondhjemites (Group C2) (Barth et al., 2002) and those which are very rich in Al could be metasediments (Group C3) (Mazzone and Haggerty, 1989). High -Ca- Al GrD1 are rare high-Ca and low-Fe varieties, commonly Al-rich and kyanite-bearing (sometimes with coesite) (grosspydites) which may be originally carbonate metasomatites (Smyth, 1977) or metapelites (Liou et al., 2014); Group GrD3 eclogites are high-Ca and moderate-Fe and may be ancient Mg-granites (Barth et al., 2002; Jacob et al., 2003) . According to the thermobarometry GrA eclogites are distributed mostly in the lower (L) and- middle parts of SCLM and correspond to low - temperature thermal gradients. GrB2 eclogites form trends of increasing Fe# for garnets and omphacites with decreasing pressure. This could be due to the

  9. Tectonic Affinity, T-t Path and Uplift Trajectory of Eclogites from Northern Dabie Mountains, Central-Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Petrologic geochemistry and isotopic chronology of the eclogites suggest that most of the eclogites in northern Dabie Mountains produced from the Triassic Yangtze subducted continental crust (lower crust and formed during the deep subduction) and the metamorphosed mafic-untramafic belt with eclogite, marble and meta-peridotite blocks around the Mozitan-Xiaotian fault zone may represent the meta-tectonic melange produced during the active subduction of an ancient oceanic slab and subsequent collision between the Yangtze and North China continental plates. The cooling history of the eclogites from ~900 ℃ to 300 ℃ can be subdivided into three stages: one isothermal stage and two rapid cooling stages. The initial stage between (230±6) and 210 Ma was a near-isothermal or temperature rise process corresponding to the retrograded metamorphism of granulite-facies with a rapid uplift of 4 nun/a, then two fast cooling stages occurred with cooling rate of ~10 ℃/Ma during 210 Ma to (172±3) Ma and ~4 ℃/Ma during (172±3) Ma to 130 Ma. After the peak metamorphism of eclogite-facies, their initial isothermal stage with slower uplift rate and cooling rate and high-T overprinting of granulite-facies metamorphism is the major difference between the eciogites in northern Dabie Mountains from those in southern Dabie Mountains. This may be one of the most important reasons to preserve few evidences of earlier ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism.

  10. Petrology and geochronology of eclogites from the Variscan Schwarzwald (F.R.G.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalt, Angelika; Hanel, Michael; Schleicher, Helmut; Kramm, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    The Moldanubian basement of the Schwarzwald contains basic to ultrabasic rocks of both crustal and mantle origin which display high-pressure mineral assemblages or relics of such. In order to constrain the P-T-t evolution of the crustal high-pressure rocks, petrological and geochronological studies have been carried out on three eclogite samples. Geothermobarometric estimations indicate minimum metamorphic pressures of 1.6 GPa and equilibration temperatures of 670 750°C. Reaction textures doc...

  11. CPO-induced seismic anisotropy in UHP eclogites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogites often show strong plastic deformation and anisotropy of seismic properties. We report in this paper the seismic velocity and anisotropy of eclogite calculated from the crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of constituent minerals (garnet, omphacite, quartz and rutile) and single crystal elastic properties. We also compared the calculated results with the measured results in similar eclogites. Our results suggest that (1) Except that garnet is a seismically quasi-isotropic mineral, omphacite, quartz, coesite and rutile all have strong seismic anisotropies (AVp = 23.0%―40.9%, Max. AVs = 18.5%―47.1%). They are the major sources for anisotropy in eclogite. The average seismic velocities are fast in garnet and rutile, moderate in omphacite and coesite, and slow in quartz. (2) The deformed eclogites have the maximum Vp (8.33―8.75 km/s) approximately parallel to foliation and lineation, the minimum Vp (8.25―8.62 km/s) approximately normal to foliation and lineation and the Vp anisotropies of 1.0―1.7%. Their Vs are 4.93―4.97 km/s. The corresponding maximum anisotropies (0.73%―1.78%) of Vs are at 45° to both foliation and lineation and the minimum anisotropies at positions normal to lineation on the foliation plane. The Vs1 polarization planes are approximately parallel to foliation. The mean Vp and Vs of eclogite under UHP peak metamorphism conditions (P = 3―5 GPa, T = 900―1100℃) are estimated to be 3.4%―7.2% and 6.3%―12.1% higher than those at ambient pressure and temperature conditions, respectively. (3) Omphacite component dominates the anisotropy of eclogite while garnet component reduces the anisotropy and increases the seismic velocities. Quartz component has a small effect on the anisotropy but reduces the seismic velocities of eclogite. The effect of rutile component is negligible on seismic properties of eclogite due to its trivial volume fraction. (4) The increase of volume fraction of omphacite

  12. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of eclogites and associated rocks from the Eastern Sesia zone (Western Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmons, J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses have been made of mineral separates from eclogites, glaucophanites and glaucophane schists from the eastern Sesia zone (Italian Western Alps). Regularities in (1) hydrogen isotope compositions, (2) order of 18O enrichment among coexisting minerals, and (3) ?? 18O (quartz-rutile) and ?? 18O (quartz-phengite) imply attainment of a high degree of isotopic equilibrium. However, some scattering of ??18O values of individual minerals indicates that the eclogitic assemblage did not form in the presence of a thoroughly pervasive fluid. Minerals from an eclogitic lens enclosed in marble have ??18O values distinctly different from those measured in the other rocks. The ??18O values are high in comparison with other type C eclogites of the world, and it is proposed that the fluid present during the high pressure metamorphism has to a large extent been inherited from the precursor rocks of amphibolite facies. An average formation temperature of 540 ?? C is inferred from the oxygen isotope fractionations between quartz and rutile and between quartz and white mica. This temperature is in accordance with petrologic considerations and implies subduction of the precursor rocks into the upper mantle to achieve the high pressures required. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Carbon isotopes in eclogite and apatite separate from Huangzhen and Shima in SE Dabie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The carbon isotope compositions of high- and ultrahigh-pressure eclogite and apatite separate from Huangzhen and Shima in SE Dabie Mountains were analyzed by EA-MS online technique. The δ13C values of the eclogites cover a wide range of -30.7‰ - +1.5‰, whereas those of apatites only have a small range of -28.1‰--21.0‰. Some of the eclogites with the high δ13C values suffered retrogressive alteration by CO2-bearing fluids. The low δ13C values of the apatites indicate that the eclogites contain surficial carbon of organic origin. It is concluded that protoliths of the eclogites were exposed to the surface of the Earth, and that the carbon-bearing fluid was depleted in 13C during the eclogite-facies metamorphism.

  14. A combined study of SHRIMP U-Pb dating, trace element and mineral inclusions on high-pressure metamorphic overgrowth zircon in eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiuli; LI Shuguang; HOU Zhenhui1; HONG Jian; YANG Wei1

    2005-01-01

    Methods recently advanced for discrimination on the genesis of metamorphic zircon, such as analysis of mineral inclusions and trace elements, provide us powerful means to distinguish zircon overgrowth during high-pressure metamorphism. Zircons in ultrahigh-pressure eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane were studied by the SHRIMP U-Pb method in combining with trace element and mineral inclusion analyses. No inherited core was identified in the analyzed zircons by means of cathodoluminescence images. The occurrence of high-pressure metamorphic mineral inclusions in zircon, such as garnet, omphacite, rutile, and the flat HREE pattern in zircon indicate that the zircon formed at high-pressure metamorphic conditions. Therefore, a weighted average U-Pb age of 227.4 ± 3.5 Ma obtained from such a kind of zircon is interpreted to represent the timing of peak metamorphism for the Qinglongshan eclogite.

  15. Carbon isotopes in eclogite and apatite separate from Huangzhen and Shima in SE Dabie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一良; 郑永飞; 龚冰; 傅斌

    2000-01-01

    The carbon isotope compositions of high- and ultrahigh-pressure eclogite and apatite separate from Huangzhen and Shima in SE Dabie Mountains were analyzed by EA-MS online technique. The δ13C values of the eclogites cover a wide range of -30.7‰ - +1.5‰, whereasthose of apatites only have a small range of -28.1‰- -21.0‰. Some of the eclogites with thehigh δ13C values suffered retrogressive alteration by CO2-bearing fluids. The low δ13C values of the apatites indicate that the eclogites contain surficial carbon of organic origin. It is concluded that protoliths of the eclogites were exposed to the surface of the Earth, and that the carbon-bearing fluid was depleted in 13C during the eclogite-facies metamorphism.

  16. U-Pb zircon geochronology and phase equilibria modelling of a mafic eclogite from the Sumdo complex of south-east Tibet: Insights into prograde zircon growth and the assembly of the Tibetan plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, O. M.; St-Onge, M. R.; Rayner, N.; Waters, D. J.; Searle, M. P.; Palin, R. M.

    2016-10-01

    The Sumdo complex is a Permian-Triassic eclogitic metamorphic belt in south-east Tibet, which marks the location of a suture zone that separates the northern and southern Lhasa terranes. An integrated geochronological and petrological study of a mafic eclogite from the complex has constrained its tectonometamorphic history and provides a case study of zircon growth in eclogite as a product of prograde dissolution-precipitation. In situ U-Pb geochronology indicates that the eclogite contains a single population of zircon with a crystallisation age of 273.6 ± 2.8 Ma. The morphology and chemistry of the zircon grains are consistent with growth by dissolution-precipitation of protolith magmatic zircon. The presence of zircon grains as inclusions in the cores of peak phases indicates that zircon dissolution-precipitation occurred during prograde metamorphism, and calculated pressure and temperature conditions over which mineral inclusions in zircon are stable suggest that the zircon most likely precipitated at 15.5-16.5 kbar and 500-560 °C. Subsequent peak metamorphism is calculated to have reached pressure-temperature conditions of 27 ± 1 kbar and 670 ± 50 °C. Previous studies, which have documented a range of peak metamorphic conditions from high- to ultrahigh-pressure at c. 266-230 Ma, indicate that the Sumdo complex is a composite belt that experienced protracted eclogite exhumation. The results of this study are consistent with this interpretation, and extend the age range of high-pressure metamorphism in the complex to over 40 Myr. Analysis of published pressure-temperature-time data indicates two systematic behaviours within this spread. First, peak metamorphic temperatures declined over time. Second, eclogite exhumation occurred in two discrete intervals: soon after formation, and during the demise of the subduction zone. The latter behaviour serves as a reminder that eclogite exhumation is the exception rather than the rule.

  17. Eclogite xenoliths from Orapa: Ocean crust recycling, mantle metasomatism and carbon cycling at the western Zimbabwe craton margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, S.; Jacob, D. E.; Cartigny, P.; Stern, R. A.; Simonetti, S. S.; Wörner, G.; Viljoen, K. S.

    2017-09-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of garnet and clinopyroxene, as well as 87Sr/86Sr in clinopyroxene and δ18O in garnet in eclogite and pyroxenite xenoliths from Orapa, at the western margin of the Zimbabwe craton (central Botswana), were investigated in order to trace their origin and evolution in the mantle lithosphere. Two groups of eclogites are distinguished with respect to 87Sr/86Sr: One with moderate ratios (0.7026-0.7046) and another with 87Sr/86Sr >0.7048 to 0.7091. In the former group, heavy δ18O attests to low-temperature alteration on the ocean floor, while 87Sr/86Sr correlates with indices of low-pressure igneous processes (Eu/Eu∗, Mg#, Sr/Y). This suggests relatively undisturbed long-term ingrowth of 87Sr at near-igneous Rb/Sr after metamorphism, despite the exposed craton margin setting. The high-87Sr/86Sr group has mainly mantle-like δ18O and is suggested to have interacted with a small-volume melt derived from an aged phlogopite-rich metasome. The overlap of diamondiferous and graphite-bearing eclogites and pyroxenites over a pressure interval of ∼3.2 to 4.9 GPa is interpreted as reflecting a mantle parcel beneath Orapa that has moved out of the diamond stability field, due to a change in geotherm and/or decompression. Diamondiferous eclogites record lower median 87Sr/86Sr (0.7039) than graphite-bearing samples (0.7064) and carbon-free samples (0.7051), suggesting that interaction with the - possibly oxidising - metasome-derived melt caused carbon removal in some eclogites, while catalysing the conversion of diamond to graphite in others. This highlights the role of small-volume melts in modulating the lithospheric carbon cycle. Compared to diamondiferous eclogites, eclogitic inclusions in diamonds are restricted to high FeO and low SiO2, CaO and Na2O contents, they record higher equilibrium temperatures and garnets have mostly mantle-like O isotopic composition. We suggest that this signature was imparted by a sublithospheric melt with

  18. Eclogite-melt/peridotite reaction: Experimental constrains on the destruction mechanism of the North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To study the mechanism of melt-peridotite reaction pertinent to the destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) lithosphere, a series of experiments were performed at a pressure of 2.0 GPa and temperatures from 1250 to 1400°C using Bixiling eclogite and Damaping peridotite as starting materials. The experimental results show that the reaction between eclogite melt and peridotite causes dissolution of olivine and orthopyroxene and precipitation of clinopyroxene in the melt. The experimental run products, characterized by a lherzolite/pyroxenite/garnet-pyroxenite sequence, are consistent with the mantle xenoliths in the Neogene Hannuoba basalt of the NCC found by Liu et al. (2005). It suggests that the mafic lower continental crust was probably recycled into the mantle during the Mesozoic Era. In the experiments conducted at 1300 and 1350°C, the resulting melts have a high Mg# andesite signature, indicating that the melt-peridotite reaction may have played a major role in the generation of high Mg# andesite. Our experimental results support the hypothesis that melts derived from foundered eclogite in the asthenosphere will consume the lithospheric peridotites. Therefore, melt-peridotite reaction is an important mechanism for the destruction/thinning of the lithosphere.

  19. [Genesis study of omphacite at high pressure and high temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ben-Fu; Yi, Li; Wang, Duo-Jun; Xie, Chao; Tang, Xue-Wu; Liu, Lei; Cui, Yue-Ju

    2013-11-01

    The melting and recrystallizing experiments of alkali basalt powder and mixture of pure oxides mixed as stoichiometry were performed at 3 GPa and 1 200 degrees C. Electronic microprobe analysis and Raman spectra showed that the recrystallized products were omphacites, the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of the Raman peak was narrow and its shape was sharp, which is attributed to the stable Si-O tetrahedral structure and the high degree of order in omphacite. Based on the results of previous studies, the influencing factors of omphacite genesis and its primary magma were discussed. The results showed that the formation of omphacite could be affected by many factors, such as the composition of parent rocks, the concentration of fluid in the system and the conditions of pressure and temperature. This result could support some experimental evidences on the genesis studies of omphacite and eclogite.

  20. Discovery of eclogite and its geological significance in Qiangtang area, central Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cai; ZHAI Qingguo; DONG Yongsheng; HUANG Xiaopeng

    2006-01-01

    Eclogite is first discovered from Qiangtang area, central Tibet, which occurs as a lens in the high-pressure metamorphic belt comprising glaucophane-muscovite schist and garnet-muscovite schist, along the south margin of Lungmu Co-Shuanghu Paleo-Tethys suture. A glaucophane 40Ar/39Ar age of 220 Ma and a phengite 40Ar/39Ar age of 221.9 Ma have been obtained from blueschists associated with eclogite. The rock consists of garnet, omphacite, amphibole, phengite, and rutile, etc, and the jadeite content in omphacite ranges from 32.7% to 38.95%. It is estimated that the temperature of the eclogite is <500℃ and pressure varies in the range of 1.56―2.35 GPa. The discovery of Qiangtang ecologite further supports that there is a suture zone of Indo- Chinese epoch in central Qiangtang area, and is very important for discssing the evolution of the paleo-ocean and paleo-plate tectonics in this area.

  1. Laboratory earthquakes triggered during eclogitization of lawsonite-bearing blueschist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incel, Sarah; Hilairet, Nadège; Labrousse, Loïc; John, Timm; Deldicque, Damien; Ferrand, Thomas; Wang, Yanbin; Renner, Jörg; Morales, Luiz; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2017-02-01

    The origin of intermediate-depth seismicity has been debated for decades. A substantial fraction of these events occurs within the upper plane of Wadati-Benioff double seismic zones believed to represent subducting oceanic crust. We deformed natural lawsonite-rich blueschist samples under eclogite-facies conditions (1.5 2.5 GPa to maximum temperatures ranging from 762 to 1073 K, during which lawsonite and glaucophane became gradually unstable while entering the stability field of lawsonite-eclogite and the breakdown reaction of lawsonite was only crossed in case of the highest final temperature; ii) heating while deforming at a pressure water. Since the newly formed omphacite crystals are small compared to the initial grains, we interpret the observed mechanical instability as a transformation-induced runaway under stress triggered during the transition from lawsonite-blueschist to lawsonite-eclogite. In contrast, we find no microstructural evidence that the breakdown of lawsonite, and hence the liberation of water leads to the fracturing in samples that experienced the highest quench temperatures of 1073 and 1121 K, although some AEs were detected during an experiment performed at 1.5 GPa. Our experimental results challenge the concept of "dehydration embrittlement", which ascribes the genesis of intermediate-depth earthquakes to the breakdown of hydrous phases in the subducting oceanic plate. Instead we suggest that grain-size reduction (transformational faulting) during the transition from lawsonite-blueschist to lawsonite-eclogite leads to brittle failure of the deviatorically loaded samples.

  2. Fluid-induced transition from banded kyanite- to bimineralic eclogite and implications for the evolution of cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H.; Jacob, D. E.; Stern, R. A.; Petts, D.; Mattey, D. P.; Pearson, D. G.

    2017-06-01

    Heterogeneous, modally banded kyanite-bearing and bimineralic eclogites from the lithospheric mantle, collected at the Roberts Victor Diamond mine (South Africa), show a reaction texture in which kyanite is consumed. Geothermobarometric calculations using measured mineral compositions in Perple_X allowed the construction of a P-T path showing a steep, cool prograde metamorphic gradient of 2 °C/km to reach peak conditions of 5.8 GPa and 890 °C for the kyanite eclogite. The kyanite-out reaction formed bimineralic eclogite and is probably an integral part of the mineralogical evolution of most archetypal bimineralic eclogites at Roberts Victor and potentially elsewhere. The kyanite-out reaction occured at close to peak pressure (5.3 GPa) and was associated with a rise in temperature to 1380 °C. Mass balance calculations show that upon breakdown, the kyanite component is fully accommodated in garnet and omphacite via a reaction system with low water fugacity that required restricted fluid influx from metasomatic sources. The δ18O values of garnets are consistently higher than normal mantle values. Each sample has its characteristic trend of δ18O variance between garnets in the kyanite-bearing sections and those in the bimineralic parts covering a range between 5.1‰ and 6.8‰. No systematic change in O-isotope signature exists across the sample population. Differences in garnet trace element signatures between differing lithologies in the eclogites are significant. Grossular-rich garnets coexisting with kyanite have strong positive Eu-anomalies and low Gd/Yb ratios, while more pyrope-rich garnets in the bimineralic sections have lost their positive Eu-anomaly, have higher Gd/Yb ratios and generally higher heavy rare earth element contents. Garnets in the original kyanite-bearing portions thus reflect the provenance of the rocks as metamorphosed gabbros/troctolites. The kyanite-out reaction was most likely triggered by a heating event in the subcratonic

  3. Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Silvana; Tartarotti, Paola; Meyzen, Chrstine; Benciolini, Luca; Toffolo, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps Martin S.**, Tartarotti P.*, Meyzen C. **, Benciolini L.***, Toffolo L. ** *Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano ** Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova *** Dipartimento di Chimica, Fisica e Ambiente, Università di Udine In the Urtier valley (southern Aosta Valley, Italy), the Piemonte metaophiolites mainly consist of serpentinized peridotites including pods and boudinaged layers of Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite transposed in the main eclogitic foliation. The contact between serpentinized peridotites and Fe-metagabbro/trondhjemite is locally lined by chloriteschist and rodingite. The high pressure parageneses in the Fe-metagabbro are omphacite-garnet-rutile-glaucophane-phengite, and in the metatrondhjemite plagioclase-quartz-phengite-clinozoisite-epidote-garnet, respectively. Bulk-rock major and trace elements in addition to O isotope analyses were performed in both rock types. Fe-metagabbros are characterized by MgO wt% ranging between 6.11 and 9.63%, ∑REE= 20-101 ppm, (La/Yb)N = 0.22-0.91; trondhjemites have SiO2 43%, Al2O3 ranging between 21 and 24%, CaO ranging between 17 and 20%, ∑REE = 172 - 272 ppm, (La/Yb)N ranging between 7.78 and 13.70. The δ18O is 5.9 ‰ in a Fe-metagabbro sample and 7.4 ‰ in a trondhjemite sample, suggesting that these rocks have been affected by a weak oceanic low temperature alteration. The high CaO content may indicate a metasomatic process which could have occurred during the oceanic stage or at high pressure conditions.

  4. High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The High Temperature Materials Lab provides the Navy and industry with affordable high temperature materials for advanced propulsion systems. Asset List: Arc Melter...

  5. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  6. Neoproterozoic eclogite- to high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of east-central Tanzania: A petrological, geochemical and geochronological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H.; Kröner, A.; Lowry, J.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) eclogite- and high-pressure-granulite (E-HPG) facies rocks from the Mozambique belt of east-central Tanzania, collected close to the town of Ifakara and the adjacent Furua area from different tectonic settings, the Palaeoproterozoic Usagaran and the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt. The studied rocks are E-HPG facies granite- and diorite-gneisses and a meta-gabbroic rock, which are retrogressed to amphibolite- and greenschist-facies conditions. Four different clockwise P-T paths were constructed. The first P-T path for a granodioritic gneiss displays peak metamorphic conditions at 830 °C and 13.0 kbar. The second P-T path for a quartz dioritic gneiss shows peak metamorphic conditions of 920 °C and 14.9 kbar. The third P-T path for a mafic granulite shows peak metamorphic conditions of 820 °C and 13.2 kbar. A fourth P-T path for a monzodioritic gneiss also displays peak metamorphic conditions of up to 810 °C and 14.9 kbar. Evidence for all four P-T paths is provided by mineral chemical and modal abundance calculations in combination with textural observations in thin sections. Zircon ages indicate that the east-central part of the Mozambique belt in Tanzania consists of granite-, granodiorite- and monzodiorite gneisses with Mesoarchaean ( 2915 Ma), Neoarchaean ( 2637-2676 Ma) and Palaeoproterozoic ( 1873-1926 Ma) protolith ages. Early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) igneous zircons were found in the mafic granulite with an age of 989 Ma. Late Neoproterozoic (Cyrogenian) igneous zircons were found in a dioritic and monzodiorite gneiss with ages of 748 Ma and 718 Ma, respectively. Metamorphic zircons extracted from Qtz-monzodiorite and granodiorite gneisses yielded ages of 640 Ma and are considered to approximate the peak of regional E-HPG metamorphism. We suggest that this high-grade metamorphic event was caused by the collision of fragments of East and West Gondwana during the Pan-African orogeny, associated with ocean

  7. Low-temperature thermochronologic constraints on cooling and exhumation trends along conjugate margins, within core complexes and eclogite-bearing gneiss domes of the Woodlark rift system of eastern Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, P. G.; Baldwin, S.; Bermudez, M. A.; Miller, S. R.; Webb, L. E.; Little, T.

    2012-12-01

    In eastern Papua New Guinea, active sea-floor spreading within the Woodlark Basin has been propagating westward since at least 6 Ma into heterogeneous crust of the Woodlark Rift. The seafloor spreading system divides the northern conjugate margin (Woodlark Rise) from the southern margin (Pocklington Rise). West of the seafloor spreading rift-tip are high-standing extensional gneiss domes and core complexes of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands (DEI). Domes comprise amphibolite and eclogite-facies gneisses, and Pleistocene granitoid intrusions. Flanked by mylonitic shear zone carapaces and normal faults, the domes are juxtaposed against an upper plate that includes ultramafic rocks and gabbro, correlated with the Papuan ultramafic belt. Petrologic and structural evidence from the DEI has been interpreted as evidence for diapiric ascent of the largely felsic domes, with thermo-mechanical modeling proposing (U)HP exhumation in terms of diapiric flow aided by propagating extension, with feedback between the two. Core complexes lacking evidence for diapiric-aided exhumation include the Prevost Range (eastern Normanby Island), Dayman Dome (Papuan Peninsula), and Misima Island (southern conjugate margin). Thermochronology is being applied to understand the thermal and exhumation history, and hence help constrain mechanisms of (U)HP exhumation. AFT and AHe ages from samples near sea-level along conjugate margins and DEI range from ca. 12 Ma to Goodenough Island, the western-most and highest-standing dome. On Goodenough Island, samples from the core zone have AFT ages from ~3 - test the relative roles of buoyancy and normal faulting during exhumation of eclogite-bearing domes within the Woodlark rift system.

  8. Fluid-mediated metal transport in subduction zones and its link to arc-related giant ore deposits: Constraints from a sulfide-bearing HP vein in lawsonite eclogite (Tianshan, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Lei; Gao, Jun; John, Timm; Klemd, Reiner; Su, Wen

    2013-11-01

    High-pressure (HP) veins in eclogites provide insight into element mobility during fluid-rock interaction in subduction zones. Here, we present a petrological-geochemical study of a sulfide-bearing HP vein and its massive lawsonite eclogite host rock from the Chinese Tianshan (ultra-)high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic belt. The omphacite-dominated vein is enveloped by a garnet-poor, sulfide-bearing eclogite-facies reaction selvage. Lawsonite, garnet, omphacite, glaucophane and other HP minerals occur as inclusions in pyrite porphyroblasts of the selvage rock, indicating that the selvage formed prograde under eclogite-facies conditions. Relicts of wall-rock garnet (Grt_I) cores in recrystallized selvage garnet (Grt_II) close to the wall rock and the Ca distribution in Grt_II, which images the overgrown selvage matrix, indicate that the selvage formed due to dissolution-precipitation processes as a consequence of fluid-rock interaction of the wall rock eclogite with the vein-forming fluid. The peak metamorphic P-T conditions of the wall-rock eclogite are estimated at ca. 590 °C and 23 kbar. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the reaction selvage experienced: (1) a depletion of the large-ion lithophile elements (K-Rb-Ba) of up to 100% relative to their concentrations in the wall-rock eclogite; (2) a moderate depletion of the HREE and some transition metal elements including Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, and Mn (10-40%); (3) a significant enrichment of CaO (up to 50-80%), Sr (up to ˜200%), Pb (up to ˜170%) and S (up to ˜210%); (4) a slight to moderate enrichment of the LREE (10-20%) and MREE (0-40%); whereas (5) the HFSE show no significant variations.

  9. Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570°C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530°C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural

  10. Eclogites of the Dabie Region: Retrograde Metamorphism and Fluid Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾连兴; 杜建国; 翟建平; 赵成浩; 范建国; 张文兰

    2002-01-01

    Based upon fluid effects, retrograde metamorphism of eclogites in the Dabie region can be divided into the fluid-poor, fluid-bearing and fluid-rich stages. The fluid-poor stage is marked by polymorphic inversion, recrystallization and exsolution of solid solutions, and is thought to represent eclogite-facies retrograde environments. The fluid-bearing stage is likely to have occurred at the late stage of ecologite-facies diaphthorosis and is represented by kyanite porphyroblasts, rutile, and sodic pyroxene in association with high-pressure hydrous minerals such as phengite and zoisite (clinozoisite) without significant amount of hydrous minerals such as amphibole, epidote and biotite. The fluid-rich stage might have commenced concomitantly with lower amphibolite-facies diaphthoresis and persisted all the way towards the near-surface environment. The product of this stage is characterized by plentiful hydrous and volatile-bearing phases.The dissemination-type rutile mineralizations in eclogites might have formed by preferential shearing-induced pressure solution of gangue minerals at the fluid-bearing stage. The accompanying vein rutile was precipitated from fluids of this stage after local transport and concentration, and may hence represent proximal mobilization of titanium from the eclogite. Therefore, rutile veins can be used as an exploration indicator for dissemination-type rutile deposits.

  11. Tracking the timing of subduction and exhumation using 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages in blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks (Sivrihisar, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornash, Katherine F.; Cosca, Michael A.; Whitney, Donna L.

    2016-01-01

    Geochronologic studies of high-pressure/low-temperature rocks can be used to determine the timing and rates of burial and exhumation in subduction zones by dating different stages of the pressure–temperature history. In this study, we present new in situ UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages from a suite of lawsonite blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks representing different protoliths (metabasalt, metasediment), different structural levels (within and outside of a high-strain zone), and different textural positions (eclogite pod core vs. margin) to understand the timing of these events in an exhumed Neo-Tethyan subduction zone (Sivrihisar Massif, Tavşanlı Zone, Turkey). Weighted mean in situ 40Ar/39Ar ages of phengite from the cores of lawsonite eclogite pods (90–93 Ma) are distinctly older than phengite from retrogressed, epidote eclogite (82 ± 2 Ma). These ages are interpreted as the age of peak and retrograde metamorphism, respectively. Eclogite records the narrowest range of ages (10–14 m.y.) of any rock type analyzed. Transitional eclogite- and blueschist-facies assemblages and glaucophane-rimmed lawsonite + garnet + phengite veins from eclogite pod margins record a much wider age range of 40Ar/39Ar ages (~20 m.y.) with weighted mean ages of ~91 Ma. Blueschists and quartzites record more variable 40Ar/39Ar ages that may in part be related to structural position: samples within a high-strain zone at the tectonic contact of the HP rocks with a meta-ultramafic unit have in situ UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar ages of 84.0 ± 1.3–103.7 ± 3.1 Ma, whereas samples outside this zone range to older ages (84.6 ± 2.4–116.7 ± 2.7 Ma) and record a greater age range (22–38 m.y.). The phengite ages can be correlated with the preservation of HP mineral assemblages and fabrics as well as the effects of deformation. Collectively, these results show that high-spatial resolution UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar phengite data, when considered

  12. Tracking the timing of subduction and exhumation using 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages in blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks (Sivrihisar, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornash, Katherine F.; Cosca, Michael A.; Whitney, Donna L.

    2016-07-01

    Geochronologic studies of high-pressure/low-temperature rocks can be used to determine the timing and rates of burial and exhumation in subduction zones by dating different stages of the pressure-temperature history. In this study, we present new in situ UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages from a suite of lawsonite blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks representing different protoliths (metabasalt, metasediment), different structural levels (within and outside of a high-strain zone), and different textural positions (eclogite pod core vs. margin) to understand the timing of these events in an exhumed Neo-Tethyan subduction zone (Sivrihisar Massif, Tavşanlı Zone, Turkey). Weighted mean in situ 40Ar/39Ar ages of phengite from the cores of lawsonite eclogite pods (90-93 Ma) are distinctly older than phengite from retrogressed, epidote eclogite (82 ± 2 Ma). These ages are interpreted as the age of peak and retrograde metamorphism, respectively. Eclogite records the narrowest range of ages (10-14 m.y.) of any rock type analyzed. Transitional eclogite- and blueschist-facies assemblages and glaucophane-rimmed lawsonite + garnet + phengite veins from eclogite pod margins record a much wider age range of 40Ar/39Ar ages (~20 m.y.) with weighted mean ages of ~91 Ma. Blueschists and quartzites record more variable 40Ar/39Ar ages that may in part be related to structural position: samples within a high-strain zone at the tectonic contact of the HP rocks with a meta-ultramafic unit have in situ UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar ages of 84.0 ± 1.3-103.7 ± 3.1 Ma, whereas samples outside this zone range to older ages (84.6 ± 2.4-116.7 ± 2.7 Ma) and record a greater age range (22-38 m.y.). The phengite ages can be correlated with the preservation of HP mineral assemblages and fabrics as well as the effects of deformation. Collectively, these results show that high-spatial resolution UV laser ablation 40Ar/39Ar phengite data, when considered in a petrologic and structural

  13. Felsic granulite with layers of eclogite facies rocks in the Bohemian Massif; did they share a common metamorphic history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Radim; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2017-08-01

    High pressure granulite and granulite gneiss from the Rychleby Mountains in the East Sudetes form an approximately 7 km long and 0.8 km wide body, which is enclosed by amphibolite facies orthogneiss with a steep foliation. Well preserved felsic granulite is located in the central part of the body, where several small bodies of mafic granulite are also present. In comparison to other high pressure granulites in the Bohemian Massif, which show strong mineral and textural re-equilibration under granulite facies conditions, the mafic granulite samples preserve eclogite facies minerals (garnet, omphacite, kyanite, rutile and phengite) and their field and textural relations indicate that both mafic and felsic granulites shared common metamorphic history during prograde eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies events. Garnet from both granulite varieties shows prograde compositional zoning and contains inclusions of phengite. Yttrium and REEs in garnet show typical bell-shaped distributions with no annular peaks near the grain rims. Investigation of major and trace elements zoning, including REEs distribution in garnet, was combined with thermodynamic modelling to constrain the early eclogite facies metamorphism and to estimate pressure-temperature conditions of the subsequent granulite facies overprint. The first (U)HP metamorphism occurred along a low geothermal gradient in a subduction-related environment from its initial stage at 0.8 GPa/460 °C and reached pressures up to 2.5 GPa at 550 °C. The subsequent granulite facies overprint (1.6-1.8 GPa/800-880 °C) affected the rocks only partially; by replacement of omphacite into diopside + plagioclase symplectite and by compositional modification of garnet rims. The mineral textures and the preservation of the eclogite facies prograde compositional zoning in garnet cores confirm that the granulite facies overprint was either too short or too faint to cause recrystallisation and homogenisation of the eclogite

  14. HIGH TEMPERATURE DISPLACEMENT SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Longxiang; Zhang Jinyu; Schweitzer Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature displacement sensor based on the principle of eddy-current is investigated. A new temperature compensation technique by using eddy-current effect is presented to satisfy the special requirement at high temperature up to 550℃. The experiment shows that the temperature compensation technique leads to good temperature stability for the sensors. The variation of the sensitivity as well as the temperature drift of the sensor with temperature compensation technique is only about 7.4% and 90~350 mV at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature, and that of the sensor without temperature compensation technique is about 31.2% and 2~3 V at 550℃ compared with that at room temperature. A new dynamic calibration method for the eddy-current displacement sensor is presented, which is very easy to be realized especially in high frequency and at high temperatures. The high temperature displacement sensors developed are successfully used at temperature up to 550℃ in a magnetic bearing system for more than 100 h.

  15. Archaean associations of volcanics, granulites and eclogites of the Belomorian province, Fennoscandian Shield and its geodynamic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabunov, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    An assembly of igneous (TTG-granitoids and S-type leucogranites and calc-alkaline-, tholeiite-, kometiite-, boninite- and adakite-series metavolcanics) and metamorphic (eclogite-, moderate-pressure (MP) granulite- and MP amphibolite-facies rocks) complexes, strikingly complete for Archaean structures, is preserved in the Belomorian province of the Fennoscandian Shield. At least four Meso-Neoarchaean different-aged (2.88-2.82; 2.81-2.78; ca. 2.75 and 2.735-2.72 Ga) calc-alkaline and adakitic subduction-type volcanics were identified as part of greenstone belts in the Belomorian province (Slabunov, 2008). 2.88-2.82 and ca. 2.78 Ga fore-arc type graywacke units were identified in this province too (Bibikova et al., 2001; Mil'kevich et al., 2007). Ca.2.7 Ga volcanics were generated in extension structures which arose upon the collapse of an orogen. The occurrence of basalt-komatiite complexes, formed in most greenstone belts in oceanic plateau settings under the influence of mantle plumes, shows the abundance of these rocks in subducting oceanic slabs. Multiple (2.82-2.79; 2.78-2.76; 2.73-2.72; 2.69-2.64 Ga) granulite-facies moderate-pressure metamorphic events were identified in the Belomorian province (Volodichev, 1990; Slabunov et al., 2006). The earliest (2.82-2.79 Ga) event is presumably associated with accretionary processes upon the formation of an old continental crust block. Two other events (2.78-2.76; 2.73-2.72 Ga) are understood as metamorphic processes in suprasubduction setting. Late locally active metamorphism is attributed to the emplacement of mafic intrusions upon orogen collapse. Three groups of crustal eclogites with different age were identified in the Belomorian province: Mesoarchaean (2.88-2.86 and 2.82-2.80 Ga) eclogites formed from MORB and oceanic plateau type basalts and oceanic high-Mg rocks (Mints et al., 2011; Shchipansky at al., 2012); Neoarchaean (2.72 Ga) eclogites formed from MORB and oceanic plateau type basalts. The formation of

  16. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  17. Geochemical Characteristics and Implications of Eclogite Gravels from Mesozoic Strata at the Northern Margin of Dabie Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双应; 岳书仓; 王道轩; 刘因; 李任伟; 孟庆任; 金福全

    2004-01-01

    The eclogite gravels, which were found in the Mesozoic Fenghuangtai and Maotanchang formations on the northern margin of the Dabie orogenic belt, are rich in K2O ( 1.21% ), ∑REE (278μg/g), and LILE (such as Rb, Ba, K, Th, etc.), with high (La/Yb)N ratios ( 14.4 ), on the basis of the analyses of major elements, rare-earth elements (REE) and trace elements. Their enrichment in LILE, notable Nb-Ta depletion through, and depletion in HFSE relative to REE in comparison with the primitive mantle and N-MORB indicate that the protoliths of the eclogite gravels were formed in an island-arc setting. According to the Th-Hf-Ta discrimination diagram, the protoliths of the eclogite gravels are characterized by volcanic arc basalts. Trace element data indicate that the subducted marine sediments were assimilated in the magma chamber, resulting in the enrichment of LILE in the protoliths. Therefore, the protoliths of the eclogite gravels are considered to have been formed in an inland-arc setting, indicating that there had developed a paleo-inland arc before Triassic collision between the North and South China blocks in the Dabie orogenic belt. There is a marked difference between the eclogite gravels and the eclogites developed along the Dabie orogenic belt, solely based on their geochemical data, especially REE. Therefore, the eclogite gravels may not be derived from eclogite terrains preserved in the Dabie orogenic belt.

  18. Laboratory earthquakes triggered during eclogitization of lawsonite-bearing blueschist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incel, Sarah; Hilairet, Nadège; Labrousse, Loïc; John, Timm; Deldicque, Damien; Ferrand, Thomas; Wang, Yanbin; Renner, Jörg; Morales, Luiz; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2017-02-01

    The origin of intermediate-depth seismicity has been debated for decades. A substantial fraction of these events occurs within the upper plane of Wadati–Benioff double seismic zones believed to represent subducting oceanic crust. We deformed natural lawsonite-rich blueschist samples under eclogite-facies conditions (1.52.5 GPa to maximum temperatures ranging from 762 to 1073 K, during which lawsonite and glaucophane became gradually unstable while entering the stability field of lawsonite–eclogite and the breakdown reaction of lawsonite was only crossed in case of the highest final temperature; ii) heating while deforming at a pressure <2 GPa to a maximum temperature of 1121 K associated with crossing the breakdown reaction of lawsonite and successively entering the stability fields of epidote–blueschist and eclogite–amphibolite but not of lawsonite–eclogite. Upon entering the Lws-Ecl stability field samples exhibited brittle failure, accompanied by the radiation of AEs. In-situ X-ray diffraction and microstructural analysis demonstrate that fractures are topologically related to the formation of omphacite. Amorphous material was detected along the fractures by transmission-electron microscopy without evidence for free-water. Since the newly formed omphacite crystals are small compared to the initial grains, we interpret the observed mechanical instability as a transformation-induced runaway under stress triggered during the transition from lawsonite–blueschist to lawsonite–eclogite. In contrast, we find no microstructural evidence that the breakdown of lawsonite, and hence the liberation of water leads to the fracturing in samples that experienced the highest quench temperatures of 1073 and 1121 K

  19. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard;

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  20. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  1. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a

  2. High-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Ajay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The present book aims at describing the phenomenon of superconductivity and high-temperature superconductors discovered by Bednorz and Muller in 1986. The book covers the superconductivity phenomenon, structure of high-Tc superconductors, critical currents, synthesis routes for high Tc materials, superconductivity in cuprates, the proximity effect and SQUIDs, theories of superconductivity and applications of superconductors.

  3. Eclogite-associated potassic silicate melts and chloride-rich fluids in the mantle: a possible connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, O.; Butvina, V.

    2009-04-01

    Relics of potassium-rich (4-14 wt. % of K2O and K2O/Na2O > 1.0) melts are a specific features of some partially molten diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths in kimberlites worldwide [1, 2]. In addition, potassic silicic melt inclusions with up to 16 wt. % of K2O are associated with eclogite phases in kimberlitic diamonds (O. Navon, pers. comm.). According to available experimental data, no such potassium contents can be reached by "dry" and hydrous melting of eclogite. These data point to close connection between infiltration of essentially potassic fluids, partial melting and diamond formation in mantle eclogites [2]. Among specific components of these fluids, alkali chlorides, apparently, play an important role. This conclusion follows from assemblages of the melt relics with chlorine-bearing phases in eclogite xenoliths [1], findings of KCl-rich inclusions in diamonds from the xenoliths [3], and concentration of Cl up to 0.5-1.5 wt. % in the melt inclusions in diamonds. In this presentation, we review our experimental data on reactions of KCl melts and KCl-bearing fluids with model and natural eclogite-related minerals and assemblages. Experiments in the model system jadeite(±diopside)-KCl(±H2O) at 4-7 GPa showed that, being immiscible, chloride liquids provoke a strong K-Na exchange with silicates (jadeite). As a result, low-temperature ultrapotassic chlorine-bearing (up to 3 wt. % of Cl) aluminosilicate melts form. These melts is able to produce sanidine, which is characteristic phase in some partially molten eclogites. In addition, in presence of water Si-rich Cl-bearing mica (Al-celadonite-phlogopite) crystallizes in equilibrium with sanidine and/or potassic melt and immiscible chloride liquid. This mica is similar to that observed in some eclogitic diamonds bearing chloride-rich fluid inclusions [4], as well as in diamonds in partially molten eclogites [2]. Interaction of KCl melt with pyrope garnet also produce potassic aluminosilicate melt because of high

  4. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 ºC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 ºC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  5. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also...... input to the cell then hydrogen is produced giving syngas. This syngas can then be further reacted to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Operating at high temperature gives much higher efficiencies than can be achieved with low temperature electrolysis. Current state of the art SOECs utilise a dense...

