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Sample records for high sympathetic tone

  1. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

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    Ken Watanabe

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz to high (0.15-0.40 Hz frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  2. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  3. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

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    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  4. P2 receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems modulating sympathetic vasomotor tone.

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    Ralevic, V

    2000-07-01

    Arterial pressure depends on the level of activity of sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to blood vessels. This activity is generated in the central nervous system, and involves inputs from a variety of brain regions projecting to sympathetic preganglionic neurones. Of especial interest are a group of neurones in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), as they have been demonstrated to have a fundamental role in reflex regulation of the cardiovascular system, and in generation of tonic drive to sympathetic outflow. Sympathetic outflow to blood vessels is additionally modulated at sympathetic ganglia, and at the peripheral terminals of sympathetic nerves. This review considers the role of P2 purine receptors in this neural pathway. Ionotropic P2X receptors are expressed in the RVLM, in sympathetic ganglia, and at the sympathetic neuromuscular junction, and mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission, indicating a general role for ATP as a regulator of sympathetic vasomotor tone. P2Y receptors couple to G proteins and mediate slower signalling to ATP; they have been reported to inhibit prejunctionally neurotransmission at the peripheral terminals of sympathetic nerves, but little is known about their possible role in the central nervous system and in sympathetic ganglia.

  5. FAVORABLE OUTCOME IN IDIOPATHIC VENTRICULAR-FIBRILLATION WITH TREATMENT AIMED AT PREVENTION OF HIGH SYMPATHETIC TONE AND SUPPRESSION OF INDUCIBLE ARRHYTHMIAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CRIJNS, HJGM; WIESFELD, ACP; POSMA, JL; LIE, KI

    1995-01-01

    Objective-In the absence of an obvious cause for cardiac arrest, patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation are difficult to manage. A subset of patients has inducible arrhythmias. In others sympathetic excitation plays a role in the onset of the cardiac arrest. This study evaluates a prospec

  6. Raised tone reveals ATP as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in the porcine mesenteric arterial bed.

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    Shatarat, Amjad; Dunn, William R; Ralevic, Vera

    2014-12-01

    The relative importance of ATP as a functional sympathetic neurotransmitter in blood vessels has been shown to be increased when the level of preexisting vascular tone or pressure is increased, in studies carried out in rat mesenteric arteries. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tone influences the involvement of ATP as a sympathetic cotransmitter with noradrenaline in another species. We used the porcine perfused mesenteric arterial bed and porcine mesenteric large, medium and small arteries mounted for isometric tension recording, because purinergic cotransmission can vary depending on the size of the blood vessel. In the perfused mesenteric bed at basal tone, sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses were abolished by prazosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, but there was no significant effect of α,β-methylene ATP, a P2X receptor-desensitizing agent. Submaximal precontraction of the mesenteric arterial bed with U46619, a thromboxane A2 mimetic, augmented the sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses; under these conditions, both α,β-methylene ATP and prazosin attenuated the neurogenic responses. In the mesenteric large, medium and small arteries, prazosin attenuated the sympathetic neurogenic contractile responses under conditions of both basal and U46619-raised tone. α,β-Methylene ATP was effective in all of these arteries only under conditions of U46619-induced tone, causing a similar inhibition in all arteries, but had no significant effect on sympathetic neurogenic contractions at basal tone. These data show that ATP is a cotransmitter with noradrenaline in porcine mesenteric arteries; the purinergic component was revealed under conditions of partial precontraction, which is more relevant to physiological conditions.

  7. Control of pineal indole biosynthesis by changes in sympathetic tone caused by factors other than environmental lighting.

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    Lynch, H. J.; Eng, J. P.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of experimental investigations showing that, in addition to environmental lighting, other manipulations known to modify sympathetic tone can also modify pineal indole biosynthesis. Comparable alterations in sympathetic tone that occur in response to activity or feeding cycles may be instrumental in generating the pineal rhythms that persist in the absence of light-dark cycle.

  8. White Matter Changes Associated with Resting Sympathetic Tone in Frontotemporal Dementia vs. Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario F Mendez

    Full Text Available Resting sympathetic tone, a measure of physiological arousal, is decreased in patients with apathy and inertia, such as those with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD and other frontally-predominant disorders.To identify the neuroanatomical correlates of skin conductance levels (SCLs, an index of resting sympathetic tone and apathy, among patients with bvFTD, where SCLs is decreased, compared to those with Alzheimer's disease (AD, where it is not.This study analyzed bvFTD (n = 14 patients and a comparison group with early-onset AD (n = 19. We compared their resting SCLs with gray matter and white matter regions of interest and white matter measures of fiber integrity on magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging.As expected, bvFTD patients, compared to AD patients, had lower SCLs, which correlated with an apathy measure, and more gray matter loss and abnormalities of fiber integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity in frontal-anterior temporal regions. After controlling for group membership, the SCLs were significantly correlated with white matter volumes in the cingulum and inferior parietal region in the right hemisphere.Among dementia patients, SCLs, and resting sympathetic tone, may correlate with quantity of white matter, rather than with gray matter or with white matter fiber integrity. Loss of white matter volumes, especially involving a right frontoparietal network, may reflect chronic loss of cortical axons that mediate frontal control of resting sympathetic tone, changes that could contribute to the apathy and inertia of bvFTD and related disorders.

  9. Decreased adrenergic tone in acromegaly: evidence from direct recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity.

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    Seravalle, G; Carzaniga, C; Attanasio, R; Grassi, G; Lonati, L; Facchini, C; Cozzi, R; Fatti, L M; Montini, M; Vitale, G; Sciortino, G; Damanti, S; Brambilla, G; Cavagnini, F; Mancia, G; Scacchi, M

    2012-08-01

    Sympathovagal imbalance has been shown in acromegaly by indirect measurements of adrenergic tone. Data regarding direct measurement of sympathetic activity are lacking as yet. Aim of this study was to assess the adrenergic tone through direct recording of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in acromegalic patients. Fifteen patients (age 26-66 years, eight women) with newly diagnosed active acromegaly without hyperprolactinaemia, pituitary hormone deficiencies, obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiac hypertrophy, and 15 healthy subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index were recruited. After evaluating anthropometric and echocardiographic parameters, anterior pituitary function, glucose and lipid metabolism, and measuring plasma leptin, direct recording of sympathetic outflow via the microneurographic technique was performed. For similar anthropometric and metabolic parameters in patients and controls, HOMA index was significantly increased in the former (4·2 ± 2·39 vs 1·6 ± 0·19, P < 0·001). Surprisingly, this finding of insulin resistance was accompanied by a marked sympathetic inhibition (MSNA 18·3 ± 8·10 vs 37·3 ± 6·48 bursts/min, P < 0·0001, respectively in patients and controls). A reduction in plasma leptin (1·6 ± 1·04 vs 6·5 ± 2·01 μg/l, P < 0·0001) was also recorded in the patients. MSNA was positively correlated with leptin (P < 0·0001). Newly diagnosed acromegalic patients without cardiac hypertrophy display a decreased sympathetic outflow in spite of insulin resistance. This finding might be related to hypoleptinaemia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Highly sensitive index of sympathetic activity based on time-frequency spectral analysis of electrodermal activity.

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    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Álvaro D; Chon, Ki H

    2016-09-01

    Time-domain indices of electrodermal activity (EDA) have been used as a marker of sympathetic tone. However, they often show high variation between subjects and low consistency, which has precluded their general use as a marker of sympathetic tone. To examine whether power spectral density analysis of EDA can provide more consistent results, we recently performed a variety of sympathetic tone-evoking experiments (43). We found significant increase in the spectral power in the frequency range of 0.045 to 0.25 Hz when sympathetic tone-evoking stimuli were induced. The sympathetic tone assessed by the power spectral density of EDA was found to have lower variation and more sensitivity for certain, but not all, stimuli compared with the time-domain analysis of EDA. We surmise that this lack of sensitivity in certain sympathetic tone-inducing conditions with time-invariant spectral analysis of EDA may lie in its inability to characterize time-varying dynamics of the sympathetic tone. To overcome the disadvantages of time-domain and time-invariant power spectral indices of EDA, we developed a highly sensitive index of sympathetic tone, based on time-frequency analysis of EDA signals. Its efficacy was tested using experiments designed to elicit sympathetic dynamics. Twelve subjects underwent four tests known to elicit sympathetic tone arousal: cold pressor, tilt table, stand test, and the Stroop task. We hypothesize that a more sensitive measure of sympathetic control can be developed using time-varying spectral analysis. Variable frequency complex demodulation, a recently developed technique for time-frequency analysis, was used to obtain spectral amplitudes associated with EDA. We found that the time-varying spectral frequency band 0.08-0.24 Hz was most responsive to stimulation. Spectral power for frequencies higher than 0.24 Hz were determined to be not related to the sympathetic dynamics because they comprised less than 5% of the total power. The mean value of time

  11. Agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic tone by inhibiting N-type Ca(2+) channel activity via imidazoline I2 receptor activation.

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    Kim, Young-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Chung, Seungsoo

    2016-08-26

    Agmatine, a putative endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, suppresses cardiovascular function by inhibiting peripheral sympathetic tone. However, the molecular identity of imidazoline receptor subtypes and its cellular mechanism underlying the agmatine-induced sympathetic suppression remains unknown. Meanwhile, N-type Ca(2+) channels are important for the regulation of NA release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, it is possible that agmatine suppresses NA release in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx through N-type Ca(2+) channels. We tested this hypothesis by investigating agmatine effect on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contraction and NA release in endothelium-denuded rat superior mesenteric arterial strips. We also investigated the effect of agmatine on the N-type Ca(2+) current in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons in rats. Our study demonstrates that agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic outflow via the imidazoline I2 receptor in rat mesenteric arteries. In addition, the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral vascular sympathetic tone is mediated by modulating voltage-dependent N-type Ca(2+) channels in sympathetic nerve terminals. These results suggest a potential cellular mechanism for the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral sympathetic tone. Furthermore, they provide basic and theoretical information regarding the development of new agents to treat hypertension.

  12. Influence of sympathetic tone on heart rate during vagal stimulation and nitroprusside induced hypotension in ovine fetus.

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    Gaillot, Théophile; Beuchée, Alain; Jaillard, Sophie; Storme, Laurent; Nuyt, Anne Monique; Carré, François; Pladys, Patrick

    2005-12-30

    To characterize effects of sympathetic tone on fetal heart rate (FHR) reflex responses and FHR variability in late gestation. Changes in FHR and autonomic tones were studied (i) after electrical vagal stimulation and (ii) during nitroprusside-induced hypotension, in seven late gestation ovine fetus in control condition (ctrl), after dobutamine (beta1-activation) and atenolol (beta1-blockade). Results are expressed as mean +/- SEM. (i) Minimal FHR after vagal stimulation was not influenced by atenolol or dobutamine but dobutamine accelerated FHR normalization. (ii) During nitroprusside induced hypotension atenolol inhibited the initial increases in FHR and FHR variability (measured by SD and LFnu) but not the bradycardia occurring below a mean arterial pressure of 38 +/- 2 mmHg. Dobutamine did not abolish the depressor reflex. During hypotension the positive chronotropic effect of sympathetic tone increased from 15 +/- 2 to 42 +/- 7 bpm then decreased at a rate of -7.6 +/- 1.5 bpm mmHg(-1), vagal negative chronotropic influence steadily increased at a rate of 1.9 +/- 0.4 bpm mmHg(-1). Changes in FHR variability were not correlated with vagal or sympathetic chronotropic effects. beta1-stimulation does not affect sinus-node response to vagal stimulation but improves the speed of FHR normalization. FHR response to hypotension depends on an initial increase in both sympathetic and parasympathetic chronotropic effects that is associated with a sympathetic dependent increase in FHR variability and is followed by a withdrawal of sympathetic tone.

  13. Developmental androgen excess programs sympathetic tone and adipose tissue dysfunction and predisposes to a cardiometabolic syndrome in female mice.

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    Nohara, Kazunari; Waraich, Rizwana S; Liu, Suhuan; Ferron, Mathieu; Waget, Aurélie; Meyers, Matthew S; Karsenty, Gérard; Burcelin, Rémy; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2013-06-15

    Among women, the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is considered a form of metabolic syndrome with reproductive abnormalities. Women with PCOS show increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity with enlarged adipocytes, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, increased inactive osteocalcin, and hypertension. Excess fetal exposure to androgens has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Previously, we showed that neonatal exposure to the androgen testosterone (NT) programs leptin resistance in adult female mice. Here, we studied the impact of NT on lean and adipose tissues, sympathetic tone in cardiometabolic tissues, and the development of metabolic dysfunction in mice. Neonatally androgenized adult female mice (NTF) displayed masculinization of lean tissues with increased cardiac and skeletal muscle as well as kidney masses. NTF mice showed increased and dysfunctional white adipose tissue with increased sympathetic tone in both visceral and subcutaneous fat as well as increased number of enlarged and insulin-resistant adipocytes that displayed altered expression of developmental genes and hypoadiponectinemia. NTF exhibited dysfunctional brown adipose tissue with increased mass and decreased energy expenditure. They also displayed decreased undercarboxylated and active osteocalcin and were predisposed to obesity during chronic androgen excess. NTF showed increased renal sympathetic tone associated with increased blood pressure, and they developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Thus, developmental exposure to testosterone in female mice programs features of cardiometabolic dysfunction, as can be observed in women with PCOS, including increased sympathetic tone, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and hypertension.

  14. G-CSF-induced sympathetic tone provokes fever and primes antimobilizing functions of neutrophils via PGE2.

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    Kawano, Yuko; Fukui, Chie; Shinohara, Masakazu; Wakahashi, Kanako; Ishii, Shinichi; Suzuki, Tomohide; Sato, Mari; Asada, Noboru; Kawano, Hiroki; Minagawa, Kentaro; Sada, Akiko; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Uede, Toshimitsu; Narumiya, Shuh; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Katayama, Yoshio

    2017-02-02

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used for peripheral blood stem/progenitor mobilization. G-CSF causes low-grade fever that is ameliorated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), suggesting the activation of arachidonic acid (AA) cascade. How G-CSF regulated this reaction was assessed. G-CSF treatment in mice resulted in fever, which was canceled in prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1)-deficient mice. Mobilization efficiency was twice as high in chimeric mice lacking mPGES-1, specifically in hematopoietic cells, suggesting that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from hematopoietic cells modulated the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Neutrophils from steady-state BM constitutively expressed mPGES-1 and significantly enhanced PGE2 production in vitro by β-adrenergic stimulation, but not by G-CSF, which was inhibited by an NSAID. Although neutrophils expressed all β-adrenergic receptors, only β3-agonist induced this phenomenon. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry traced β-agonist-induced PGE2 synthesis from exogenous deuterium-labeled AA. Spontaneous PGE2 production was highly efficient in Gr-1(high) neutrophils among BM cells from G-CSF-treated mice. In addition to these in vitro data, the in vivo depletion of Gr-1(high) neutrophils disrupted G-CSF-induced fever. Furthermore, sympathetic denervation eliminated both neutrophil priming for PGE2 production and fever during G-CSF treatment. Thus, sympathetic tone-primed BM neutrophils were identified as one of the major PGE2 producers. PGE2 upregulated osteopontin, specifically in preosteoblasts, to retain progenitors in the BM via EP4 receptor. Thus, the sympathetic nervous system regulated neutrophils as an indispensable PGE2 source to modulate BM microenvironment and body temperature. This study provided a novel mechanistic insight into the communication of the nervous system, BM niche components, and hematopoietic cells. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. The serotonin 5-Hydroxytryptaphan1A receptor agonist, (+)8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin, stimulates sympathetic-dependent increases in venous tone during hypovolemic shock.

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    Tiniakov, Ruslan; Scrogin, Karie E

    2006-11-01

    Adjuvant treatment of hypovolemic shock with vasoconstrictors is controversial due to their propensity to raise arterial resistance and exacerbate ischemia. A more advantageous therapeutic approach would use agents that also promote venoconstriction to augment perfusion pressure through increased venous return. Recent studies indicate that 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT)(1A) receptor agonists increase blood pressure by stimulating sympathetic drive when administered after acute hypotensive hemorrhage. Given that venous tone is highly dependent upon sympathetic activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors, we hypothesized that the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, (+)8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), would increase venous tone in rats subject to hypovolemic shock through sympathetic activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors. Systemic administration of 8-OH-DPAT produced a sustained rise in blood pressure (+44 +/- 3 mm Hg 35 min after injection, P hypovolemic shock. An equipressor infusion of epinephrine failed to influence mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP). Ganglionic blockade, alpha(1)-, or peripheral alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor blockade prevented the rise in MCFP observed with 8-OH-DPAT, but only alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor blockade diminished the pressor effect of the drug (P hypovolemic shock through both direct vascular activation and sympathetic activation of alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors. The sympathoexcitatory effect of 8-OH-DPAT contributes to elevated venous tone through concurrent activation of both alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors. The data suggest that 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists may provide an advantageous alternative to currently therapeutic interventions used to raise perfusion pressure in hypovolemic shock.

  16. School burnout: increased sympathetic vasomotor tone and attenuated ambulatory diurnal blood pressure variability in young adult women.

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    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined autonomic and cardiovascular functioning that may link school burnout to cardiovascular risk factors in young healthy adult females. Study 1 (N = 136) investigated whether school burnout was related to resting values of blood pressure (BP) and blood pressure variability (BPV) through laboratory beat-to-beat BP assessment. Study 2 (N = 94) examined the link between school burnout and diurnal BPV through ambulatory BP monitoring. Controlling for anxiety and depressive symptomatology, school burnout demonstrated strong positive relationships with indices of cardiac sympathovagal tone, sympathetic vasomotor tone, inefficient myocardial oxygen consumption, increased 24-h ambulatory heart rate and BP, blunted BP diurnal variability, and increased arterial stiffness. These studies establish cardiovascular biomarkers of school burnout and suggest that even in a seemingly healthy sample school burnout may predispose females to increased cardiovascular risk. Several future lines of research are outlined.

  17. Ethnic differences in insulinemia and sympathetic tone as links between obesity and blood pressure.

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    Weyer, C; Pratley, R E; Snitker, S; Spraul, M; Ravussin, E; Tataranni, P A

    2000-10-01

    Hyperinsulinemia and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are thought to be pathophysiological links between obesity and hypertension. In the present study, we examined the relation among heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and percent body fat (hydrodensitometry or DEXA), fasting plasma insulin concentration, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, microneurography) in male, normotensive whites (n=42) and Pima Indians (n=77). Pima Indians have a high prevalence of obesity and hyperinsulinemia but a relatively low prevalence of hypertension. Compared with whites, Pima Indian men had a higher percent body fat (28% versus 21%) and higher fasting insulin concentrations (210 versus 132 pmol/L) but lower MSNA (27 versus 33 bursts/min) (all P<0.001). In both ethnic groups, HR and BP were positively related to percent body fat and MSNA, and both were significant independent determinants of HR and BP in multiple regression analyses. However, MSNA was positively related to percent body fat and the fasting insulin concentration in whites (r=0.60 and r=0.47, both P<0.01) but not in Pima Indians (r=0.15 and r=0.03, NS) (P<0.01 for ethnic differences in the slope of the regression lines). These results confirm the physiological importance of the SNS in normal BP regulation but indicate that the roles of hyperinsulinemia and increased SNS activity as mediators for the relation between obesity and hypertension can differ between different ethnic groups. The lack of an increase in SNS activity with increasing adiposity and insulinemia in Pima Indians may contribute to the low prevalence of hypertension in this population.

  18. Intermittent hypoxia and diet-induced obesity: effects on oxidative status, sympathetic tone, plasma glucose and insulin levels, and arterial pressure.

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    Olea, Elena; Agapito, Maria Teresa; Gallego-Martin, Teresa; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela; Obeso, Ana; Gonzalez, Constancio; Yubero, Sara

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) consists of sleep-related repetitive obstructions of upper airways that generate episodes of recurrent or intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA commonly generates cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies defining the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Literature usually links OSA-associated pathologies to IH episodes that would cause an oxidative status and a carotid body-mediated sympathetic hyperactivity. Because cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies in obese patients and those with OSAS are analogous, we used models (24-wk-old Wistar rats) of IH (applied from weeks 22 to 24) and diet-induced obesity (O; animals fed a high-fat diet from weeks 12 to 24) to define the effect of each individual maneuver and their combination on the oxidative status and sympathetic tone of animals, and to quantify cardiovascular and metabolic parameters and their deviation from normality. We found that IH and O cause an oxidative status (increased lipid peroxides and diminished activities of superoxide dismutases), an inflammatory status (augmented C-reactive protein and nuclear factor kappa-B activation), and sympathetic hyperactivity (augmented plasma and renal artery catecholamine levels and synthesis rate); combined treatments worsened those alterations. IH and O augmented liver lipid content and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, glycemia, insulin levels, and HOMA index, and caused hypertension; most of these parameters were aggravated when IH and O were combined. IH diminished ventilatory response to hypoxia, and hypercapnia and O created a restrictive ventilatory pattern; a combination of treatments led to restrictive hypoventilation. Data demonstrate that IH and O cause comparable metabolic and cardiovascular pathologies via misregulation of the redox status and sympathetic hyperactivity.

  19. Realisations of a single high tone in Northern Sotho | Zerbian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... The results are interpreted as both phonological and phonetic influences on high tone ... this study provides a ground for cross-dialectal comparison of Southern Bantu tone.

  20. The low frequency power of heart rate variability is neither a measure of cardiac sympathetic tone nor of baroreflex sensitivity.

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    Martelli, Davide; Silvani, Alessandro; McAllen, Robin M; May, Clive N; Ramchandra, Rohit

    2014-10-01

    The lack of noninvasive approaches to measure cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) has driven the development of indirect estimates such as the low-frequency (LF) power of heart rate variability (HRV). Recently, it has been suggested that LF HRV can be used to estimate the baroreflex modulation of heart period (HP) rather than cardiac sympathetic tone. To test this hypothesis, we measured CSNA, HP, blood pressure (BP), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) of HP, estimated with the modified Oxford technique, in conscious sheep with pacing-induced heart failure and in healthy control sheep. We found that CSNA was higher and systolic BP and HP were lower in sheep with heart failure than in control sheep. Cross-correlation analysis showed that in each group, the beat-to-beat changes in HP correlated with those in CSNA and in BP, but LF HRV did not correlate significantly with either CSNA or BRS. However, when control sheep and sheep with heart failure were considered together, CSNA correlated negatively with HP and BRS. There was also a negative correlation between CSNA and BRS in control sheep when considered alone. In conclusion, we demonstrate that in conscious sheep, LF HRV is neither a robust index of CSNA nor of BRS and is outperformed by HP and BRS in tracking CSNA. These results do not support the use of LF HRV as a noninvasive estimate of either CSNA or baroreflex function, but they highlight a link between CSNA and BRS.

  1. Alzheimer caregiver stress: basal natural killer cell activity, pituitary-adrenal cortical function, and sympathetic tone.

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    Irwin, M; Hauger, R; Patterson, T L; Semple, S; Ziegler, M; Grant, I

    1997-01-01

    The association between Alzheimer caregiving and natural killer (NK) cell activity and basal plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, beta-endorphin, prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y was determined in 100 spousal Alzheimer caregivers and 33 age- and gender-comparable control volunteers upon intake into a study of the psychological and physiologic impact of caregiving. The relationship between these physiologic measures and individual characteristics such as age, gender, medical status, severity of stress, severity of depressive symptoms, and caregiver burden was tested. In addition, the association between NK activity and alterations of the neuroendocrine measures was investigated. As compared to controls, the Alzheimer caregivers had similar levels of NK activity and of basal plasma neuroendocrine hormones and sympathetic measures. While older age and male gender status were associated with increased levels of ACTH, neither medical caseness, severity of life stress, nor severity of depressive symptoms was associated with alterations in any of the multiple physiologic domains. Classification of Alzheimer caregiver burden identified caregivers who were mismatched in terms of the amount of care they were required to provide and the amount of respite time received. The mismatched caregivers had significantly higher basal plasma ACTH but no change in other physiological measures, as compared to non-mismatched caregivers. NK activity was negatively correlated with plasma levels of neuropeptide Y but not with any of the other neuroendocrine measures. Based on this cross-sectional evaluation of NK activity and neuroendocrine and sympathetic measures, we conclude that most Alzheimer caregivers do not show evidence of altered basal physiology.

  2. Role of cuneiform nucleus in regulation of sympathetic vasomotor tone in rats.

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    Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Nasimi, Ali; Alaei, Hojatallah; Pourshanazari, Ali Asghar; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2012-06-01

    The cuneiform nucleus (CnF) is a sympathoexcitatory area involved in the central cardiovascular regulation. Its role in the maintaining vasomotor tone has, however, not yet been clarified. In the present study the effects of cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) a nonselective synapse blocker and NMDA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors on resting mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate of CnF have been evaluated. CoCl(2), AP5 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) and CNQX (an AMPA/kinase receptor antagonist) (100nl) were microinjected into the CnF of anesthetized rats. The blood pressure and heart rate were recorded throughout the experiment. The responses of blood pressure and heart rate were compared with the pre-injection (paired t-test) and control (independent t-test) values. Microinjection of CoCl(2), AP5 and CNQX did not change the basal blood pressure and heart rate. In conclusion, our present study indicates that the CnF is not important in the regulation of cardiovascular tone. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism affects sympathetic tone in a gender-specific way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An; Chen, Tien-Yu; Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation.

  4. IMPACT OF TONE MAPPING IN HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE IMAGE COMPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Narwaria, Manish; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu; Le Callet, Patrick; Pépion, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Tone mapping or range reduction is often used in High Dynamic Range (HDR) visual signal compression to take advantage of the existing image/video coding architectures. Thus, it is important to study the impact of tone mapping on the visual quality of decompressed HDR visual signals. To our knowledge, most of the existing studies focus only on the quality loss in the resultant low dynamic range (LDR) signal (obtained via tone mapping) and typically employ LDR displays f...

  5. Breathing Assistance by the Iron Lung Increases Sympathetic Tone and Modifies Fluid Excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F. J.; Gerzer, R.

    precise body weight determination (+/- 0.025 kg) before and after the four hour protocol. Results: End expiratory CO2 was lowered by iron lung (40.0 +/- 1.7 mmHg versus 30.4 +/- 1.7 mmHg; p increased 6.9 versus 7.3 +/- 0.13; p increased insignificantly (98.5 +/- .5 % versus 97.9 +/- .3 %). The urine volume production under iron lung was slightly reduced compared to pure 6° HDT (1,340 +/- 170 ml versus 1,210 +/- 190 ml; p increased. Diastolic values rose significantly from 65.2 +/- 2.9 mmHg to 75.4 +/- 1.6 mmHg (p Heart rate remained unchanged at 60.5 +/- 2.8 BPM. Discussion: Treatment by iron lung in 6° HDT decreased body fluid loss. The 10% reduction in urine excretion during iron lung assistance was small, however, significant. The reduction of fluid loss by perspiration contributed most. The response in sodium excretion was not uniform. Five subjects showed a moderate increase and one a significant decrease in urine sodium excretion. The treatment by iron lung induced an increase in diastolic blood pressure and a decrease in pulse pressure thus total peripheral resistance increased by more than 20%. Since it was recently observed during the NEUROLAB mission that resting sympathetic nerve activities increase in parallel with a moderate increase in diastolic blood pressure, our new ground model might also be relevant for the simulation of cardiovascular changes in space. It confirms that a coupling exists between kidney and skin with respect to body fluid regulation. Treatment by the iron lung moderates the Henry - Gauer reflex clearly. Application of the iron lung together with 6° HDT might resemble conditions of weightlessness closer than any other terrestrial model of fluid homeostasis in space.

  6. Listening to Mozart K.448 decreases electroencephalography oscillatory power associated with an increase in sympathetic tone in adults: a post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Wu, Rong-Ching; Wu, Hui-Chuan; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Listening to Mozart K.448 has been demonstrated to improve spatial task scores, leading to what is known as the Mozart Effect. However, most of these reports only describe the phenomena but lack the scientific evidence needed to properly investigate the mechanism of Mozart Effect. In this study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate the effects of Mozart K.448 on healthy volunteers to explore Mozart Effect. An EEG-based post-intervention analysis. Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Twenty-nine college students were enrolled. They received EEG and electrocardiogram examinations simultaneously before, during and after listening to the first movement of Mozart K.448. EEG alpha, theta and beta power and HRV were compared in each stage. The results showed a significant decrease in alpha, theta and beta power when they listened to Mozart K.448. In addition, the average root mean square successive difference, the proportion derived by dividing NN50 by the total number of NN intervals, standard deviations of NN intervals and standard deviations of differences between adjacent NN intervals showed a significant decrease, while the high frequency revealed a significant decrease with a significantly elevated low-frequency/high-frequency ratio. Listening to Mozart K.448 significantly decreased EEG alpha, theta and beta power and HRV. This study indicates that there is brain cortical function and sympathetic tone activation in healthy adults when listening to Mozart K.448, which may play an important role in the mechanism of Mozart Effect.

  7. Voice low tone to high tone ratio--a new index for nasal airway assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guoshe; Yang, Cheryl C H; Kuo, Terry B J

    2003-09-30

    There are several methodology based on voice analysis to evaluate nasal airway. Here we introduce a new quantitative index based on voice spectrum analysis to evaluate nasal obstruction. Ten subjects of nasal blockage were instructed to produced the sustained consonant-vowel syllable /m partial partial differential/ at comfortable levels of speech for at least 5 seconds. After nasal decongestant treatment, the second voice sample was collected. Sound spectrum was obtained by the algorithm of fast Fourier transform and the fundamental frequency (F0) was calculated by the method of autocorrelation. Voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) was defined as the division of low frequency power (LFP) into high frequency power (HFP) of the sound power spectrum and was finally expressed in decibels. The cut-off frequency was the product of F0 and square root of (4 x 5). The VLHR after nasal decongestant treatment increased significantly as compared with that before treatment (P < 0.01). VLHR is a new index derived from sound spectral analysis and that may detect the changes in frequency characteristics of voice during treatment for nasal obstruction. The index is quantitative, non-invasive, and potentially useful for basic researches and clinical applications.

  8. Leptin action in the dorsomedial hypothalamus increases sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue in spite of systemic leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriori, Pablo J; Sinnayah, Puspha; Simonds, Stephanie E; Garcia Rudaz, Cecilia; Cowley, Michael A

    2011-08-24

    Leptin regulates body weight in mice by decreasing appetite and increasing sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which increases energy expenditure in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). Diet-induced obese mice (DIO) are resistant to the anorectic actions of leptin. We evaluated whether leptin still stimulated sympathetic outflow in DIO mice. We measured iBAT temperature as a marker of SNA. We found that obese hyperleptinemic mice have higher iBAT temperature than mice on regular diet. Conversely, obese leptin-deficient ob/ob mice have lower iBAT temperature. Additionally, leptin increased SNA in obese (DIO and ob/ob) and control mice, despite DIO mice being resistant to anorectic action of leptin. We demonstrated that neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of DIO mice mediate the thermogenic responses to hyperleptinemia in obese mammals because blockade of leptin receptors in the DMH prevented the thermogenic effects of leptin. Peripheral Melotan II (MTII) injection increased iBAT temperature, but it was blunted by blockade of DMH melanocortin receptors (MC4Rs) by injecting agouti-related peptide (AgRP) directly into the DMH, suggesting a physiological role of the DMH on temperature regulation in animals with normal body weight. Nevertheless, obese mice without a functional melanocortin system (MC4R KO mice) have an increased sympathetic outflow to iBAT compared with their littermates, suggesting that higher leptin levels drive sympathoexcitation to iBAT by a melanocortin-independent pathway. Because the sympathetic nervous system contributes in regulating blood pressure, heart rate, and hepatic glucose production, selective leptin resistance may be a crucial mechanism linking adiposity and metabolic syndrome.

  9. Decompensated liver cirrhosis and neural regulation of mesenteric vascular tone in rats: role of sympathetic, nitrergic and sensory innervations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Esther; Caracuel, Laura; Prieto, Isabel; Llévenes, Pablo; Aller, M. Ángeles; Arias, Jaime; Balfagón, Gloria; Blanco-Rivero, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the possible alterations produced by liver cholestasis (LC), a model of decompensated liver cirrhosis in sympathetic, sensory and nitrergic nerve function in rat superior mesenteric arteries (SMA). The vasoconstrictor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) was greater in LC animals. Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine and P2 purinoceptor antagonist suramin decreased this response in LC animals more than in control animals. Both non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) L-NAME and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) (8-37) increased the vasoconstrictor response to EFS more strongly in LC than in control segments. Vasomotor responses to noradrenaline (NA) or CGRP were greater in LC segments, while NO analogue DEA-NO induced a similar vasodilation in both experimental groups. The release of NA was not modified, while those of ATP, nitrite and CGRP were increased in segments from LC. Alpha 1 adrenoceptor, Rho kinase (ROCK) 1 and 2 and total myosin phosphatase (MYPT) expressions were not modified, while alpha 2B adrenoceptor, nNOS expression and nNOS and MYPT phosphorylation were increased by LC. Together, these alterations might counteract the increased splanchnic vasodilation observed in the last phases of decompensated liver cirrhosis. PMID:27484028

  10. Glutamatergic inputs to the CVLM independent of the NTS promote tonic inhibition of sympathetic vasomotor tone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Daniel A; Schreihofer, Ann M

    2008-10-01

    GABAergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) are driven by baroreceptor inputs relayed via the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and they inhibit neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla to reduce sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial pressure (AP). After arterial baroreceptor denervation or lesions of the NTS, inhibition of the CVLM continues to increase AP, suggesting additional inputs also tonically activate the CVLM. This study examined whether the NTS contributes to baroreceptor-independent drive to the CVLM and whether glutamate promotes baroreceptor- and NTS-independent activation of the CVLM to tonically reduce SNA. In addition, we evaluated whether altering central respiratory drive, a baroreceptor-independent regulator of CVLM neurons, influences glutamatergic inputs to the CVLM. Splanchnic SNA and AP were measured in chloralose-anesthetized, ventilated, paralyzed rats. The infusion of nitroprusside decreased AP below threshold for baroreceptor afferent firing (NTS by microinjection of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol did not further increase SNA. In contrast, after inhibition of the NTS, blockade of glutamatergic inputs to CVLM by microinjection of kynurenate increased SNA (274+/-54%; PNTS-mediated excitation of the CVLM. Furthermore, glutamate tonically activates the CVLM to reduce SNA independent of the NTS, and this excitatory input appears to be affected by the strength of central respiratory drive.

  11. Voice low tone to high tone ratio: a potential quantitative index for vowel [a:] and its nasalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guo-She; Wang, Ching-Ping; Yang, Cheryl C H; Kuo, Terry B J

    2006-07-01

    Hypernasality is associated with various diseases and interferes with speech intelligibility. A recently developed quantitative index called voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) was used to estimate nasalization. The voice spectrum is divided into low-frequency power (LFP) and high-frequency power (HFP) by a specific cutoff frequency (600 Hz). VLHR is defined as the division of LFP into HFP and is expressed in decibels. Voice signals of the sustained vowel [a :] and its nasalization in eight subjects with hypernasality were collected for analysis of nasalance and VLHR. The correlation of VLHR with nasalance scores was significant (r = 0.76, p < 0.01), and so was the correlation between VLHR and perceptual hypernasality scores (r = 0.80, p < 0.01). Simultaneous recordings of nasal airflow temperature with a thermistor and voice signals in another 8 healthy subjects showed a significant correlation between temperature rate of nasal airflow and VLHR (r = 0.76, p < 0.01), as well. We conclude that VLHR may become a potential quantitative index of hypernasal speech and can be applied in either basic or clinical studies.

  12. High-resolution Observations of Sympathetic Filament Eruptions by NVST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingna; Li, Shangwei; Zhou, Tuanhui; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan A.; Sun, Xudong; Ji, Haisheng

    2017-08-01

    We investigate two sympathetic filament eruptions observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) on 2015 October 15. The full picture of the eruptions is obtained from the corresponding SDO/AIA observations. The two filaments start from the east border of active region NOAA 12434 in the north and end in one large quiescent filament channel in the south. The left filament erupts firstly, followed by the right filament eruption about 10 minutes later. Clear twist structure and rotating motion are observed in both filaments during the eruption. Both eruptions are failed, since the filaments firstly rise up, then flow towards the south and merge into the southern large quiescent filament. We also observe repeating activations of mini filaments below the right filament after its eruption. Using magnetic field models constructed based on SDO/HMI magnetograms by flux rope insertion method, we find that the left filament eruption is likely to be triggered by kink instability, while weakening of overlying magnetic fields due to magnetic reconnection at an X-point between the two filament systems might play an important role in the onset of the right filament eruption.

  13. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs...

  14. Microinjection of resveratrol into rostral ventrolateral medulla decreases sympathetic vasomotor tone through nitric oxide and intracellular Ca2+in anesthetized male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-juan MA; Ya-kun CAO; Yi-xian LIU; Ru WANG; Yu-ming WU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To define the effect of resveratrol (RES) on the central regulation of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). Methods: RES was microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and BP, HR, and RSNA were recorded simultaneously in anesthetized rats. Results: A microinjection of RES (20, 40, and 80 μmol/L, 0.2μL) into the RVLM dose depen- dently decreased BP, HR, and RSNA. Pretreatment with an anti-estrogen tamoxifen (100 μmol/L, 0.2 μL) did not affect the effects of RES. Pretreatment with NG-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester (100/Jmol/L, 0.2 μL), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, could completely abolish the effect of RES. A prior microinjection of Bay K8644 (500 nmol/L, 0.2 μL), an agonist of calcium channels, could also abro- gate the effect of RES. Prior administration of a potent inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatase, sodium orthovanadate (l mmol/L, 0.2 μL), could partially attenuate the inhibitory effect of RES. Conclusion: The results suggest that a microinjec- tion of RES into the RVLM inhibits BE HR, and RSNA. The effects may be mediated by NO synthesis and a decrease in Ca2+ influx, in which protein tyrosine kinase is involved.

  15. Activation of histamine H3 receptors in human nasal mucosa inhibits sympathetic vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varty, LoriAnn M; Gustafson, Eric; Laverty, Maureen; Hey, John A

    2004-01-19

    The peripheral histamine H3 receptor is a presynaptic heterologous receptor located on postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers innervating sympathetic effector systems such as blood vessels and the heart. An extensive body of evidence shows that activation of the histamine H3 receptor attenuates sympathetic tone by presynaptic inhibition of noradrenaline release. It is proposed that this sympathoinhibitory action, in vivo, leads to reduced vasoconstriction, thereby eliciting a vasodilatory effect. In humans, the peripheral histamine H3 receptor has also been shown to exert a sympathoinhibitory function on specific peripheral autonomic effector systems. For example, human saphenous vein and heart possess functional presynaptic histamine H3 receptors on the sympathetic nerve terminals that upon activation decrease the sympathetic tone to these respective organs. The present studies were conducted to define the role of histamine H3 receptors on neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstrictor responses in human nasal turbinate mucosa. Contractility studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of histamine H3 receptor activation on sympathetic vasoconstriction in surgically isolated human nasal turbinate mucosa. We found that the histamine H3 receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (30 and 300 nM), inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced (neurogenic) sympathetic vasoconstriction in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with the selective histamine H3 receptor antagonist, clobenpropit (100 nM), blocked the sympathoinhibitory effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine on the neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstriction. In addition, analysis of Taqman mRNA expression studies showed a specific, high level of distribution of the histamine H3 receptor localized in the human nasal mucosa. Taken together, these studies indicate that histamine H3 receptors modulate vascular contractile responses in human nasal mucosa most likely by inhibiting noradrenaline release from

  16. WRITING TONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction In teaching writing, people usually pay attention to grammatical problems from sentence structure to articles. They also pay attention to spelling, capitalisation, punctuation and the choice of words. These are essential-but so is the tone of the writing. In this article, I’d like to present some ideas about tone. Tone

  17. High- and Low-Frequency Probe Tone Tympanometry in Chinese Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the utility of low- and high-frequency tympanometry in the diagnosis of middle ear dysfunction in Chinese infants. Methods Tympanograms were obtained with 226 Hz, 678 Hz and 1000 Hz probe tones from infants aged 5-25 weeks with normal auditory brainstem responses (ABRs)(15 infants,30 ears) and withprolonged wave Ⅰ latencies(17 infants, 20 ears), suggesting middle ear dysfunction, using a GSI Tympstar middle ear analyzer Version Ⅱ. Results The single-peaked tympanogram was the most characteristic type in both groups and seen in 25 ears (83.3%) in the normal ABR group and in 18 ears (90%) in the delayed wave Ⅰ group, respectively. The peak pressure, peak compensated static acoustic admittance and gradient of 226 Hz tympanometry were of no significant differences between the two groups. The 678 Hz tympanograms of admittance, susceptance and conductance demonstrated non-peak, single-, double- and tri-peaked patterns in both groups. The agreement between ABRs and 678 Hz tympanograms of admittance,susceptance and conductance were 70.0%, 58.0% and 64.0%(kappa=0.324, 0.234 and 0.118) respectively. For 1000 Hz probe tone, admittance,susceptance and conductance tympanograms showed single peaked patterns in 28 (93.3%), 25 (83.3%) and 26 (86.7%) of the 30 normal ears. Admittance, susceptance and conductance tympanograms using the 1000 Hz probe tone were flat in 15 (75%), 17(85%) and 13 (65%) of the ears in infants with prolonged wave Ⅰ latencies. For 1000 Hz admittance, susceptance and conductance Tympanograms, the agreement between tympanometry and ABR results were 90.0%, 92.0% and 86.0% with kappa at 0.783, 0.831 and 0.690, respectively. Conclusion 1000 Hz probe tone tympanometry is a promising middle ear function test for infants of 1-6 months age, while 226 Hz and 678 Hz probe tones are less efficient in detecting middle ear dysfunction in infants.