  6. Multi-stage barites in partially melted UHP eclogite: implications for fluid/melt activities during deep continental subduction in the Sulu orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songjie; Wang, Lu

    2015-04-01

    . Zr-in-rutile thermometry shows their formation temperature to be 586-664 oC at 1.5-2.5 GPa. Barite-bearing MS inclusions with Ba-bearing K-feldspar (type-II) connected by Kfs+Pl+Bt veinlets of in-situ phengite breakdown and thin barite veinlets along grain boundaries (type-III) are products of phengite breakdown and induced fluid flow during exhumation. These barites have witnessed the gradational separation process of melt/ fluid from miscibility on/above the second critical endpoint during UHP metamorphism, to immiscibility along the exhumation path of the subducted slab. Associated reactions from pyrite to hematite and goethite with the type-III barite ring surrounding the pyrite provide evidence for a local high oxygen fugacity environment during eclogite partial melting and subsequent melt/fluid crystallization processes. Moreover, large grain barite aggregations (type-IV) modified by amphibole+albite symplectite are most likely formed by release of molecular and hydroxyl water from anhydrous minerals of eclogite during high-grade amphibolite-facies retrogression. The growth of multi-stage barites in UHP eclogite further advances our understanding of fluid/melt transfer, crystallization processes along the subduction-exhumation path of the partially melted eclogite, broadening our knowledge of melt/fluid evolution within subduction-collision zones worldwide. REFERENCES Chen Y.X., et al., 2014, Lithos, 200, 1-21. Liu J.B., et al., 2000, Acta Petrologica Sinica 16(4), 482-484. Zeng L.S., et al., 2007, Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(21), 2995-3001. Gao X.Y., et al., 2012, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 30(2), 193-212.

  7. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  8. Strangeness at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We use up to fourth order cumulants of net strangeness fluctuations and their correlations with net baryon number fluctuations to extract information on the strange meson and baryon contribution to the low temperature hadron resonance gas, the dissolution of strange hadronic states in the crossover region of the QCD transition and the quasi-particle nature of strange quark contributions to the high temperature quark-gluon plasma phase.

  9. Ca-Eskola incorporation in clinopyroxene: limitations and petrological implications for eclogites and related rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder-Frerkes, F.; Woodland, A. B.; Uenver-Thiele, L.; Klimm, K.; Knapp, N.

    2016-12-01

    Clinopyroxene is an essential mineral in eclogitic rocks. It commonly contains minor amounts of the defect-bearing Ca-Eskola (CaEs, Ca0.5□0.5AlSi2O6) component, with higher concentrations generally considered to indicate a high-pressure origin at least within the coesite stability field. Changes in pressure and temperature conditions can lead to exsolution of this component as a free SiO2 phase, which may have a number of petrological implications. This makes it important to understand the factors that maximize CaEs incorporation in clinopyroxene. We have undertaken a series of experiments at high pressures and temperatures (4-10 GPa and 1000-1350 °C) to further investigate the systematics of CaEs incorporation in eclogite-like clinopyroxene and the factors responsible for maximizing CaEs contents. Two simple chemical systems were chosen that allow unambiguous interpretation of the results: (1) CMAS + H2O and (2) two compositions in the NCMAS system. All experimental products contained clinopyroxene and garnet along with either a free SiO2 phase or a silicate melt. Coexisting garnet is grossular-rich, generally with X gr ≥ 0.67. Compositional variations are attributable to the presence or absence of melt and changes in modal amounts of garnet at different pressure-temperature conditions. Even small amounts of H2O lower the solidus temperature and the presence of a melt reduces the SiO2 activity, which destabilizes the CaEs component in clinopyroxene. The CaEs and the Ca-Tschermaks (CaTs, CaAl2SiO6) components in clinopyroxene decrease with increasing jadeite mole fraction, which is also a function of pressure and bulk Al content. Modeling X-ray powder diffraction data yields a molar volume for the CaEs endmember of V CaEs = 60.87(63) cm3, which reasonably agrees with a literature value that was estimated from natural samples. In the presence of coexisting coesite, the CaEs and CaTs do not vary independently of each other, being controlled by the internal

  10. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  11. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  12. Volatile transfer and recycling at UHP metamorphism; constraint from CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) eclogites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K.; Iizuka, Y.; Jahn, B.; Tzeng-Fu, Y.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    -clinopyroxene-phengite (Water and Martin, 1993; Ravna and Terry, 2004) gives P = 4 GPa, and T = 850 oC, suggesting that peak P reached graphite-diamond boundary. Temperature conditions of the eclogites exceed wet solidus in MORB composition. The solidus at 3-5 GPa is defined as follows; phengite + clinopyroxene + coesite (quartz) + fluid = melt (Schmidt et al., 2004). This reaction is evidenced by the _gmelt texturEh: K-feldspar pool containing blocky quartz, clinopyroxene and graphite. The presence of graphite suggests that the eclogites released H2O-rich (CO2-poor) fluids and melt at UHP stage (Crottini and Poli, 2004).

  13. Desulfurization at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panula-Nikkilae, E.; Kurkela, E.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Two high-temperature desulfurization methods, furnace injection and gasification-desulfurization are presented. In furnace injection, the efficiency of desulfurization is 50-60%, but this method is applied in energy production plants, where flue gas desulfurization cannot be used. Ca-based sorbents are used as desulfurization material. Factors affecting desulfurization and the effect of injection on the boiler and ash handling are discussed. In energy production based on gasification, very low sulfur emissions can be achieved by conventional low-temperature cleanup. However, high-temperature gas cleaning leads to higher efficiency and can be applied to smaller size classes. Ca-, Fe-, or Zn-based sorbents or mixed metals can be used for desulfurization. Most of the methods under development are based on the use of regenerative sorbents in a cleanup reactor located outside the gasifier. So far, only calcium compounds have been used for desulfurization inside the gasifier.

  14. Raman Spectrum Study on Quartz Exsolution in Omphacite of Eclogite and Its Tectonic Significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lu; Jin Zhenmin; He Mouchun

    2003-01-01

    The studies on ultra-microstructure characteristics of quartz exsolution in eclogite and coesite in UHP eclogite of several localities are done with the appliance of laser Raman spectroscopy and Ustage. Research results show that the phase transformation of coesite-quartz in garnet and/or omphacite is a continuous process. Topological relationship is present between quartz exsolution in omphacite and its host mineral which shows orientations of two long axes of quartz exsolution parallel to (100) and (-101) of omphacite. At present, some scholars suggest that the quartz exsolution in omphacite of eclogite is the evidence of UHP metamorphism. However, temperature and pressure condition and the exsolution mechanism of oriented needlelike quartz in omphacite still remain unclear. Therefore, further study should be enhanced on experimental research on exsolution mechanism of super-silicate clinopyroxene, which could provide experimental quantitative constraint on quartz exsolution as UHP indicator.

  15. Petrogenetic relationships between jadeitite and associated high-pressure and low-temperature metamorphic rocks in worldwide jadeitite localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimori, T.; Harlow, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Jadeitite-bearing serpentinite-matrix mélange is distributed in the Caledonian (Russia), Alps-Himalayan (Italy, Iran, Greece, and Myanmar), Caribbean (Guatemala, and Cuba), and circum-Pacific (Japan, and Western USA) orogenic belts, and always contains high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) metamorphic rocks. There are also jadeitite xenoliths in kimberlitic pipes. Major occurrences consist principally of primary fluid precipitates (P-type) that infiltrated the mantle wedge, fewer occurrences document metasomatic replacement (R-type) of plagiogranite, metagabbro and eclogite, and both types may be possible in the same occurrence or system. Conditions of crystallization are difficult to constrain because of high-variance assemblages (few phases containing many components). Blueschist correlations are abundant, largely on textural grounds with respect to coexisting eclogites, however without adequate phase-assemblage constraints, jadeitite formation at eclogite conditions cannot be ruled out. Available geochronological data of both jadeitite and associated HP-LT rock show temporal discrepancies between jadeitite-formation and HT-LP metamorphism at some localities. The close association between older jadeitite and younger HP-LT rock in a single mélange complex implies different histories for the subduction channel and mélange. Jadeitite can stay at the wedge mantle for a considerable time and, as a result, experience multiple fluid-infiltration events. The subduction channel can occasionally incorporate overlying serpentinized mantle wedge material due to tectonic erosion. With time the disrupted wedge mantle containing jadeitite veins is mixed with younger blueschists, exhumed eclogites and various fragments of suprasubduction zone lithologies. Consequently, recrystallization and re-precipitation of jadeitite are reactivated along a slab-wedge mantle interface. All these possible scenarios and their combinations yield a complicated petrologic record in jadeitite

  16. High temperature superconducting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Allen M.

    1992-11-01

    The major accomplishment of this grant has been to develop techniques for the in situ preparation of high-Tc superconducting films involving the use of ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The techniques are generalizable to the growth of trilayer and multilayer structures. Films of both the DyBa2Cu3O(7-x) and YBa2Cu3O(7-x) compounds as well as the La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 compound have been grown on the usual substrates, SrTiO3, YSZ, MgO, and LaAlO3, as well as on Si substrates without any buffer layer. A bolometer has been fabricated on a thermally isolated SiN substrate coated with YSZ, an effort carried out in collaboration with Honeywell Inc. The deposition process facilitates the fabrication of very thin and transparent films creating new opportunities for the study of superconductor-insulator transitions and the investigation of photo-doping with carriers of high temperature superconductors. In addition to a thin film technology, a patterning technology has been developed. Trilayer structures have been developed for FET devices and tunneling junctions. Other work includes the measurement of the magnetic properties of bulk single crystal high temperature superconductors, and in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, measurement of electric transport properties of T1-based high-Tc films.

  17. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  18. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  19. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  20. The timing of eclogite facies metamorphism and migmatization in the Orlica–Śnieżnik complex, Bohemian Massif: Constraints from a multimethod geochronological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocker, M.; Klemd, R.; Cosca, M.; Brock, W.; Larionov, A.N.; Rodionov, N.

    2009-01-01

    The Orlica–Śnieżnik complex (OSC) is a key geological element of the eastern Variscides and mainly consists of amphibolite facies orthogneisses and metasedimentary rocks. Sporadic occurrences of eclogites and granulites record high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic conditions. A multimethod geochronological approach (40Ar–39Ar, Rb–Sr, Sm–Nd, U–Pb) has been used to gain further insights into the polymetamorphic evolution of eclogites and associated country rocks. Special attention was given to the unresolved significance of a 370- to 360 Ma age group that was repeatedly described in previous studies. Efforts to verify the accuracy of c.370 Ma K–Ar phengite and biotite dates reported for an eclogite and associated country-rock gneiss from the location Nowa Wieś suggest that these dates are meaningless, due to contamination with extraneous Ar. Extraneous Ar is also considered to be responsible for a significantly older 40Ar–39Ar phengite date of c. 455 Ma for an eclogite from the location Wojtowka. Attempts to further substantiate the importance of 370–360 Ma zircon dates as an indicator for a melt-forming high-temperature (HT) episode did not provide evidence in support of anatectic processes at this time. Instead, SHRIMP U–Pb zircon dating of leucosomes and leucocratic veins within both orthogneisses and (U)HP granulites revealed two age populations (490–450 and 345–330 Ma respectively) that correspond to protolith ages of the magmatic precursors and late Variscan anatexis. The results of this study further underline the importance of Late Carboniferous metamorphic processes for the evolution of the OSC that comprise the waning stages of HP metamorphism and lower pressure HT overprinting with partial melting. Eclogites and their country rocks provided no chronometric evidence for an UHP and ultrahigh-temperature episode at 387–360 Ma, as recently suggested for granulites from the OSC, based on Lu–Hf garnet

  1. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  2. High temperature interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozar, A., E-mail: adrian.gozar@yale.edu [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Bozovic, I. [Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T{sub c} superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T{sub c} Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  3. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozovic, Ivan [Mount Sinai, NY; Logvenov, Gennady [Port Jefferson Station, NY; Gozar, Adrian Mihai [Port Jefferson, NY

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  4. HIGH TEMPERATURE VACUUM MIXER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the creation of a new type of mixer to produce homogeneous mixtures of dissimilar materials applied to recycling of housing and communal services waste. The article describes the design of a dual-chamber device of the original high-temperature vacuum mixer, there investigated the processes occurring in the chambers of such devices. The results of theoretical and experimental research of the process of mixing recycled polyethylene with a mixture of "grinded food waste – Eco wool” are presented. The problem of the optimum choice of bending the curvilinear blades in the working volume of the seal, which is achieved by setting their profile in the form of involute arc of several circles of different radii, is examined . The dependences, allowing to define the limits of the changes of the main mode parameters the angular velocity of rotation of the working body of the mixer using two ways of setting the profile of the curvilinear blade mixer are obtained. Represented design of the mixer is proposed to use for a wide range of tasks associated with the mixing of the components with a strongly pronounced difference of physic al chemical properties and, in particular, in the production of composites out of housing and communal services waste.

  5. Melting carbonated epidote eclogites: carbonatites from subducting slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Current knowledge on the solidus temperature for carbonated eclogites suggests that carbonatitic liquids should not form from a subducted oceanic lithosphere at sub-arc depth. However, the oceanic crust includes a range of gabbroic rocks, altered on rifts and transforms, with large amounts of anorthite-rich plagioclase forming epidote on metamorphism. Epidote disappearance with pressure depends on the normative anorthite content of the bulk composition; we therefore expect that altered gabbros might display a much wider pressure range where epidote persists, potentially affecting the solidus relationships. A set of experimental data up to 4.6 GPa, and 1000 °C, including new syntheses on mafic eclogites with 36.8 % normative anorthite, is discussed to unravel the effect of variable bulk and volatile compositions in model eclogites, enriched in the normative anorthite component ( An 37 and An 45). Experiments are performed in piston cylinder and multianvil machines. Garnet, clinopyroxene, and coesite form in all syntheses. Lawsonite was found to persist at 3.7 GPa, 750 °C, with both dolomite and magnesite; at 3.8 GPa, 775-800 °C, fluid-saturated conditions, epidote coexists with kyanite, dolomite, and magnesite. The anhydrous assemblage garnet, omphacite, aragonite, and kyanite is found at 4.2 GPa, 850 °C. At 900 °C, a silicate glass of granitoid composition, a carbonatitic precipitate, and Na-carbonate are observed. Precipitates are interpreted as evidence of hydrous carbonatitic liquids at run conditions; these liquids produced are richer in Ca compared to experimental carbonatites from anhydrous experiments, consistently with the dramatic role of H2O in depressing the solidus temperature for CaCO3. The fluid-absent melting of the assemblage epidote + dolomite, enlarged in its pressure stability for An-rich gabbros, is expected to promote the generation of carbonatitic liquids. The subsolidus breakdown of epidote in the presence of carbonates at depths

  6. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  7. Ultra-High Temperature Gratings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Canning; Somnath Bandyopadhyay; Michael Stevenson; Kevin Cook

    2008-01-01

    Regenerated gratings seeded by type-Ⅰ gratings are shown to withstand temperatures beyond 1000 ℃. The method of regeneration offers a new approach to increasing temperature resistance of stable fibre Bragg and other gratings. These ultra-high temperature (UHT) gratings extend the applicability of silicate based components to high temperature applications such as monitoring of smelters and vehicle and aircraft engines to high power fibre lasers.

  8. High temperature nanoplasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabastri, Alessandro; Toma, Andrea; Malerba, Mario; De Angelis, Francesco; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-09-01

    Metallic nanostructures can be utilized as heat nano-sources which can find application in different areas such as photocatalysis, nanochemistry or sensor devices. Here we show how the optical response of plasmonic structures is affected by the increase of temperature. In particular we apply a temperature dependent dielectric function model to different nanoparticles finding that the optical responses are strongly dependent on shape and aspect-ratio. The idea is that when metallic structures interact with an electromagnetic field they heat up due to Joule effect. The corresponding temperature increase modifies the optical response of the particle and thus the heating process. The key finding is that, depending on the structures geometry, absorption efficiency can either increase or decrease with temperature. Since absorption relates to thermal energy dissipation and thus to temperature increase, the mechanism leads to positive or negative loops. Consequently, not only an error would be made by neglecting temperature but it would be not even possible to know, a priori, if the error is towards higher or lower values.

  9. Eclogitic pyroxenes, ordered with p2 symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J R; Papike, J J

    1966-11-25

    X-ray diffraction crystal-structure analysis of omphacite from eclogite, Tiburon Peninsula, Marin County, California, shows that this clinopyroxene has P2 symmetry with a nearly ordered distribution of the multiple cation content defined by its approximate formula: (Na(o.5) Ca(o.5)) (Mg(o.4)Fe(2)+( 0.1) Al(0.4) Fe(3) +(0.1)) Si(2)0(6). Na+ and Ca(2+) tend to assume alternate locations in the structure, and ( Mg,Fe(2+)) octahedra alternate with Al(3+). or (Al,F(3+)) octahedra in chains along c.

  10. Oxygen Isotope Fractionation in TiO2 Polymorphs and Application to Geothermometry of Eclogites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永飞

    1995-01-01

    Oxygen isotope fractionation in TiO2 polymorphs has been calculated by the modi-fied increment method .The results that rutile is enriched in 18O relative to brookite but depleted in 18O relative to anatase.Due to the same crystal structure ,oxygen isotope partitioning in the TiO2 polymorphs is determined by the cation-oxygen inter-atomic distances.The theoretical calibrations involving rutile are in fair agreement with known experimental measurements and empirical estimates.Application of the theoretic-cal quartz-rutile calibration to geothermometry of natural eclogite assemblages indicates the preservation of isotopic equilibrium at high temperatures.The isotopic temperatures calculated are only slightly lower than the non-isotopic temperatures,indicating the slow rates of exchange for oxygen diffusion in rutile.The kinetics of exchange for oxygen diffu-sion in rutile is accordingly estimated by reconciling the differences between the isotopic and the non-isotopic temperatures.The rates of exchange for oxygen diffusion in rutile should be smaller than those for hornblende,but may be equal to or greater than those for diopside.

  11. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  12. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and dev

  13. Eocene to Oligocene retrogression and recrystallization of the Stak eclogite in northwest Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouketsu, Yui; Hattori, Kéiko; Guillot, Stéphane; Rayner, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Highly retrogressed eclogite is present in the Stak massif located on the northern edge of the Indian continental margin in northern Pakistan. Garnet in foliated samples contains omphacite inclusions (Xjd = 0.33-0.40) and quartz inclusions and latter retain Raman spectroscopic evidence for high residual pressures up to 0.52 GPa. These garnet grains do not show apparent compositional zoning. By contrast, one sample contains euhedral grains of garnet with quartz inclusions that show residual pressures as low as 0.25 GPa. These garnet grains do not contain omphacite inclusions, and show different compositional zoning compared to the omphacite-bearing garnet. The metamorphic condition of this sample was estimated to be 1.0-1.4 GPa/650-710 °C using residual pressure values of quartz inclusions in garnets and the garnet-clinopyroxene geothermometer. The U-Pb ages of zircon grains range from 158 to 28 Ma with a cluster between at ca. 32 Ma, which is younger than that of the peak ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic ages of eclogitic massifs in the northwestern Himalaya, e.g. Kaghan and Tso Morari. We suggest that the retrogressed eclogitic rocks in the Stak massif were heated by nearby Nanga Parbat Haramosh massif at ca. 32 Ma, subsequent to peak eclogite facies conditions. During this heating, part of the eclogite was largely recrystallized to form euhedral garnet grains. These results suggest that the Stak massif resided at a lower crustal depth while other ultrahigh-pressure massifs were exhumed in western Himalaya.

  14. Early Cooling History of Eclogites from the Dabie-Sulu Orogen:Constraints from Diffusion Kinetics of Garnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Daogong; CHENG Hao

    2004-01-01

    For the first time, we apply different geospeedometric models to garnet zoning patterns that were obtained in this study from detailed EMP analyses for garnets from eclogites and granulite in the Dabie-Sulu orogen. Various zonings of cation diffusion were preserved in the garnets, enabling the acquirement of average cooling rates for the highto ultrahigh-pressure rocks without using geochronological approaches. The coesite-bearing hot eclogites yield fast cooling rates of about 20 to 30℃/Ma subsequent to peak metamorphic temperatures, whereas the cold eclogite gives a relatively slow cooling rate of 8℃/Ma at its initial exhumation. A very slow cooling rate of <0.3℃/Ma is obtained for the granulite at Huangtuling, suggesting that the granulite may not be involved in the continental deep subduction.

  15. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  16. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  17. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  18. Granulites by name but eclogite facies by formation conditions: extreme metamorphism recorded by Saxony-type granulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Brien, P. J.

    2003-04-01

    The type locality `granulite' from the Saxonian Granulitgebirge is a felsic, granitic to granodioritic rock, composed predominantly of feldspars and quartz along with minor garnet, kyanite and rutile, and exhibiting a strong mylonitic fabric. In such rocks abundant mesoperthitic K-feldspar testifies to the former presence of high temperature (>900^oC) ternary feldspar. In intermediate to mafic layers the common antiperthite, when reconstituted to its single phase precursor, yields unequivocal ultrahigh-temperature (>1000^oC) conditions by feldspar solvus thermometry. The presence of kyanite together with such feldspar requires pressures (>15 kbar) equivalent to mantle depths. In addition, orthopyroxene, where present, is demonstrably of secondary origin. Importantly, experimental results show that the position of the orthopyroxene-out reaction curve for granitic/granodioritic compositions coincides with that of the plagioclase-out reaction in rocks of quartz-tholeiite composition. This means that the orthopyroxene-free felsic `granulites' formed at conditions above those generally taken as defining the start of the eclogite facies. It has long been known that rare mafic lenses contain clinopyroxene with jadeite content approaching or even exceeding that of omphacite. The presence or absence of plagioclase in these omphacite-bearing rocks is purely a function of bulk composition: more quartz tholeiitic rocks are plagioclase-free and are thus eclogites. Likewise, tectonic lenses of garnet peridotites in the granulite massifs are a clear indicator of metamorphism at mantle depths. Recent discoveries have extended the formation depths of some of these rocks even further as coesite (in eclogite) and microdiamond (in granulites) have been discovered in the nearby Erzgebirge. Even more remarkable are consistent ca. 340 Ma zircon ages which, along with other evidence, point to exhumation rates of several mm/a. The presence of garnet peridotites, combined with the

  19. Barite in omphacite-hosted K-feldspar + quartz polycrystalline aggregates from the Sulu eclogites and its implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    K-feldspar + quartz polycrystalline aggregates were found as sub-millimeter-size inclusions with a pseudomorph after coesite (?) in omphacites from a number of Sulu eclogites. In these aggregates, round or subhedral barites occur as tiny inclusions in either K-feldspar or quartz. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses show that these barites have (1) 33.86%―41.12% SO3, 0%―34.65% SrO, and 24.12%―63.55% BaO, (2) seemingly negative linear correlations between SrO and BaO, indicating that they are ideal solid solutions of barite (BaSO4) and celestite (SrSO4), and (3) highly variable Sr/Ba molar ratios ranging from 0 to 2.1. Presence of barites in the Sulu eclogites not only indicates oxidation of the subducting continental crust, but also very limited and restricted fluids presented during exhumation of the Sulu UHP eclogites.

  20. Physico-chemical transition from peridotite assemblage to the eclogite one (experimental data at 7.0 GPa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butvina, Valentina; Litvin, Yurii

    2010-05-01

    this problem. Physico-chemical transition from peridotite assemblage to the eclogite one can be only ensured by the processes of fractional crystallization of mantle magmatic melts. The primary melting and magmatic evolution of mantle garnet lerzolite (or the Ringwood pyrolite) is controlled by a five-phase peritectics 'p' Ol+Opx+Cpx+Grt+L and four cotectic curves conjugated to it (Litvin, 1991). In melting and evolution of melts of both olivine eclogites and coesite and corundum eclogites the corresponding five-phase eutectics are of a dominant importance. A general ridge for all elementary tetrahedrons (simplexes) is a line of compositions diopside-pyrope (clinopyroxene-garnet) which bimineral eclogite assemblages belong to. The internal section En-Di-Cor of the general tetrahendric diagram (symplex complex) separates olivine-saturated and silica-saturated compositions. 'Eclogite' thermal barrier is 'thermal barrier' on (O'Hara, 1968), on the cotectic line Opx+Cpx+Grt+L, connecting 'peridotite' peritectic and 'eclogite' eutectic points. Meanwhile, at equilibrium (and fractional) crystallization of peridotite system in the peritectic point 'p' orthopyroxene vanishes as a result of the peritectic reaction 'orthopyroxene + melt - clinopyroxene' (Davis, 1963; Litvin, 1991). With further temperature decrease the composition of the remnant melt is controlled by the nonorthopyroxene cotectics Ol+Cpx+Grt+L first, in the limits of the peridotite 'simplex', but then mechanism of fractional crystallization is also realized in the limits of the olivine-eclogite 'simplex' up to the corresponding nonvariant eutectics. The considered cotectics Ol+Cpx+Grt+L is of the greatest interest from the viewpoint of a possible change of compositions of remnant melts from olivine-normative to silica-normative ones. One can assume that under the conditions of fractional melt crystallization along the cotectic curve Ol+Cpx+Grt+L together with olivine jigging accumulation of incorehent elements

  1. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  2. Mobility of major and trace elements in the eclogite-fluid system and element fluxes upon slab dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Alexandra; Zajacz, Zoltan; Ulmer, Peter; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    The equilibrium between aqueous fluids and allanite-bearing eclogite has been investigated to constrain the effect of temperature (T) and fluid composition on the stability of allanite and on the mobility of major and trace elements during the dehydration of eclogites. The experiments were performed at 590-800 °C and 2.4-2.6 GPa, and fluids were sampled as synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz using an improved entrapment technique. The concentrations and bulk partition coefficients were determined for a range of major (Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Al, Ti) and 16 trace elements as a function of T and fluid composition. The results reveal a significant effect of T on element partitioning between the fluids and the solid mineral assemblage. The partition coefficients increase by more than an order of magnitude for most of the major and trace elements, and several orders of magnitude for light rare-earth elements (LREE) from 590 to 800 °C. The addition of various ligand species into the fluid at 700 °C results in distinctive trends on element partitioning. The concentrations and corresponding partition coefficients of most of the elements are enhanced upon addition of NaF to the fluid. In contrast, NaCl displays a nearly opposite effect by suppressing the solubilities of major elements and consequently affecting the mobility of trace elements that form stable complexes with alkali-(alumino)-silicate clusters in the fluid, e.g. high field strength elements (HFSE). The results further suggest that fluids in equilibrium with orthopyroxene and/or diopsidic clinopyroxene are peralkaline (ASI ∼0.1-0.7), whereas fluids in equilibrium with omphacitic pyroxene are more peraluminous (ASI ∼1.15). Therefore, natural aqueous fluids in equilibrium with eclogite at about 90 km depth will be slightly peraluminous in composition. Another important finding of this study is the relatively high capacity of aqueous fluids to mobilize LREE, which may be even higher than that of hydrous melts.

  3. High Temperature Bell Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Research Council (NRC) has identified the need for motors and actuators that can operate in extreme high and low temperature environments as a technical...

  4. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  5. U-Pb dating on zircons for the la Borie eclogite (Haut-Allier, France) and consequences for the pre-Variscan evolution of the Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducrot, J.; Lancelot, J.R. (Montpellier-2 Univ., 44 (France). Lab. de Geochimie-Isotopique); Marchand, J. (Nantes Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Petrologie et Minerologie)

    1983-03-01

    A crystallization age of 432sub(-10)/sup +20/Ma has been determined for the 'La Borie' eclogite (Haut-Allier, France), by U-Pb dating on zircons. This age is yielded by the upper intercept with the Concordia curve. In agreement with recent dates obtained in the southern part of the Massif Central, in Brittany and in Vendee, these data indicate that the high-pressure/high-temperature-metamorphic phase representative of the pre-Variscan evolution of the western Europe, took place at the Silurian/Ordovician boundary. This high-pressure/high-temperature metamorphism could be significant of subduction processes more or less synchronous, preceeding the main continental collision responsible of the Variscan belt.

  6. ~100 Ma Lu-Hf eclogite ages from Koralpe and Saualpe (Austroalpine nappes, Austria): New constraints for the kinematics of Eoalpine subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinova, Irena; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Nagel, Thorsten; Janák, Marian; Münker, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    The Koralpe and Saualpe complexes are part of the Austroalpine basement nappe system. They represent the largest region in the Eastern Alps exposing high-pressure metamorphic rocks from the Cretaceous Eoalpine orogenic event and also contain the type locality for eclogite. The grade of the Cretaceous metamorphism in the Eastern Alps increases to the southeast, with maximum pressures and temperatures reaching up to 3.5 GPa and 850 °C in the Pohorje Mountains (Janak et al., 2015). The estimated P-T-conditions for the eclogites from Saualpe and Koralpe are 2-2.2 GPa and 600-740 °C (Miller & Thöni 1997, Thöni et al. 2008). Here we present a new Lu-Hf isotopic study of the eclogites from the Hohl locality in the southern Koralpe, and from the Grünburgerbach and Wolfsberger Hütte localities in the southern Saualpe. Two-point isochrones from samples of Hohl and Wolfsberger Hütte based on one whole rock and one garnet separate yield ages of 99.2 ± 1.1 Ma and 101.7 ± 2 Ma, respectively. Two eclogite samples from Grünburgerbach give garnet-omphacite-whole rock ages of 100.3 ± 1 Ma and 101.79 ± 0.92 Ma, identical within error. The garnets in the eclogite from Hohl display a homogenous composition with no zoning of major elements, whereas the garnets of the samples from Grünburgerbach show an enrichment of Mn in the cores and lower contents towards the rims, which indicates prograde garnet growth during increasing P and T. The ages are therefore related to burial during subduction. These new Lu-Hf garnet ages are slightly older than the Lu-Hf garnet age data from Pohorje (~95 Ma; Sandmann et al. 2011, Thöni et al. 2008), which also date burial. If Koralpe/Saualpe and Pohorje would belong to one continuous crustal unit subducted and exhumed "en bloc" in a southeast-dipping subduction zone, the opposite age difference would be expected. Our results show that this is not the case and represent important constraints for a more realistic kinematic model. Janak, M

  7. Reconstruction of seawater chemistry from deeply subducted oceanic crust; hydrogen and oxygen isotope of lawsonite eclogites preserving pillow structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamabata, D., VI; Masuyama, Y.; Tomiyasu, F.; Ueno, Y.; Yui, T. F.; Okamoto, K.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand evolution of life, change of seawater chemistry from Hadean, Archean to present is significant. Pillow structure is well-preserved in the Archean greenstone belt (e.g. Komiya et al., 1999). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope of rims in the pillow is useful conventional tool to decipher chemistry of Paleao-seawater from Archean to Present. However, Archean greenstone belt suffered regional metamorphism from greenschist to Amphibolite facies conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to testify the validity of pillow chemistry from recent (Phanerozoic) metamorphosed greenstone. We have systematically collected pillowed greenstone from blueschist and eclogites. Two eclogite exhibiting pillow structures were chosen for oxygen and hydrogen isotope analysis. One is from Corsica (lawsonite eclogite collected with Dr. Alberto Vidale Barbarone) and another is from Cazadero, Franciscan belt (collected by Dr. Tatsuki Tsujimori). The both are ascribed as MORB from major and trace bulk chemistry and Ca is rich in the core and Na is poor in the rims. The former exhibits garnet, omphacite, lawsonite, and glacophane. Phengite is in core of the pillow and chlorite is in the rims. In the latter, besides garnet, omphacite, epdiote and glaucophane, chlorite is recognized with phengite in the core. Glaucophane is richer in the rims from the both samples, therefore istope analysis of glaucophane was done. Mineral separation was carefully done using micro-mill, heavy liquid and isodynamic separator. 20 mg specimens were used for oxygen isotope analysis and 2mg were for hydrogen analysis. δ18O of the all analysis (7.7 to 8.3) is within the range of unaltered igneous oceanic crust and high temperature hydrothermal alteration although rims (8.3 for Franciscan and 8.0 for Corsica) are higher than cores (7.7 for Franciscan and Corsica). δD data is also consistent with hydrothermal alteration. It is relative higher in core from the Corsica and Franciscan (-45 and -56) than of the

  8. P-T-time-isotopic evolution of coesite-bearing eclogites: Implications for exhumation processes in SW Tianshan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhou; Agard, Philippe; Gao, Jun; John, Timm; Li, JiLei; Jiang, Tuo; Bayet, Léa; Wang, XinShui; Zhang, Xi

    2017-05-01

    The Chinese Southwestern Tianshan high- to ultra-high pressure low temperature (HP-UHP/LT) metamorphic belt exhibits well-preserved mafic layers, tectonic blocks/slices and boudins of different sizes and lithology embedded within dominant meta-volcanosedimentary rocks. Despite a wealth of previous studies on UHP relicts, P-T path estimates and age constraints for metamorphism, controversies still exist on P-T-t assessments and regional exhumation patterns (i.e., tectonic mélange versus internally coherent ;sub-belt; model). This study focuses on a group of coesite-bearing eclogite samples from a thick ( 5 m) layered metabasalt outcrop in order to unravel its detailed tectono-metamorphic evolution through space and time (both prograde, peak and exhumation). Using SIMS zircon U-Pb and oxygen isotope analyses, TIMS Sm-Nd multi-point isochron dating, in situ laser-ICP-MS trace-element analyses, classical thermobarometry and thermodynamic modeling, we link the multistage zircon growth to garnet growth and reconstruct a detailed P-T-time-isotopic evolution history for this UHP tectonic slice: from UHP peak burial 2.95 ± 0.2 GPa, 510 ± 20 °C around 318.0 ± 2.3 Ma to HP peak metamorphism 2.45 ± 0.2 GPa, 540 ± 20 °C at 316.8 ± 0.8 Ma, then, with eclogite-facies deformation 2.0 ± 0.15 GPa, 525 ± 25 °C at 312 ± 2.5 Ma, exhumed to near surface within ca. 303 to ca. 280 Ma. Our P-T-time-isotopic results combined with the compilation of regional radiometric data and P-T estimates notably point to the existence of a short-lived period of rock detachment and exhumation (< 10 Ma, i.e. at ca. 315 ± 5 Ma) with respect to subduction duration.

  9. Gallium phosphide high temperature diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, R. J.; Dawson, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature (300 C) diodes for geothermal and other energy applications were developed. A comparison of reverse leakage currents of Si, GaAs, and GaP was made. Diodes made from GaP should be usable to 500 C. A Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) process for producing high quality, grown junction GaP diodes is described. This process uses low vapor pressure Mg as a dopant which allows multiple boat growth in the same LPE run. These LPE wafers were cut into die and metallized to make the diodes. These diodes produce leakage currents below ten to the -9th power A/sq cm at 400 C while exhibiting good high temperature rectification characteristics. High temperature life test data is presented which shows exceptional stability of the V-I characteristics.

  10. RPC operation at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Stante, L; Liberti, B; Paoloni, A; Pastori, E; Santonico, R

    2003-01-01

    The resistive electrodes of RPCs utilised in several current experiments (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, BABAR and ARGO) are made of phenolic /melaminic polymers, with room temperature resistivities ranging from 10**1**0 Omega cm, for high rate operation in avalanche mode, to 5 multiplied by 10**1**1 Omega cm, for streamer mode operation at low rate. The resistivity has however a strong temperature dependence, decreasing exponentially with increasing temperature. We have tested several RPCs with different electrode resistivities in avalanche as well as in streamer mode operation. The behaviours of the operating current and of the counting rate have been studied at different temperatures. Long-term operation has also been studied at T = 45 degree C and 35 degree C, respectively, for high and low resistivity electrodes RPCs.

  11. Temperature optimization of high con

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sabry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Active cooling is essential for solar cells operating under high optical concentration ratios. A system comprises four solar cells that are in thermal contact on top of a copper tube is proposed. Water is flowing inside the tube in order to reduce solar cells temperature for increasing their performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation of such system has been performed in order to investigate the effect of water flow rate, tube internal diameter, and convective heat transfer coefficient on the temperature of the solar cells. It is found that increasing convective heat transfer coefficient has a significant effect on reducing solar cells temperatures operating at low flow rates and high optical concentration ratios. Also, a further increase of water flow rate has no effect on reducing cells temperatures.

  12. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  13. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...... temperature allows for utilization of the excess heat for fuel processing. Moreover, it provides an excellent CO tolerance of several percent, and the system needs no purification of hydrogen from a reformer. Continuous service for over 6 months at 150°C has been demonstrated....

  14. Interface high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2016-12-01

    Cuprate high-temperature superconductors consist of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) substructures: CuO2 superconducting layers and charge reservoir layers. The superconductivity is realized by charge transfer from the charge reservoir layers into the superconducting layers without chemical dopants and defects being introduced into the latter, similar to modulation-doping in the semiconductor superlattices of AlGaAs/GaAs. Inspired by this scheme, we have been searching for high-temperature superconductivity in ultra-thin films of superconductors epitaxially grown on semiconductor/oxide substrates since 2008. We have observed interface-enhanced superconductivity in both conventional and unconventional superconducting films, including single atomic layer films of Pb and In on Si substrates and single unit cell (UC) films of FeSe on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity with a superconducting gap of ∼20 meV in 1UC-FeSe/STO has stimulated tremendous interest in the superconductivity community, for it opens a new avenue for both raising superconducting transition temperature and understanding the pairing mechanism of unconventional high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review mainly the experimental progress on interface-enhanced superconductivity in the three systems mentioned above with emphasis on 1UC-FeSe/STO, studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and transport experiments. We discuss the roles of interfaces and a possible pairing mechanism inferred from these studies.

  15. High-Temperature Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2010-01-01

    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  16. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  17. High temperature polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Tito T. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) Characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  18. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Wate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  19. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Sivan, Yonatan

    2016-01-01

    We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on {\\em experimentally}-measured data for the metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution, and thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modelling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high temperature non...

  20. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Yonatan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  1. Nonlinear plasmonics at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Yonatan; Chu, Shi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    We solve the Maxwell and heat equations self-consistently for metal nanoparticles under intense continuous wave (CW) illumination. Unlike previous studies, we rely on experimentally-measured data for metal permittivity for increasing temperature and for the visible spectral range. We show that the thermal nonlinearity of the metal can lead to substantial deviations from the predictions of the linear model for the temperature and field distribution and, thus, can explain qualitatively the strong nonlinear scattering from such configurations observed experimentally. We also show that the incompleteness of existing data of the temperature dependence of the thermal properties of the system prevents reaching a quantitative agreement between the measured and calculated scattering data. This modeling approach is essential for the identification of the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the thermo-optical nonlinearity of the metal and should be adopted in all applications of high-temperature nonlinear plasmonics, especially for refractory metals, for both CW and pulsed illumination.

  2. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase equilibria and microstructural stability consideration haverestricted the use of conventional titanium alloys up to about 600 "C, alloys based on TiPl (or,, E,AINb (0, TiAl (y, and titaniumltitanium aluminides-based composites offer a possibility ofquantum jump in the temperature capability of titanium alloys.

  3. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  4. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, C. M.; Wu, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb/sub 3/Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take.

  5. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-08-08

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  6. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jae Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined.

  7. High Temperature Sorbents for Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A sorbent capable of removing trace amounts of oxygen (ppt) from a gas stream at a high temperature above 200 C is introduced. The sorbent comprises a porous alumina silicate support such as zeolite containing from 1 to 10 percent by weight of ion exchanged transition metal such as copper or cobalt ions and 0.05 to 1.0 percent by weight of an activator selected from a platinum group metal such as platinum. The activation temperature, oxygen sorption and reducibility are all improved by the presence of the platinum activator.

  8. High-temperature beryllium embrittlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 189631 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bagautdinov, R.M. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Goncharenko, Yu.D. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    The neutron irradiation effect on the mechanical properties, swelling and fracture surface structure of various beryllium grades was studied in the BOR-60 reactor at 340 to 350 C up to a fluence of 7.2 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. At a mechanical testing temperature of 400 C there was observed a strong anisotropy of plastic beryllium deformation depending on the direction of sample cutting relative to the pressing direction. An increase of the testing temperature up to 700 C resulted in an abrupt embrittlement of all irradiated samples. In the most part of the surface structure the intercrystallite fracture along the grain boundaries was covered entirely with large pores, 1 to 4 {mu}m in size. It was suggested that the increased rate of pore formation along the grain boundaries resulted from a high-temperature embrittlement under irradiation. (orig.).

  9. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  10. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  11. Motor for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  12. High temperature catalytic membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Current state-of-the-art inorganic oxide membranes offer the potential of being modified to yield catalytic properties. The resulting modules may be configured to simultaneously induce catalytic reactions with product concentration and separation in a single processing step. Processes utilizing such catalytically active membrane reactors have the potential for dramatically increasing yield reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity. Examples of commercial interest include hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, partial and selective oxidation, hydrations, hydrocarbon cracking, olefin metathesis, hydroformylation, and olefin polymerization. A large portion of the most significant reactions fall into the category of high temperature, gas phase chemical and petrochemical processes. Microporous oxide membranes are well suited for these applications. A program is proposed to investigate selected model reactions of commercial interest (i.e. dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene and dehydrogenation of butane to butadiene) using a high temperature catalytic membrane reactor. Membranes will be developed, reaction dynamics characterized, and production processes developed, culminating in laboratory-scale demonstration of technical and economic feasibility. As a result, the anticipated increased yield per reactor pass economic incentives are envisioned. First, a large decrease in the temperature required to obtain high yield should be possible because of the reduced driving force requirement. Significantly higher conversion per pass implies a reduced recycle ratio, as well as reduced reactor size. Both factors result in reduced capital costs, as well as savings in cost of reactants and energy.

  13. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...

  14. Adakitic (tonalitic-trondhjemitic) magmas resulting from eclogite decompression and dehydration melting during exhumation in response to continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuguang; Niu, Yaoling; Su, Li; Wei, Chunjing; Zhang, Lifei

    2014-04-01

    Modern adakite or adakitic rocks are thought to result from partial melting of younger and thus warmer subducting ocean crust in subduction zones, with the melt interacting with or without mantle wedge peridotite during ascent, or from melting of thickened mafic lower crust. Here we show that adakitic (tonalitic-trondhjemitic) melts can also be produced by eclogite decompression during exhumation of subducted and metamorphosed oceanic/continental crust in response to continental collision, as exemplified by the adakitic rocks genetically associated with the early Paleozoic North Qaidam ultra-high pressure metamorphic (UHPM) belt on the northern margin of the Greater Tibetan Plateau. We present field evidence for partial melting of eclogite and its products, including adakitic melt, volumetrically significant plutons evolved from the melt, cumulate rocks precipitated from the melt, and associated granulitic residues. This “adakitic assemblage” records a clear progression from eclogite decompression and heating to partial melting, to melt fractionation and ascent/percolation in response to exhumation of the UHPM package. The garnetite and garnet-rich layers in the adakitic assemblage are of cumulate origin from the adakitic melt at high pressure, and accommodate much of the Nb-Ta-Ti. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating shows that partial melting of the eclogite took place at ∼435-410 Ma, which postdates the seafloor subduction (>440 Ma) and temporally overlaps the UHPM (∼440-425 Ma). While the geological context and the timing of adakite melt formation we observe differ from the prevailing models, our observations and documentations demonstrate that eclogite melting during UHPM exhumation may be important in contributing to crustal growth.