  18. Two-tone intensity-modulated optical stimulus for self-referencing microwave characterization of high-speed photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Zhang, Shangjian; Zou, Xinhai; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Rongguo; Zhang, Zhiyao; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The two-tone intensity modulated optical stimulus is proposed and demonstrated for measuring the high-frequency response of photodetectors. The method provides a narrow linewidth and wide bandwidth optical stimulus based on the two-tone modulation of a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical intensity modulator, and achieves the self-referenced measurement of photodetectors without the need for correcting the power variation of optical stimulus. Moreover, the two-tone intensity modulation method allows bias-independent measurement with doubled measuring frequency range. In the experiment, the consistency between our method and the conventional methods verifies the simple but accurate measurement.

  19. Two Tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palludan, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how kindergarten-children are differentiated and segregated through vocal practices and processes. The analysis is based on empirical data, which originate from a long ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark. The author presents two different language tones: "a teaching tone...... and an exchange tone" and shows a pattern in the ways the two tones are performed. While the teaching tone is heard in the interaction between the staff and the ethnic minority children, the ethnic majority children (the Danes) are addressed in the exchange tone. Pierre Bourdieu's concepts: "linguistic market......", "habitual inclinations" and "feeling for the game" are used as theoretical framework. When the author interprets and explains the language pattern as unequal distribution of recognition and as continuation of reproduction of a socio-cultural hierarchy among the children she relates to this framework...

  20. Two Tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palludan, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    and an exchange tone" and shows a pattern in the ways the two tones are performed. While the teaching tone is heard in the interaction between the staff and the ethnic minority children, the ethnic majority children (the Danes) are addressed in the exchange tone. Pierre Bourdieu's concepts: "linguistic market......", "habitual inclinations" and "feeling for the game" are used as theoretical framework. When the author interprets and explains the language pattern as unequal distribution of recognition and as continuation of reproduction of a socio-cultural hierarchy among the children she relates to this framework...

  1. Voice low tone to high tone ratio, nasalance, and nasality ratings in connected speech of native Mandarin speakers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Wang, Ching-Ping; Lee, Guo-She

    2012-07-01

    Voice low tone to high tone ratio (VLHR) is defined as the power ratio of a voice spectrum with a specific cut-off frequency. Previous studies have shown that there are significant correlations between VLHR and nasalance and hypernasality ratings in vowels. The correlation was investigated in this study using connected speech material. The Zoo Passage, the Rainbow Passage, the English Nasal Sentences, the Mandarin Nonnasal Sentences, and the Mandarin Nasal Sentences were used to acquire VLHRs, nasalance scores, and perceptual judgments of nasality. Each passage was recorded twice for averaging, and the cut-off frequencies from 200 Hz to 1200 Hz were used to survey for the presence of optimal correlations with VLHR. Participants : Ten native Mandarin speakers with an English learning history of over 8 years were enrolled. Main outcome measures : VLHRs, nasalance scores, and hypernasality ratings. The correlations of VLHR with nasalance (rho  =  .76, p connected speech show that these approaches have a potential value in terms of basic and clinical application.

  2. Carotid baroreceptor stimulation, sympathetic activity, baroreflex function, and blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusser, K.; Tank, J.; Engeli, S.; Diedrich, A.; Menne, J.; Eckert, S.; Peters, T.; Sweep, F.C.; Haller, H.; Pichlmaier, A.M.; Luft, F.C.; Jordan, J.

    2010-01-01

    In animals, electric field stimulation of carotid baroreceptors elicits a depressor response through sympathetic inhibition. We tested the hypothesis that the stimulation acutely reduces sympathetic vasomotor tone and blood pressure in patients with drug treatment-resistant arterial hypertension.

  3. One-step patterning of double tone high contrast and high refractive index inorganic spin-on resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, E.; Della Giustina, G.; Brusatin, G.

    2014-09-01

    A direct one-step and low temperature micro-fabrication process, enabling to realize large area totally inorganic TiO2 micro-patterns from a spin-on resist, is presented. High refractive index structures (up to 2 at 632 nm) without the need for transfer processes have been obtained by mask assisted UV lithography, exploiting photocatalytic titania properties. A distinctive feature not shared by any of the known available resists and boosting the material versatility, is that the system behaves either as a positive or as negative tone resist, depending on the process parameters and on the development chemistry. In order to explain the resist double tone behavior, deep comprehension of the lithographic process parameters optimization and of the resist chemistry and structure evolution during the lithographic process, generally uncommon in literature, is reported. Another striking property of the presented resist is that the negative tone shows a high contrast up to 19, allowing to obtain structures resolution down to 2 μm wide. The presented process and material permit to directly fabricate different titania geometries of great importance for solar cells, photo-catalysis, and photonic crystals applications.

  4. Contour Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Moira

    1989-01-01

    Argues that contour tones in East Asian languages behave as melodic units consisting of a root node [upper] dominating a branching specification. It is also argued that, with upper as the tonal root node, no more than two rising or falling tones will contrast underlying. (49 references) (JL)

  5. Altered autophagy and sympathetic innervation in salivary glands from high-fat diet mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Polliane Morais; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Carpenter, Guy Howard

    2017-03-01

    to investigate the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) on salivary glands in vivo, in a mouse model. In particular, whether it will induce the appearance of fat cells in salivary glands, alterations related to autophagy, mTOR pathway and sympathetic innervation. 27 adult female ICR mice were separated in six groups. Three groups fed with (HFD) containing 55% fat, for one, two and three month and another three groups fed with normal diet (2.7% of fat), for the same time periods. The submandibular glands and liver were dissected and part homogenized for protein analyses and part fixed in formalin for histological analyses. After three months the HFD fed mice total body weight fold change increased compared to controls. The Oil Red O staining showed no fat cells deposit in salivary gland however a large increase was observed in liver after three months of HFD. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in the HFD group after three months. The group fed with HFD for three months showed increased conversion of the LC3 autophagy marker in salivary gland. mTOR showed no activation regarding the time point studied. Tyrosine hydroxylase significantly decreased after two and three month of HFD. HFD caused several changes after three months however the earliest change was noticed after two months regarding sympathetic innervation. This suggests neural alteration may drive other diet induced changes in salivary glands. These early changes may be the starting point for longer term alterations of salivary glands with alterations in diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contrastive tone in Kalam Kohistani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan L.G. Baart

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that tonal phenomena occur in quite a few Indo-Aryan languages in the northwestern corner of the South-Asian subcontinent. This paper presents a study of the tone system of one of these languages, Kalam Kohistani. After establishing that Kalam Kohistani has five contrastive surface tones—a high tone, a low tone, a rising tone, and two types of falling tone—I propose an analysis of these tones in terms of Autosegmental Phonology. Furthermore, some observations are made on the relation between aspiration and tone, and on the functional load of tone in Kalam Kohistani. Its relatively rich inventory of tones makes Kalam Kohistani, along with two of its close neighbors, stand out as unique among the Indo-Aryan languages.

  7. Propeller tone bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, G. P.; Munro, D. H.; Ingard, K. U.

    1983-01-01

    Intense high frequency (25-38 kHz) tone bursts have been observed in acoustic tests of a scale model of a general aviation propeller. The amplitude of the tone burst is approximately equal to the amplitude of the propeller noise signature. The conditions necessary for the production of these tone bursts are described. The experiments indicate that the origin of these bursts is a periodic flow oscillation on the suction surface of the propeller blade tips which may be due to the interaction between an oscillating shock wave and a laminar boundary layer.

  8. The Relevance of the High Frequency Audiometry in Tinnitus Patients with Normal Hearing in Conventional Pure-Tone Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielsmeier, Veronika; Lehner, Astrid; Strutz, Jürgen; Steffens, Thomas; Kreuzer, Peter M; Schecklmann, Martin; Landgrebe, Michael; Langguth, Berthold; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The majority of tinnitus patients suffer from hearing loss. But a subgroup of tinnitus patients show normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry (125 Hz-8 kHz). Here we explored whether the results of the high frequency audiometry (>8 kHz) provide relevant additional information in tinnitus patients with normal conventional audiometry by comparing those with normal and pathological high frequency audiometry with respect to their demographic and clinical characteristics. From the database of the Tinnitus Clinic at Regensburg we identified 75 patients with normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry. We contrasted these patients with normal and pathological high-frequency audiogram and compared them with respect to gender, age, tinnitus severity, pitch, laterality and duration, comorbid symptoms and triggers for tinnitus onset. Patients with pathological high frequency audiometry were significantly older and had higher scores on the tinnitus questionnaires in comparison to patients with normal high frequency audiometry. Furthermore, there was an association of high frequency audiometry with the laterality of tinnitus. In tinnitus patients with normal pure-tone audiometry the high frequency audiometry provides useful additional information. The association between tinnitus laterality and asymmetry of the high frequency audiometry suggests a potential causal role for the high frequency hearing loss in tinnitus etiopathogenesis.

  9. The Relevance of the High Frequency Audiometry in Tinnitus Patients with Normal Hearing in Conventional Pure-Tone Audiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vielsmeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The majority of tinnitus patients suffer from hearing loss. But a subgroup of tinnitus patients show normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry (125 Hz–8 kHz. Here we explored whether the results of the high frequency audiometry (>8 kHz provide relevant additional information in tinnitus patients with normal conventional audiometry by comparing those with normal and pathological high frequency audiometry with respect to their demographic and clinical characteristics. Subjects and Methods. From the database of the Tinnitus Clinic at Regensburg we identified 75 patients with normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry. We contrasted these patients with normal and pathological high-frequency audiogram and compared them with respect to gender, age, tinnitus severity, pitch, laterality and duration, comorbid symptoms and triggers for tinnitus onset. Results. Patients with pathological high frequency audiometry were significantly older and had higher scores on the tinnitus questionnaires in comparison to patients with normal high frequency audiometry. Furthermore, there was an association of high frequency audiometry with the laterality of tinnitus. Conclusion. In tinnitus patients with normal pure-tone audiometry the high frequency audiometry provides useful additional information. The association between tinnitus laterality and asymmetry of the high frequency audiometry suggests a potential causal role for the high frequency hearing loss in tinnitus etiopathogenesis.

  10. The relevance of the high frequency audiometry in tinnitus patients with normal hearing in conventional pure-tone audiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Vielsmeier; Astrid Lehner; Jürgen Strutz; Thomas Steffens; Kreuzer, Peter M; Martin Schecklmann; Michael Landgrebe; Berthold Langguth; Tobias Kleinjung

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The majority of tinnitus patients suffer from hearing loss. But a subgroup of tinnitus patients show normal hearing thresholds in the conventional pure-tone audiometry (125 Hz–8 kHz). Here we explored whether the results of the high frequency audiometry (>8 kHz) provide relevant additional information in tinnitus patients with normal conventional audiometry by comparing those with normal and pathological high frequency audiometry with respect to their demographic and clinical chara...

  11. The Low Pitch of High-Frequency Complex Tones Relies on Temporal Fine Structure Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    structure (TFS) cues has been a matter of debate. It is also controversial up to which frequency TFS information remains available, and to what extent envelope cues become dominant as frequency increases. Using a pitch-matching paradigm, this study investigated whether the pitch of transposed tones...

  12. RESTING SYMPATHETIC BAROREFLEX SENSITIVITY IN SUBJECTS WITH LOW AND HIGH TOLERANCE TO CENTRAL HYPOVOLEMIA INDUCED BY LOWER BODY NEGATIVE PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eHinojosa-Laborde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central hypovolemia elicited by orthostasis or hemorrhage triggers sympathetically-mediated baroreflex responses to maintain organ perfusion; these reflexes are less sensitive in patients with orthostatic intolerance, and during conditions of severe blood loss, may result in cardiovascular collapse (decompensatory or circulatory shock. The ability to tolerate central hypovolemia is variable and physiological factors contributing to tolerance are emerging. We tested the hypothesis that resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS are attenuated in male and female subjects who have low tolerance (LT to central hypovolemia induced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP. MSNA and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP were recorded in 47 human subjects who subsequently underwent LBNP to tolerance (onset of presyncopal symptoms. LT subjects experienced presyncopal symptoms prior to completing LBNP of -60 mm Hg, and subjects with high tolerance (HT experienced presyncopal symptoms after completing LBNP after -60 mmHg. Contrary to our hypothesis, resting MSNA burst incidence was not different between LT and HT subjects, and was not related to time to presyncope. BRS was assessed as the slope of the relationship between spontaneous fluctuations in DAP and MSNA during 5 min of supine rest. MSNA burst incidence/DAP correlations were greater than or equal to 0.5 in 37 subjects (LT: n= 9; HT: n=28, and BRS was not different between LT and HT (-1.8 ± 0.3 vs. -2.2 ± 0.2 bursts•(100 beats-1•mmHg-1, p=0.29. We conclude that tolerance to central hypovolemia is not related to either resting MSNA or sympathetic BRS.

  13. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  14. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  15. Pure-tone Audiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapul, A. A.; Zubova, E. I.; Torgaev, S. N.; Drobchik, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    The research focuses on a pure-tone audiometer designing. The relevance of the study is proved by high incidence of an auditory analyser in older people and children. At first, the article provides information about subjective and objective audiometry methods. Secondly, we offer block-diagram and basic-circuit arrangement of device. We decided to base on STM32F407VG microcontroller and use digital pot in the function of attenuator. Third, we implemented microcontroller and PC connection. C programming language is used for microcontroller’s program and PC’s interface. Fourthly, we created the pure-tone audiometer prototype. In the future, we will implement the objective method ASSR in addition to pure-tone audiometry.

  16. Chronic orthostatic intolerance: a disorder with discordant cardiac and vascular sympathetic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Snell, M.; Robertson, D.; Porta, A.; Harris, P.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic orthostatic intolerance (COI) is a debilitating autonomic condition in young adults. Its neurohumoral and hemodynamic profiles suggest possible alterations of postural sympathetic function and of baroreflex control of heart rate (HR). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 16 COI patients and 16 healthy volunteers, intra-arterial blood pressure (BP), ECG, central venous pressure (CVP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded at rest and during 75 degrees tilt. Spectral analysis of RR interval and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variabilities provided indices of sympathovagal modulation of the sinoatrial node (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency components, LF/HF) and of sympathetic vasomotor control (LFSAP). Baroreflex mechanisms were assessed (1) by the slope of the regression line obtained from changes of RR interval and MSNA evoked by pharmacologically induced alterations in BP and (2) by the index alpha, obtained from cross-spectral analysis of RR and SAP variabilities. At rest, HR, MSNA, LF/HF, and LFSAP were higher in COI patients, whereas BP and CVP were similar in the two groups. During tilt, BP did not change and CVP fell by the same extent in the 2 groups; the increase of HR and LF/HF was more pronounced in COI patients. Conversely, the increase of MSNA was lower in COI than in control subjects. Baroreflex sensitivity was similar in COI and control subjects at rest; tilt reduced alpha similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: COI is characterized by an overall enhancement of noradrenergic tone at rest and by a blunted postganglionic sympathetic response to standing, with a compensatory cardiac sympathetic overactivity. Baroreflex mechanisms maintain their functional responsiveness. These data suggest that in COI, the functional distribution of central sympathetic tone to the heart and vasculature is abnormal.

  17. Chronic orthostatic intolerance: a disorder with discordant cardiac and vascular sympathetic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, R.; Jacob, G.; Snell, M.; Robertson, D.; Porta, A.; Harris, P.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic orthostatic intolerance (COI) is a debilitating autonomic condition in young adults. Its neurohumoral and hemodynamic profiles suggest possible alterations of postural sympathetic function and of baroreflex control of heart rate (HR). METHODS AND RESULTS: In 16 COI patients and 16 healthy volunteers, intra-arterial blood pressure (BP), ECG, central venous pressure (CVP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded at rest and during 75 degrees tilt. Spectral analysis of RR interval and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variabilities provided indices of sympathovagal modulation of the sinoatrial node (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency components, LF/HF) and of sympathetic vasomotor control (LFSAP). Baroreflex mechanisms were assessed (1) by the slope of the regression line obtained from changes of RR interval and MSNA evoked by pharmacologically induced alterations in BP and (2) by the index alpha, obtained from cross-spectral analysis of RR and SAP variabilities. At rest, HR, MSNA, LF/HF, and LFSAP were higher in COI patients, whereas BP and CVP were similar in the two groups. During tilt, BP did not change and CVP fell by the same extent in the 2 groups; the increase of HR and LF/HF was more pronounced in COI patients. Conversely, the increase of MSNA was lower in COI than in control subjects. Baroreflex sensitivity was similar in COI and control subjects at rest; tilt reduced alpha similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: COI is characterized by an overall enhancement of noradrenergic tone at rest and by a blunted postganglionic sympathetic response to standing, with a compensatory cardiac sympathetic overactivity. Baroreflex mechanisms maintain their functional responsiveness. These data suggest that in COI, the functional distribution of central sympathetic tone to the heart and vasculature is abnormal.

  18. The Role of Tone Height, Melodic Contour, and Tone Chroma in Melody Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Dominic W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relationships among tone height, melodic contour, tone chroma, and recognition of recently learned melodies were investigated. Results replicated previous studies using familiar folk songs, providing evidence that melodic contour, tone chroma, and tone height contribute to recognition of both highly familiar and recently learned melodies.…

  19. High-dose short-term chlorambucil for intractable sympathetic ophthalmia and Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, H H; Jennings, T

    1990-01-01

    We treated five patients with intractable sympathetic ophthalmia and six patients with severe Behçet's disease by high-dose, short-term chlorambucil therapy. We used a total dose ranging from 306 mg to 4.2 g and a duration of therapy no longer than 36 weeks and in most cases less than 24 weeks. After termination of therapy all 11 patients had a sustained remission of their eye disease. Unless subretinal neovascularisation was present, all had a final visual acuity of 20/50 or better. Malignancy has not developed in any of our cases, with a follow-up ranging from 6 months to 12 years (mean, 4.5 years). Although 30- and 40-year follow-ups and larger numbers of patients may be necessary fully to realise the risks of chlorambucil, we believe that our high-dose, short-term regimen (Behçet's disease: average duration, 23 weeks; average total dose 2.2 g; sympathetic ophthalmia: average duration, 11 weeks; total average dose, 0.9 g) may be safer than previously reported chlorambucil regimens of one to two years or longer. In addition we fulfilled our aim of discontinuing all concomitant systemic corticosteroids within a relatively short time (usually six to eight weeks). PMID:2378842

  20. The role of temporal fine structure information for the low pitch of high-frequency complex tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    a matter of debate. For stimuli with components lying exclusively in high-frequency spectral regions, the slowly varying temporal envelope of sounds is often assumed to be the only information contained in auditory temporal representations, and it has remained controversial to what extent the fast...... amplitude fluctuations, or temporal fine structure (TFS), of the conveyed signal can be processed. Using a pitch-matching paradigm, the present study found that the low pitch of inharmonic transposed tones with unresolved components was consistent with the timing between the most prominent TFS maxima...

  1. Evidence of sympathetic fibers in the male rat pelvic nerve by gross anatomy, retrograde labeling and high resolution autoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, F; Facchinetti, P; Bernabé, J; Benoit, G; Calas, A; Rampin, O

    1997-12-01

    Several arguments exist in various animal species and man for the presence of a sympathetic component in the pelvic nerve, classically regarded as parasympathetic. We tested this hypothesis in the male rat. Nerve bundles issued from the sacral region of the paravertebral sympathetic chain and reaching the S1 spinal nerve were identified. Neurons in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus of the L6-S1 spinal cord and in the L2-S1 paravertebral sympathetic chain were retrogradely labeled from the pelvic nerve. Radioautography evidenced labeling of unmyelinated fibers in the pelvic nerve following in vitro incubation with 3H-noradrenaline. A population of sympathetic fibers issued from the lumbosacral sympathetic chain exists in the pelvic nerve of the male rat. This qualitative study provides a morphological basis to uncover the role of the sympathetic outflow present in the pelvic nerve.

  2. Slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure: from modeling to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Asanoi, Hidetsugu; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Ueno, Hiroshi; Oda, Yoshitaka; Goso, Yukiko; Joho, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2014-10-15

    Influences of slow and deep respiration on steady-state sympathetic nerve activity remain controversial in humans and could vary depending on disease conditions and basal sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate the respiratory modulation of steady-state sympathetic nerve activity, we modeled the dynamic nature of the relationship between lung inflation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 heart failure patients with exaggerated sympathetic outflow at rest. An autoregressive exogenous input model was utilized to simulate entire responses of MSNA to variable respiratory patterns. In another 18 patients, we determined the influence of increasing tidal volume and slowing respiratory frequency on MSNA; 10 patients underwent a 15-min device-guided slow respiration and the remaining 8 had no respiratory modification. The model predicted that a 1-liter, step increase of lung volume decreased MSNA dynamically; its nadir (-33 ± 22%) occurred at 2.4 s; and steady-state decrease (-15 ± 5%), at 6 s. Actually, in patients with the device-guided slow and deep respiration, respiratory frequency effectively fell from 16.4 ± 3.9 to 6.7 ± 2.8/min (P state MSNA was decreased by 31% (P state MSNA. Thus slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with high levels of resting sympathetic tone as in heart failure.

  3. Microbowl-arrayed surface generated by EBL of negative-tone SU-8 for highly adhesive hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiangmeng, E-mail: xiangmengli2010@stu.xjtu.edu.cn; Shao, Jinyou, E-mail: jyshao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ding, Yucheng, E-mail: ycding@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Tian, Hongmiao, E-mail: tian.hongmiao@stu.xjtu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    A unique microbowl-arrayed surface demonstrates highly adhesive hydrophobicity similar to a rose-petal. Such a textured surface is generated by electron beam lithography on negative-tone SU-8 resist with X–Y cross-lines scanning. The microbowl array patterned surface possesses an advancing contact angle of 160° and a contact angle hysteresis of 90°, and it is capable of holding a 50 μl aqueous droplet as positioned perpendicularly. The wetting properties of adhesive hydrophobicity can be tuned by varying the exposure dosage in EBL as well as the thickness of the fluorocarbon deposition, both of which can change the curvature of microbowl array with submicron-ridges. Therefore, the contact state on such microbowl-arrayed surfaces can be varied from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's model.

  4. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  5. Sympathetic nervous activity in cirrhosis. A survey of plasma catecholamine studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J

    1985-01-01

    in this condition. This may especially apply to the sympathetic tone in the kidney, as evaluated by regional measurements of noradrenaline overflow. Hepatic elimination of catecholamines is only slightly reduced. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system seems to play an important role in the avid sodium...

  6. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  7. [Sympathetic nerve activity in chronic renal failure - what are the therapeutic options?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberg, M; Tokmak, F

    2013-11-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure are characterized by a tonic elevation of sympathetic tone. This factor largely contributes to their increased cardiovascular risk. The increased sympathetic drive is caused by activiation of renal afferent fibers in the diseased kidneys. Therapeutic options for hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure with respect to their sympathetic overactivity are inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-system and central sympatholytic drugs. The role of catheter-based renal denervation in these patients is currently under investigation.

  8. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  9. Preserved alpha-adrenergic tone in the leg vascular bed of spinal cord-injured individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, H.M.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Smits, P.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supraspinal sympathetic control of leg vascular tone is lost in spinal cord-injured individuals, but this does not result in a reduced leg vascular tone: Leg vascular resistance is even increased. The aim of this study was to assess the alpha-adrenergic contribution to the increased vasc

  10. Long-term, drug-free remission of sympathetic ophthalmia with high-dose, short-term chlorambucil therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sarju S; Dodds, Emilio M; Echandi, Laura V; Couto, Cristobal A; Schlaen, Ariel; Tessler, Howard H; Goldstein, Debra A

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of short-term, high-dose chlorambucil therapy in achieving long-term, drug-free remission in the treatment of sympathetic ophthalmia (SO). Retrospective case series. Sixteen patients with SO treated with high-dose, short-term chlorambucil therapy between 1970 and 2010. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to characterize disease and outcomes. Months of disease-free remission, prevalence rate of relapse, and prevalence of serious treatment-related adverse events. Sixteen patients with SO treated with short-term, high-dose chlorambucil were identified. Patients were treated with chlorambucil for a median of 14.0 weeks (mean, 14.5 weeks; range, 12.0-19.0 weeks). Median follow-up was 98.5 months (mean, 139.1 months; range, 48-441 months) from initiation of chlorambucil therapy. Control of inflammation was achieved in 100% of patients. Thirteen patients (81.3%) maintained vision of 20/40 or better in the sympathizing eye. Four patients (25%) relapsed after a median of 83 months (mean, 131 months) after cessation of systemic therapy. Seventy-five percent of relapses were controlled with topical therapy only. Conjunctival Kaposi's sarcoma developed in 1 patient. No patient demonstrated systemic malignancy. Short-term, high-dose chlorambucil therapy provides sustained periods of drug-free remission. With median follow-up of more than 8 years (mean, 11.6 years; range, 4-37 years), there was a low rate of recurrence and minimal long-term serious health consequences or adverse events. Because SO may be a lifelong condition and because chlorambucil therapy may offer long-term, drug-free remission, this treatment may be worth considering early in the decision-making process for severe sight-threatening disease. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shu; Elefteriou, Florent; Levasseur, Regis; Liu, Xiuyun; Zhao, Liping; Parker, Keith L.; Armstrong, Dawna; Ducy, Patricia; Karsenty, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    We previously showed that leptin inhibits bone formation by an undefined mechanism. Here, we show that hypothalamic leptin-dependent antiosteogenic and anorexigenic networks differ, and that the peripheral mediators of leptin antiosteogenic function appear to be neuronal. Neuropeptides mediating leptin anorexigenic function do not affect bone formation. Leptin deficiency results in low sympathetic tone, and genetic or pharmacological ablation of adrenergic signaling leads to a leptin-resistant high bone mass. beta-adrenergic receptors on osteoblasts regulate their proliferation, and a beta-adrenergic agonist decreases bone mass in leptin-deficient and wild-type mice while a beta-adrenergic antagonist increases bone mass in wild-type and ovariectomized mice. None of these manipulations affects body weight. This study demonstrates a leptin-dependent neuronal regulation of bone formation with potential therapeutic implications for osteoporosis.

  12. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human ...... to collision of normodromically and antidromically conducted impulses in efferent sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibers. The evidence obtained suggests that sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to postural changes are complex and highly differentiated....

  13. Social Justice Teaching through the Sympathetic Touch of Caring and High Expectations for Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Leticia; Liou, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    This 1-year qualitative study examined the ways in which nine social justice-oriented teachers in racially segregated schools defined and fostered sympathy with low-income students of color. These teachers reportedly defined sympathy on the basis of caring and high expectations, which challenged traditional notions of sympathy as a teacher cue for…

  14. Social Justice Teaching through the Sympathetic Touch of Caring and High Expectations for Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Leticia; Liou, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    This 1-year qualitative study examined the ways in which nine social justice-oriented teachers in racially segregated schools defined and fostered sympathy with low-income students of color. These teachers reportedly defined sympathy on the basis of caring and high expectations, which challenged traditional notions of sympathy as a teacher cue for…

  15. Perinatal exposure to a high-fat diet is associated with reduced hepatic sympathetic innervation in one-year old male Japanese macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available Our group recently demonstrated that maternal high-fat diet (HFD consumption is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, increased apoptosis, and changes in gluconeogenic gene expression and chromatin structure in fetal nonhuman primate (NHP liver. However, little is known about the long-term effects that a HFD has on hepatic nervous system development in offspring, a system that plays an important role in regulating hepatic metabolism. Utilizing immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR, we quantified sympathetic nerve fiber density, apoptosis, inflammation, and other autonomic components in the livers of fetal and one-year old Japanese macaques chronically exposed to a HFD. We found that HFD exposure in-utero and throughout the postnatal period (HFD/HFD, when compared to animals receiving a CTR diet for the same developmental period (CTR/CTR, is associated with a 1.7 fold decrease in periportal sympathetic innervation, a 5 fold decrease in parenchymal sympathetic innervation, and a 2.5 fold increase in hepatic apoptosis in the livers of one-year old male animals. Additionally, we observed an increase in hepatic inflammation and a decrease in a key component of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in one-year old HFD/HFD offspring. Taken together, these findings reinforce the impact that continuous exposure to a HFD has in the development of long-term hepatic pathologies in offspring and highlights a potential neuroanatomical basis for hepatic metabolic dysfunction.

  16. Chronic stress, combined with a high-fat/high-sugar diet, shifts sympathetic signaling toward neuropeptide Y and leads to obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Lydia E; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Kitlinska, Joanna B; Tilan, Jason U; Kvetnanský, Richard; Zukowska, Zofia

    2008-12-01

    In response to stress, some people lose while others gain weight. This is believed to be due to either increased beta-adrenergic activation, the body's main fat-burning mechanism, or increased intake of sugar- and fat-rich "comfort foods." A high-fat, high-sugar (HFS) diet alone, however, cannot account for the epidemic of obesity, and chronic stress alone tends to lower adiposity in mice. Here we discuss how chronic stress, when combined with an HFS diet, leads to abdominal obesity by releasing a sympathetic neurotransmitter, neuropeptide Y (NPY), directly into the adipose tissue. In vitro, when "stressed" with dexamethasone, sympathetic neurons shift toward expressing more NPY, which stimulates endothelial cell (angiogenesis) and preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and lipid-filling (adipogenesis) by activating the same NPY-Y2 receptors (Y2Rs). In vivo, chronic stress, consisting of cold water or aggression in HFS-fed mice, stimulates the release of NPY and the expression of Y2Rs in visceral fat, increasing its growth by 50% in 2 weeks. After 3 months, this results in metabolic syndrome-like symptoms with abdominal obesity, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and hypertension. Remarkably, local intra-fat Y2R inhibition pharmacologically or via adenoviral Y2R knock-down reverses or prevents fat accumulation and metabolic complications. These studies demonstrated for the first time that chronic stress, via the NPY-Y2R pathway, amplifies and accelerates diet-induced obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Our findings also suggest the use of local administration of Y2R antagonists for treatment of obesity and NPY-Y2 agonists for fat augmentation in other clinical applications.

  17. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert H.; Togias, Alkis

    2016-01-01

    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolut...

  18. Niflumic Acid Attenuated Pulmonary Artery Tone and Vascular Structural Remodeling of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Induced by High Pulmonary Blood Flow In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ma, Jianfa; Pang, Yusheng; Lao, Jinquan; Pan, Xuanren; Tang, Qiaoyun; Zhang, Feng; Su, Danyan; Qin, Suyuan; Shrestha, Arnav Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) play a vital role in regulating pulmonary artery tone during pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high blood flow. The role of CaCCs inhibitor niflumic acid (NFA) in vivo during this process requires further investigation. We established the PAH model by abdominal shunt surgery and treated with NFA in vivo. Fifty rats were randomly divided into normal, sham, shunt, NFA group 1 (0.2 mg/kg), and NFA group 2 (0.4 mg/kg). Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index, arterial wall area/vessel area, and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter were analyzed. Then contraction reactions of pulmonary arteries were measured. Finally, the electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells were investigated using patch-clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH developed, accompanied with increased right ventricle hypertrophy index, arterial wall area/vessel area, and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter. In the NFA treatment groups, the pressure and pathological changes were alleviated. The pulmonary artery tone in the shunt group increased, whereas it decreased after NFA treatment. The current density of CaCC was higher in the shunt group, and it was decreased in the NFA treatment groups. In conclusion, NFA attenuated pulmonary artery tone and structural remodeling in PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow in vivo. CaCCs were involved and the augmented current density was alleviated by NFA treatment.

  19. Cardiorenal axis and arrhythmias: Will renal sympathetic denervation provide additive value to the therapeutic arsenal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brussel, Peter M; Lieve, Krystien V V; de Winter, Robbert J; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2015-05-01

    Disruption of sympathetic tone may result in the occurrence or maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias. Multiple arrhythmic therapies that intervene by influencing cardiac sympathetic tone are common in clinical practice. These vary from pharmaceutical (β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and calcium antagonists) to percutaneous/surgical (cardiac sympathetic denervation) interventions. In some patients, however, these therapies have insufficient prophylactic and therapeutic capabilities. A safe and effective additional therapy wherein sympathetic drive is further attenuated would be expedient. Recently, renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) has been subject of research for various sympathetic nervous system-related diseases. By its presumed afferent and efferent sympatholytic effects, RSD might indirectly attenuate sympathetic outflow via the brain to the heart but might also reduce systemic catecholamine excretion and might therefore reduce catecholamine-sensitive arrhythmias. RSD is subject of research for various sympathetically driven arrhythmias, both supraventricular and ventricular. In this review, we give an overview of the rationale behind RSD as potential therapy in mediating arrhythmias that are triggered by a disrupted sympathetic nervous system and discuss the presently available results from animal and human studies.

  20. Polyarylenesulfonium Salt as a Novel and Versatile Nonchemically Amplified Negative Tone Photoresist for High-Resolution Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pulikanti Guruprasad; Pal, Satyendra Prakash; Kumar, Pawan; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P; Ghosh, Subrata; Sharma, Satinder K; Gonsalves, Kenneth E

    2017-01-11

    The present report demonstrates the potential of a polyarylenesulfonium polymer, poly[methyl(4-(phenylthio)-phenyl)sulfoniumtrifluoromethanesulfonate] (PAS), as a versatile nonchemically amplified negative tone photoresist for next-generation lithography (NGL) applications starting from i-line (λ ∼ 365 nm) to extreme ultraviolet (EUV, λ ∼ 13.5 nm) lithography. PAS exhibited considerable contrast (γ), 0.08, toward EUV and patterned 20 nm features successfully.

  1. Metabolic responses to high-fat or low-fat meals and association with sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Narumi; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2005-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the metabolic and sympathetic responses to a high-fat meal in humans. Fourteen young men (age: 23.6 +/- 0.5 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry for 3.5 h after a high-fat (70%, energy from fat) or an isoenergetic low-fat (20% energy from fat) meal served in random order. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). After the high-fat meal, increases in thermoregulatory SNS activity (very low-frequency component of HRV, 0.007-0.035 Hz, 577.4+/-45.9 vs. 432.0+/-49.3 ms2, p<0.05) and fat oxidation (21.0+/-5.3 vs. 13.3+/-4.3 g, p<0.001) were greater than those after the low-fat meal. However, thermic effects of the meal (TEM) were lower after the high-fat meal than after the low-fat meal (27.5+/-11.2 vs. 36.1+/-10.9 kcal, p<0.05). In conclusion, the high-fat meal can stimulate thermoregulatory SNS and lipolysis, but resulted in lower TEM, suggesting that a high proportion of dietary fat intake, even with a normal daily range of calories, may be a potent risk factor for further weight gain.

  2. Immunopathology of sympathetic ophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, G E

    1976-01-01

    The long held notion that sympathetic ophthalmia represents an autoimmune reaction to uveal pigment is no longer tenable. Pigmentation influences the histopathologic picture of sympathetic ophthalmia but no evidence supports the role of uveal pigment as inciting antigen. Several recent studies have confirmed our initial report of the participation of cellular hypersensitivity to ocular tissues in the pathogenesis of this disease. Both clinical and experimental studies implicate retinal tissue as being more immunogenic than uveal antigens. The recent histopathologic observation that eosinophils concentrate near the choriocapillaris suggests that outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium should not be overlooked as a potential source of the stimulating antigen in sympathetic ophthalmia.

  3. The Sympathetic Nervous System in the Pathogenesis of Takotsubo Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittstein, Ilan S

    2016-10-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is a unique clinical condition of acute heart failure and reversible left ventricular dysfunction frequently precipitated by sudden emotional or physical stress. There is growing evidence that exaggerated sympathetic stimulation is central to the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Precisely how catecholamines mediate myocardial stunning in takotsubo syndrome remains incompletely understood; but possible mechanisms include epicardial spasm, microvascular dysfunction, direct adrenergic-receptor-mediated myocyte injury, and systemic vascular effects that alter ventricular-arterial coupling. Risk factors that increase sympathetic tone and/or catecholamine sensitivity may render individuals particularly susceptible to takotsubo syndrome during episodes of acute stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of cold Mg{sup +}ion clouds for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions at SPECTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazan, Radu Mircea

    2012-02-15

    The bound electrons in hydrogen-like or lithium-like heavy ions experience extremely strong electric and magnetic fields in the surrounding of the nucleus. Laser spectroscopy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting in the lead region provides a sensitive tool to test strong-field quantum electro dynamics (QED), especially in the magnetic sector. Previous measurements on hydrogen-like systems performed in an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) or at the experimental storage ring (ESR) were experimentally limited in accuracy due to statistics, the large Doppler broadening and the ion energy. The full potential of the QED test can only be exploited if measurements for hydrogen- and lithium-like ions are performed with accuracy improved by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Therefore, the new Penning trap setup SPECTRAP - dedicated for laser spectroscopy on trapped and cooled highly charged ions - is currently commissioned at GSI Darmstadt. Heavy highly charged ions will be delivered to this trap by the HITRAP facility in the future. SPECTRAP is a cylindrical Penning trap with axial access for external ion injection and radial optical access mounted inside a cold-bore superconducting Helmholtz-type split-coil magnet. To reach the targeted accuracy in laser spectroscopy, an efficient and fast cooling process for the highly charged ions must be employed. This can be realized by sympathetic cooling with a cloud of laser-cooled light ions. Within this thesis work, a laser system and an ion source for the production of such a {sup 24}Mg{sup +} ion cloud was developed and commissioned at SPECTRAP. An all-solid-state laser system for the generation of 279.6 nm light was designed and built. It consists of a fiber laser at 1118.5 nm followed by frequency quadrupling using two successive second-harmonic generation stages with actively stabilized ring resonators and nonlinear crystals. The laser system can deliver more than 15 mW of UV laser power under optimal conditions and requires little

  5. Sympathetic modulation of muscle spindle afferent sensitivity to stretch in rabbit jaw closing muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Windhorst, U; Ljubisavljevic, M; Johansson, H; Passatore, M

    2002-04-01

    Previous reports showed that sympathetic stimulation affects the activity of muscle spindle afferents (MSAs). The aim of the present work is to study the characteristics of sympathetic modulation of MSA response to stretch: (i) on the dynamic and static components of the stretch response, and (ii) on group Ia and II MSAs to evaluate potentially different effects. In anaesthetised rabbits, the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) was stimulated at 10 impulses s(-1) for 45-90 s. The responses of single MSAs to trapezoidal displacement of the mandible were recorded from the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. The following characteristic parameters were determined from averaged trapezoidal responses: initial frequency (IF), peak frequency at the end of the ramp (PF), and static index (SI). From these, other parameters were derived: dynamic index (DI = PF - SI), dynamic difference (DD = PF - IF) and static difference (SD = SI - IF). The effects of CSN stimulation were also evaluated during changes in the state of intrafusal muscle fibre contraction induced by succinylcholine and curare. In a population of 124 MSAs, 106 units (85.4 %) were affected by sympathetic stimulation. In general, while changes in resting discharge varied among different units (Ia vs. II) and experimental conditions (curarised vs. non-curarised), ranging from enhancement to strong depression of firing, the amplitude of the response to muscle stretches consistently decreased. This was confirmed and detailed in a quantitative analysis performed on 49 muscle spindle afferents. In both the non-curarised (23 units) and curarised (26 units) condition, stimulation of the CSN reduced the response amplitude in terms of DD and SD, but hardly affected DI. The effects were equally present in both Ia and II units; they were shown to be independent from gamma drive and intrafusal muscle tone and not secondary to muscle hypoxia. Sympathetic action on the resting discharge (IF) was less

  6. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26066016

  7. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Chi H L; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-06-09

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.

  8. Using online tone generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Online tone generators are free, user friendly, and can make for engaging and meaningful study of many topics in the areas of interference, waves, and the physics of music. By using a website such as OnlineToneGenerator.com, and through opening multiple windows simultaneously, students can immediately perform several experiments. In this article, I highlight five lesson ideas that come naturally from these types of websites.

  9. Role of sympathetic nerve activity in the process of fainting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eIwase

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, characterized by rapid onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery, and the process of syncope progression will be described with two types of sympathetic change. Simultaneous recordings of microneurographically recorded MSNA and continuous and noninvasive blood pressure measurement have disclose what is going on in the course of progression of the syncope. Vasovagal or neurally mediated syncope, three stages are identified in the course of syncope onset, oscillation, imbalance, and catastrophe phases. The vasovagal syncope is characterized by the sympathoexcitation, followed by vagal overcome via the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Orthostatic syncope is caused by the response failure or lack of sympathetic nerve activity toward the orthostatic challenge followed by the fluid shift, and subsequent cerebral low perfusion. Four causes are considered for the compensatory failure, which triggers the orthostatic syncope; hypovolemia, increased pooling in the lower body, failure to activate the sympathetic activity, and failure of vasoconstriction against sympathetic vasoconstrictive stimulation. Many pathophysiological conditions were described in the viewpoint of 1 exaggerated sympathoexcitation and 2 failure to activate the sympathetic nerve. We conclude that the sympathetic nervous system can control the cardiovascular function, and its failure resulted syncope, however, responses of the system by microneurographically recorded MSNA would determine the pathophysiology of the onset and progression of syncope, explaining the treatment effect that could be achieved by the analysis of this mechanism.

  10. Perception and production of tone in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandour, J; Petty, S H; Dardarananda, R

    1988-11-01

    An acoustical and perceptual study of lexical tone was conducted to evaluate the extent and nature of tonal disruption in aphasia. The language under investigation was Thai, a tone language which has five lexical tones--mid, low, falling, high, and rising. Subjects included six left brain-damaged aphasics (two Broca's, one transcortical motor, one global, one conduction, one Wernicke), one right brain-damaged nonaphasic, one cerebellar dysarthric, and five normals. High-quality tape recordings of each subject's productions of a minimal set of five, monosyllabic Thai words were presented to 10 adult Thai listeners for identification. Results from the phonemic identification tests indicated that tone production is relatively spared in aphasic patients with unilateral left hemisphere lesions. The performance of the global aphasic, however, was considerably below normal. Patterns of tonal confusions further revealed that the performance of all aphasics, except the global, differed from that of normal speakers primarily in degree rather than in kind. Tonal contrasts were signaled at a high level of proficiency by the right brain-damaged and dysarthric patients. Acoustical analysis revealed that F0 contours associated with the five tones for all aphasics, except the global, were similar in overall shape as well as position in the tone space to those of normals. F0 contours for the right brain-damaged patient and the dysarthric also generally agreed with those of normals in terms of shape and position. F0 ranges of both aphasic and nonaphasic brain-damaged speakers were generally larger than those of normals for all five tones. The relationship between tone and vowel duration was generally similar to that of normals for all brain-damaged speakers. A comparison of aphasics' performance on tone perception (J. Gandour & R. Dardarananda, 1983, Brain and Language, 18, 94-114) and tone production indicated that, for the normal and right brain-damaged subjects, performance on

  11. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Vitor; Pardanaud, Luc; Brunet, Isabelle; Ola, Roxana; Ristori, Emma; Santoro, Massimo M; Nicoli, Stefania; Eichmann, Anne

    2015-06-23

    The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs) develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA) and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA) differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC) recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation.

  12. Quantitative measurement of sympathetic neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasimi, S G; Mearns, A J; Harness, J B; Heath, I

    1991-05-01

    Vasoconstriction occurs in the skin capillary blood flow of the healthy subject when posture changes from supine to standing. Using frequency analysis of the optical photoplethysmograph signal, a statistically significant difference (P less than 0.01) may be demonstrated between supine and standing positions in the lower frequency band (0.01-0.5 Hz) in the foot of normal subjects. This allowed us to develop a simple index: sympathetic power band change (SPBC). Patients with diabetes mellitus often suffer from degeneration in the sympathetic nervous system. This impairs the normal vasoconstrictor response to standing. We have applied the SPBC 'blind' to a group of diabetic patients. Such patients may be divided into three groups according to their SPBC indices: normals with SPBC greater than 2.6 (group A), intermediates with 2.6 greater than or equal to SPBC greater than or equal to 0.26 (group B) and poor with SPBC less than 0.26 (group C). All patients with retinopathy were in group C and five out of the six patients with electrophysiologically confirmed peripheral neuropathy were in group C. Frequency analysis of the photoplethysmograph signal has produced an index of sympathetic tone change when subjects move from supine to standing position. The application of this index to patients with diabetes mellitus shows some patients to have sympathetic vascular tone failure.

  13. Automated tone transcription

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, S

    1994-01-01

    In this paper I report on an investigation into the problem of assigning tones to pitch contours. The proposed model is intended to serve as a tool for phonologists working on instrumentally obtained pitch data from tone languages. Motivation and exemplification for the model is provided by data taken from my fieldwork on Bamileke Dschang (Cameroon). Following recent work by Liberman and others, I provide a parametrised F_0 prediction function P which generates F_0 values from a tone sequence, and I explore the asymptotic behaviour of downstep. Next, I observe that transcribing a sequence X of pitch (i.e. F_0) values amounts to finding a tone sequence T such that P(T) {}~= X. This is a combinatorial optimisation problem, for which two non-deterministic search techniques are provided: a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm. Finally, two implementations---one for each technique---are described and then compared using both artificial and real data for sequences of up to 20 tones. These programs ...

  14. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  15. Phonetics and Phonology of Chicahuaxtla Triqui Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Kosuke

    2012-01-01

    Chicahuaxtla Triqui (Otomanguean, Mexico) is one of the rare tone languages with five contrastive level tones and its underlying tone system is even more complicated than its surface five-level tone system. The complexity of its underlying tone system has developed through the historical tone shifts from Proto-Triqui. The surface tone system of…

  16. Phonetics and Phonology of Chicahuaxtla Triqui Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Kosuke

    2012-01-01

    Chicahuaxtla Triqui (Otomanguean, Mexico) is one of the rare tone languages with five contrastive level tones and its underlying tone system is even more complicated than its surface five-level tone system. The complexity of its underlying tone system has developed through the historical tone shifts from Proto-Triqui. The surface tone system of…

  17. Habitual traffic noise at home reduces cardiac parasympathetic tone during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, J.M.A.; Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between road and rail traffic noise with pre-ejection period (PEP) and with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during sleep, as indices of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system tone, were investigated in the field (36 subjects, with 188 and 192 valid subject nights

  18. Bombesin-like receptor 3 regulates blood pressure and heart rate via a central sympathetic mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Lateef, Dalya M.; Xiao, Cuiying; Brychta, Robert J.; Diedrich, Andr?; Schnermann, Jurgen; Reitman, Marc L.

    2016-01-01

    MK-5046, a bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS-3) agonist, increases heart rate and blood pressure via increased central sympathetic tone. Brs3 null mice have a reduced resting heart rate that increases disproportionately with physical activity. BRS-3 contributes to the central regulation of heart rate and blood pressure.

  19. [Vasomotor tone and CBP : monitoring components, pratical and therapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isetta, C; Janot, N

    2012-05-01

    The vasomotor tone is an essential determinant of blood pressure. Vascular resistance is the result of a calculation including vasomotor tone, blood flow and blood viscosity. The vascular tone is modulated by the sympathetic system and the direct actions of drugs (patient's pathology, anaesthesia). The pressure and flow allow the vascular tone apprehension. A decrease in vasomotor tone lowers the mean arterial pressure and may cause an intense vasoplegia with arterial vascular resistance below than 800 dyn/s/cm(5) leading to a lack of tissue oxygenation. Vasomotor paralysis can be caused by the patient medications or an intense inflammatory reaction starting at the extracorporeal circulation onset. Monitoring parameters of extracorporeal circulation such as pressure, flow, arterial and venous oxygen saturation, blood level in the venous reservoir, and extensively blood gases, haemoglobin, CO(2) partial pressure level of the oxygenator vent, bispectral index, and oxygen saturation of cerebral tissue are reviewed. They will know the vasoplegia consequences and bear an indication of adequate tissue oxygenation. It may be obtained by using vasopressors (ephedrine, norepinephrine, terbutalin and vasopressin) methylene blue, increasing blood viscosity (erythrocytes) and blood flow, even by inducing hypothermia.

  20. Change of tone

    CERN Document Server

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    The President of the Staff Association set the tone by leaving the members of the SCC speechless when he read out a solemn declaration For a start, Management invites us to discuss the Five-Yearly Review without having provided any formal text. Concertation Method of analysis and use of data previously adopted by Council. Salaries. Increase. Employment conditions. Family allowances. Crèche. Career perspectives. Referendum.

  1. Relevance of Sympathetic Nervous System Activation in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Alicia A; Schlaich, Markus P

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic tone is well recognised as being implicit in cardiovascular control. It is less readily acknowledged that activation of the sympathetic nervous system is integral in energy homeostasis and can exert profound metabolic effects. Accumulating data from animal and human studies suggest that central sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in the aetiology and complications of several metabolic conditions that can cluster to form the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Given the known augmented risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality associated with the MetS understanding the complex pathways underlying the metabolic derangements involved has become a priority. Many factors have been proposed to contribute to increased sympathetic nerve activity in metabolic abnormalities including obesity, impaired baroreflex sensitivity, hyperinsulinemia, and elevated adipokine levels. Furthermore there is mounting evidence to suggest that chronic sympathetic overactivity can potentiate two of the key metabolic alterations of the MetS, central obesity and insulin resistance. This review will discuss the regulatory role of the sympathetic nervous system in metabolic control and the proposed pathophysiology linking sympathetic overactivity to metabolic abnormalities. Pharmacological and device-based approaches that target central sympathetic drive will also be discussed as possible therapeutic options to improve metabolic control in at-risk patient cohorts.

  2. Tone features in whispered Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xueli; XU Boling

    2005-01-01

    Study on the whispered tone is important to speech recognition and conversion in whispered Chinese. In this paper, the characteristics of whispered speech are introduced and the tone features in whispered Chinese are discussed. There is no fundamental frequency in the whispered speech, so other features, such as the amplitude envelope, duration, glottal area, lip area, forrnant, and vocal tract length, are extracted and their contributions to the automatic tone recognition are compared. From the experiments with six simple Chinese whispered vowels in four tones, it is proved that loudness-weighted 32 Mel-frequency bands log-amplitude envelopes and duration can be used as the main tone features in the whispered Chinese tone recognition. The average tone recognition rate approaches that of the human perception level.

  3. [Effectiveness of sympathetic block using various technics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberg, W

    1987-07-01

    Blocking of sympathetic conduction aims at permanent or temporary elimination of those pain pathways conducted by the sympathetic nervous system. In order to provide an objective evaluation of sufficient blocking effect, earlier inquiries referred to parameters such as: (1) observation of clinical signs such as Horner's syndrome, Guttman's sign, anhidrosis, extended venous filling; (2) difference in skin temperature of at least 1.5 degrees C between blocked and unblocked side; (3) increase in amplitude of the pulse wave; and (4) depression of the psychogalvanic reflex (PGR) on the blocked side (Fig. 1). In clinical practice, these control parameters are effective because they are time-saving, technically simple, and highly evidential. Further parameters for evaluating sympathetic blockade are examination of hydrosis by means of color indicators such as bromocresol and ninhydrin, oscillometry, and plethysmography. The effectiveness of sympathetic blockade after stellate ganglion and sympathetic trunk blocks has been verified by various authors. In a clinical study, 16 patients were divided into four groups in order to test the effectiveness of sympathetic blockade after spinal anesthesia with 3 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group I) and 4 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group II) and after peridural anesthesia with 15 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group III) and 20 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group IV) by means of temperature difference, response of pulse wave amplitude and PGR between blocked lower and unblocked upper extremity, and sensory levels of block. The patients were classified as ASA I and II; their ages varied from 20 to 63 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. BRAINSTEM CHOLINERGIC MODULATION OF MUSCLE TONE IN INFANT RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Andrew J.; Poremba, Amy; Blumberg, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    In week-old rats, lesions of the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum (DLPT) and nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) have opposing effects on nuchal muscle tone. Specifically, pups with DLPT lesions exhibit prolonged bouts of nuchal muscle atonia (indicative of sleep) and pups with PnO lesions exhibit prolonged bouts of high nuchal muscle tone (indicative of wakefulness). Here we test the hypothesis that nuchal muscle tone is modulated, at least in part, by cholinergically mediated interactions between the...

  5. Sympathetic dysfunction in vasovagal syncope and the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Elisabeth; Lambert, Gavin W

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is the inability to tolerate the upright posture and is relieved by recumbence. It most commonly affects young women and has a major impact on quality of life and psychosocial well-being. Several forms of orthostatic intolerance have been described. The most common one is the recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS) phenotype which presents as a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness and postural tone that is followed by rapid recovery. Another common type of orthostatic intolerance is the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) which is characterized by an excessive rise in heart rate upon standing and is associated with symptoms of presyncope such as light-headedness, fatigue, palpitations, and nausea. Maintenance of arterial pressure under condition of reduced central blood volume during the orthostasis is accomplished in large part through sympathetic efferent nerve traffic to the peripheral vasculature. Therefore sympathetic nervous system (SNS) dysfunction is high on the list of possible contributors to the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance. Investigations into the role of the SNS in orthostatic intolerance have yielded mixed results. This review outlines the current knowledge of the function of the SNS in both VVS and POTS.

  6. Sympathetic dysfunction in vasovagal syncope and the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eLambert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthostatic intolerance is the inability to tolerate the upright posture and is relieved by recumbence. It most commonly affects young women and has a major impact on quality of life and psychosocial well being. Several forms of orthostatic intolerance have been described. The most common one is the recurrent vasovagal syncope (VVS phenotype which presents as a transient and abrupt loss of consciousness and postural tone that is followed by rapid recovery. Another common type of orthostatic intolerance is the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS which is characterized by an excessive rise in heart rate upon standing and is associated with symptoms of presyncope such as light-headedness, fatigue, palpitations and nausea. Maintenance of arterial pressure under condition of reduced central blood volume during the orthostasis is accomplished in large part through sympathetic efferent nerve traffic to the peripheral vasculature. Therefore sympathetic nervous system (SNS dysfunction is high on the list of possible contributors to the pathophysiology of orthostatic intolerance. Investigations into the role of the SNS in orthostatic intolerance have yielded mixed results. This review outlines the current knowledge of the function of the SNS in both VVS and POTS.

  7. Dynamic Radiographic Analysis of Sympathetic Cervical Spondylosis Instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Qian; Ye Tian; Gui-xing Qiu; Jian-hua Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between subaxial cervical spine instability and cervical spondylotic sympathetic symptoms as well as the difference of cervical spondylotic subaxial instability between male and female patients. Methods We analyzed retrospectively 318 surgical cases of cervical spondylosis treated at Department of Orthopedic Surgery of Peking Union Medical College Hospital between July 2003 and December 2007. All cases were divided into group A without sympathetic symptoms (n=284) and group B with sympathetic symptoms (n=34). Angular and horizontal translation values between two adjacent vertebral bodies from C2 to C7 were measured separately on hyperflexion and hyperextension lateral cervical spine radiographs. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate the correlation between subaxial cervical instability and sympathetic symptoms. Intragroup correlation between patient gender and subaxial cervical instability was also evaluated. Results Subaxial instability incidences in groups A and B were 21.8% (62/284) and 55.9% (19/34), respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a definite correlation between subaxial cervical instability and sympathetic symptoms (P=0.000). Among patients without sympathetic symptoms, subaxial instability incidences were 21.4% (37/173) in males and 22.5% (25/111) in females, respectively (P=0.883). While among patients with sympathetic symptoms, subaxial instability incidences were 27.3% (3/11) in males and 69.6% (16/23) in females, respectively, indicating significant difference (P=0.030). Subaxial instability was most commonly seen at C4-C5 intervertebral space in sympathetic cervical spondylosis patients. Conclusions High correlation exists between subaxial cervical spine instability and cervical spondylotic sympathetic symptoms, especially in female patients. Hyperextension and hyperflexion radiographs of cervical spine are important to assess sympathetic cervical spondylotic subaxial instability.

  8. Enhanced visual perception through tone mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Andre; Mullins, Linda L.; Raglin, Adrienne; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    Tone mapping operators compress high dynamic range images to improve the picture quality on a digital display when the dynamic range of the display is lower than that of the image. However, tone mapping operators have been largely designed and evaluated based on the aesthetic quality of the resulting displayed image or how perceptually similar the compressed image appears relative to the original scene. They also often require per image tuning of parameters depending on the content of the image. In military operations, however, the amount of information that can be perceived is more important than the aesthetic quality of the image and any parameter adjustment needs to be as automated as possible regardless of the content of the image. We have conducted two studies to evaluate the perceivable detail of a set of tone mapping algorithms, and we apply our findings to develop and test an automated tone mapping algorithm that demonstrates a consistent improvement in the amount of perceived detail. An automated, and thereby predictable, tone mapping method enables a consistent presentation of perceivable features, can reduce the bandwidth required to transmit the imagery, and can improve the accessibility of the data by reducing the needed expertise of the analyst(s) viewing the imagery.

  9. AMPUTATION AND REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GEERTZEN, JHB; EISMA, WH

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by chronic burning pain, restricted range of motion, oedema and vasolability. Patients are difficult to treat and the prognosis is very often poor. This report emphasizes that an amputation in case of a reflex sympathetic

  10. Effects of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays and stretching on muscle tone in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Takezako, Nobuhiro; Shimonishi, Yuko; Usuda, Shigeru

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays (HI-LPNR) and stretching on hypertonia in cerebrovascular disease patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 cerebrovascular disease patients with hypertonia of the ankle joint plantar flexor muscle. The subjects were randomly allocated to groups undergoing treatment with HI-LPNR irradiation (HI-LPNR group), stretching (stretching group), HI-LPNR irradiation followed by stretching (combination group), and control group (10 subjects each). In all groups, the passive range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the specified intervention. [Results] The changes in passive range of motion, significant increase in the stretching and combination groups compared with that in the control group. The changes in passive resistive joint torque, significant decrease in HI-LPNR, stretching, and combination groups compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has effect of decrease muscle tone. However, combination of HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has no multiplier effect.

  11. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert H; Togias, Alkis

    2016-07-01

    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolution computed tomography at baseline and after maximum bronchodilation with albuterol. Airway tone was defined as the percent difference in airway diameter after albuterol at total lung capacity compared with baseline. The amount of airway tone in each airway varied both within and between subjects. The average airway tone did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.09), but the intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity did (P = 0.016). Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity was strongly correlated with airway tone (r = 0.78, P tone heterogeneity and conventional lung function outcomes. Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity appears to be an important characteristic of airway pathophysiology in asthma.

  12. Interactions among Vascular-Tone Modulators Contribute to High Altitude Pulmonary Edema and Augmented Vasoreactivity in Highlanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Zahara; Mishra, Aastha; Kumar, Rahul; Alam, Perwez; Pandey, Priyanka; Ram, Rekhbala; Thinlas, Tashi; Mohammad, Ghulam; Pasha, M. A. Qadar

    2012-01-01

    Background The interactions among various biomarkers remained unexplored under the stressful environment of high-altitude. Present study evaluated interactions among biomarkers to study susceptibility for high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) in HAPE-patients (HAPE-p) and adaptation in highland natives (HLs); both in comparison to HAPE-free sojourners (HAPE-f). Methodology/Principal Findings All the subjects were recruited at 3500 m. We measured clinical parameters, biochemical levels in plasma and gene expression using RNA from blood; analyzed various correlations between and among the clinical parameters, especially arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and biochemical parameters like, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), serotonin (5-HT), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α), endothelin-1 (ET-1), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) in HAPE-p, HAPE-f and HLs. ADMA, 5-HT, 8-isoPGF2α, ET-1 levels, and PAC were significantly higher (p0.05) lower in HLs than HAPE-f. The expression of respective genes differed in the three groups. In the correlations, SaO2 inversely correlated with ADMA, 5-HT and 8-isoPGF2α and positively with SOD in HAPE-p (p≤0.009). MAP correlated positively with 5-HT and 8-isoPGF2α in HAPE-p and HLs (p≤0.004). A strong positive correlation was observed between ADMA and 5-HT, 5-HT and 8-isoPGF2α (p≤0.001), whereas inverse correlation of SOD with ET-1 in HAPE-p and HLs (p≤0.004), with 5-HT and 8-isoPGF2α in HAPE-p (p = 0.01) and with 5-HT in HLs (p = 0.05). Conclusions/Significance The interactions among these markers confer enhanced vascular activity in HLs and HAPE in sojourners. PMID:22984459

  13. Interactions among vascular-tone modulators contribute to high altitude pulmonary edema and augmented vasoreactivity in highlanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahara Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interactions among various biomarkers remained unexplored under the stressful environment of high-altitude. Present study evaluated interactions among biomarkers to study susceptibility for high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE in HAPE-patients (HAPE-p and adaptation in highland natives (HLs; both in comparison to HAPE-free sojourners (HAPE-f. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the subjects were recruited at 3500 m. We measured clinical parameters, biochemical levels in plasma and gene expression using RNA from blood; analyzed various correlations between and among the clinical parameters, especially arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2 and mean arterial pressure (MAP and biochemical parameters like, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, serotonin (5-HT, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α, endothelin-1 (ET-1, plasma renin activity (PRA, plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC, superoxide dismutase (SOD and nitric oxide (NO in HAPE-p, HAPE-f and HLs. ADMA, 5-HT, 8-isoPGF2α, ET-1 levels, and PAC were significantly higher (p0.05 lower in HLs than HAPE-f. The expression of respective genes differed in the three groups. In the correlations, SaO(2 inversely correlated with ADMA, 5-HT and 8-isoPGF2α and positively with SOD in HAPE-p (p≤0.009. MAP correlated positively with 5-HT and 8-isoPGF2α in HAPE-p and HLs (p ≤ 0.004. A strong positive correlation was observed between ADMA and 5-HT, 5-HT and 8-isoPGF2α (p≤0.001, whereas inverse correlation of SOD with ET-1 in HAPE-p and HLs (p ≤ 0.004, with 5-HT and 8-isoPGF2α in HAPE-p (p = 0.01 and with 5-HT in HLs (p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The interactions among these markers confer enhanced vascular activity in HLs and HAPE in sojourners.

  14. Dynamic Behavior of Microbubbles during Long Ultrasound Tone-Burst Excitation: Mechanistic Insights into Ultrasound-Microbubble Mediated Therapeutics Using High-Speed Imaging and Cavitation Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xucai; Wang, Jianjun; Pacella, John J; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound (US)-microbubble (MB)-mediated therapies have been found to restore perfusion and enhance drug/gene delivery. On the presumption that MBs do not persist during long US exposure under high acoustic pressures, most schemes use short US pulses when a high US pressure is employed. However, we recently observed an enhanced thrombolytic effect using long US pulses at high acoustic pressures. Therefore, we explored the fate of MBs during long tone-burst exposures (5 ms) at various acoustic pressures and MB concentrations via direct high-speed optical observation and passive cavitation detection. MBs first underwent stable or inertial cavitation depending on the acoustic pressure and then formed gas-filled clusters that continued to oscillate, break up and form new clusters. Cavitation detection confirmed continued, albeit diminishing, acoustic activity throughout the 5-ms US excitation. These data suggest that persisting cavitation activity during long tone bursts may confer additional therapeutic effects.

  15. Cochlear Mechanics: Analysis for a Pure Tone,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-07

    Frommer , 1979; Zwislocki, 1980; Lighthill, 1981; Khanna, 1983). The problem is made more difficult by the current state of the experimental evidence...pathology of high-tone deafness," Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 54, 315-379 Frommer , G.H. (1979). "Fluid motion in the mammalian organ of Corti: a

  16. Strategies for Analyzing Tone Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a method of auditory and acoustic analysis for determining the tonemes of a language starting from scratch, drawing on the author's experience of recording and analyzing tone languages of north-east India. The methodology is applied to a preliminary analysis of tone in the Thang dialect of Khiamniungan, a virtually undocumented…

  17. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  18. Comparison of the effectiveness of monitoring Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity with extended high-frequency pure-tone audiometry or distortion-product otoacoustic emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kwang Kyu; Choi, Chi Ho; An, Yong-Hwi; Kwak, Min Young; Gong, Soo Jung; Yoon, Sang Won; Shim, Hyun Joon

    2014-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of monitoring cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in adult patients using extended high-frequency pure-tone audiometry (EHF-PTA) or distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DP-OAE) and to evaluate the concurrence of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity in cisplatin-treated patients. EHF-PTA was measured at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11.2, 12.5, 14, 16, 18, and 20 kHz and DP-OAE at frequencies of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz in cisplatin-treated patients (n=10). Baseline evaluations were made immediately before chemotherapy and additional tests were performed before each of six cycles of cisplatin treatment. Laboratory tests to monitor nephrotoxicity were included before every cycle of chemotherapy. Four of 10 patients showed threshold changes on EHF-PTA. Five of 10 patients showed reductions in DP-OAE, but one was a false-positive result. The results of EHF-PTA and DP-OAE were consistent in two patients. Only one patient displayed nephrotoxicity on laboratory tests after the third cycle. In our study, the incidence rate of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity was 40% with EHF-PTA or DP-OAE. Although both EHF-PTA and DP-OAE showed the same sensitivity in detecting ototoxicity, they did not produce the same results in all patients. These two hearing tests could be used to complement one another. Clinicians should use both tests simultaneously in every cycle of chemotherapy to ensure the detection of ototoxicity.

  19. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q; Møller, H J; Pfeiffer Jensen, M; Drewes, A M; Farmer, A D

    2016-12-12

    The vagus nerve is a central component of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. We sought to evaluate the effect of bilateral transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on validated parameters of autonomic tone and cytokines in 20 healthy subjects. 24 hours after t-VNS, there was an increase in cardiac vagal tone and a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-α in comparison to baseline. No change was seen in blood pressure, cardiac sympathetic index or other cytokines. These preliminary data suggest that t-VNS exerts an autonomic and a subtle antitumor necrosis factor-α effect, which warrants further evaluation in larger controlled studies.

  20. Brainstem cholinergic modulation of muscle tone in infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Andrew J; Poremba, Amy; Blumberg, Mark S

    2007-06-01

    In week-old rats, lesions of the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum (DLPT) and nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) have opposing effects on nuchal muscle tone. Specifically, pups with DLPT lesions exhibit prolonged bouts of nuchal muscle atonia (indicative of sleep) and pups with PnO lesions exhibit prolonged bouts of high nuchal muscle tone (indicative of wakefulness). Here we test the hypothesis that nuchal muscle tone is modulated, at least in part, by cholinergically mediated interactions between these two regions. First, in unanesthetized pups, we found that chemical infusion of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (22 mm, 0.1 microL) within the DLPT produced high muscle tone. Next, chemical lesions of the PnO were used to produce a chronic state of high nuchal muscle tone, at which time the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine (10 mm, 0.1 microL) was infused into the DLPT. Scopolamine effectively decreased nuchal muscle tone, thus suggesting that lesions of the PnO increase muscle tone via cholinergic activation of the DLPT. Using 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography, metabolic activation throughout the DLPT was observed after PnO lesions. Finally, consistent with the hypothesis that PnO inactivation produces high muscle tone, infusion of the sodium channel blocker lidocaine (2%) into the PnO of unanesthetized pups produced rapid increases in muscle tone. We conclude that, even early in infancy, the DLPT is critically involved in the regulation of muscle tone and behavioral state, and that its activity is modulated by a cholinergic mechanism that is directly or indirectly controlled by the PnO.

  1. Sympathetic vasomotor control does not explain the change in femoral artery shear rate pattern during arm-crank exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Green, D.J.; Steendijk, S.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2009-01-01

    During lower limb exercise, blood flow through the resting upper limbs exhibits a change characterized by increased anterograde flow during systole, but also large increases in retrograde diastolic flow. One explanation for the retrograde flow is that increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone

  2. Recent advances in sympathetic ophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, G E

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of sympathetic ophthalmia are helping to remove the pigmented cloud which has obstructed the view of researchers on this disease for many years. Clinical features, diagnostic testing, histopathologic variations and principles of treatment are evaluated in the context of our increasing understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. The relationship of sympathetic ophthalmia to Harada's disease and phacoantigenic uveitis are reviewed.

  3. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  4. Changes in plasma catecholamine and neuropeptide Y levels after sympathetic activation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, M. F.; Damase-Michel, C.; Tavernier, G.; Tran, M. A.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.; Montastruc, P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were evaluated in two experimental models associated with an increase in sympathetic tone: conscious dogs which were subject to either sinoaortic denervation or acute administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. 2. Dogs that had undergone sinoaortic denervation exhibited a two fold increase in plasma NA without any change in NPY levels. 3. Yohimbine (0.05 mg kg-1 i.v. as a bolus) produced similar effects. A higher dose of yohimbine (0.5 mg kg-1 i.v.) increased both plasma NA (7 fold) and NPY (6.5 fold) levels. 4. The present results indicate that changes in plasma catecholamines and NPY are not always concomitant. They suggest that the simultaneous release of NA and NPY is only observed under in vivo conditions for a marked increase in sympathetic tone. PMID:1596679

  5. Effects of Fundamental Frequency and Duration Variation on the Perception of South Kyungsang Korean Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The perception of lexical tones is addressed through research on South Kyungsang Korean, spoken in the southeastern part of Korea. Based on an earlier production study (Chang, 2008a, 2008b), a categorization experiment was conducted to determine the perceptually salient aspects of the perceptual nature of a high tone and a rising tone. The…

  6. Remodelling sympathetic innervation in rat pancreatic islets ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiriart Marcia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic islets are not fully developed at birth and it is not clear how they are vascularised and innervated. Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is required to guide sympathetic neurons that innervate peripheral organs and also in cardiovascular system and ovary angiogenesis. Pancreatic beta cells of a transgenic mouse that over-expressed NGF in attracts sympathetic hyper-innervation towards them. Moreover, we have previously demonstrated that adult beta cells synthesize and secrete NGF; however, we do not know how is NGF secreted during development, nor if it might be trophic for sympathetic innervation and survival in the pancreas. We analyzed sympathetic innervation and vasculature development in rat pancreatic islets at different developmental stages; foetal (F19, early postnatal (P1, weaning period (P20 and adults. We temporarily correlated these events to NGF secretion by islet cells. Results Sympathetic fibres reached pancreatic islets in the early postnatal period, apparently following blood vessels. The maximal number of sympathetic fibres (TH immunopositive in the periphery of the islets was observed at P20, and then fibres entered the islets and reached the core where beta cells are mainly located. The number of fibres decreased from that stage to adulthood. At all stages studied, islet cells secreted NGF and also expressed the high affinity receptor TrkA. Foetal and neonatal isolated islet cells secreted more NGF than adults. TrkA receptors were expressed at all stages in pancreatic sympathetic fibres and blood vessels. These last structures were NGF–immunoreactive only at early stages (foetal and P0. Conclusion The results suggest that NGF signalling play an important role in the guidance of blood vessels and sympathetic fibres toward the islets during foetal and neonatal stages and could also preserve innervation at later stages of life.

  7. Upregulation of orexin receptor in paraventricular nucleus promotes sympathetic outflow in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, De-Pei

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic vasomotor tone is elevated in obesity-related hypertension. Orexin importantly regulates energy metabolism and autonomic function. We hypothesized that alteration of orexin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in obesity. We used in vivo measurement of sympathetic vasomotor tone and microinjection into brain nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recording in brain slices, and immunocytochemical staining in obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Microinjection of orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB334867 into the PVN reduced basal arterial blood pressure (ABP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in anesthetized OZRs but not in LZRs. Microinjection of orexin A into the PVN produced greater increases in ABP and RSNA in OZRs than in LZRs. Western blot analysis revealed that OX1R expression levels in the PVN were significantly increased in OZRs compared with LZRs. OX1R immunoreactivity was positive in retrogradely labeled PVN-spinal neurons. The basal firing rate of labeled PVN-spinal neurons was higher in OZRs than in LZRs. SB334867 decreased the basal firing activity of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs but had no effect in LZRs. Orexin A induced a greater increase in the firing rate of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. In addition, orexin A induced larger currents in PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. These data suggest that upregulation of OX1R in the PVN promotes hyperactivity of PVN presympathetic neurons and elevated sympathetic outflow in obesity.

  8. The History of Sympathetic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmonai, Moshe

    2016-11-01

    At present, primary hyperhidrosis is the main indication for sympathectomy. For upper thoracic sympathetic ablation, excision of the second thoracic ganglion alone or with the first and/or third ganglia was the standard during the open surgery era. With the advent of thoracoscopy, modifications related to the level, extent, and type of ablation were proposed to attenuate compensatory hyperhidrosis. The ideal operation for sympathetic denervation of the face and upper limbs remain to be defined. Controlled double-blind studies with quantitave measurements of sweat production are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-tone masking in normal hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, W M; Bilger, R C; Trahiotis, C; Nuetzel, J

    1980-10-01

    Psychophysical measurements of two-tone masking [E. Zwicker, Acustica 4, 415-420 (1954)] were made at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz utilizing a masker level of 62 dB SPL/tone. Fifty-eight "untrained" subjects were tested using a single run of a 4IFC adaptive procedure for each condition. Individual data were highly variable. Average data were systematic; they were analyzed using a two-line-regression procedure and the obtained critical-bandwidth estimates approximated normative values. Analysis of the literature revealed that a substantial increase of estimated critical bandwidth versus masker level occurs in two-tone masking. A portion of this increase appears artificial and stems from the relative effectiveness of the higher frequency masker tone at high masker levels. An alternative masker-frequency spacing is suggested to reduce level effects. Implications for an underlying critical-band mechanism are discussed.

  10. Tone and inflection: An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Palancar, Enrique L.; Léonard, Jean-Léo

    2015-01-01

    Accepted in Enrique L. Palancar & Jean-Léo Léonard (eds.), Tone and Inflection: New facts under new perspectives. Submitted to DeGruyter, Oct. 2014; Tone is about melody and meaning, inflection is about grammar and this book is about a bit of both. The different papers in this book study possible and sometimes very complex ways in which the melodies of a given language engage in the expression of grammatical meaning. In this light, the volume aims to broaden our understanding of the role of t...

  11. Visual emotional context modulates brain potentials elicited by unattended tones

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao

    2007-01-01

    To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset...

  12. Effect of harmonic rank on the streaming of complex tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sara Miay Kim; Dau, Torsten; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the rank of the harmonics on sequential stream segregation of complex tones was investigated for normal-hearing participants with no musical training. It was hypothesized that stream segregation would be greater for tones with high pitch salience, as assessed by fundamental frequency....... There was a significant trend for less stream segregation with increasing harmonic rank. The amount of stream segregation was inversely correlated with the f0 difference limens, consistent with the hypothesis....

  13. Visual emotional context modulates brain potentials elicited by unattended tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao

    2007-10-01

    To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset interval of 600 ms. Participants were told to ignore the tones. High-deviant tones elicited a larger N1 (peaking around 100 ms) when participants were viewing negative slides than when viewing positive slides. The amplitude of the P2 elicited by standard tones (peaking around 170 ms) was smaller when participants were viewing positive slides than when viewing negative and neutral slides. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (150-200 ms) tended to reduce during positive slide presentation, but this difference appeared to be due to reduction of the P2 elicited by standard tones. These findings suggest that visually induced emotional states have a sequential effect on auditory information processing, in that the influence of negative emotion appears at an earlier stage than that of positive emotion.

  14. Interstitial cells of Cajal mediate excitatory sympathetic neurotransmission in guinea pig prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang-ping; Ding, Guo-fu; Wang, Qin-zhang

    2013-06-01

    Morphological and functional studies have confirmed that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are involved in many enteric motor neurotransmission pathways. Recent investigations have demonstrated that human and guinea pig prostate glands possess a distinct cell type with morphological and immunological similarities to ICCs. These prostate ICCs have a close relationship with nerve bundles and smooth muscle cells. Prostate smooth muscle tone is largely induced by stimulation from the sympathetic nervous system, which releases excitatory norepinephrine (NE) to act on the α1-adrenoceptor. We have performed morphological and functional experiments to determine the role of ICCs in sympathetic neurotransmission in the guinea pig prostate based on the hypothesis that prostate ICCs act as mediators of sympathetic neurotransmission. Immunohistochemistry revealed many close points of contact between ICCs and sympathetic nerve bundles and smooth muscle cells. Double-labeled sections revealed that α1-adrenoceptor and the gap junction protein connexin 43 were expressed in prostate ICCs. Surprisingly, prostate ICCs co-expressed tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine β-hydroxylase, two markers of sympathetic neurons. Functionally, the application of NE evoked a large single inward current in isolated prostate ICCs in a dose-dependent manner. The inward current evoked by NE was mediated via the activation of α1-adrenoceptors, because it was abolished by the non-specific α-adrenoceptor antagonist, phentolamine and the specific α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin. Thus, ICCs in the guinea pig prostate are target cells for prostate sympathetic nerves and possess the morphological and functional characteristics required to mediate sympathetic signals.

  15. Effects of attention to and awareness of preceding context tones on auditory streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, David M; Metzger, Brian A; Snyder, Joel S

    2014-04-01

    This study determined whether facilitation of auditory stream segregation could occur when facilitating context tones are accompanied by other sounds. Facilitation was measured as the likelihood of a repeated context tone that could match the low (A) or high (B) frequency of a repeating ABA test to increase the likelihood of hearing the test as segregated. We observed this type of facilitation when matching tones were alone, or with simultaneous bandpass noises or continuous speech, neither of which masked the tones. However, participants showed no streaming facilitation when a harmonic complex masked the context tones. Mistuning or desynchronizing the context tone relative to the rest of the complex did not facilitate streaming, despite the fact that the context tone was accessible to awareness and attention. Even presenting the context tone in a separate ear from the rest of the harmonic complex did not facilitate streaming, ruling out peripheral interference. Presenting the test as mistuned or desynchronized tones relative to complex tones eliminated the possibility that timbre changes from context to test interfered with facilitation resulting from the context. These results demonstrate the fragility of streaming facilitation and show that awareness of and attention to the context tones are not sufficient to overcome interference.

  16. High-resolution, high-throughput, positive-tone patterning of poly(ethylene glycol by helium beam exposure through stencil masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliedonna E Cacao

    Full Text Available In this work, a collimated helium beam was used to activate a thiol-poly(ethylene glycol (SH-PEG monolayer on gold to selectively capture proteins in the exposed regions. Protein patterns were formed at high throughput by exposing a stencil mask placed in proximity to the PEG-coated surface to a broad beam of helium particles, followed by incubation in a protein solution. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR spectra showed that SH-PEG molecules remain attached to gold after exposure to beam doses of 1.5-60 µC/cm(2 and incubation in PBS buffer for one hour, as evidenced by the presence of characteristic ether and methoxy peaks at 1120 cm(-1 and 2870 cm(-1, respectively. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS spectra showed that increasing beam doses destroy ether (C-O bonds in PEG molecules as evidenced by the decrease in carbon C1s peak at 286.6 eV and increased alkyl (C-C signal at 284.6 eV. XPS spectra also demonstrated protein capture on beam-exposed PEG regions through the appearance of a nitrogen N1s peak at 400 eV and carbon C1s peak at 288 eV binding energies, while the unexposed PEG areas remained protein-free. The characteristic activities of avidin and horseradish peroxidase were preserved after attachment on beam-exposed regions. Protein patterns created using a 35 µm mesh mask were visualized by localized formation of insoluble diformazan precipitates by alkaline phosphatase conversion of its substrate bromochloroindoyl phosphate-nitroblue tetrazolium (BCIP-NBT and by avidin binding of biotinylated antibodies conjugated on 100 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP. Patterns created using a mask with smaller 300 nm openings were detected by specific binding of 40 nm AuNP probes and by localized HRP-mediated deposition of silver nanoparticles. Corresponding BSA-passivated negative controls showed very few bound AuNP probes and little to no enzymatic formation of diformazan precipitates or silver

  17. Tone-3 Accent Realization in Short Chinese Sentences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wen; ZHANG Jinsong

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how a low tone (tone-3,T3) syllable in Chinese can be perceived to be focal ac-canted or not,a total of 156 sentences containing tone-3 words were synthesized and used as stimuli in a perceptual study.The sentences differed in the falling value between the two high pitches,and in the dura-tion and phonation types of the T3 syllables.Thirty-nine subjects were asked to judge where the focus or accent was for each sentence.The results show that at least three degrees of pitch drop are involved in the focus recognition: a big sized drop of about 10 semitones; a middle sized drop of about 6 semitones; a small sized drop of about 2 semitones.The results suggest that the three sizes of pitch drop have different indica-tions in Chinese intonation,depending on both the tone and the tone combination.In perception,there are various ways to realize tone-3 focus in the Tx-T3-Ty sentences series,but in production or for text-to-speech synthesis,the rule simply is making a middle sized pitch drop with a long and creaky T3 syllable.Similarly,to focus on the low tone syllable in the T3-Tx-Ty sentences,a creaky T3 syllable is essential.However,a long T3 syllable is a strong determinant for a low tone focus in the Tx-Ty-T3 sentences.

  18. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  19. Perception of Mandarin Chinese Tone 2/Tone 3 and the Role of Creaky Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that lexical tones, a suprasegmental feature, are processed by native speakers as linguistic elements just like other segmental information. Among the four tones of Mandarin Chinese, in particular, Tone 2 and Tone 3 are very similar in their pitch contour shapes and thus can be difficult to distinguish in native and nonnative…

  20. Root Tone: A Holistic Approach to Tone Pedagogy of Western Classical Flute

    Science.gov (United States)

    BastaniNezhad, Arya

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how key components of holistic tone production can help flutists form a resonant tone. This is framed in an exploration of tone pedagogy and includes a model of tone evaluation and education. This research is also applicable to other instrumentalists, especially wind players. In this case study information was collected by…

  1. Postprandial Hypotension due to a Lack of Sympathetic Compensation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumoto,Akihisa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hypotension is an important hemodynamic abnormality in diabetes mellitus, but few reports are available on the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and postprandial hypotension. Ten diabetic patients and 10 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. Postural blood pressure and heart rate changes were measured before lunch, and then the hemodynamic responses to a standardized meal were investigated. Holter electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring was conducted for assessing spectral powers and time-domain parameters of RR variations. Postural changes from the supine to the upright position decreased the systolic blood pressure of the diabetics from 133(+-16 to 107(+-20 mmHg (p<0.01, but did not decrease the systolic blood pressure of the controls. The heart rate remained constant in the diabetics but was increased in the controls. Food ingestion decreased systolic blood pressure in the diabetics, with a maximum reduction of 25(+-5 mmHg. This decrease was not associated with any changes in the ratio of low frequency to high frequency, and yet the heart rate remained almost constant. Indexes involving parasympathetic tone were not affected. Food ingestion did not affect blood pressure in the control group. These findings suggest that lack of compensatory sympathetic activation is a factor contributing to postprandial hypotension in diabetics, and that parasympathetic drive does not make a significant contribution to this condition.