  15. Temperature uniformity mapping in a high pressure high temperature reactor using a temperature sensitive indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwet, T.; Plancken, van der I.; Vervoort, L.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the first prototype ovomucoid-based pressure–temperature–time indicator (pTTI) for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing was described. However, for temperature uniformity mapping of high pressure (HP) vessels under HPHT sterilization conditions, this prototype needs to be optim

  16. Brittle/Ductile deformation at depth during continental crust eclogitization (Mont-Emilius klippe, Western Internal Alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertgen, Solenn; Yamato, Philippe; Morales, Luiz; Angiboust, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Eclogitic rocks are important for understanding tectonics at large scale as they provide key constraints on both the evolution (P-T-t-ɛ paths) and the deformation modes of the crust along the subduction interface. We herein focus our study on eclogitized mafic dykes remnants exposed within granulites from the continental basement silver of the Mt. Emilius klippe (Western Internal Alps, Italy). These eclogites exhibit highly deformed garnetite and clinopyroxenite levels. In some places, these rocks with a ± mylonitic aspect can be found as clasts within meter-thick brecciated fault rocks formed close to metamorphic peak conditions in eclogite facies. Especially, the garnet-rich levels tend to behave in a brittle fashion while deformation within clinopyroxene-rich levels is mostly accommodated by creep. This is evidenced by the presence of elongated grains, subgrain boundaries and intense grain size reduction close to rigid garnets. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements in garnets indicate a quasi-random distribution. In most of the clinopyroxenes levels nevertheless, the CPO is relatively strong, with multiples of uniform distribution varying from 4 to 5.5 (value of 1 is random texture). This CPO is characterized by a strong alignment of poles (001) parallel to the lineation and (100) and [010] distributed along girdles cross-cutting the foliation plane. Our study thus attests that the materials along the subduction interface at P~2.0-2.5 GPa and T~500-550°C can locally be brittle where deformation is classically envisioned as ductile. In addition to this deformation analysis, we present a petrological study of these eclogites, from the outcrop to the microscopic scale, tracking the chemical evolution associated to the observed deformation. Based on all these data, we finally propose a tectono-metamorphic history for these rocks allowing to explain the co-existence of ductile and brittle features developed in the same metamorphic facies, and

  17. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  18. Partially Melted UHP Eclogite in the Sulu Orogenic Belt, China and its rheological significance to deep continental subduction: Micro- to Macro-scale Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Kusky, Timothy; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Jiang, Xingfu; Zong, Keqing; Wang, Junpeng; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin

    2015-04-01

    Partially Melted UHP Eclogite in the Sulu Orogenic Belt, China and its rheological significance to deep continental subduction: Micro- to Macro-scale Evidence Numerous studies have described partial melting processes in low-high pressure meta-sedimentary rocks, some of which may generate melts that coalesce to form plutons. However, migmatized ultrahigh pressure (UHP) eclogite has never been clearly described from the microscale to macroscale, though experimental studies prove dehydration partial melting of eclogite at high pressure condition1 and low degrees of partially melted eclogite have been reported from the Qaidam UHP orogenic belt in NW China2,3 or inferred from multiphase solid (MS) inclusions within eclogite4 in the Sulu UHP belt. We present field-based documentation of decompression partial melting of UHP eclogite from Yangkou and General's Hill, Sulu Orogen. Migmatized eclogite shows successive stages of anatexis, initially starting from intragranular and grain boundary melt droplets, which grow into a 3D interconnected intergranular network, then segregate and accumulate in pressure shadow areas, and finally merge to form melt channels and dikes that transport melts to upper lithospheric levels. In-situ phengite breakdown-induced partial melting is directly identified by MS inclusions of Kfs+ barium-bearing Kfs + Pl in garnet, connected by 4-10 μm wide veinlets consisting of Bt + Kfs + Pl next to the phengite. Intergranular veinlets of plagioclase + K-feldspar first form isolated beads of melt along grain boundaries and triple junctions of quartz, and with higher degrees of melting, eventually form interconnected 3D networks along grain boundaries in the leucosome, allowing melt to escape from the intergranular realm and collect in low-stress areas. U-Pb (zircon) dating and petrological analyses on residue and leucocratic rocks shows that partial melting occurred at 228-219 Ma, shortly after peak UHP metamorphism (~230 Ma), and at depths of 30-90 km

  19. Melt-peridotite reactions in upwelling EM1-type eclogite bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    the Payenia volcanic province (34–38 °S) in Argentina, for which Sr, Nd and double-spike Pb isotope ratios are presented, and from other north Patagonian volcanic fields may provide details of the eclogite melt–peridotite reactions taking place in the melting column of an upwelling OIB-type mantle....... The isotopic composition of the uncontaminated lavas is highly restricted but the Payenia basalts fall in two distinct trace element groups termed the high and low Nb/U groups, which both have EM1-type trace element patterns but with subtle differences that cannot be explained by contamination, fractionation...

  20. High Temperature Radio Frequency Loads

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Grudiev, A; Montesinos, E; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy saving and recovery requirements the design of reliable and robust RF power loads which permit a high outlet temperature and high pressure of the cooling water is desirable. Cooling water arriving at the outlet withmore than 150 ◦C and high pressure has a higher value than water with 50 ◦C under low pressure. Conventional RF power loads containing dielectric and magnetic materials as well as sensitive ceramic windows usually do not permit going much higher than 90 ◦C. Here we present and discuss several design concepts for "metal only" RF high power loads. One concept is the application of magnetic steel corrugated waveguides near cutoff – this concept could find practical use above several GHz. Another solution are resonant structures made of steel to be installed in large waveguides for frequencies of 500 MHz or lower. Similar resonant structures above 100 MHz taking advantage of the rather high losses of normal steel may also be used in coaxial line geometries with large di...

  1. Petrology of HP metamorphic veins in coesite-bearing eclogite from western Tianshan, China: Fluid processes and elemental mobility during exhumation in a cold subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Zeng; Zhang, Lifei; Du, Jinxue; Yang, Xin; Tian, Zuolin; Xia, Bin

    2012-04-01

    A petrological study was carried out for high pressure (HP) veins which cut through the host coesite-bearing eclogites at Habutengsu-Kebuerte in western Tianshan, China. The results place constraints on the origin and property of metamorphic fluids during subduction-zone metamorphism. Omphacite-, clinozoisite- and quartz-dominated veins occur on centimeter to meter scales within lens-shaped and layered eclogites, or cutting into the country rocks of garnet phengite schists. Coesite-bearing eclogites mainly consist of fibrous fine-grained omphacite and porphyroblastic garnet, with minor amounts of amphibole (mainly barroisite), clinozoisite, white mica (mainly paragonite) and rutile. The veins are pronouncedly coarse-grained compared to the host eclogites and commonly consist of quartz, clinozosite, rutile, white mica (phengite and paragonite) and garnet, with or without omphacite, titanite, apatite, carbonate (mainly dolomite) and glaucophane. Fluid inclusions are abundant in vein omphacite, titanite and apatite, but are rare in the equivalent minerals of host eclogites. Rounded vein garnets usually occur close to the sharp interface of vein and host eclogite. Omphacite in the veins is characterized by its euhedral form surrounded by quartz, or coarse bladed aggregates in contrast to the fibrous or patchy one, suggesting dynamic recrystallization in the host rocks. Omphacite in both veins and host eclogites has similar jadeite contents (Jd40-50), indicating formation at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. Vein phengite uniformly contains certain amounts of Ba with maximum BaO content of 3.16-4.25 wt.%, suggesting that Ba was mobilized during the exhumation of UHP rocks. Specific textures of vein minerals, such as the enclosure of magnesite (or calcite) in dolomite, rutile in titanite, and the occurrence of zoned Ba-rich phengite, indicate the chemical variability of channelized fluids over time. Based on Zr content in rutile and the presence of paragonite

  2. Eclogitic Diamond Inclusions from the Komsomolskaya Pipe, Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinova, A.; Taylor, L. A.; Sovolev, N. V.; Floss, C.

    2005-12-01

    Mineral inclusions from diamonds (DIs) provide important constraints on the conditions prevailing at the time of the diamond's formation. Diamonds from all major operating mines of Yakutia, including the Mir, Udachnaya, Sytykanskaya, and Aykhal, contain an extremely high ratio of U/P (ultramafic/peridotitic) type inclusions versus E (eclogitic) type - i.e., '99/1' for the -3+1 mm-size fraction - based upon prior study (Yefimova and Sobolev, 1977, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 237). However, the recently developed Komsomolskaya mine has attracted special attention because of the first discovery of majoritic (Si = 3.13 pfu) E-type garnet inclusions among Yakutian diamonds, as well as for the unusually high proportion of E-type garnet DIs, reaching 15% (Sobolev et al., 2004, Lithos, 77). All the mines mentioned above have a narrow emplacement-age range within 344-365 Ma (Agashev et al., 2004, Dokl. Earth Sci., 399). We report here major- and trace-element variations in eclogitic DIs from 30 Komsomolskaya diamonds. Most of these DIs were studied in-situ, on a single polished surface of each diamond. About half of these samples contain multiple inclusions, with up to 4 grains of garnet and/or omphacite in a single diamond. Only one DI of touching grains of omphacite + coesite was detected, but another sample contains isolated coesite and omphacite DIs. Kyanite associated with high Ca-garnet was also found. Examination of the diamond polished surfaces with CL reveals relative times-of-encapsulation for the multiple DIs. All multiple DIs in a single diamond have similar major-element contents. However, between diamonds, the garnet inclusions have a wide range of 3.5 to 16.2 wt.% CaO, a span that covers practically the entire range of E-type DIs worldwide. Omphacites from 15 samples, however, possess a restricted compositional range in Na2O from 3.75 to 6.18 wt% only. Significant variations in trace elements occur in both garnets and pyroxenes in these DIs. Garnets range in Y, 24

  3. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc

    2016-11-10

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  4. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  5. High temperature control rod assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, Russell E. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  6. High temperature autoclave vacuum seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. R.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Aluminum sheet forms effective sealing film at temperatures up to 728 K. Soft aluminum wire rings provide positive seal between foil and platen. For applications at temperatures above aluminum's service temperature, stainless steel is used as film material and copper wire as sealant.

  7. Temperature Dependent Residual Stress Models for Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramics on High Temperature Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruzhuan; Li, Weiguo

    2016-11-01

    The strength of SiC-depleted layer of ultra-high-temperature ceramics on high temperature oxidation degrades seriously. The research for residual stresses developed within the SiC-depleted layer is important and necessary. In this work, the residual stress evolutions in the SiC-depleted layer and the unoxidized substrate in various stages of oxidation are studied by using the characterization models. The temperature and oxidation time dependent mechanical/thermal properties of each phase in SiC-depleted layer are considered in the models. The study shows that the SiC-depleted layer would suffer from large tensile stresses due to the great temperature changes and the formation of pores on high temperature oxidation. The stresses may lead to the cracking and even the delamination of the oxidation layer.

  8. Temperature Dependent Residual Stress Models for Ultra-High-Temperature Ceramics on High Temperature Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruzhuan; Li, Weiguo

    2017-08-01

    The strength of SiC-depleted layer of ultra-high-temperature ceramics on high temperature oxidation degrades seriously. The research for residual stresses developed within the SiC-depleted layer is important and necessary. In this work, the residual stress evolutions in the SiC-depleted layer and the unoxidized substrate in various stages of oxidation are studied by using the characterization models. The temperature and oxidation time dependent mechanical/thermal properties of each phase in SiC-depleted layer are considered in the models. The study shows that the SiC-depleted layer would suffer from large tensile stresses due to the great temperature changes and the formation of pores on high temperature oxidation. The stresses may lead to the cracking and even the delamination of the oxidation layer.

  9. Seismic properties of lawsonite eclogites from the southern Motagua fault zone, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyeong; Wallis, Simon; Endo, Shunsuke; Ree, Jin-Han

    2016-05-01

    We present new data on the crystal preferred orientation (CPO) and seismic properties of omphacite and lawsonite in extremely fresh eclogite from the southern Motagua fault zone, Guatemala, to discuss the seismic anisotropy of subducting oceanic crust. The CPO of omphacite is characterized by (010)[001], and it shows P-wave seismic anisotropies (AVP) of 1.4%-3.2% and S-wave seismic anisotropies (AVS) of 1.4%-2.7%. Lawsonite exhibits (001) planes parallel to the foliation and [010] axes parallel to the lineation, and seismic anisotropies of 1.7%-6.6% AVP and 3.4%-14.7% AVS. The seismic anisotropy of a rock mass consisting solely of omphacite and lawsonite is 1.2%-4.1% AVP and 1.8%-6.8% AVS. For events that propagate more or less parallel to the maximum extension direction, X, the fast S-wave velocity (VS) polarization is parallel to the Z in the Y-Z section (rotated from the X-Z section), causing trench-normal seismic anisotropy for orthogonal subduction. Based on the high modal abundance and strong fabric of lawsonite, the AVS of eclogites is estimated as ~ 11.7% in the case that lawsonite makes up ~ 75% of the rock mass. On this basis, we suggest that lawsonite in both blueschist and eclogite may play important roles in the formation of complex pattern of seismic anisotropy observed in NE Japan: weak trench-parallel anisotropy in the forearc basin domains and trench-normal anisotropy in the backarc region.

  10. Fast fluid-flow events within a subduction-related vein system in oceanic eclogite: implications for pore fluid pressure at the plate interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taetz, Stephan; John, Timm; Bröcker, Michael; Spandler, Carl; Stracke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    A better understanding of the subduction zone fluid cycle and its mechanical feedback requires in-depth knowledge of how fluids flow within and out of the descending slabs. In order to develop reliable quantitative models of fluid flow, the general relationship between dehydration reactions, fluid pathway formation, and the dimensions and timescales of distinct fluid flow events have to be explored. The high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Pouébo Eclogite Mélange in New Caledonia provide an excellent opportunity to study the fluid flux in a subduction zone setting. Fluid dynamics are recorded by high-pressure veins that cross-cut eclogite facies mélange blocks from this occurrence. Two types of garnet-quartz-phengite veins can be distinguished. These veins record both synmetamorphic internal fluid release by mineral breakdown reactions (type I veins) as well as infiltration of an external fluid (type II veins) and the associated formation of a reaction halo. The overall dehydration, fluid accumulation and fluid migration documented by the type I veins occurred on a timescale of 10^5-106 years that is mainly given by the geometry and convergence rate of the subduction system. In order to quantify the timeframe of fluid-rock interaction between the external fluid and the wall-rock, we have applied Li-isotope chronology. A continuous profile was sampled perpendicular to a type II vein including material from the vein, the reaction selvage and the immediate host rock. Additional drill cores were taken from parts of the outcrop that most likely remained completely unaffected by fluid infiltration-induced alteration. Different Li concentrations in the internal and external fluid reservoirs produced a distinct diffusion profile of decreasing Li concentration and increasing δ7Li as the reaction front propagated into the host-rock. Li-chronometric constraints indicate that fluid-rock interaction related to the formation of the type II veins and had

  11. High-temperature thermocouples and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Joy L.; Knudson, Darrell L.; Condie, Keith G.; Wilkins, S. Curt

    2011-01-18

    A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

  12. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  13. High temperature suppression of dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Chen, Tong; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-03-01

    Combined Sulphur-Nitrogen inhibitors, such as sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG), thiourea and amidosulphonic acid have been observed to suppress the de novo synthesis of dioxins effectively. In this study, the inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation from model fly ash was investigated at unusually high temperatures (650 °C and 850 °C), well above the usual range of de novo tests (250-400 °C). At 650 °C it was found that SDG evolving from dried sewage sludge could suppress the formation of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs with high efficiency (90%), both in weight units and in I-TEQ units. Additionally, at 850 °C, three kinds of sulphur-amine or sulphur-ammonium compounds were tested to inhibit dioxins formation during laboratory-scale tests, simulating municipal solid waste incineration. The suppression efficiencies of PCDD/Fs formed through homogeneous gas phase reactions were all above 85% when 3 wt. % of thiourea (98.7%), aminosulphonic acid (96.0%) or ammonium thiosulphate (87.3%) was added. Differences in the ratio of PCDFs/PCDDs, in weight average chlorination level and in the congener distribution of the 17 toxic PCDD/Fs indicated that the three inhibitors tested followed distinct suppression pathways, possibly in relation to their different functional groups of nitrogen. Furthermore, thiourea reduced the (weight) average chlorinated level. In addition, the thermal decomposition of TUA was studied by means of thermogravimetry-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the presence of SO2, SO3, NH3 and nitriles (N≡C bonds) was shown in the decomposition gases; these gaseous inhibitors might be the primary dioxins suppressants.

  14. High temperature power electronics for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Baumann, Eric D.; Myers, Ira T.; Overton, Eric

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature electronics program at NASA Lewis Research Center focuses on dielectric and insulating materials research, development and testing of high temperature power components, and integration of the developed components and devices into a demonstrable 200 C power system, such as inverter. An overview of the program and a description of the in-house high temperature facilities along with experimental data obtained on high temperature materials are presented.

  15. High Temperature Chemistry at NASA: Hot Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    High Temperature issues in aircraft engines Hot section: Ni and Co based Superalloys Oxidation and Corrosion (Durability) at high temperatures. Thermal protection system (TPS) and RCC (Reinforced Carbon-Carbon) on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. High temperatures in other worlds: Planets close to their stars.

  16. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  17. Correlated carbon and oxygen isotope signatures in eclogitic diamonds with coesite inclusions: A SIMS investigation of diamonds from Guaniamo, Argyle and Orapa mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, D. J.; Page, Z.; Harte, B.; Valley, J.; Channer, D.; Jaques, L.

    2006-12-01

    Using ion microprobes and secondary-ion mass spectrometry we have analyzed the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of eclogite-suite diamonds and their coesite inclusions, respectively, from three suites of diamonds of Proterozoic age. Extremely high (for the mantle) oxygen isotope values (delta 18O of +10.2 to +16.9 per mil VSMOW) are preserved in coesites included in eclogitic diamonds from Guaniamo, Venezuela (Schulze et al., Nature, 2003), providing compelling evidence for an origin of their eclogite hosts by subduction of sea water altered ocean floor basalts. In situ SIMS analyses of their host diamonds yield carbon isotope values (delta 13C) of -12 to -18 per mil PDB. SIMS analyses of coesite inclusions from Argyle, Australia diamonds previously analyzed by combustion methods for d13C composition (Jaques et al., Proc. 4th Kimb. Conf, 1989), also yield anomalously high d18O values (+6.8 to +16.0 per mil VSMOW), that correlate with the anomalously low carbon isotope values (-10.3 to -14.1 per mil PDB). One coesite-bearing diamond from Orapa, Botswana analyzed in situ by SIMS has a d18O value of the coesite of +8.5 per mil VSMOW and a d13C value of the adjacent diamond host of -9.0 per mil PDB. A second Orapa stone has a SIMS carbon isotope compositional range of d13C = -14 to -16 per mil PDB, but the coesite is too small for ion probe analysis. At each of these localities, carbon isotope values of coesite-bearing diamonds that are lower than typical of mantle carbon are correlated with oxygen isotope compositions of included coesites that are substantially above the common mantle oxygen isotope range. Such results are not in accord with diamond genesis models involving formation of eclogitic diamonds from igneous melts undergoing fractionation in the mantle or by crystallization from primordial inhomogeneities in Earth's mantle. By analogy with the oxygen isotope compositions of altered ocean floor basalts and Alpine (subduction zone) eclogites they are

  18. Formation Depth Estimation of Coesite-Bearing Eclogite in Dabie UHPM Zone,China:Constrained by Isotopic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Tiping

    2004-01-01

    The formation depth of metamorphic rocks in the Dabie ultrahigh pressure metamorphic (UHPM) zone influences not only our understanding of formation mechanism and evolution processes of collision orogenic belt, but also the studies on earth's interior and geodynamic processes. In this study, the isotopic data of metamorphic rocks in the Dabie UHPM zone are discussed to give constraints on the formation depth in the Dabie UHPM zone. The εSr of eclogite in the Dabie UHPM zone varies from 18 to 42, and the εNd varies from -6.1 to -17, both of them show the characters of isotopic disequilibrium. The oxygen isotope studies indicate that the protoliths of these UHPM rocks have experienced oxygen isotope exchange with meteoric water (or sea water) before metamorphism and no significant changes in the processes of metamorphism on their oxygen isotope composition have been recorded in these rocks. Except for one sample from Bixiling, all samples of eclogite from Dabie UHPM zone show the 3He/4He ratios from 0.79×10-7 to 9.35×10-7, indicating the important contribution of He from continental crust. All Sr, Nd, O and He isotopic studies indicate that the UHPM rocks retain the isotopic characteristics of their protoliths of crust origin. No significant influence of mantle materials has been found in these metamorphic rocks. Trying to explain above isotopic characteristics, some researchers assume that the speeds of dipping thrust and uplifting of rocks were both very high. In this condition, there will not be enough time for isotopic exchange between crust protolith and mantle materials. Therefore, we can not see the tracer of mantle materials in these UHPM rocks. However, this assumption can not be justified with available knowledge. Firstly, it was estimated that the whole process of UHPM took at least 15 Ma. During such a long period, and at the metamorphic temperature of ≥700 ℃, the protolith of crust origin can not escape from isotopic exchange with mantle materials

  19. Amphibolitization of eclogites in a subduction channel (Sistan belt, E. Iran): Monitoring changes in fluid composition during exhumation and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Melanie; Angiboust, Samuel; Pourteau, Amaury; Omrani, Jafar

    2016-04-01

    Fluids released from subducting slabs are important for improving our understanding of mass transfer within subduction zones. Eclogites from the Sistan ophiolitic suture zone (eastern Iran) have a well preserved structure and a rather simple metamorphic history, making them an interesting target to monitor changing in fluid composition throughout their journey from eclogite-facies conditions towards the surface. The Sistan suture formed by the closure of a branch of the Neotethys during Cretaceous times. It comprises a stack of tectonic slices detached from various depths of this paleo-subduction complex. One of these slices is made of 10-meter sized blocks of eclogite wrapped by serpentinite schist (Angiboust et al., 2013). The eclogite assemblage (~550°C, 2.4 GPa), only visible in exposed block cores, has been strongly retrogressed by an amphibolite-facies paragenesis (~650°C, 1.2 GPa). The thermal overprint during exhumation has been ascribed to the juxtaposition of this unit to the overlying sub-continental serpentinized mantle. In the present study, one of the eclogitic blocks has been investigated for chemical changes associated with the amphibolitisation of the eclogite, in order to get an idea about the geochemical signature of retrograde fluids. Petrographic and geochemical observations point to high element mobility and multiple fluid-rock interaction events, visible in the sample as dissolution textures, mineral chemical oscillations and pervasive replacement by amphibolite-facies minerals. Whole-rock mass balance calculations and LA-ICP-MS measurements reveal at least two successive metasomatic events associated with the retrograde metamorphic overprint of the eclogitic block. Deep fluids (1.5-2.0 GPa) were apparently rather enriched in Mg, Cr, and Ni, indicating the presence of serpentinite-derived fluids, while later fluids associated with the climax of amphibolitization were clearly carriers of large ion lithophile elements (such as K, Ba, Sr

  20. Thermodynamics of High Temperature Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Minardi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss how and to what extent the thermodynamic concepts and the thermodynamic formalism can be extended to the description of high temperature states of the plasma not necessarily associated with a Boltzmann distribution and with thermal equilibrium.The discussion is based on the “magnetic or electrostatic entropy concept”, an interpretative and predictive tool based on probability and information, defined in a suitably coarse-grained possibility space of all current density or of all electric charge density distributions under testable constraints, and whose variation properties are proven to be related under certain conditions to the equilibrium and the stability of the system. In the case of magnetic equilibrium the potentiality of the magnetic entropy concept is illustrated by comparing the predictions of the current density and pressure profiles with the observations in different tokamak machines and different tokamak regimes, as well as by showing how the equilibrium and the stability in devices as different as the reversed field pinch or the magnetic well are described by the variation properties of the same entropy functional applied to the different situations. In fact it emerges that the maximum of the entropy can be seen in these different cases as an optimization constraint for the minimum of the magnetic energy. The application of the entropy concept to the electrostatic processes shows in particular that the so-called reactive instabilities (non-dissipative, non-resonant instabilities with a marginal point admit a neighboring state with higher entropy and are therefore of special relevance from the point of view of the physical evolution of the system. In this case the thermodynamic formalism allows the introduction of the concept of “thermodynamic fluctuations” of the macroscopic charge density and provides a method for the calculation of the “thermodynamic” fluctuation levels both on the stable as

  1. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  2. Identification And Interpretation Of Eclogite Protoliths Using Immobile Element Geochemistry: Some New Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J. A.; Robinson, P.; Yang, J.

    2011-12-01

    other, smaller sill- and dyke-like bodies, we can use these proxy diagrams to identify rocks representative of liquid (non-cumulate) compositions, equivalent to the chilled facies of classic intrusions. Although these also follow fluid- and melt-infiltration vectors, especially around silica-rich rocks which reached melting temperatures, a small number of unmodified liquid compositions can be identified. These allow the setting to be determined using Th-Nb-Ti-Yb systematics. In this case, the data mostly plot in the centre of the MORB-OIB array on a Th/Yb-Nb-Yb plot indicating undepleted mantle. Some samples plot to higher Th/Yb indicating limited crustal assimilation. The samples plot in the MORB, rather than OIB, field on a Ti/Yb-Nb/Yb plot indicating shallow-melting indicative of thin lithosphere. Thus, an origin at a volcanic-rifted continental margin may be inferred. This procedure can also be applied to the debate over the origin and settings of eclogite inclusions in kimberlites.

  3. (Krauss) at constant high temperatures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the various physical and chemical factors that may affect freshwater snails. However ... order to assess the effect of temperature on the organism, it is essential to ..... of snails by parasites is of cardinal importance to shed light on the population ...

  4. Fertility of the Mantle beneath the Ocean Basins: Harzburgite, Lherzolite, and Eclogite in Depleted to Enriched Sources of Abyssal Tholeiites, Ocean Islands, and LIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.; Anderson, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    and gabbro is returned to the mantle, there transforming to eclogite of diverse lithology and mineralogy. Eclogite distribution in the upper mantle cannot be uniform owing to the localized occurrence of trenches. Eclogite-rich mantle can be an important source of magma where the crust is thick (LIPs, Iceland) or volcanic structures very large (Hawaii). There is no need for plume-induced heterogeneity of the shallow mantle or for high temperatures. The absence of heat-flow and thermal anomalies at hotspots implies the presence of athermal mechanisms to explain melting and geochemical anomalies. Fertility spots, wetspots and lithospheric stress heterogeneity are a natural result of plate tectonics and may explain 'hotspots' without assuming deep-mantle thermal plumes. The non-fixity of hotspots, the occurrence of erratic age progressions and 'hotlines' and the orientations of volcanic chains have a natural explanation if lithospheric architecture, subduction and asthenospheric heterogeneity control magma volumes and chemistry. The case for a depleted eclogitic MORB-like source for Icelandic tholeiites will be discussed as an example.

  5. Re-equilibration history and P- T path of eclogites from Variscan Sardinia, Italy: a case study from the medium-grade metamorphic complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Gabriele; Franceschelli, Marcello; Groppo, Chiara; Oggiano, Giacomo; Spano, Maria Elena

    2015-04-01

    Retrogressed eclogites are hosted within the Variscan low- to medium-grade metamorphic complex near Giuncana, north-central Sardinia. These rocks are medium to fine grained with garnet and amphibole as the most abundant mineral phases along with clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, biotite, chlorite, epidote, ilmenite, rutile and titanite. Four stages of mineralogical re-equilibration have been distinguished. The stage I is characterized by the occurrence of omphacite, epidote, quartz, amphibole, rutile and ilmenite in garnet poikiloblasts. The stage II is characterized by two types of symplectitic microstructures: (1) amphibole + quartz symplectite and (2) clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite. The first symplectite type replaces omphacite included in garnet, whereas the second one is widespread in the matrix. Biotite droplets and/or lamellae intimately growing with fine-grained plagioclase resemble biotite + plagioclase symplectite after phengite. The stage III is characterized by the widespread formation of amphibole: (1) as zoned porphyroblasts in the matrix, (2) as corona-type microstructure replacing garnet. Subordinate plagioclase (oligoclase) is also present in the amphibole corona. The stage IV is characterized by the local formation of biotite replacing garnet, actinolite, chlorite, albite and titanite. P- T pseudosections calculated with Perple_X give P- T conditions 580 < T < 660 °C, 1.3 < P < 1.8 GPa for the stage I. After the stage I, pressure decrease and temperature increase led to the breakdown of omphacite with the formation of clinopyroxene + plagioclase ± amphibole symplectite at ~1.25-1.40 GPa and 650-710 °C (stage II). P- T conditions of the amphibolite-facies stage III have been defined at 600-670 °C, P = 0.65-0.95 GPa. P- T conditions of the latest stage IV are in the range of greenschist facies. The P- T path of the retrogressed eclogite hosted in the medium-grade micaschist and paragneiss of Giuncana recalls the P- T

  6. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  7. High Temperature and Pressure Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank

    and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures and pressures. To perform measurements under high pressure and at elevated temperatures it was necessary to build a measurement system around an autoclave which could stand high temperatures up to 250 °C and pressures up to 200 bar...... as well as extremely caustic environments. Based on a literature study to identify resistant materials for these conditions, Inconel 600 was selected among the metals which are available for autoclave construction. An initial single atmosphere high temperature and pressure measurement setup was build...... comprising this autoclave. A second high temperature and pressure measurement setup was build based on experiences from the first setup in order to perform automatized measurements. The conductivity of aqueous KOH at elevated temperatures and high concentrations was investigated using the van der Pauw method...

  8. High-temperature protective coatings on superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培生; 梁开明; 周宏余

    2002-01-01

    Protective coatings are essential for superalloys to serve as blades of gas turb ines at high temperatures, and they primarily include aluminide coating, MCrAlY overlay coating, thermal barrier coating and microcrystalline coating. In this paper, all these high-temperature coatings are reviewed as well as their preparing techniques. Based on the most application and the main failure way, the importance is then presented for further deepgoing study on the high-temperature oxidation law of aluminide coatings.

  9. High Temperature Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-15

    2700 cmW/V-s at room temperature, a far higher value than ever found for GaN or AlGaN. Thus a GaN/ InGaN HEMT would be analogous to InP/InGaAs HEMTs...Spire’s ECR plasma source modif led as a crystal growth reactor. 8 The substrate for the film deposition is mounted on a sample holder which is...The three samples from the second growth run were also characterized. One sample was found to have a very even frosty white haze on it. The other

  10. A high temperature fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, A.; Nakai, M.; Ninomiya, Y.

    1982-12-21

    A solid electrolyte which conducts electricity with heating by oxygen ions and operates at a temperature of 1,000C is used in the element. The cathode, besides the ionic conductivity in oxygen, has an electron conductivity. The anode has electron conductivity. Substances such as Bi203, into which oxides of alkaline earth metals are added, are used for making the cathode. The electrolyte consists of ZrO2 and Y2O3, to which CaO is added. WC, to which an H2 type fuel is fed, serves as the anode. The element has a long service life.

  11. Ultrasonic Sensors for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittmann, Bernhard; Aslan, Mustafa

    1999-05-01

    Many processes take place under conditions other than ambient, and chief among these is high temperature. Examples of high temperature industrial processes are resin transfer molding, molten metal infiltration and rheocasting of composite metals alloys. The interaction of waves with viscous fluids is an additional complication adding to an already complicated problem of operating a sensor at high temperature for extended periods of time. This report attempts to provide an insight into the current state of the art of sensor techniques for in-situ high temperature monitoring.

  12. Advances in high temperature chemistry 1

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    2013-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 1 describes the complexities and special and changing characteristics of high temperature chemistry. After providing a brief definition of high temperature chemistry, this nine-chapter book goes on describing the experiments and calculations of diatomic transition metal molecules, as well as the advances in applied wave mechanics that may contribute to an understanding of the bonding, structure, and spectra of the molecules of high temperature interest. The next chapter provides a summary of gaseous ternary compounds of the alkali metals used in

  13. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program, TRS Technologies has developed several new dielectrics for high temperature applications including signal conditioning, filtering and energy...

  14. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  15. Alloys developed for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuki, Eddy Agus; Prajitno, Djoko Hadi; Muhammad, Fadhli

    2017-01-01

    Alloys used for high temperatures applications require combinations of mechanical strength, microstructural stability and corrosion/oxidation resistance. Nickel base superalloys have been traditionally the prime materials utilized for hot section components of aircraft turbine engines. Nevertheless, due to their limited melting temperatures, alloys based on intermetallic compounds, such as TiAl base alloys, have emerged as high temperature materials and intensively developed with the main aim to replace nickel based superalloys. For applications in steam power plants operated at lower temperatures, ferritic high temperature alloys still attract high attention, and therefore, development of these alloys is in progress. This paper highlights the important metallurgical parameters of high temperature alloys and describes few efforts in the development of Fe-Ni-Al based alloys containing B2-(Fe,Ni)Al precipitates, oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) ferritic steels and titanium aluminide based alloys include important protection system of aluminide coatings.

  16. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  17. High temperature skin friction measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  18. Corrosion Resistant Coatings for High Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besman, T.M.; Cooley, K.M.; Haynes, J.A.; Lee, W.Y.; Vaubert, V.M.

    1998-12-01

    Efforts to increase efficiency of energy conversion devices have required their operation at ever higher temperatures. This will force the substitution of higher-temperature structural ceramics for lower temperature materials, largely metals. Yet, many of these ceramics will require protection from high temperature corrosion caused by combustion gases, atmospheric contaminants, or the operating medium. This paper discusses examples of the initial development of such coatings and materials for potential application in combustion, aluminum smelting, and other harsh environments.

  19. High-Temperature Passive Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In many future NASA missions - such as deep-space exploration, the National AeroSpace Plane, minisatellites, integrated engine electronics, and ion or arcjet thrusters - high-power electrical components and systems must operate reliably and efficiently in high-temperature environments. The high-temperature power electronics program at the NASA Lewis Research Center focuses on dielectric and insulating material research, the development and characterization of high-temperature components, and the integration of the developed components into a demonstrable 200 C power system - such as an inverter. NASA Lewis has developed high-temperature power components through collaborative efforts with the Air Force Wright Laboratory, Northrop Grumman, and the University of Wisconsin. Ceramic and film capacitors, molypermalloy powder inductors, and a coaxially wound transformer were designed, developed, and evaluated for high-temperature operation.

  20. A Road Towards High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0040 A Road Towards High Temperature Superconductors Guy Deutscher Tel Aviv University Research... Superconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-10-1-3011 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 10-3011 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S...issue in trying to make useful high temperature superconductors is obviously to discover superconductivity at higher temperatures. But there is also

  1. High Temperature Rechargeable Battery Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop and proof the concept of a highly efficient, high temperature rechargeable battery for supporting...

  2. Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator Panels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, high-temperature radiators are needed for future, high-efficiency power conversion systems for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Creare has developed...

  3. High Temperature Solid State Lithium Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable energy systems with high energy density capable of operating at high temperatures, pressures and radiation levels are needed for certain NASA missions....

  4. Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator Panels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lightweight, high-temperature radiators are needed for future, high-efficiency power conversion systems for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Creare has developed...

  5. Ceramic fibres for high temperature insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padgett, G.C.

    1986-03-01

    Traditionally, refractory linings for high temperature plant and furnaces have comprised either brick or some form of concrete. In recent years, energy conservation has encouraged the greater use of high temperature insulation which is also available in either brick or a lightweight concrete. As an alternative, insulation can also be achieved using fibrous products or fibres combining low heat transfer with low heat capacity.

  6. Relationship between UHP eclogite and two different types of granite in the North Qaidam, NW China: Evidence from zircon SHRIMP ages of granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Yang, J.; Wooden, J.; Ernst, G. W.; Liou, J. G.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Wan, Y.; Shi, R.

    2001-12-01

    The southern margin of the Qilianshan is a long, narrow mountain range extending from the Altyn Mtn southeastward to the Alcitoshan for about 800 km and consists chiefly of Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks. Our recent studies show that this foldbelt consists of a Caledonian north Qaidam UHP belt near the Qaidam Basin and I-type and S-type granites to the north near the Qilianshan. Two types of granite bodies at the Aolaoshan and Qaidamshan were selected for zircon SHRIMP dating. The results indicate that the Aolaoshan granites range from 496+/-7.6 to 445+/-15.3 Ma whereas the Qaidamshan granites range from 435+/-6 to 456+/-11 Ma. The Aolaoshan granites have geochemical characteristics similar to I-type granite probably formed in an island arc setting whereas the Qaidamshan granites are S type granites coeval with timing of collision. The UHP eclogites at Yuca have 238U-206Pb age of 494.6+/-6.5Ma, representing the peak stage of UHP metamorphism, and the 39 Ar-40Ar plateau and isochron ages of phengite respectively at 466.7+/-1.2 Ma and 465.9+/-5.4Ma represent the cooling ages of retrograde metamorphism during exhumation. In addition, the SHRIMP ages of UHP eclogites from Xitieshan and Dulan are the Caledonian. These spatial and temporal relationships suggest that UHP eclogites and two different types of Caledonian granites occur in north Qaidam with the eclogite belt to the south and the granite bodies to the north. The country rocks of UHP eclogites are Proterozoic age whereas granitic bodies have both Proterozoic and Paleozoic groups. Thus, an early Caledonian northward subduction of an oceanic lithosphere resulted in the formation of high-P eclogite to the south and I type Aolaoshan granite to the north. Subsequent continent-continent collision induced widespread partial melting of continental crust to form S type Qaidamshan granites. Hence both eclogite and two different types of granites in this foldbelt are the products of two different stages of plate

  7. Application of High Temperature Superconductors to Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, a large effort has been made by the scientific community to investigate this field towards a possible application of the new oxide superconductors to different devices like SMES, magnetic bearings, flywheels energy storage, magnetic shielding, transmission cables, fault current limiters, etc. However, all present day large scale applications using superconductivity in accelerator technology are based on conventional materials operating at liquid helium temperatures. Poor mechanical properties, low critical current density and sensitivity to the magnetic field at high temperature are the key parameters whose improvement is essential for a large scale application of high temperature superconductors to such devices. Current leads, used for transferring currents from the power converters, working at room temperature, into the liquid helium environment, where the magnets are operating, represent an immediate application of the emerging technology of high t...

  8. 俄罗斯白海活动带中的太古宙榴辉岩%Archean eclogites from Belomorian Mobile Belt, Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小犁; 张立飞; 魏春景

    2013-01-01

    The oldest eclogite outcrops with Archean age were found in Belomorian Mobile Belt in Russia, which is a sharp breakthrough in geology. The Belomorian Mobile Belt is located at the north-east of Archean nucleus of the Fennoscandian shield, in the Belomorian accretionary-collisional orogeny between Kola Peninsula and Karelian craton, which was affected many times by high-moderate-pressure metamorphism and structural deformation in Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic periods. There are two eclogite-bearing areas, Gridino and Salma. Gidino eclogites include polygenetic Archean eclogite fragments (-2. 72 Ga) with complicated composition, consisting of migmatized and strongly deformed tectonic melange, and various Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes and veins. Salma eclogites were considered to be formed at 2. 87 Ga, and the Fe-Ti-eclogite variety at 2. 8 Ga. The two eclogite assemblages have similar p-T evolution paths in general, and the p-T condition of Gridino eclogite (T= 740 - 865 ℃ , p= 1. 4 - 1. 8 GPa) should be higher than that of Salma eclogites (T≈700 ℃ , p=1. 3 - 1. 4 GPa). The protolith of Salma eclogite might be related with oceanic environment.%在俄罗斯白海活动区发现的迄今为止最古老的太古宙榴辉岩的出露,对整个地质学领域是一次革命性事件.白海活动带位于芬诺斯干地亚地盾东北部太古宙陆核,处于科拉半岛大陆和卡累利阿克拉通之间的太古宙增生碰撞带中,在新太古代和古元古代期间多次受到中高压变质和构造变形作用.榴辉岩出露包括Gridino和Salma两大地区.Gridino榴辉岩区的榴辉岩产状可分为TTG片麻岩围岩中具有复杂成因的太古宙榴辉岩包裹镶体(2.72 Ga),组成强烈构造变形的混合混杂岩体(mélange),以及众多古元古代侵入岩墙岩脉状基性榴辉岩.Salma榴辉岩区的榴辉岩年龄应该晚于2.87 Ga,其中的Fe-Ti-榴辉岩年龄测定为约2.80 Ga.两大榴辉岩区的p-T演化轨迹比较类

  9. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Upadhyay; Hem Chandra; Meenakashi Joshi; Deepika P Joshi

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended the Kumar’s formulation by taking into the account the concept of anharmonicity in minerals above the Debye temperature (D). In our present study, we have investigated the thermophysical properties of two minerals (pyrope-rich garnet and MgAl2O4) under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant () and bulk modulus (T) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (T) as temperature-independent and then by treating T as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when T is temperature-dependent are in close agreement with experimental data.

  10. Low to high temperature energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting heat energy from low temperature heat sources to higher temperature was developed. It consists of a decomposition chamber in which ammonia is decomposed into hydrogen and nitrogen by absorbing heat of decomposition from a low temperature energy source. A recombination reaction then takes place which increases the temperature of a fluid significantly. The system is of use for the efficient operation of compact or low capital investment turbine driven electrical generators, or in other applications, to enable chemical reactions that have a critical lower temperature to be used. The system also recovers heat energy from low temperature heat sources, such as solar collectors or geothermal sources, and converts it to high temperatures.

  11. Sandia_HighTemperatureComponentEvaluation_2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashion, Avery T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform independent evaluation of high temperature components to determine their suitability for use in high temperature geothermal tools. Development of high temperature components has been increasing rapidly due to demand from the high temperature oil and gas exploration and aerospace industries. Many of these new components are at the late prototype or first production stage of development and could benefit from third party evaluation of functionality and lifetime at elevated temperatures. In addition to independent testing of new components, this project recognizes that there is a paucity of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components rated for geothermal temperatures. As such, high-temperature circuit designers often must dedicate considerable time and resources to determine if a component exists that they may be able to knead performance out of to meet their requirements. This project aids tool developers by characterization of select COTS component performances beyond published temperature specifications. The process for selecting components includes public announcements of project intent (e.g., FedBizOps), direct discussions with candidate manufacturers,and coordination with other DOE funded programs.

  12. Dimensionality of high temperature superconductivity in oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. W.

    1989-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to account for the high temperature superconductivity observed in oxide systems. Almost all of these models proposed are based on the uncoupled low dimensional carrier Cu-O layers of the oxides. Results of several experiments are presented and discussed. They suggest that the high temperature superconductivity observed cannot be strictly two- or one-dimensional, and that the environment between the Cu-O layers and the interlayer coupling play an important role in the occurrence of such high temperature superconductivity. A comment on the very short coherence length reported is also made.

  13. Aeronautical applications of high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, George E.; Luidens, Roger W.; Uherka, Kenneth; Hull, John

    1989-01-01

    The successful development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. A preliminary examination of the potential application of HTS for aeronautics indicates that significant benefits may be realized through the development and implementation of these newly discovered materials. Applications of high-temperature superconductors (currently substantiated at 95 k) were envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft, and solar, microwave and laser powered aircraft. Introduced and described are the particular applications and potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors as related to aeronautics and/or aeronautical systems.

  14. Aeronautical applications of high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, George E.; Luidens, Roger W.; Uherka, Kenneth; Hull, John

    1989-01-01

    The successful development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) could have a major impact on future aeronautical propulsion and aeronautical flight vehicle systems. A preliminary examination of the potential application of HTS for aeronautics indicates that significant benefits may be realized through the development and implementation of these newly discovered materials. Applications of high-temperature superconductors (currently substantiated at 95 K) were envisioned for several classes of aeronautical systems, including subsonic and supersonic transports, hypersonic aircraft, V/STOL aircraft, rotorcraft, and solar, microwave and laser powered aircraft. Introduced and described are the particular applications and potential benefits of high-temperature superconductors as related to aeronautics and/or aeronautical systems.