  2. Sympathetic activation is associated with increased IL-6, but not CRP in the absence of obesity: lessons from postural tachycardia syndrome and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Luis E; Raj, Satish R; Gamboa, Alfredo; Shibao, Cyndya A; Arnold, Amy C; Garland, Emily M; Black, Bonnie K; Farley, Ginnie; Diedrich, André; Biaggioni, Italo

    2015-12-15

    Sympathetic activation is thought to contribute to the inflammatory process associated with obesity, which is characterized by elevated circulating C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). To evaluate whether sympathetic activation is associated with inflammation in the absence of obesity, we studied patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), a condition characterized by increased sympathetic tone in otherwise healthy individuals. Compared with 23 lean controls, 43 lean female POTS had greater vascular sympathetic modulation (low-frequency blood pressure variability, LFSBP, 3.2 ± 0.4 vs. 5.5 ± 0.6 mmHg(2), respectively, P = 0.006), lower cardiac parasympathetic modulation (high-frequency heart rate variability, 1,414 ± 398 vs. 369 ± 66 ms(2), P = 0.001), and increased serum IL-6 (2.33 ± 0.49 vs. 4.15 ± 0.54 pg/ml, P = 0.011), but this was not associated with increases in hsCRP, which was low in both groups (0.69 ± 0.15 vs. 0.82 ± 0.16 mg/l, P = 0.736). To explore the contribution of adiposity to inflammation, we then compared 13 obese female POTS patients and 17 obese female controls to matched lean counterparts (13 POTS and 11 controls). Compared with lean controls, obese controls had increased LFSBP (3.3 ± 0.5 vs. 7.0 ± 1.1 mmHg(2); P = 0.016), IL-6 (2.15 ± 0.58 vs. 3.92 ± 0.43 pg/ml; P = 0.030) and hsCRP (0.69 ± 0.20 vs. 3.47 ± 0.72 mg/l; P = 0.001). Obese and lean POTS had similarly high IL-6 but only obese POTS had increased hsCRP (5.76 ± 1.99 mg/l vs. 0.65 ± 0.26; P < 0.001). In conclusion, sympathetic activation in POTS is associated with increased IL-6 even in the absence of obesity. The coupling between IL-6 and CRP, however, requires increased adiposity, likely through release of IL-6 by visceral fat. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Differential activation of sympathetic discharge to skin and skeletal muscle in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, S F

    1997-01-01

    The present work provides insight into the relative contribution of different mechanisms in regulating sympathetic discharge to skin and skeletal muscle in humans. Activation of sympathetic nerve activity during common behaviours such as orthostasis and exercise was shown to be highly selective, depending on the specific sympathetic outflow under study. Regarding orthostasis, data from experiments in this thesis revoked the concept that cardiopulmonary afferents only regulate muscle vascular resistance in the forearm, not in the leg. Also the concept that the cutaneous circulation is under baroreceptor control has been challenged. Unloading cardiopulmonary afferents with lower body negative pressure elicited intensity dependent increases in peroneal sympathetic discharge to skeletal muscle, and increases in forearm and calf vascular resistances. Therefore, it was concluded that cardiopulmonary afferents regulate vascular resistance in skeletal muscle of both forearm and calf, suggesting an important role for these afferents in the reflex adjustments to upright posture. In contrast to muscle sympathetic nerve activity, baroreceptor deactivation with lower body negative pressure had no effect on skin sympathetic nerve activity or skin vascular resistance. However, assumption of upright posture increased skin vascular resistance, this increase was abolished when increased vascular transmural pressure was avoided by elevating the arm. Local cutaneous nerve blockade, but not blockade of efferent sympathetic nerve traffic, abolished the vasoconstrictor response to upright posture. Based on these experiments, it was concluded that baroreceptor afferents do not regulate sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to the cutaneous circulation. During upright posture at normothermia cutaneous vasoconstriction is mainly driven by a local reflex. To explain activation of sympathetic outflow during exercise two theories have been proposed. One is that a "central motor command" signal

  4. The sympathetic nervous system in obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Thomas E; Iliescu, Radu

    2013-08-01

    Abundant evidence supports a role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. However, the nature and temporal progression of mechanisms underlying this sympathetically mediated hypertension are incompletely understood. Recent technological advances allowing direct recordings of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in conscious animals, together with direct suppression of RSNA by renal denervation and reflex-mediated global sympathetic inhibition in experimental animals and human subjects have been especially valuable in elucidating these mechanisms. These studies strongly support the concept that increased RSNA is the critical mechanism by which increased central sympathetic outflow initiates and maintains reductions in renal excretory function, causing obesity hypertension. Potential determinants of renal sympathoexcitation and the differential mechanisms mediating the effects of renal-specific versus reflex-mediated, global sympathetic inhibition on renal hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic function are discussed. These differential mechanisms may impact the efficacy of current device-based approaches for hypertension therapy.

  5. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  6. Developmental gene expression of sympathetic nervous system tumors reflects their histogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, J C; Hedborg, F; Eriksson, L; Sandstedt, B; Grimelius, L; Olsen, L; Påhlman, S

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons of the developing human sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to tumors presumed to derive from these cells may suggest tumor progenitors and predict tumor biologic behavior. Classic neuroblastoma (NB) and its more highly differentiated stroma-rich subtypes, extra-adrenal sympathetic paraganglioma, and pheochromocytoma were examined for the presence of the developmentally characterized gene products NSE, S-100, CD44, Bcl-2, HNK-1, PNMT, TrkA, IGF2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. The marker gene expression profiles of these tumors were compared with those similarly determined for a number of normal prenatal and postnatal human SNS cell types. Sympathetic paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, and stroma-rich NB display marker expression profiles mimicking those of childhood sympathetic paraganglia, adrenal chromaffin cells, and sympathetic neurons, respectively. A selection of differentiating, extra-adrenal NB tumors with prognostically favorable features possess marker gene expression profiles paralleling that observed for fetal extra-adrenal sympathetic paraganglia/small intensely fluorescent cells. In contrast, undifferentiated, clinically aggressive NB tumors manifest characteristics mirroring that of embryonic/early fetal sympathetic neuroblasts of sympathetic ganglia and of the adrenal gland. These findings suggest that clinical features, such as primary tumor location and age at diagnosis, provide prognostic information for NB patients by virtue of the existence and biology of the presumed tumor progenitor cell type.

  7. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor and of combined sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade on cardiac performance and vascular resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hilsted, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Cardiac performance and vascular resistance was studied in seven healthy men by radionuclide cardiography and venous plethysmography before and after alpha-adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine and after combined alpha-adrenoceptor, beta-adrenoceptor (propranolol) and parasympathetic (atropine...... propranolol and atropine were added. 3. These results indicate that peripheral vasoconstriction especially that exerted by alpha-adrenoceptor nervous tone in skeletal muscle restricts left ventricular emptying of the intact heart. During pharmacologic blockade of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous...

  8. Baroreflex control of sympathetic activity in experimental hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C. Irigoyen

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The arterial baroreceptor reflex system is one of the most powerful and rapidly acting mechanisms for controlling arterial pressure. The purpose of the present review is to discuss data relating sympathetic activity to the baroreflex control of arterial pressure in two different experimental models: neurogenic hypertension by sinoaortic denervation (SAD and high-renin hypertension by total aortic ligation between the renal arteries in the rat. SAD depresses baroreflex regulation of renal sympathetic activity in both the acute and chronic phases. However, increased sympathetic activity (100% was found only in the acute phase of sinoaortic denervation. In the chronic phase of SAD average discharge normalized but the pattern of discharges was different from that found in controls. High-renin hypertensive rats showed overactivity of the renin angiotensin system and a great depression of the baroreflexes, comparable to the depression observed in chronic sinoaortic denervated rats. However, there were no differences in the average tonic sympathetic activity or changes in the pattern of discharges in high-renin rats. We suggest that the difference in the pattern of discharges may contribute to the increase in arterial pressure lability observed in chronic sinoaortic denervated rats.

  9. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Patrick A; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L; Ives, Jeffrey C; Sforzo, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats ('wide-band' theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.

  10. Auditory driving of the autonomic nervous system: Listening to theta-frequency binaural beats post-exercise increases parasympathetic activation and sympathetic withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Patrick A.; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L.; Ives, Jeffrey C.; Sforzo, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18–29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats (‘wide-band’ theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation. PMID:25452734

  11. Progesterone reduces sympathetic tone without changing blood pressure or fluid balance in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Eide, I; Maltau, J M

    1993-01-01

    There is scant information on the effects of progesterone on circulation. Changes in catecholamine levels, blood pressure and transcapillary fluid balance were measured in 12 men before and during administration of natural progesterone (Utrogestan). Before administration, systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with venous adrenaline (r = 0.67, p = 0.01). There was a significant decrease (p = 0.004) in venous noradrenaline during progesterone administration, and systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with the arteriovenous difference for noradrenaline (r = 0.66, p = 0.02). Serum progesterone, which attained levels similar to those found in women during the luteal phase, did not significantly alter blood pressure, body weight or intra- to extravascular fluid shift. It is concluded that progesterone may have a direct action by increasing the uptake of noradrenaline from the synaptic cleft or by decreasing the nerve firing rate. Interestingly, the pretreatment finding of a significant correlation between blood pressure and adrenaline was less evident during progesterone administration.

  12. Histamine H3 receptor activation inhibits neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstriction in porcine nasal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varty, LoriAnn M; Hey, John A

    2002-10-11

    Histamine release from mast cells is a primary mediator of rhinorrhea, nasal mucosal swelling, increased secretion, sneezing, pruritus and congestion that occur in allergic rhinitis. It is well known that histamine H(1) receptor antagonists inhibit the itch and rhinorhea, but do not block the allergic nasal congestion. A growing body of evidence shows that in addition to histamine H(1) receptors, activation of H(3) receptors may contribute to the procongestant nasal actions of histamine. Activation of the prejunctional histamine H(3) receptor modulates sympathetic control of nasal vascular tone and resistance. The present study was conducted to further characterize the role of histamine H(3) receptors on neurogenic sympathetic vascular contractile responses in isolated porcine nasal turbinate mucosa. We presently found that the histamine H(3) receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (10-1000 nM), inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced sympathetic vasomotor contractions in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with either of the selective histamine H(3) receptor antagonists, thioperamide and clobenpropit, blocked the sympathoinhibitory effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine in porcine turbinate mucosa. The effect of compound 48/80, an agent that elicits the release of endogenous histamine from mast cells on nasal sympathetic contractile responses, was also tested. The action of compound 48/80 to release mast cell-derived histamine in the nose mimics many of the nasal responses associated with allergic rhinitis, extravascular leakage and decreased nasal patency. We presently found that compound 48/80 also inhibited the electrical field stimulation-induced sympathetic response. Pretreatment with the H(3) receptor antagonist clobenpropit blocked the sympathoinhibitory action of compound 48/80 on sympathetic contractile responses in nasal mucosa. Taken together, these studies indicate that histamine H(3) receptors modulate vascular contractile

  13. Sympathetic innervation of the spleen in male Brown Norway rats: a longitudinal aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sam D; Silva, Dorian; Millar, Ashley Brooke; Molinaro, Christine A; Carter, Jeff; Bassett, Katie; Lorton, Dianne; Garcia, Paola; Tan, Laren; Gross, Jonathon; Lubahn, Cheri; Thyagarajan, Srinivasan; Bellinger, Denise L

    2009-12-11

    Aging leads to reduced cellular immunity with consequent increased rates of infectious disease, cancer, and autoimmunity in the elderly. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates innate and adaptive immunity via innervation of lymphoid organs. In aged Fischer 344 (F344) rats, noradrenergic (NA) nerve density in secondary lymphoid organs declines, which may contribute to immunosenescence with aging. These studies suggest there is SNS involvement in age-induced immune dysregulation. The purpose of this study was to longitudinally characterize age-related change in sympathetic innervation of the spleen and sympathetic activity/tone in male Brown Norway (BN) rats, which live longer and have a strikingly different immune profile than F344 rats, the traditional animal model for aging research. Splenic sympathetic neurotransmission was evaluated between 8 and 32 months of age by assessing (1) NA nerve fiber density, (2) splenic norepinephrine (NE) concentration, and (3) circulating catecholamine levels after decapitation. We report a decline in NA nerve density in splenic white pulp (45%) at 15 months of age compared with 8-month-old (M) rats, which is followed by a much slower rate of decline between 24 and 32 months. Lower splenic NE concentrations between 15 and 32 months of age compared with 8M rats were consistent with morphometric findings. Circulating catecholamine levels after decapitation stress generally dropped with increasing age. These findings suggest there is a sympathetic-to-immune system dysregulation beginning at middle age. Given the unique T-helper-2 bias in BN rats, altered sympathetic-immune communication may be important for understanding the age-related rise in asthma and autoimmunity.

  14. Hardware Implementation of an Automatic Rendering Tone Mapping Algorithm for a Wide Dynamic Range Display

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Tone mapping algorithms are used to adapt captured wide dynamic range (WDR) scenes to the limited dynamic range of available display devices. Although there are several tone mapping algorithms available, most of them require manual tuning of their rendering parameters. In addition, the high complexities of some of these algorithms make it difficult to implement efficient real-time hardware systems. In this work, a real-time hardware implementation of an exponent-based tone mapping algorithm i...

  15. Estimated central blood volume in cirrhosis: relationship to sympathetic nervous activity, beta-adrenergic blockade and atrial natriuretic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F; Gerbes, A L

    1992-01-01

    The estimated central blood volume (i.e., blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree) was determined by multiplying cardiac output by circulatory mean transit time in 19 patients with cirrhosis and compared with sympathetic nervous activity and circulating level of atrial...... natriuretic factor. Arterial norepinephrine level, an index of overall sympathetic nervous activity (3.08 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.36 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (mean = 23 ml/kg in patients vs. 27 ml/kg in controls; p ....05). Similarly, renal venous norepinephrine level (an index of renal sympathetic tone; 4.26 nmol/L in patients vs. 1.78 nmol/L in controls; p blood volume (r = -0.53, n = 18, p

  16. Mandarin Chinese Tone Recognition with an Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Wenle; ZHOU Ning; LEE Chaoyang; LI Yongxin; CHEN Xiuwu; ZHAO Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese tone patterns vary in one of the four ways, i.e, (1) high level; (2) rising; (3) low falling and rising; and (4) high falling. The present study is to examine the efficacy of an artificial neural network in recognizing these tone patterns. Speech data were recorded from 12 children (3-6 years of age) and 15 adults. All subjects were native Mandarin Chinese speakers. The fundamental frequencies (FO) of each monosyllabic word of the speech data were extracted with an autocorrelation method. The pitch data(i.e., the FO contours) were the inputs to a feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network. The number of inputs to the neural network varied from 1 to 16 and the hidden layer of the network contained neurons that varied from 1 to 16 in number. The output of the network consisted of four neurons representing the four tone patterns of Mandarin Chinese. After being trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization, the neural network was able to successfully classify the tone patterns with an accuracy of about 90% correct for speech samples from both adults and children. The artificial neural network may provide an objective and effective way of assessing tone production in prelingually-deafened children who have received cochlear implants.

  17. Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Naman; Kumar, Akshay; Aggarwal, Praveen; Jamshed, Nayer

    2016-12-01

    Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema (SCAPE) is the extreme end of the spectrum of acute pulmonary edema. It is important to understand this disease as it is relatively common in the emergency department (ED) and has better outcomes when managed appropriately. The patients have an abrupt redistribution of fluid in the lungs, and when treated promptly and effectively, these patients will rapidly recover. Noninvasive ventilation and intravenous nitrates are the mainstay of treatment which should be started within minutes of the patient's arrival to the ED. Use of morphine and intravenous loop diuretics, although popular, has poor scientific evidence.

  18. A Rationalization of Sympathetic Nucleation-Ledgewise Growth Theory of Bainite Transformation in Fe-C Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the classic diffusion controlled nucleation and growth theory, the sympathetic nucleationledgewise growth mechanism of bainite was studied theoretically for Iow carbon Fe-C alloys. The rationality of the occurrence of sympathetic nucleation on the terraces of ledges competing with lateral ledge growth and other sites nucleation was demonstrated by the present work quantitatively. The calculations indicated that Iow reaction temperatures and high carbon concentrations may favor the sympathetic nucleation, thus accounting for the formation of multilayer structures of bainite.

  19. Antagonistic and Synergistic Activation of Cardiovascular Vagal and Sympathetic Motor Outflows in Trigeminal Reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Bruno; Kelly, Jazmín; Bernatene, Eduardo A; Méndez Diodati, Nahuel; Gelpi, Ricardo J

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve and heart are strongly related through somato-autonomic nervous reflexes that induce rapid changes in cardiovascular function. Several trigeminal reflexes have been described, but the diving and trigeminocardiac reflexes are the most studied. The heart is a target organ dually innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Thus, how cardiac function is regulated during the trigeminal reflexes is the result of the combination of an increased parasympathetic response and increased, decreased, or unaltered sympathetic activity. Various hemodynamic changes occur as a consequence of these alterations in autonomic tone. Often in the oxygen-conserving physiological reflexes such as the diving reflex, sympathetic/parasympathetic co-activation reduces the heart rate and either maintains or increases blood pressure. Conversely, in the trigeminocardiac reflex, bradycardia and hypotension due to parasympathetic activation and sympathetic inactivation tend to be observed. These sudden cardiac innervation disturbances may promote the generation of arrhythmias or myocardial ischemia during surgeries in the trigeminal territory. However, the function and mechanisms involved in the trigeminal reflexes remain to be fully elucidated. The current review provides a brief update and analysis of the features of these reflexes, with special focus on how the autonomic nervous system interacts with cardiovascular function.

  20. Heart failure causes cholinergic transdifferentiation of cardiac sympathetic nerves via gp130-signaling cytokines in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Hideaki; Ieda, Masaki; Kimura, Kensuke; Arai, Takahide; Kawaguchi-Manabe, Haruko; Matsuhashi, Tomohiro; Endo, Jin; Sano, Motoaki; Kawakami, Takashi; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Monkawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Matsuhiko; Iwanami, Akio; Okano, Hideyuki; Okada, Yasunori; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ogawa, Satoshi; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2010-02-01

    Although several cytokines and neurotrophic factors induce sympathetic neurons to transdifferentiate into cholinergic neurons in vitro, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of this remain unknown. During congestive heart failure (CHF), sympathetic neural tone is upregulated, but there is a paradoxical reduction in norepinephrine synthesis and reuptake in the cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Here we examined whether cholinergic transdifferentiation can occur in the cardiac SNS in rodent models of CHF and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism(s) using genetically modified mice. We used Dahl salt-sensitive rats to model CHF and found that, upon CHF induction, the cardiac SNS clearly acquired cholinergic characteristics. Of the various cholinergic differentiation factors, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and cardiotrophin-1 were strongly upregulated in the ventricles of rats with CHF. Further, LIF and cardiotrophin-1 secreted from cultured failing rat cardiomyocytes induced cholinergic transdifferentiation in cultured sympathetic neurons, and this process was reversed by siRNAs targeting Lif and cardiotrophin-1. Consistent with the data in rats, heart-specific overexpression of LIF in mice caused cholinergic transdifferentiation in the cardiac SNS. Further, SNS-specific targeting of the gene encoding the gp130 subunit of the receptor for LIF and cardiotrophin-1 in mice prevented CHF-induced cholinergic transdifferentiation. Cholinergic transdifferentiation was also observed in the cardiac SNS of autopsied patients with CHF. Thus, CHF causes target-dependent cholinergic transdifferentiation of the cardiac SNS via gp130-signaling cytokines secreted from the failing myocardium.

  1. High-contrast process using a positive-tone resist with antistatic coating and high-energy (100-keV) e-beam lithography for fabricating diffractive optical elements (DOE) on quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Louis C.; Kondek, Christine A.; Shoop, Barry L.; McLane, George F.

    1995-06-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are becoming important as optical signal processing elements in increasingly diverse applications. These elements, fabricated on quartz, may be used as phase shift type masks or as embedded components that implement a transfer function within a processing network. A process is under development for the fabrication of a DOE implementing a Jervis error diffusion kernel for research in half tone image processing. Dry etching is performed after lithography and pattern transfer through a nickel mask. This results in etched areal features on the substrate. An optical diffraction medium is thus created. Lithographic patterning is done by e-beam lithography (EBL) to realize small features, but also offers the important advantage of a large depth of field which relaxes the problem of complex surface topology. The recent availability of high energy (100 KeV) lithography tools provides a capability for precision overlay, small feature resolution, and enhanced image contrast through a lower induced proximity effect. Patterning by EBL on insulating substrates is complicated by the necessity of providing a vehicle for the avoidance of charge buildup on the surface. In a previously presented paper a methodology was shown for the use of TQV-501 (Nitto Chemical) antistatic compound as a final spin on film for use with PMMA and SAL-601 (Shipley). In this current work, a process is described using EBL and a high performance positive resist working with a final film layer of antistatic TQV-501 on a nickel coated wafer. The process may then be reapplied to realize additional lithographic levels in registration, for multilevel DOE components. High energy (100 KeV) EBL is used to provide high quality pattern definition. The e-beam sensitive resist, ZEP-320-37 (Nagase Chemical) in dilution, together with a top film layer of TQV-501 serves as a bilevel resist system and is used for patterning the desired image before definition of the nickel mask through

  2. A weak-scattering model for turbine-tone haystacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, A.; Powles, C. J.; Tester, B. J.

    2013-08-01

    Noise and emissions are critical technical issues in the development of aircraft engines. This necessitates the development of accurate models to predict the noise radiated from aero-engines. Turbine tones radiated from the exhaust nozzle of a turbofan engine propagate through turbulent jet shear layers which causes scattering of sound. In the far-field, measurements of the tones may exhibit spectral broadening, where owing to scattering, the tones are no longer narrow band peaks in the spectrum. This effect is known colloquially as 'haystacking'. In this article a comprehensive analytical model to predict spectral broadening for a tone radiated through a circular jet, for an observer in the far field, is presented. This model extends previous work by the authors which considered the prediction of spectral broadening at far-field observer locations outside the cone of silence. The modelling uses high-frequency asymptotic methods and a weak-scattering assumption. A realistic shear layer velocity profile and turbulence characteristics are included in the model. The mathematical formulation which details the spectral broadening, or haystacking, of a single-frequency, single azimuthal order turbine tone is outlined. In order to validate the model, predictions are compared with experimental results, albeit only at polar angle equal to 90°. A range of source frequencies from 4 to 20kHz, and jet velocities from 20 to 60ms-1, are examined for validation purposes. The model correctly predicts how the spectral broadening is affected when the source frequency and jet velocity are varied.

  3. Simple reaction time for broadband sounds compared to pure tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittenlacher, Josef; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Avci, Gül

    2017-02-01

    Although many studies have explored the relation between reaction time (RT) and loudness, including effects of intensity, frequency, and binaural summation, comparable work on spectral summation is rare. However, most real-world sounds are not pure tones and typically have bandwidths covering several critical bands. Since comparing to a 1-kHz pure tone, the reference tone, is important for loudness measurement and standardization, the present work focuses on comparing RTs for broadband noise to those for 1-kHz pure tones in three experiments using different spectral and binaural configurations. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 yield good quantitative agreement with spectral loudness summation models for moderate and high sound pressure levels, measured using both pink noise covering almost the entire hearing range and bandpass-filtered pink noise with different center frequencies. However, at lower levels, the RT measurements yield an interaction of level and bandwidth, which is not in line with loudness scaling data. In Experiment 3, which investigated the binaural summation of broadband sounds, the binaural gain for white noise was determined to be 9 dB, which is somewhat larger than what had been found in previous RT measurements using 1-kHz pure tones.

  4. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve function in alcoholic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Andersen, K; Smith, T;

    1984-01-01

    The peripheral sympathetic vasomotor nerve function was investigated in 18 male chronic alcoholics admitted for intellectual impairment or polyneuropathy. By means of the local 133Xenon washout technique, the sympathetic veno-arteriolar axon-reflex was studied. This normally is responsible for a ...

  5. Sympathetic actions on the skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2010-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates several functions in skeletal muscle fibers, including metabolism, ionic transport across the membrane, and contractility. These actions, together with the sympathetic control of other organ systems, support intense motor activity. However, some SNS actions on skeletal muscles may not always be functionally advantageous. Implications for motor control and sport performance are discussed.

  6. Sympathetic Overactivity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Consequences and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdeep Kaur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is increasing worldwide, with more than 26 million people suffering from CKD in the United States alone. More patients with CKD die of cardiovascular complications than progress to dialysis. Over 80% of CKD patients have hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another common, perhaps underappreciated, feature of CKD is an overactive sympathetic nervous system. This elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA not only contributes to hypertension but also plays a detrimental role in the progression of CKD independent of any increase in blood pressure. Indeed, high SNA is associated with poor prognosis and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of its effect on blood pressure. This brief review will discuss some of the consequences of sympathetic overactivity and highlight some of the potential pathways contributing to chronically elevated SNA in CKD. Mechanisms leading to chronic sympathoexcitation in CKD are complex, multifactorial and to date, not completely understood. Identification of the mechanisms and/or signals leading to sympathetic overactivity in CKD are crucial for development of effective therapeutic targets to reduce the increased cardiovascular risk in this patient group.

  7. 中古入声字在开县话中的演变%Changes of Middle Classical Characters with Entering Tone in Kaixian County Dialect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立友

    2015-01-01

    开县话有阴平、阳平、上声、去声四个声调,没有入声,中古入声字今基本读阳平,极少数读去声、阴平,个别读上声。开县话没有入声韵,中古入声字今全读舒声韵。与普通话相比较,中古入声字在今开县话韵母中的分布自有其特点。%There are four tones in Kaixian County dialect: high level tone, rising tone, the falling-rising tone and falling tone, without entering tone. The medieval entering tones are read with rising tone, a little with falling tone and level tone and rising tones individually. Entering tone character is not included in Kaixian County dialect phonology, the level tone rhyme being read in the medieval entering tone characters. Compared with standard Chinese pronunciation, medieval entering tone characters has its particular characteristics in Kaixian County dialect distribution.

  8. Phonology in the Lexical Processing of Chinese: Priming Tone Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiaolin

    2000-01-01

    Using both visual-visual and auditory-visual priming lexical decision tasks, this study investigated phonological processing in reading logographic Chinese. Compound words sharing segmental templates but differing in lexical tones were used as primes and targets while their relative frequency was manipulated. It was found that tone neighbours did not prime each other significantly and the SOA of 100 msec in visual-visual priming. When the SOA was increased to 357 msec, or when primes were presented auditorily, the processing of target words was significantly delayed by their tone neighbours. Larger inhibitory effects were observed for low frequency targets with high frequency primes. It was argued that although phonological information is automatically activated and this activation affects access to semantics in reading Chinese,phonological mediation is not the only or the main ~urce of constraints on semantic activation.

  9. Influences of vowel and tone variation on emergent word knowledge: a cross-linguistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Hui, Tam Jun; Chan, Calista; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2014-01-01

    To learn words, infants must be sensitive to native phonological contrast. While lexical tone predominates as a source of phonemic contrast in human languages, there has been little investigation of the influences of lexical tone on word learning. The present study investigates infants' sensitivity to tone mispronunciations in two groups of infants. For one group (Chinese learners), tone is phonemic in their native language, and for the second group (English learners), tone is non-phonemic and constituted suprasegmental variation. In Experiment 1, English learners were trained on novel word-object pairings and tested on their recognition of correct pronunciations, tone and vowel mispronunciations of these words at 18 and 24 months. In Experiment 2a, bilingual English-Chinese learners were tested on a similar task translated into Chinese at the same age intervals. Results demonstrate that non-tonal learners treated tonal and vowel substitutions alike as mispronunciations at 18 months but only treated vowel substitutions as mispronunciations at 24 months. Tonal learners treated both tonal and vowel substitutions as mispronunciations at both ages. In Experiment 2b, bilingual non-tone language learners were tested on the same set of tasks replicating a similar set of results as monolingual non-tone language learners (Experiment 1). Findings point to an early predisposition to treat tone as a defining characteristic of words regardless of its lexical relevance at 18 months. Between 18 and 24 months, learners appear to ascribe lexical relevance to tone in a language-specific manner. The current study identifies the influences of tone variation on memories for newly learned words and the time period during which lexical tone - a highly frequent constituent of human languages - actually becomes lexical for early learners. Findings are contextualized with prevailing models of the developing lexicon.

  10. Statistical Modelling of Print half-tone mottle in PET-G and PVC Shrink Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay V Joshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available PVC and PET-G (Glycol modified polyethylene terephthalate have the highest consumption in the shrink sleeve market due to its high shrink abilities and cost effectiveness. The reproductions of fine tone details on these films are challenging as the occurrence of graininess and image-noise results in print defect such as print half-tone mottle. The presence of print half-tone mottle is visually disturbing leading to wastage of ink, substrate and time. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of gravure process parameters viz. ink viscosity, press speed, impression hardness and line screen and develop statistical model for print half-tone mottle in shrink films. The base line for print half-tone mottle was determined by conducting production runs on press with a defined set of process parameters and the target was set to minimize it from the baseline. The half-tone area was scanned and processed through SFDA algorithm to calculate print half-tone mottle. The design of experiments (DOE was generated for above-mentioned process parameters and was analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA to find the significant factor affecting the print half-tone mottle. The analysis revealed line screen, viscosity and hardness as significant factors in minimizing print half-tone mottle. The results showed minimization of print half-tone mottle by 28% for both PVC and PET-G films. Furthermore, regression model was developed and validated for print half-tone mottle and a correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.8696 and 0.879 was achieved for PET-G and PVC respectively. The proposed model is helpful in determining the impact of gravure process parameters and prediction of print half-tone mottle in shrink films.

  11. Increased Nitric Oxide Bioavailability and Decreased Sympathetic Modulation Are Involved in Vascular Adjustments Induced by Low-Intensity Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabrício N; Mesquita, Thassio R R; Melo, Vitor U; Mota, Marcelo M; Silva, Tharciano L T B; Santana, Michael N; Oliveira, Larissa R; Santos, Robervan V; Miguel Dos Santos, Rodrigo; Lauton-Santos, Sandra; Santos, Marcio R V; Barreto, Andre S; Santana-Filho, Valter J

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training is one of the most common kind of exercise used nowadays. Long-term high-intensity resistance training are associated with deleterious effects on vascular adjustments. On the other hand, is unclear whether low-intensity resistance training (LI-RT) is able to induce systemic changes in vascular tone. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic LI-RT on endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability of mesenteric artery and cardiovascular autonomic modulation in healthy rats. Wistar animals were divided into two groups: exercised (Ex) and sedentary (SED) rats submitted to the resistance (40% of 1RM) or fictitious training for 8 weeks, respectively. After LI-RT, hemodynamic measurements and cardiovascular autonomic modulation by spectral analysis were evaluated. Vascular reactivity, NO production and protein expression of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase isoforms (eNOS and nNOS, respectively) were evaluated in mesenteric artery. In addition, cardiac superoxide anion production and ventricle morphological changes were also assessed. In vivo measurements revealed a reduction in mean arterial pressure and heart rate after 8 weeks of LI-RT. In vitro studies showed an increased acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation and greater NOS dependence in Ex than SED rats. Hence, decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was found in Ex rats. Accordingly, LI-RT increased the NO bioavailability under basal and ACh stimulation conditions, associated with upregulation of eNOS and nNOS protein expression in mesenteric artery. Regarding autonomic control, LI-RT increased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, which was associated to reduction in both, cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. No changes in cardiac superoxide anion or left ventricle morphometric parameters after LI-RT were observed. In summary, these results suggest that RT promotes beneficial vascular adjustments favoring augmented endothelial NO bioavailability and

  12. Acquisition of Mandarin Lexical Tones:The Effect of Global Pitch T endency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUNSHENG YANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the acquisition of Mandarin lexical tones by American second language ( L2 ) learners . The analysis of the tone errors in the reading passage and the spontaneous speech showed that the surface Tone 4 error is the most frequent at the prosodic word ( PW )‐initial position in both the intermediate and the advanced learner groups . Attempts were made to account for this tone error pattern within some second language acquisition (SLA) frameworks , but in vain . It was argued that this tone error pattern may be due to the high pitch tendency at the phrase‐or sentence‐initial position in speech . Although this is more of a general pattern across languages , the production of such a tendency by L2 learners superseded the underlying tones , hence the surface Tone 4 errors . The special status of Tone 4 in L2 speech corresponds to the special status of the same tone in the first language (L1 ) speech (Wan , 2007 ) . However , it was cautioned that such similarity should not be taken as evidence for the similarity in L1 and L2 acquisition in that different processes are involved in L1 and L2 production .

  13. Sympathetic rhythms and cardiovascular oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, N; Cogliati, C; Dias da Silva, V J; Gnecchi-Ruscone, T; Malliani, A

    2001-07-20

    Spectral analysis of heart rate and arterial pressure variabilities is a powerful noninvasive tool, which is increasingly used to infer alterations of cardiovascular autonomic regulation in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. A most important methodological issue to properly interpret the results obtained by the spectral analysis of cardiovascular variability signals is represented by the attribution of neurophysiological correlates to these spectral components. In this regard, recent applications of spectral techniques to the evaluation of the oscillatory properties of sympathetic efferent activity in animals, as well as in humans, offer a new approach to a better understanding of the relationship between cardiovascular oscillations and autonomic regulation.

  14. The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Deepti

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

  15. The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Deepti

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

  16. Recovering Asynchronous Watermark Tones from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Audio steganography for covert data transmission by impercep- tible tone insertion,” Proceedings Communications Sys- tems and Applications, IEEE, vol. 4, pp. 1647–1653, 2004. 1408 ...by a comfortable margin. Index Terms— Speech Watermarking, Hidden Tones, Speech Steganography , Speech Data Hiding 1. BACKGROUND Imperceptibly

  17. Lexical tone and stuttering in Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Thomas; Packman, Ann; Onslow, Mark; To, Carol K-S; Tong, Michael C-F; Lee, Kathy Y-S

    2017-08-30

    Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese. Twenty-four native Cantonese-speaking adults who stutter participated in this study, ranging in age from 18-33 years. There were 18 men and 6 women. Participants read aloud 13 Cantonese syllables, each of which was produced with six contrastive lexical tones. All 78 syllables were embedded in the same carrier sentence, to reduce the influence of suprasegmental or linguistic stress, and were presented in random order. No significant differences were found for stuttering moments across the six lexical tones. It is suggested that this is because lexical tones, at least in Cantonese, do not place the task demands on the speech motor system that typify varying syllabic stress in Western languages: variations not only in fundamental frequency, but also in duration and intensity. The findings of this study suggest that treatments for adults who stutter in Western languages, such as speech restructuring, can be used with Cantonese speakers without undue attention to lexical tone.

  18. Norepinephrine-induced nerve growth factor depletion causes cardiac sympathetic denervation in severe heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kensuke; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Ieda, Masaki; Kawaguchi-Manabe, Haruko; Miyake, Yoshiko; Yagi, Takashi; Arai, Takahide; Sano, Motoaki; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2010-08-25

    In severe congestive heart failure (CHF), sympathetic overactivity correlates with the exacerbation of cardiac performance. To test the hypothesis that the cardiac sympathetic nerve density dramatically changes with the acceleration of circulating norepinephrine (NE) concentration, we investigated the temporal association of nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in the heart and cardiac sympathetic nerve density during the development of CHF in the continuous NE-infused rats. The animals were analyzed at 0-, 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, and 28-day after implantation of osmotic pump at a rate of 0.05 mg/kg/hr. The cardiac performance was temporally facilitated in NE-exposed rats at 3-day in accordance with the sympathetic hyper-innervation induced by the augmentation of NGF mRNA expression in the heart. In NE-treated rats, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly increased after 7-day and marked left ventricular hypertrophy and systemic fluid retention were observed at 28-day. CHF-induced sympathetic overactivity further increased plasma NE concentration in NE-treated rats and finally reached to 16.1+/-5.6 ng/ml at 28-day (control level was 0.39+/-0.1 ng/ml, pcardiac performance. The cardiac sympathetic fiber loss was also confirmed in NE-exposed DBH (dopamine beta-hydroxylase)-Cre/Floxed-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) mice with severe CHF, in which sympathetic nerve could be traced by EGFP. Our results suggest that the cardiac sympathetic nerve density is strictly regulated by the NGF expression in the heart and long-exposure of high plasma NE concentration caused myocardial NGF reduction, following sympathetic fiber loss in severe CHF animals.

  19. Production of Mandarin tone contrasts by musicians and non-musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Ouyang, Grace Yin-Hwei

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has shown that native speakers of American English who are musicians perform better than non-musicians when identifying and producing the four phonemic tones of Mandarin. The present study corroborates these findings and analyzes acoustic properties of non-natives' tonal imitations. Listeners imitated Mandarin two-syllable word phrases that varied the vowel (/li/, /la/, /lu/) and tone (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling) of the first syllable. Four native Mandarin speakers rated the musicians, on average, to be better in their imitation of Mandarin tone 4 (high-falling) than non-musicians. There were no significant differences between groups in how they were rated on the other three tones. Acoustical analyses revealed that non-natives failed to match native speakers both in differences in initial F0 and in F0 contour (change from initial to final F0) across tones. Imitations by musicians did not show significant acoustic differences from non-musicians, except for tone 4, where musicians' imitations showed a significant decrease in F0 from initial to final portions of the syllable; the decrease in F0 for non-musicians was smaller and not significant. Creaky voice (often present in natives' tone 3 and 4) was observed in many non-native imitations, but was not restricted to tones 3 and 4.

  20. Sex differences in the modulation of vasomotor sympathetic outflow during static handgrip exercise in healthy young humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarvis, S.S.; Gundy, T.B. Van; Galbreath, M.M.; Shibata, S.; Okazaki, K.; Reelick, M.F; Levine, B.D.; Fu, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in sympathetic neural control during static exercise in humans are few and the findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized women would have an attenuated vasomotor sympathetic response to static exercise, which would be further reduced during the high sex hormone [midluteal (ML)] vs.

  1. Habitual traffic noise at home reduces cardiac parasympathetic tone during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jamie M A; Janssen, Sabine A; Vos, Henk; Miedema, Henk M E

    2009-05-01

    The relationships between road and rail traffic noise with pre-ejection period (PEP) and with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during sleep, as indices of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system tone, were investigated in the field (36 subjects, with 188 and 192 valid subject nights for PEP and RSA, respectively). Two analyses were conducted. The first analysis investigated the overall relationships across the entire sleep period. A second analysis investigated differences in the relationships between the first and second halves of the sleep period. Separate multilevel linear regression models for PEP and RSA were employed. Potential covariates for each model were selected from the same pool of variables, which included: gender, age, body-mass index, education level, traffic noise source type, intake of medication, caffeine, alcohol and cigarette smoke, and hindrance during sleep due to the ambulatory recordings. RSA models were adjusted for respiration rate. Mean indoor traffic noise exposure was negatively related to mean RSA during the sleep period, specifically during the second half of the sleep period. Both respiration rate and age were negatively associated with RSA. No significant relationships were observed for PEP. The results indicate that higher indoor traffic noise exposure levels may lead to cardiac parasympathetic withdrawal during sleep, specifically during the second half of the sleep period. No effect of indoor traffic noise on cardiac sympathetic tone was observed.

  2. Musical experience modulates categorical perception of lexical tones by native Chinese speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han eWu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although musical training has been shown to facilitate both native and nonnative phonetic perception, it remains unclear whether and how musical experience affects native speakers’ categorical perception (CP of speech at the suprasegmental level. Using both identification and discrimination tasks, this study compared Chinese-speaking musicians and non-musicians in their categorical perception of a lexical tone continuum (from the high level tone, Tone1 to the high falling tone, Tone4. While the identification functions showed similar steepness and boundary location between the two subject groups, the discrimination results revealed superior performance in the musicians for discriminating within-category stimuli pairs but not for between-category stimuli. These findings suggest that musical training can enhance sensitivity to subtle pitch differences between within-category sounds in the presence of robust mental representations in service of categorical perception of lexical tonal contrasts.

  3. A model for magnetically coupled sympathetic eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Torok, T; Titov, V S; Mikic, Z; Reeves, K K; Velli, M; Linker, J A; De Toma, G

    2011-01-01

    Sympathetic eruptions on the Sun have been observed for several decades, but the mechanisms by which one eruption can trigger another one remain poorly understood. We present a 3D MHD simulation that suggests two possible magnetic trigger mechanisms for sympathetic eruptions. We consider a configuration that contains two coronal flux ropes located within a pseudo-streamer and one rope located next to it. A sequence of eruptions is initiated by triggering the eruption of the flux rope next to the streamer. The expansion of the rope leads to two consecutive reconnection events, each of which triggers the eruption of a flux rope by removing a sufficient amount of overlying flux. The simulation qualitatively reproduces important aspects of the global sympathetic event on 2010 August 1 and provides a scenario for so-called twin filament eruptions. The suggested mechanisms are applicable also for sympathetic eruptions occurring in other magnetic configurations.

  4. Sympathetic cooling of $^4$He$^+$ ions in a radiofrequency trap

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, B; Schiller, S

    2004-01-01

    We have generated Coulomb crystals of ultracold $^4$He$^+$ ions in a linear radiofrequency trap, by sympathetic cooling via laser--cooled $^9$Be$^+$. Stable crystals containing up to 150 localized He$^+$ ions at $\\sim$20 mK were obtained. Ensembles or single ultracold He$^+$ ions open up interesting perspectives for performing precision tests of QED and measurements of nuclear radii. The present work also indicates the feasibility of cooling and crystallizing highly charged atomic ions using $^9$Be$^+$ as coolant.