  15. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    the operational temperature and pressure to produce pressurized hydrogen at high rate (m3 H2·h-1·m-2 cell area) and high electrical efficiency. This work describes an exploratory technical study of the possibility to produce hydrogen and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures...... for immobilization of aqueous KOH solutions. Electrolysis cells with this electrolyte and metal foam based gas diffusion electrodes were successfully demonstrated at temperatures up to 250 °C at 40 bar. Different electro-catalysts were tested in order to reduce the oxygen and hydrogen overpotentials. Current...

  16. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  17. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  18. Development of high temperature capable piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprock, Andrew D.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the project was to investigate the influence of the temperature effect on ultrasonic transducers based on a comparison of the effects of high temperature conditions versus those of high temperature and irradiation on the transducer system. There was also a preliminary move towards the establishment of the means for optimizing the bulk single crystal transducer fabrication process in order to achieve peak efficiency and maximum effectiveness in both irradiated and non-irradiated high temperature applications. Optimization of the material components within the transducer will greatly increase non-destructive testing abilities for industry, structural health monitoring. Here is presented a progress report on the testing of several different piezoelectric materials under high temperature conditions. The viability of aluminum nitride (AlN) as a transducer material in high temperature conditions has been previously explored [1] and has been further tested to ensure reliability. Bistmuth Titanate (BiT) has also been tested and has displayed excellent effectiveness for high temperature application.

  19. Crustal evolution and the eclogite to granulite phase transition in xenoliths from the West African Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.; Hills, D. V.; Toft, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    A suite of eclogite and granulite facies xenoliths from kimberlite pipes in the Archean Man Shield of West Africa is described. The xenoliths include lithologies ranging in composition from komatiite to anorthosite and appear to be geochemically, petrologically, and geophysically related. The suite may represent fractionation of felsic material separated from ancient mantle and added to early Archean crust. The samples can be used to define a xenolith geotherm, which may represent an ancient episode of high heat flow. The samples also imply that the crust-mantle boundary is a gradational and possibly interlayered geochemical, mineralogical, and seismic transition. It is speculated that the depleted subcontinental mantle required by diamond bearing coalescence of smaller depletion cells formed by extraction of ancient crustal components. These depleted zones are surrounded by fertile asthenospheric mantle, which may have given rise to later flood basalts such as the Karroo and Parana Provinces.

  20. Broadband, High-Temperature Ultrasonic Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, F. Raymond; Winfree, William P.; Barrows, Danny A.

    1995-01-01

    Materials chosen for endurance at high temperatures and acoustic coupling and damping. Acoustic transducer designed to exhibit broad frequency response and to survive temperatures close to melting points of brazing alloys. Attached directly and continuously to hot object monitored ultrasonically: for example, it can be attached to relatively cool spot on workpiece during brazing for taking ultrasonic quality-control measurements.

  1. High Temperature Fiberoptic Thermal Imaging System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will fabricate and demonstrate a small diameter single fiber endoscope that can perform high temperature thermal imaging in a jet engine...

  2. High Temperature Self-Healing Metallic Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutelia, E. R.; Bakhtiyarov, S. I.; Tsurtsumia, O. O.; Bakhtiyarov, A. S.; Eristavi, B.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the possibility to realize the self healing mechanisms for heterogeneous architectural metal/ceramic high temperature sandwich thermal barrier coating systems on the surfaces refractory metals by analogy of wound healing in the skin.

  3. High Temperature Capacitors for Venus Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High temperature power electronics have become a vital aspect of future designs for power converters in spacecraft, battle zone electric power, satellite power...

  4. Panel report on high temperature ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolet, T C [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental research is reported concerning high temperature ceramics for application in turbines, engines, batteries, gasifiers, MHD, fuel cells, heat exchangers, and hot wall combustors. Ceramics microstructure and behavior are included. (FS)

  5. Application Fields of High-Temperature Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Hott, Roland

    2003-01-01

    Potential application fields for cuprate high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and the status of respective projects are reviewed. The availability of a reliable and inexpensive cooling technique will be essential for a future broad acceptance of HTS applications.

  6. Measuring Moduli Of Elasticity At High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Shorter, squatter specimens and higher frequencies used in ultrasonic measurement technique. Improved version of piezo-electric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique used to measure moduli of elasticity of solid materials at high temperatures.

  7. Silicon carbide, an emerging high temperature semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have expressed a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high temperature operation. Applications for high temperature electronic devices include development instrumentation within engines, engine control, and condition monitoring systems, and power conditioning and control systems for space platforms and satellites. Other earth-based applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, nuclear reactor instrumentation and control, and automotive sensors. To meet the needs of these applications, the High Temperature Electronics Program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. Research is focussed on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of silicon carbide electronic devices and integrated sensors. The progress made in developing silicon carbide is presented, and the challenges that lie ahead are discussed.

  8. Novel High Temperature Strain Gauge Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced high-temperature sensor technology and bonding methods are of great interests in designing and developing advanced future aircraft. Current state-of-the-art...

  9. High temperature superconductors and other superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, A S

    2017-01-01

    Written by eminent researchers in the field, this text describes the theory of superconductivity and superfluidity starting from liquid helium and a charged Bose-gas. It also discusses the modern bipolaron theory of strongly coupled superconductors, which explains the basic physical properties of high-temperature superconductors. This book will be of interest to fourth year graduate and postgraduate students, specialist libraries, information centres and chemists working in high-temperature superconductivity.

  10. PLA recycling by hydrolysis at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina, Annesini Maria; Rosaria, Augelletti; Sara, Frattari; Fausto, Gironi

    2016-05-01

    In this work the process of PLA hydrolysis at high temperature was studied, in order to evaluate the possibility of chemical recycling of this polymer bio-based. In particular, the possibility to obtain the monomer of lactic acid from PLA degradation was investigated. The results of some preliminary tests, performed in a laboratory batch reactor at high temperature, are presented: the experimental results show that the complete degradation of PLA can be obtained in relatively low reaction times.

  11. Recent developments in high temperature organic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, P. M.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in high temperature organic polymers during the last 5 years with major emphasis on polyimides and poly(arylene ether)s are discussed. Specific polymers or series of polymers have been selected to demonstrate unique properties or the effect chemical structure has upon certain properties. This article is not intended to be a comprehensive review of high temperature polymer advancements during the last 5 years.

  12. High-temperature discontinuously reinforced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedalis, M. S.; Bryant, J. D.; Gilman, P. S.; Das, S. K.

    1991-08-01

    High-temperature discontinuously reinforced aluminum (HTDRA) composites have been developed for elevated-temperature applications by incorporating SiC particulate reinforcement into a rapidly solidified, high-temperature Al-Fe-V-Si (alloy 8009) matrix. HTDRA combines the superior elevated-temperature strength, stability and corrosion resistance of the 8009 matrix with the excellent specific stiffness and abrasion resistance of the discontinuous SiC particulate reinforcement. On a specific stiffness basis, HTDRA is competitive with Ti-6-Al-4V and 17-4 PH stainless steel to temperatures approaching 480°C. Potential aerospace applications being considered for HTDRA include aircraft wing skins, missile bodies, and miscellaneous engine, spacecraft and hypersonic vehicle components.

  13. Melting and subsolidus phase relations in peridotite and eclogite systems with reduced Csbnd Osbnd H fluid at 3-16 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litasov, Konstantin D.; Shatskiy, Anton; Ohtani, Eiji

    2014-04-01

    Melting phase relations of peridotite and eclogite coexisting with reduced C-O-H fluid have been studied at 3-16 GPa and 1200-1600 °C. In order to perform these experiments the double-capsule technique with fO2 control by outer Mo-MoO2 or Fe-FeO buffer capsule was designed and developed for multianvil experiments at pressures 3-21 GPa. Silicate phase assemblages resemble those in volatile-free lithologies, i.e. olivine/wadsleyite-orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-garnet in peridotite and garnet-omphacite in eclogite. Melting was detected by the appearance of quenched crystals of pyroxene, feldspar and glassy silica. Estimated solidus temperatures for peridotite + C-O-H fluid with fO2=Fe-FeO are 1200 °C at 3 GPa and 1700 °C at 16 GPa. The solidus of the system with fO2=Mo-MoO2 was about 100 °C lower. Estimated solidus temperatures for eclogite + C-O-H fluid with fO2=Fe-FeO are 1100 °C at 3 GPa and 1600 °C at 16 GPa, and for eclogite at fO2=Mo-MoO2 solidus temperatures were 20-50 °C lower. These solidus temperatures are much higher (300-500 °C) than those for peridotite and eclogite systems with H2O and/or CO2, but are still 300-400 °C lower than the solidi of volatile-free peridotite and eclogite at studied pressures. The compositions of partial melt were estimated from mass-balance calculations: partial melts of peridotite have CaO-poor (6-9 wt.%) basaltic compositions with 44-47 wt.% SiO2 and 1.1-1.6 wt.% Na2O. Melts of eclogite contain more SiO2 (47-49 wt.%) and are enriched in CaO (9-15 wt.%), Na2O (9-14 wt.%), and K2O (1.3-2.2 wt.%). All runs contained graphite or diamond crystals along with porous carbon aggregate with micro-inclusions of silicates indicating that reduced fluid may dissolve significant amounts of silicate components. Analyses of carbon aggregates using a defocused electron microprobe beam reveal compositions similar to estimated partial melts. The diamonds formed from reduced C-O-H fluid may have natural analogues as polycrystalline

  14. Laser Plasma Coupling for High Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruer, W.

    1999-11-04

    Simple scaling models indicate that quite high radiation temperatures can be achieved in hohlraums driven with the National Ignition Facility. A scaling estimate for the radiation temperature versus pulse duration for different size NIF hohlraums is shown in Figure 1. Note that a radiation temperature of about 650 ev is projected for a so-called scale 1 hohlraum (length 2.6mm, diameter 1.6mm). With such high temperature hohlraums, for example, opacity experiments could be carried out using more relevant high Z materials rather than low Z surrogates. These projections of high temperature hohlraums are uncertain, since the scaling model does not allow for the very strongly-driven laser plasma coupling physics. Lasnex calculations have been carried out to estimate the plasma and irradiation conditions in a scale 1 hohlraum driven by NIF. Linear instability gains as high as exp(100) have been found for stimulated Brillouin scattering, and other laser-driven instabilities are also far above their thresholds. More understanding of the very strongly-driven coupling physics is clearly needed in order to more realistically assess and improve the prospects for high temperature hohlraums. Not surprisingly, this regime has been avoided for inertial fusion applications and so is relatively unexplored.

  15. SHRIMP U-Pb Dating of Zircons of a Dark Eclogite and a Garnet-bearing Gneissic Granitic Rock from Bixiling, EasternDabie Area, Anhui Province: Isotope Chronological Evidence of Neoproterozoic UHP Metamorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper reports SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data of a dark eclogite and a post-eclogite garnet-bearing gneissic granitic rock from the Bixiling area, Yuexi County, Anhui Province, in the eastern Dabie Mountains. The eclogite, which is metamorphosed basic tuff, contains very scarce zircons in omphacite or garnet, but more zircons in quartz. They usually exhibit a double-layered texture, as shown clearly in cathodoluminescence images. Their inner main parts give a206 Pb/238U age of 757±7Ma, representing the approximate age of the high-pressure (HP)-ultrahighpressure (UHP) metamorphic event duing which the eclogite was formed. The outer peripheral parts of the zircons,which have been modified by late-stage fluids, give an age of 223±3 Ma. The granitic rock contains more zircons of anatectic origin found mostly in feldspar and quartz and usually also showing a similar composite texture. The inner main parts of the anatectic zircons with oscillatory zoning give a 206Pb/238U age of 727±15Ma for the approximate age of the emplacement of the granitic rock, and their outer parts, an age of 219±3 Ma for a similar or even the same fluid event. It is thus suggested that the HP-UHP metamorphism of the Bixiling eclogite facies rocks took place during the Neoproterozoic Jinningian,and the Indosinian age values may only represent a late event in the nature of fluid activity.

  16. Relativistic QED Plasma at Extremely High Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Masood, Samina S

    2016-01-01

    Renormalization scheme of QED (Quantum Electrodynamics) at high temperatures is used to calculate the effective parameters of relativistic plasma in the early universe. Renormalization constants of QED play role of effective parameters of the theory and can be used to determine the collective behavior of the medium. We explicitly show that the dielectric constant, magnetic reluctivity, Debye length and the plasma frequency depend on temperature in the early universe. Propagation speed, refractive index, plasma frequency and Debye shielding length of a QED plasma are computed at extremely high temperatures in the early universe. We also found the favorable conditions for the relativistic plasma from this calculations.

  17. Melt processed high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The achievement of large critical currents is critical to the applications of high-temperature superconductors. Recent developments have shown that melt processing is suitable for producing high J c oxide superconductors. Using magnetic forces between such high J c oxide superconductors and magnets, a person could be levitated.This book has grown largely out of research works on melt processing of high-temperature superconductors conducted at ISTEC Superconductivity Research Laboratory. The chapters build on melt processing, microstructural characterization, fundamentals of flux pinning, criti

  18. High Temperature, Wireless Seismometer Sensor for Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter Gary W.; Kiefer, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    Space agency mission plans state the need to measure the seismic activity on Venus. Because of the high temperature on Venus (462? C average surface temperature) and the difficulty in placing and wiring multiple sensors using robots, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents the description and proof of concept measurements of a high temperature, wireless seismometer sensor for Venus. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by the movement of an aluminum probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 700 Hz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator/sensor system at 426? C. This result indicates that the concept may be used on Venus.

  19. High-temperature granulites and supercontinents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.L.R. Touret; M. Santosh; J.M. Huizenga

    2016-01-01

    The formation of continents involves a combination of magmatic and metamorphic processes. These processes become indistinguishable at the crust-mantle interface, where the pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of (ultra) high-temperature granulites and magmatic rocks are similar. Continents grow laterally, by magmatic activity above oceanic subduction zones (high-pressure metamorphic setting), and vertically by accumulation of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the crust (high-temperature metamorphic setting). Both events are separated from each other in time; the vertical accretion post-dating lateral growth by several tens of millions of years. Fluid inclusion data indicate that during the high-temperature metamorphic episode the granulite lower crust is invaded by large amounts of low H2O-activity fluids including high-density CO2 and concentrated saline solutions (brines). These fluids are expelled from the lower crust to higher crustal levels at the end of the high-grade metamorphic event. The final amalgamation of supercontinents corresponds to episodes of ultra-high temperature metamorphism involving large-scale accumulation of these low-water activity fluids in the lower crust. This accumulation causes tectonic instability, which together with the heat input from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, leads to the disruption of supercontinents. Thus, the fragmentation of a supercontinent is already programmed at the time of its amalgamation.

  20. High-temperature granulites and supercontinents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.R. Touret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of continents involves a combination of magmatic and metamorphic processes. These processes become indistinguishable at the crust-mantle interface, where the pressure-temperature (P-T conditions of (ultra high-temperature granulites and magmatic rocks are similar. Continents grow laterally, by magmatic activity above oceanic subduction zones (high-pressure metamorphic setting, and vertically by accumulation of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the crust (high-temperature metamorphic setting. Both events are separated from each other in time; the vertical accretion postdating lateral growth by several tens of millions of years. Fluid inclusion data indicate that during the high-temperature metamorphic episode the granulite lower crust is invaded by large amounts of low H2O-activity fluids including high-density CO2 and concentrated saline solutions (brines. These fluids are expelled from the lower crust to higher crustal levels at the end of the high-grade metamorphic event. The final amalgamation of supercontinents corresponds to episodes of ultra-high temperature metamorphism involving large-scale accumulation of these low-water activity fluids in the lower crust. This accumulation causes tectonic instability, which together with the heat input from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, leads to the disruption of supercontinents. Thus, the fragmentation of a supercontinent is already programmed at the time of its amalgamation.

  1. High-entropy alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafeie, Samrand [Surface and Microstructure Engineering Group, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Guo, Sheng, E-mail: sheng.guo@chalmers.se [Surface and Microstructure Engineering Group, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hu, Qiang [Institute of Applied Physics, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Fahlquist, Henrik [Bruker AXS Nordic AB, 17067 Solna (Sweden); Erhart, Paul [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Palmqvist, Anders, E-mail: anders.palmqvist@chalmers.se [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-11-14

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators that efficiently recycle a large portion of waste heat will be an important complementary energy technology in the future. While many efficient TE materials exist in the lower temperature region, few are efficient at high temperatures. Here, we present the high temperature properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), as a potential new class of high temperature TE materials. We show that their TE properties can be controlled significantly by changing the valence electron concentration (VEC) of the system with appropriate substitutional elements. Both the electrical and thermal transport properties in this system were found to decrease with a lower VEC number. Overall, the large microstructural complexity and lower average VEC in these types of alloys can potentially be used to lower both the total and the lattice thermal conductivity. These findings highlight the possibility to exploit HEAs as a new class of future high temperature TE materials.

  2. High-entropy alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafeie, Samrand; Guo, Sheng; Hu, Qiang; Fahlquist, Henrik; Erhart, Paul; Palmqvist, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators that efficiently recycle a large portion of waste heat will be an important complementary energy technology in the future. While many efficient TE materials exist in the lower temperature region, few are efficient at high temperatures. Here, we present the high temperature properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), as a potential new class of high temperature TE materials. We show that their TE properties can be controlled significantly by changing the valence electron concentration (VEC) of the system with appropriate substitutional elements. Both the electrical and thermal transport properties in this system were found to decrease with a lower VEC number. Overall, the large microstructural complexity and lower average VEC in these types of alloys can potentially be used to lower both the total and the lattice thermal conductivity. These findings highlight the possibility to exploit HEAs as a new class of future high temperature TE materials.

  3. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J{sub c} in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2`s bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J{sub c} at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices.

  4. High Temperature VARTM of Phenylethynyl Terminated Imides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Sayata; Watson, Kent A.; Cano, Roberto J.; Britton, Sean M.; Jensen, Brian J.; Connell, John W.; Herring, Helen M.; Linberry, Quentin J.

    2009-01-01

    LaRC phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) resins were processed into composites using high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Although initial runs yielded composites with high void content, process modifications reduced voids to <3%. Photomicrographs were taken and void contents and T(sub g)s of the panels were determined.

  5. Reactive Plasticizers for High Temperature Quinoxaline Thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    involves essentially two steps, consolidation of boardy prepreg into sheet stock and thermoforming the sheet stock into structural components. A...problem associated with the fabrication process is the high temperatures required in both the consolidation and thermoforming operations. High processing

  6. Fluctuations and correlations in high temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bellwied, R; Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Pasztor, A; Ratti, C; Szabo, K K

    2015-01-01

    We calculate second- and fourth-order cumulants of conserved charges in a temperature range stretching from the QCD transition region towards the realm of (resummed) perturbation theory. We perform lattice simulations with staggered quarks; the continuum extrapolation is based on $N_t=10\\dots24$ in the crossover-region and $N_t=8\\dots16$ at higher temperatures. We find that the Hadron Resonance Gas model predictions describe the lattice data rather well in the confined phase. At high temperatures (above $\\sim$250 MeV) we find agreement with the three-loop Hard Thermal Loop results.

  7. Ultra High Temperature Ceramics for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowiak, A.; Justin, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Après relecture une erreur est apparue dans le document et doit être retiré; International audience; The Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are of great interest for different engineering sectors and notably the aerospace industry. Indeed, hypersonic flights, re-entry vehicles, propulsion applications and so on, require new materials that can perform in oxidizing or corrosive atmospheres at temperatures higher than 2000°C and sometimes, for long life-time. To fulfil these requirements, U...

  8. Effects of High Temperature on Collector Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Report reveals electroplated black chrome is good coating for concentrating collectors in which temperatures are in the 650 degrees-800 degrees F (340 degrees - 430 degrees C) range. Black chrome thermal emittance is low and solar-absorption properties are not seriously degraded at high temperatures. Black coatings are used to increase absorption of solar energy by base metal while decreasing emission of infrared energy. Coatings are intended to improve efficiency of solar collectors.

  9. Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    , a single-family house designed for plus-energy targets and equipped with a radiant water-based floor heating and cooling system was studied by means of full-scale measurements, dynamic building simulations and thermodynamic evaluation tools. Thermal indoor environment and energy performance of the house...... performance of heating and cooling systems for achieving the same thermal indoor environment. The results show that it is crucial to minimize the heating and cooling demands in the design phase since these demands determine the terminal units and heat sources and sinks that could be used. Low temperature...... heating and high temperature cooling systems (a radiant water-based floor heating and cooling system in this study) proved to be superior to compared systems, evaluated with different system analysis tools; energy, exergy, and entransy. Radiant systems should be coupled to appropriate heating and cooling...

  10. Joining of ultra-high temperature ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestroni, Laura; Sciti, Diletta; Esposito, Laura; Glaeser, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, ultra-high temperature ceramics raised renewed interest after the first studies in the 60's. Thanks to their high melting point, superior to any group of materials, and to their set of interesting physical and engineering properties, they find application in aerospace industry, propulsion field, as cladding materials in generation IV nuclear reactors and solar absorbers in novel HT CSP systems. Recent efforts were devoted to the achievement of high strength and toughness m...

  11. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is a comprehensive review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). PEMFCs are the preferred fuel cells for a variety of applications such as automobiles, cogeneration of heat and power units, emergency power and portable electronics. The first 5 chapters...... of the book describe rationalization and illustration of approaches to high temperature PEM systems. Chapters 6 - 13 are devoted to fabrication, optimization and characterization of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes, the very first electrolyte system that has demonstrated the concept...... of and motivated extensive research activity in the field. The last 11 chapters summarize the state-of-the-art of technological development of high temperature-PEMFCs based on acid doped PBI membranes including catalysts, electrodes, MEAs, bipolar plates, modelling, stacking, diagnostics and applications....

  12. Low toxicity high temperature PMR polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    In-situ polymerization of monomer reactants (PMR) type polyimides constitute an important class of ultra high performance composite matrix resins. PMR-15 is the best known and most widely used PMR polyimide. An object of the present invention is to provide a substantially improved high temperature PMR-15 system that exhibits better processability, toughness, and thermo-oxidative stability than PMR-15, as well as having a low toxicity. Another object is to provide new PMR polyimides that are useful as adhesives, moldings, and composite matrices. By the present invention, a new PMR polyimide comprises a mixture of the following compounds: 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), NE, and BTDE which are then treated with heat. This PMR was designated LaRC-RP46 and has a broader processing window, better reproducibility of high quality composite parts, better elevated temperature mechanical properties, and higher retention of mechanical properties at an elevated temperature, particularly, at 371 C.

  13. Petrology of an eclogite- and pyrigarnite-bearing polymetamorphic rock complex at Cabo Ortegal, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.E.

    1967-01-01

    At Cabo Ortegal, paragneisses are found in association with amphibolites, metagabbros, amphibolized eclogites, amphibolized (plagio) pyrigarnites, and serpentinized ultrabasic rocks. On the basis of petrographical and chemical evidence, their geological history was reconstructed as follows:

  14. Petrology of an eclogite- and pyrigarnite-bearing polymetamorphic rock complex at Cabo Ortegal, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.E.

    1967-01-01

    At Cabo Ortegal, paragneisses are found in association with amphibolites, metagabbros, amphibolized eclogites, amphibolized (plagio) pyrigarnites, and serpentinized ultrabasic rocks. On the basis of petrographical and chemical evidence, their geological history was reconstructed as follows: Precambr

  15. High temperature superconductivity the road to higher critical temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of material-specific factors that influence Tc and give rise to diverse Tc values for copper oxides and iron-based high- Tc superconductors on the basis of more than 25 years of experimental data, to most of which the author has made important contributions. The book then explains why both compounds are distinct from others with similar crystal structure and whether or not one can enhance Tc, which in turn gives a hint on the unresolved pairing mechanism. This is an unprecedented new approach to the problem of high-temperature superconductivity and thus will be inspiring to both specialists and non-specialists interested in this field.   Readers will receive in-depth information on the past, present, and future of high-temperature superconductors, along with special, updated information on what the real highest Tc values are and particularly on the possibility of enhancing Tc for each member material, which is important for application. At this time, the highest Tc has not been...

  16. High temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allebrod, Frank; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    and pressures. Two measurement systems were built to perform measurements under high pressures and at elevated temperatures of up to 95 bar and 250 °C, respectively. The conductivity of aqueous KOH and aqueous KOH immobilized in a porous SrTiO3 structure were investigated at elevated temperatures and high...... the operational temperature and pressure to produce pressurized hydrogen at high rate (m3 H2·h-1·m-2 cell area) and high electrical efficiency. This work describes an exploratory technical study of the possibility to produce hydrogen and oxygen with a new type of alkaline electrolysis cell at high temperatures...... concentrations of the electrolyte using the van der Pauw method in combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Conductivity values as high as 2.9 S cm-1 for 45 wt% KOH aqueous KOH and 0.84 S cm-1 for the immobilized KOH of the same concentration were measured at 200 °C. Porous SrTiO3 was used...

  17. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  18. High Temperature Protonic Conductors by Melt Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    ceramic materials of BaCe1 -xNdxO3-a and Ba3(CaNb2)O9 that exhibit high temperature protonic conductance and superior mechanical properties at elevated...TEM). The mechanical behavior BaCe1 -xNdxO3-a (x=0 to 0.2) and Ba3(CaNb2)O9 ceramics in the elastic, brittle and plastic regime will be studied...spatial variations of compositions in BaCe1 -xNdxO3-a and Ba3(CaNb2)O9 following high temperature wet atmosphere treatment will be measured using a

  19. High-temperature MAS-NMR at high spinning speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhain, Holger; Holzinger, Julian; Mainka, Adrian; Spörhase, Andreas; Venkatachalam, Sabarinathan; Wixforth, Achim; van Wüllen, Leo

    2016-09-01

    A low cost version to enable high temperature MAS NMR experiments at temperatures of up to 700°C and spinning speeds of up to 10kHz is presented. The method relies on inductive heating using a metal coated rotor insert. The metal coating is accomplished via a two step process involving physical vapor deposition and galvanization.

  20. High Temperature Mechanisms for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jerri; Narine, Roop; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Gorevan, Steven

    Future Venus missions, including New Frontiers Venus In-Situ Explorer and three Flagship Missions - Venus Geophysical Network, Venus Mobile Explorer and Venus Surface Sample Return all focus on searching for evidence of past climate change both on the surface and in the atmospheric composition as well as in the interior dynamics of the planet. In order to achieve these goals and objectives, many key technologies need to be developed for the Venus extreme environment. These key technologies include sample acquisition systems and other high-temperature mechanisms and mobility systems capable of extended operation when directly exposed to the Venus surface or lower atmosphere environment. Honeybee Robotics has developed two types of high temperature motors, the materials and components in both motors were selected based on the requirement to survive temperatures above a minimum of 460° C, at earth atmosphere. The prototype Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) has been operated non-continuously for over 20 hours at Venus-like conditions (460° C temperature, mostly CO2 gas environment) and it remains functional. A drilling system, actuated by two SRMs was tested in Venus-like conditions, 460° C temperature and mostly CO2 gas environment, for more than 15 hours. The drill successfully completed three tests by drilling into chalk up to 6 inches deep in each test. A first generation Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor and high temperature resolver were also tested and the feasibility of the designs was demonstrated by the extended operation of both devices under Venus-like condition. Further development of the BLDC motor and resolver continues and these devices will, ultimately, be integrated into the development of a high temperature sample acquisition scoop and high temperature joint (awarded SBIR Phase II in October, 2007). Both the SR and BLDC motors will undergo extensive testing at Venus temperature and pressure (TRL6) and are expected to be mission ready before the next New

  1. High temperature reactors for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik (LRST)

    2016-05-15

    There is a large potential for nuclear energy also in the non-electric heat market. Many industrial sectors have a high demand for process heat and steam at various levels of temperature and pressure to be provided for desalination of seawater, district heating, or chemical processes. The future generation of nuclear plants will be capable to enter the wide field of cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), to reduce waste heat and to increase efficiency. This requires an adjustment to multiple needs of the customers in terms of size and application. All Generation-IV concepts proposed are designed for coolant outlet temperatures above 500 C, which allow applications in the low and medium temperature range. A VHTR would even be able to cover the whole temperature range up to approx. 1 000 C.

  2. On-wafer high temperature characterization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, L.; ǎghici, F., Dr; Rusu, I.; Brezeanu, G.

    2016-12-01

    In this work a on-wafer high temperature characterization system for wide bandgap semiconductor devices and circuits has been designed, implemented and tested. The proposed system can perform the wafer temperature adjustment in a large domain, from the room temperature up to 3000C with a resolution better than +/-0.50C. In order to obtain both low-noise measurements and low EMI, the heating element of the wafer chuck is supplied in two ways: one is from a DC linear power supply connected to the mains electricity, another one is from a second DC unit powered by batteries. An original temperature control algorithm, different from classical PID, is used to modify the power applied to the chuck.

  3. High-Temperature Shape Memory Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Weiss, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    physical conformation changes when exposed to an external stimulus, such as a change in temperature. Such materials have a permanent shape, but can be reshaped above a critical temperature and fixed into a temporary shape when cooled under stress to below the critical temperature. When reheated above the critical temperature (Tc, also sometimes called the triggering or switching temperature), the materials revert to the permanent shape. The current innovation involves a chemically treated (sulfonated, carboxylated, phosphonated, or other polar function group), high-temperature, semicrystalline thermoplastic poly(ether ether ketone) (Tg .140 C, Tm = 340 C) mix containing organometallic complexes (Zn++, Li+, or other metal, ammonium, or phosphonium salts), or high-temperature ionic liquids (e.g. hexafluorosilicate salt with 1-propyl-3- methyl imidazolium, Tm = 210 C) to form a network where dipolar or ionic interactions between the polymer and the low-molecular-weight or inorganic compound forms a complex that provides a physical crosslink. Hereafter, these compounds will be referred to as "additives". The polymer is semicrystalline, and the high-melt-point crystals provide a temporary crosslink that acts as a permanent crosslink just so long as the melting temperature is not exceeded. In this example case, the melting point is .340 C, and the shape memory critical temperature is between 150 and 250 C. PEEK is an engineering thermoplastic with a high Young fs modulus, nominally 3.6 GPa. An important aspect of the invention is the control of the PEEK functionalization (in this example, the sulfonation degree), and the thermal properties (i.e. melting point) of the additive, which determines the switching temperature. Because the compound is thermoplastic, it can be formed into the "permanent" shape by conventional plastics processing operations. In addition, the compound may be covalently cross - linked after forming the permanent shape by S-PEEK by applying ionizing

  4. High-Temperature Capacitor Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Qin; Irwin, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Film capacitor technology has been under development for over half a century to meet various applications such as direct-current link capacitors for transportation, converters/inverters for power electronics, controls for deep well drilling of oil and gas, direct energy weapons for military use, and high-frequency coupling circuitry. The biaxially oriented polypropylene film capacitor remains the state-of-the-art technology; however, it is not able to meet increasing demand for high-temperature (>125°C) applications. A number of dielectric materials capable of operating at high temperatures (>140°C) have attracted investigation, and their modifications are being pursued to achieve higher volumetric efficiency as well. This paper highlights the status of polymer dielectric film development and its feasibility for capacitor applications. High-temperature polymers such as polyetherimide (PEI), polyimide, and polyetheretherketone were the focus of our studies. PEI film was found to be the preferred choice for high-temperature film capacitor development due to its thermal stability, dielectric properties, and scalability.

  5. High temperature fatigue behaviour of intermetallics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Bhanu Sankara Rao

    2003-06-01

    There would be considerable benefits in developing new structural materials where high use temperatures and strength coupled with low density are minimum capabilities. Nickel and titanium aluminides exhibit considerable potential for near-term application in various branches of modern industry due to the number of property advantages they possess including low density, high melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, and excellent environmental resistance, and their amenability for significant improvment in creep and fatigue resistance through alloying. Reliability of intermetallics when used as engineering materials has not yet been fully established. Ductility and fracture toughness at room and intermediate temperatures continue to be lower than the desired values for production implementation. In this paper, progress made towards improving strain-controlled fatigue resistance of nickel and titanium aluminides is outlined. The effects of manufacturing processes and micro alloying on low cycle fatigue behaviour of NiAl are addressed. The effects of microstructure, temperature of testing, section thickness, brittle to ductile transition temperature, mean stress and environment on fatigue behaviour of same -TiAl alloys are discussed.

  6. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  7. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleige, Michael

    This thesis presents the development and application of electrochemical half-cell setups to study the catalytic reactions taking place in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (HTPEM-FCs): (i) a pressurized electrochemical cell with integrated magnetically coupled rotating disk electrode...... of dissolved oxygen. A potential step method (hydrodynamic chronocoulometry) is evaluated for simultaneous measurement of diffusivity and solubility of oxygen by means of RDE. Finally, the ORR tests are extended to conc. H3PO4 at more relevant working temperatures and under increased oxygen pressure. Direct...... of platinumphosphoric acid. At room temperature, a relative slow ORR hindering process is active, which requires using a fast method (cyclic voltammetry with high scan rate / hydrodynamic chronocoulometry) to accurately measure the diffusion limited currents, and thus, oxygen diffusivity and solubility. In conc. H3PO4...

  8. Gravimeter using high-temperature superconductor bearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J. R.

    1998-09-11

    We have developed a sensitive gravimeter concept that uses an extremely low-friction bearing based on a permanent magnet (PM) levitated over a high-temperature superconductor (HTS). A mass is attached to the PM by means of a cantilevered beam, and the combination of PM and HTS forms a bearing platform that has low resistance to rotational motion but high resistance to horizontal, vertical, or tilting motion. The combination acts as a low-loss torsional pendulum that can be operated in any orientation. Gravity acts on the cantilevered beam and attached mass, accelerating them. Variations in gravity can be detected by time-of-flight acceleration, or by a control coil or electrode that would keep the mass stationary. Calculations suggest that the HTS gravimeter would be as sensitive as present-day superconducting gravimeters that need cooling to liquid helium temperatures, but the HTS gravimeter needs cooling only to liquid nitrogen temperatures.

  9. Nuclear and Quark Matter at High Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Biro, T S; Schram, Z

    2016-01-01

    We review important ideas on nuclear and quark matter description on the basis of high- temperature field theory concepts, like resummation, dimensional reduction, interaction scale separation and spectral function modification in media. Statistical and thermodynamical concepts are spotted in the light of these methods concentrating on the - partially still open - problems of the hadronization process.

  10. Technology of high temperature organic coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makin, R.S.; Vorobei, M.P.; Kuprienko, V.A.; Starkov, V.A.; Tsykanov, V.A.; Checketkin, Y.V. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-31

    Research has been performed on the problems related to the use of high temperature organic coolants in small and medium nuclear power plants. The work performed and also the experience of operating the ARBUS reactor confirmed the inherent safety features, reliability, and enhanced safety margins of the plants with this type of coolants. The advantages of this system and research highlights are presented.

  11. Enamel for high-temperature superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, H.; Lent, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Desired optical and high temperature enamel properties are obtained with glasses prepared from the system Li2O-ZrO2-nSiO2. Molar compositions range from n=4 to n=1.3, to which are added minor amounts in varying combinations of alumina, alkali fluorides, boric oxide, alkali oxides, and akaline earth oxides.

  12. Nuclear and quark matter at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, Tamas S. [H.A.S. Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Jakovac, Antal [Roland Eotvos University, Budapest (Hungary); Schram, Zsolt [University of Debrecen, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2017-03-15

    We review important ideas on nuclear and quark matter description on the basis of high-temperature field theory concepts, like resummation, dimensional reduction, interaction scale separation and spectral function modification in media. Statistical and thermodynamical concepts are spotted in the light of these methods concentrating on the -partially still open- problems of the hadronization process. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of iron oxidation at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slattery, J.C.; Peng, K.Y.; Gadalla, A.M.; Gadalla, N. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    A new theory for the high-temperature oxidation of iron is proposed, in which the rate-limiting step is ternary diffusion of ferric, ferrous, and oxygen ions in the iron oxides that are formed. The predictions of this theory are compared with previously published experimental data. The only thermodynamic information required is a phase diagram.

  14. Dynamics of Gauge Fields at High Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    An effective description of dynamical Bose fields is provided by the classical (high-temperature) limit of thermal field theory. The main subject of this thesis is to improve the ensuing classical field theory, that is, to include the dominant quantum corrections and to add counter terms for the Ray

  15. Photoemission studies of high-temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaritondo, G. (Inst. de Physique Appliquee, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (CH))

    1990-11-01

    Photoemission spectroscopy has recently emerged as one of the leading techniques in the study of high-temperature superconductors. Relevant successes include the direct detection of the superconductivity gap, tests for departure from Fermi-liquid behavior, and many interface chemical studies with technological interest. The authors present a review of the fundamental and applied aspects of this technique.

  16. High-temperature carbidization of carboniferous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, B. A.; Grass, V. E.; Nadutkin, A. V.; Nazarova, L. Yu.

    2009-08-01

    Processes of thermal metamorphism of carboniferous rocks have been studied experimentally. The conditions of high-temperature interaction of shungite carbon with components of the contained rocks, leading to formation of carbide compounds, have been determined. The results of this investigation contribute to the works on searching for new raw material for prospective material production.

  17. 10.3 High-temperature Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes high temperature instrumentation development from 1960-1970, 1980-1990 and 2000-present. The contents include: 1) Background; 2) Objective; 3) Application and Sensor; 4) Attachment Techniques; 5) Evaluation/Characterization Testing; and 6) Future testing.

  18. Anharmonic phonons and high-temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, V.H.; Cohen, M.L. (Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1993-07-01

    We examine a simple model of anharmonic phonons with application to the superconducting isotope effect. Linear and quadratic electron-phonon coupling are considered for various model potentials. The results of the model calculations are compared with the high-temperature superconductors La[sub 2[minus][ital x

  19. High-temperature langasite SAW oxygen sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peng; Chin, Tao-Lun; Greve, David; Oppenheim, Irving; Malone, Vanessa; Cao, Limin

    2011-08-01

    High-temperature langasite SAW oxygen sensors using sputtered ZnO as a resistive gas-sensing layer were fabricated and tested. Sensitivity to oxygen gas was observed between 500°C to 700°C, with a sensitivity peak at about 625°C, consistent with the theoretical predictions of the acoustoelectric effect.

  20. Dynamics of Gauge Fields at High Temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    An effective description of dynamical Bose fields is provided by the classical (high-temperature) limit of thermal field theory. The main subject of this thesis is to improve the ensuing classical field theory, that is, to include the dominant quantum corrections and to add counter terms for the Ray

  1. Solar-driven high temperature radiant cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG ZhaoPei; WANG RuZhu; ZHAI XiaoQiang

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy is widely used as one of the most important renewable energy. In addition to the growing applications of solar PV and solar water heater, solar cooling is also considered very valuable and the related researches are developing fast because of the synchronism between solar irradiance and building cooling load. Current studies mainly focus on the high temperature solar collector technique and heat-driven cooling technique, while little concern has been paid to the transport process of cooling power. In this paper, the high temperature radiant cooling is studied as an alternative way for transporting cooling power, and the performance of the combination of radiant ceiling and solar cooling is also studied. From simulation and theoretical analysis results, high temperature radiant cooling terminal shows better cooling power transportation ability against conventional air-conditioning terminal, and its thermal comfort is improved. Experiment results indicate that radiant cooling can enhance the chiller's COP (Coefficient of Performance) by 17% and cooling power regeneration by 50%.According to analysis in this paper, high temperature radiant cooling is proved to be suitable for solar cooling system, and out work can serve as a reference for later system design and promotion.

  2. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...

  3. The Evolution of High Temperature Gas Sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzon, F. H. (Fernando H.); Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Mukundan, R. (Rangachary)

    2001-01-01

    Gas sensor technology based on high temperature solid electrolytes is maturing rapidly. Recent advances in metal oxide catalysis and thin film materials science has enabled the design of new electrochemical sensors. We have demonstrated prototype amperometric oxygen sensors, nernstian potentiometric oxygen sensors that operate in high sulfur environments, and hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide sensing mixed potentials sensors. Many of these devices exhibit part per million sensitivities, response times on the order of seconds and excellent long-term stability.

  4. High temperature internal friction measurements of 3YTZP zirconia polycrystals. High temperature background and creep

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, P.; Castillo-Rodríguez, Miguel; Nó, M. L.; De-Bernardi, S.; Gómez-García, D.; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; San Juan, J.

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the high-temperature mechanic properties of a 3 mol % yttria zirconia polycrystals (3YTZP), fabricated by hot-pressureless sintering. Systematic measurements of mechanical loss as a function of temperature and frequency were performed. An analytical method, based on the generalised Maxwell rheological model, has been used to analyse the high temperature internal friction background (HTB). This method has been previously applied to intermetallic compounds...

  5. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  6. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  7. High temperature superconductors applications in telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. Anil; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Ming Fang

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss high temperature superconductors with specific reference to their employment in telecommunications applications; and (2) to discuss a few of the limitations of the normally employed two-fluid model. While the debate on the actual usage of high temperature superconductors in the design of electronic and telecommunications devices - obvious advantages versus practical difficulties - needs to be settled in the near future, it is of great interest to investigate the parameters and the assumptions that will be employed in such designs. This paper deals with the issue of providing the microwave design engineer with performance data for such superconducting waveguides. The values of conductivity and surface resistance, which are the primary determining factors of a waveguide performance, are computed based on the two-fluid model. A comparison between two models - a theoretical one in terms of microscopic parameters (termed Model A) and an experimental fit in terms of macroscopic parameters (termed Model B) - shows the limitations and the resulting ambiguities of the two-fluid model at high frequencies and at temperatures close to the transition temperature. The validity of the two-fluid model is then discussed. Our preliminary results show that the electrical transport description in the normal and superconducting phases as they are formulated in the two-fluid model needs to be modified to incorporate the new and special features of high temperature superconductors. Parameters describing the waveguide performance - conductivity, surface resistance and attenuation constant - will be computed. Potential applications in communications networks and large scale integrated circuits will be discussed. Some of the ongoing work will be reported. In particular, a brief proposal is made to investigate of the effects of electromagnetic interference and the concomitant notion of electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) of high T

  8. High temperature superconductors applications in telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.A.; Li, J.; Zhang, M.F. [Prairie View A& M Univ., Texas (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to discuss high temperature superconductors with specific reference to their employment in telecommunications applications; and to discuss a few of the limitations of the normally employed two-fluid model. While the debate on the actual usage of high temperature superconductors in the design of electronic and telecommunications devices-obvious advantages versus practical difficulties-needs to be settled in the near future, it is of great interest to investigate the parameters and the assumptions that will be employed in such designs. This paper deals with the issue of providing the microwave design engineer with performance data for such superconducting waveguides. The values of conductivity and surface resistance, which are the primary determining factors of a waveguide performance, are computed based on the two-fluid model. A comparison between two models-a theoretical one in terms of microscopic parameters (termed Model A) and an experimental fit in terms of macroscopic parameters (termed Model B)-shows the limitations and the resulting ambiguities of the two-fluid model at high frequencies and at temperatures close to the transition temperature. The validity of the two-fluid model is then discussed. Our preliminary results show that the electrical transport description in the normal and superconducting phases as they are formulated in the two-fluid model needs to be modified to incorporate the new and special features of high temperature superconductors. Parameters describing the waveguide performance-conductivity, surface resistance and attenuation constant-will be computed. Potential applications in communications networks and large scale integrated circuits will be discussed. Some of the ongoing work will be reported. In particular, a brief proposal is made to investigate of the effects of electromagnetic interference and the concomitant notion of electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) of high T{sub c} superconductors.

  9. Ce anomaly in minerals of eclogite and garnet pyroxenite from Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belt:Tacking subducted sediment formed under oxidizing conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yan; GAO Shan; YUAN Honglin; LIU Xiaomin; Deltlef Günther; JIN Zhenmin; SUN Min

    2004-01-01

    In-situ excimer laser ICP-MS analysis of minerals of eclogites and garnet pyroxenites from type localities (Shuanghe, Maowu, Bixiling, and Yangkou) in the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt reveals highly variable Ce anomalies from negative to positive in garnet. Similar Ce anomalies are also present in omphacite or clinopyroxene but to a much lesser extent. Such mixed negative and positive Ce anomalies mimic those found in severe weathering profiles developed under oxidizing conditions. They suggest the presence of subducted sediment components in the eclogites and garnet pyroxenites, which in turn points to the potential importance of the recycled sediments in modification of the mantle composition during the deep subduction of the continental crust.

  10. Comments on theories of high temperature superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Rice

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The recently discovered MgB2 superconductors have a record transition temperature for a BCS superconductor due to the high vibration frequencies associated with its light elements. The transition temperatures in the cuprate family of superconductors are much higher but these do not fit the BCS paradigm. The most promising microscopic origin for their many anomalous properties lies in magnetic pairing described by the RVB (Resonant Valence Bond ansatz. However a comprehensive theoretical description of the key anomalous properties of the cuprates remains to be an open challenge.

  11. The metallurgy of high temperature alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, J. K.; Purushothaman, S.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel-base, cobalt-base, and high nickel and chromium iron-base alloys are dissected, and their microstructural and chemical components are assessed with respect to the various functions expected of high temperature structural materials. These functions include the maintenance of mechanical integrity over the strain-rate spectrum from creep resistance through fatigue crack growth resistance, and such alloy stability expectations as microstructural coarsening resistance, phase instability resistance and oxidation and corrosion resistance. Special attention will be given to the perennial conflict and trade-off between strength, ductility and corrosion and oxidation resistance. The newest developments in the constitution of high temperature alloys will also be discussed, including aspects relating to materials conservation.

  12. Optically transparent high temperature shape memory polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinli; Qiu, Xueying; Kong, Deyan; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2016-03-21

    Optically transparent shape memory polymers (SMPs) have potential in advanced optoelectronic and other common shape memory applications, and here optically transparent shape memory polyimide is reported for the first time. The polyimide possesses a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 171 °C, higher than the Tg of other transparent SMPs reported, and the influence of molecular structure on Tg is discussed. The 120 μm thick polyimide film exhibits transmittance higher than 81% in 450-800 nm, and the possible mechanism of its high transparency is analyzed, which will benefit further research on other transparent high temperature SMPs. The transparent polyimide showed excellent thermomechanical properties and shape memory performances, and retained high optical transparency after many shape memory cycles.

  13. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  14. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  15. Thermoelectric properties by high temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Lee, Hohyun (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally provides methods of improving thermoelectric properties of alloys by subjecting them to one or more high temperature annealing steps, performed at temperatures at which the alloys exhibit a mixed solid/liquid phase, followed by cooling steps. For example, in one aspect, such a method of the invention can include subjecting an alloy sample to a temperature that is sufficiently elevated to cause partial melting of at least some of the grains. The sample can then be cooled so as to solidify the melted grain portions such that each solidified grain portion exhibits an average chemical composition, characterized by a relative concentration of elements forming the alloy, that is different than that of the remainder of the grain.

  16. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleige, Michael

    This thesis presents the development and application of electrochemical half-cell setups to study the catalytic reactions taking place in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (HTPEM-FCs): (i) a pressurized electrochemical cell with integrated magnetically coupled rotating disk electrode...... (RDE) and (ii) a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) setup designed for experiments in conc. H3PO4. The pressurized cell is demonstrated by tests on polycrystalline platinum electrodes up to 150 ºC. Functionality of the RDE system is proved studying the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at temperatures up...... to 140 ºC and oxygen pressures up to ~100 bar at room temperature. The GDE cell is successfully tested at 130 ºC by means of direct oxidation of methanol and ethanol, respectively. In the second part of the thesis, the emphasis is put on the ORR in H3PO4 with particular focus on the mass transport...

  17. Quench in high temperature superconductor magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, J

    2013-01-01

    High field superconducting magnets using high temperature superconductors are being developed for high energy physics, nuclear magnetic resonance and energy storage applications. Although the conductor technology has progressed to the point where such large magnets can be readily envisioned, quench protection remains a key challenge. It is well-established that quench propagation in HTS magnets is very slow and this brings new challenges that must be addressed. In this paper, these challenges are discussed and potential solutions, driven by new technologies such as optical fiber based sensors and thermally conducting electrical insulators, are reviewed.

  18. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  19. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  20. Energy storage via high temperature superconductivity (SMES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkonen, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The technology concerning high temperature superconductors (HTS) is matured to enabling different kind of prototype applications including SMES. Nowadays when speaking about HTS systems, attention is focused on the operating temperature of 20-30 K, where the critical current and flux density are fairly close to 4.2 K values. In addition by defining the ratio of the energy content of a novel HTS magnetic system and the required power to keep the system at the desired temperature, the optimum settles to the above mentioned temperature range. In the frame of these viewpoints a 5 kJ HTS SMES system has been designed and tested at Tampere University of Technology with a coil manufactured by American Superconductor (AMSC). The HTS magnet has inside and outside diameters of 252 mm and 317 mm, respectively and axial length of 66 mm. It operates at 160 A and carries a total of 160 kA-turns to store the required amount of energy. The effective magnetic inductance is 0.4 H and the peak axial field is 1.7 T. The magnet is cooled to the operating temperature of 20 K with a two stage Gifford-McMahon type cryocooler with a cooling power of 60 W at 77 K and 8 W at 20 K. The magnetic system has been demonstrated to compensate a short term loss of power of a sensitive consumer

  1. High temperature deformation of silicon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Calvillo, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.rodriguez@ctm.com.es [CTM - Technologic Centre, Materials Technology Area, Manresa, Cataluna (Spain); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain); Houbaert, Yvan, E-mail: Yvan.Houbaert@UGent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Petrov, Roumen, E-mail: Roumen.Petrov@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Kestens, Leo, E-mail: Leo.kestens@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ghent (Belgium); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The microstructure and texture development during high temperature plane strain compression of 2% in weight silicon steel was studied. The tests were carried out at a constant strain rate of 5 s{sup -1} with reductions of 25, 35 and 75% at temperatures varying from 800 to 1100 Degree-Sign C. The changes in microstructure and texture were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction. The microstructure close to the surface of the samples was equiaxed, which is attributed to the shear caused by friction, whereas that at the centre of the specimens was made of a mixture of elongated and fine equiaxed grains, the last ones attributed to the action of dynamic recovery followed by recrystallization. It was found that the volume fraction of these equiaxed grains augmented as reduction and temperature increased; a 0.7 volume fraction was accomplished with a 75% reduction at 1100 Degree-Sign C. The texture of the equiaxed and elongated grains was found to vary with the increase of deformation and temperature, as the {gamma}-fibre tends to disappear and the {alpha}-fibre to increase towards the higher temperature range. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plastic deformation of a silicon containing steel is studied by plane strain compression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equiaxed and elongated grains develop in different regions of the sample due to recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Texture, by EBSD, is revealed to be similar in either type of grains.

  2. Electrochemical high-temperature gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruhan, B.; Stranzenbach, M.; Yüce, A.; Gönüllü, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Combustion produced common air pollutant, NOx associates with greenhouse effects. Its high temperature detection is essential for protection of nature. Component-integration capable high-temperature sensors enable the control of combustion products. The requirements are quantitative detection of total NOx and high selectivity at temperatures above 500°C. This study reports various approaches to detect NO and NO2 selectively under lean and humid conditions at temperatures from 300°C to 800°C. All tested electrochemical sensors were fabricated in planar design to enable componentintegration. We suggest first an impedance-metric gas sensor for total NOx-detection consisting of NiO- or NiCr2O4-SE and PYSZ-electrolyte. The electrolyte-layer is about 200μm thickness and constructed of quasi-single crystalline columns. The sensing-electrode (SE) is magnetron sputtered thin-layers of NiO or NiCr2O4. Sensor sensitivity for detection of total NOx has been measured by applying impedance analysis. The cross-sensitivity to other emission gases such as CO, CO2, CH4 and oxygen (5 vol.%) has been determined under 0-1000ppm NO. Sensor maintains its high sensitivity at temperatures up to 550°C and 600°C, depending on the sensing-electrode. NiO-SE yields better selectivity to NO in the presence of oxygen and have shorter response times comparing to NiCr2O4-SE. For higher temperature NO2-sensing capability, a resistive DC-sensor having Al-doped TiO2-sensing layers has been employed. Sensor-sensitivity towards NO2 and cross-sensitivity to CO has been determined in the presence of H2O at temperatures 600°C and 800°C. NO2 concentrations varying from 25 to 100ppm and CO concentrations from 25 to 75ppm can be detected. By nano-tubular structuring of TiO2, NO2 sensitivity of the sensor was increased.

  3. Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad

    to 250 °C and 2400 bar, in the deep petroleum reservoirs. Furthermore, many of these deep reservoirs are found offshore, including the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, making the development even more risky. On the other hand, development of these high pressure high temperature (HPHT) fields can...

  4. Pulse Radiolysis at High Temperatures and High Pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Sehested, Knud

    1981-01-01

    A set-up enabling pulse radiolysis measurements at high temperatures (up to 320°C) and high pressures (up to 140 bar) has been constructed in collaboration between Risö National Laboratory and Studsvik Energiteknik. The cell has been used for experiments with aqueous solutions with the purpose...

  5. The role of eclogite in the metasomatism and Cenozoic magmatism of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltorti, M.; Bonadiman, C.; Faccini, B.; Griffin, W.; Melchiorre, M.; O'Reilly, S.; Pearson, N.

    2009-12-01

    abundance lower than PUM. These data support the few, variably old depletion events described above. Sector III is represented by Os values less radiogenic and Re/Os contents higher than PUM. These data resulted from recent Re addition, most probably caused by metasomatism and/or host lava interaction. Sectors I and II are composed of those samples having more radiogenic Os and lower or higher Re contents than PUM. Very radiogenic Os values can be obtained by i) ancient Re addition or ii) recent addition of a material with high Os/Os ratio, which in turn has to derive from Re-rich lithologies. Notwithstanding the Re/Os behaviour during subduction is still largely unknown, a large dataset for Re/Os systematics was gathered: eclogites are the only lithotypes contemporaneously presenting high values of radiogenic Os and Re content. The most radiogenic samples from BR plot along a mixed line, suggesting an involvement of eclogitic material. Eclogite material may have been introduced in the sublithospheric NVL mantle during the Ross Orogeny, reactivated during the opening of the West Antarctic Rift System and contributing to both metasomatism and Cenozoic NVL magmatism.

  6. High temperature alloys: their exploitable potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.B.; Merz, M.; Nihoul, J.; Ward, J. (eds.) (Commission of the European Communities, Petten (Netherlands). Joint Nuclear Research Center; NET-TEAM, Garching (DE))

    1987-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of a conference dealing with fundamental and technical aspects of the applications of high temperature alloys. It is split into five sections which cover the opening session of the conference and four further sessions covering: the theoretical and practical limits for HT alloys; the potential for development in alloys and processing; engineering considerations; the future outlook. The different sessions each included a number of invited papers followed by a series of posters and were concluded by a presentation of a 'synthesis' by a session rapporteur and general discussion. This structure is retained in the proceedings, including the discussion points in those cases where the authors have provided written answers to the questions raised. This book will be of interest to metallurgists, materials scientists, physicists and research workers in high temperature materials.

  7. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 ◦C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive...... media, as well as localized sampling of gas evolved at the electrodes for gas analysis. A number of safety and engineering design challenges have been addressed. Furthermore, we present a series of electrochemical cell holders that have been constructed in order to accommodate different types of cells......, to the electrochemical characterization of high temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis cells and the use of pseudo-reference electrodes for the separation of each electrode contribution. A future perspective of various electrochemical processes and devices that can be developed with the use of the established...

  8. High temperature superconductors for magnetic suspension applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmichael, C. K.; Cooley, R. S.; Chen, Q. Y.; Ma, K. B.; Lamb, M. A.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.; Chu, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature superconductors (HTS) hold the promise for applications in magnetic levitation bearings, vibration damping, and torque coupling. Traditional magnetic suspension systems require active feedback and vibration controls in which power consumption and low frequency vibration are among the major engineering concerns. HTS materials have been demonstrated to be an enabling approach towards such problems due to their flux trapping properties. In our laboratory at TCSUH, we have been conducting a series of experiments to explore various mechanical applications using HTS. We have constructed a 30 lb. model flywheel levitated by a hybrid superconducting magnetic bearing (HSMB). We are also developing a levitated and vibration-dampled platform for high precision instrumentation. These applications would be ideal for space usages where ambient temperature is adequate for HTS to operate properly under greatly reduced cryogenic requirements. We will give a general overview of these potential applications and discuss the operating principles of the HTS devices we have developed.

  9. High temperature superconductor materials and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, George B., III. (Editor); Banks, Curtis; Golben, John

    1991-01-01

    One of the areas concerned itself with the investigation of the phenomena involved in formulating and making in the laboratory new and better superconductor material with enhanced values of critical current and temperature. Of special interest were the chemistry, physical processes, and environment required to attain these enhanced desirable characteristics. The other area concerned itself with producing high temperature superconducting thin films by pulsed laser deposition techniques. Such films are potentially very useful in the detection of very low power signals. To perform this research high vacuum is required. In the course of this effort, older vacuum chambers were maintained and used. In addition, a new facility is being brought on line. This latter activity has been replete with the usual problems of bringing a new facility into service. Some of the problems are covered in the main body of this report.

  10. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    This Ph.D. thesis describes experimental and modeling investigations of fast high temperature pyrolysis of biomass. Suspension firing of biomass is widely used for power generation and has been considered as an important step in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by using less fossil fuels. Fast...... pyrolysis at high temperatures plays a significant role in the overall combustion process since the biomass type, the reaction kinetics and heat transfer rates during pyrolysis influence the volatile gas release. The solid residue yield and its properties in suspension firing, including particle size...... and shape, composition, reactivity and burnout depend significantly on the operating conditions of the fast pyrolysis. Biomass fast pyrolysis experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale wire mesh reactor and bench scale atmospheric pressure drop tube / entrained flow reactors with the aim...

  11. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  12. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  13. High temperature mechanical properties of iron aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris, D. G.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerable attention has been given to the iron aluminide family of intermetallics over the past years since they offer considerable potential as engineering materials for intermediate to high temperature applications, particularly in cases where extreme oxidation or corrosion resistance is required. Despite efforts at alloy development, however, high temperature strength remains low and creep resistance poor. Reasons for the poor high-temperature strength of iron aluminides will be discussed, based on the ordered crystal structure, the dislocation structure found in the material, and the mechanisms of dislocation pinning operating. Alternative ways of improving high temperature strength by microstructural modification and the inclusion of second phase particles will also be considered.

    Durante los últimos años se ha prestado mucha atención a la familia de intermetálicos Fe-Al, puesto que estos constituyen un considerable potencial como materiales de ingeniería en aplicaciones a temperaturas intermedias o altas, sobre todo en casos donde se necesita alta resistencia a la oxidación o corrosión. A pesar del considerable esfuerzo desarrollado para obtener aleaciones con mejores propiedades, su resistencia mecánica a alta temperatura no es muy elevada. Se discutirán los aspectos que contribuyen a la baja resistencia mecánica a temperatura elevada en función de la estructura de dislocaciones y los mecanismos de anclaje que operan en este intermetálico. Se considerarán, también, maneras alternativas para mejorar la resistencia a temperatura elevada mediante la modificación de la microestructura y la incorporación de partículas de segunda fase.

  14. High Temperature Perforating System for Geothermal Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Moises E. [Schlumberger Technology Corporation, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The objective of this project is to develop a perforating system consisting of all the explosive components and hardware, capable of reliable performance in high temperatures geothermal wells (>200 ºC). In this light we will focused on engineering development of these components, characterization of the explosive raw powder and developing the internal infrastructure to increase the production of the explosive from laboratory scale to industrial scale.

  15. On quark number susceptibilities at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bazavov, A; Hegde, P; Karsch, F; Miao, C; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, P; Schmidt, C; Velytsky, A

    2013-01-01

    We calculated second and fourth order quark number susceptibilities for 2+1 flavor QCD in the high temperature region using two improved staggered fermion formulations. The calculations are performed at several lattice spacing and we show that in the continuum limit the two formulations give consistent results. We compare our continuum extrapolated results on quark number susceptibilities with recent weak coupling calculations, and find that these cannot simultaneously explain the lattice results for second and fourth order quark number susceptibilities.

  16. Intermetallic-based high-temperature materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-07-01

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminides are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  17. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  18. Hydrogen dominant metallic alloys: high temperature superconductors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, N W

    2004-05-07

    The arguments suggesting that metallic hydrogen, either as a monatomic or paired metal, should be a candidate for high temperature superconductivity are shown to apply with comparable weight to alloys of metallic hydrogen where hydrogen is a dominant constituent, for example, in the dense group IVa hydrides. The attainment of metallic states should be well within current capabilities of diamond anvil cells, but at pressures considerably lower than may be necessary for hydrogen.

  19. High Temperature Superconducting Maglev Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia-Su; Wang, Su-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Three high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev measurement systems were successfully developed in the Applied Superconductivity Laboratory (ASCLab) of Southwest Jiaotong University, P. R. China. These systems include liquid nitrogen vessel, Permanent Magnet Guideway (PMG), data collection and processing, mechanical drive and Autocontrol features. This chapter described the three different measuring systems along with their theory of operations and workflow. The SCML-01 HTS Maglev measure...

  20. GRAPHENE PEEK COMPOSITES AS HIGH TEMPERATURE ADHESIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Price DW, Roberts JA, Scott JB, Wadhawan A, Ye Z, Tour JM. Nanotubes in microwave fields : light emission , intense heat, outgassing, and reconstruction...Arepalli S, Yowell LL, Tour JM. Carbon nanotube composite curing through absorption of microwave radiation. Composites Science and Technology. 2008 Dec...polymer that is suitable for high-temperature applications. Graphene is a two-dimensional form of carbon nanomaterial that has been studied

  1. Technological evolution of high temperature superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    White, Jordan R.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are currently being used in the commercial energy industry primarily for demonstration purposes and to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale implementation into the electric grid. While still in the evaluation stage, the U.S. Navy is finding the test results promising and is investigating its potential use for future electric ships to supply power to electric propulsion motors and possibl...

  2. Development of High-Temperature Strain Gages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-03-17

    lengths the article is either dipped in a slip (finely divided tend to require a support for the grid, while shorter coating material suspended in a...liquid) or the lengths require too many loops to achieve the slip is sprayed onto the article , followed in both cases by high-temperature fusion. An...Electrochemistry. Electrical Instruments. Magnetic Measurements. Dielectrics. Metrology. Photometry and Colorimetry. Refractometry . Photographic Research

  3. Current trends in high temperature design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, D.L. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    A review of high temperature design guidelines has been carried out in preparation for designing a solar storage module for the Freedom Spacelab. Three major guidelines, N47, R5 and RCC-MR form the basis of the survey. The main issues with current, mature design in the power industry appear to be adequately covered by these guidelines. A significant finding is that long established models of material damage have survived the test of time very well. A new design regime referred to as Very High Temperature Design (VHTD) is identified. The characteristics of this regime are changing material properties which require some changes in philosophy in drafting of future codes, particularly in regard to definitions of yield strengths and other design allowables. Finally, there is some discussion of the more general use of the stress/strain plane, e.g. isochronous curves, for representation of very complex material constitutive behaviour. A concept called the 'Relaxation Locus', which summarizes essential local constrained component behavior, is introduced and its application to high temperature design problems is discussed briefly. (author).

  4. High temperature inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Effort has continued to accumulate data on the transport of gases over the temperature range from room temperature to 275{degrees}C with inorganic membranes having a range of pore radii from approximately 0.25 nm to 3 mn. An experimental alumina membrane having an estimated mean pore radius of 0.25 nm has been fabricated and tested. Extensive testing of this membrane indicated that the separation factor for helium and carbon tetrafluoride at 250{degrees}C was 59 and the extrapolated high temperature separation factor was 1,193. For safety reasons, earlier flow measurements concentrated on helium, carbon dioxide, and carbon tetrafluoride. New data have been acquired with hydrogen to verify the agreement with the other gases. During the measurements with hydrogen, it was noted that a considerable amount of moisture was present in the test gas. The source of this moisture and its effect on permeance was examined. Improvements were implemented to the flow test system to minimize the water content of the hydrogen test gas, and subsequent flow measurements have shown excellent results with hydrogen. The extrapolation of separation factors as a function of temperature continues to show promise as a means of using the hard sphere model to determine the pore size of membranes. The temperature dependence of helium transport through membranes appears to be considerably greater than other gases for the smallest pore sizes. The effort to extend temperature dependence to the hard sphere model continues to be delayed, primarily because of a lack of adequate adsorption data.

  5. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed electromagnets only. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  6. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed only electromagnets. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  7. The NDT methods under high temperature service environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhen-guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the detective requirement of the equipment under high temperature running status, this paper summarizes the technical characteristics and related applications of several non-destructive testing methods(NDT, such as thermal infrared imaging technology in high temperature, ultrasonic testing technique in high temperature, pulsed eddy current technology in high temperature and magnetic powder flaw detection technology in high temperature, penetration testing technique in high temperature and indirect visual detection in high temperature and on-line monitoring system in high temperature.

  8. Technology of high-temperature organic coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobei, M.P.; Makin, R.S.; Kuprienko, V.A. [and others

    1993-12-31

    A wide range of studies were carried out in RIAR on the problems connected with the use of high-temperature organic coolant at nuclear power plants. The work performed and successful experience gained in persistent operation of the ARBUS reactor confirmed the inherent safety characteristics, high operational reliability, as well as improved safety of stations with similar reactors. A large scope of studies were carried out at the ARBUS pilot reactor and loop with the organic coolant of the MIR reactor and a wide range of problems were solved. The studies are described.

  9. Precipitation Hardenable High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald Dean (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Crombie, Edwin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A composition of the invention is a high temperature shape memory alloy having high work output, and is made from (Ni+Pt+Y),Ti(100-x) wherein x is present in a total amount of 49-55 atomic % Pt is present in a total amount of 10-30 atomic %, Y is one or more of Au, Pd. and Cu and is present in a total amount of 0 to 10 atomic %. The alloy has a matrix phase wherein the total concentration of Ni, Pt, and the one or more of Pd. Au, and Cu is greater than 50 atomic %.

  10. High Temperature Sensing Systems--Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries at High Temperature--

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

     High temperature discharge characteristics were measured at 100℃ for commercial available Nickel Cadmium and Nickel Metal Hydride rechargeable batteries. A Nickel Cadmium battery has superior dis­charge characteristics than a Nickel Metal Hydride battery. A life cycle of rechargeable battery can be esti­mated by measuring an internal resistance of the battery during charge at room temperature.

  11. High Temperature Materials for Chemical Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Sandra; Hickman, Robert; O'Dell, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Radiation or passively cooled thrust chambers are used for a variety of chemical propulsion functions including apogee insertion, reaction control for launch vehicles, and primary propulsion for planetary spacecraft. The performance of these thrust chambers is limited by the operating temperature of available materials. Improved oxidation resistance and increased operating temperatures can be achieved with the use of thermal barrier coatings such as zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hafnium oxide (HfO2). However, previous attempts to include these materials showed cracking and spalling of the oxide layer due to poor bonding. Current research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has generated unique, high temperature material options for in-space thruster designs that are capable of up to 2500 C operating temperatures. The research is focused on fabrication technologies to form low cost Iridium,qF_.henium (Ir/Re) components with a ceramic hot wall created as an integral, functionally graded material (FGM). The goal of this effort is to further de?celop proven technologies for embedding a protective ceramic coating within the Ir/Re liner to form a robust functional gradient material. Current work includes the fabrication and testing of subscale samples to evaluate tensile, creep, thermal cyclic/oxidation, and thermophysical material properties. Larger test articles have also being fabricated and hot-fire tested to demonstrate the materials in prototype thrusters at 1O0 lbf thrust levels.

  12. High temperature measurement of water vapor absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Dennis; Lewis, J. W. L.; Eskridge, Richard

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to measure the absorption coefficient, at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, for mixtures of water vapor and a diluent gas at high temperature and pressure. The experimental concept was to create the desired conditions of temperature and pressure in a laser absorption wave, similar to that which would be created in a laser propulsion system. A simplified numerical model was developed to predict the characteristics of the absorption wave and to estimate the laser intensity threshold for initiation. A non-intrusive method for temperature measurement utilizing optical laser-beam deflection (OLD) and optical spark breakdown produced by an excimer laser, was thoroughly investigated and found suitable for the non-equilibrium conditions expected in the wave. Experiments were performed to verify the temperature measurement technique, to screen possible materials for surface initiation of the laser absorption wave and to attempt to initiate an absorption wave using the 1.5 kW carbon dioxide laser. The OLD technique was proven for air and for argon, but spark breakdown could not be produced in helium. It was not possible to initiate a laser absorption wave in mixtures of water and helium or water and argon using the 1.5 kW laser, a result which was consistent with the model prediction.

  13. High-temperature alloys for high-power thermionic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang S.; Jacobson, D.L.; D' cruz, L.; Luo, Anhua; Chen, Bor-Ling.

    1990-08-01

    The need for structural materials with useful strength above 1600 k has stimulated interest in refractory-metal alloys. Tungsten possesses an extreme high modulus of elasticity as well as the highest melting temperature among metals, and hence is being considered as one of the most promising candidate materials for high temperature structural applications such as space nuclear power systems. This report is divided into three chapters covering the following: (1) the processing of tungsten base alloys; (2) the tensile properties of tungsten base alloys; and (3) creep behavior of tungsten base alloys. Separate abstracts were prepared for each chapter. (SC)

  14. LHDAC setup for high temperature and high pressure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Nishant N., E-mail: nnpatel@barc.gov.in; Meenakshi, S., E-mail: nnpatel@barc.gov.in; Sharma, Surinder M., E-mail: nnpatel@barc.gov.in [High Pressure and Synchrotron Radiation Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A ytterbium fibre laser (λ = 1.07 μm) based laser heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) facility has been recently set up at HP and SRPD, BARC for simultaneous high temperature and high pressure investigation of material properties. Synthesis of GaN was carried out at pressure of ∼9 GPa and temperature of ∼1925 K in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell (DAC) using the LHDAC facility. The retrieved sample has been characterized using our laboratory based micro Raman setup.

  15. High-temperature brushless DC motor controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslewski, Crzegorz; Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Eckert, Michael Nathan

    2017-05-16

    A motor control system for deployment in high temperature environments includes a controller; a first half-bridge circuit that includes a first high-side switching element and a first low-side switching element; a second half-bridge circuit that includes a second high-side switching element and a second low-side switching element; and a third half-bridge circuit that includes a third high-side switching element and a third; low-side switching element. The motor controller is arranged to apply a pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme to switch the first half-bridge circuit, second half-bridge circuit, and third half-bridge circuit to power a motor.

  16. Conformal Properties in High Temperature QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, K -I; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, T

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the properties of quarks and gluons above the chiral phase transition temperature $T_c,$ using the RG improved gauge action and the Wilson quark action with two degenerate quarks mainly on a $32^3\\times 16$ lattice. In the one-loop perturbation theory, the thermal ensemble is dominated by the gauge configurations with effectively $Z(3)$ center twisted boundary conditions, making the thermal expectation value of the spatial Polyakov loop take a non-trivial $Z(3)$ center. This is in agreement with our lattice simulation of high temperature QCD. We further observe that the temporal propagator of massless quarks at extremely high temperature $\\beta=100.0 \\, (T \\simeq10^{58} T_c)$ remarkably agrees with the temporal propagator of free quarks with the $Z(3)$ twisted boundary condition for $t/L_t \\geq 0.2$, but differs from that with the $Z(3)$ trivial boundary condition. As we increase the mass of quarks $m_q$, we find that the thermal ensemble continues to be dominated by the $Z(3)$ twisted gauge fi...

  17. The NASA high temperature superconductivity program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloski, Martin M.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    It has been recognized from the onset that high temperature superconductivity held great promise for major advances across a broad range of NASA interests. The current effort is organized around four key areas: communications and data, sensors and cryogenics, propulsion and power, and space materials technology. Recently, laser ablated YBa2Cu3O(7-x) films on LaAIO produced far superior RF characteristics when compared to metallic films on the same substrate. This achievement has enabled a number of unique microwave device applications, such as low insertion loss phase shifters and high Q filters. Melt texturing and melt quenched techniques are being used to produce bulk materials with optimized magnetic properties. These yttrium enriched materials possess enhanced flux pinning characteristics and will lead to prototype cryocooler bearings. Significant progress has also occurred in bolometer and current lead technology. Studies are being conducted to evaluate the effect of high temperature superconducting materials on the performance and life of high power magneto-plasma-dynamic thrusters. Extended studies were also performed to evaluate the benefit of superconducting magnetic energy storage for LEO space station, lunar and Mars mission applications. The project direction and level of effort of the program are also described.

  18. High Temperature Battery for Drilling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josip Caja

    2009-12-31

    In this project rechargeable cells based on the high temperature electrochemical system Na/beta''-alumina/S(IV) in AlCl3/NaCl were developed for application as an autonomous power source in oil/gas deep drilling wells. The cells operate in the temperature range from 150 C to 250 C. A prototype DD size cell was designed and built based on the results of finite element analysis and vibration testing. The cell consisted of stainless steel case serving as anode compartment with cathode compartment installed in it and a seal closing the cell. Critical element in cell design and fabrication was hermetically sealing the cell. The seal had to be leak tight, thermally and vibration stable and compatible with electrode materials. Cathode compartment was built of beta''-alumina tube which served as an electrolyte, separator and cathode compartment.

  19. Permanent magnets composed of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Roy; Chen, In-Gann; Liu, Jay; Lau, Kwong

    1991-01-01

    A study of persistent, trapped magnetic field has been pursued with high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The main effort is to study the feasibility of utilization of HTS to fabricate magnets for various devices. The trapped field, when not in saturation, is proportional to the applied field. Thus, it should be possible to replicate complicated field configurations with melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7 (MT-Y123) material, bypassing the need for HTS wires. Presently, materials have been developed from which magnets of 1.5 T, at 77 K, can be fabricated. Much higher field is available at lower operating temperature. Stability of a few percent per year is readily attainable. Results of studies on prototype motors and minimagnets are reported.

  20. High-temperature insulation; Hochtemperatur-Waermeisolierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehres, M.

    1995-12-31

    For high-temperature insulations of industrial plants in the temperature range above 800 C preferably fibrous insulating materials are used. For this purpose ceramic fibres are more and more used. Apart from energy conservation possibilities up to 50% ceramic fibre products are characterized by a large field of the most different applications compared to conventional fire-resistant materials such as stone and compounds. The properties, production and the field of application are gone into in detail. (BWI) [Deutsch] In der Hochtemperaturisolierung industrieller Anlagen werden im Temperaturbereich oberhalb von 800 C bevorzugt faserfoermige Daemmstoffe eingesetzt. In zunehmendem Masse werden hierzu Keramikfasern eingesetzt. Neben den Einsparmoeglichkeiten im Energieverbrauch von bis zu 50% gegenueber konventionellen feuerfesten Werkstoffen wie Steinen und Massen zeichnen sich Keramikfaser-Produkte durch eine breite Palette vielfaeltigster Einsatzmoeglichkeiten aus. Es wird ausfuehrlich auf Eigenschaften, Herstellung und Einsatzmoeglichkeiten eingegangen. (BWI)

  1. Graphite thermal expansion reference for high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaal, P. S.

    1974-01-01

    The design requirements of the aerospace and high-temperature nuclear reactor industries necessitate reliable thermal expansion data for graphite and other carbonaceous materials. The feasibility of an acceptable reference for calibration of expansion measuring systems that operate in carbon-rich atmospheres at temperatures ranging to 2500 C is the prime subject of this work. Present-day graphite technology provides acceptable materials for stable, reproducible references, as reflected by some of the candidate materials. The repeatability for a single specimen in a given expansion measuring system was found to be plus or minus 1%, while the combined results of several tests made on a number of samples fell within a plus or minus 2.5% band.

  2. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.

    2017-01-31

    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, copper, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around 650.degree. C.

  3. Creep resistant high temperature martensitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Cowen, Christopher J.

    2015-11-13

    The disclosure provides a creep resistant alloy having an overall composition comprised of iron, chromium, molybdenum, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, vanadium, niobium, nitrogen, tungsten, cobalt, tantalum, boron, and potentially additional elements. In an embodiment, the creep resistant alloy has a molybdenum equivalent Mo(eq) from 1.475 to 1.700 wt. % and a quantity (C+N) from 0.145 to 0.205. The overall composition ameliorates sources of microstructural instability such as coarsening of M.sub.23C.sub.6 carbides and MX precipitates, and mitigates or eliminates Laves and Z-phase formation. A creep resistant martensitic steel may be fabricated by preparing a melt comprised of the overall composition followed by at least austenizing and tempering. The creep resistant alloy exhibits improved high-temperature creep strength in the temperature environment of around 650.degree. C.

  4. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Scott; M. Mamlouk

    2006-01-01

    One of the major issues limiting the introduction of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is the low temperature of operation which makes platinum-based anode catalysts susceptible to poisoning by the trace amount of CO, inevitably present in reformed fuel. In order to alleviate the problem of CO poisoning and improve the power density of the cell, operating at temperature above 100 ℃ is preferred. Nafion(R) -type perfluorosulfonated polymers have been typically used for PEMFC. However, the conductivity of Nafion(R) -type polymers is not high enough to be used for fuel cell operations at higher temperature ( > 90 ℃) and atmospheric pressure because they dehydrate under these condition.An additional problem which faces the introduction of PEMFC technology is that of supplying or storing hydrogen for cell operation,especially for vehicular applications. Consequently the use of alternative fuels such as methanol and ethanol is of interest, especially if this can be used directly in the fuel cell, without reformation to hydrogen. A limitation of the direct use of alcohol is the lower activity of oxidation in comparison to hydrogen, which means that power densities are considerably lower. Hence to improve activity and power output higher temperatures of operation are preferable. To achieve this goal, requires a new polymer electrolyte membrane which exhibits stability and high conductivity in the absence of liquid water.Experimental data on a polybenzimidazole based PEMFC were presented. A simple steady-state isothermal model of the fuel cell is also used to aid in fuel cell performance optimisation. The governing equations involve the coupling of kinetic, ohmic and mass transport. This paper also considers the advances made in the performance of direct methanol and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells and considers their limitations in relation to the source and type of fuels to be used.

  5. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  6. Diamond based detectors for high temperature, high radiation environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, A.; Fern, G. R.; Hobson, P. R.; Smith, D. R.; Lefeuvre, G.; Saenger, R.

    2017-01-01

    Single crystal CVD diamond has many desirable properties as a radiation detector; exceptional radiation hardness and physical hardness, chemical inertness, low Z (close to human tissue, good for dosimetry and transmission mode applications), wide bandgap (high temperature operation with low noise and solar blind), an intrinsic pathway to fast neutron detection through the 12C(n,α)9Be reaction. This combination of radiation hardness, temperature tolerance and ability to detect mixed radiation types with a single sensor makes diamond particularly attractive as a detector material for harsh environments such as nuclear power station monitoring (fission and fusion) and oil well logging. Effective exploitation of these properties requires the development of a metallisation scheme to give contacts that remain stable over extended periods at elevated temperatures (up to 250°C in this instance). Due to the cost of the primary detector material, computational modelling is essential to best utilise the available processing methods for optimising sensor response through geometry and conversion media configurations and to fully interpret experimental data. Monte Carlo simulations of our diamond based sensor have been developed, using MCNP6 and FLUKA2011, assessing the sensor performance in terms of spectral response and overall efficiency as a function of the detector and converter geometry. Sensors with varying metallisation schemes for high temperature operation have been fabricated at Brunel University London and by Micron Semiconductor Limited. These sensors have been tested under a varied set of conditions including irradiation with fast neutrons and alpha particles at high temperatures. The presented study indicates that viable metallisation schemes for high temperature contacts have been successfully developed and the modelling results, supported by preliminary experimental data from partners, indicate that the simulations provide a reasonable representation of

  7. Fail Safe, High Temperature Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihan, Thomas; Palazzolo, Alan; Kim, Yeonkyu; Lei, Shu-Liang; Kenny, Andrew; Na, Uhn Joo; Tucker, Randy; Preuss, Jason; Hunt, Andrew; Carter, Bart; hide

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the magnetic bearing literature in two distinct areas: high temperature and redundant actuation. Design considerations and test results are given for the first published combined 538 C (1000 F) high speed rotating test performance of a magnetic bearing. Secondly, a significant extension of the flux isolation based, redundant actuator control algorithm is proposed to eliminate the prior deficiency of changing position stiffness after failure. The benefit of the novel extension was not experimentally demonstrated due to a high active stiffness requirement. In addition, test results are given for actuator failure tests at 399 C (750 F), 12,500 rpm. Finally, simulation results are presented confirming the experimental data and validating the redundant control algorithm.

  8. High-temperature superconductors make major progress

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    This month's Nature Materials featured an important breakthrough for high-temperature superconductors. A new method has been found for processing Bi-2212 high-temperature superconducting round wire in order to drastically increase its critical current density. The result confirms that this conductor is a serious candidate for future very-high-field magnets.   This image shows the cross-section of two Bi-2212 wires. The bottom wire has less leakage and void porosity due to a heat treatment done at an overpressure of 100 bar - about 100 times the pressure used to produce the top wire (image from [Nature Materials, Vol. 13 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3887]). The workhorse for building superconducting accelerator magnets has been, so far, the Niobium-Titanium (Nb-Ti) alloy superconductor. But with Nb-Ti having reached its full potential, other conductors must be used to operate in higher magnetic fields beyond those reached with the LHC magnets. Today, the intermetallic Niobium-Tin (Nb3Sn) is th...

  9. High temperature flat plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, S.; Aso, S.; Ebisu, K.; Uchino, H.

    1981-04-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of collectors are of great importance for extending the utilization of solar energy for heating and cooling in homes. A highly efficient collector makes the system size small and decreases the system cost effectively. From the view of the amount of energy collected, the efficient collector has a multiple effect, not only because of the high increase in instantaneous efficiency, but also because of the large usable intensity range of the insolation. On the basis of a functional analysis for a flat collector, the materials and parameters were selected and optimized, and a new high temperature flat collector was designed. The collector has 2 panes. The first pane is low iron glass and the second pane is a thin film of fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer. The overall solar transmittance for the two panes is 0.89. The collecting panel and its water paths were formed by means of welding and hydraulic expansion. The selective absorbing surface consists of colored stainless steel whose absorption characteristic is 0.89 and emission characteristic is 0.16. The thermal insulator preventing backward heatloss consists of double layers of urethane foam and glass wool. Furthermore, the sustained method for the second pane is contrived so as to prevent water condensation on the panes and excessive elevation of the absorber temperature during no load heating.

  10. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode ......-based electrodes and one porous electrode based on the perovskite-structured strontium and vanadiumdoped lanthanum chromium oxide (LSCV) were investigated. The porous electrodes were applied on yttrium-stabilised zirconium oxide (YSZ) substrates in a collaboration with the company PBI...

  11. High Temperature Sodium Thermal Convection Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A project for the evaluation of compatibility characteristic of structural materials used in China experimental fast reactor(CEFR) has been in operation. The conditions which these structural materials contact with liquid sodium in reactor can be simulated by the tests in high temperature sodium thermal convection test loop. The main aims of designing and constructing the thermal convection test loop is for the corrosion test of CEFR materials, and the objective is to obtain the corrosion data of domestic materials.The main features of the test loop are shown in Fig.1. The primary components of the loop

  12. Applications of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    The development of high-temperature superconductors (HTS's) can be broadly generalized into thin-film electronics, wire applications, and bulk applications. We consider bulk HTS's to include sintered or crystallized forms that do not take the geometry of filaments or tapes, and we discuss major applications for these materials. For the most part applications may be realized with the HTS's cooled to 77 K, and the properties of the bulk HTS's are often already sufficient for commercial use. A non-exhaustive list of applications for bulk HTS's includes trapped field magnets, hysteresis motors, magnetic shielding, current leads, and magnetic bearings. These applications are briefly discussed in this paper.

  13. High Temperature Corrosion in Biomass Incineration Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Maahn, Ernst emanuel; Gotthjælp, K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to study the role of ash deposits in high temperature corrosion of superheater materials in biomass and refuse fire combined heat and power plants. The project has included the two main activities: a) A chemical characterisation of ash deposits collected from a major...... number of biomass and refuse fired combined heat and power plant boilers, b) Laboratory exposures and metallurgical examinations of material specimens with ash deposits in well-defined gas environments with HCl and SO2 in a furnace....

  14. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  15. High temperature quark localization by Polyakov loops

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacs, Tamas G; Bruckmann, Falk; Schierenberg, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We study the low eigenmodes of the overlap and staggered Dirac operator at high temperature. We show that the recently found localized quark modes obeying Poisson statistics are connected to physical gauge field objects with their size and density scaling in the continuum limit. The localized modes are also strongly correlated with large fluctuations of the Polyakov loop. Based on that we construct a random matrix model of the low Dirac modes inspired by dimensional reduction. Our model reproduces the Poisson to random matrix transition seen in the lattice Dirac spectrum.

  16. Symmetry Non-restoration at High Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Rius, N

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the (non)-restoration of global and local symmetries at high temperature. First, we analyze a two-scalar model with $Z_2 \\times Z_2$ symmetry using the exact renormalization group. We conclude that inverse symmetry breaking is possible in this kind of models within the perturbative regime. Regarding local symmetries, we consider the $SU(2) \\otimes U(1)$ gauge symmetry and focus on the case of a strongly interacting scalar sector. Employing a model-independent chiral Lagrangian we find indications of symmetry restoration.

  17. High temperature decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized into nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2) by the high temperature decomposition of a hydrogen peroxide solution to produce the oxidative free radicals, hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl. The hydrogen peroxide solution is impinged upon a heated surface in a stream of nitric oxide where it decomposes to produce the oxidative free radicals. Because the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide solution occurs within the stream of the nitric oxide, rapid gas-phase oxidation of nitric oxide into nitrogen dioxide occurs.