  5. Sympathetic nervous system and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, R; Pignataro, A; Ferro, M; Quarello, F

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to review evidence on the role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in chronic renal failure (CRF). Three main points are discussed: 1) SNS and pathogenesis of arterial hypertension; 2) SNS and cardiovascular risk; 3) implication of SNS in arterial hypotension during hemodialysis. Several lines of evidence indicate the presence of a sympathetic hyperactivity in CRF, and its relationship with arterial hypertension. It is suggested that diseased kidneys send afferent nervous signals to central integrative sympathetic nuclei, thus contributing to the development and maintenance of arterial hypertension. The elimination of these impulses with nephrectomy could explain the concomitant reduction of blood pressure. Several experiments confirmed this hypothesis. Regarding SNS and cardiovascular risk, some data suggest that reduced heart rate variability identifies an increased risk for both all causes and sudden death, independently from other recognized risk factors. Symptomatic hypotension is a common problem during hemodialysis treatment, occurring in approximately 20-30% of all hemodialysis sessions and is accompanied by acute withdrawal of sympathetic activity, vasodilation and relative bradicardia. This reflex is thought to be evoked by vigorous contraction of a progressively empty left ventricle, activating cardiac mechanoceptors. This inhibits cardiovascular centers through vagal afferents, and overrides the stimulation by baroreceptor deactivation. Alternative explanations include cerebral ischemia and increased production of nitric oxide, which inhibit central sympathetic activity. It is hoped that therapies aimed at modulating sympathetic nerve activity in patients with CRF will ameliorate their prognosis and quality of life.

  6. 高调门油动机冷却改造探析--基于实际生产经验的实践分析%High Tone Door Servomotor Cooling Transformation:Practice Analysis Based on Practical Production Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵博

    2013-01-01

    本文分析了火力发电厂汽轮机组存在的问题以及潜在的危险,经过多次现场勘察以及日常积累的生产经验,探究出了汽轮机高调门油动机存在问题的根本原因,并基于价值工程原理,提出了初步改进思路,最后通过实践检验证明了改进思路的正确性,大大提高了工程管理的运用效率与水平。%This article analyzes the problems in turboset of thermal power plants and the potential danger. Through many times of site survey and the daily accumulated production experience, the root cause of the turbine high tone door servomotor problem is found. Preliminary transformation idea is presented based on value engineering principle. Finally, the transformation idea is proved to be right through experiments, and the use efficiency and level are greatly improved.

  7. 智利高中生习得普通话声调的实验研究%Acoustic Experimental Research on Chilean High School Students’ Acquisition of Mandarin Monosyllabic Tone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周镇

    2016-01-01

    对智利一所公立高中二年级的学生进行普通话四声的听辨测试和单字调声学实验研究,得出听辨容易度顺序为:去声>上声>阴平>阳平;四声发音正确率排序为:去声>上声>阴平>阳平。通过此次个体研究的结论进行问题分析,可制定出针对智利等其他西语国家汉语学习者简单且高效的四声教学方案。%This research mainly explored the 2nd-grade students’ acquisition of mandarin monosyllabic tone at a public Chil-ean high school. Through the acoustic experiment, it could be summarized that T4 was the easiest for them to be recognized a-coustically and T2 was the most difficult one, with the order of easiness should be T4>T3>T1>T2. The accuracy of the sample pronunciation could be sorted as T4>T3>T1>T2. According to the conclusion, relevant phonetic problems were analyzed, and ef-fective teaching plans for learners from Chile and even from Spanish-speaking countries were proposed.

  8. The development of categorical perception of Mandarin tones in four- to seven-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Peng, Gang; Yan, Nan; Wang, Lan

    2016-12-05

    To track the course of development in children's fine-grained perception of Mandarin tones, the present study explored how categorical perception (CP) of Mandarin tones emerges along age among 70 four- to seven-year-old children and 16 adults. Prominent discrimination peaks were found for both the child and the adult groups, and they were well aligned with the corresponding identification crossovers. Moreover, six-year-olds showed a much narrower width (i.e. a sharper slope) compared to younger children, and have already acquired adult-like identification competence of Mandarin high-level and mid-rising tones. Although the ability to discriminate within-category tone pairs did not change, the between-category discrimination accuracies were positively correlated with chronological ages among child participants. We assume that the perceptual refinement of Mandarin tones in young children may be driven by an accumulation of perceptual development from the tonal information of the ambient sound input.

  9. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  10. Alterations in electrodermal activity and cardiac parasympathetic tone during hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekecs, Zoltán; Szekely, Anna; Varga, Katalin

    2016-02-01

    Exploring autonomic nervous system (ANS) changes during hypnosis is critical for understanding the nature and extent of the hypnotic phenomenon and for identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of hypnosis in different medical conditions. To assess ANS changes during hypnosis, electrodermal activity and pulse rate variability (PRV) were measured in 121 young adults. Participants either received hypnotic induction (hypnosis condition) or listened to music (control condition), and both groups were exposed to test suggestions. Blocks of silence and experimental sound stimuli were presented at baseline, after induction, and after de-induction. Skin conductance level (SCL) and high frequency (HF) power of PRV measured at each phase were compared between groups. Hypnosis decreased SCL compared to the control condition; however, there were no group differences in HF power. Furthermore, hypnotic suggestibility did not moderate ANS changes in the hypnosis group. These findings indicate that hypnosis reduces tonic sympathetic nervous system activity, which might explain why hypnosis is effective in the treatment of disorders with strong sympathetic nervous system involvement, such as rheumatoid arthritis, hot flashes, hypertension, and chronic pain. Further studies with different control conditions are required to examine the specificity of the sympathetic effects of hypnosis.

  11. Simulating sympathetic detonation using the hydrodynamic models and constitutive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Hoon; Kim, Min Sung; Yoh, Jack J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Tae Boo [Hanwha Corporation Defense Rand D Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A Sympathetic detonation (SD) is a detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion. Most of times it is unintended while the impact of blast fragments or strong shock waves from the initiating donor explosive is the cause of SD. We investigate the SD of a cylindrical explosive charge (64 % RDX, 20 % Al, 16 % HTPB) contained in a steel casing. The constitutive relations for high explosive are obtained from a thermo-chemical code that provides the size effect data without the rate stick data typically used for building the rate law and equation of state. A full size SD test of eight pallet-packaged artillery shells is performed that provides the pressure data while the hydrodynamic model with proper constitutive relations for reactive materials and the fragmentation model for steel casing is conducted to replicate the experimental findings. The work presents a novel effort to accurately model and reproduce the sympathetic detonation event with a reduced experimental effort.

  12. Modulation of cardiac autonomic tone in non-hypotensive hypovolemia during blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kavita; Singh, Akanksha; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Coshic, Poonam; Chatterjee, Kabita; Deepak, K K

    2016-08-02

    Non-hypotensive hypovolemia, observed during mild haemorrhage or blood donation leads to reflex readjustment of the cardiac autonomic tone. In the present study, the cardiac autonomic tone was quantified using heart rate and blood pressure variability during and after non-hypotensive hypovolemia of blood donation. 86 voluntary healthy male blood donors were recruited for the study (age 35 ± 9 years; weight 78 ± 12 kg; height 174 ± 6 cms). Continuous lead II ECG and beat-to-beat blood pressure was recorded before, during and after blood donation followed by offline time and frequency domain analysis of HRV and BPV. The overall heart rate variability (SDNN and total power) did not change during or after blood donation. However, there was a decrease in indices that represent the parasympathetic component (pNN50 %, SDSD and HF) while an increase was observed in sympathetic component (LF) along with an increase in sympathovagal balance (LF:HF ratio) during blood donation. These changes were sustained for the period immediately following blood donation. No fall of blood pressure was observed during the period of study. The blood pressure variability showed an increase in the SDNN, CoV and RMSSD time domain measures in the post donation period. These results suggest that mild hypovolemia produced by blood donation is non-hypotensive but is associated with significant changes in the autonomic tone. The increased blood pressure variability and heart rate changes that are seen only in the later part of donation period could be because of the progressive hypovolemia associated parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation that manifest during the course of blood donation.

  13. THE CAFETERIA DIET INCREASES FAT MASS AND CHRONICALLY ELEVATES LUMBAR SYMPATHETIC NERVE ACTIVITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntzel, Martin S.; Al-Naimi, Omar Ali S.; Barclay, Alicia; Ajasin, David

    2012-01-01

    Obesity causes sympathetic activation that promotes atherosclerosis, end-organ damage, and hypertension. Because high-fat induced weight gain in rats elevates plasma leptin at 1–3 days following onset of calorie dense diets, we hypothesized that diet-induced overfeeding will increase sympathetic activity within one week following onset of the regimen. To test this, we continuously measured sympathetic activity and blood pressure before and during the onset of diet-induced obesity using a high calorie cafeteria-style diet. Female Wistar rats, in which radiotelemeters had been implanted for continuous monitoring of lumbar sympathetic activity, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, were randomly assigned to groups that received regular chow (control) or a cafeteria diet for a period of 15 days. This short-term cafeteria-feeding regimen caused modest but non-significant increases in body weight (P = 0.07) and a doubling of brown and white adipose tissue (P cafeteria rats compared with controls (P Cafeteria diet-induced weight gain caused increases in lumbar sympathetic nerve activity that became significant by the 12th day of the diet (p cafeteria-style diet stimulates sustained increases in lumbar sympathetic neural drive in rats. PMID:23090774

  14. Cafeteria diet increases fat mass and chronically elevates lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntzel, Martin S; Al-Naimi, Omar Ali S; Barclay, Alicia; Ajasin, David

    2012-12-01

    Obesity causes sympathetic activation that promotes atherosclerosis, end-organ damage, and hypertension. Because high-fat induced weight gain in rats elevates plasma leptin at 1 to 3 days after the onset of calorie-dense diets, we hypothesized that diet-induced overfeeding will increase sympathetic activity within 1 week after the onset of the regimen. To test this, we continuously measured sympathetic activity and blood pressure before and during the onset of diet-induced obesity using a high-calorie, cafeteria-style diet. Female Wistar rats, in which radiotelemeters had been implanted for continuous monitoring of lumbar sympathetic activity, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, were randomly assigned to groups that received regular chow (control) or a cafeteria diet for a period of 15 days. This short-term, cafeteria-feeding regimen caused modest but nonsignificant increases in body weight (P=0.07) and a doubling of brown and white adipose tissue (Pcafeteria rats compared with controls (PCafeteria diet-induced weight gain caused increases in lumbar sympathetic nerve activity that became significant by the 12th day of the diet (Pcafeteria-style diet stimulates sustained increases in lumbar sympathetic neural drive in rats.

  15. Functional sympatholysis and sympathetic escape in a theoretical model for blood flow regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin K Roy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical simulation of flow regulation in vascular networks is used to investigate the interaction between arteriolar vasoconstriction due to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA and vasodilation due to increased oxygen demand. A network with thirteen vessel segments in series is used, each segment representing a different size range of arterioles or venules. The network includes five actively regulating arteriolar segments with time-dependent diameters influenced by shear stress, wall tension, metabolic regulation, and SNA. Metabolic signals are assumed to be propagated upstream along vessel walls via a conducted response. The model exhibits functional sympatholysis, in which sympathetic vasoconstriction is partially abrogated by increases in metabolic demand, and sympathetic escape, in which SNA elicits an initial vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation. In accordance with experimental observations, these phenomena are more prominent in small arterioles than in larger arterioles when SNA is assumed to act equally on arterioles of all sizes. The results imply that a mechanism based on the competing effects on arteriolar tone of SNA and conducted metabolic signals can account for several observed characteristics of functional sympatholysis, including the different responses of large and small arterioles.

  16. The intensitive DL of tones: dependence of signal/masker ratio on tone level and on spectrum of added noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, D D

    1993-02-01

    In Greenwood [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 33, 484-502 (1961a)] the ratio of masked signal threshold to masker level (S/M) decreased about 4 dB at a masker level of about 50 dB SL, the 'transition' level, when noise bands were subcritical but not when supercritical. Schlauch et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71, S73 (1982)] report a related result. A pilot study [Greenwood, Harvard Psychoacoustic Lab. Status Report 37, 8-9 (1961)] in which pure tones masked identical tones in-phase showed a larger change in S/M. Detailed tone-tone growth-of-masking curves from over a dozen subjects in 1967-69, and in 1960, are reported here. A transition in slope, of variable abruptness, often begins to occur at about 50 dB SL, dropping S/M ratio by 6 to 8 dB or more [Rabinowitz et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 1053 (1976)]; the curves sometimes possess two segments, sometimes are simply convex. All have overall slopes less than 1.0, known also as the 'near miss'. Consistent with other results [Zwicker, Acustica 6, 365-396 (1956); Viemeister, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 1265-1296 (1972); Moore and Raab, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 55, 1049-1060 (1974)], addition of low-level wide-band and high-pass noise was found to counteract the change in S/M, i.e., to raise the high-level section of the growth-of-masking curve. However, the ability of narrow 'band-pass' noise to exert this effect was greatest when added at a frequency ratio (band/masking-tone) of 1.3 to 1.5, which seems more closely to link the effects of added noise to the effects of increasing a masking band from sub- to supercritical width (above). Interpretation of the decrease in DL with level begins by noting that the 'transition' level correlates approximately with the level at which a primary unit population excited by a given pure tone begins rapidly to expand basally. Underlying this, the basalward shift of a tone's displacement envelope peak accelerates at about the same level [Rhode, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 1218-1231 (1971); Sellick et al., J

  17. Transonic Tones and Excess Broadband Noise in Overexpanded Supersonic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.

    2009-01-01

    Noise characteristics of convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles in the overexpanded regime are the focus of this paper. The flow regime is encountered during takeoff and landing of certain airplanes and also with rocket nozzles in launch-pad environment. Experimental results from laboratory-scale single nozzles are discussed. The flow often undergoes a resonance accompanied by emission of tones (referred to as transonic tones). The phenomenon is different from the well-known screech tones. Unlike screech, the frequency increases with increasing supply pressure. There is a staging behavior odd harmonic stages occur at lower pressures while the fundamental occurs in a range of relatively higher pressures. A striking feature is that tripping of the nozzle s internal boundary layer tends to suppress the resonance. However, even in the absence of tones the broadband levels are found to be high. That is, relative to a convergent case and at same pressure ratio, the C-D nozzles are found to be noisier, often by more than 10dB. This excess broadband noise (referred to as EBBN) is further explored. Its characteristics are found to be different from the well-known broadband shockassociated noise ( BBSN ). For example, while the frequency of the BBSN peak varies with observation angle no such variation is noted with EBBN. The mechanisms of the transonic tone and the EBBN are not completely understood yet. They appear to be due to unsteady shock motion inside the nozzle. The shock drives the flow downstream like a vibrating diaphragm, and resonance takes place similarly as with acoustic resonance of a conical section having one end closed and the other end open. When the boundary layer is tripped, apparently a breakdown of azimuthal coherence suppresses the resonance. However, there is still unsteady shock motion albeit with superimposed randomness. Such random motion of the internal shock and its interaction with the separated boundary layer produces the EBBN.

  18. Musical imagery: generation of tones and chords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, T L; Stoeckig, K

    1988-10-01

    Four experiments are reported that examine subjects' ability to form and use images of tones and chords. In Experiments 1 and 3, subjects heard a cue tone or chord and formed an image of a tone or chord one whole step in pitch above the cue. This image was then compared to a probe tone or chord that was either the same as the image in pitch, different from the image in pitch and harmonically closely related, or different and harmonically distantly related. Image formation times and response times were measured. In Experiment 3 a random-tone mask was used to control for possible contribution of the cue in echoic memory. In both experiments tone images were formed faster than chord images, a result consistent with the idea of structural complexity as a determinant of image formation time. Response times and accuracy rates were found to parallel results found in music perception studies, results consistent with the idea of shared mechanisms in the processing of musical images and percepts. Experiments 2 and 4 were control experiments examining the possible influence of demand characteristics and subjects' knowledge. In experiment 2 subjects predicted the results of "an average person" using imagery, and in Experiment 4 subjects completed the task without receiving imagery instructions. The findings ruled out the possibility that demand characteristics and subjects' knowledge were solely responsible for the results of Experiments 1 and 3 and support the argument for the role of imagery.

  19. Quantifying cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities using principal dynamic modes analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuru; Jan, Kung-Ming; Ju, Ki Hwan; Chon, Ki H

    2006-09-01

    The ratio between low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) spectral power of heart rate has been used as an approximate index for determining the autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance. An accurate assessment of the ANS balance can only be achieved if clear separation of the dynamics of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities can be obtained, which is a daunting task because they are nonlinear and have overlapping dynamics. In this study, a promising nonlinear method, termed the principal dynamic mode (PDM) method, is used to separate dynamic components of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities on the basis of ECG signal, and the results are compared with the power spectral approach to assessing the ANS balance. The PDM analysis based on the 28 subjects consistently resulted in a clear separation of the two nervous systems, which have similar frequency characteristics for parasympathetic and sympathetic activities as those reported in the literature. With the application of atropine, in 13 of 15 supine subjects there was an increase in the sympathetic-to-parasympathetic ratio (SPR) due to a greater decrease of parasympathetic than sympathetic activity (P=0.003), and all 13 subjects in the upright position had a decrease in SPR due to a greater decrease of sympathetic than parasympathetic activity (Pparasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. The culprit is equivalent decreases in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities irrespective of the pharmacological blockades. These findings suggest that the PDM shows promise as a noninvasive and quantitative marker of ANS imbalance, which has been shown to be a factor in many cardiac and stress-related diseases.

  20. Enhanced adipose afferent reflex contributes to sympathetic activation in diet-induced obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Wei-Wei; Han, Ying; Zhou, Ye-Bo; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Xing-Ya; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2012-11-01

    We recently found that adipose afferent reflex (AAR) induced by chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure in normal rats. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that AAR contributes to sympathetic activation in obesity hypertension. Male rats were fed with a control diet (12% kcal as fat) or high-fat diet (42% kcal as fat) for 12 weeks to induce obesity hypertension. Stimulation of WAT with capsaicin increased renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure. Both AAR and WAT afferent activity were enhanced in obesity hypertension (OH) compared with obesity nonhypertension (ON) and in ON compared with obesity-resistant or control diet rats. WAT sensory denervation induced by resiniferatoxin caused greater decreases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in OH than ON and in ON than obesity-resistant or control. The depressor effect of resiniferatoxin lasted ≥ 3 weeks in OH. Leptin antagonist in WAT reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in OH. WAT injection of capsaicin increased plasma renin, angiotensin II, and norepinephrine levels in OH and caused more c-fos expression in paraventricular nucleus in OH than ON and in ON than obesity-resistant or control rats. Inhibiting paraventricular nucleus neurons with lidocaine attenuated renal sympathetic nerve activity in OH and ON, decreased mean arterial pressure in OH, and abolished the capsaicin-induced AAR in all groups. The results indicate that enhanced AAR contributes to sympathetic activation in OH, and paraventricular nucleus plays an important role in the enhanced AAR and sympathetic activation in OH.

  1. Preattentive cortical-evoked responses to pure tones, harmonic tones, and speech: influence of music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjeh, Dee A; Lister, Jennifer J; Frisch, Stefan A

    2009-08-01

    Cortical auditory evoked potentials, including mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a to pure tones, harmonic complexes, and speech syllables, were examined across groups of trained musicians and nonmusicians. Because of the extensive formal and informal auditory training received by musicians throughout their lifespan, it was predicted that these electrophysiological indicators of preattentive pitch discrimination and involuntary attention change would distinguish musicians from nonmusicians and provide insight regarding the influence of auditory training and experience on central auditory function. A total of 102 (67 trained musicians, 35 nonmusicians) right-handed young women with normal hearing participated in three auditory stimulus conditions: pure tones (25 musicians/15 nonmusicians), harmonic tones (42 musicians/20 nonmusicians), and speech syllables (26 musicians/15 nonmusicians). Pure tone and harmonic tone stimuli were presented in multideviant oddball paradigms designed to elicit MMN and P3a. Each paradigm included one standard and two infrequently occurring deviants. For the pure tone condition, the standard pure tone was 1000 Hz, and the two deviant tones differed in frequency from the standard by either 1.5% (1015 Hz) or 6% (1060 Hz). The harmonic tone complexes were digitally created and contained a fundamental frequency (F0) and three harmonics. The amplitude of each harmonic was divided by its harmonic number to create a natural amplitude contour in the frequency spectrum. The standard tone was G4 (F0 = 392 Hz), and the two deviant tones differed in fundamental frequency from the standard by 1.5% (F0 = 386 Hz) or 6% (F0 = 370 Hz). The fundamental frequencies of the harmonic tones occur within the average female vocal range. The third condition to elicit MMN and P3a was designed for the presentation of speech syllables (/ba/ and /da/) and was structured as a traditional oddball paradigm (one standard/one infrequent deviant). Each speech stimulus was

  2. Imaging of the autonomic nervous system: focus on cardiac sympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S

    2003-12-01

    Symptoms or signs of abnormal autonomic nervous system function occur commonly in several neurological disorders. Clinical evaluations have depended on physiological, pharmacological, and neurochemical approaches. Recently, imaging of sympathetic noradrenergic innervation has been introduced and applied especially in the heart. Most studies have used the radiolabeled sympathomimetic amine, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. Decreased uptake or increased "washout" of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine-derived radioactivity is associated with worse prognosis or more severe disease in hypertension, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and diabetes mellitus. This pattern may reflect a high rate of postganglionic sympathetic nerve traffic to the heart. Many recent studies have agreed on the remarkable finding that all patients with Parkinson's disease and orthostatic hypotension have a loss of cardiac sympathetic innervation, whereas all patients with multiple system atrophy, often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease, have intact cardiac sympathetic innervation. Because Parkinson's disease entails a postganglionic sympathetic noradrenergic lesion, the disease appears to be not only a movement disorder, with dopamine loss in the nigrostriatal system of the brain, but also a dysautonomia, with noradrenaline loss in the sympathetic nervous system of the heart. As new ligands are developed, one may predict further discoveries of involvement of components of the autonomic nervous system in neurological diseases.

  3. [Role of renal sympathetic nerve and oxidative stress in foot shock-induced hypertension in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ren-Di; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Jian-Bing; Dong, Tao; Zhang, Guo-Xing

    2015-06-25

    The present study was aimed to investigate the roles of renal sympathetic nerve and oxidative stress in the development of foot shock-induced hypertension. Ninety rats were divided into 6 groups (the number of each group was 15): control group, foot shock group, denervation of renal sympathetic nerve group, denervation of renal sympathetic nerve + foot shock group, Tempol treatment + foot shock group, denervation of renal sympathetic nerve + Tempol treatment + foot shock group. Rats were received electrical foot shock for 14 days (2-4 mA, 75 V, shocks of 50-100 ms every 30 s, for 4 h each session through an electrified grid floor every day). Renal sympathetic ablation was used to remove bilateral renal sympathetic nerve in rats (rats were allowed to recover for one week before the beginning of the foot shock procedure). The antioxidant Tempol was injected intraperitoneally at 1 h before foot shock. Systolic blood pressure was measured at 1 h after foot shock on day 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14. Contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), renin, angiotensin II (AngII) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in plasma were measured by ELISA after 14-day foot shock. The results showed that systolic blood pressure of foot shock group was significantly increased (P indirectly activate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, so the foot shock-induced high blood pressure may be maintained and hypertension may therefore be produced.

  4. Desflurane increases heart rate independent of sympathetic activity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, O; Schwarte, L A; Schindler, A W; Scheeren, T W L

    2003-12-01

    Desflurane has been shown to increase sympathetic activity and heart rate (HR) in a concentration-dependent manner. Nevertheless, desflurane, like all other volatile anaesthetics, increased HR in parallel to vagal inhibition in a previous study. Therefore, our hypothesis is that desflurane elicits tachycardia by vagal inhibition rather than by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Six dogs were studied awake and during desflurane anaesthesia (1 and 2 MAC) alone, after pretreatment with propranolol (2 mg kg(-1) followed by 1 mg kg(-1) h(-1)), or after pre-treatment with atropine (0.1 mg kg(-1) followed by 0.05 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). The effects on HR and HR variability were compared by an analysis of variance (P MAC of desflurane from about 60 (awake) to 118 +/- 2 beats min(-1) (mean +/- SEM) in controls and to 106 +/- 3 beats min(-1) in dogs pre-treated with propranolol. In contrast, pretreatment with atropine increased HR from 64 +/- 2 to 147 +/- 5 beats min(-1) (awake) and HR decreased to 120 +/- 5 beats min(-1) after adding desflurane. High-frequency power correlated inversely with HR (r2 = 0.95/0.93) during desflurane alone and in the presence of beta-adrenoceptor blockade, with no significant difference between regression lines. There was no correlation between these variables during atropine/desflurane. The increase in HR elicited by desflurane mainly results from vagal inhibition and not from sympathetic activation.

  5. Morphology of sympathetic chain in Saguinus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA P.E. PINTO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Saguinus niger popularly known as Sauim, is a Brazilian North primate. Sympathetic chain investigation would support traumatic and/or cancer diagnosis which are little described in wild animals. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology and distribution of sympathetic chain in order to supply knowledge for neurocomparative research. Three female young animals that came death by natural causes were investigated. Animals were fixed in formaldehyde 10% and dissected along the sympathetic chain in neck, thorax and abdomen. Cranial cervical ganglion was located at the level of carotid bifurcation, related to carotid internal artery. In neck basis the vagosympathetic trunk divides into the sympathetic trunk and the parasympathetic vagal nerve. Sympathetic trunk ran in dorsal position and originated the stellate ganglia, formed by the fusion of caudal cervical and first thoracic ganglia. Vagal trunk laid ventrally to heart and formed the cardiac plexus. In abdomen, on the right side, were found the celiac ganglion and cranial mesenteric ganglion; in the left side these ganglia were fusioned into the celiac-mesenteric ganglion displaced closely to the celiac artery. In both sides, the caudal mesenteric ganglion was located near to the caudal mesenteric artery.

  6. Sympathetic vasoconstriction takes an unexpected pannexin detour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schak Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow. In this issue of Science Signaling, Billaud et al. show that sympathetic vasoconstriction occurs through a complex scheme involving the activation of large-pore pannexin 1 cha...... abrogates sympathetic vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle. Because pannexin 1 channels are inhibited by nitric oxide, they may function as a switch to turn off adrenergic signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise.......Sympathetic vasoconstriction plays an important role in the control of blood pressure and the distribution of blood flow. In this issue of Science Signaling, Billaud et al. show that sympathetic vasoconstriction occurs through a complex scheme involving the activation of large-pore pannexin 1...... channels and the subsequent release of adenosine triphosphate that promotes contraction in an autocrine and paracrine manner. This elaborate mechanism may function as a point of intercept for other signaling pathways-for example, in relation to the phenomenon "functional sympatholysis," in which exercise...

  7. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  8. Cholinergic Signaling Exerts Protective Effects in Models of Sympathetic Hyperactivity-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavioli, Mariana; Lara, Aline; Almeida, Pedro W. M.; Lima, Augusto Martins; Damasceno, Denis D.; Rocha-Resende, Cibele; Ladeira, Marina; Resende, Rodrigo R.; Martinelli, Patricia M.; Melo, Marcos Barrouin; Brum, Patricia C.; Fontes, Marco Antonio Peliky; Souza Santos, Robson A.; Prado, Marco A. M.; Guatimosim, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic control of the heart is exerted by two distinct branches; the autonomic component represented by the parasympathetic nervous system, and the recently described non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery. Previous evidence has shown that reduced cholinergic function leads to deleterious effects on the myocardium. Yet, whether conditions of increased cholinergic signaling can offset the pathological remodeling induced by sympathetic hyperactivity, and its consequences for these two cholinergic axes are unknown. Here, we investigated two models of sympathetic hyperactivity: i) the chronic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation evoked by isoproterenol (ISO), and ii) the α2A/α2C-adrenergic receptor knockout (KO) mice that lack pre-synaptic adrenergic receptors. In both models, cholinergic signaling was increased by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine. First, we observed that isoproterenol produces an autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tone. Under this condition transcripts for cholinergic proteins were upregulated in ventricular myocytes, indicating that non-neuronal cholinergic machinery is activated during adrenergic overdrive. Pyridostigmine treatment prevented the effects of ISO on autonomic function and on the ventricular cholinergic machinery, and inhibited cardiac remodeling. α2A/α2C-KO mice presented reduced ventricular contraction when compared to wild-type mice, and this dysfunction was also reversed by cholinesterase inhibition. Thus, the cardiac parasympathetic system and non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery are modulated in opposite directions under conditions of increased sympathetic drive or ACh availability. Moreover, our data support the idea that pyridostigmine by restoring ACh availability is beneficial in heart disease. PMID:24992197

  9. Cholinergic signaling exerts protective effects in models of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gavioli

    Full Text Available Cholinergic control of the heart is exerted by two distinct branches; the autonomic component represented by the parasympathetic nervous system, and the recently described non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery. Previous evidence has shown that reduced cholinergic function leads to deleterious effects on the myocardium. Yet, whether conditions of increased cholinergic signaling can offset the pathological remodeling induced by sympathetic hyperactivity, and its consequences for these two cholinergic axes are unknown. Here, we investigated two models of sympathetic hyperactivity: i the chronic beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation evoked by isoproterenol (ISO, and ii the α2A/α2C-adrenergic receptor knockout (KO mice that lack pre-synaptic adrenergic receptors. In both models, cholinergic signaling was increased by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine. First, we observed that isoproterenol produces an autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic tone. Under this condition transcripts for cholinergic proteins were upregulated in ventricular myocytes, indicating that non-neuronal cholinergic machinery is activated during adrenergic overdrive. Pyridostigmine treatment prevented the effects of ISO on autonomic function and on the ventricular cholinergic machinery, and inhibited cardiac remodeling. α2A/α2C-KO mice presented reduced ventricular contraction when compared to wild-type mice, and this dysfunction was also reversed by cholinesterase inhibition. Thus, the cardiac parasympathetic system and non-neuronal cardiomyocyte cholinergic machinery are modulated in opposite directions under conditions of increased sympathetic drive or ACh availability. Moreover, our data support the idea that pyridostigmine by restoring ACh availability is beneficial in heart disease.

  10. Bombesin-like receptor 3 regulates blood pressure and heart rate via a central sympathetic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, Dalya M; Xiao, Cuiying; Brychta, Robert J; Diedrich, André; Schnermann, Jurgen; Reitman, Marc L

    2016-04-01

    Bombesin-like receptor 3 (BRS-3) is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that regulates energy expenditure, food intake, and body weight. We examined the effects of BRS-3 deletion and activation on blood pressure and heart rate. In free-living, telemetered Brs3 null mice the resting heart rate was 10% lower than wild-type controls, while the resting mean arterial pressure was unchanged. During physical activity, the heart rate and blood pressure increased more in Brs3 null mice, reaching a similar heart rate and higher mean arterial pressure than control mice. When sympathetic input was blocked with propranolol, the heart rate of Brs3 null mice was unchanged, while the heart rate in control mice was reduced to the level of the null mice. The intrinsic heart rate, measured after both sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade, was similar in Brs3 null and control mice. Intravenous infusion of the BRS-3 agonist MK-5046 increased mean arterial pressure and heart rate in wild-type but not in Brs3 null mice, and this increase was blocked by pretreatment with clonidine, a sympatholytic, centrally acting α2-adrenergic agonist. In anesthetized mice, hypothalamic infusion of MK-5046 also increased both mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Taken together, these data demonstrate that BRS-3 contributes to resting cardiac sympathetic tone, but is not required for activity-induced increases in heart rate and blood pressure. The data suggest that BRS-3 activation increases heart rate and blood pressure via a central sympathetic mechanism.

  11. Reversal of serotonin vasodilatation in the dog external carotid bed by sympathetic denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, M A; Vidrio, H

    1979-01-01

    In view of the conflicting reports of both constrictor and dilator effects of serotonin on the external carotid vascular bed of dogs, the influence of intraarterial infusions of the amine on blood flow through this territory was assessed by electromagnetic flowmeter techniques. In anesthetized intact dogs, serotonin produced dose-related increases in flow. These vasodilator responses were markedly diminished after ipsilateral vagotomy and were followed by delayed vasoconstriction, which then became the predominant response. Pretreatment with atropine did not modify dilator responses, while resection of the ipsilateral stellate ganglion reversed them to pure constriction. In the internal carotid, serotonin elicited constriction, and this effect was unaffected by vagotomy. These results were interpreted in terms of the hypothesis relating serotonin reactivity to vascular tone. The amine would elicit dilatation through an effect on tonically constricted small vessels. Removal of this tone by section of the vagosympathetic trunk or stellectomy would unmask the constrictor effect of serotonin on large vessels. Such reversal of responses would not occur in the internal carotid, a territory normally devoid of important sympathetic tone.

  12. Studying Emergent Tone-Systems in Nepal: Pitch, Phonation and Word-Tone in Tamang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaudon, Martine

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the particular kinds of difficulties which arise in the study of an emergent tone-system, exemplified by Tamang in Nepal, where pitch, phonation and other laryngeal features combine in the definition of a tone. As a consequence, conducting a well-ordered analysis in stages first of phonetic transcription, then variation in…

  13. Perception of tones by infants learning a non-tone language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kager, René; Liu, Liquan

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the perception of tones by non-tone-language-learning (non-tonelearning) infants between 5 and 18 months in a study that reveals infants’ initial sensitivity to tonal contrasts, deterioration yet plasticity of tonal sensitivity at the end of the first year, and a perceptual reb

  14. Effects of Suprasegmental Phonological Alternations on Early Word Recognition: Evidence from Tone Sandhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilanga Dilum Wewalaarachchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early language acquisition is potentially complicated by the presence of many sources of variability in the speech signal. A frequent example of variability is phonological alternations, which can lead to context-driven changes in the realization of a word. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of a highly frequent yet scarcely researched type of suprasegmental phonological alternation – tone Sandhi – on early spoken word recognition. The tone Sandhi rule investigated herein involves a tone change of the first syllable in a disyllabic unit. In accordance with third tone Sandhi, when two dipping tone syllables are juxtaposed in connected speech, the first syllable is dissimilated to a high rising tone. For example, ‘flour mill’ (unaltered pre-Sandhi form [fən(214 tʂʰɑŋ(214] undergoes tonal alternation resulting in the altered post-Sandhi form [fən(35 tʂʰɑŋ(214]. In the current study, preschoolers’ sensitivity to the effects of tone Sandhi when processing familiar words was investigated via a preferential looking paradigm. Words varied in their phonological form: words that were labeled with a phonological alternation due to Sandhi (Post-Sandhi; words that were labeled with an unaltered form when tone Sandhi was licensed (Pre-Sandhi; non-Sandhi words correctly produced (Correct Pronunciation; and words labeled with a phonological alternation of tone not associated with Sandhi rules (Mispronunciation. Post-Sandhi forms and correct pronunciations were associated with visual referents with comparable strength, with only a subtle processing cost observed for post-Sandhi forms in the time course of lexical selection. Likewise, pre-Sandhi forms and true mispronunciations were rejected as labels for visual references with comparable strength, with only subtle differences observed in the time course of lexical selection. Findings are discussed in terms of their impact on prevailing theories of lexical representation.

  15. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  16. Sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, N.

    2007-01-01

    Sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often characterized by the presence of sympathetic hyperactivity. This contributes to the pathogenesis of renal hypertension. It is also associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality indep

  17. Drug-Free Correction of the Tone of the Autonomic Nervous System in the Management of Cardiac Arrhythmia in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Popov, PhD, ScD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to examine the possibility of ventricular extrasystole (VES management in CAD (coronary artery disease patients by attenuating the sympathetic activity with a course of electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve. Methods: A decrease in sympathetic tone was achieved via vagus nerve electrical stimulation (VNES. VNES was performed in 48 male CAD patients, mean age 53.5±4.1 years. Antiarrhythmic drug therapy was canceled prior to VNES therapy. The effect of VNES on heart rate variability (HRV and VES were carefully studied. All the patients received a 24-hour ECG monitoring. HRV was calculated for high frequency (HF and low frequency (LF bands and the LF/HF index was determined. Results: Immediately following VNES therapy, 30 patients (group 1 reported alleviation of angina signs and the LF/HF index was significantly decreased (p=0.001. Eighteen patients (group 2 showed no change either in health or the LF/HF index. According to ECG and echocardiography, the VES number did not significantly change immediately after VNES therapy. One month after the VNES course, group 1 reported further improvement in health; the LF/HF index approached normal values. In group 2, the LF/HF significantly decreased (p=0.043. However, in the entire study sample, the VES number significantly decreased overall (p=0.025. Conclusion: VNES attenuated the cardiac effects of hypersympathicotonia decreased the ischemic impact on the myocardium, alleviated the cardiac angina signs, and beneficially influenced the VES number in CAD patients.

  18. Cantonese-Speaking Children Do Not Acquire Tone Perception before Tone Production-A Perceptual and Acoustic Study of Three-Year-Olds' Monosyllabic Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Fu, Wing M; Cheung, Eunice Y L

    2017-01-01

    Models of phonological development assume that speech perception precedes speech production and that children acquire suprasegmental features earlier than segmental features. Studies of Chinese-speaking children challenge these assumptions. For example, Chinese-speaking children can produce tones before two-and-a-half years but are not able to discriminate the same tones until after 6 years of age. This study compared the perception and production of monosyllabic Cantonese tones directly in 3 -year-old children. Twenty children and their mothers identified Cantonese tones in a picture identification test and produced monosyllabic tones in a picture labeling task. To control for lexical biases on tone ratings, the mother- and child-productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information and were presented to five judges for tone classification. Detailed acoustic analysis was performed. Contrary to the view that children master lexical tones earlier than segmental phonemes, results showed that 3-year-old children could not perceive or produce any Cantonese tone with adult-like proficiency and incorrect tone productions were acoustically different from criterion. In contrast to previous findings that Cantonese-speaking children mastered tone production before tone perception, we observed more accuracy during speech perception than production. Findings from Cantonese-speaking children challenge some of the established tenets in theories of phonological development that have been tested mostly with native English speakers.

  19. Pigmentation associated histopathological variations in sympathetic ophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marak, G E; Ikui, H

    1980-01-01

    The severity of inflammation in sympathetic ophthalmia is related to the degree of pigmentation, and the granulomatous response seems to be related to pigmentation. Eosinophilia is also associated with pigmentation, but this association appears to be fortuitous and is a result of the association of eosinophilia with severity of the inflammation. PMID:7387955

  20. Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Hibernation or Resurrection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Doumas, Michael; Tsioufis, Costas

    2016-01-01

    The most current versions of renal sympathetic denervation have been invented as minimally invasive approaches for the management of drug-resistant hypertension. The anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of renal sympathetic innervation provide a strong background supporting an important role of the renal nerves in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and volume. In addition, historical data with surgical sympathectomy and experimental data with surgical renal denervation indicate a beneficial effect on BP levels. Early clinical studies with transcatheter radiofrequency ablation demonstrated impressive BP reduction, accompanied by beneficial effects in target organ damage and other disease conditions characterized by sympathetic overactivity. However, the failure of the SYMPLICITY 3 trial to meet its primary efficacy end point raised a lot of concerns and put the field of renal denervation into hibernation. This review aims to translate basic research into clinical practice by presenting the anatomical and physiological basis for renal sympathetic denervation, critically discussing the past and present knowledge in this field, where we stand now, and also speculating about the future of the intervention and potential directions for research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Trapping and Sympathetic Cooling of Boron Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rugango, Rene; Shu, Gang; Brown, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping and sympathetic cooling of B$^{+}$ ions in a Coulomb crystal of laser-cooled Ca$^{+}$, We non-destructively confirm the presence of the both B$^+$ isotopes by resonant excitation of the secular motion. The B$^{+}$ ions are loaded by ablation of boron and the secular excitation spectrum also reveals features consistent with ions of the form B$_{n}^{+}$.

  2. Hardware Implementation of an Automatic Rendering Tone Mapping Algorithm for a Wide Dynamic Range Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Yadid-Pecht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tone mapping algorithms are used to adapt captured wide dynamic range (WDR scenes to the limited dynamic range of available display devices. Although there are several tone mapping algorithms available, most of them require manual tuning of their rendering parameters. In addition, the high complexities of some of these algorithms make it difficult to implement efficient real-time hardware systems. In this work, a real-time hardware implementation of an exponent-based tone mapping algorithm is presented. The algorithm performs a mixture of both global and local compression on colored WDR images. An automatic parameter selector has been proposed for the tone mapping algorithm in order to achieve good tone-mapped images without manual reconfiguration of the algorithm for each WDR image. Both algorithms are described in Verilog and synthesized for a field programmable gate array (FPGA. The hardware architecture employs a combination of parallelism and system pipelining, so as to achieve a high performance in power consumption, hardware resources usage and processing speed. Results show that the hardware architecture produces images of good visual quality that can be compared to software-based tone mapping algorithms. High peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR and structural similarity (SSIM scores were obtained when the results were compared with output images obtained from software simulations using MATLAB.

  3. Sympathetic reflex control of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O

    1991-01-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are essential for the maintenance of arterial blood pressure in upright position. It has been generally believed that supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes elicited by changes in baroreceptor activity play an important role. Recent studies on human...... sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes are blocked. Blood flow has been measure by the local 133Xe-technique. The results indicate the presence of spinal as well as supraspinal sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes to human peripheral tissues. Especially is emphasized the presence of a local sympathetic veno...