  18. Aerospace applications of high temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, V. O.; Connolly, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Space application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials may occur before most terrestrial applications because of the passive cooling possibilities in space and because of the economic feasibility of introducing an expensive new technology which has a significant system benefit in space. NASA Lewis Research Center has an ongoing program to develop space technology capitalizing on the potential benefit of HTS materials. The applications being pursued include space communications, power and propulsion systems, and magnetic bearings. In addition, NASA Lewis is pursuing materials research to improve the performance of HTS materials for space applications.

  19. High-temperature superconducting current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    1992-07-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) for current leads to deliver power to devices at liquid helium temperature is near commercial realization. The use of HTSs in this application has the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements and helium boiloff to values significantly lower than the theoretical best achievable with conventional leads. Considerable advantage is achieved by operating these leads with an intermediate temperature heat sink. The HTS part of the lead can be made from pressed and sintered powder. Powder-in-tube fabrication is also possible, however, the normal metal part of the lead acts as a thermal short and cannot provide much stabilization without increasing the refrigeration required. Lead stability favors designs with low current density. Such leads can be manufactured with today's technology, and lower refrigeration results from the same allowable burnout time. Higher current densities result in lower boiloff for the same lead length, but bumout times can be very short. In comparing experiment to theory, the density of helium vapor needs to be accounted for in calculating the expected boiloff. For very low-loss leads, two-dimensional heat transfer and the state of the dewar near the leads may play a dominant role in lead performance.

  20. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs) offer important and unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing. And they are well suited to serve together synergistically. TEC and MFHPs operate through working-fluid vaporization, condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures. TEC and MFHPs have apparently simple, isolated performance mechanisms that are somewhat similar. And they also have obviously difficult, complected material problems that again are somewhat similar. Intensive investigation reveals that aspects of their operating cycles and material problems tend to merge: high-temperature material effects determine the level and lifetime of performance. Simplified equations verify the preceding statement for TEC and MFHPs. Material properties and interactions exert primary influences on operational effectiveness. And thermophysicochemical stabilities dictate operating temperatures which regulate the thermoemissive currents of TEC and the vaporization flow rates of MFHPs. Major high-temperature material problems of TEC and MFHPs have been solved. These solutions lead to productive, cost-effective applications of current TEC and MFHPs - and point to significant improvements with anticipated technological gains.

  1. High point for CERN and high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Amalia Ballarino is named the Superconductor Industry Person of the year 2006. Amalia Ballarino showing a tape of high-superconducting material used for the LHC current leads.The CERN project leader for the high-temperature superconducting current leads for the LHC, Amalia Ballarino, has received the award for "Superconductor Industry Person of the Year". This award, the most prestigious international award in the development and commercialization of superconductors, is presented by the leading industry newsletter "Superconductor Week". Amalia Ballarino was selected from dozens of nominations from around the world by a panel of recognized leading experts in superconductivity. "It is a great honour for me," says Amalia Ballarino. "It has been many years of hard work, and it’s a great satisfaction to see that the work has been completed successfully." Amalia Ballarino has been working on high-temperature superconducting materials sin...

  2. High-Temperature, High-Load-Capacity Radial Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenza, Andrew; Montague, Gerald; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan; Jansen, Ralph; Jansen, Mark; Ebihara, Ben

    2005-01-01

    A radial heteropolar magnetic bearing capable of operating at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C) has been developed. This is a prototype of bearings for use in gas turbine engines operating at temperatures and speeds much higher than can be withstood by lubricated rolling-element bearings. It is possible to increase the maximum allowable operating temperatures and speeds of rolling-element bearings by use of cooling-air systems, sophisticated lubrication systems, and rotor-vibration- damping systems that are subsystems of the lubrication systems, but such systems and subsystems are troublesome. In contrast, a properly designed radial magnetic bearing can suspend a rotor without contact, and, hence, without need for lubrication or for cooling. Moreover, a magnetic bearing eliminates the need for a separate damping system, inasmuch as a damping function is typically an integral part of the design of the control system of a magnetic bearing. The present high-temperature radial heteropolar magnetic bearing has a unique combination of four features that contribute to its suitability for the intended application: 1. The wires in its electromagnet coils are covered with an insulating material that does not undergo dielectric breakdown at high temperature and is pliable enough to enable the winding of the wires to small radii. 2. The processes used in winding and potting of the coils yields a packing factor close to 0.7 . a relatively high value that helps in maximizing the magnetic fields generated by the coils for a given supplied current. These processes also make the coils structurally robust. 3. The electromagnets are of a modular C-core design that enables replacement of components and semiautomated winding of coils. 4. The stator is mounted in such a manner as to provide stable support under radial and axial thermal expansion and under a load as large as 1,000 lb (.4.4 kN).

  3. Evidence for UHP metamor phism of eclogites from the Altun Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphism refers to metamorphism that has occurred at pressures for the stability of coesite. The polycrystalline quartz inclusions showing the characteristic texture within garnets of eclogites indicates the pre-existence of coesites under the peak metamorphic condition. The unusual exsolution textures in ompacites and apatites, and the pressure estimations of phengite-bearing eciogites have been taken to provide further proof of eclogite formation under the UHP conditions.Combined with the fact that coesites have been observed in country rocks of eclogites in North Qaidam Mountains, another UHP metamorphic belt cut by the large-scale strikeslip fault in the AItun-North Qaidam area of China is confirmed.``

  4. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  5. Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    Originally developed by NASA as high performance piston alloys to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low exhaust emission, the novel NASA alloys now offer dramatic increase in tensile strength for many other applications at elevated temperatures from 450 F (232 C) to about 750 F (400 C). It is an ideal low cost material for cast automotive components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. It can be very economically produced from conventional permanent mold, sand casting or investment casting, with silicon content ranging from 6% to 18%. At high silicon levels, the alloy exhibits excellent dimensional stability, surface hardness and wear resistant properties.

  6. Thermomechanics of composite structures under high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrienko, Yu I

    2016-01-01

    This pioneering book presents new models for the thermomechanical behavior of composite materials and structures taking into account internal physico-chemical transformations such as thermodecomposition, sublimation and melting at high temperatures (up to 3000 K). It is of great importance for the design of new thermostable materials and for the investigation of reliability and fire safety of composite structures. It also supports the investigation of interaction of composites with laser irradiation and the design of heat-shield systems. Structural methods are presented for calculating the effective mechanical and thermal properties of matrices, fibres and unidirectional, reinforced by dispersed particles and textile composites, in terms of properties of their constituent phases. Useful calculation methods are developed for characteristics such as the rate of thermomechanical erosion of composites under high-speed flow and the heat deformation of composites with account of chemical shrinkage. The author expan...

  7. High-Temperature Ionization in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Desch, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the abundances of electrons and ions in the hot (> 500 K), dusty parts of protoplanetary disks, treating for the first time the effects of thermionic and ion emission from the dust grains. High-temperature ionization modeling has involved simply assuming that alkali elements such as potassium occur as gas-phase atoms and are collisionally ionized following the Saha equation. We show that the Saha equation often does not hold, because free charges are produced by thermionic and ion emission and destroyed when they stick to grain surfaces. This means the ionization state depends not on the first ionization potential of the alkali atoms, but rather on the grains' work functions. The charged species' abundances typically rise abruptly above about 800 K, with little qualitative dependence on the work function, gas density, or dust-to-gas mass ratio. Applying our results, we find that protoplanetary disks' dead zone, where high diffusivities stifle magnetorotational turbulence, has its inner edge locat...

  8. Filter unit for use at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciliberti, D.F.; Lippert, T.E.

    1988-04-05

    A filtering unit for the filtering of particulates from a particulate-containing high temperature gas stream is described comprising a ceramic, tubular filter element, having a closed bottom and side walls and an open top at the upper region thereof, disposed in an aperture in a tube sheet. The walls of the tube sheet about the aperature have an inwardly extending flange thereon, with the open top of the ceramic, tubular filter element adjacent one surface of the tube sheet where filtered gases are discharged, and the closed bottom and side walls exposed to the area of the opposite surface of the tube sheet where a particulate-containing high temperature gas stream to be filtered is present. A ceramic spiral spring is provided at an end of the ceramic, tubular filter element to bias the upper region of the ceramic, tubular filter element into contact with the flange so as to seal the ceramic, tubular filter element to the flange on the tube sheet.

  9. Geochemical characteristics and tectonic implications of HP-UHP eclogites and blueschists in southwestern Tianshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Yongliang; ZHANG Lifei; LI Xuping; QU Junfeng

    2006-01-01

    Four rock assemblages in correspondence with two different tectonic settings have been recognized in the NEE-SWW extending HP-UHP metamorphic belt in southwestern Tianshan, northwest China. Eclogite assemblage EC1 is geochemically akin to alkaline within-plate oceanic island basalt (OIB). EC2 shows affinity to enriched mid-oceanic ridge basalt (EMORB). Rare earth element (REE) and other immobile trace element characteristics of blueschist assemblage BS1 resemble those of normal mid-oceanic ridge basalt (NMORB). These three assemblages are likely formed on a seamount setting, and the prevalent presence of carbonate minerals and omphacite quartzite stripes/gobbets suggests ancient pelagic sediments including marls are probably developed upon the basaltic seamount.Whereas the geochemical characteristics of BS2 assemblage are of volcanic arc basalt-type. The seamount with the pelagic sediments on it is brought into the subduction zone, and volcanic arc basalts formed on the active continental margin and trench sediments are eroded and enwrapped in the subducting mass, they are altogether subjected to high to ultrahigh pressure metamorphism and subsequent exhumation towards surface. The HP-UHP metamorphic belt is thus interpreted as a subduction-accretionary complex formed by tectonic juxtaposition and imbrication of seamount, seafloor, trench and volcanic arc sequences during oceanic crust subduction.

  10. High density and high temperature plasmas in Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Akio

    2010-11-01

    Recently a new confinement regime called Super Dense Core (SDC) mode was discovered in Large Helical Device (LHD). An extremely high density core region with more than ~ 1 × 1021 m-3 is obtained with the formation of an Internal Diffusion Barrier (IDB). The density gradient at the IDB is very high and the particle confinement in the core region is ~ 0.2 s. It is expected, for the future reactor, that the IDB-SDC mode has a possibility to achieve the self-ignition condition with lower temperature than expected before. Conventional approaches to increase the temperature have also been tried in LHD. For the ion heating, the perpendicular neutral beam injection effectively increased the ion temperature up to 5.6 keV with the formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB). In the electron heating experiments with 77 GHz gyrotrons, the highest electron temperature more than 15 keV was achieved, where plasmas are in the neoclassical regime.

  11. High density and high temperature plasmas in Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, Akio, E-mail: komori@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Recently a new confinement regime called Super Dense Core (SDC) mode was discovered in Large Helical Device (LHD). An extremely high density core region with more than {approx} 1 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} is obtained with the formation of an Internal Diffusion Barrier (IDB). The density gradient at the IDB is very high and the particle confinement in the core region is {approx} 0.2 s. It is expected, for the future reactor, that the IDB-SDC mode has a possibility to achieve the self-ignition condition with lower temperature than expected before. Conventional approaches to increase the temperature have also been tried in LHD. For the ion heating, the perpendicular neutral beam injection effectively increased the ion temperature up to 5.6 keV with the formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB). In the electron heating experiments with 77 GHz gyrotrons, the highest electron temperature more than 15 keV was achieved, where plasmas are in the neoclassical regime.

  12. The role of eclogite in the mantle heterogeneity at Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail Katrine; Holm, Paul Martin; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-01-01

    have been limited. We apply the minor elements in olivine approach (Sobolev et al. in Nature 434:590–597, 2005; Science, doi:10.1126/science.1138113, 2007), to determine and quantify the contributions of peridotite, pyroxenite and eclogite melts to the mantle heterogeneity observed at Cape Verde. Cores...... of olivine phenocrysts of the Cape Verde volcanics have low Mn/FeO and low Ni*FeO/MgO that deviate from the negative trend of the global array. The global array is defined by mixing between peridotite and pyroxenite, whereas the Cape Verde volcanics indicate contribution of an additional eclogite source...

  13. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ceramic gas separation membranes can provide very high separation factors if the pore size is sufficiently small to separate gas molecules by molecular sieving and if oversized pores are adequately limited. Ceramic membranes typically have some pores that are substantially larger than the mean pore size and that should be regarded as defects. To assess the effects of such defects on the performance of ceramic membranes, a simple mathematical model has been developed to describe flow through a gas separation membrane that has a primary mode of flow through very small pores but that has a secondary mode of flow through undesirably large pores. This model permits separation factors to be calculated for a specified gas pair as a function of the molecular weights and molecular diameters of the gases, the membrane pore diameter, and the diameter and number of defects. This model will be described, and key results from the model will be presented. The separation factors of the authors membranes continue to be determined using a permeance test system that measures flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275{degrees}C. A primary goal of this project for FY 1996 is to develop a mixed gas separation system for measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at higher temperatures. Performance criteria have been established for the planned mixed gas separation system and design of the system has been completed. The test system is designed to measure the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600{degrees}C and pressures up to 100 psi by separating the constituents of a gas mixture containing hydrogen. The system will accommodate the authors typical experimental membrane that is tubular and has a diameter of about 9 mm and a length of about 23 cm. The design of the new test system and its expected performance will be discussed.

  14. Materials for High-Temperature Catalytic Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersson, Anders

    2003-04-01

    Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in e.g. gas turbines. Introducing a catalyst into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine allows combustion outside the normal flammability limits. Hence, the adiabatic flame temperature may be lowered below the threshold temperature for thermal NO{sub X} formation while maintaining a stable combustion. However, several challenges are connected to the application of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The first part of this thesis reviews the use of catalytic combustion in gas turbines. The influence of the fuel has been studied and compared over different catalyst materials. The material section is divided into two parts. The first concerns bimetallic palladium catalysts. These catalysts showed a more stable activity compared to their pure palladium counterparts for methane combustion. This was verified both by using an annular reactor at ambient pressure and a pilot-scale reactor at elevated pressures and flows closely resembling the ones found in a gas turbine combustor. The second part concerns high-temperature materials, which may be used either as active or washcoat materials. A novel group of materials for catalysis, i.e. garnets, has been synthesised and tested in combustion of methane, a low-heating value gas and diesel fuel. The garnets showed some interesting abilities especially for combustion of low-heating value, LHV, gas. Two other materials were also studied, i.e. spinels and hexa aluminates, both showed very promising thermal stability and the substituted hexa aluminates also showed a good catalytic activity. Finally, deactivation of the catalyst materials was studied. In this part the sulphur poisoning of palladium, platinum and the above-mentioned complex metal oxides has been studied for combustion of a LHV gas. Platinum and surprisingly the garnet were least deactivated. Palladium was severely affected for methane combustion while the other washcoat materials were

  15. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  16. High pressure/high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calo, J.M.; Suuberg, E.M.

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this instrumentation grant was to acquire a state-of-the-art, high pressure, high temperature thermogravimetric apparatus (HP/HT TGA) system for the study of the interactions between gases and carbonaceous solids for the purpose of solving problems related to coal utilization and applications of carbon materials. The instrument that we identified for this purpose was manufactured by DMT (Deutsche Montan Technologies)--Institute of Cokemaking and Coal Chemistry of Essen, Germany. Particular features of note include: Two reactors: a standard TGA reactor, capable of 1100 C at 100 bar; and a high temperature (HT) reactor, capable of operation at 1600 C and 100 bar; A steam generator capable of generating steam to 100 bar; Flow controllers and gas mixing system for up to three reaction gases, plus a separate circuit for steam, and another for purge gas; and An automated software system for data acquisition and control. The HP/TP DMT-TGA apparatus was purchased in 1996 and installed and commissioned during the summer of 1996. The apparatus was located in Room 128 of the Prince Engineering Building at Brown University. A hydrogen alarm and vent system were added for safety considerations. The system has been interfaced to an Ametek quadruple mass spectrometer (MA 100), pumped by a Varian V250 turbomolecular pump, as provided for in the original proposed. With this capability, a number of gas phase species of interest can be monitored in a near-simultaneous fashion. The MS can be used in a few different modes. During high pressure, steady-state gasification experiments, it is used to sample, measure, and monitor the reactant/product gases. It can also be used to monitor gas phase species during nonisothermal temperature programmed reaction (TPR) or temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments.

  17. High-temperature superconducting undulator magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Kasa, Matthew; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Welp, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents test results on a prototype superconducting undulator magnet fabricated using 15% Zr-doped rare-earth barium copper oxide high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. On an 11-pole magnet we demonstrate an engineering current density, J e, of more than 2.1 kA mm‑2 at 4.2 K, a value that is 40% higher than reached in comparable devices wound with NbTi-wire, which is used in all currently operating superconducting undulators. A novel winding scheme enabling the continuous winding of tape-shaped conductors into the intricate undulator magnets as well as a partial interlayer insulation procedure were essential in reaching this advance in performance. Currently, there are rapid advances in the performance of HTS; therefore, achieving even higher current densities in an undulator structure or/and operating it at temperatures higher than 4.2 K will be possible, which would substantially simplify the cryogenic design and reduce overall costs.

  18. From P-T-age to secular change and global tectonic regimes (or Essene in reverse - from granulites to blueschists and eclogites over time)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.

    2006-12-01

    Essene's contributions began pre-plate tectonics more than 40 years ago; they range from mineralogy to tectonics, from experiments and thermobarometry to elements and isotopes, and from the Phanerozoic to the Precambrian. Eric is a true polymath! Assessing the P-T conditions and age distribution of crustal metamorphism is an important step in evaluating secular change in tectonic regimes and geodynamics. In general, Archean rocks exhibit moderate-P - moderate-to-high-T facies series metamorphism (greenstone belts and granulite terranes); neither blueschists nor any record of deep continental subduction and return are documented and only one example of granulite facies ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism is reported. Granulite facies ultrahigh temperature metamorphism (G-UHTM) is documented in the rock record predominantly from Neoarchean to Cambrian, although G-UHTM facies series rocks may be inferred at depth in younger orogenic systems. The first occurrence of G-UHTM in the rock record signifies a change in geodynamics that generated transient sites of very high heat flow. Many G-UHTM belts may have developed in settings analogous to modern continental backarcs. On a warmer Earth, the formation and breakup of supercontinents, particularly by extroversion, which involved destruction of ocean basins floored by thinner lithosphere, may have generated hotter continental backarcs than those around the modern Pacific rim. Medium-temperature eclogite - high-pressure granulite metamorphism (E-HPGM) also is first recognized in the Neoarchean rock record, and occurs at intervals throughout the Proterozoic and Paleozoic rock record. E- HPGM belts are complementary to G-UHTM belts, and are generally inferred to record subduction-to-collision orogenesis. Blueschists become evident in the Neoproterozoic rock record; lawsonite blueschists and eclogites (high-pressure metamorphism, HPM), and ultrahigh pressure metamorphism (UHPM) characterized by coesite or diamond are

  19. On Silicides in High Temperature Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ramachandra

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available High temperature titanium alloys like IMI 685 contain small amounts of silicon (~ 0.25 wt. per cent to improve creep resistance. Different types of silicides, namely Ti5Si3 (TiZr5Si3(S1 and (TiZr6 Si3 (S2, have been observed to precipitate in various silicon-bearing titanium alloys depending upon their composition and heat treatment. The precipitation of silicides, their orientation relationship with the matrix in different alloys, and the beneficial influence of thermo-mechanical treatment on the distribution of silicides have been pointed out. The effect of silicides on mechanical properties and fracture of the commercial alloy IMI 685 is also indicated.

  20. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  1. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Jay A [Oviedo, FL

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  2. Electrode Kinetics in High Temperature Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse

    1998-01-01

    The O_2 reduction on Pt electrode with an yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte is examined with potential step, voltammetry and impedance measurements. Inductive hysteresis are observed in all cases, indicating an activation-deactivation process for the electrode reaction. The same is found...... when the electrolyte is Gd doped ceria. The activation is generated by current passage. The time constant for the hysteresis is large considering the high operating temperatures, 800- 1000^oC. For the activation process potential steps give two time constants 10^2s and 10^3s for an anodic current, 10...... treated by modelling. The phenomenological model proposed can explain the principal behaviour of the inductive hysteresis. The activation process has first order dependence of the current density and the deactivation first order with respect to the activation.AFM pictures of the electrode...

  3. High temperature superconductivity space experiment (HTSSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, J. C.; Nisenoff, M.; Price, G.; Wolf, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment dealing with high-temperature superconducting devices and components in space is discussed. A variety of devices (primarily passive microwave and millimeter-wave components) has been procured and will be integrated with a cryogenic refrigerating and data acquisition system to form the space package, which will be launched in late 1992. This space experiment is expected to demonstrate that this technology is sufficiently robust to survive the space environment and that the technology has the potential to improve the operation of space systems significantly. The devices for the initial launch have been evaluated electrically, thermally, and mechanically, and will be integrated into the final space package early in 1991. The performance of the devices is summarized, and some potential applications of this technology in space systems are outlined.

  4. Chemical stability of high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the available studies on the chemical stability of the high temperature superconductors (HTS) in various environments was made. The La(1.8)Ba(0.2)CuO4 HTS is unstable in the presence of H2O, CO2, and CO. The YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor is highly susceptible to degradation in different environments, especially water. The La(2-x)Ba(x)CuO4 and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O HTS are relatively less reactive than the YBa2Cu3O(7-x). Processing of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) HTS in purified oxygen, rather than in air, using high purity noncarbon containing starting materials is recommended. Exposure of this HTS to the ambient atmosphere should also be avoided at all stages during processing and storage. Devices and components made out of these oxide superconductors would have to be protected with an impermeable coating of a polymer, glass, or metal to avoid deterioration during use.

  5. HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION PERFORMANCE OF ALUMINIDE COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, B.A.; Zhang, Y.; Haynes, J.A.; Wright, I.G.

    2003-04-22

    In order to determine the potential benefits and limitations of aluminide coatings, coatings made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Fe- and Ni-base alloy substrates are being evaluated in various high-temperature environments. Testing of coatings on representative ferritic (Fe-9Cr-1Mo) and austenitic (type 304L stainless steel) alloys has found that high frequency thermal cycling (1h cycle time) can significantly degrade the coating. Based on comparison with similar specimens with no thermal cycling or a longer cycle time (100h), this degradation was not due to Al loss from the coating but most likely because of the thermal expansion mismatch between the coating and the substrate. Several coated Ni-base alloys were tested in a high pressure (20atm) steam-CO2 environment for the ZEST (zero-emission steam turbine) program. Coated specimens showed less mass loss than the uncoated specimens after 1000h at 900 C and preliminary characterization examined the post-test coating structure and extent of attack.

  6. Assessment of high-temperature battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, R K

    1989-02-01

    Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. Very little DOE funds are presently allocated for research on this battery. The purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the present status of the three technologies and to identify for each technology a prioritized list of R and D issues. Finally, the assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program. 18 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Dynamic Model of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    cathode air cooled 30 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack developed at the Institute of Energy Technology at Aalborg University. This fuel cell stack uses PEMEAS Celtec P-1000 membranes, runs on pure hydrogen in a dead end anode configuration with a purge valve. The cooling of the stack is managed by running...... conduction through stack insulation, cathode air convection and heating of the inlet gasses in manifold. Various measurements are presented to validate the model predictions of the stack temperatures....

  8. Exhumation of high-pressure rocks in a Variscan migmatite dome (Montagne Noire, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Donna; Roger, Francoise; Rey, Patrice; Teyssier, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The Variscan orogen contains numerous domal structures composed mostly of migmatitic gneiss and granite, with lesser amounts of mafic rock. In the Montagne Noire (MN) migmatite dome of the southern Massif Central (France), some mafic rocks record eclogite facies metamorphism that contrasts with the low-pressure/high-temperature (LP/HT) conditions recorded by host gneiss. To understand the relationship of eclogite to migmatite/gneiss evolution, we determined P-T-time conditions of eclogite and gneiss and evaluated the location of HP rocks within the dome in the context of dome dynamics. Migmatite and granite in the dome commonly contain sillimanite and/or cordierite, and the schist carapace also contains index minerals of LP/HT metamorphism (andalusite, cordierite, sillimanite). There is sparse evidence, however, for earlier HP conditions: relict kyanite in schist and gneiss. The age of this metamorphism is not known but the LP/HT metamorphism and migmatite/granite crystallization was ~315-300 Ma (monazite, zircon U-Pb). Most MN eclogites have been significantly retrogressed. We focused our study on a relatively fresh eclogite (Terme de Fourcaric locality) containing omphacite (Jd36) + zoned pyrope-rich garnet (up to prp50 at the rim) + rutile + zircon. P-T conditions determined from a pseudosection and from Zr-in-rutile and grt-cpx thermometry indicates T = 700-800 C at P ~ 1.5 GPa. U-Pb dating of zircon by LA-ICP-MS reveals core ages of ~360 Ma and rim ages of ~315 Ma. The zircon core age is similar to results obtained by Faure et al. (2014) for eclogite from the same general locality using a Sm-Nd grt-cpx-whole rock isochron (interpreted as age of eclogite metamorphism). The rim age is similar to their U-Pb zircon and rutile results that they interpreted as the age of "hydrothermal" metamorphism. The interpretation of Faure is consistent with regional geologic age information, although the lack of retrogression in the Fourcaric eclogite and the high prp content

  9. HIGH TEMPERATURE HIGH PRESSURE THERMODYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS FOR COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak N. Kabadi

    2000-05-01

    The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for this project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique, addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature and pressure inside the VLE cell, and a new technique for remote sensing of the liquid level in the cell. VLE data measurements for three binary systems, tetralin-quinoline, benzene--ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene--quinoline, have been completed. The temperature ranges of data measurements were 325 C to 370 C for the first system, 180 C to 300 C for the second system, and 225 C to 380 C for the third system. The smoothed data were found to be fairly well behaved when subjected to thermodynamic consistency tests. SETARAM C-80 calorimeter was used for incremental enthalpy and heat capacity measurements for benzene--ethylbenzene binary liquid mixtures. Data were measured from 30 C to 285 C for liquid mixtures covering the entire composition range. An apparatus has been designed for simultaneous measurement of excess volume and incremental enthalpy of liquid mixtures at temperatures from 30 C to 300 C. The apparatus has been tested and is ready for data measurements. A flow apparatus for measurement of heat of mixing of liquid mixtures at high temperatures has also been designed, and is currently being tested and calibrated.

  10. Mechanical behavior of high strength ceramic fibers at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tressler, R. E.; Pysher, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of commercially available and developmental ceramic fibers, both oxide and nonoxide, has been experimentally studied at expected use temperatures. In addition, these properties have been compared to results from the literature. Tensile strengths were measured for three SiC-based and three oxide ceramic fibers for temperatures from 25 C to 1400 C. The SiC-based fibers were stronger but less stiff than the oxide fibers at room temperature and retained more of both strength and stiffness to high temperatures. Extensive creep and creep-rupture experiments have been performed on those fibers from this group which had the best strengths above 1200 C in both single filament tests and tests of fiber bundles. The creep rates for the oxides are on the order of two orders of magnitude faster than the polymer derived nonoxide fibers. The most creep resistant filaments available are single crystal c-axis sapphire filaments. Large diameter CVD fabricated SiC fibers are the most creep and rupture resistant nonoxide polycrystalline fibers tested to date.

  11. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  12. High Molecular Weight Polybenzimidazole Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Steenberg, T.;

    2014-01-01

    High temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells under ambient pressure has been achieved by using phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes. To optimize the membrane and fuel cells, high performance polymers were synthesized of molecular weights from 30 to 94 k...... showed enhanced chemical stability towards radical attacks under the Fenton test, reduced volume swelling upon the acid doping and improved mechanical strength at acid doping levels of as high as about 11 mol H3PO4 per molar repeat polymer unit. The PBI‐78kDa/10.8PA membrane, for example, exhibited...... tensile strength of 30.3 MPa at room temperature or 7.3 MPa at 130 °C and a proton conductivity of 0.14 S cm–1 at 160 °C. Fuel cell tests with H2 and air at 160 °C showed high open circuit voltage, power density and a low degradation rate of 1.5 μV h–1 at a constant load of 300 mA cm–2....

  13. Crystal structures at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Wendel Alexander

    2000-10-01

    The diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a unique instrument that can generate pressures equivalent to those inside planetary interiors (pressures on the order of 1 million atmospheres) under sustained conditions. When combined with a bright source of collimated x-rays, the DAC can be used to probe the structure of materials in-situ at ultra-high pressures. An understanding of the high-pressure structure of materials is important in determining what types of processes may take place in the Earth at great depths. Motivated by previous studies showing that xenon becomes metallic at pressures above ˜1 megabar (100 GPa), we examined the stable structures and reactivity of xenon at pressures approaching that of the core-mantle boundary in the Earth. Our findings indicate the transformation of xenon from face-centered cubic (fcc) to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structures is kinetically hindered at room temperature, with the equilibrium fcc--hcp phase boundary at 21 (+/-3) gigapascals, a pressure lower than was previously thought. Additionally, we find no tendency on the part of xenon to form a metal alloy with iron or platinum to at least 100 to 150 gigapascals, making it unlikely that the Earth's core serves as a reservoir for primordial xenon. Measurements of the compressibility of natural (Mg.75,Fe .25)2SiO4 gamma-spinel at pressures of the Earth's transition zone yield a pressure derivative of the bulk modulus K0 ' = 6.3 (+/-0.3). As gamma-spinel is considered to be a dominant mineral phase of the transition-zone of the Earth's mantle (400--670 km depth), the relatively high value of K0' for gamma-spinel may help explain the rapid increase with depth of seismic velocities through the transition zone. The thermodynamics, mechanisms and kinetics of pressure-induced amorphization are not well understood. We report here new studies indicating little or no entropy difference between the crystalline and glassy states of Ca(OH) 2 (portlandite). Additional work on the pressure

  14. High temperature superconductors at optimal doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Pickett

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   Intensive study of the high temperature superconductors has been ongoing for two decades. A great deal of this effort has been devoted to the underdoped regime, where the new and difficult physics of the doped Mott insulator has met extra complications including bilayer coupling/splitting, shadow bands, and hot spots. While these complications continue to unfold, in this short overview the focus is moved to the region of actual high-Tc, that of optimal doping. The focus here also is not on the superconducting state itself, but primarily on the characteristics of the normal state from which the superconducting instability arises, and even these can be given only a broad-brush description. A reminder is given of two issues,(i why the “optimal Tc” varies,for n-layered systems it increases for n up to 3, then decreases for a given n, Tc increases according to the ‘basis’ atom in the order Bi, Tl, Hg (ii how does pressure, or a particular uniaxial strain, increase Tc when the zero-strain system is already optimally doped?

  15. High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, an experimental study of laser micro-processing on a Cu-Zr-based shape memory alloy (SMA), which is suitable for high-temperature (HT) applications, is discussed. A first evaluation of the interaction between a laser beam and Zr50Cu28Ni7Co15 HT SMA is highlighted. Single laser pulses at various levels of power and pulse duration were applied to evaluate their effect on the sample surfaces. Blind and through microholes were produced with sizes on the order of a few hundreds of microns; the results were characterized from the morphological viewpoint using a scanning electron microscope. The high beam quality allows the holes to be created with good circularity and little melted material around the hole periphery. An analysis of the chemical composition was performed using energy dispersive spectroscopy, revealing that compositional changes were limited, while important oxidation occurred on the hole surfaces. Additionally, laser micro-cutting tests were also proposed to evaluate the cut edge morphology and dimensions. The main result of this paper concerned the good behavior of the material upon interaction with the laser beam, which suggests that microfeatures can be successfully produced in this alloy.

  16. High temperature superconductors in electromagnetic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Richens, P E

    2000-01-01

    powder-in-tube and dip-coated, have been made using a novel single loop tensometer that enables the insertion of a reasonably long length of conductor into the bore of a high-field magnet. The design, construction, and characterization of a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) magnet is described. The design stage has involved the development of computer software for the calculation of the critical current of a solenoid wound from anisotropic HTS conductor. This calculation can be performed for a variety of problems including those involving magnetic materials such as iron by the incorporation of finite element electromagnetic analysis software. This has enabled the optimization of the magnet's performance. The HTS magnet is wound from 190 m of silver-matrix Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 Ca sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 1 sub 0 powder-in-tube tape conductor supplied by Intermagnetics General Corporation. The dimensions are 70 mm bore and 70 mm length, and it consists of 728 turns. Iron end-plates were utilized in order to reduc...

  17. Assessment of microelectronics packaging for high temperature, high reliability applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe, F.

    1997-04-01

    This report details characterization and development activities in electronic packaging for high temperature applications. This project was conducted through a Department of Energy sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors. Even though the target application of this collaborative effort is an automotive electronic throttle control system which would be located in the engine compartment, results of this work are directly applicable to Sandia`s national security mission. The component count associated with the throttle control dictates the use of high density packaging not offered by conventional surface mount. An enabling packaging technology was selected and thermal models defined which characterized the thermal and mechanical response of the throttle control module. These models were used to optimize thick film multichip module design, characterize the thermal signatures of the electronic components inside the module, and to determine the temperature field and resulting thermal stresses under conditions that may be encountered during the operational life of the throttle control module. Because the need to use unpackaged devices limits the level of testing that can be performed either at the wafer level or as individual dice, an approach to assure a high level of reliability of the unpackaged components was formulated. Component assembly and interconnect technologies were also evaluated and characterized for high temperature applications. Electrical, mechanical and chemical characterizations of enabling die and component attach technologies were performed. Additionally, studies were conducted to assess the performance and reliability of gold and aluminum wire bonding to thick film conductor inks. Kinetic models were developed and validated to estimate wire bond reliability.

  18. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  19. High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion Properties of High Entropy Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Kang Tsao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates the high temperature oxidation and corrosion behaviour of high entropy superalloys (HESA. A high content of various solutes in HESA leads to formation of complex oxides, however the Cr and Al activities of HESA are sufficient to promote protective chromia or alumina formation on the surface. By comparing the oxidation and corrosion resistances of a Ni-based superalloy—CM247LC, Al2O3-forming HESA can possess comparable oxidation resistance at 1100 °C, and Cr2O3-forming HESA can exhibit superior resistance against hot corrosion at 900 °C. This work has demonstrated the potential of HESA to maintain surface stability in oxidizing and corrosive environments.

  20. High pressure study of high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela

    2014-09-29

    The current thesis studies experimentally the effect of high external pressure on high-T{sub c} superconductors. The structure and lattice dynamics of several members of the high-T{sub c} cuprate and Fe-based superconductors families were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction under well-controlled, hydrostatic high pressure and low temperature conditions. The lattice dynamics of the high-T{sub c} superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} have been investigated systematically by Raman spectroscopy as a function of doping (x = 0.95, 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.45) and external pressure. Under ambient pressure conditions, in addition to the Raman modes expected from group theory, we observe new Raman active phonons upon cooling the underdoped samples, at temperatures well above the superconducting transition temperature. The doping dependence and the onset temperatures of the new Raman features suggest that they are associated with the incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state recently discovered in underdoped cuprates using synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques. Under high pressure conditions (from 2 to 12 GPa), our Raman measurements on highly ordered underdoped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6.55} samples do not show any of the new Raman phonons seen at ambient pressure. High pressure and low temperature Raman measurements have been performed on the underdoped superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}. A clear renormalization of some of the Raman phonons is seen below T{sub c} as a result of the changes in the phonon self-energy upon the opening of the superconducting gap, with the most prominent one being that of the B{sub 1g}-like buckling phonon mode. The amplitude of this renormalization strongly increases with pressure, resembling the effect of hole doping in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. At ∝ 10 GPa, the system undergoes a reversible pressure-induced structural phase transition to a non-centrosymmmetric structure (space group

  1. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of eclogites from the Dabie Mountains and geodynamic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永飞; 傅斌; 龚冰; 肖益林; 葛宁洁; 李曙光

    1997-01-01

    Heterogeneous δ18O values as low as - 2.6‰ to + 7.0‰ are observed for ultrahigh pressure eclog-ites from the Dabie Mountains in East China. Oxygen isotope equilibrium has been approached between the eclogite minerals, suggesting that the rocks would have acquired the unusual δ18O values prior to ultrahigh pressure metamor-phism by interaction with 18O-depleted fluid. δD values of bydroxyl-bearing are between -51‰ and - 83‰, precluding the possibility of paleoseawater involvement. The only likely fluid is ancient meteoric water that exchanged oxygen isotopes with the eclogite precursor (a kind of basaltic rocks) formerly resident on the continental crust. This suggests a crystal recycling process in the suture zone of plate subduction. Because silicate minerals undergo rapid oxygen isotope exchange at mantle pressures, preservation of the isotopic signature of meteoric water in the eclogites indicates limited crust-mantle interaction and thus a short residence time (<20 Ma) when the plate containi

  2. Rheological assessment of nanofluids at high pressure high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    High pressure high temperature (HPHT) fluids are commonly encountered in industry, for example in cooling and/or lubrications applications. Nanofluids, engineered suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a base fluid, have shown prospective as industrial cooling fluids due to their enhanced rheological and heat transfer properties. Nanofluids can be potentially utilized in oil industry for drilling fluids and for high pressure water jet cooling/lubrication in machining. In present work rheological characteristics of oil based nanofluids are investigated at HPHT condition. Nanofluids used in this study are prepared by dispersing commercially available SiO2 nanoparticles (~20 nm) in a mineral oil. The basefluid and nanofluids with two concentrations, namely 1%, and 2%, by volume, are considered in this investigation. The rheological characteristics of base fluid and the nanofluids are measured using an industrial HPHT viscometer. Viscosity values of the nanofluids are measured at pressures of 100 kPa to 42 MPa and temperatures ranging from 25°C to 140°C. The viscosity values of both nanofluids as well as basefluid are observed to have increased with the increase in pressure. Funded by Qatar National Research Fund (NPRP 08-574-2-239).

  3. Laser Brazing of High Temperature Braze Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. P.; Seaman, R. F.; McQuillan, T. J.; Martiens, R. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) consists of 1080 conical tubes, which are furnace brazed themselves, manifolds, and surrounding structural jacket making almost four miles of braze joints. Subsequent furnace braze cycles are performed due to localized braze voids between the coolant tubes. SSME nozzle experiences extremely high heat flux (180 mW/sq m) during hot fire. Braze voids between coolant tubes may result in hot combustion gas escape causing jacket bulges. The nozzle can be disqualified for flight or result in mission failure if the braze voids exceed the limits. Localized braze processes were considered to eliminate braze voids, however, damage to the parent materials often prohibited use of such process. Being the only manned flight reusable rocket engine, it has stringent requirement on the braze process. Poor braze quality or damage to the parent materials limits the nozzle service life. The objective of this study was to develop a laser brazing process to provide quality, localized braze joints without adverse affect on the parent materials. Gold (Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Mn) based high temperature braze alloys were used in both powder and wire form. Thin section iron base superalloy A286 tube was used as substrate materials. Different Laser Systems including CO2 (10.6 micrometers, 1kW), ND:YAG (1.06 micrometers, 4kW). and direct diode laser (808nm. 150W) were investigated for brazing process. The laser process variables including wavelength. laser power, travel speed and angle of inclination were optimized according to bead geometry and braze alloy wetting at minimum heat input level, The properties of laser brazing were compared to that of furnace brazing. Microhardness profiles were used for braze joint property comparison between laser and furnace brazing. The cooling rate of laser brazing was compared to furnace brazing based on secondary dendritic arm spacing, Both optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructures of

  4. Analytic Models of High-Temperature Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stygar, W.A.; Olson, R.E.; Spielman, R.B.; Leeper, R.J.

    2000-11-29

    A unified set of high-temperature-hohlraum models has been developed. For a simple hohlraum, P{sub s} = [A{sub s}+(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4} + (4V{sigma}/c)(dT{sub R}{sup r}/dt) where P{sub S} is the total power radiated by the source, A{sub s} is the source area, A{sub W} is the area of the cavity wall excluding the source and holes in the wall, A{sub H} is the area of the holes, {sigma} is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, T{sub R} is the radiation brightness temperature, V is the hohlraum volume, and c is the speed of light. The wall albedo {alpha}{sub W} {triple_bond} (T{sub W}/T{sub R}){sup 4} where T{sub W} is the brightness temperature of area A{sub W}. The net power radiated by the source P{sub N} = P{sub S}-A{sub S}{sigma}T{sub R}{sup 4}, which suggests that for laser-driven hohlraums the conversion efficiency {eta}{sub CE} be defined as P{sub N}/P{sub LASER}. The characteristic time required to change T{sub R}{sup 4} in response to a change in P{sub N} is 4V/C[(l{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}]. Using this model, T{sub R}, {alpha}{sub W}, and {eta}{sub CE} can be expressed in terms of quantities directly measurable in a hohlraum experiment. For a steady-state hohlraum that encloses a convex capsule, P{sub N} = {l_brace}(1{minus}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub W}+A{sub H}+[(1{minus}{alpha}{sub C})(A{sub S}+A{sub W}{alpha}{sub W})A{sub C}/A{sub T}]{r_brace}{sigma}T{sub RC}{sup 4} where {alpha}{sub C} is the capsule albedo, A{sub C} is the capsule area, A{sub T} {triple_bond} (A{sub S}+A{sub W}+A{sub H}), and T{sub RC} is the brightness temperature of the radiation that drives the capsule. According to this relation, the capsule-coupling efficiency of the baseline National-Ignition-Facility (NIF) hohlraum is 15% higher than predicted by previous analytic expressions. A model of a hohlraum that encloses a z pinch is also presented.

  5. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  6. Measuring Specific Heats at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Zoltan, Andrew; Wood, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Flash apparatus for measuring thermal diffusivities at temperatures from 300 to 1,000 degrees C modified; measures specific heats of samples to accuracy of 4 to 5 percent. Specific heat and thermal diffusivity of sample measured. Xenon flash emits pulse of radiation, absorbed by sputtered graphite coating on sample. Sample temperature measured with thermocouple, and temperature rise due to pulse measured by InSb detector.

  7. High Temperature Electrical Insulation Materials for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art high temperature insulation materials of which higher working temperature, high...

  8. A Study on the Classification and Well-Logging Identification of Eclogite in the Main Hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jian'en; Wei Wenbo; Jin Sheng; Ye Gaofeng; Deng Ming

    2007-01-01

    Eclogite, one of the important lithologies in the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project, exists above the depth of 3 245 m and has distinctive responses of gamma-ray, compensating density and neutron well-logging, and so on. In this study, according to the diversities of minerals and chemical components and well-logging responses, eclogites are classified from three aspects of origin, content of oxygen, and sub-mineral. We studied the logging identification method for eclogite sub-classes based on multi-element statistics and reconstructed 11 kinds of eclogite.As a result, eclogites can be divided into 6 types using well logs. In the light of this recognition, the eclogite in the main hole is divided into 20 sections, and the distribution characters of all sub-classes of eclogite are analyzed, which will provide important data for geological research of CCSD.