  4. Collaborative Documentation and Revitalization of Cherokee Tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Dylan; Berardo, Marcellino; Feeling, Durbin; Hirata-Edds, Tracy; Peter, Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Cherokee, the sole member of the southern branch of Iroquoian languages, is a severely endangered language. Unlike other members of the Iroquoian family, Cherokee has lexical tone. Community members are concerned about the potential loss of their language, and both speakers and teachers comment on the difficulty that language learners have with…

  5. Problems in the Acquisition of Grammatical Tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Katherine

    An autosegmental account of the child's acquisition of grammatical tone in Sesotho, a southern Bantu language, is presented. The following theoretical questions are addressed: (1) When and how does the child figure out that Sesotho is a tonal rather than intonational, stress, or accentual language?; (2) How does the child acquire tonal rules?; and…

  6. The value of visualizing tone of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Graham; Cook, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Whilst most of us have an innate feeling for tone of voice, it is an elusive quality that even phoneticians struggle to describe with sufficient subtlety. For people who cannot speak themselves this can have particularly profound repercussions. Augmentative communication often involves text-to-speech, a technology that only supports a basic choice of prosody based on punctuation. Given how inherently difficult it is to talk about more nuanced tone of voice, there is a risk that its absence from current devices goes unremarked and unchallenged. Looking ahead optimistically to more expressive communication aids, their design will need to involve more subtle interactions with tone of voice-interactions that the people using them can understand and engage with. Interaction design can play a role in making tone of voice visible, tangible, and accessible. Two projects that have already catalysed interdisciplinary debate in this area, Six Speaking Chairs and Speech Hedge, are introduced together with responses. A broader role for design is advocated, as a means to opening up speech technology research to a wider range of disciplinary perspectives, and also to the contributions and influence of people who use it in their everyday lives.

  7. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Tong

    Full Text Available This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children's performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults' performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants' difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts' similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role

  8. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Lee, Stephen Man Kit; Lee, Meg Mei Ling; Burnham, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children's performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults' performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants' difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts' similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  9. A crosslinguistic PET study of tone perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandour, J; Wong, D; Hsieh, L; Weinzapfel, B; Van Lancker, D; Hutchins, G D

    2000-01-01

    In studies of pitch processing, a fundamental question is whether shared neural mechanisms at higher cortical levels are engaged for pitch perception of linguistic and nonlinguistic auditory stimuli. Positron emission tomography (PET) was used in a crosslinguistic study to compare pitch processing in native speakers of two tone languages (that is, languages in which variations in pitch patterns are used to distinguish lexical meaning), Chinese and Thai, with those of English, a nontone language. Five subjects from each language group were scanned under three active tasks (tone, pitch, and consonant) that required focused-attention, speeded-response, auditory discrimination judgments, and one passive baseline as silence. Subjects were instructed to judge pitch patterns of Thai lexical tones in the tone condition; pitch patterns of nonspeech stimuli in the pitch condition; syllable-initial consonants in the consonant condition. Analysis was carried out by paired-image subtraction. When comparing the tone to the pitch task, only the Thai group showed significant activation in the left frontal operculum. Activation of the left frontal operculum in the Thai group suggests that phonological processing of suprasegmental as well as segmental units occurs in the vicinity of Broca's area. Baseline subtractions showed significant activation in the anterior insular region for the English and Chinese groups, but not Thai, providing further support for the existence of possibly two parallel, separate pathways projecting from the temporo-parietal to the frontal language area. More generally, these differential patterns of brain activation across language groups and tasks support the view that pitch patterns are processed at higher cortical levels in a top-down manner according to their linguistic function in a particular language.

  10. A Pedagogical Study of Tone Neutralization in Cibemba Phonetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    the argument of the present writer is that the phenomenon of tone is essentially a .... and phonology. What that means is that in Cibemba names of two countries, .... human language to distinguish prosodic features such as tone and vowel.

  11. Influences on tone in Sepedi, a Southern Bantu language

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zerbian, S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tone in Bantu languages is rarely studied experimentally. This paper reports a production study which reveals the intricate interaction of tonal context and morphological structure in surface tone realization in Sepedi, a South African Bantu...

  12. Refractory Hypertension: Evidence of Heightened Sympathetic Activity as a Cause of Antihypertensive Treatment Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Acelajado, Maria C; Pisoni, Roberto; Li, Peng; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2015-07-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of treatment failure defined as uncontrolled blood pressure in spite of ≥5 classes of antihypertensive agents, including chlorthalidone and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. A prospective evaluation of possible mechanisms of refractory hypertension has not been done. The goal of this study was to test for evidence of heightened sympathetic tone as indicated by 24-hour urinary normetanephrine levels, clinic and ambulatory heart rate (HR), HR variability, arterial stiffness as indexed by pulse wave velocity, and systemic vascular resistance compared with patients with controlled resistant hypertension. Forty-four consecutive patients, 15 with refractory and 29 with controlled resistant hypertension, were evaluated prospectively. Refractory hypertensive patients were younger (48±13.3 versus 56.5±14.1 years; P=0.038) and more likely women (80.0 versus 51.9%; P=0.047) compared with patients with controlled resistant hypertension. They also had higher urinary normetanephrine levels (464.4±250.2 versus 309.8±147.6 µg per 24 hours; P=0.03), higher clinic HR (77.8±7.7 versus 68.8±7.6 bpm; P=0.001) and 24-hour ambulatory HR (77.8±7.7 versus 68.8±7.6; P=0.0018), higher pulse wave velocity (11.8±2.2 versus 9.4±1.5 m/s; P=0.009), reduced HR variability (4.48 versus 6.11; P=0.03), and higher systemic vascular resistance (3795±1753 versus 2382±349 dyne·s·cm(5)·m(2); P=0.008). These findings are consistent with heightened sympathetic tone being a major contributor to antihypertensive treatment failure and highlight the need for effective sympatholytic therapies in patients with refractory hypertension.

  13. Sympathetic blocks for visceral cancer pain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Klepstad, Pal; Kurita, Geana Paula

    2015-01-01

    The neurolytic blocks of sympathetic pathways, including celiac plexus block (CPB) and superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) , have been used for years. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence to support the performance of sympathetic blocks in cancer patients with abdominal visceral...... pain. Only comparison studies were included. All data from the eligible trials were analyzed using the GRADE system. Twenty-seven controlled studies were considered. CPB, regardless of the technique used, improved analgesia and/or decrease opioid consumption, and decreased opioid-induced adverse...... effects in comparison with a conventional analgesic treatment. In one study patients treated with superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) had a decrease in pain intensity and a less morphine consumption, while no statistical differences in adverse effects were found. The quality of these studies...

  14. Van Allen Probes observations of whistler-mode chorus with long-lived oscillating tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonglei; Su, Zhenpeng; Chen, Lunjin; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2017-06-01

    Whistler-mode chorus plays an important role in the radiation belt electron dynamics. In the frequency-time spectrogram, chorus often appears as a hiss-like band and/or a series of short-lived (up to ˜1 s) discrete elements. Here we present some rarely reported chorus emissions with long-lived (up to 25 s) oscillating tones observed by the Van Allen Probes in the dayside (MLT ˜9-14) midlatitude (|MLAT|>15°) region. An oscillating tone can behave either regularly or irregularly and can even transform into a nearly constant tone (with a relatively narrow frequency sweep range). We suggest that these highly coherent oscillating tones were generated naturally rather than being related to some artificial VLF transmitters. Possible scenarios for the generation of the oscillating tone chorus are as follows: (1) being nonlinearly triggered by the accompanying hiss-like bands or (2) being caused by the modulation of the wave source. The details of the generation and evolution of such a long-lived oscillating tone chorus need to be investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the future.

  15. The effects of pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia

    2005-01-01

    The research aim is to investigate that how pitch and duration affect the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese and that which one of the two factors is more important.A psycho-acoustic experiment was conducted, in which the listening stimuli consisted of 15 groups of disyllabic words, and the pitches and durations of the two syllables in each of the words were artificially controlled. Thirty-three standard Chinese native speakers participated in a forced-choice task to judge if the second syllables of the words they heard carried the neutral tone or the normal tones. The results of the experiment indicated that, (1) the effects of both pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone are significant; (2) the effect of pitch is larger than that of duration; (3) both the Fo values of the high point in the pitch contour and the pitch contour pattern have influence on the perception. The results of the experiment were correspondent to some extent to those of the previous acoustic analyses on the neutral tone.The diversity between the results of the presented perceptual study and those of the acoustical studies implies that the acoustic features of the neutral tone that exist in natural speech while do not affect the perception may be phonologically redundant.

  16. [Sympathetically maintained pain (SMP): phentolamine test vs sympathetic nerve blockade. Comparison of two diagnostic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehnert, Y; Müller, B; Larsen, B; Kohn, D

    2002-11-01

    The objective of our study was to clarify whether the phentolamine test is as suitable as sympathetic blockade in diagnosing cases of sympathetically maintained pain. The specificity and the sensitivity of both procedures were examined within a prospective and randomized study. Both a local sympathetic blockade and an intravenous phentolamine infusion were carried out in 29 patients with persistent pain in the area of the upper or lower extremities. A significant improvement was defined as reduction of pain of at least 50%. There were no complications in either test procedure. The phentolamine test registers sympathetically maintained pain well when it has a positive result (specificity of 83%). However, the phentolamine test shows only a low sensitivity of 69%. The phentolamine test, on the other hand, can be realized very easily and safely. Therefore, based on the results obtained, it is recommended that the phentolamine test be applied for primary diagnosis. In case of a negative result, further diagnosis should follow subsequently, for example with local sympathetic blockade.

  17. English and Thai Speakers' Perception of Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…

  18. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  19. 17beta-estradiol modulates baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic tone of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, T M; Connell, B J

    2000-05-12

    The following experiments examine the role of estrogen as a central modulator of autonomic tone and baroreflex sensitivity in the female rat. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and then supplemented daily for 7 days with a fixed dose of estrogen (5 microg/kg; sc) to produce a stable level of estrogen similar to that present at proestrous (17 pg/ml). The rats were then anaesthetized with sodium thiobutabarbital (100 mg/kg) and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate and both vagal and renal efferent nerve activities. The sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex was tested using intravenous injection of multiple doses of either phenylephrine hydrochloride or sodium nitroprusside. Estrogen-supplemented female rats exhibited a significantly enhanced BRS as compared to male rats from a previous study (0.78 vs. 0.5). Furthermore, bolus injection of estrogen (1x10(-2) mg/kg; iv) in estrogen-supplemented female rats produced a significant increase in vagal nerve activity and a significant decrease in renal nerve activity which together resulted in a further enhancement of the BRS (0.78 vs. 2.4). Injection of the selective estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780, into nucleus ambiguus and the intrathecal space of the spinal cord blocked the respective changes in parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities indicating that intravenously administered estrogen modulates baseline autonomic tone via the activation of central estrogen receptors.

  20. Sympathetic nerve-derived ATP regulates renal medullary blood flow via vasa recta pericytes

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    Scott S Wildman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pericyte cells are now known to be a novel locus of blood flow control, being able to regulate capillary diameter via their unique morphology and expression of contractile proteins. We have previously shown that exogenous ATP causes constriction of vasa recta via renal pericytes, acting at a variety of membrane bound P2 receptors on descending vasa recta, and therefore may be able to regulate medullary blood flow (MBF. Regulation of MBF is essential for appropriate urine concentration and providing essential oxygen and nutrients to this region of high, and variable, metabolic demand. Various sources of endogenous ATP have been proposed, including from epithelial, endothelial and red blood cells in response to stimuli such as mechanical stimulation, local acidosis, hypoxia, and exposure to various hormones. Extensive sympathetic innervation of the nephron has previously been shown, however the innervation reported has focused around the proximal and distal tubules, and ascending loop of Henle. We hypothesise that sympathetic nerves are an additional source of ATP acting at renal pericytes and therefore regulate MBF. Using a rat live kidney slice model in combination with video imaging and confocal microscopy techniques we firstly show sympathetic nerves in close proximity to vasa recta pericytes in both the outer and inner medulla. Secondly, we demonstrate pharmacological stimulation of sympathetic nerves in situ (by tyramine evokes pericyte-mediated vasoconstriction of vasa recta capillaries; inhibited by the application of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin. Lastly, tyramine-evoked vasoconstriction of vasa recta by pericytes is significantly less than ATP-evoked vasoconstriction. Sympathetic innervation may provide an additional level of functional regulation in the renal medulla that is highly localized. It now needs to be determined under which physiological/pathophysiological circumstances that sympathetic innervation of renal pericytes is

  1. Sympathetic nervous system contributes to enhanced corticosterone levels following chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, Steven A; Ionadi, Amy; McKay, Erin; Douglas, Xavier; Johnson, John D

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to chronic stress often elevates basal circulating glucocorticoids during the circadian nadir and leads to exaggerated glucocorticoid production following exposure to subsequent stressors. While glucocorticoid production is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, there is evidence that the sympathetic nervous system can affect diurnal glucocorticoid production by direct actions at the adrenal gland. Experiments here were designed to examine the role of the HPA and sympathetic nervous system in enhancing corticosterone production following chronic stress. Rats were exposed to a four-day stress paradigm or control conditions then exposed to acute restraint stress on the fifth day to examine corticosterone and ACTH responses. Repeated stressor exposure resulted in a small increase in corticosterone, but not ACTH, during the circadian nadir, and also resulted in exaggerated corticosterone production 5, 10, and 20min following restraint stress. While circulating ACTH levels increased after 5min of restraint, levels were not greater in chronic stress animals compared to controls until following 20min. Administration of astressin (a CRH antagonist) prior to restraint stress significantly reduced ACTH responses but did not prevent the sensitized corticosterone response in chronic stress animals. In contrast, administration of chlorisondamine (a ganglionic blocker) returned basal corticosterone levels in chronic stress animals to normal levels and reduced early corticosterone production following restraint (up to 10min) but did not block the exaggerated corticosterone response in chronic stress animals at 20min. These data indicate that increased sympathetic nervous system tone contributes to elevated basal and rapid glucocorticoid production following chronic stress, but HPA responses likely mediate peak corticosterone responses to stressors of longer duration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Synergistic application of cardiac sympathetic decentralization and comprehensive psychiatric treatment in the management of anxiety and electrical storm

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    Sahib S Khalsa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here, for the first time, two cases demonstrating a synergistic application of bilateral cardiac sympathetic decentralization and multimodal psychiatric treatment for the assessment and management of anxiety following recurrent Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD shocks. In a first case the combination of bilateral cardiac sympathetic decentralization (BCSD, cognitive behavioral psychotherapy and anxiolytic medication was sufficient to attenuate the patient’s symptoms and maladaptive behaviors, with a maintained benefit at 1 year. Among the more prominent subjective changes, we observed a decrease in aversive interoceptive sensations, particularly of the heartbeat following BCSD. The patient continued to experience cognitive threat appraisals on a frequent basis, although these were no longer incapacitating. In a second case, we report the effect of BCSD on autonomic tone and subjective state. In the post-lesion state we observed attenuated sympathetic responses to the valsalva maneuver, isometric handgrip and mental arithmetic stressor, including decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreased skin conductance. Collectively, these preliminary findings suggest that an integrative, multidisciplinary approach to treating anxiety disorders in the setting of ventricular arrhythmias and recurrent ICD shocks can result in sustained improvements in physical, psychological and functional status. These findings raise the possibility of a potential role for the stellate ganglion in the modulation of emotional experience and afferent transmission of interoceptive information to the central nervous system.

  3. The sympathetic nervous system alterations in human hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Mark, Allyn; Esler, Murray

    2015-03-13

    Several articles have dealt with the importance and mechanisms of the sympathetic nervous system alterations in experimental animal models of hypertension. This review addresses the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology and therapy of human hypertension. We first discuss the strengths and limitations of various techniques for assessing the sympathetic nervous system in humans, with a focus on heart rate, plasma norepinephrine, microneurographic recording of sympathetic nerve traffic, and measurements of radiolabeled norepinephrine spillover. We then examine the evidence supporting the importance of neuroadrenergic factors as promoters and amplifiers of human hypertension. We expand on the role of the sympathetic nervous system in 2 increasingly common forms of secondary hypertension, namely hypertension associated with obesity and with renal disease. With this background, we examine interventions of sympathetic deactivation as a mode of antihypertensive treatment. Particular emphasis is given to the background and results of recent therapeutic approaches based on carotid baroreceptor stimulation and radiofrequency ablation of the renal nerves.

  4. Auditory streaming of tones of uncertain frequency, level, and duration.

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    Chang, An-Chieh; Lutfi, Robert A; Lee, Jungmee

    2015-12-01

    Stimulus uncertainty is known to critically affect auditory masking, but its influence on auditory streaming has been largely ignored. Standard ABA-ABA tone sequences were made increasingly uncertain by increasing the sigma of normal distributions from which the frequency, level, or duration of tones were randomly drawn. Consistent with predictions based on a model of masking by Lutfi, Gilbertson, Chang, and Stamas [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 2160-2170 (2013)], the frequency difference for which A and B tones formed separate streams increased as a linear function of sigma in tone frequency but was much less affected by sigma in tone level or duration.

  5. Cold pressor test demonstrates residual sympathetic cardiovascular activation in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilz, M J; Axelrod, F B; Braeske, K; Stemper, B

    2002-04-15

    In familial dysautonomia (FD), i.e. Riley-Day-syndrome, sympathetic cardiovascular function, as well as afferent temperature and pain mediating neurons, are significantly reduced. Thus, it was questioned if cold pressor test (CPT), which normally enhances sympathetic outflow and induces peripheral vasoconstriction by the activation of thermo- and nociceptive system activation, could be used to assess sympathetic function in FD. To evaluate whether CPT can be used to assess sympathetic activation in FD, we performed CPT in 15 FD patients and 18 controls. After a 35-min resting period, participants immersed their right hand and arm up to the elbow into 0-1 degrees C cold water while we monitored heart rate (HR), respiration, beat-to-beat radial artery blood pressure (BP), and laser Doppler skin blood flow (SBF) at the right index finger pulp. From these measurements, heart rate variability parameters were calculated: root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), coefficient of variation (CV), low and high frequency (LF, HF) power spectra of the electrocardiogram (ECG). All participants perceived cold stimulation and indicated discomfort. In controls, SBF decreased and HR and BP increased rapidly upon CPT. After 60 s, SBF indicated secondary vasodilatation in six controls, BP rise attenuated and HR returned to baseline in all controls. In the patients, SBF remained unchanged, HR and BP increased significantly, but after 50-60 s of CPT and changes were lower than in controls (p<0.05). RMSSD and CV decreased and LF increased significantly only in the controls. We conclude that CPT activates sympathetic HR and BP modulation despite impaired pain and temperature perception in FD patients. BP increase in the presence of almost unchanged SBF might be due to HR increase and to nociceptive arousal and emotionally induced catecholamine release as seen in emotional crises of FD patients. CPT assesses sympathetic cardiovascular responses independently from baroreflex

  6. Cost effective processes by using negative-tone development application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kei; Kato, Keita; Ou, Keiyu; Shirakawa, Michihiro; Kamimura, Sou

    2015-03-01

    The high volume manufacturing with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is delaying due to its light source issue. Therefore, ArF-immersion lithography has still been the most promising technology for down scaling of device pitch. As the limitation of ArF-immersion single patterning is considered to be nearly 40nm half pitch (hp), ArF-immersion lithography has necessity to be extended by combining processes to achieve sub- 20nm hp patterning. Recently, there are many reports about the extension of ArF-immersion lithography, e.g., self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) and litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) process. These methods have been realized by the combination of lithography, deposition, and etching. On the other aspect, 1-D layout is adopted for leading devices, which contains additional cut or block litho and etch processes to form 2-D like layout. Thus, according to the progress of down scaling technologies, number of processes increases and the cost of ownership (CoO) can not be neglected. Especially, the number of lithography steps and etching steps has been expanded by the combination of processes, and it has come to occupy a large portion of total manufacturing cost. We have reported that negative tone development (NTD) system using organic solvent developer have enough resolution to achieve fine narrow trench or contact hole patterning, since negative tone imaging enables to apply bright mask for these pattern with significantly high optical image contrast compared to positive tone imaging, and it has contributed high throughput multiple patterning. On the other hand, NTD system is found to be useful not only for leading device node, but also for cost effective process. In this report, we propose the cost effective process using NTD application. In the viewpoint of cost down at exposure tool, we have developed KrF-NTD resist which is customized for organic solvent developer. Our KrF-NTD resist has resolution comparable with ArF positive tone development

  7. Congenital amusia (or tone-deafness interferes with pitch processing in tone languages

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    Barbara eTillmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1 and in Thai (Experiment 2. Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  8. Aging effect on Mandarin Chinese vowel and tone identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Yuxia; Xu, Lilong; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Can; Liu, Chang

    2015-10-01

    Mandarin Chinese speech sounds (vowels × tones) were presented to younger and older Chinese-native speakers with normal hearing. For the identification of vowel-plus-tone, vowel-only, and tone-only, younger listeners significantly outperformed older listeners. The tone 3 identification scores correlated significantly with the age of older listeners. Moreover, for older listeners, the identification rate of vowel-plus-tone was significantly lower than that of vowel-only and tone-only, whereas for younger listeners, there was no difference among the three identification scores. Therefore, aging negatively affected Mandarin vowel and tone perception, especially when listeners needed to process both phonemic and tonal information.

  9. Heart Rate Changes in Response to Mechanical Pressure Stimulation of Skeletal Muscles Are Mediated by Cardiac Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Nobuhiro; Hotta, Harumi

    2017-01-01

    Stimulation of mechanoreceptors in skeletal muscles such as contraction and stretch elicits reflexive autonomic nervous system changes which impact cardiovascular control. There are pressure-sensitive mechanoreceptors in skeletal muscles. Mechanical pressure stimulation of skeletal muscles can induce reflex changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure, although the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. We examined the contribution of cardiac autonomic nerves to HR responses induced by mechanical pressure stimulation (30 s, ~10 N/cm2) of calf muscles in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Animals were artificially ventilated and kept warm using a heating pad and lamp, and respiration and core body temperature were maintained within physiological ranges. Mechanical stimulation was applied using a stimulation probe 6 mm in diameter with a flat surface. Cardiac sympathetic and vagus nerves were blocked to test the contribution of the autonomic nerves. For sympathetic nerve block, bilateral stellate ganglia, and cervical sympathetic nerves were surgically sectioned, and for vagus nerve block, the nerve was bilaterally severed. In addition, mass discharges of cardiac sympathetic efferent nerve were electrophysiologically recorded. Mechanical stimulation increased or decreased HR in autonomic nerve-intact rats (range: −56 to +10 bpm), and the responses were negatively correlated with pre-stimulus HR (r = −0.65, p = 0.001). Stimulation-induced HR responses were markedly attenuated by blocking the cardiac sympathetic nerve (range: −9 to +3 bpm, p mechanical stimulation increased, or decreased the frequency of sympathetic nerve activity in parallel with HR (r = 0.77, p = 0.0004). Furthermore, the changes in sympathetic nerve activity were negatively correlated with its tonic level (r = −0.62, p = 0.0066). These results suggest that cardiac sympathetic nerve activity regulates HR responses to muscle mechanical pressure stimulation and the direction of HR

  10. Effects of Suprasegmental Phonological Alternations on Early Word Recognition: Evidence from Tone Sandhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    Early language acquisition is potentially complicated by the presence of many sources of variability in the speech signal. A frequent example of variability is phonological alternations, which can lead to context-driven changes in the realization of a word. The aim of the current study was to investigate effects of a highly frequent yet scarcely researched type of suprasegmental phonological alternation - tone Sandhi - on early spoken word recognition. The tone Sandhi rule investigated herein involves a tone change of the first syllable in a disyllabic unit. In accordance with third tone Sandhi, when two dipping tone syllables are juxtaposed in connected speech, the first syllable is dissimilated to a high rising tone. For example, 'flour mill' (unaltered pre-Sandhi form [(214) (214)]) undergoes tonal alternation resulting in the altered post-Sandhi form [(35) (214)]. In the current study, preschoolers' sensitivity to the effects of tone Sandhi when processing familiar words was investigated via a preferential looking paradigm. Words varied in their phonological form: one set of words was labeled with a phonological alternation due to Sandhi (Post Sandhi), one set of words was labeled with an unaltered Sandhi form (Pre Sandhi), one set consisted of non Sandhi words (Correct Pronunciation, and one set were labeled with a tonal alternation not associated with Sandhi rules (Mispronunciation). Post-Sandhi forms and correct pronunciations were associated with visual referents with comparable strength, with only a subtle processing cost observed for post-Sandhi forms in the time course of lexical selection. Likewise, pre-Sandhi forms and true mispronunciations were rejected as labels for visual references with comparable strength, with only subtle differences observed in the time course of lexical selection. Findings are discussed in terms of their impact on prevailing theories of lexical representation.

  11. Clinical utility of sympathetic blockade in cardiovascular disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Soon; Lee, Hae-Young

    2017-04-01

    A dysregulated sympathetic nervous system is a major factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease; thus, understanding the mechanism and function of the sympathetic nervous system and appropriately regulating sympathetic activity to treat various cardiovascular diseases are crucial. Areas covered: This review focused on previous studies in managing hypertension, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and perioperative management with sympathetic blockade. We reviewed both pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. Expert commentary: Chronic sympathetic nervous system activation is related to several cardiovascular diseases mediated by various pathways. Advancement in measuring sympathetic activity makes visualizing noninvasively and evaluating the activation level even in single fibers possible. Evidence suggests that sympathetic blockade still has a role in managing hypertension and controlling the heart rate in atrial fibrillation. For ischemic heart disease, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists have been considered a milestone drug to control symptoms and prevent long-term adverse effects, although its clinical implication has become less potent in the era of successful revascularization. Owing to pathologic involvement of sympathetic nervous system activation in heart failure progression, sympathetic blockade has proved its value in improving the clinical course of patients with heart failure.

  12. Carotid baroreceptor-muscle sympathetic relation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, R F; Eckberg, D L

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the relation between carotid distending pressure and muscle sympathetic activity in humans. Carotid baroreceptors of nine healthy subjects were compressed or stretched for 5 s with graded neck pressure or suction (+40 to -65 mmHg), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was recorded. The results delineate several features of human baroreflex function. First, the carotid-muscle sympathetic relation is well described by an inverse sigmoid function. Second, a linear relation exists between carotid distending pressure and sympathetic outflow over a range of approximately 25 mmHg. Third, sympathetic responses to changes of carotid pressures are asymmetric; increases of sympathetic activity during carotid compression are much greater than reductions of sympathetic activity during carotid stretch. Fourth, at rest, normal subjects operate near the threshold level for sympathetic excitation. Thus the carotid-muscle sympathetic baroreflex is poised to oppose reductions more effectively than elevations of arterial pressure, and the range of pressures over which the reflex is active is wider than thought hitherto.

  13. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  14. Sympathetic nervous system promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating inflammation through activation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors of Kupffer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Hong-Bo; Wen, Xu-Dong; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Lin; Wu, Li-Li; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Da-Peng; Zhang, Xia; Bie, Ping; Qian, Cheng; Xia, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is known to play a significant role in tumor initiation and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently occurs in cirrhotic livers after chronic inflammation, and the SNS is hyperactive in advanced liver cirrhosis. However, it remains unclear whether the SNS promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating chronic liver inflammation. In this study, a retrospective pathological analysis and quantification of sympathetic nerve fiber densities (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH(+)) in HCC patients, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats were performed. Our data showed that high density of sympathetic nerve fibers and α1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) of Kupffer cells (KCs) were associated with a poor prognosis of HCC. Sympathetic denervation or blocking of α1-ARs decreased DEN-induced HCC incidence and tumor development. In addition, synergistic effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in hepatocarcinogenesis were observed. The suppression of the SNS reduced IL-6 and TGF-β expression, which suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis, and KCs play a key role in this process. After the ablation of KCs, IL-6 and TGF-β expression and the development of HCC were inhibited. This study demonstrates that sympathetic innervation is crucial for hepatocarcinogenesis and that the SNS promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by activating α1-ARs of KCs to boost the activation of KCs and to maintain the inflammatory microenvironment. These results indicate that sympathetic denervation or α1-ARs blockage may represent novel treatment approaches for HCC.

  15. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauban, Joseph R H; Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-06-15

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K(+) concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca(2+) waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca(2+) entry and promote vasoconstriction.

  16. Peripheral Arterial Tonometry to Measure the Effects of Vardenafil on Sympathetic Tone in Men with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Francomano

    2013-01-01

    vardenafil (0.6 ± 0.3 versus 4.5 ± 1.1 min, when compared with placebo. STAI-X1 and STAI-X2 scores fell within the normal range after treatment with vardenafil (. Vardenafil was an effective treatment in men with LL-PE; improvements of IELT may be due to increased NO production which is able to reduce adrenergic overactivity and anxiety levels.

  17. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  18. Detection and localization of sounds: Virtual tones and virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya

    IPD-meter or an ITD-meter. Listeners estimated the lateral positions of 50 sine tones with IPDs ranging from -150° to +150° and with different frequencies, all in the range where signal fine structure supports lateralization. The estimates indicated that listeners lateralize sine tones on the basis of ITD and not IPD. In order to distinguish between sound sources in front and in back, listeners use spectral cues caused by the diffraction by pinna, head, neck and torso. To study this effect, the VRX technique was developed based on transaural technology. The technique was successful in presenting desired spectra into listeners' ears with high accuracy up to 16 kHz. When presented with real source and simulated virtual signal, listeners in an anechoic room could not distinguish between them. Eleven experiments on discrimination between front and back sources were carried out in an anechoic room. The results show several findings. First, the results support a multiple band comparison model, and disfavor a necessary band(s) model. Second, it was found that preserving the spectral dips was more important than preserving the spectral peaks for successful front/back discrimination. Moreover, it was confirmed that neither monaural cues nor interaural spectral level difference cues were adequate for front/back discrimination. Furthermore, listeners' performance did not deteriorate when presented with sharpened spectra. Finally, when presented with an interaural delay less than 200 mus, listeners could succeed to discriminate front from back, although the image was pulled to the side, which suggests that the localizations in azimuthal plane and in sagittal plane are independent within certain limits.

  19. Gender differences in sympathetic nervous system regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Laborde, C; Chapa, I; Lange, D; Haywood, J R

    1999-02-01

    1. Females are protected against the development of hypertension. The purpose of the current review is to present the evidence for gender differences in the regulation of the sympatho-adrenal nervous system and to determine if these differences support the hypothesis that, in females, the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is altered such that sympatho-adrenal activation is attenuated or sympatho-adrenal inhibition is augmented. 2. The central control of sympatho-adrenal function is different in females and responses vary during the oestral and menstrual cycles. Pathways regulating the SNS appear to be less sensitive to excitatory stimuli and more sensitive to inhibitory stimuli in females compared with males. 3. Gender differences in arterial baroreflex sensitivity suggest that females may have a greater baroreflex sensitivity, such that alterations in blood pressure are more efficiently controlled than in males. Cardiopulmonary reflex inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity is greater in females, possibly resulting in a greater renal excretory function. 4. An attenuated sensitivity to adrenergic nerve stimulation, but not to noradrenaline (NA), suggests that gender differences in noradrenergic neurotransmission may protect females against sympathetic hyperactivity. Gender differences in the regulation of NA release via presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors, the vasoconstrictor response to the cotransmitter neuropeptide Y and the clearance of catecholamines are consistent with this hypothesis. 5. Similarly, attenuated stress-induced increases in plasma catecholamines in women suggest that females are less sensitive and/or less responsive to adrenal medullary activation. This is supported by findings of gender differences in adrenal medullary catecholamine content, release and degradation. 6. We conclude that there is strong evidence that supports the hypothesis that, in females, the regulation of the SNS is altered such that sympatho

  20. Literary ethnographic writing as sympathetic experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    perhaps only implicitly) of research. But we have no direct access to the subjective world of others and can only inhabit their point of view by way of imagination. Writing literary ethnographic text is one way, I will argue, of experimenting with such sympathetic imagination. By putting together observed...... not propose a radical turn towards literary writing in anthropology. Rather, I suggest that we include the courage of imagination inherent to literature and the accompanying doubt into our existing endeavor, if not for anything else, then for the sake of a more human relationship with our so-called informants....

  1. Interaction of Xylamine with peripheral sympathetic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, R.W.; Waggaman, L.A.; Cho, A.K.

    1985-09-30

    Xylamine (XYL) administered to intact rats caused a 70-80% reduction in norepinephrine (NE) uptake by the vas deferens but had little or no effect on NE content in that tissue. The vas deferens accumulates /sup 3/H-XYL in vitro by a desmethylimipramine (DMI)-sensitive mechanism. Vasa deferentia from 6-hydroxydopamine (60HDA) pretreated animals exhibited a 80% reduction in both NE content and XYL uptake activity. These results indicate that XYL is taken up by sympathetic nerve terminals and can reduce NE uptake activity without depleting terminals of neurotransmitter. 9 references, 4 tables.

  2. Cervical sympathetic chain schwannoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Nacef

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nerve tumors arising from the sympathetic chain are uncommon slow-growing tumors and represent a diagnosis challenge. Their malignant degeneration is rare. Definitive pre-operative diagnosis may be difficult as investigations are not usually helpful. We report the case of a 23-year old woman who presented with an asymptomatic solitary left cervical swelling. She was evaluated with sonography and computed tomography. Complete surgical excision of the lesion was carried out and histologic examination revealed a schwannoma. Post-operatively, the patient showed clinical findings of Horner’s syndrome. Pathologic and radiological evaluation, differential diagnosis of this neoplasm and its management are discussed.

  3. Resting heart rate, vagal tone, and reactive and proactive aggression in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Raine, Adrian; Yu, Lidong; Krieg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Abundant research conducted in Western contexts has shown that biological risk factors such as low resting heart rate (HR) might be related to childhood aggression. However, it was unclear (1) how resting HR, as well as other markers of cardiac functions such as resting vagal tone, may be related to subtypes of aggression such as reactive and proactive aggression, and (2) whether the HR-aggression relation can be replicated in non-Western contexts. Therefore, this study examined the concurrent and prospective relations between resting HR, vagal tone, and Chinese children's reactive and proactive aggression. Participants were 183 children (M age=7.64 years, 91 girls) recruited from an elementary school in Zhenjiang, PRC. Children's resting HR and vagal tone were assessed in the second grade (T1). Teachers rated children's reactive and proactive aggression in the second (T1) and fourth grade (T2). Results showed that lower resting HR at T1 was associated with higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2, and higher vagal tone was associated with lower HR, which in turn was related to higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2. Lower vagal tone was directly related to higher reactive but not proactive aggression at T1 and T2, whereas lower HR was related to higher reactive aggression at T2 for children with low or moderate vagal tone but was not for children with high vagal tone. These psychophysiological findings from a non-Western context add additional support for both similarities and differences between reactive and proactive aggression in childhood.

  4. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  5. The oestrogenized rat myometrium inhibits organotypic sympathetic reinnervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, M M; Chávez-Genaro, R; Richeri, A; Viettro, L; Frias, A I; Burnstock, G; Cowen, T

    2002-10-31

    Chronic administration of oestrogen to rats during the infantile/prepubertal period provokes, at 28 days of age, complete loss of noradrenaline-labelled intrauterine sympathetic nerves. It is not known whether oestrogen inhibits the growth or causes the degeneration of developing uterine sympathetic nerves, or whether the uterus recovers its innervation following cessation of infantile/prepubertal oestrogen treatment. In the present study, we analysed the time-course of the effects of oestrogen on the development of uterine sympathetic nerves in the rat, using histochemical methods. In addition, the pattern of sympathetic reinnervation of the uterus of intact and ovariectomised females was assessed 3 and 6 months after cessation of chronic oestrogen treatment. The ability of sympathetic nerves to reinnervate the oestrogenized uterine tissue was assessed in intraocular transplants of uterine myometrium into ovariectomised host rats. Early exposure to oestrogen did not inhibit the approach of sympathetic nerves to the uterus, but prevented the normal growth and maturation of intrauterine sympathetic fibres and abolished the innervation that reached the organ before initiation of treatment. Three or six months following cessation of oestrogen treatment, most of the sympathetic nerves were restricted to the mesometrium and mesometrial entrance, whereas intrauterine innervation remained persistently depressed as a consequence of a sustained oestrous-like state provoked by ovarian dysfunction (polycystic ovary). An organotypic regrowth of uterine sympathetic nerves was observed in ovariectomised infantile/prepubertal oestrogen-treated animals. After 5 weeks in oculo, the innervation of oestrogenized myometrial transplants was reduced by 50%, and substantial changes in the pattern of reinnervation were observed. In control transplants, 86% of the nerves were terminal varicose myometrial and perivascular nerve fibres, whereas 14% were preterminal nerve bundles. In

  6. The Human Sympathetic Nervous System Response to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, Rose Marie; Lane, Lynda D.; Shiavi, Richard; Robertson, David

    2003-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important part of the autonomic (or automatic) nervous system. When an individual stands up, the sympathetic nervous system speeds the heart and constricts blood vessels to prevent a drop in blood pressure. A significant number of astronauts experience a drop in blood pressure when standing for prolonged periods after they return from spaceflight. Difficulty maintaining blood pressure with standing is also a daily problem for many patients. Indirect evidence available before the Neurolab mission suggested the problem in astronauts while in space might be due partially to reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. The purpose of this experiment was to identify whether sympathetic activity was reduced during spaceflight. Sympathetic nervous system activity can be determined in part by measuring heart rate, nerve activity going to blood vessels, and the release of the hormone norepinephrine into the blood. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter discharged from active sympathetic nerve terminals, so its rate of release can serve as a marker of sympathetic nervous system action. In addition to standard cardiovascular measurements (heart rate, blood pressure), we determined sympathetic nerve activity as well as norepinephrine release and clearance on four crewmembers on the Neurolab mission. Contrary to our expectation, the results demonstrated that the astronauts had mildly elevated resting sympathetic nervous system activity in space. Sympathetic nervous system responses to stresses that simulated the cardiovascular effects of standing (lower body negative pressure) were brisk both during and after spaceflight. We concluded that, in the astronauts tested, the activity and response of the sympathetic nervous system to cardiovascular stresses appeared intact and mildly elevated both during and after spaceflight. These changes returned to normal within a few days.

  7. CT-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade for palmar hyperhidrosis: Immediate results and postoperative quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Guo; Fei, Yong; Huang, Bing; Yao, Ming

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results, complications, and degree of satisfaction among patients who underwent a CT-guided percutaneous puncture thoracic sympathetic blockade. A total of 186 patients underwent CT-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade based on case histories and a prospective pre- and postoperative questionnaire survey. The study sample was composed of 93 patients with an age range from 18 to 34years and a diagnosis with primary palmar hyperhidrosis (severe in some patients). Percutaneous puncture thoracic sympathetic blockade guided by CT was performed under local anesthesia in all patients. Heart rate (HR), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2), perfusion index (PI), and palmar temperature (T) were monitored before and after treatment. Follow-up included a questionnaire on life quality and degree of satisfaction. Ten minutes after treatment, the SPO2, PI, and temperature all raised remarkably ([92.75±2.02]% vs. [98.85±1.09]%, [1.55±0.69]% vs. [8.60±0.94]%, [30.95±1.27]°C vs. [35.75±0.55]°C, respectively, Phyperhidrosis, 87.6% reported improvement in their quality of life. CT-guided percutaneous puncture thoracic sympathetic blockade is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive technique for the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis. Despite the high rate of compensatory hyperhidrosis, it produces a high rate of patient satisfaction.

  8. Affective evaluation of simultaneous tone combinations in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Thompson, William Forde; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired pitch processing. Although pitch simultaneities are among the fundamental building blocks of Western tonal music, affective responses to simultaneities such as isolated dyads varying in consonance/dissonance or chords varying in major/minor quality have rarely been studied in amusic individuals. Thirteen amusics and thirteen matched controls enculturated to Western tonal music provided pleasantness ratings of sine-tone dyads and complex-tone dyads in piano timbre as well as perceived happiness/sadness ratings of sine-tone triads and complex-tone triads in piano timbre. Acoustical analyses of roughness and harmonicity were conducted to determine whether similar acoustic information contributed to these evaluations in amusics and controls. Amusic individuals' pleasantness ratings indicated sensitivity to consonance and dissonance for complex-tone (piano timbre) dyads and, to a lesser degree, sine-tone dyads, whereas controls showed sensitivity when listening to both tone types. Furthermore, amusic individuals showed some sensitivity to the happiness-major association in the complex-tone condition, but not in the sine-tone condition. Controls rated major chords as happier than minor chords in both tone types. Linear regression analyses revealed that affective ratings of dyads and triads by amusic individuals were predicted by roughness but not harmonicity, whereas affective ratings by controls were predicted by both roughness and harmonicity. We discuss affective sensitivity in congenital amusia in view of theories of affective responses to isolated chords in Western listeners.

  9. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  10. A tone mapping operator based on neural and psychophysical models of visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyriac, Praveen; Bertalmio, Marcelo; Kane, David; Vazquez-Corral, Javier

    2015-03-01

    High dynamic range imaging techniques involve capturing and storing real world radiance values that span many orders of magnitude. However, common display devices can usually reproduce intensity ranges only up to two to three orders of magnitude. Therefore, in order to display a high dynamic range image on a low dynamic range screen, the dynamic range of the image needs to be compressed without losing details or introducing artefacts, and this process is called tone mapping. A good tone mapping operator must be able to produce a low dynamic range image that matches as much as possible the perception of the real world scene. We propose a two stage tone mapping approach, in which the first stage is a global method for range compression based on a gamma curve that equalizes the lightness histogram the best, and the second stage performs local contrast enhancement and color induction using neural activity models for the visual cortex.