  9. Thermoelectric Powered High Temperature Wireless Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukkomurler, Ahmet

    This study describes use of a thermoelectric power converter to transform waste heat into electrical energy to power an RF receiver and transmitter, for use in harsh environment wireless temperature sensing and telemetry. The sensing and transmitting module employs a DS-1820 low power digital temperature sensor to perform temperature to voltage conversion, an ATX-34 RF transmitter, an ARX-34 RF receiver module, and a PIC16f84A microcontroller to synchronize data communication between them. The unit has been tested in a laboratory environment, and promising results have been obtained for an actual automotive wireless under hood temperature sensing and telemetry implementation.

  10. Critical Temperature Characteristics of Layered High-Temperature Superconductor Under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Fang-Ying

    2009-01-01

    We consider a Ginzburg-Landau modified model of layered high-temperature superconductor under pres-sure. We have theoretically studied the relation between the pressure and the temperature of layered high-temperature superconductor. If the pressure is not a constant, we have a relation of quadratic equation between the pressure and the temperature of layered high-temperature superconductor. In a special case, we find the critical temperature decreases with further increasing pressure. In another special case, the critical temperature increases with further increasing pressure.

  11. High temperature superconductivity induced by incipient magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, M.; Pereg, Y.

    1990-10-01

    We consider the BCS gap equation, with an attractive interaction λ with an upper cutoff ω 0 and lower cutoff ω 1, and a repulsive interaction μ with cutoffΓ. We consider parameters such that a superconducting solution does not exist. We add a repulsive interaction ν eith cutoff ω1 ( ω1 < ω0), and show that this repulsive interaction (that we attribute to incipient magnetism) induces a superconducting state possessing a high transition temperature. In this state, the gap function Δ(ɛ) oscillates as function of ɛ, with a period of order ω 0. We also find solutions antisymmetric in energy [ Δ( ɛ) = - Δ(- ɛ) ], which turn out to be almost degenerate with the normal, symmetric ones. We discuss the physical implications of this model. Our model thus combines a low frequency repulsion due to antiferromagnetic interactions, with excitonic attraction at intermediate frequencies, and ordinary Coulomb repulsion above that. All frequency ranges, and coupling strengths, are comparable with the bandwidth.

  12. High temperature bacterial leaching: HIOX project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, D.; D' Hugues, P.; Bonney, C. F.; Norris, P.; Shwab, W.; Sundkvist, J-E.; Bridges, P. [Bureau de Recherhes Geologiques et Minieres, Orleans (France)

    2001-07-01

    The HIOX project was designed to investigate the use of thermophilic bacterial cultures for the leaching of chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}, the natural source of copper). Beyond bacterial leaching, the study also encompassed the downstream processing steps in an effort to develop a new method for the recovery of copper in an economical and environmentally-friendly process. Using the HIOX process copper recovery was increased to better than 90 per cent within 5 days with a 12 per cent solids culture, although some potentially limiting factors such as foam generation, nutrient concentrations and mixing/aeration efficiency were also identified. The study resulted in the establishment of a mass balance based on a simplified flowsheet of the process. Techno-economic evaluation carried out at three sites indicated technical feasibility using relatively conventional equipment and capital and operating costs in ranges that suggest that bioleaching with high temperature bacteria is an attractive alternative for the treatment of chalcopyrite concentrate. 5 tabs.

  13. Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald

    2014-11-01

    Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.

  14. High-temperature archeointensity measurements from Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Yves; Le Goff, Maxime

    2006-01-01

    We present new archeointensity results obtained from 127 potsherds and baked brick fragments dated from the last four millennia BC which were collected from different Syrian archeological excavations. High temperature magnetization measurements were carried out using a laboratory-built triaxial vibrating sample magnetometer (Triaxe), and ancient field intensity determinations were derived from the experimental procedure described by Le Goff and Gallet [Le Goff and Gallet. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 229 (2004) 31-43]. As some of the studied samples were previously analyzed using the classical Thellier and Thellier [Thellier and Thellier . Ann. Geophys. 15 (1959) 285-376] method revised by Coe [Coe. J. Geophys. Res. 72 (1967) 3247-3262], a comparison of the results is made from the two methods. The differences both at the fragment and site levels are mostly within ± 5%, which strengthens the validity of the experimental procedure developed for the Triaxe. The new data help to better constrain the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Mesopotamia during archeological times, with the probable occurrence of an archeomagnetic jerk around 2800-2600 BC.

  15. Electronic phase separation and high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelson, S.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-11

    The authors review the extensive evidence from model calculations that neutral holes in an antiferromagnet separate into hole-rich and hole-poor phases. All known solvable limits of models of holes in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet exhibit this behavior. The authors show that when the phase separation is frustrated by the introduction of long-range Coulomb interactions, the typical consequence is either a modulated (charge density wave) state or a superconducting phase. The authors then review some of the strong experimental evidence supporting an electronically-driven phase separation of the holes in the cuprate superconductors and the related Ni oxides. Finally, the authors argue that frustrated phase separation in these materials can account for many of the anomalous normal state properties of the high temperature superconductors and provide the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, it is shown that the T-linear resistivity of the normal state is a paraconductivity associated with a novel composite pairing, although the ordered superconducting state is more conventional.

  16. Spin injection into high temperature superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Severac, C H L

    2000-01-01

    DELTA M versus pulse length was measured. It showed two regions: above 100 mu s DELTA M is the same for both magnetic and non-magnetic material and can be attributed to heating. Below 100 mu s, DELTA M is only significant for the CMR samples. This is attributed to the injection of highly spin polarised carriers that are believed to reduce the order parameter over the whole sample, and hence l sub C and the magnetic moment of the sample. As part of a search for colossal magneto-resistance (CMR) materials with Curie temperature below the superconducting transition of YBCO, we made an investigation of the magnetic and electrical characteristics of Chromium doped LCMO. We found that the conduction mechanism which depends on the orbital order via the double-exchange mechanism, is decoupled from the ferromagnetic behaviour, which is related to spin order. Work on the injection of dc-current from half metallic CMR material into YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (YBCO) showed a shift and a compression in the ...

  17. Development of Strengthened Bundle High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Demko, J.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Tomsic, M. [Plastronic, Inc., Troy, OH (United States); Sinha, U. [Southwire Company, Carollton, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the process of developing high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables, it was found that mechanical strength of the superconducting tape is the most crucial property that needs to be improved. It is also desirable to increase the current carrying capacity of the conductor so that fewer layers are needed to make the kilo-amp class cables required for electric utility usage. A process has been developed by encapsulating a stack of Bi-2223/Ag tapes with a silver or non-silver sheath to form a strengthened bundle superconductor. This process was applied to HTS tapes made by the Continuous Tube Forming and Filling (CTFF) technique pursued by Plastronic Inc. and HTS tapes obtained from other manufacturers. Conductors with a bundle of 2 to 6 HTS tapes have been made. The bundled conductor is greatly strengthened by the non-silver sheath. No superconductor degradation as compared to the sum of the original critical currents of the individual tapes was seen on the finished conductors.

  18. High-temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Sajad

    2011-05-01

    General Atomics (GA) has over 35 years experience in prismatic block High-temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technology design. During this period, the design has recently involved into a modular have been performed to demonstrate its versatility. This versatility is directly related to refractory TRISO coated - particle fuel that can contain any type of fuel. This paper summarized GA's fuel cycle studies individually and compares each based upon its cycle sustainability, proliferation-resistance capabilities, and other performance data against pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel cycle data. Fuel cycle studies LEU-NV;commercial HEU-Th;commercial LEU-Th;weapons-grade plutonium consumption; and burning of LWR waste including plutonium and minor actinides in the MHR. results show that all commercial MHR options, with the exception of HEU-TH, are more sustainable than a PWR fuel cycle. With LEU-NV being the most sustainable commercial options. In addition, all commercial MHR options out perform the PWR with regards to its proliferation-resistance, with thorium fuel cycle having the best proliferation-resistance characteristics.

  19. High-temperature spreading kinetics of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, N.

    2005-05-15

    In this PhD work a drop transfer setup combined with high speed photography has been used to analyze the spreading of Ag on polished polycrystalline Mo and single crystalline Mo (110) and (100) substrates. The objective of this work was to unveil the basic phenomena controlling spreading in metal-metal systems. The observed spreading kinetics were compared with current theories of low and high temperature spreading such as a molecular kinetic model and a fluid flow model. Analyses of the data reveal that the molecular model does describe the fastest velocity data well for all the investigated systems. Therefore, the energy which is dissipated during the spreading process is a dissipation at the triple line rather than dissipation due to the viscosity in the liquid. A comparison of the determined free activation energy for wetting of {delta}G95{approx}145kJ/mol with literature values allows the statement that the rate determining step seems to be a surface diffusion of the Ag atoms along the triple line. In order to investigate possible ridge formation, due to local atomic diffusion of atoms of the substrate at the triple during the spreading process, grooving experiments of the polycrystalline Mo were performed to calculate the surface diffusities that will control ridge evolution. The analyses of this work showed that a ridge formation at the fastest reported wetting velocities was not possible if there is no initial perturbation for a ridge. If there was an initial perturbation for a ridge the ridge had to be much smaller than 1 nm in order to be able to move with the liquid font. Therefore ridge formation does not influence the spreading kinetics for the studied system and the chosen conditions. SEM, AFM and TEM investigations of the triple line showed that ridge formation does also not occur at the end of the wetting experiment when the drop is close to equilibrium and the wetting velocity is slow. (orig.)

  20. Microstructures and seismic anisotropy of blueschist and eclogite from Ring Mountain and Jenner in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yoonhae; Jung, Haemyeong; Raymond, Loren

    2016-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been observed in many subduction zones. During subduction of slab, the oceanic crust changes to blueschist and eclogite. Since minerals in blueschist are very anisotropic elastically, seismic properties in the subducting slab can be attributed to the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of these minerals. We studied microstructures and seismic properties of blueschist and eclogite from Ring Mt. and Jenner in California. Blueschist samples are mainly composed of glaucophane, epidote and phengite. Eclogite samples are mostly composed of omphacite, glaucophane, epidote and garnet. We determined LPOs of minerals using SEM/EBSD and calculated seismic properties of minerals and whole rocks. LPOs of glaucophane showed [001] axes are aligned subparallel to lineation, and both (110) poles and [100] axes subnormal to foliation. Glaucophane in samples from Jenner, however, exhibited [001] axes forming a girdle subparallel to lineation. Seismic anisotropy of glaucophane was stronger in samples from Ring Mt. than those from Jenner. Epidote showed [001] axes are aligned subnormal to foliation and (110) and (010) poles subparallel to lineation. LPOs of phengite were characterized by a maximum of [001] axes normal to foliation, with (110) and (010) poles and [100] axes aligning in a girdle parallel to foliation. Phengite showed the strongest seismic anisotropy among major minerals. LPOs of omphacite showed [001] axes are aligned subparallel to lineation and [010] axes subnormal to foliation. Seismic anisotropy of omphacite were very weak. Blueschist from Ring Mt. showed stronger seismic anisotropy than those from Jenner. Especially, blueschist including abundant phengite showed very strong seismic anisotropy (AVP=30%, max.AVS=23%). Eclogite showed much weaker seismic anisotropy (AVP=7%, max.AVS=6%) than blueschist (AVP=12-30%, max.AVS=9-23%). Therefore, strong seismic anisotropy observed in subduction zone can be more affected by blueschist than eclogite.

  1. Are Colorado Plateau Eclogite Xenoliths Franciscan?: Oxygen Isotope Evidence From Zoned Garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, W. F.; Page, F. Z.; Schulze, D. J.; Kitajima, K.; Valley, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Eclogite xenoliths from the Moses Rock diatreme, UT, USA are of controversial (Proterozoic or Phanerozoic) age. In this study, seven garnets from four Moses Rock eclogite xenoliths were analyzed for δ18O by ion microprobe. Garnet core δ18O values are 7.8-10.3‰ VSMOW. All samples have a sharp change between cores and rim values of 5.8-6.9‰. These garnets have the first reported oxygen isotope zoning from mantle xenoliths. The core values are well outside the range of garnets equilibrated with the mantle, suggesting that they began growth during subduction from an altered oceanic crustal protolith. Most rim values reach the mantle range. This decrease in δ18O from core to rim is consistent with continued subduction of the eclogites into the mantle. The failure of some garnet rims to reach mantle δ18O values may indicate that they did not equilibrate fully with the mantle, or were exposed to a mixed mantle-slab fluid. Zoning in the samples from this study record a stepped shift from an altered upper oceanic crust protolith, to a mantle-influenced environment. The preservation of zoning in some of the samples from this study suggests that these eclogites were protected within the cool subducting slab and experienced a short mantle residence time. The preservation of cation and oxygen isotope zoning is more consistent with an origin during Franciscan subduction than Proterozoic subduction, unless the zoning is a late feature that formed just prior to volcanic emplacement. This is further supported by the similar patterns of increased pyrope content and decreasing δ18O found in some Franciscan eclogite garnets (e.g., Errico et al., 2013, CMP).

  2. Vortices in high-performance high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Welp, Ulrich; Glatz, Andreas; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Kihlstrom, Karen J.; Crabtree, George W.

    2016-11-01

    The behavior of vortex matter in high-temperature superconductors (HTS) controls the entire electromagnetic response of the material, including its current carrying capacity. Here, we review the basic concepts of vortex pinning and its application to a complex mixed pinning landscape to enhance the critical current and to reduce its anisotropy. We focus on recent scientific advances that have resulted in large enhancements of the in-field critical current in state-of-the-art second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors and on the prospect of an isotropic, high-critical current superconductor in the iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we discuss an emerging new paradigm of critical current by design—a drive to achieve a quantitative correlation between the observed critical current density and mesoscale mixed pinning landscapes by using realistic input parameters in an innovative and powerful large-scale time dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach to simulating vortex dynamics.

  3. Vortices in high-performance high-temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Welp, Ulrich; Glatz, Andreas; Koshelev, Alexei E; Kihlstrom, Karen J; Crabtree, George W

    2016-11-01

    The behavior of vortex matter in high-temperature superconductors (HTS) controls the entire electromagnetic response of the material, including its current carrying capacity. Here, we review the basic concepts of vortex pinning and its application to a complex mixed pinning landscape to enhance the critical current and to reduce its anisotropy. We focus on recent scientific advances that have resulted in large enhancements of the in-field critical current in state-of-the-art second generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors and on the prospect of an isotropic, high-critical current superconductor in the iron-based superconductors. Lastly, we discuss an emerging new paradigm of critical current by design-a drive to achieve a quantitative correlation between the observed critical current density and mesoscale mixed pinning landscapes by using realistic input parameters in an innovative and powerful large-scale time dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach to simulating vortex dynamics.

  4. High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwen; Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan; Novacco, Lawrence J.

    2008-10-07

    A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

  5. Multi-Scale Porous Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-08

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 28-Mar-2013 - 27-Sep-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multi-Scale Porous Ultra High Temperature Ceramics ...report summarizes the main outcomes of research to develop multi-scale porosity Ultra High Temperature Ceramic materials. Processing conditions were...flights. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ultra High Temperature Ceramics , Colloidal Powder Processing, Multi-scale Porous Materials, Lattice Monte

  6. Low Temperature Photoluminescence (PL) from High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-14-55 LOW TEMPERATURE PHOTOLUMINESCENCE (PL) FROM HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS (HEMTS...DATE March 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Low Temperature Photoluminescence (PL) From High Electron...temperature Photoluminescence (PL) from High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) structures that have been modified by proton irradiation. The samples are

  7. Structural integrity and life extension of high-temperature components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun; SHEN Shi-ming

    2005-01-01

    Four different topics for high-temperature components, namely the development of the assessment codes for the structural integrity of high-temperature components, the application of continuous damage mechanics and probabilistic damage mode on the life assessment of high-temperature components, the life extension for high-tem perature components and a proposed strategy for remanufacturing of high-temperature components were discussed in this paper. These topics should provide some important insights for the design and re-design of high- temperature components.

  8. Relative impact of mantle densification and eclogitization of slabs on subduction dynamics: A numerical thermodynamic/thermokinematic investigation of metamorphic density evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesterhoeft, Erik; Quinteros, Javier; Oberhänsli, Roland; Bousquet, Romain; de Capitani, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationships between density and spatio-thermal variations at convergent plate boundaries is important for deciphering the present-day dynamics and evolution of subduction zones. In particular, the interaction between densification due to mineralogical phase transitions and slab pull forces is subject to ongoing investigations. We have developed a two-dimensional subduction zone model that is based on thermodynamic equilibrium assemblage calculations and includes the effects of melting processes on the density distribution in the lithosphere. Our model calculates the 'metamorphic density' of rocks as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition in a subduction zone down to 250 km. We have used this model to show how the hydration, dehydration, partial melting and fractionation processes of rocks all influence the metamorphic density and greatly depend on the temperature field within the subduction system. These processes are largely neglected by other approaches that reproduce the density distribution within this complex tectonic setting. Our model demonstrates that the initiation of eclogitization (i.e., when crustal rocks reach higher densities than the ambient mantle) of the slab is not the only significant process that makes the descending slab denser and generates the slab pull force. Instead, the densification of the lithospheric mantle of the sinking slab starts earlier than eclogitization and contributes significantly to slab pull in the early stages of subduction. Accordingly, the complex metamorphic structure of the slab and the mantle wedge has an important impact on the development of subduction zones.

  9. Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Russell; Rumpf, Raymond; Coggin, John; Davis, Williams; Yang, Taeyoung; O' Donnell, Alan; Bresnahan, Peter

    2013-03-31

    Research was conducted towards the development of a passive wireless sensor for measurement of temperature in coal gasifiers and coal-fired boiler plants. Approaches investigated included metamaterial sensors based on guided mode resonance filters, and temperature-sensitive antennas that modulate the frequency of incident radio waves as they are re-radiated by the antenna. In the guided mode resonant filter metamaterial approach, temperature is encoded as changes in the sharpness of the filter response, which changes with temperature because the dielectric loss of the guided mode resonance filter is temperature-dependent. In the mechanically modulated antenna approach, the resonant frequency of a vibrating cantilever beam attached to the antenna changes with temperature. The vibration of the beam perturbs the electrical impedance of the antenna, so that incident radio waves are phase modulated at a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the vibrating beam. Since the beam resonant frequency depends on temperature, a Doppler radar can be used to remotely measure the temperature of the antenna. Laboratory testing of the guided mode resonance filter failed to produce the spectral response predicted by simulations. It was concluded that the spectral response was dominated by spectral reflections of radio waves incident on the filter. Laboratory testing of the mechanically modulated antenna demonstrated that the device frequency shifted incident radio waves, and that the frequency of the re-radiated waves varied linearly with temperature. Radio wave propagation tests in the convection pass of a small research boiler plant identified a spectral window between 10 and 13 GHz for low loss propagation of radio waves in the interior of the boiler.

  10. Fusion reactors-high temperature electrolysis (HTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J.A. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study to identify and develop a reference design for synfuel production based on fusion reactors are given. The most promising option for hydrogen production was high-temperature electrolysis (HTE). The main findings of this study are: 1. HTE has the highest potential efficiency for production of synfuels from fusion; a fusion to hydrogen energy efficiency of about 70% appears possible with 1800/sup 0/C HTE units and 60% power cycle efficiency; an efficiency of about 50% possible with 1400/sup 0/C HTE units and 40% power cycle efficiency. 2. Relative to thermochemical or direct decomposition methods HTE technology is in a more advanced state of development, 3. Thermochemical or direct decomposition methods must have lower unit process or capital costs if they are to be more attractive than HTE. 4. While design efforts are required, HTE units offer the potential to be quickly run in reverse as fuel cells to produce electricity for restart of Tokamaks and/or provide spinning reserve for a grid system. 5. Because of the short timescale of the study, no detailed economic evaluation could be carried out.A comparison of costs could be made by employing certain assumptions. For example, if the fusion reactor-electrolyzer capital installation is $400/(KW(T) ($1000/KW(E) equivalent), the H/sub 2/ energy production cost for a high efficiency (about 70 %) fusion-HTE system is on the same order of magnitude as a coal based SNG plant based on 1976 dollars. 6. The present reference design indicates that a 2000 MW(th) fusion reactor could produce as much at 364 x 10/sup 6/ scf/day of hydrogen which is equivalent in heating value to 20,000 barrels/day of gasoline. This would fuel about 500,000 autos based on average driving patterns. 7. A factor of three reduction in coal feed (tons/day) could be achieved for syngas production if hydrogen from a fusion-HTE system were used to gasify coal, as compared to a conventional syngas plant using coal-derived hydrogen.

  11. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)

    2011-08-30

    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  12. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  13. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  14. High Temperature Acoustic Noise Reduction Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use combustion synthesis techniques to manufacture ceramic-based acoustic liners capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2500?C....

  15. CAST-IRONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of physical-mechanical characteristics of cast iron slugs, received by semicontinuos way of casting, at temperatures from 850 up to 1100^ С are given. 

  16. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.

  17. High Temperature Reactive Thermoplastic Aromatic Polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    temperatures and isothermal aging studies of the polymer, as well as, Dr. E. G. Jones for mass spectra TGA analysis . iii AFWAL-TR-80-4013 TABLE OF CONTENTS...after 200 hours (Figure 6). Mass spectra TGA analysis was carried out on polymer VIIIb from room temperature to 900’C using a 4.2°C/minute heating rate

  18. HIGH TEMPERATURE MATERIALS AND STRENGTH STUDY IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the past half century China has developed and formed her own system of high temperature materials for power, automobile and aero-engine industries in the temperature range from 550 ℃ to 1 100 ℃. These high temperature materials include heat-resisting steels, iron-base, nickel-iron-base and nickel-base superalloys. Some achievements in high temperature strength study, new technologies and new alloy development are also discussed.

  19. Inelastic deformation and damage at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempl, E.

    1992-06-01

    Combined experimental and theoretical investigations into the inelastic deformation and damage behavior of engineering alloys at elevated temperatures are being pursued. The analysis of previously performed strain rate change and relaxation tests on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel showed the need for inclusion of a recovery of state term in the growth laws for the state variables of the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO). Recovery of state terms were introduced and the experimental results were satisfactorily simulated. The finite deformation theory of VBO has been developed further to include a convected derivative rationale for the choice of the objective stress rate. The reversing direct current voltage drop measurements during low cycle fatigue at elevated temperature were improved. A passive filter bank and new positioning devices for the coils were installed. Tests at 650 C and lasting several days showed excessive, uncontrollable temperature changes. It was decided to drop the test temperature to 538 C which is close to the operating temperature of type 304 stainless steel. The temperature fluctuations in torsion tests were within +/- 3 C which was considered satisfactory.

  20. Inelastic deformation and damage at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krempl, E.

    1992-01-01

    Combined experimental and theoretical investigations into the inelastic deformation and damage behavior of engineering alloys at elevated temperatures are being pursued. The analysis of previously performed strain rate change and relaxation tests on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel showed the need for inclusion of a recovery of state term in the growth laws for the state variables of the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress (VBO). Recovery of state terms were introduced and the experimental results were satisfactorily simulated. The finite deformation theory of VBO has been developed further to include a convected derivative rationale for the choice of the objective stress rate. The reversing direct current voltage drop measurements during low cycle fatigue at elevated temperature were improved. A passive filter bank and new positioning devices for the coils were installed. Tests at 650{degrees}C and lasting several days showed excessive, uncontrollable temperature changes. It was decided to drop the test temperature to 538{degrees}C which is close to the operating temperature of Type 304 Stainless Steel. The temperature fluctuations in torsion tests were within {plus minus}3{degrees}C which was considered satisfactory. Testing will continue at 538{degrees}C.

  1. The 40Ar/39Ar age record of formation and uplift of the blueschists and eclogites in the western Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the eclogite facies rocks of the Hasiate slice in the western Tianshan Mountains were formed at the early stage of Devonian (401 Ma) and had been uplifted to the greenschist facies tectonic level in the middle stage of Devonian (381 Ma). The formation and uplift of the blueschists of the Akesayi slice are constrained to the late stage of Devonian (370─364 Ma). The different tectonic slices in the high-pressure metamorphic belt have experienced the different uplift history.

  2. High-Temperature, High-Concentration Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Emily; Baranowski, Lauryn; Olsen, Michele; Ndione, Paul; Netter, Judy; Goodrich, Alan; Gray, Matthew; Parilla, Philip; Ginley, David; Toberer, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) powered with concentrated solar energy have potential for use as primary energy converters or as topping-cycles for more conventional concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies. Modeling based on current record modules from JPL suggests thermoelectric efficiencies of 18 % could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000 - 100°C. Integrating these state-of-the-art TEGs with a concentrating solar receiver requires simultaneous optimization of optical, thermal, and thermoelectric systems. This talk will discuss the modeling, design, and experimental testing of STEG devices under concentrated sunlight. We have developed a model that combines thermal circuit modeling with optical ray tracing to design selective absorber coatings and cavities to minimize radiation losses from the system. We have fabricated selective absorber coatings and demonstrated that these selective absorber films can minimize blackbody radiation losses at high temperature and are stable after thermal cycling to 1000°C. On-sun testing of STEG devices and thermal simulators is ongoing and preliminary results will be discussed.

  3. From field observations on eclogites towards modeling of deep subduction processes: 7th International Eclogite Conference (IEC- 7) and First Workshop of Task Group Ⅱ-10 of International Lithosphere Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Larissa Dobrzhinetskaya; Georg Hoinkes; Alexander Proyer; Jane Gilotti

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 7th International Eclogite Conference was held in Seggau, near Leibnitz, Austria,from July 3-9, 2005, and was accompanied by inter-conference and post-conference field trips to the Tauren Window of the Alps.

  4. Design of High Field Solenoids made of High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalesi, Antonio; /Pisa U.

    2010-12-01

    This thesis starts from the analytical mechanical analysis of a superconducting solenoid, loaded by self generated Lorentz forces. Also, a finite element model is proposed and verified with the analytical results. To study the anisotropic behavior of a coil made by layers of superconductor and insulation, a finite element meso-mechanic model is proposed and designed. The resulting material properties are then used in the main solenoid analysis. In parallel, design work is performed as well: an existing Insert Test Facility (ITF) is adapted and structurally verified to support a coil made of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}, a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS). Finally, a technological winding process was proposed and the required tooling is designed.

  5. Origin of the eclogitic clasts with graphite-bearing and graphite-free lithologies in the Northwest Africa 801 (CR2) chondrite: Possible origin from a Moon-sized planetary body inferred from chemistry, oxygen isotopes and REE abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyagon, H.; Sugiura, N.; Kita, N. T.; Kimura, M.; Morishita, Y.; Takehana, Y.

    2016-08-01

    In order to clarify the origin of the eclogitic clasts found in the NWA801 (CR2) chondrite (Kimura et al., 2013), especially, that of the high pressure and temperature (P-T) condition (∼3 GPa and ∼1000 °C), we conducted ion microprobe analyses of oxygen isotopes and rare earth element (REE) abundances in the clasts. Oxygen isotopic compositions of the graphite-bearing lithology (GBL) and graphite-free lithology (GFL) show a slope ∼0.6 correlation slightly below the CR-CH-CB chondrites field in the O three-isotope-diagram, with a large variation for the former and almost homogeneous composition for the latter. The average REE abundances of the two lithologies show almost unfractionated patterns. Based on these newly obtained data, as well as mineralogical observations, bulk chemistry, and considerations about diffusion timescales for various elements, we discuss in detail the formation history of the clasts. Consistency of the geothermobarometers used by Kimura et al. (2013), suggesting equilibration of various elements among different mineral pairs, provides a strong constraint for the duration of the high P-T condition. We suggest that the high P-T condition lasted 102-103 years. This clearly precludes a shock high pressure (HP) model, and hence, strongly supports a static HP model. A static HP model requires a Moon-sized planetary body of ∼1500 km in radius. Furthermore, it implies two successive violent collisions, first at the formation of the large planetary body, when the clasts were placed its deep interior, and second, at the disruption of the large planetary body, when the clasts were expelled out of the parent body and later on transported to the accretion region of the CR chondrites. We also discuss possible origin of O isotopic variations in GBL, and presence/absence of graphite in GBL/GFL, respectively, in relation to smelting possibly occurred during the igneous process(es) which formed the two lithologies. Finally we present a possible

  6. High-temperature responses of North American cacti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.D.; Didden-Zopfy, B.; Nobel, P.S.

    1984-04-01

    High-temperature tolerances of 14 species of North American cacti were investigated. A reduction in the proportion of chlorenchyma cells taking up a vital stain (neutral red) and reduced nocturnal acid accumulation were used as indicators of high-temperature damage. All species tolerated relatively high tissue temperatures, the mean maximum tolerance being 64/sup 0/C, with an absolute maximum of 69/sup 0/ for two species of ferocactus. Such tissue tolerances to high temperature may be unsurpassed in vascular plants. Morphological features can affect tissue temperatures. Specifically, thin-stemmed species such as the cylindropuntias attain lower maximum temperatures under identical microclimatic conditions than do more massive species; they also tend to be less tolerant of high-temperature stress. Stem diameter changes of three species of columnar ceriod cacti along a Sonoran Desert latitudinal transect were previously attributed to adaptation to progressively colder temperatures northward. Such changes can also be interpreted as a morphological adaptation to high temperatures, particularly in the southern Sonoran Desert. Interspecific differences in high-temperature tolerance may account for distributional differences among other species. Acclimation of high-temperature tolerances in response to increasing day/night air temperatures was observed in all 14 species, especially at higher growh temperatures. From 40/sup 0/ day/30/sup 0/ night to 50/sup 0//40/sup 0/, the tolerable tissue temperatures increased an average of 6/sup 0/. Half-times for the acclimation shifts were 1-3d. Although cacti attain extremely high tissue temperatures in desert habitats, tolerance of high temperatures and pronounced acclimation potential allow them to occur in some of the hottest habitats in North America.

  7. Ultra Sodic gedrite and micro-scale metasomatic processes in granulitised kyanite eclogites from the Rhodope UHPM Province, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Connolly, James A. D.; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    The Rhodope Massif occupies most of northeastern Greece and southern Bulgaria and comprises high-grade metamorphic rocks such as metapelites with microdiamond inclusions. The (U)HP mineral paragenesis underwent extensive metamorphic overprint at granulite-facies followed by amphibolite-facies retrograde metamorphism. A kyanite-eclogite that occurs as lenses in orthogneisses from Thermes village was used to unravel the pressure-temperature-time path of the (U)HP rocks from the Rhodope. The peak-pressure mineral assemblage is omphacite, garnet, kyanite, phengite, rutile, apatite and zircon. Quartz is absent from the matrix and it can be found either as inclusions in garnet or as post-peak veins. This late quartz contains primary and secondary fluid inclusions implying the presence of a fluid phase during post high-pressure metamorphism. Kyanite is never observed in direct contact with quartz being armoured by an intervening stripe of plagioclase which itself shows zoning, becoming increasingly albitic towards quartz. Plagioclase formation at the Ky-Qtz interface requires certain Na and Ca influx that was provided by matrix omphacite. Two types of symplectites were formed by reaction between omphacite and kyanite. Firstly, corundum+plagioclase symplectites were formed at the expense of the jadeitic component of omphacite during decompression. Subsequently, the residual diopsidic component of omphacite reacted with the already formed corundum to give rise to spinel+plagioclase symplectites. The previous mechanisms demonstrate metasomatism in the micro-scale by diffusion controlled processes. During decompression matrix omphacite was decomposed to amphibole+plagioclase symplectites which reacted with garnet to form coronas consisting of two amphiboles (ortho- and clino-), plagioclase, ilmenite and magnetite. Biotite and plagioclase are also found as symplectites replacing phengite during decompression. Thermodynamic modelling of the symplectitic domains that replace

  8. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  9. Metallic substrates for high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchan, Thomas G.; Miller, Dean J.; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Foley, Robert

    2002-01-01

    A biaxially textured face-centered cubic metal article having grain boundaries with misorientation angles greater than about 8.degree. limited to less than about 1%. A laminate article is also disclosed having a metal substrate first rolled to at least about 95% thickness reduction followed by a first annealing at a temperature less than about 375.degree. C. Then a second rolling operation of not greater than about 6% thickness reduction is provided, followed by a second annealing at a temperature greater than about 400.degree. C. A method of forming the metal and laminate articles is also disclosed.

  10. Destruction of the peridotite-eclogite liquidus barrier during mantle magma differentiation (experiment at 7.0 GPa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butvina, Dr

    2012-04-01

    The main purpose of this paper is an experimental study of phase relationships in the model system forsterite-dioside-jadeite at pressure of 7 GPa and foundation of possible physico-chemical correct transitions between peridotite and eclogite parageneses with overcoming liquidus "eclogite" thermal barrier. To construct a diagram of a ternary system forsterite-diopside-jadeite it is necessary to study its boundary binary sections forsterite-jadeite and fosterite-diopside as well as a number of internal polythermic sections. The section jadeite-diopside at 7 GPa has been studied earlier and it is characterized by the unlimited miscibility of jadeite and diopside components in solid and liquid states. The experimental results obtained at the initial stage of the investigation of this problem can be characterized as follows. Forsterite-jadeite section. The experiments in this section have been done in the temperature range of 1100-18000C on which basis the construction of fusibility diagram of the system forsterite-jadeite at 7 GPa has been started. The obtained experimental data testify to the existence in the system of the liquidus fields Fo + L, GrtSS + L and CpxSS (on the basis of jadeite phase) +L, as well as show indirectly a possible appearance of orthopyroxene as a liquidus phase. In subsolidus experiments olivine-bearing assemblages on the basis of the paragenesis Ol+Grt+Opx+Cpx are found. Garnet there is not a pure pyrope, but has the molecule Na2MgSi5O12 (Na-majorite) what manifests itself in the direct correlation of Na and Si in the equations of this phase. OpxSS is not a pure enstatite, but forms a complicated solid solution En+Jd+Mg-Ts. With jadeite content increase in the system olivine-bearing assemblages transfer into non-olivine ones, up to the assemblage Cpx + Grt (jadeite-clinopyroxene has also enstatite component) being indirect evidence of a peritectic character of solidus in this system) what has also been shown earlier in (Gasparik et al., 1997

  11. Cryogenic deformation of high temperature superconductive composite structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter R. (Groton, MA); Michels, William (Brookline, MA); Bingert, John F. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    2001-01-01

    An improvement in a process of preparing a composite high temperature oxide superconductive wire is provided and involves conducting at least one cross-sectional reduction step in the processing preparation of the wire at sub-ambient temperatures.

  12. High Temperature Resistant Exhaust Valve Spindle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev

    Transport by ship remains the most economical and environmentally friendly mode of transport with a very low weight specific CO2 footprint. Further increase of the fuel efficiency of large ships will results in a higher internal engine temperature. To allow this without compromising the reliabili...

  13. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.

    1996-02-01

    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  14. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, K.D.; Fain, D.E.; James, D.L.; Powell, L.E.; Raj, T.; Roettger, G.E.; Sutton, T.G. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The separative performance of the authors` ceramic membranes has been determined in the past using a permeance test system that measured flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275 C. From these data, the separation factor was determined for a particular gas pair from the ratio of the pure gas specific flows. An important project goal this year has been to build a Mixed Gas Separation System (MGSS) for measuring the separation efficiencies of membranes at higher temperatures and using mixed gases. The MGSS test system has been built, and initial operation has been achieved. The MGSS is capable of measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600 C and pressures up to 100 psi using a binary gas mixture such as hydrogen/methane. The mixed gas is fed into a tubular membrane at pressures up to 100 psi, and the membrane separates the feed gas mixture into a permeate stream and a raffinate stream. The test membrane is sealed in a stainless steel holder that is mounted in a split tube furnace to permit membrane separations to be evaluated at temperatures up to 600 C. The compositions of the three gas streams are measured by a gas chromatograph equipped with thermal conductivity detectors. The test system also measures the temperatures and pressures of all three gas streams as well as the flow rate of the feed stream. These data taken over a range of flows and pressures permit the separation efficiency to be determined as a function of the operating conditions. A mathematical model of the separation has been developed that permits the data to be reduced and the separation factor for the membrane to be determined.

  15. High temperature superconductor cable concepts for fusion magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078397

    2013-01-01

    Three concepts of high temperature superconductor cables carrying kA currents (RACC, CORC and TSTC) are investigated, optimized and evaluated in the scope of their applicability as conductor in fusion magnets. The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the cables is measured; the thermal expansion and conductivity of structure, insulation and filling materials are investigated. High temperature superconductor winding packs for fusion magnets are calculated and compared with corresponding low temperature superconductor cases.

  16. Vibrational relaxation in very high temperature nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1991-01-01

    Vibrational relaxation of N2 molecules is considered at temperatures up to 40,000 K in gas mixtures that contain electrons as well as heavy collision partners. The theory of vibrational relaxation due to N2-N2 collisions is fit to experimental data to 10,000 K by choice of the shape of the intermolecular potential and size of the collision cross section. These values are then used to extrapolate the theory to 40,000 K.

  17. High Temperature LFMR in Yttrium Doped Perovskite Manganites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛晓波; 童林夙; 林萍华; 杨石强; 储成林; 翟亚

    2003-01-01

    Porous ceramic samples of Y doped perovskite manganites were prepared. In these samples, the transition from high temperature paramagnetic insulator to low temperature ferromagnetic metal as well as the low field magnetoresistance (LFMR) effect at the low temperature is similar to that in dense samples. Opposite to that in dense samples, LFMR effect in porous sample is observed at the high temperature close to the peak of MR-T curves. The results suggest that the high temperature LFMR effect and the applicable colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) materials could be obtained by controlling the microstructures of this class of perovskite manganites.

  18. Discovery of Late Paleozoic retrograded eclogites from the middle part of the northern margin of North China Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhiyao; ZHAI Mingguo; WANG Renmin; TONG Ying; SHU Guiming; HAl Xiuling

    2004-01-01

    The retrograded eciogites have been discovered in the middle part of the northern margin of the North China Craton, which occur as lens or boudin within biotite-plagioclase gneisses in Paleoproterozoic Hongqiyingzi Group. The peak eclogite facies (P > 1.40-1.50 GPa, T = 680-730℃) mineral assemblage is composed of garnet, omphacite and rutile (+ quartz), which was overprinted by the granulite facies mineral assemblage of vermicular symplectite of sodic clinopyroxene and plagioclase which replaced the precursory omphacite, and then amphibolite facies retrograded minerals with characterization of Amp+Pl kelyphitic rim and symplectite, and amphibole replaced clinopyroxene. The protolith of retrograded eclogites is oceanic basalt formed at 438 + 11 Ma. The peak eclogite facies metamorphic age of the retrograded eclogite is 325 + 4 Ma. These relict eclogites may be formed by the subduction of Paleo-Asian oceanic crust beneath the North China Craton during Late Paleozoic. The discovery of relict eclogite in this paper provides a new insight into farther understanding of tectonic evolution of the northern margin of the North China Craton, and the relationship between the Paleo-Asian Ocean and the North China Craton.

  19. Trace element signature and U-Pb geochronology of eclogite-facies zircon, Bergen Arcs, Caledonides of W Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingen, Bernard; Austrheim, Håkon; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Davis, William J.

    Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb and trace element data are reported for zircon to address the controversial geochronology of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Lindås nappe, Bergen Arcs, Caledonides of W Norway. Caledonian eclogite-facies overprint in the nappe was controlled by fracturing and introduction of fluid in the Proterozoic-Sveconorwegian-granulite-facies meta-anorthosite-norite protolith. Zircon grains in one massive eclogite display a core-rim structure. Sveconorwegian cores have trace element signatures identical with those of zircon in the granulite protolith, i.e. 0.31<=Th/U<=0.89, heavy rare earth element (HREE) enrichment, and negative Eu anomaly. Weakly-zoned to euhedral oscillatory-zoned Caledonian rims are characterized by Th/U<=0.13, low LREE content (minimum normalized abundance for Pr or Nd), variable enrichment in HREE, and no Eu anomaly. A decrease of REE towards the outermost rim, especially HREE, is documented. This signature reflects co-precipitation of zircon with garnet and clinozoisite in a feldspar-absent assemblage, and consequently links zircon to the eclogite-facies overprint. The rims provide a mean 206Pb/238U crystallization age of 423+/-4 Ma. This age reflects eclogite-forming reactions and fluid-rock interaction. This age indicates that eclogite-facies overprint in the Lindås nappe took place at the onset of the Scandian (Silurian) collision between Laurentia and Baltica.

  20. Double Bag VARTM for High Temperature Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cost and size are limiting factors in efforts to produce high strength, high stiffness, and high temperature composite parts. To address these issues, new processes...

  1. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  2. Prograde and retrograde evolution of eclogite from Adrar Izzilatène (Egéré-Aleksod terrane, Hoggar, Algeria) determined from chemical zoning and pseudosections, with geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukkari, Sid Ali; Ouzegane, Khadidja; Godard, Gaston; Diener, Johann F. A.; Kienast, Jean-Robert; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Arab, Amar; Drareni, Amar

    2015-06-01

    Adrar Izzilatène in the Egéré-Aleksod terrane of the LATEA metacraton (Hoggar, Algeria) exposes one of the best preserved examples of eclogite facies metamorphism in Hoggar. Three distinct stages of metamorphic development are recognised, namely, the pre-peak stage (M1), characterised by garnet, amphibole, epidote, quartz and rutile, the peak eclogite facies stage (M2), consisting of omphacite, garnet, edenite, epidote, quartz and rutile, and the retrograde stage (M3), where initial decompression resulted in the appearance of plagioclase, the development of pargasite + plagioclase kelyphites and finally the formation of anhydrous plagioclase + diopside coronas. Porphyroblastic omphacite has a jadeite content of up to XJd = 0.36, which is the highest yet observed for eclogite facies rocks from the Tuareg Shield. Garnet growth zoning patterns are characterised by flat profiles in the cores (XAlm = 0.55-0.60; XPrp = 0.12-0.16; XGrs = 0.26-0.30) before showing a decrease in almandine to XAlm = 0.45, coupled to an increase in pyrope to XPrp = 0.29 and decrease in grossular to XGrs = 0.26 at the rims. Calculated P-T-MH2O pseudosections show that the prograde M1 assemblage equilibrated at 13-14 kbar and 580 °C, before pressure and temperature increased to 19 kbar and 650-700 °C at fluid-saturated conditions during peak metamorphism. Retrogression involved near-isothermal decompression to 8-9 kbar and 700-750 °C at fluid-undersaturated conditions. Prograde-to-peak metamorphism of the Izzilatène eclogite could have involved either oceanic or continental subduction, followed by exhumation as the area was obducted towards the LATEA metacraton during the Pan-African orogeny and the assembly of Western Gondwana.

  3. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).

  4. Heterogeneity of water in UHP eclogites from Bixiling in Dabieshan:Evidence from garnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Yingming; XIA Qunke; YANG Xiaozhi

    2004-01-01

    Garnets in ultrahigh pressure (UHP) eclogites from Bixiling in Dabieshan were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results demonstrate that all garnets contain structural water which occurs as hydroxyl (OH), with contents ranging from 164 to 2034ppm (H2O wt.) and mostly higher than 500 ppm. Like omphacite which is another major OH-rich mineral in eclogites,garnet is an important carrier that can recycle the surface water into deep mantles. Heterogeneity of water in garnets exists not only among different samples of the same outcrop (~150 m), but also among different crystals of the same sample (~1 cm). This indicates that the mobility of fluids during UHP metamorphism is very limited (possibly on centimeter scales), and that both subduction and exhumation Processes of UHP rocks are very fast.