  11. Chain Reconnections observed in Sympathetic Eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Magara, Tetsuya; Guo, Yang; Aulanier, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The nature of various plausible causal links between sympathetic events is still a controversial issue. In this work, we present multi-wavelength observations of sympathetic eruptions, associated flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occurring on 2013 November 17 in two close-by active regions. Two filaments i.e., F1 and F2 are observed in between the active regions. Successive magnetic reconnections, caused by different reasons (flux cancellation, shear and expansion) have been identified during the whole event. The first reconnection occurred during the first eruption via flux cancellation between the sheared arcades overlying filament F2, creating a flux rope and leading to the first double ribbon solar flare. During this phase we observed the eruption of overlaying arcades and coronal loops, which leads to the first CME. The second reconnection is believed to occur between the expanding flux rope of F2 and the overlying arcades of the filament F1. We suggest that this reconnection destabilized the equi...

  12. First Language Attrition: An Investigation of Taiwanese Tones and Tone Sandhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yufen

    2012-01-01

    First language (L1) attrition research focuses on syntactic and morphological deterioration in environments where L1 "attriters" rarely have contact with their L1, such as immigrants. There is no study that investigates L1 attrition in tones and in contexts where L1 can still be often heard. This study examines this attrition type in…

  13. Sympathetic hyperactivity - A hidden enemy in chronic kidney disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is often characterized by the presence of sympathetic hyperactivity. The aim of this brief review is to summarize available knowledge on the pathogenesis of sympathetic hyperactivity and to discuss its clinical relevance, the consequences of this knowledge for the choice of tr

  14. Sympathetic hyperactivity - A hidden enemy in chronic kidney disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is often characterized by the presence of sympathetic hyperactivity. The aim of this brief review is to summarize available knowledge on the pathogenesis of sympathetic hyperactivity and to discuss its clinical relevance, the consequences of this knowledge for the choice of tr

  15. Lower limb pain in sympathetic-sensory coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjun Yang; Kairun Peng; Sanjue Hu; Li Xuan

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sympathetic nerves are related to certain types of pain, and this phenomenon is referred to as sympathetic-sensory coupling. Chronic pain resulting from nerve injury can be exacerbated by sympathetic stimulation or relieved by sympathetic inhibition. In the present study, the correlation between pain and sympathetic nerves was analyzed in patients with severe pain in lower limbs, as well as in a chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion (CCD) rat model (model of low back pain and sciatica). Patients with severe pain in the lower limbs underwent chemical lumbar sympathectomy (CLS), and the analgesic effects of CLS were compared with painkillers. Results demonstrated significantly relieved lower limb pain following CLS, and the analgesic effects of CLS were superior to those seen with painkillers. In the CCD rat model, dorsal root ganglion neuronal activity significantly increased as a result of electrical stimulation to the sympathetic nerves. These results suggest that sympathetic nerves are closely associated with pain and sympathetic-sensory coupling is likely in lower limb pain in both patients and rat models of CCD.

  16. Renal sympathetic denervation: MDCT evaluation of the renal arteries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Barry D

    2013-08-01

    Percutaneous transluminal renal sympathetic denervation is a new treatment of refractory systemic hypertension. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of MDCT to evaluate the anatomic configuration of the renal arteries in the context of renal sympathetic denervation.

  17. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: Early treatment and psychological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, J.H.B.; De Bruijn, H.; De Bruijn-Kofman, A.T.; Arendzen, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of two prospective studies of early treatment and psychological aspects in a series of 26 patients with sympathetic reflex dystrophy of the hand in which treatment was started within 3 months after diagnosis. Ismelin blocks is an often used therapy in sympathetic reflex dystrop

  18. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano.

  19. [Nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Parameters of autonomic tone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Thomas; Sandrock, Sarah; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    Nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM) are the most common reason for heart failure in developed countries after ischemic disease. They often lead to device therapy. Left ventricular ejection fraction as a single parameter to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death revealed inconclusive data in patients with DCM. Autonomic tone, measured by classical and innovative parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate turbulence or baroreceptor reflex, was demonstrated to give valuable prognostic information especially in patients with ischemic disease and after acute myocardial infarction. In patients with DCM, classical parameters of HRV showed inhomogeneous data in a heterogeneous patient collective caused by unsystematic measurement of single parameters in various patient collectives. Innovative parameters of HRV are promising in patients with DCM and showed prognostic relevance although patient numbers are limited and prospective data are missing. Further studies are needed in this field. Despite the in part convincing evidence for the relevance of autonomic tone as a prognostic marker in patients with DCM, their evaluation is still not part of clinical routine. Additional parameters to estimate the risk of sudden cardiac death are urgently needed.

  20. Differential Toxicities of Intraneurally Injected Mercuric Chloride for Sympathetic and Somatic Motor Fibers: An Ultrastructural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jung Cheng

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated an undue susceptibility of sympathetic fibers to mercury intoxication. The mechanisms that underlie the selective reaction of sympathetic fibers to mercury warrant further investigation.

  1. FFT-DMAC:a tone based DMAC protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Li Minglu; Shu Wei; Wu Minyou

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the flip-flop tone (FFT) DMAC protocol, a tone based MAC protocol using directional antennas to solve the deafness problem, hidden terminal and exposed terminal problems simultaneously. It uses two pairs of flip-flop tones. The first pair of tone is to send omni-directionally to reach every neighboring node to announce the start and the end of communication, and therefore to alleviate the deafness problem. The second pair of tone is to send directionally towards the sender. It is used to solve the hidden terminal problem as well as the exposed terminal problem. Evaluation shows that FFT-DMAC can achieve better performance compared to the 802.11 and ToneDMAC protocol.

  2. Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians.

  3. Vav3 proto-oncogene deficiency leads to sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiovascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzeau, Vincent; Sevilla, María A; Rivas-Elena, Juan V; de Alava, Enrique; Montero, María J; López-Novoa, José M; Bustelo, Xosé R

    2006-07-01

    Although much is known about environmental factors that predispose individuals to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, little information is available regarding the genetic and signaling events involved. Indeed, few genes associated with the progression of these pathologies have been discovered despite intensive research in animal models and human populations. Here we identify Vav3, a GDP-GTP exchange factor that stimulates Rho and Rac GTPases, as an essential factor regulating the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system. Vav3-deficient mice exhibited tachycardia, systemic arterial hypertension and extensive cardiovascular remodeling. These mice also showed hyperactivity of sympathetic neurons from the time of birth. The high catecholamine levels associated with this condition led to the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, increased levels of kidney-related hormones and the progressive loss of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with drugs targeting sympathetic and renin-angiotensin responses confirmed the causative role and hierarchy of these events in the development of the Vav3-null mouse phenotype. These observations uncover the crucial role of Vav3 in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and cardiovascular physiology, and reveal a signaling pathway that could be involved in the pathophysiology of human disease states involving tachycardia and sympathetic hyperactivity with unknown etiologies.

  4. Differential sympathetic activation in muscle and skin neural districts in the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Quarti-Trevano, Fosca; Seravalle, Gino; Dell'Oro, Raffaella; Dubini, Antonella; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether and to what extent the activation of the sympathetic nervous system reported in the metabolic syndrome is generalized to the whole cardiovascular system or if it is rather confined to selected vascular districts. In 16 untreated patients with metabolic syndrome, 12 essential hypertensive subjects, 12 obese subjects, and 14 lean healthy normotensive controls, we measured blood pressure (Finapres, Englewood, CO), heart rate (electrocardiogram), venous plasma norepinephrine (high-performance liquid chromatography), and postganglionic sympathetic nerve traffic in the skeletal muscle and in the skin districts (microneurography). The muscle and skin nerve traffic measurements were obtained in a randomized sequence. Measurements also included skin sympathetic nerve responses to an arousal (acoustic stimulus). The 4 groups of subjects had superimposable ages. Muscle sympathetic nerve traffic values were significantly higher in subjects with hypertension and in those with obesity than in controls (51.2 +/- 2.8 and 52.0 +/- 3.0 vs 37.2 +/- 3.3 bursts per 100 heart beats, respectively; P fashion by the various components of the disease.

  5. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J;

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the origin of plasma DOPA (3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine), the relationship between plasma DOPA and acute or chronic changes in sympathetic activity has been studied. Plasma DOPA and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...... in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy, whereas baseline plasma DOPA concentrations were similar in the three groups investigated: 6.55 (5.03-7.26, median [interquartile range], n = 8) nmol l-1 in diabetics with neuropathy, 7.41 (5.79-7.97, n = 8) nmol l-1...... in diabetics without neuropathy, and 6.85 (5.58-7.36, n = 8) nmol l-1 in controls. No relationship was obtained between baseline values of plasma NE and plasma DOPA. Plasma DOPA did not change in the upright position, whereas plasma NE increased significantly. Our results indicate that plasma DOPA...

  6. Neuromagnetic responses to frequency modulation of a continuous tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, R; Mäkelä, J P

    1986-01-01

    Neuromagnetic responses to frequency modulation of a continuous tone were studied in nine subjects. The latencies of the transient responses increased and the amplitudes decreased with decreasing speed of modulation. The equivalent dipoles for modulation of a 1,000 Hz tone were slightly but statistically significantly anterior to the dipoles activated by modulation of a 500 Hz tone. The generation mechanisms of N100m are discussed.

  7. Musicians' working memory for tones, words, and pseudowords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi-Werke, Mariana E; Queiroz, Marcelo; Araújo, Rúben S; Bueno, Orlando F A; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating factors that influence tone recognition generally use recognition tests, whereas the majority of the studies on verbal material use self-generated responses in the form of serial recall tests. In the present study we intended to investigate whether tonal and verbal materials share the same cognitive mechanisms, by presenting an experimental instrument that evaluates short-term and working memories for tones, using self-generated sung responses that may be compared to verbal tests. This paradigm was designed according to the same structure of the forward and backward digit span tests, but using digits, pseudowords, and tones as stimuli. The profile of amateur singers and professional singers in these tests was compared in forward and backward digit, pseudoword, tone, and contour spans. In addition, an absolute pitch experimental group was included, in order to observe the possible use of verbal labels in tone memorization tasks. In general, we observed that musical schooling has a slight positive influence on the recall of tones, as opposed to verbal material, which is not influenced by musical schooling. Furthermore, the ability to reproduce melodic contours (up and down patterns) is generally higher than the ability to reproduce exact tone sequences. However, backward spans were lower than forward spans for all stimuli (digits, pseudowords, tones, contour). Curiously, backward spans were disproportionately lower for tones than for verbal material-that is, the requirement to recall sequences in backward rather than forward order seems to differentially affect tonal stimuli. This difference does not vary according to musical expertise.

  8. Auditory pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-jun; CAO Ke-li; WEI Chao-gang; LIU Yong-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Background Chinese tones are considered important in Chinese discrimination.However,the relevant reports on auditory central mechanisms concerning Chinese tones are limited.In this study,mismatch negativity (MMN),one of the event related potentials (ERP),was used to investigate pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones,and the differences between the function of oddball MMN and that of control MMN are discussed.Methods Ten subjects (six men and four women) with normal hearing participated in the study.A sequence was presented to these subjects through a loudspeaker,the sequence included four blocks,a control block and three oddball blocks.The control block was made up of five components (one pure tone and four Chinese tones) with equiprobability.The oddball blocks were made up of two components,one was a standard stimulus (tone 1) and the other was a deviant stimulus (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4).Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded when the sequence was presented and MMNs were obtained from the analysis of the EEG data.Results Two kinds of MMNs were obtained,oddball MMN and control MMN.Oddball MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by standard stimulation (tone 1) from that elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4) in the oddball block; control MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by the tone in control block,which was the same tone as the deviant stimulation in the oddball block,from the ERP elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4)in the oddball block.There were two negative waves in oddball MMN,one appeared around 150 ms (oddball MMN 1),the other around 300 ms (oddball MMN 2).Only one negative wave appeared around 300 ms in control MMN,which was corresponding to the oddball MMN 2.We performed the statistical analyses in each paradigm for latencies and amplitudes for oddball MMN 2 in discriminating the three Chinese tones and reported no significant differences.But the latencies and amplitudes

  9. Power constrained contrast enhancement based on brightness compensated contrast-tone mapping operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Cheolkon; Su, Haonan; Wang, Lu; Ke, Peng

    2016-09-01

    We propose power constrained contrast enhancement based on brightness compensated contrast-tone mapping operation (BCCTMO). We adopt brightness compensation to restore the original perceptual luminance and combine tone mapping with contrast enhancement to improve image quality. First, we increase pixel values to compensate for the reduced brightness caused by backlight dimming while maintaining the perceived luminance. Then we perform a contrast-tone mapping operation to reduce the information loss caused by the brightness compensation and enhance contrast in images. Finally, we conduct color scaling to reproduce natural colors. We implement BCCTMO on an Android tablet with an LCD display using mathematical approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that BCCTMO produces high-quality images while minimizing distortions and saving power compared with state-of-the-art methods.

  10. Noninvasive assessment of sympathetic vasoconstriction in human and rodent skeletal muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy and Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Paul J; Keller, David M; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Raven, Peter B; Thomas, Gail D

    2004-04-01

    The precise role of the sympathetic nervous system in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise has been challenging to define in humans, partly because of the limited techniques available for measuring blood flow in active muscle. Recent studies using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to measure changes in tissue oxygenation have provided an alternative method to evaluate vasomotor responses in exercising muscle, but this approach has not been fully validated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sympathetic activation would evoke parallel changes in tissue oxygenation and blood flow in resting and exercising muscle. We simultaneously measured tissue oxygenation with NIR spectroscopy and blood flow with Doppler ultrasound in skeletal muscle of conscious humans (n = 13) and anesthetized rats (n = 9). In resting forearm of humans, reflex activation of sympathetic nerves with the use of lower body negative pressure produced graded decreases in tissue oxygenation and blood flow that were highly correlated (r = 0.80, P blood flow velocity that were highly correlated (r = 0.93, P blood flow evoked by sympathetic activation were significantly attenuated (P < 0.05 vs. rest) but remained highly correlated in both humans (r = 0.80, P < 0.006) and rats (r = 0.92, P < 0.0001). These data indicate that, during steady-state metabolic conditions, changes in tissue oxygenation can be used to reliably assess sympathetic vasoconstriction in both resting and exercising skeletal muscle.

  11. Power Spectral Density Analysis of Electrodermal Activity for Sympathetic Function Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Alvaro D; Aljama-Corrales, Tomas; Charleston-Villalobos, Sonia; Chon, Ki H

    2016-10-01

    Time-domain features of electrodermal activity (EDA), the measurable changes in conductance at the skin surface, are typically used to assess overall activation of the sympathetic system. These time domain features, the skin conductance level (SCL) and the nonspecific skin conductance responses (NS.SCRs), are consistently elevated with sympathetic nervous arousal, but highly variable between subjects. A novel frequency-domain approach to quantify sympathetic function using the power spectral density (PSD) of EDA is proposed. This analysis was used to examine if some of the induced stimuli invoke the sympathetic nervous system's dynamics which can be discernible as a large spectral peak, conjectured to be present in the low frequency band. The resulting indices were compared to the power of low-frequency components of heart rate variability (HRVLF) time series, as well as to time-domain features of EDA. Twelve healthy subjects were subjected to orthostatic, physical and cognitive stress, to test these techniques. We found that the increase in the spectral powers of the EDA was largely confined to 0.045-0.15 Hz, which is in the prescribed band for HRVLF. These low frequency components are known to be, in part, influenced by the sympathetic nervous dynamics. However, we found an additional 5-10% of the spectral power in the frequency range of 0.15-0.25 Hz with all three stimuli. Thus, dynamics of the normalized sympathetic component of the EDA, termed EDASympn, are represented in the frequency band 0.045-0.25 Hz; only a small amount of spectral power is present in frequencies higher than 0.25 Hz. Our results showed that the time-domain indices (the SCL and NS.SCRs), and EDASympn, exhibited significant increases under orthostatic, physical, and cognitive stress. However, EDASympn was more responsive than the SCL and NS.SCRs to the cold pressor stimulus, while the latter two were more sensitive to the postural and Stroop tests. Additionally, EDASympn exhibited an

  12. Effects of sympathetic stimulation on the rhythmical jaw movements produced by electrical stimulation of the cortical masticatory areas of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatta, S; Windhorst, U; Djupsjöbacka, M; Lytvynenko, S; Passatore, M

    2005-03-01

    The somatomotor and sympathetic nervous systems are intimately linked. One example is the influence of peripheral sympathetic fibers on the discharge characteristics of muscle spindles. Since muscle spindles play important roles in various motor behaviors, including rhythmic movements, the working hypothesis of this research was that changes in sympathetic outflow to muscle spindles can change rhythmic movement patterns. We tested this hypothesis in the masticatory system of rabbits. Rhythmic jaw movements and EMG activity induced by long-lasting electrical cortical stimulation were powerfully modulated by electrical stimulation of the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN). This modulation manifested itself as a consistent and marked reduction in the excursion of the mandibular movements (often preceded by a transient modest enhancement), which could be attributed mainly to corresponding changes in masseter muscle activity. These changes outlasted the duration of CSN stimulation. In some of the cortically evoked rhythmic jaw movements (CRJMs) changes in masticatory frequency were also observed. When the jaw-closing muscles were subjected to repetitive ramp-and-hold force pulses, the CRMJs changed characteristics. Masseter EMG activity was strongly enhanced and digastric EMG slightly decreased. This change was considerably depressed during CSN stimulation. These effects of CSN stimulation are similar in sign and time course to the depression exerted by sympathetic activity on the jaw-closing muscle spindle discharge. It is suggested that the change in proprioceptive information induced by an increase in sympathetic outflow (a) has important implications even under normal conditions for the control of motor function in states of high sympathetic activity, and (b) is one of the mechanisms responsible for motor impairment under certain pathological conditions such as chronic musculoskeletal head-neck disorders, associated with stress conditions.

  13. Selective quantification of the cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems by multisignal analysis of cardiorespiratory variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) power spectral indexes are limited as measures of the cardiac autonomic nervous systems (CANS) in that they neither offer an effective marker of the beta-sympathetic nervous system (SNS) due to its overlap with the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) in the low-frequency (LF) band nor afford specific measures of the CANS due to input contributions to HR [e.g., arterial blood pressure (ABP) and instantaneous lung volume (ILV)]. We derived new PNS and SNS indexes by multisignal analysis of cardiorespiratory variability. The basic idea was to identify the autonomically mediated transfer functions relating fluctuations in ILV to HR (ILV-->HR) and fluctuations in ABP to HR (ABP-->HR) so as to eliminate the input contributions to HR and then separate each estimated transfer function in the time domain into PNS and SNS indexes using physiological knowledge. We evaluated these indexes with respect to selective pharmacological autonomic nervous blockade in 14 humans. Our results showed that the PNS index derived from the ABP-->HR transfer function was correctly decreased after vagal and double (vagal + beta-sympathetic) blockade (P < 0.01) and did not change after beta-sympathetic blockade, whereas the SNS index derived from the same transfer function was correctly reduced after beta-sympathetic blockade in the standing posture and double blockade (P < 0.05) and remained the same after vagal blockade. However, this SNS index did not significantly decrease after beta-sympathetic blockade in the supine posture. Overall, these predictions were better than those provided by the traditional high-frequency (HF) power, LF-to-HF ratio, and normalized LF power of HR variability.

  14. Literary ethnographic writing as sympathetic experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    perhaps only implicitly) of research. But we have no direct access to the subjective world of others and can only inhabit their point of view by way of imagination. Writing literary ethnographic text is one way, I will argue, of experimenting with such sympathetic imagination. By putting together observed...... utterances, acts and hesitations in an overtly fictive experiential whole (fictive because I can only guess it), I not only try out a qualified guess on what takes place in another person; I also make my own assumptions about the existence of such a whole explicit and hence material for reflection. I do...... not propose a radical turn towards literary writing in anthropology. Rather, I suggest that we include the courage of imagination inherent to literature and the accompanying doubt into our existing endeavor, if not for anything else, then for the sake of a more human relationship with our so-called informants....

  15. Sympathetic cooling of nanospheres with cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Cris; Witherspoon, Apryl; Ranjit, Gambhir; Casey, Kirsten; Kitching, John; Geraci, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Ground state cooling of mesoscopic mechanical structures could enable new hybrid quantum systems where mechanical oscillators act as transducers. Such systems could provide coupling between photons, spins and charges via phonons. It has recently been shown theoretically that optically trapped dielectric nanospheres could reach the ground state via sympathetic cooling with trapped cold atoms. This technique can be beneficial in cases where cryogenic operation of the oscillator is not practical. We describe experimental advances towards coupling an optically levitated dielectric nanosphere to a gas of cold Rubidium atoms. The sphere and the cold atoms are in separate vacuum chambers and are coupled using a one-dimensional optical lattice. This work is partially supported by NSF, Grant Nos. PHY-1205994,PHY-1506431.

  16. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  17. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are poor singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as "tone deafness," has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that speech production (or imitation) is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  18. Classical conditioned responses to absent tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häusler Udo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence for a tight coupling of sensorimotor processes in trained musicians led to the question of whether this coupling extends to preattentively mediated reflexes; particularly, whether a classically conditioned response in one of the domains (auditory is generalized to another (tactile/motor on the basis of a prior association in a second-order Pavlovian paradigm. An eyeblink conditioning procedure was performed in 17 pianists, serving as a model for overlearned audiomotor integration, and 14 non-musicians. Results: During the training session, subjects were conditioned to respond to auditory stimuli (piano tones. During a subsequent testing session, when subjects performed keystrokes on a silent piano, pianists showed significantly higher blink rates than non-musicians. Conclusion These findings suggest a tight coupling of the auditory and motor domains in musicians, pointing towards training-dependent mechanisms of strong cross-modal sensorimotor associations even on sub-cognitive processing levels.

  19. Sympathetic activation and baroreflex function during intradialytic hypertensive episodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvora Rubinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of intradialytic increases in blood pressure are not well defined. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of autonomic nervous system activation during intradialytic hypertensive episodes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Continuous interbeat intervals (IBI and systolic blood pressure (SBP were monitored during hemodialysis in 108 chronic patients. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes defined as a period of at least 10 mmHg increase in SBP between the beginning and the end of a dialysis session or hypertension resistant to ultrafiltration occurring during or immediately after the dialysis procedure, were detected in 62 out of 113 hemodialysis sessions. SBP variability, IBI variability and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS in the low (LF and high (HF frequency ranges were assessed using the complex demodulation technique (CDM. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes were associated with an increased (n = 45 or decreased (n = 17 heart rate. The maximal blood pressure was similar in both groups. In patients with increased heart rate the increase in blood pressure was associated with marked increases in SBP and IBI variability, with suppressed BRS indices and enhanced sympatho-vagal balance. In contrast, in those with decreased heart rate, there were no significant changes in the above parameters. End-of-dialysis blood pressure in all sessions associated with hypertensive episode was significantly higher than in those without such episodes. In logistic regression analysis, predialysis BRS in the low frequency range was found to be the main predictor of intradialytic hypertension. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data point to sympathetic overactivity with feed-forward blood pressure enhancement as an important mechanism of intradialytic hypertension in a significant proportion of patients. The triggers of increased sympathetic activity during hemodialysis remain to be determined. Intradialytic hypertensive episodes

  20. Do sympathetic nerves release noradrenaline in "quanta"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjärne, L

    2000-07-01

    The discovery of excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) in guinea-pig vas deferens by Burnstock and Holman (1960) showed for the first time that a sympathetic transmitter, now known to be ATP, is secreted in "quanta". As it was assumed at the time that EJPS are triggered by noradrenaline, this discovery led to attempts to use the fractional overflow of noradrenaline from sympathetically innervated tissues to assess, indirectly, the number of noradrenaline molecules in the average "quantum". The basic finding was that each pulse released 1/50000 of the tissue content of noradrenaline, when reuptake was blocked and prejunctional alpha(2)-adrenoceptors were intact. This provided the constraints, two extreme alternatives: (i) each pulse releases 0.2-3% of the content of a vesicle from all varicosities, or (ii) each pulse releases the whole content of a vesicle from 0.2 to 3% of the varicosities. New techniques have made it possible to address questions about the release probability in individual sites, or the "quantal" size, more directly. Results by optical (comparison of the labelling of SV2 and synaptotagmin, proteins in the membrane of transmitter vesicles), electrophysiological (excitatory junction currents, EJCs, at single visualized varicosities) and amperometric (the noradrenaline oxidation current at a carbon fibre electrode) methods reveal that transmitter exocytosis in varicosities is intermittent. The EJC and noradrenaline oxidation current responses (in rat arteries) to a train of single pulses were observed to be similar in intermittency and amplitude fluctuation. This suggests that they are caused by exocytosis of single or very few "quanta" of ATP and noradrenaline, respectively, equal to the contents of single vesicles, from a small population of release sites. These findings support, but do not conclusively prove the validity of the "intermittent" model of noradrenaline release. The question if noradrenaline is always secreted in packets of preset size

  1. CHAIN RECONNECTIONS OBSERVED IN SYMPATHETIC ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Magara, Tetsuya [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS Sarbonne Universités, Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Jansson, F-92195 Meudon (France); Guo, Yang, E-mail: navin@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 210023 Nanjing (China)

    2016-04-01

    The nature of various plausible causal links between sympathetic events is still a controversial issue. In this work, we present multiwavelength observations of sympathetic eruptions, associated flares, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occurring on 2013 November 17 in two close active regions. Two filaments, i.e., F1 and F2, are observed in between the active regions. Successive magnetic reconnections, caused for different reasons (flux cancellation, shear, and expansion) have been identified during the whole event. The first reconnection occurred during the first eruption via flux cancellation between the sheared arcades overlying filament F2, creating a flux rope and leading to the first double-ribbon solar flare. During this phase, we observed the eruption of overlying arcades and coronal loops, which leads to the first CME. The second reconnection is believed to occur between the expanding flux rope of F2 and the overlying arcades of filament F1. We suggest that this reconnection destabilized the equilibrium of filament F1, which further facilitated its eruption. The third stage of reconnection occurred in the wake of the erupting filament F1 between the legs of the overlying arcades. This may create a flux rope and the second double-ribbon flare and a second CME. The fourth reconnection was between the expanding arcades of the erupting filament F1 and the nearby ambient field, which produced the bi-directional plasma flows both upward and downward. Observations and a nonlinear force-free field extrapolation confirm the possibility of reconnection and the causal link between the magnetic systems.

  2. Glutamate and GABA in vestibulo-sympathetic pathway neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay R Holstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively. The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the

  3. Sodium pump α2 subunits control myogenic tone and blood pressure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Lee, Moo Yeol; Cavalli, Maurizio; Chen, Ling; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Balke, C William; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Patrizia; Hamlyn, John M; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Lingrel, Jerry B; Matteson, Donald R; Wier, W Gil; Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2005-01-01

    A key question in hypertension is: How is long-term blood pressure controlled? A clue is that chronic salt retention elevates an endogenous ouabain-like compound (EOLC) and induces salt-dependent hypertension mediated by Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX). The precise mechanism, however, is unresolved. Here we study blood pressure and isolated small arteries of mice with reduced expression of Na+ pump α1 (α1+/−) or α2 (α2+/−) catalytic subunits. Both low-dose ouabain (1–100 nm; inhibits only α2) and high-dose ouabain (≥1 μm; inhibits α1) elevate myocyte Ca2+ and constrict arteries from α1+/−, as well as α2+/− and wild-type mice. Nevertheless, only mice with reduced α2 Na+ pump activity (α2+/−), and not α1 (α1+/−), have elevated blood pressure. Also, isolated, pressurized arteries from α2+/−, but not α1+/−, have increased myogenic tone. Ouabain antagonists (PST 2238 and canrenone) and NCX blockers (SEA0400 and KB-R7943) normalize myogenic tone in ouabain-treated arteries. Only the NCX blockers normalize the elevated myogenic tone in α2+/− arteries because this tone is ouabain independent. All four agents are known to lower blood pressure in salt-dependent and ouabain-induced hypertension. Thus, chronically reduced α2 activity (α2+/− or chronic ouabain) apparently regulates myogenic tone and long-term blood pressure whereas reduced α1 activity (α1+/−) plays no persistent role: the in vivo changes in blood pressure reflect the in vitro changes in myogenic tone. Accordingly, in salt-dependent hypertension, EOLC probably increases vascular resistance and blood pressure by reducing α2 Na+ pump activity and promoting Ca2+ entry via NCX in myocytes. PMID:16166162

  4. Effect of tone mapping operators on visual attention deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwaria, Manish; Perreira Da Silva, Matthieu; Le Callet, Patrick; Pepion, Romuald

    2012-10-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) images/videos require the use of a tone mapping operator (TMO) when visualized on Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays. From an artistic intention point of view, TMOs are not necessarily transparent and might induce different behavior to view the content. In this paper, we investigate and quantify how TMOs modify visual attention (VA). To that end both objective and subjective tests in the form of eye-tracking experiments have been conducted on several still image content that have been processed by 11 different TMOs. Our studies confirm that TMOs can indeed modify human attention and fixation behavior significantly. Therefore our studies suggest that VA needs consideration for evaluating the overall perceptual impact of TMOs on HDR content. Since the existing studies so far have only considered the quality or aesthetic appeal angle, this study brings in a new perspective regarding the importance of VA in HDR content processing for visualization on LDR displays.

  5. A multi-modal approach to perceptual tone mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Caselles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an improvement of TSTM, a recently proposed tone mapping operator for High Dynamic Range (HDR images, based on a multi-modal analysis. One of the key features of TSTM is a suitable implementation of the Naka-Rushton equation that mimics the visual adaptation performed by the human visual system coherently with Weber-Fechner's law of contrast perception. In the present paper we use the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM in order to detect the modes of the log-scale luminance histogram of a given HDR image and then we use the information provided by GMM to properly devise a Naka-Rushton equation for each mode. Finally, we properly select the parameters in order to merge those equations into a continuous function. Tests and comparisons to show how this new method is capable of improving the performances of TSTM are provided and commented, as well as comparisons with state of the art methods.

  6. Empirical measurements on a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raborife, M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the empirical assessments employed on two versions of a Sesotho tone labeling algorithm. This algorithm uses linguistically-defined Sesotho tonal rules to predict the tone labels on the syllables of Sesotho words. The two...

  7. Analysis on the relations between piano touch and tone

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Lai-Mei

    2010-01-01

    In piano playing, different ways of touch lead to different tones. The effects of changing forces on keys are presented by changing interaction between hammer and string. The thesis focuses on several important variables in hammer-string system and draws conclusions to the question about piano touch and tone.

  8. Pilot tones in WDM networks with wavelength converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Mikkelsen, Benny; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    Here we investigate the transmission of a pilot tone through an interferometric wavelength converter (IWC) in conjunction with a 2.5 Gbit/s experiment. The pilot tone is added by sinusoidal modulation of the bias current to the signal laser. After the IWC (Michelson interferometer) the converted...

  9. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  10. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  11. Tone sandhi, prosodic phrasing, and focus marking in Wenzhou Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    In most languages, focus (i.e. highlighting information) is marked by modifying the melody of the sentence. But how is focus marked in a Chinese dialect with eight different citation tones and a complex tonal phonology? This thesis investigates the connection between tonal realization and tone chang

  12. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  13. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  14. Alterations in perivascular sympathetic and nitrergic innervation function induced by late pregnancy in rat mesenteric arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Sastre

    Full Text Available We investigated whether pregnancy was associated with changed function in components of perivascular mesenteric innervation and the mechanism/s involved.We used superior mesenteric arteries from female Sprague-Dawley rats divided into two groups: control rats (in oestrous phase and pregnant rats (20 days of pregnancy. Modifications in the vasoconstrictor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS were analysed in the presence/absence of phentolamine (alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist or L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase-NOS- non-specific inhibitor. Vasomotor responses to noradrenaline (NA, and to NO donor DEA-NO were studied, NA and NO release measured and neuronal NOS (nNOS expression/activation analysed.EFS induced a lower frequency-dependent contraction in pregnant than in control rats. Phentolamine decreased EFS-induced vasoconstriction in segments from both experimental groups, but to a greater extent in control rats. EFS-induced vasoconstriction was increased by L-NAME in arteries from both experimental groups. This increase was greater in segments from pregnant rats. Pregnancy decreased NA release while increasing NO release. nNOS expression was not modified but nNOS activation was increased by pregnancy. Pregnancy decreased NA-induced vasoconstriction response and did not modify DEA-NO-induced vasodilation response.Neural control of mesenteric vasomotor tone was altered by pregnancy. Diminished sympathetic and enhanced nitrergic components both contributed to the decreased vasoconstriction response to EFS during pregnancy. All these changes indicate the selective participation of sympathetic and nitrergic innervations in vascular adaptations produced during pregnancy.

  15. Marked loss of sympathetic nerve fibers in chronic Charcot foot of diabetic origin compared to ankle joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Franz-Xaver; Bobrik, Verena; Fassold, Alexander; Grifka, Joachim; Kessler, Sigurd; Straub, Rainer H

    2009-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Charcot foot is based on three disputed factors: (1) loss of neurotrophic influence, (2) microtraumatic lesions, and (3) neurovascular disturbances. These etiological causes were uncovered by clinicophysiological tests. However, no results of quantitative nerve density studies of sympathetic and sensory substance P-positive (SP+) nerve fibers are available. We studied the density of sympathetic and SP+ nerve fibers in three distinct areas of the tarsus. Fifteen patients with ankle osteoarthritis (OA) and 15 patients with diabetic Charcot foot were included. Patients with OA did not differ from those with Charcot foot in SP+ sensory nerve fiber density. However, at all three areas, the density of sympathetic nerve fibers was significantly lower in patients with Charcot foot compared to OA (p = 0.006). In addition, we found that the sympathetic nerve repellent factor semaphorin 3C was highly expressed in inflamed tissue in Charcot patients. In Charcot foot of diabetic origin a severe loss of sympathetic nerve fibers was observed. These findings in chronically inflamed Charcot foot lend support to the neurovascular theory in the late chronic phase, which probably depends on the inflammatory upregulation of nerve repellent factors.

  16. Acupuncture Attenuates Renal Sympathetic Activity and Blood Pressure via Beta-Adrenergic Receptors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang; Wang, Xue-Rui; Li, Fang; Xiao, Ling-Yong; Shi, Guang-Xia

    2017-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system, via epinephrine and norepinephrine, regulates β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) expression, and renal sympathetic activation causes sustained increases in blood pressure by enhanced renin release. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) on renal sympathetic activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Unanesthetized rats were subject to daily acupuncture for 2 weeks. Mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored at days 0, 7, and 14 by radiotelemetry. After euthanasia on the 14th day, blood and the kidneys were collected and subject to the following analyses. Epinephrine and norepinephrine were detected by ELISA. The expression of β-ARs was studied by western blotting and PCR. The renin content was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. 14-day acupuncture significantly attenuates the increase of MBP. The HRV indices, the standard deviation of all normal NN intervals (SDNN), and the ratio of the low-frequency component to the high-frequency component (LF/HF) were improved following acupuncture. Renal sympathetic activation induced upregulation of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and renin content were attenuated by acupuncture. In addition, acupuncture decreased β1-AR expression and improved β2-AR expression. These results indicated that acupuncture relieves the increased MBP via the regulation of renal sympathetic activity and β-ARs. PMID:28270938

  17. The role of NGF in pregnancy-induced degeneration and regeneration of sympathetic nerves in the guinea pig uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, M M; Shockley, K P; Chávez, R; Richeri, A; Cowen, T; Crutcher, K A

    2000-02-14

    In the guinea pig, pregnancy is associated with a generalised depletion of noradrenaline in uterine sympathetic nerves and, in the areas of the uterus surrounding the foetus, by a complete degeneration of sympathetic nerve fibres. These pregnancy-induced changes have been interpreted as a selective effect of placental hormones on the system of short sympathetic fibres arising from the paracervical ganglia. An alternative explanation is that pregnancy affects the neurotrophic capacity of the uterus. We measured NGF-protein levels in the guinea pig uterine horn, tubal end and cervix at early pregnancy, late pregnancy and early postpartum, using a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For comparative purposes the distribution and relative density of noradrenaline-containing sympathetic nerve fibres were assessed histochemically, and tissue levels of noradrenaline were measured biochemically, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. In all the uterine regions analysed, NGF-protein levels showed a decline at term pregnancy, but in no case was this change statistically significant. After delivery, NGF-protein levels showed a marked increase in the cervix as well as in both the fertile and empty horns. These results suggest that alterations in NGF-protein do not account for the impairment of uterine sympathetic innervation during pregnancy, but may contribute to their recovery after delivery.

  18. Sympathetic hyperinnervation of the uterus in the estrogen receptor alpha knock-out mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoubina, E V; Smith, P G

    2001-01-01

    Uterine innervation undergoes cyclical remodeling in the adult virgin rat. Previous studies showed that ovariectomy leads to increased uterine sympathetic nerve density, and this can be reduced by estrogen administration. However, the receptor mechanism by which estrogen modulates sympathetic innervation is unknown. The present study assessed the role of the estrogen receptor alpha in establishing levels of uterine innervation by comparing the nerve abundance in mice with a null mutation of the estrogen receptor alpha with those of the wild-type cycling mouse. Immunostaining for total uterine innervation using antibodies against the pan-neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 showed that nerve numbers in normally cycling wild-type mice were high in diestrus when circulating estrogen is at its nadir, and low at estrus, coincident with high plasma estrogen. Uteri of the estrogen receptor alpha knock-out mice were smaller than those of wild-type mice, but even when corrected for differences in size, total innervation was 188% and 355% greater than that of wild-type mice at diestrus and estrus, respectively. This hyperinnervation is associated with increased numbers of nerves immunoreactive for the noradrenergic enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase, without obvious differences in those containing calcitonin gene-related peptide or the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. While estrogen supplementation of the ovariectomized wild-type mice significantly reduced total uterine innervation, neither ovariectomy nor estrogen supplementation affected uterine nerve density in estrogen receptor alpha knock-out mice.We conclude that estrogen acting through the estrogen receptor alpha determines the number of sympathetic nerve terminal branches within uterine smooth muscle target. In mice with low circulating estrogen, or high estrogen but lacking the functional estrogen receptor alpha, the uterus contains abundant sympathetic nerves, whereas estrogen acts via the estrogen receptor

  19. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaridou, S.S.; Hagoort, P.; McQueen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs,

  20. The facial massage reduced anxiety and negative mood status, and increased sympathetic nervous activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Tomoko; Kitamura, Shingo; Tamura, Chihiro; Nagano, Mayumi; Ohnuki, Koichiro

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of 45 min of facial massage on the activity of autonomic nervous system, anxiety and mood in 32 healthy women. Autonomic nervous activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, we evaluated the high-frequency components (HF) and the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio), reflecting parasympathetic nervous activity and sympathetic nervous activity, respectively. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Profile of Mood Status (POMS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. The score of STAI and negative scale of POMS were significantly reduced following the massage, and only the LF/HF ratio was significantly enhanced after the massage. It was concluded that the facial massage might refresh the subjects by reducing their psychological distress and activating the sympathetic nervous system.

  1. Sympathetic skin response test in essential hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Abdel Kader

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion Although SSR has a low diagnostic value in patients with essential hypertension, it might be a good diagnostic test particularly in the presence of signs and symptoms of sympathetic overactivity such as tachycardia and sweating.

  2. Obesity-Related Metabolic Syndrome: Mechanisms of Sympathetic Overactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Canale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has increased worldwide over the past few years. Sympathetic nervous system overactivity is a key mechanism leading to hypertension in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Sympathetic activation can be triggered by reflex mechanisms as arterial baroreceptor impairment, by metabolic factors as insulin resistance, and by dysregulated adipokine production and secretion from visceral fat with a mainly permissive role of leptin and antagonist role of adiponectin. Chronic sympathetic nervous system overactivity contributes to a further decline of insulin sensitivity and creates a vicious circle that may contribute to the development of hypertension and of the metabolic syndrome and favor cardiovascular and kidney disease. Selective renal denervation is an emerging area of interest in the clinical management of obesity-related hypertension. This review focuses on current understanding of some mechanisms through which sympathetic overactivity may be interlaced to the metabolic syndrome, with particular regard to the role of insulin resistance and of some adipokines.

  3. Adipose afferent reflex: sympathetic activation and obesity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X-Q; Chen, W-W; Zhu, G-Q

    2014-03-01

    Excessive sympathetic activity contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and the progression of the related organ damage. Adipose afferent reflex (AAR) is a sympatho-excitatory reflex that the afferent activity from white adipose tissue (WAT) increases sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN or PVH) is one of the central sites in the control of the AAR, and ionotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus mediate the AAR. The AAR is enhanced in obesity and obesity hypertension. Enhanced WAT afferent activity and AAR contribute to the excessive sympathetic activation and hypertension in obesity. Blockage of the AAR attenuates the excessive sympathetic activity and hypertension. Leptin may be one of sensors in the WAT for the AAR, and is involved in the enhanced AAR in obesity and hypertension. This review focuses on the neuroanatomical basis and physiological functions of the AAR, and the important role of the enhanced AAR in the pathogenesis of obesity hypertension.