  5. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  6. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  7. Gallium Oxide Nanostructures for High Temperature Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintalapalle, Ramana V. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films were produced by sputter deposition by varying the substrate temperature (Ts) in a wide range (Ts=25-800 °C). The structural characteristics and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of growth temperature is significant on the chemistry, crystal structure and morphology of Ga2O3 films. XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 films grown at lower temperatures were amorphous while those grown at Ts≥500 oC were nanocrystalline. RBS measurements indicate the well-maintained stoichiometry of Ga2O3 films at Ts=300-800 °C. The electronic structure determination indicated that the nanocrystalline Ga2O3films exhibit a band gap of ~5 eV. Tungsten (W) incorporated Ga2O3 films were produced by co-sputter deposition. W-concentration was varied by the applied sputtering-power. No secondary phase formation was observed in W-incorporated Ga2O3 films. W-induced effects were significant on the structure and electronic properties of Ga2O3 films. The band gap of Ga2O3 films without W-incorporation was ~5 eV. Oxygen sensor characteristics evaluated using optical and electrical methods indicate a faster response in W-doped Ga2O3 films compared to intrinsic Ga2O3 films. The results demonstrate the applicability of both intrinsic and W-doped Ga-oxide films for oxygen sensor application at temperatures ≥700 °C.

  8. TEPIC - A New High Temperature Structural Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whinner, L L; Goods, S H; Tootle, M L; Neuschwanger, C L

    1998-10-01

    The formulation, processing characteristics, microstructure and mechanical properties of a new structural foam, suitable for use at service temperatures up to 200 degrees C, are reported. In each of the respects, the foam is compared to an existing material, called APO-BMI that is currently in use. When these two foams are directly compared, the new foam, called TEPIC, is found to be superior in its mechanical performance. TEPIC is formulated from a non-carcinogenic isocyanate, a di-functional epoxide, and glass microballoons. Compared to APO-BMI processing, TEPIC processing is facile and economical.

  9. The internal structure of eclogite-facies ophiolite complexes: Implications from the Austroalpine outliers within the Zermatt-Saas Zone, Western Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sebastian; Martinez, Raul

    2016-04-01

    The Western Alpine Penninic domain is a classical accretionary prism that formed after the closure of the Penninic oceans in the Paleogene. Continental and oceanic nappes were telescoped into the Western Alpine stack associated with continent-continent collision. Within the Western Alpine geologic framework, the ophiolite nappes of the Zermatt-Saas Zone and the Tsate Unit are the remnants of the southern branch of the Piemonte-Liguria ocean basin. In addition, a series of continental basement slices reported as lower Austroalpine outliers have preserved an eclogitic high-pressure imprint, and are tectonically sandwiched between these oceanic nappes. Since the outliers occur at an unusual intra-ophiolitic setting and show a polymetamorphic character, this group of continental slices is of special importance for understanding the tectono-metamorphic evolution of Western Alps. Recently, more geochronological data from the Austroalpine outliers have become available that make it possible to establish a more complete picture of their complex geological history. The Lu-Hf garnet-whole rock ages for prograde growth of garnet fall into the time interval of 52 to 62 Ma (Weber et al., 2015, Fassmer et al. 2015), but are consistently higher than the Lu-Hf garnet-whole rock ages from several other locations throughout the Zermatt-Saas zone that range from 52 to 38 Ma (Skora et al., 2015). This discrepancy suggests that the Austroalpine outliers may have been subducted earlier than the ophiolites of the Zermatt-Saas Zone and therefore have been tectonically emplaced into their present intra-ophiolite position. This points to the possibility that the Zermatt-Saas Zone consists of tectonic subunits, which reached their respective pressure peaks over a prolonged time period, approximately 10-20 Ma. The pressure-temperature estimates from several members of the Austroalpine outliers indicate a complex distribution of metamorphic peak conditions, without ultrahigh

  10. Damage evolution of metallic materials during high temperature plastic deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凌云; 刘雪峰; 汤爱涛; 黄光杰

    2002-01-01

    The damage evolution of high temperature plastic deformation of metallic materials was studied by use of continuum damage mechanics (CDM) theory. Based on thermodynamics, on a damage variable D and Zener-Hollomon parameter Z, and on the effective stress concept, a damage evolution model of high temperature plastic deformation was derived and was used to analyze the damage evolution of 1420 Al-Li alloy during high temperature plastic deformation. The model that is verified by tests can also be applied to the materials that are loaded prorata or out of proportion during high temperature plastic deformation. It extends the applied scope of damage mechanics.

  11. Predicting High Temperature Dislocation Physics in HCP Crystal Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Abigail [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carpenter, John S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez Saez, Enrique [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-09

    This report applies models and experiments to answer key questions about the way materials deform; specifics regarding phase field dislocations dynamics; as well as high temperature rolling experiments.

  12. The hydrated electron and its reactions at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hilbert; Sehested, Knud

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of the hydrated electron was determined in the temperature range 5-300 "C by using strongly alkaline solutions and high hydrogen pressure. At temperatures up to about 150 "C the temperature coefficients of E, and AE1/2 are -2.8 X and 2 X lo4 eV K-', respectively. E,, is the energy ma...

  13. Lead isotopes and the origin of granulite and eclogite inclusions in deep-seated pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, J.F.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1968-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead and the concentrations of lead, uranium, and thorium in Delegate basic pipes from Australia and in South African kimberlite pipes have been determined. The observed 238U/204Pb and observed 232Th/238U of eclogite inclusions in the pipes range from 2.9 to 18.7 and from 3.5 to 5.9, respectively. This result as well as the isotopic composition of lead suggests that the upper mantle is chemically heterogeneous with regard to the trace elements. Pyrochemically extracted leads from eclogite inclusions in the Delegate basic pipes and in a South African kimberlite pipe appear to be different in isotopic compositions from leads extracted from the host rock (matrix). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the eclogitic inclusions in deep-seated pipes are of "accidental" origin and represent upper mantle materials caught up in the host materials during their intrusion. Lead extracted from a two-pyroxene granulite inclusion in one of the Delegate pipes has an isotopic composition indistinguishable from lead in the host rock. This observation is consistent either with a "cognate" origin for the granulite inclusion or with a modified "accidental" origin in which the isotopic composition of the original lead in the inclusion has been contaminated by lead from the host magma. Other evidence would indicate that an "accidental" origin be preferred. ?? 1968.

  14. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite from the Sulu orogen in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Kusky, Timothy M.; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Jiang, Xingfu; Zong, Keqing; Wang, Junpeng; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    We report partial melting of an ultrahigh pressure eclogite in the Mesozoic Sulu orogen, China. Eclogitic migmatite shows successive stages of initial intragranular and grain boundary melt droplets, which grow into a three-dimensional interconnected intergranular network, then segregate and accumulate in pressure shadow areas and then merge to form melt channels and dikes that transport magma to higher in the lithosphere. Here we show, using zircon U–Pb dating and petrological analyses, that partial melting occurred at 228–219 Myr ago, shortly after peak metamorphism at 230 Myr ago. The melts and residues are complimentarily enriched and depleted in light rare earth element (LREE) compared with the original rock. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite is an important process in determining the rheological structure and mechanical behaviour of subducted lithosphere and its rapid exhumation, controlling the flow of deep lithospheric material, and for generation of melts from the upper mantle, potentially contributing to arc magmatism and growth of continental crust. PMID:25517619

  15. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite from the Sulu orogen in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Kusky, Timothy M; Polat, Ali; Wang, Songjie; Jiang, Xingfu; Zong, Keqing; Wang, Junpeng; Deng, Hao; Fu, Jianmin

    2014-12-17

    We report partial melting of an ultrahigh pressure eclogite in the Mesozoic Sulu orogen, China. Eclogitic migmatite shows successive stages of initial intragranular and grain boundary melt droplets, which grow into a three-dimensional interconnected intergranular network, then segregate and accumulate in pressure shadow areas and then merge to form melt channels and dikes that transport magma to higher in the lithosphere. Here we show, using zircon U-Pb dating and petrological analyses, that partial melting occurred at 228-219 Myr ago, shortly after peak metamorphism at 230 Myr ago. The melts and residues are complimentarily enriched and depleted in light rare earth element (LREE) compared with the original rock. Partial melting of deeply subducted eclogite is an important process in determining the rheological structure and mechanical behaviour of subducted lithosphere and its rapid exhumation, controlling the flow of deep lithospheric material, and for generation of melts from the upper mantle, potentially contributing to arc magmatism and growth of continental crust.

  16. High temperature lithium cells with solid polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Singh, Mohit

    2017-03-07

    Electrochemical cells that use electrolytes made from new polymer compositions based on poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and other high-softening-temperature polymers are disclosed. These materials have a microphase domain structure that has an ionically-conductive phase and a phase with good mechanical strength and a high softening temperature. In one arrangement, the structural block has a softening temperature of about 210.degree. C. These materials can be made with either homopolymers or with block copolymers. Such electrochemical cells can operate safely at higher temperatures than have been possible before, especially in lithium cells. The ionic conductivity of the electrolytes increases with increasing temperature.

  17. High temperature lubricant screening and systems studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Four candidate lubricants for next generation aircraft gas turbine application were tested under open atmosphere conditions in a rig simulating an advanced engine 125 mm bore mainshaft thrust bearing position. Testing was conducted at speeds to 24,000 rpm (3,000,000 bearing DN), bearing ring temperature of 500 F, and with 1200 F air and 100 psi differential pressure across the seals installed in a dual tandem arrangement. Test bearing was a 125 mm bore split inner ring, outer race riding angular contact ball bearing under a 3280 lb. thrust load. One lubricant, a type 2 ester, performed extremely well. The mainshaft seal limited the performance. Numerous design improvements for this seal were indicated.

  18. Predicting Interdiffusion in High Temperature Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.E.Morral

    2005-01-01

    Interdiffusion can be a major cause of failure in coated parts that see service at elevated temperatures. Ways to measure the extent of interdiffusion and mathematical equations for predicting these measures are given. The equations are based on the error function solution to the diffusion equation and do not take into account variations of the diffusivity with composition. Also, when the substrate of the coating is multiphase, the equations do not take into account the precipitate morphology, but do take into account that precipitates can act as sinks or sources of solute as the average composition of the substrate varies. The equations are meant to be alloy design tools that indicate how changing substrate or coating chemistry will reduce the extent of interdiffusion.

  19. High temperature performance of polymer composites

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The authors explain the changes in the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of polymer composites under elevated temperatures and fire conditions. Using microscale physical and chemical concepts they allow researchers to find reliable solutions to their engineering needs on the macroscale. In a unique combination of experimental results and quantitative models, a framework is developed to realistically predict the behavior of a variety of polymer composite materials over a wide range of thermal and mechanical loads. In addition, the authors treat extreme fire scenarios up to more than 1000°C for two hours, presenting heat-protection methods to improve the fire resistance of composite materials and full-scale structural members, and discuss their performance after fire exposure. Thanks to the microscopic approach, the developed models are valid for a variety of polymer composites and structural members, making this work applicable to a wide audience, including materials scientists, polymer chemist...

  20. Memory effect in the high-temperature superconducting bulks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing-Yi, E-mail: zhangxingyi@lzu.edu.cn; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, You-He

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Effects of temperature cycles on levitation force relaxation are investigated. •Memory effect of the YBCO bulks is observed in experiments. •With an increase of temperature, memory of the superconductor is gradually lost. -- Abstract: We present an experimental investigation of the relaxation of vertical force components in a high-temperature superconducting levitation system with different temperature cycle processes. For a selected ambient temperature (T{sub 1}) of the system, the experimental results show that the relaxations of the levitation forces are strongly dependent on the initial temperature. When the sample was submitted to temperature jumps around T{sub 1}, the sample temperature was regulated at T{sub 2}, and there were two cases of the experiments, ΔT = T{sub 2} − T{sub 1} < 0 (negative temperature cycle) and ΔT > 0 (positive temperature cycle). It was found that in the case of negative temperature cycle, the superconducting samples have memory effect. And for the positive temperature cycle, with the experimental temperature increase, the memory effect of samples is gradually losing. Additionally, with the increase of temperature, the influences of the negative and positive temperature cycle on the levitation force relaxation are unsymmetrical. All the results are interpreted by using the characteristics of the free energy ‘ground’ plot of the Spin-glasses qualitatively.

  1. High temperature static strain gage development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, C. O.; Bailey, R. S.; Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Final results are presented from a program to develop a thin film static strain gage for use on the blades and vanes of running, test stand gas turbine engines with goals of an 3 x 3 mm gage area and total errors of less than 10 pct. of + or - 2,000 microstrain after 50 hrs at 1250 K. Pd containing 13 Wt. pct. Cr was previously identified as a new strain sensor alloy that appeared to be potentially usable to 1250 K. Subsequently, it was discovered, in contrast with its behavior in bulk, that Pd-13Cr suffered from oxidation attack when prepared as a 4.5 micron thick thin film. Continuing problems with electrical leakage to the substrate and the inability of sputtered alumina overcoats to prevent oxidation led to the discovery that sputtered alumina contains appreciable amounts of entrapped argon. After the argon has been exsolved by heating to elevated temperatures, the alumina films undergo a linear shrinkage of about 2 pct. resulting in formation of cracks. These problems can be largely overcome by sputtering the alumina with the substrate heated to 870 K. With 2 micron thick hot sputtered alumina insulation and overcoat films, total 50 hr drifts of about 100 microstrain (2 tests) and about 500 microstrain (1 test) were observed at 1000 and 1100 K, respectively. Results of tests on complete strain gage systems on constant moment bend bars with Pd temperature compensation grids revealed that oxidation of the Pd grid was a major problem even when the grid was overcoated with a hot or cold sputtered alumina overcoat.

  2. NASA space applications of high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Sokoloski, Martin M.; Aron, Paul R.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    1992-01-01

    The application of superconducting technology in space has been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. The only means of attaining these temperatures has been with cryogenic fluids which severely limits mission lifetime. The development of materials with superconducting transition temperatures (T sub c) above 77 K has made superconducting technology more attractive and feasible for employment in aerospace systems. Potential applications of high-temperature superconducting technology in cryocoolers and remote sensing, communications, and power systems are discussed.

  3. NASA Space applications of high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Vernon O.; Sokoloski, Martin M.; Aron, Paul R.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Connolly, Denis J.

    1992-01-01

    The application of superconducting technology in space has been limited by the requirement of cooling to near liquid helium temperatures. The only means of obtaining these temperatures has been with cryogenic fluids which severely limit mission lifetime. The development of materials with superconducting transition temperatures above 77 K has made superconducting technology more attractive and feasible for employment in aerospace systems. Here, potential applications of high temperature superconducting technology in cryocoolers, remote sensing, communications, and power systems are discussed.

  4. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a well-established need for more sensitive detectors in the 10 - 200 um wavelength range with high detectivity, D*>1010 cm-Hz1/2/W to increase the...

  5. High Work Output Ni-Ti-Pt High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys and Associated Processing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebe, Ronald D. (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V. (Inventor); Garg, Anita (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    According to the invention, compositions of Ni-Ti-Pt high temperature, high force, shape memory alloys are disclosed that have transition temperatures above 100 C.; have narrow hysteresis; and produce a high specific work output.

  6. Review on permeability of high-strength concrete subjected to high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongfu; Han, Xiao; Liu, Yuchen

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the research results of permeability of high-strength concrete subjected to high temperature were comprehensively reviewed, the research status of permeability of high-strength concrete at elevated temperature were discussed, and existing problems were analyzed, finally, main research directions of permeability of high-strength concrete subjected to high temperature were forecasted.

  7. Photochemistry at high temperatures - potential of ZnO as a high temperature photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubnell, M.; Beaud, P.; Kamber, I. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Direct conversion of solar radiation into useful, storeable and transportable chemical products is the primary goal of solar chemistry. In this paper we discuss some fundamental aspects of photochemistry at elevated temperatures. We show that luminescence can serve as an indicator of the potential use of a system as a photoconverter. As an example we present experimental data on the chemical potential and on the lifetime of the excited states of ZnO. The low luminescence quantum yield together with a lifetime of about 200 ps indicate that an efficient photochemical conversion on ZnO is highly improbable. We believe this to be a general feature of chemical systems based on a semiconductor photocatalyst, in particular of photoreactions at a solid/gas interface. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs

  8. Passive Resistor Temperature Compensation for a High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zong; Liang, Ting; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Qi, Lei; Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wangwang; Zhang, Diya; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-07-22

    The main limitation of high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors is the variation of output voltage with operating temperature, which seriously reduces their measurement accuracy. This paper presents a passive resistor temperature compensation technique whose parameters are calculated using differential equations. Unlike traditional experiential arithmetic, the differential equations are independent of the parameter deviation among the piezoresistors of the microelectromechanical pressure sensor and the residual stress caused by the fabrication process or a mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients. The differential equations are solved using calibration data from uncompensated high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. Tests conducted on the calibrated equipment at various temperatures and pressures show that the passive resistor temperature compensation produces a remarkable effect. Additionally, a high-temperature signal-conditioning circuit is used to improve the output sensitivity of the sensor, which can be reduced by the temperature compensation. Compared to traditional experiential arithmetic, the proposed passive resistor temperature compensation technique exhibits less temperature drift and is expected to be highly applicable for pressure measurements in harsh environments with large temperature variations.

  9. Passive Resistor Temperature Compensation for a High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Yao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main limitation of high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors is the variation of output voltage with operating temperature, which seriously reduces their measurement accuracy. This paper presents a passive resistor temperature compensation technique whose parameters are calculated using differential equations. Unlike traditional experiential arithmetic, the differential equations are independent of the parameter deviation among the piezoresistors of the microelectromechanical pressure sensor and the residual stress caused by the fabrication process or a mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients. The differential equations are solved using calibration data from uncompensated high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. Tests conducted on the calibrated equipment at various temperatures and pressures show that the passive resistor temperature compensation produces a remarkable effect. Additionally, a high-temperature signal-conditioning circuit is used to improve the output sensitivity of the sensor, which can be reduced by the temperature compensation. Compared to traditional experiential arithmetic, the proposed passive resistor temperature compensation technique exhibits less temperature drift and is expected to be highly applicable for pressure measurements in harsh environments with large temperature variations.

  10. CO2 content of andesitic melts at graphite-saturated upper mantle conditions with implications for redox state of oceanic basalt source regions and remobilization of reduced carbon from subducted eclogite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, James; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2017-03-01

    We have performed experiments to determine the effects of pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity on the CO2 contents in nominally anhydrous andesitic melts at graphite saturation. The andesite composition was specifically chosen to match a low-degree partial melt composition that is generated from MORB-like eclogite in the convective, oceanic upper mantle. Experiments were performed at 1-3 GPa, 1375-1550 °C, and fO2 of FMQ -3.2 to FMQ -2.3 and the resulting experimental glasses were analyzed for CO2 and H2O contents using FTIR and SIMS. Experimental results were used to develop a thermodynamic model to predict CO2 content of nominally anhydrous andesitic melts at graphite saturation. Fitting of experimental data returned thermodynamic parameters for dissolution of CO2 as molecular CO2: ln( K 0) = -21.79 ± 0.04, Δ V 0 = 32.91 ± 0.65 cm3mol-1, Δ H 0 = 107 ± 21 kJ mol-1, and dissolution of CO2 as CO3 2-: ln (K 0 ) = -21.38 ± 0.08, Δ V 0 = 30.66 ± 1.33 cm3 mol-1, Δ H 0 = 42 ± 37 kJ mol-1, where K 0 is the equilibrium constant at some reference pressure and temperature, Δ V 0 is the volume change of reaction, and Δ H 0 is the enthalpy change of reaction. The thermodynamic model was used along with trace element partition coefficients to calculate the CO2 contents and CO2/Nb ratios resulting from the mixing of a depleted MORB and the partial melt of a graphite-saturated eclogite. Comparison with natural MORB and OIB data suggests that the CO2 contents and CO2/Nb ratios of CO2-enriched oceanic basalts cannot be produced by mixing with partial melts of graphite-saturated eclogite. Instead, they must be produced by melting of a source containing carbonate. This result places a lower bound on the oxygen fugacity for the source region of these CO2-enriched basalts, and suggests that fO2 measurements made on cratonic xenoliths may not be applicable to the convecting upper mantle. CO2-depleted basalts, on the other hand, are consistent with mixing between

  11. The role of creep in high temperature low cycle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, S. S.; Halford, G. R.; Spera, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    The significance of the role that creep can play in governing high-temperature, low-cycle fatigue resistance is investigated by conducting strain cycling tests on two high-temperature stainless steel alloys and making concurrent measurements of stress, temperature, and strain at various frequencies. The results are then analyzed in terms of damage imposed by creep and fatigue components. It is shown that creep can play an important and sometimes dominant role in low cycle fatigue at high temperatures. The results of the study include the findings that: (1) the simple life-fraction theory described is adequate for calculating creep damage when the cyclic creep rupture curve is used as a basis for analysis; (2) a method of universal slopes originally developed for room temperature use is sufficiently accurate at high temperature to be used to calculate pure fatigue damage; and (3) a linear creep-fatigue damage rule can explain the transitions observed from one failure mode to another.

  12. Design of High Precision Temperature Measurement System based on Labview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the LabVIEW software platform, a high precision temperature measuring device is designed based on the principle of the thermocouple. The system uses the STM32 MCU as the main control chip, using AD7076 analog digital converter. The converter has 8 channel, synchronous sampling, and bipolar input. Improving the precision of temperature measurement by cold end compensation, fitting and other measures. The test results show that, the device temperature measurement precision can reach ±0.1 °C, has the advantages of small size, high precision, and reliable performance, this high precision temperature measurement can be widely used in industrial production.

  13. PMR Resin Compositions For High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments to identify polymer matrix resins suitable for making graphite-fiber laminates used at 700 degree F (371 degree C) in such applications as aircraft engines to achieve higher thrust-to-weight ratios. Two particular high-molecular-weight formulations of PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) resins most promising. PMR compositions of higher FMW exhibit enhanced thermo-oxidative stability. Formation of high-quality laminates with these compositions requires use of curing pressures higher than those suitable for compositions of lower FMW.

  14. (abstract) Cassini MLI Balnkets High-Temperature Exposure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Edward I.; Stultz, James W.

    1995-01-01

    The trajectory required for the Cassini spacecraft to reach Saturn will subject the spacecraft to a 0.61 AU temperature environment at perihelion. Temperatures on some sunlit blanket surfaces at 0.61 AU can reach levels that are beyond the service capability of the conventional Mylar/Dacron net MLI. The majority of the blanket surfaces, however, will experience temperatures with an upper bound of 250(deg) C. The maximum allowable temperature for Mylar/Dacron net is determined to be 220(deg)C. Kapton can withstand temperatures in excess of 400(deg) C; however, the high cost of embossed Kapton relative to Mylar/Dacron net requires a baseline design which includes a standard layup and a high-temperature layup. The high-temperature layup is utilized at a limited number of locations, while at least 90% of the blankets are of the standard layup. The verification of both layups' capability to meet all temperature requirements has been accomplished by a comprehensive test program which addressed their high-temperature survivability, effective emittance, and optical and electrical properties. This paper focuses on the high-temperature exposure tests which helped define the hybrid standard layup, and which demonstrated the adequacy of both layups in withstanding their respective thermal environments.

  15. Tracy-Widom at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allez, Romain; Dumaz, Laure

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the marginal distribution of the bottom eigenvalues of the stochastic Airy operator when the inverse temperature tends to . We prove that the minimal eigenvalue, whose fluctuations are governed by the Tracy-Widom law, converges weakly, when properly centered and scaled, to the Gumbel distribution. More generally we obtain the convergence in law of the marginal distribution of any eigenvalue with given index . Those convergences are obtained after a careful analysis of the explosion times process of the Riccati diffusion associated to the stochastic Airy operator. We show that the empirical measure of the explosion times converges weakly to a Poisson point process using estimates proved in Dumaz and Virág (Ann Inst H Poincaré Probab Statist 49(4):915-933, 2013). We further compute the empirical eigenvalue density of the stochastic Airy ensemble on the macroscopic scale when . As an application, we investigate the maximal eigenvalues statistics of -ensembles when the repulsion parameter when . We study the double scaling limit and argue with heuristic and numerical arguments that the statistics of the marginal distributions can be deduced following the ideas of Edelman and Sutton (J Stat Phys 127(6):1121-1165, 2007) and Ramírez et al. (J Am Math Soc 24:919-944, 2011) from our later study of the stochastic Airy operator.

  16. Electron beam damage in high temperature polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. (Dayton Univ., OH (USA). Research Inst.); Adams, W.W. (Air Force Materials Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies of polymers are limited due to beam damage. Two concerns are the damage mechanism in a particular material, and the maximum dose for a material before damage effects are observed. From the knowledge of the dose required for damage to the polymer structure, optimum parameters for electron microscopy imaging can be determined. In the present study, electron beam damage of polymers has been quantified by monitoring changes in the diffraction intensity as a function of electron dose. The beam damage characteristics of the following polymers were studied: poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBZT); poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO); poly(benzoxazole) (ABPBO); poly(benzimidazole) (ABPBI); poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA); and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Previously published literature results on polyethylene (PE), polyoxymethylene (POM), nylon-6, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PBZT, PPTA, PPX, iPS, poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), and poly(phenylene sulphide) (PPS) were reviewed. This study demonstrates the strong dependence of the electron beam resistivity of a polymer on its thermal stability/melt temperature. (author).

  17. High-temperature corrosion of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Cho, W.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Iron aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in fossil energy systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve their engineering ductility. This paper describes results from an ongoing program to evaluate the corrosion performance of these alloys. The experimental program at Argonne involves thermogravimetric analyses of alloys exposed to environments that simulate coal gasification and coal combustion. Corrosion experiments were conducted to determine the effect of gas flow rate and different levels of HCl at a gas temperature of 650 C on three heats of aluminide material, namely, FA 61, FA 129, and FAX. In addition, specimens of Type 316 stainless steel with an overlay alloying of iron aluminide were prepared by electrospark deposition and tested for their corrosion resistance. Detailed microstructural evaluations of tested specimens were performed. Results are used to assess the corrosion resistance of various iron aluminides for service in fossil energy systems that utilize coal as a feedstock.

  18. TEPIC -- A new high temperature structural foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods; M. L. Tootle; C. L. Neuschwanger

    1998-10-01

    The formulation, processing characteristics, microstructure and mechanical properties of a new structural foam, suitable for use at service temperatures up to 200 C, are reported. In each of these respects, the foam is compared to an existing material, called APO-BMI that is currently in use. When these two foams are directly compared, the new foam, called TEPIC, is found to be superior in its mechanical performance. TEPIC is formulated from a non-carcinogenic isocyanate, a di-functional epoxide, and glass microballoons. The authors' approach was to combine chemistries known to form thermally stable products. The principal polymerization products are an oxizolidinone produced by the reaction of the isocyanate with the epoxide and isocyanurate rings formed by the trimerization of the isocyanate. Processing has been examined and large-scale production is discussed in detail. Compared to APO-BMI processing, TEPIC processing is facile and economical. The structure of the foam resembles a traditional rigid polyurethane foam rather than that of the APO-BMI. That is, the foam is comprised of a continuous resin phase rather than weakly bonded glass microballoons. At a density of 0.42 g/cm{sup 3} or greater, maximum pore size in TEPIC was less than 2 mm, as required for the application.

  19. Effect of high temperatures on gypsum paste and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejsová, Jitka; Doleželová, Magdalena; Vimmrová, Alena

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the influence of high temperatures on some physical and mechanical properties of gypsum mixtures. Two gypsum mixtures were designed, first one was composed of gypsum and citric acid and the second one contained standardized sand also. The samples were exposed to temperatures from 50°C to 1000°C. Results show, that strength changes caused by high temperatures are significant in both mixtures and that the thermal shrinkage is reduced by adding sand to a gypsum mixture.

  20. Ohmic Contacts for High Temperature Integrated Circuits in Silicon Carbide

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In electrical devices and integrated circuits, ohmic contacts are necessary and a prerequisite for the current transport over the metal-semiconductor junctions. At the same time, a desired property of the ohmic contacts is to not add resistance or in other way disturb the performance. For high temperature electronics, the material demands are high regarding functionality and stability at elevated working temperatures, during and after temperature cycling and during long time of use.  Silicon ...

  1. Physics of High Temperature, Dense Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    34Investigation of the High-Energy Acceleration Mode in the Coaxial Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S28, (1964). I. 9. Dattner, A. and Eninger J...34Studies of a Coaxial Plasma Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S41, (1964). II. 10. Wilcox, J. M., Pugh, E., Dattner, A. and Eninger , J., "Experimental Study of

  2. Grain boundaries in high temperature superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Mannhart, J.

    2002-01-01

    Since the first days of high-Tc superconductivity, the materials science and the physics of grain boundaries in superconducting compounds have developed into fascinating fields of research. Unique electronic properties, different from those of the grain boundaries in conventional metallic

  3. InGaN High Temperature Photovoltaic Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this Phase II project are to develop InGaN photovoltaic cells for high temperature and/or high radiation environments to TRL 4 and to define the...

  4. Research On Bi-Based High-Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Curtis; Doane, George B., III; Golben, John

    1993-01-01

    Brief report describes effects of melt sintering on Bi-based high-temperature superconductor system, as well as use of vibrating-sample magnetometer to determine hysteresis curves at 77 K for partially melt-sintered samples. Also discussed is production of high-temperature superconducting thin films by laser ablation: such films potentially useful in detection of signals of very low power.

  5. High Temperature Magnetics for Power Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    complex zig zag cutout shown earlier. On the secondary, 3 layers at a time were folded. Folds alternated in direction to even out overall foil...ingredients were mixed in a high-shear blender, calcined at 900°C in air, and ground in a stirred ball mill for 2 hours to an average particle size of...approximately 1 micron. Various organic binders and dispersants were added at the milling step to enhance particle size reduction and improve pressing

  6. Unraveling eclogite-facies fluid-rock interaction using thermodynamic modelling and whole-rock experiments: the in-situ eclogitization of metapelites from Val Savenca (Sesia Zone, Western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, Marie; Tropper, Peter

    2015-04-01

    A common feature of HP and UHP terranes is the subduction of crustal rocks to great depths. Previous investigations have shown that this process is triggered by fluids present during an eclogite-facies metamorphic overprint. An examples is exposed in the metapelites at Val Savenca in the Sesia-Lanzo Zone, Italy where Alpine eclogite-facies metamorphism and fluid flow led to partial transformation of Variscan amphibolite-eclogite facies metapelites (garnet + biotite + sillimanite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz) to zoisite ± jadeite + kyanite + phengite + quartz. This transformation took place under P-T conditions of 1.7 - 2.1 GPa at 600°C and low a(H2O) of 0.3-0.6. The replacement of plagioclase by jadeite + zoisite + kyanite + quartz takes place also along former fractures. Biotite is replaced by the assemblage phengite + omphacite ± kyanite adjacent to former plagioclase, otherwise by phengite + rutile/titanite. Garnet and clinopyroxene show variable compositions depending in which micro-domain (plagioclase or biotite) they grew. The extreme development of microdomains can best be studied by thermodynamic pseudosection modelling of individual microdomains using stoichiometric mixtures of protolith minerals from this domain and the program DOMINO (De Capitani & Petrakakis, 2010). The aim of these calculations was: 1.) to reproduce the observed mineral assemblage and 2.) to provide constraints on the amount of fluid present in the transformation. The results so far indicate that the amount of fluid was very low, otherwise paragonite would have formed instead of jadeite and reproduction of the observed mineral assemblage has only been partly successful so far since biotite is still stable in the calculations. In addition to understand the role of fluids in the mineralogical and textural transformation piston-cylinder experiments with a fresh, natural orthogneiss granulite from the Moldanubic Unit in upper Austria with the assemblage garnet + biotite + K

  7. Dynamic High-Temperature Characterization of an Iridium Alloy in Compression at High Strain Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Bo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Environment Simulation Dept.; Nelson, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.; Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology Dept.; Bignell, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis Dept.; Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program; George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    2014-06-01

    Iridium alloys have superior strength and ductility at elevated temperatures, making them useful as structural materials for certain high-temperature applications. However, experimental data on their high-temperature high-strain-rate performance are needed for understanding high-speed impacts in severe elevated-temperature environments. Kolsky bars (also called split Hopkinson bars) have been extensively employed for high-strain-rate characterization of materials at room temperature, but it has been challenging to adapt them for the measurement of dynamic properties at high temperatures. Current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar techniques are not capable of obtaining satisfactory high-temperature high-strain-rate stress-strain response of thin iridium specimens investigated in this study. We analyzed the difficulties encountered in high-temperature Kolsky compression bar testing of thin iridium alloy specimens. Appropriate modifications were made to the current high-temperature Kolsky compression bar technique to obtain reliable compressive stress-strain response of an iridium alloy at high strain rates (300 – 10000 s-1) and temperatures (750°C and 1030°C). Uncertainties in such high-temperature high-strain-rate experiments on thin iridium specimens were also analyzed. The compressive stress-strain response of the iridium alloy showed significant sensitivity to strain rate and temperature.

  8. Probing High Temperature Superconductors with Magnetometry in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lu [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-07-26

    The objective of this research is to investigate the high-field magnetic properties of high temperature superconductors, materials that conduct electricity without loss. A technique known as high-resolution torque magnetometry that was developed to directly measure the magnetization of high temperature superconductors. This technique was implemented using the 65 Tesla pulsed magnetic field facility that is part of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research addressed unanswered questions about the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity, determine the electronic structure of high temperature superconductors, and shed light on the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity and on potential applications of these materials in areas such as energy generation and power transmission. Further applications of the technology resolve the novel physical phenomena such as correlated topological insulators, and spin liquid state in quantum magnets.

  9. High temperature metal and ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Dicarlo, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Materials Division at NASA Lewis is engaged in research and development efforts on behalf of fiber-reinforced composite materials that are lighter, stiffer, and more structurally reliable than conventional monolithic alloys and ceramics in applications that range from the cryogenic to the refractory. Attention is presently given to metal matrix composites, in which high performance depends on stiff, strong and thermally stable large diameter fibers, with chemically stable interfacial bonding and good coefficient of thermal expansion matching between fibers and matrices, and to ceramic matrix composites, in which intermediate strength interfacial bonds must allow cracks to propagate through the matrix only, while retaining good load transfer characteristics between fiber and matrix.

  10. Rare—Earth Element Geochemistry of Elogites from the Ultra—High Pressure Metamorphic Belt in Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智龙; 刘丛强; 等

    2000-01-01

    Based on their REE contents and REE patterns,eclogites from the ultra-high pressure metamorphic belt in central China may be roughly divided into xis types including LREE-rich.LREE-rich+positive Eu anomaly,LREE-rich+negative Eu anomaly,REE pattern-smooth,MREE-rich and HREE-rich.The LREE_rich,LREE-rich+positive Eu anomaly and LREE-rich+negative Eu anomaly types of eclogites are dominant .REE types of eclogites in different areas can be compared and the REE feactures of the same REE type of eclogites in different areas are similar.The results of reconstruction of the primary rocks show that the primary rocks of eclogites possibly are dominated by continental tholeiites which are the product of partial melting of relatively fertile mantle and the rocks of tholeiite crystallization-differentiation.There is perfect evolution relationship among the primary rocks of the LREE-rich, LREE-rich+positive Eu anomaly and LREE-rich+negative Eu anomaly types of eclogites and among those of the REE pattern smooth and MREE-rich types of eclogites,the former three types were deried from continental settings and the latter two from nearly oceanic settings.Meanwhile,it is concluded that the mantle sources of primary rocks of the eclogites are inhomogeneous and the primary rocks of eclogites in this area appear to have undergone varying degree of crustal contamination.

  11. A Delay Time Measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) for a High Temperature Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Sang Baik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The temperature measurement of very high temperature core melt is of importance in a high temperature as the molten pool experiment in which gap formation between core melt and the reactor lower head, and the effect of the gap on thermal behavior are to be measured. The existing temperature measurement techniques have some problems, which the thermocouple, one of the contact methods, is restricted to under 2000 .deg. C, and the infrared thermometry, one of the non-contact methods, is unable to measure an internal temperature and very sensitive to the interference from reacted gases. In order to solve these problems, the delay time technique of ultrasonic wavelets due to high temperature has two sorts of stage. As a first stage, a delay time measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) is suggested. As a second stage, a molten material temperature was measured up to 2300 .deg. C. Also, the optimization design of the UTS (ultrasonic temperature sensor) with persistence at the high temperature was suggested in this paper. And the utilization of the theory suggested in this paper and the efficiency of the developed system are performed by special equipment and some experiments supported by KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science)

  12. Analysis of the high-temperature particulate collection problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razgaitis, R.

    1977-10-01

    Particulate agglomeration and separation at high temperatures and pressures are examined, with particular emphasis on the unique features of the direct-cycle application of fluidized-bed combustion. The basic long-range mechanisms of aerosol separation are examined, and the effects of high temperature and high pressure on usable collection techniques are assessed. Primary emphasis is placed on those avenues that are not currently attracting widespread research. The high-temperature, particulate-collection problem is surveyed, together with the peculiar requirements associated with operation of turbines with particulate-bearing gas streams. 238 references.

  13. Ultra high temperature particle bed reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans; Perkins, K.; Powell, J.

    1990-01-01

    A direct nuclear propulsion engine which could be used for a mission to Mars is designed. The main features of this reactor design are high values for I(sub sp) and very efficient cooling. This particle bed reactor consists of 37 cylindrical fuel elements embedded in a cylinder of beryllium which acts as a moderator and reflector. The fuel consists of a packed bed of spherical fissionable fuel particles. Gaseous H2 passes over the fuel bed, removes the heat, and is exhausted out of the rocket. The design was found to be neutronically critical and to have tolerable heating rates. Therefore, this particle bed reactor design is suitable as a propulsion unit for this mission.

  14. High-temperature superconductor antenna investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasack, Vincent G.

    1990-10-01

    The use of superconductors to increase antenna radiation efficiency and gain is examined. Although the gain of all normal-metal antennas can be increased through the use of superconductors, some structures have greater potential for practical improvement than others. Some structures suffer a great degradation in bandwidth when replaced with superconductors, while for others the improvement in efficiency is trivial due to the minimal contribution of the conductor loss mechanism to the total losses, or the already high efficiency of the structure. The following antennas and related structures are discussed: electrically small antennas, impedance matching of antennas, microstrip antennas, microwave and millimeter-wave antenna arrays, and superdirective arrays. The greatest potential practical improvements occur for large microwave and millimeter-wave arrays and the impedance matching of antennas.

  15. High Temperature Corrosion on Biodust Firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi

    The high content of alkali metals and chlorine in biomass gives rise to fouling/slagging and corrosion of heat exchange components, such as superheaters, in biomass fired power plants. Increasing the lifetime of these components, and in addition, preventing unwarranted plant shutdowns due...... to their failure, requires understanding of the complex corrosion mechanisms, as well as development of materials that are resistant to corrosion under biomass firing conditions, thereby motivating the current work. To understand the mechanisms of corrosion attack, comprehensive analysis of corrosion products...... was necessary. In the present work, two complementary methodologies based on analysis of cross sections and plan views were applied to achieve comprehensive characterization of corrosion products. The suitability of these methods for both laboratory scale and full scale corrosion investigations was demonstrated...

  16. Method And Apparatus For Evaluatin Of High Temperature Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ilya M.; Kino, Gordon S.

    1996-11-12

    A technique for evaluation of high-T.sub.c superconducting films and single crystals is based on measurement of temperature dependence of differential optical reflectivity of high-T.sub.c materials. In the claimed method, specific parameters of the superconducting transition such as the critical temperature, anisotropy of the differential optical reflectivity response, and the part of the optical losses related to sample quality are measured. The apparatus for performing this technique includes pump and probe sources, cooling means for sweeping sample temperature across the critical temperature and polarization controller for controlling a state of polarization of a probe light beam.

  17. Study of high temperature phase of sulphoaluminate for desulfuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J.; Yang, T.; Cheng, J.; Cao, X.; Cen, K. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). National Key Lab of MOE Clean Energy and Environment Engineering

    2003-06-01

    This paper has studied systematically the formation mechanism of the high temperature stable phase of sulphoaluminate. The effect on high temperature sulfur fixation by factors such as the combustion temperature, retention period, the mixing ratio of the compound and additives was systematically investigated and the formation mechanism was analysed. The experimental results indicate that the largest amount of sulphoaluminate was produced at a temperature of 1300{sup o}C and with a mixing ratio of 3:3:1. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Topological susceptibility at high temperature on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Frison, J; Matsufuru, H; Mori, S; Yamada, N

    2016-01-01

    QCD topological susceptibility at high temperature, $\\chi_t(T)$, provides an important input for the estimate of the axion abundance in the present Universe. While the model independent determination of $\\chi_t(T)$ should be possible from the first principles using lattice QCD, existing methods fail at high temperature, since not only the probability that non-trivial topological sectors appear in the configuration generation process but also the local topological fluctuations get strongly suppressed. We propose a novel method to calculate the temperature dependence of topological susceptibility at high temperature. A feasibility test is performed on a small lattice in the quenched approximation, and the results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation. It is found that the method works well especially at very high temperature and the result is consistent with the instanton calculus down to $T\\sim 2\\, T_c$ within the statistical uncertainty.

  19. Topological susceptibility at high temperature on the lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, J.; Kitano, R.; Matsufuru, H.; Mori, S.; Yamada, N.

    2016-09-01

    QCD topological susceptibility at high temperature, χ t ( T ), provides an important input for the estimate of the axion abundance in the present Universe. While the model independent determination of χ t ( T ) should be possible from the first principles using lattice QCD, existing methods fail at high temperature, since not only the probability that non-trivial topological sectors appear in the configuration generation process but also the local topological fluctuations get strongly suppressed. We propose a novel method to calculate the temperature dependence of topological susceptibility at high temperature. A feasibility test is performed on a small lattice in the quenched approximation, and the results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation. It is found that the method works well especially at very high temperature and the result is consistent with the instanton calculus down to T ˜ 2 T c within the statistical uncertainty.

  20. Shape memory polymers with high and low temperature resistant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinli; Kong, Deyan; Qiu, Xueying; Zhang, Wenbo; Liu, Yanju; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Fenghua; Hu, Yang; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-09-01

    High temperature shape memory polymers that can withstand the harsh temperatures for durable applications are synthesized, and the aromatic polyimide chains with flexible linkages within the backbone act as reversible phase. High molecular weight (Mn) is demanded to form physical crosslinks as fixed phase of thermoplastic shape memory polyimide, and the relationship between Mn and glass transition temperature (Tg) is explored. Thermoset shape memory polyimide shows higher Tg and storage modulus, better shape fixity than thermoplastic counterpart due to the low-density covalent crosslinking, and the influence of crosslinking on physical properties are studied. The mechanism of high temperature shape memory effects based on chain flexibility, molecular weight and crosslink density is proposed. Exposure to thermal cycling from +150 °C to -150 °C for 200 h produces negligible effect on the properties of the shape memory polyimide, and the possible mechanism of high and low temperature resistant property is discussed.