  4. Regional heterogeneity in cardiac sympathetic innervation in acute myocardial infarction: relationship with myocardial oedema on magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Pasanisi, Emilio Maria; Lombardi, Massimo [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana, Pisa (Italy); Liga, Riccardo; Grigoratos, Chrysanthos [University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Marzullo, Paolo [Fondazione CNR/Regione Toscana, Pisa (Italy); Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    To assess the relationships between myocardial structure and function on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and sympathetic tone on {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-MIBG) scintigraphy early after myocardial infarction (MI). Ten patients underwent {sup 123}I-MIBG and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin rest cadmium zinc telluride scintigraphy 4 ± 1 days after MI. The segmental left ventricular (LV) relative radiotracer uptake of both {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and early {sup 123}I-MIBG was calculated. The day after scintigraphy, on CMR imaging, the extent of ischaemia-related oedema and of myocardial fibrosis (late gadolinium enhancement, LGE) was assessed. Accordingly, the extent of oedema and LGE was evaluated for each segment and segmental wall thickening determined. Based on LGE distribution, LV segments were categorized as ''infarcted'' (56 segments), ''adjacent'' (66 segments) or ''remote'' (48 segments). Infarcted segments showed a more depressed systolic wall thickening and greater extent of oedema than adjacent segments (p < 0.001) and remote segments (p < 0.001). Interestingly, while uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin was significantly depressed only in infarcted segments (p < 0.001 vs. both adjacent and remote segments), uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG was impaired not only in infarcted segments (p < 0.001 vs. remote) but also in adjacent segments (p = 0.024 vs. remote segments). At the regional level, after correction for {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and LGE distribution, segmental {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake (p < 0.001) remained an independent predictor of ischaemia-related oedema. After acute MI the regional impairment of sympathetic tone extends beyond the area of altered myocardial perfusion and is associated with myocardial oedema. (orig.)

  5. Modulation operated by the sympathetic nervous system on jaw reflexes and masticatory movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro

    2007-04-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS), that is activated under condition of physical, psychological and psychosocial stress, affects force production and fatigability of muscles by controlling both muscle blood flow and the intracellular contractile mechanism. In addition SNS may affect motor function by modulating afferent activity from muscle spindles that are highly concentrated in jaw-closing muscles. Possible implications of these actions on masticatory function and myofascial pain are discussed.

  6. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tao eYang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  7. The clinical value of cardiac sympathetic imaging in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Kjaer, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the pathology of heart failure. The single-photon emission computed tomography tracer iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123) I-MIBG) can be used to investigate the activity of the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous...... system, norepinephrine. Also, positron emission tomography tracers are being developed for the same purpose. With (123) I-MIBG as a starting point, this brief review introduces the modalities used for cardiac sympathetic imaging....

  8. Assessment of cardiac sympathetic nerve integrity with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffel, David M. E-mail: raffel@umich.edu; Wieland, Donald M

    2001-07-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac function. Abnormalities of cardiac innervation have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many heart diseases, including sudden cardiac death and congestive heart failure. In an effort to provide clinicians with the ability to regionally map cardiac innervation, several radiotracers for imaging cardiac sympathetic neurons have been developed. This paper reviews the development of neuronal imaging agents and discusses their emerging role in the noninvasive assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation.

  9. Schwanomma From Cervical Sympathetic Chain Ganglion - A Rare Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, A Affee; Kannah, E

    2015-10-01

    Schwanommas arising from cervical sympathetic chain are tumours that are rare in occurrence. These lesions are usually difficult to differentiate from a vagal schwanomma and a carotid body tumour during the initial workup. In this report, a rarely seen huge cervical sympathetic chain schwanomma case with partial Horner's syndrome is being presented in detail, which to our known knowledge, is one of the few cases reported in literature.

  10. Cardiac fibroblasts regulate sympathetic nerve sprouting and neurocardiac synapse stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Mias

    Full Text Available Sympathetic nervous system (SNS plays a key role in cardiac homeostasis and its deregulations always associate with bad clinical outcomes. To date, little is known about molecular mechanisms regulating cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to determine the role of fibroblasts in heart sympathetic innervation. RT-qPCR and western-blots analysis performed in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts isolated from healthy adult rat hearts revealed that Pro-Nerve growth factor (NGF and pro-differentiating mature NGF were the most abundant neurotrophins expressed in cardiac fibroblasts while barely detectable in cardiomyocytes. When cultured with cardiac fibroblasts or fibroblast-conditioned medium, PC12 cells differentiated into/sympathetic-like neurons expressing axonal marker Tau-1 at neurites in contact with cardiomyocytes. This was prevented by anti-NGF blocking antibodies suggesting a paracrine action of NGF secreted by fibroblasts. When co-cultured with cardiomyocytes to mimic neurocardiac synapse, differentiated PC12 cells exhibited enhanced norepinephrine secretion as quantified by HPLC compared to PC12 cultured alone while co-culture with fibroblasts had no effect. However, when supplemented to PC12-cardiomyocytes co-culture, fibroblasts allowed long-term survival of the neurocardiac synapse. Activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts isolated from myocardial infarction rat hearts exhibited significantly higher mature NGF expression than normal fibroblasts and also promoted PC12 cells differentiation. Within the ischemic area lacking cardiomyocytes and neurocardiac synapses, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was increased and associated with local anarchical and immature sympathetic hyperinnervation but tissue norepinephrine content was similar to that of normal cardiac tissue, suggesting depressed sympathetic function. Collectively, these findings demonstrate for the first time that fibroblasts are essential for the setting of

  11. Cardiac Fibroblasts Regulate Sympathetic Nerve Sprouting and Neurocardiac Synapse Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mias, Céline; Coatrieux, Christelle; Denis, Colette; Genet, Gaël; Seguelas, Marie-Hélène; Laplace, Nathalie; Rouzaud-Laborde, Charlotte; Calise, Denis; Parini, Angelo; Cussac, Daniel; Pathak, Atul; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Galés, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays a key role in cardiac homeostasis and its deregulations always associate with bad clinical outcomes. To date, little is known about molecular mechanisms regulating cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to determine the role of fibroblasts in heart sympathetic innervation. RT-qPCR and western-blots analysis performed in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts isolated from healthy adult rat hearts revealed that Pro-Nerve growth factor (NGF) and pro-differentiating mature NGF were the most abundant neurotrophins expressed in cardiac fibroblasts while barely detectable in cardiomyocytes. When cultured with cardiac fibroblasts or fibroblast-conditioned medium, PC12 cells differentiated into/sympathetic-like neurons expressing axonal marker Tau-1 at neurites in contact with cardiomyocytes. This was prevented by anti-NGF blocking antibodies suggesting a paracrine action of NGF secreted by fibroblasts. When co-cultured with cardiomyocytes to mimic neurocardiac synapse, differentiated PC12 cells exhibited enhanced norepinephrine secretion as quantified by HPLC compared to PC12 cultured alone while co-culture with fibroblasts had no effect. However, when supplemented to PC12-cardiomyocytes co-culture, fibroblasts allowed long-term survival of the neurocardiac synapse. Activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) isolated from myocardial infarction rat hearts exhibited significantly higher mature NGF expression than normal fibroblasts and also promoted PC12 cells differentiation. Within the ischemic area lacking cardiomyocytes and neurocardiac synapses, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was increased and associated with local anarchical and immature sympathetic hyperinnervation but tissue norepinephrine content was similar to that of normal cardiac tissue, suggesting depressed sympathetic function. Collectively, these findings demonstrate for the first time that fibroblasts are essential for the setting of cardiac sympathetic

  12. Sympathetic Nervous System, Hypertension, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seravalle, Gino; Grassi, Guido

    2016-09-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have clearly shown the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases. This short review will be aimed at focusing and discussing the new information collected on two specific clinical conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. The paper will briefly describe the four main mechanisms that represent the common link between these two pathophysiological conditions and that through the sympathetic nervous system contribute to increase the cardiovascular risk.

  13. Regulation of vascular tone by adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Voorde Johan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have shown that adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ secreting several mediators called adipokines. Adipokines include hormones, inflammatory cytokines and other proteins. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, resulting in an overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines and a lower production of anti-inflammatory adipokines. The pathological accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for many other diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Multiple physiological roles have been assigned to adipokines, including the regulation of vascular tone. For example, the unidentified adipocyte-derived relaxing factor (ADRF released from adipose tissue has been shown to relax arteries. Besides ADRF, other adipokines such as adiponectin, omentin and visfatin are vasorelaxants. On the other hand, angiotensin II and resistin are vasoconstrictors released by adipocytes. Reactive oxygen species, leptin, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and apelin share both vasorelaxing and constricting properties. Dysregulated synthesis of the vasoactive and proinflammatory adipokines may underlie the compromised vascular reactivity in obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  14. Increased pressure-induced tone in rat parenchymal arterioles vs. middle cerebral arteries: role of ion channels and calcium sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J; Sweet, Julie; Chan, Siu-Lung; Tavares, Matthew J; Gokina, Natalia; Brayden, Joseph E

    2014-07-01

    Brain parenchymal arterioles (PAs) are high-resistance vessels that branch off pial arteries and perfuse the brain parenchyma. PAs are the target of cerebral small vessel disease and have been shown to have greater pressure-induced tone at lower pressures than pial arteries. We investigated mechanisms by which brain PAs have increased myogenic tone compared with middle cerebral arteries (MCAs), focusing on differences in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) calcium and ion channel function. The amount of myogenic tone and VSM calcium was measured using Fura 2 in isolated and pressurized PAs and MCAs. Increases in intraluminal pressure caused larger increases in tone and cytosolic calcium in PAs compared with MCAs. At 50 mmHg, myogenic tone was 37 ± 5% for PAs vs. 6.5 ± 4% for MCAs (P channel (VDCC) inhibitor nifedipine than MCAs (EC50 for PAs was 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. 82.1 ± 2.1 nmol/l for MCAs;P channel inhibitor iberiotoxin, whereas MCAs constricted ∼15%. Thus increased myogenic tone in PAs appears related to differences in ion channel activity that promotes VSM membrane depolarization but not to a direct sensitization of the contractile apparatus to calcium.

  15. Individual differences in processing pitch contour and rise time in adults: A behavioral and electrophysiological study of Cantonese tone merging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jinghua; Law, Sam-Po

    2016-06-01

    One way to understand the relationship between speech perception and production is to examine cases where the two dissociate. This study investigates the hypothesis that perceptual acuity reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs) to rise time of sound amplitude envelope and pitch contour [reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN)] may associate with individual differences in production among speakers with otherwise comparable perceptual abilities. To test this hypothesis, advantage was taken of an on-going sound change-tone merging in Cantonese, and compared the ERPs between two groups of typically developed native speakers who could discriminate the high rising and low rising tones with equivalent accuracy but differed in the distinctiveness of their production of these tones. Using a passive oddball paradigm, early positive-going EEG components to rise time and MMN to pitch contour were elicited during perception of the two tones. Significant group differences were found in neural responses to rise time rather than pitch contour. More importantly, individual differences in efficiency of tone discrimination in response latency and magnitude of neural responses to rise time were correlated with acoustic measures of F0 offset and rise time differences in productions of the two rising tones.

  16. Sympathetic radiofrequency neurolysis for unilateral lumbar hyperhidrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşik, Züleyha Soytürk; Orbey, Başak Ceyda; Aşik, Ibrahim

    2008-07-01

    Patients with hyperhidrosis suffer from physical, social and mental discomfort which often cannot be treated sufficiently using conservative measures. A new percutaneous approach to sympathectomy using radiofrequency denervation has seemed to offer longer duration of action and less incidence of post sympathetic neuralgia. This article reports the authors' experience with sympathetic RF neurolysis in a 35 year old male with right unilateral lumbar hyperhidrosis. Under scopy guided localization of the lumbar spine sympathetic blockade with local anesthetics to L2-5 vertebral levels were performed as a diagnostic block. Lesion effectiveness is monitored by bilateral feet skin temperature measurement. Clinical effects produced by the first sympathetic ganglion block were sustained for 1 week and then RF neurolysis of lumbar sympathetic ganglion was performed to the same levels for a longer effect. The procedure was accomplished within 30 minutes and the patient was discharged within 2 hours after the procedure. Hyperhidrosis was relieved after the procedure and there were no postsympathectomy neuralgia and sexual dysfunction. The patient obtained improvement of lumbar hyperhidrosis at his first month of follow- up and was satisfied with the outcome. In conclusion, RF neurolysis of lumbar sympathetic ganglions is a safe and effective palliative procedure with minimal invasiveness for relieving excessive sweat secretion in patients with localized hyperhidrosis.

  17. THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ALTERATIONS IN HUMAN HYPERTENSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Mark, Allyn; Esler, Murray

    2015-01-01

    A number of articles have dealt with the importance and mechanisms of the sympathetic nervous system alterations in experimental animal models of hypertension. This review addresses the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology and therapy of human hypertension. We first discuss the strengths and limitations of various techniques for assessing the sympathetic nervous system in humans, with a focus on heart rate, plasma norepinephrine, microneurographic recording of sympathetic nerve traffic, and measurements of radiolabeled norepinephrine spillover. We then examine the evidence supporting the importance of neuroadrenergic factors as “promoters” and “amplifiers” of human hypertension. We expand on the role of the sympathetic nervous system in two increasingly common forms of secondary hypertension, namely hypertension associated with obesity and with renal disease. With this background, we examine interventions of sympathetic deactivation as a mode of antihypertensive treatment. Particular emphasis is given to the background and results of recent therapeutic approaches based on carotid baroreceptor stimulation and radiofrequency ablation of the renal nerves. PMID:25767284

  18. Angiotensin II, sympathetic nerve activity and chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity has been reported to be increased in both humans and animals with chronic heart failure. One of the mechanisms believed to be responsible for this phenomenon is increased systemic and cerebral angiotensin II signaling. Plasma angiotensin II is increased in humans and animals with chronic heart failure. The increase in angiotensin II signaling enhances sympathetic nerve activity through actions on both central and peripheral sites during chronic heart failure. Angiotensin II signaling is enhanced in different brain sites such as the paraventricular nucleus, the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the area postrema. Blocking angiotensin II type 1 receptors decreases sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex when therapy is administered to the paraventricular nucleus. Injection of an angiotensin receptor blocker into the area postrema activates the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In peripheral regions, angiotensin II elevates both norepinephrine release and synthesis and inhibits norepinephrine uptake at nerve endings, which may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity seen in chronic heart failure. Increased circulating angiotensin II during chronic heart failure may enhance the sympathoexcitatory chemoreflex and inhibit the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In addition, increased circulating angiotensin II can directly act on the central nervous system via the subfornical organ and the area postrema to increase sympathetic outflow. Inhibition of angiotensin II formation and its type 1 receptor has been shown to have beneficial effects in chronic heart failure patients.

  19. Impaired learning of event frequencies in tone deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2012-04-01

    Musical knowledge is ubiquitous, effortless, and implicitly acquired all over the world via exposure to musical materials in one's culture. In contrast, one group of individuals who show insensitivity to music, specifically the inability to discriminate pitches and melodies, is the tone-deaf. In this study, we asked whether difficulties in pitch and melody discrimination among the tone-deaf could be related to learning difficulties, and, if so, what processes of learning might be affected in the tone-deaf. We investigated the learning of frequency information in a new musical system in tone-deaf individuals and matched controls. Results showed significantly impaired learning abilities in frequency matching in the tone-deaf. This impairment was positively correlated with the severity of tone deafness as assessed by the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia. Taken together, the results suggest that tone deafness is characterized by an impaired ability to acquire frequency information from pitched materials in the sound environment. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. [Correlations between the coefficient of variation of RR intervals and sympathetic nerve activity following superior tilting in normotensive subjects and in patients with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, M; Kikuchi, K; Yamaji, I; Kobayakawa, H; Yamamoto, M; Kudo, C; Wada, A; Mukai, H; Iimura, O

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between changes in sympathetic nerve activity and those in parasympathetic tone with a change in position was investigated in patients with essential hypertension using the coefficient of variation of RR intervals on electrocardiograms (CVRR). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), plasma noradrenaline concentration (pNA) and CVRR were measured in a supine position at rest and 20 min after having the head tilted 60 degrees superiorly in 10 normotensives (NT: 51.9 +/- 3.0 yrs) and 7 essential hypertensive patients (EHT: 51.0 +/- 2.8 yrs). After changing the position, CVRR decreased significantly in the NT, but not in the EHT; whereas, significant increases of both HR and pNA without significant changes in MAP were shown in both groups. A significant negative correlation between percentage changes in CVRR (% delta CVRR) and pNA (% delta pNA) were observed in the NT, but not in the EHT. However, there was no relationship of % delta CVRR to % delta MAP or to % delta HR in either group. It was suggested from the changes in CVRR that suppression of the parasympathetic tone, which occurs in the NT group corresponding to sympathetic augmentation to present a decrease in blood pressure with a change in position, may be impaired in the EHT group.

  1. Thai lexical tone perception in native speakers of Thai, English and Mandarin Chinese: An event-related potentials training study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Mingzhen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tone languages such as Thai and Mandarin Chinese use differences in fundamental frequency (F0, pitch to distinguish lexical meaning. Previous behavioral studies have shown that native speakers of a non-tone language have difficulty discriminating among tone contrasts and are sensitive to different F0 dimensions than speakers of a tone language. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the effect of language background and training on the non-attentive processing of lexical tones. EEG was recorded from 12 adult native speakers of Mandarin Chinese, 12 native speakers of American English, and 11 Thai speakers while they were watching a movie and were presented with multiple tokens of low-falling, mid-level and high-rising Thai lexical tones. High-rising or low-falling tokens were presented as deviants among mid-level standard tokens, and vice versa. EEG data and data from a behavioral discrimination task were collected before and after a two-day perceptual categorization training task. Results Behavioral discrimination improved after training in both the Chinese and the English groups. Low-falling tone deviants versus standards elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN in all language groups. Before, but not after training, the English speakers showed a larger MMN compared to the Chinese, even though English speakers performed worst in the behavioral tasks. The MMN was followed by a late negativity, which became smaller with improved discrimination. The High-rising deviants versus standards elicited a late negativity, which was left-lateralized only in the English and Chinese groups. Conclusion Results showed that native speakers of English, Chinese and Thai recruited largely similar mechanisms when non-attentively processing Thai lexical tones. However, native Thai speakers differed from the Chinese and English speakers with respect to the processing of late F0 contour differences (high-rising versus mid-level tones. In

  2. Sympathetic cardiac hyperinnervation and atrial autonomic imbalance in diet-induced obesity promote cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Belinda H; Hasan, Wohaib; Streiff, Cole T; Houle, Jennifer C; Woodward, William R; Giraud, George D; Brooks, Virginia L; Habecker, Beth A

    2013-11-15

    Obesity increases the risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that obesity-induced cardiac sympathetic outgrowth and hyperinnervation promotes the development of arrhythmic events. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), fed a high-fat diet (33% kcal/fat), diverged into obesity-resistant (OR) and obesity-prone (OP) groups and were compared with rats fed normal chow (13% kcal/fat; CON). In vitro experiments showed that both OR and OP rats exhibited hyperinnervation of the heart and high sympathetic outgrowth compared with CON rats, even though OR rats are not obese. Despite the hyperinnervation and outgrowth, we showed that, in vivo, OR rats were less susceptible to arrhythmic events after an intravenous epinephrine challenge compared with OP rats. On examining total and stimulus-evoked neurotransmitter levels in an ex vivo system, we demonstrate that atrial acetylcholine content and release were attenuated in OP compared with OR and CON groups. OP rats also expressed elevated atrial norepinephrine content, while norepinephrine release was suppressed. These findings suggest that the consumption of a high-fat diet, even in the absence of overt obesity, stimulates sympathetic outgrowth and hyperinnervation of the heart. However, normalized cardiac parasympathetic nervous system control may protect the heart from arrhythmic events.

  3. Effects of α-lipoic acid therapy on sympathetic heart innervation in patients with previous experience of transient takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfella, Raffaele; Barbieri, Michelangela; Sardu, Celestino; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Siniscalchi, Mario; Paolisso, Pasquale; Ambrosino, Maria; Fava, Ilaria; Materazzi, Crescenzo; Cinquegrana, Giorgio; Gottilla, Rossella; Elia, Luigi Raffaele; D'andrea, Davide; Coppola, Antonino; Rambaldi, Pier Francesco; Mauro, Ciro; Mansi, Luigi; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is a stress cardiomyopathy, characterized by reversible left ventricle (LV) apical ballooning in the absence of significant angiographic coronary artery stenosis. The frequent association with emotional stress suggests in this disease an autonomic nervous system involvement. We could think that a therapeutic treatment targeting heart sympathetic dysfunction could be of crucial importance. From January 2010 to June 2012, 886 patients were consecutively evaluated at Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy. Among these, 48 patients met takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) criteria. Each patient was assessed with history and physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram, serum troponin, coronary arteriography, and left ventricular angiogram, perfusion myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99m, with echocardiography and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. At discharge, the surviving patients were randomly assigned to α-lipoic acid (ALA) treatment (600mg once daily) or placebo. Following discharge, after the initial TCM event, patients returned to our outpatient clinic at Internal Medicine of the Second University Naples for the follow-up evaluation quarterly until 12 months. Routine analysis, myocardial damage serum markers, oxidative stress serum markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and sympathetic tone activity were evaluated in all patients. ALA administration improved MIBG defect size at 12 months compared to placebo. Adrenergic cardiac innervation dysfunction in TCM patients persists after previous experience of transient stress-induced cardiac dysfunction. ALA treatment improves the adrenergic cardiac innervation. This study evaluates whether sympatho-vagal alterations are TCM event-related. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sympathetic vasomotor control does not explain the change in femoral artery shear rate pattern during arm-crank exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J; Steendijk, Sjoerd; Hopman, Maria T E

    2009-01-01

    During lower limb exercise, blood flow through the resting upper limbs exhibits a change characterized by increased anterograde flow during systole, but also large increases in retrograde diastolic flow. One explanation for the retrograde flow is that increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone and concomitant increased peripheral resistance generate a rebound during diastole. To examine whether the SNS contributes to retrograde flow patterns, we measured femoral artery blood flow during arm-crank exercise in 10 healthy men (31 +/- 4 yr) and 10 spinal cord-injured (SCI) subjects who lack sympathetic innervation in the legs (33 +/- 5 yr). Before, and every 5 min during 25-min arm-crank exercise at 50% maximal capacity, femoral artery blood flow and peak anterograde and retrograde shear rate were assessed using echo Doppler sonography. Femoral artery baseline blood flow was significantly lower in SCI compared with controls. Exercise increased femoral artery blood flow in both groups (ANOVA, P change during exercise in either group. Mean shear rate was lower in SCI than in controls (P rate was higher in SCI than in controls (P rate did not differ between groups. Arm-crank exercise induced an increase in peak anterograde and retrograde shear rate in the femoral artery in controls and SCI subjects (P change the flow pattern in inactive regions during exercise. Local mechanisms may play a role in the arm-crank exercise-induced changes in flow pattern in the femoral artery.

  5. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in neurological critical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH is a clinical disorder mainly caused by traumatic brain injury, stroke, encephalitis and other types of brain injury. The clinical features are episodes of hypertension, tachycardia, tachypnea, fever and dystonic postures. In this study, we described clinical profile and outcome of six patients of PSH admitted in neurocritical care unit. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted at neurology critical care unit of a tertiary care center. All patients admitted at neurology critical unit during 6-month period from August 2013 to January 2014 were screened for the occurrence of PSH. The clinical details and outcome was documented. Results: PSH was observed in 6 patients. Male to female ratio was 5:1. Mean age ± SD was 36.67 ± 15.19 years. The leading causes were traumatic brain injury (two patients, stroke (two patients and Japanese encephalitis (JE (one patient and tuberculous meningitis (one patient. Conclusion: PSH is an unusual complication in neurocritical care. It prolonged the hospitalization and hampers recovery. The other life-threatening conditions that mimic PSH should be excluded. The association with JE and tuberculous meningitis was not previously described in literature.

  6. Sympathetic nervous system behavior in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Kevin P; Orr, Jeb S

    2009-02-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) plays an essential role in the regulation of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. Low SNS activity has been suggested to be a risk factor for weight gain and obesity development. In contrast, SNS activation is characteristic of a number of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases that occur more frequently in obese individuals. Until recently, the relation between obesity and SNS behavior has been controversial because previous approaches for assessing SNS activity in humans have produced inconsistent findings. Beginning in the early 1990s, many studies using state of the art neurochemical and neurophysiological techniques have provided important insight. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of our current understanding of the region specific alterations in SNS behavior in human obesity. We will discuss findings from our own laboratory which implicate visceral fat as an important depot linking obesity with skeletal muscle SNS activation. The influence of weight change on SNS behavior and the potential mechanisms and consequences of region specific SNS activation in obesity will also be considered.

  7. Anorexia nervosa depends on adrenal sympathetic hyperactivity: opposite neuroautonomic profile of hyperinsulinism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechin F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuad Lechin1,2, Bertha van der Dijs1,2, Betty Pardey-Maldonado1, Jairo E Rivera1, Scarlet Baez1, Marcel E Lechin31Department of Pathophysiology, Sections of Neuroendocrinology, Neuropharmacology, and Neurochemistry, Instituto de Medicina Experimental, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas; 2Instituto de Vias Digestivas Caracas, Centro Clínico Profesional, Caracas, Venezuela; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Texas A and M Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Texas, USAObjective: The aim of our study was to determine the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system profiles underlying anorexia nervosa (AN syndrome, given that affected patients present with the opposite clinical profile to that seen in the hyperinsulinism syndrome.Design: We measured blood pressure and heart rate, as well as circulating neurotransmitters (noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, plasma serotonin, and platelet serotonin, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, during supine resting, one minute of orthostasis, and after five minutes of exercise. In total, 22 AN patients (12 binge-eating/purging type and 10 restricting type and age-, gender-, and race-matched controls (70 ± 10.1% versus 98 ± 3.0% of ideal body weight were recruited.Results: We found that patients with AN had adrenal sympathetic overactivity and neural sympathetic underactivity, demonstrated by a predominance of circulating adrenaline over noradrenaline levels, not only during the supine resting state (52 ± 2 versus 29 ± 1 pg/mL but also during orthostasis (67 ± 3 versus 32 ± 2 pg/mL, P < 0.05 and after exercise challenge (84 ± 4 versus 30 ± 3 pg/mL, P < 0.01.Conclusion: Considering that this peripheral autonomic nervous system disorder depends on the absolute predominance of adrenomedullary C1 adrenergic nuclei over A5 noradrenergic pontine nucleus, let us ratify the abovementioned findings. The AN syndrome depends on the

  8. The Neural Substrates Underlying the Implementation of Phonological Rule in Lexical Tone Production: An fMRI Study of the Tone 3 Sandhi Phenomenon in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Claire H C; Kuo, Wen-Jui

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the neural substrates underlying the implementation of phonological rule in lexical tone by the Tone 3 sandhi phenomenon in Mandarin Chinese. Tone 3 sandhi is traditionally described as the substitution of Tone 3 with Tone 2 when followed by another Tone 3 (33 →23) during speech production. Tone 3 sandhi enables the examination of tone processing in the phonological level with the least involvement of segments. Using the fMRI technique, we measured brain activations corresponding to the monosyllable and disyllable sequences of the four Chinese lexical tones, while manipulating the requirement on overt oral response. The application of Tone 3 sandhi to disyllable sequence of Tone 3 was confirmed by our behavioral results. Larger brain responses to overtly produced disyllable Tone 3 (33 > 11, 22, and 44) were found in right posterior IFG by both whole-brain and ROI analyses. We suggest that the right IFG was responsible for the processing of Tone 3 sandhi. Intense temporo-frontal interaction is needed in speech production for self-monitoring. The involvement of the right IFG in tone production might result from its interaction with the right auditory cortex, which is known to specialize in pitch. Future studies using tools with better temporal resolutions are needed to illuminate the dynamic interaction between the right inferior frontal regions and the left-lateralized language network in tone languages.

  9. Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on orthogonally-polarized four-tone probe wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaobin; Lin, Wenqiao; Yang, Zhisheng; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The tolerance of the non-local effect in the BOTDA method using a dual-tone probe wave with fixed frequency separation is theoretically and experimentally investigated in this paper. The presented analysis points out that when the sensing fiber consists of two long fiber segments with large BFS difference (> 100 MHz), there will always be only one probe tone interacting with the pump pulse in the front fiber segment. Therefore, although the pulse distortion problem can still be overcome in this case, the conventional non-local effect would impose systematic error on the estimated BFS of the hotspot located at the end of the front fiber segment. For the purpose of avoiding the impact of non-local effect and eliminating the pump distortion problem simultaneously when using high probe power, a novel method based on a four-tone probe wave is proposed, in which the probe light consists of two pairs of orthogonally-polarized dual-tone probe waves with opposite frequency scanning direction. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of realizing 2 m spatial resolution over 104-km-long sensing fiber without the impact of non-local effect.

  10. Frequency ratios and the perception of tone patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E G; Trehub, S E

    1994-06-01

    We quantified the relative simplicity of frequency ratios and reanalyzed data from several studies on the perception of simultaneous and sequential tones. Simplicity of frequency ratios accounted for judgments of consonance and dissonance and for judgments of similarity across a wide range of tasks and listeners. It also accounted for the relative ease of discriminating tone patterns by musically experienced and inexperienced listeners. These findings confirm the generality of previous suggestions of perceptual processing advantages for pairs of tones related by simple frequency ratios.

  11. A linear programming approach for optimal contrast-tone mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithmic approach of image enhancement via optimal contrast-tone mapping. In a fundamental departure from the current practice of histogram equalization for contrast enhancement, the proposed approach maximizes expected contrast gain subject to an upper limit on tone distortion and optionally to other constraints that suppress artifacts. The underlying contrast-tone optimization problem can be solved efficiently by linear programming. This new constrained optimization approach for image enhancement is general, and the user can add and fine tune the constraints to achieve desired visual effects. Experimental results demonstrate clearly superior performance of the new approach over histogram equalization and its variants.

  12. The interaction of lexical tone, intonation and semantic context in on-line spoken word recognition: an ERP study on Cantonese Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Carmen; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In two ERP experiments, we investigate the on-line interplay of lexical tone, intonation and semantic context during spoken word recognition in Cantonese Chinese. Experiment 1 shows that lexical tone and intonation interact immediately. Words with a low lexical tone at the end of questions (with a rising question intonation) lead to a processing conflict. This is reflected in a low accuracy in lexical identification and in a P600 effect compared to the same words at the end of a statement. Experiment 2 shows that a strongly biasing semantic context leads to much better lexical-identification performance for words with a low tone at the end of questions and to a disappearance of the P600 effect. These results support the claim that semantic context plays a major role in disentangling the tonal information from the intonational information, and thus, in resolving the on-line conflict between intonation and tone. However, the ERP data indicate that the introduction of a semantic context does not entirely eliminate on-line processing problems for words at the end of questions. This is revealed by the presence of an N400 effect for words with a low lexical tone and for words with a high-mid lexical tone at the end of questions. The ERP data thus show that, while semantic context helps in the eventual lexical identification, it makes the deviation of the contextually expected lexical tone from the actual acoustic signal more salient. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  14. Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project)

    Data.gov (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project) monitors the world's broadcast, print, and web news from nearly every corner of every country in...

  15. Tone realisation in a Yoruba speech recognition corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the acoustic realisation of tone in short continuous utterances in Yoruba. Fundamental frequency contours are extracted for automatically aligned syllables from a speech corpus of 33 speakers collected for speech recognition...

  16. 'tone at the top': fighting military corruption in latin america

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    to assess and measure military governance and integrity. It appears that ... corrupt military environment more effectively by finding the right tone. Method ..... In order to bring about a change in an ethically soiled corporate military culture, the ...

  17. Syllabification, Tone Marking, and Minimality in Eleme Ngulube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    EL's prosodic system. Specifically, I argue ... (1987) can correctly predict EL's tone system, since only that framework allows tautosyllabic ..... between the Grammar and Physics of Speech. 283-333. ... Niger Delta languages 1: Classification.

  18. Development of sympathetic ophthalmia following globe injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui; YAO Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO), a rare, bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis, usually occurs after open globe injury or intraocular surgery. We sought to identify the risk factors for the development of SO after open globe injury and describe their demographic and clinical features and outcomes of treatments.Methods A retrospective study of inpatients with globe injury in 15 tertiary referral hospitals of China from January 2001 to December 2005 was conducted. The information of demography, nature and mechanism of injury, time and ways of treatments and outcomes was reviewed. Diagnosis of SO was made based on a history of ocular trauma or surgery and subsequent development of bilateral or contralateral uveitis consistent with SO. Any association between related parameters and development of SO was analyzed.Results Among 9103 patients (9776 eyes) of globe injury, SO occurred after open globe injury in 18 cases with an occurrence rate of 0.37%, vitrectomy of closed globe injury in 2 (0.37%) and perforation of burned eyes in another 2. For open globe injury, the median age ((36.72±13.59) years, P=0.01) was higher in patients with SO; there were no significant effects of sexes, injury type, uvea proplaps, once or multi-intraocular surgery, once or multi-vitrectomy and endophthalmitis on incidence of SO; 0.70% endophthalmitis concurred with SO; 83.33% of SO occurred within 1 year after injury or last ocular surgery. SO developed in a fellow eye one week after evisceration of the perforating burned eye. Good final visual acuity was obtained in sympathizing eyes with prompt treatment.Conclusions For open globe injuries, SO sufferers were relatively older and any injury type could induce SO with equal possibility. The initial open globe injury was more likely to be the trigger of SO than subsequent intraocular surgeries including vitrectomy. Prophylactic enucleation after injury is not recommended.

  19. Thoracic sympathetic block reduces respiratory system compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ely Martins Benseñor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA following thoracic surgery presents known analgesic and respiratory benefits. However, intraoperative thoracic sympathetic block may trigger airway hyperreactivity. This study weighed up these beneficial and undesirable effects on intraoperative respiratory mechanics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, double-blind clinical study at a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for partial lung resection were distributed using a random number table into groups receiving active TEA (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, n = 9 or placebo (15 ml 0.9% saline, n = 10 solutions that also contained 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2 mg morphine. Under general anesthesia, flows and airway and esophageal pressures were recorded. Pressure-volume curves, lower inflection points (LIP, resistance and compliance at 10 ml/kg tidal volume were established for respiratory system, chest wall and lungs. Student’s t test was performed, including confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Bupivacaine rose 5 ± 1 dermatomes upwards and 6 ± 1 downwards. LIP was higher in the bupivacaine group (6.2 ± 2.3 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 cmH2O, p = 0.016, CI = -3.4 to -1.8. Respiratory system and lung compliance were higher in the placebo group (respectively 73.3 ± 10.6 versus 51.9 ± 15.5, p = 0.003, CI = 19.1 to 23.7; 127.2 ± 31.7 versus 70.2 ± 23.1 ml/cmH2O, p < 0.001, CI = 61 to 53. Resistance and chest wall compliance showed no difference. CONCLUSION: TEA decreased respiratory system compliance by reducing its lung component. Resistance was unaffected. Under TEA, positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are advisable.

  20. Investigation of piano soundboard voicing techniques and their impact on tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, Matt

    This thesis acts as a first step in connecting the subjective description of piano tone with quantitative measurements of changes in the vibrational and acoustical properties of a piano. Voicing techniques used by piano technicians are applied to a fully strung test piano and a series of tests are undertaken to measure the effect they have on piano tone. The addition of weights and riblets to a piano soundboard, two commonly practiced methods used to change the tone of a piano and even out the transition between the low tenor and high bass bridges, are examined in detail in this thesis. Modal analysis is the first test method applied and is used to determine the mode shapes and the modal properties of the test soundboard. The addition of small masses and riblets is shown to have the ability to change modal properties to varying degrees and connections are made between the output sound, attachment locations, modification locations, and mode shapes of the soundboard. A new technique, piano tone mapping, is introduced as a visualization method that displays the harmonic structure of the entire piano in one image. Using the technique creates a unique fingerprint of a piano that can be compared in various ways to other pianos. The piano tone maps reveal that initial magnitude and decay rate of the output sound are both decreased for notes with attachment points close to modification locations where weights and riblets are added. Impedance testing is also conducted for a number of different modifications. These tests reveal that riblets and weights each have their own frequency bands of influence, with the weights creating impedance changes primarily below 800 Hz and riblets creating impedance changes above 500 Hz, with a region of overlap between 500 Hz and 800 Hz. Tests also revealed that changes in impedance created by these voicing techniques were local in effect, with a region of influence less than 10 cm in radius extending from the location where the weight or

  1. Cyclosporine-Associated Leukoencephalopathy in a Case of Sympathetic Ophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuki Tagami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cyclosporine (CsA is currently widely used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in ocular disease, particularly in severe uveitis. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a significant complication of CsA therapy. However, there are no reports of the occurrence of PRES in response to the treatment of uveitis in the ophthalmological area. Case Presentation: We report a case with CsA-associated PRES. A 70-year-old woman with sympathetic ophthalmitis was treated with 50 mg/day of CsA for 1 week. However, the trough level in her blood was too low; thus, we increased the dose to 100 mg/day of CsA with prednisolone. She had headaches, hypertension (systolic blood pressure 180-200 mm Hg, loss of consciousness for several hours, and reduced limb movement, and her MRI showed a high signal intensity in both posterior lobes, consistent with PRES. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid indicated that it was within normal limits. Her CsA trough level in the blood was within normal ranges on the day of the attack. Her symptoms gradually improved over the next several days; however, she presented with cortical blindness, which lasted for several weeks. Finally, she returned to her baseline values from before the attack. Her MRI findings showed that PRES had essentially disappeared. Conclusion: PRES is not directly associated with the dosage of CsA administered; however, in general, it is well known that PRES can affect strongly immunosuppressed cases undergoing organ and bone marrow transplantation. Nevertheless, our CsA dose was only 100 mg (1.8 mg/kg. In this study, we report on the occurrence of PRES after the administration of CsA to treat sympathetic ophthalmia. To our knowledge, PRES can also occur after the administration of a small dose of CsA; thus, ophthalmologists using CsA should carefully observe the systemic conditions of CsA-treated patients.

  2. Pilot tone modulation used for channel identification in OTDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Bennike, Jon; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2004-01-01

    The principle of applying a pilot tone to an OTDM signal, in order to identify a specific channel, is presented. The impact on BER system performance is characterised as function of modulation index.......The principle of applying a pilot tone to an OTDM signal, in order to identify a specific channel, is presented. The impact on BER system performance is characterised as function of modulation index....

  3. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciatore, TW; Gurfinkel, VS; Horak, FB; Cordo, PJ; Ames, KE

    2010-01-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo “long-term” (3-year) training, have greater modulati...

  4. Method to Measure Tone of Axial and Proximal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs1, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the ...

  5. 1.5 T augmented reality navigated interventional MRI: paravertebral sympathetic plexus injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; U Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I; Carrino, John A; Fritz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The high contrast resolution and absent ionizing radiation of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be advantageous for paravertebral sympathetic nerve plexus injections. We assessed the feasibility and technical performance of MRI-guided paravertebral sympathetic injections utilizing augmented reality navigation and 1.5 T MRI scanner. A total of 23 bilateral injections of the thoracic (8/23, 35%), lumbar (8/23, 35%), and hypogastric (7/23, 30%) paravertebral sympathetic plexus were prospectively planned in twelve human cadavers using a 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI scanner and augmented reality navigation system. MRI-conditional needles were used. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced saline was injected. Outcome variables included the number of control magnetic resonance images, target error of the needle tip, punctures of critical nontarget structures, distribution of the injected fluid, and procedure length. Augmented-reality navigated MRI guidance at 1.5 T provided detailed anatomical visualization for successful targeting of the paravertebral space, needle placement, and perineural paravertebral injections in 46 of 46 targets (100%). A mean of 2 images (range, 1-5 images) were required to control needle placement. Changes of the needle trajectory occurred in 9 of 46 targets (20%) and changes of needle advancement occurred in 6 of 46 targets (13%), which were statistically not related to spinal regions (P = 0.728 and P = 0.86, respectively) and cadaver sizes (P = 0.893 and P = 0.859, respectively). The mean error of the needle tip was 3.9±1.7 mm. There were no punctures of critical nontarget structures. The mean procedure length was 33±12 min. 1.5 T augmented reality-navigated interventional MRI can provide accurate imaging guidance for perineural injections of the thoracic, lumbar, and hypogastric sympathetic plexus.

  6. Prox1 identifies proliferating neuroblasts and nascent neurons during neurogenesis in sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Julia; Hennchen, Melanie; Rohrer, Hermann

    2015-12-01

    Neurogenesis in embryonic sympathetic ganglia involves neuroblasts that resume proliferation following neuronal differentiation. As cell cycle exit is not associated with neuronal differentiation, the identity of proliferating neuroblasts is incompletely understood. Here, we use sympathetic ganglia of chick embryos to define the timing of neurogenesis and neuroblast identity focusing on the expression and function of the transcription factor Prox1. We show that a large fraction of neuroblasts has initially withdrawn from the cell cycle at embryonic day 3 (E3), which is reflected by a high proportion of p27(+)/Islet1(+) neuroblasts (63%) and low numbers of EdU(+)/Islet1(+) cells (12%). The proportion of proliferating Islet1(+) neuroblasts, identified by EdU pulse labeling and by the absence of the postmitotic marker p27 increases to reach maximal levels at E5, when virtually all neuroblasts are in the cell cycle (95%). Subsequently, the proportion of EdU-labeled and p27(-) neuroblasts is reduced to reach low levels at E11. Interestingly, the expression of the transcription factor Prox1 is restricted to the neuronal lineage, that is, Sox10(+)/Phox2b(+) neuron progenitors, proliferating p27(-)/Islet1(+) neuroblasts and nascent neurons but is rapidly lost in postmitotic neurons. In vitro and in vivo knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrate effects of Prox1 in the support of neuroblast proliferation and survival. Taken together, these results define the neurogenesis period in the chick paravertebral sympathetic ganglia including an initial cell cycle withdrawal and identify Prox1 as a marker and regulator of proliferating sympathetic neuroblasts.

  7. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B

    2011-12-14

    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention.

  8. Production and Perception of Tone 3 Focus in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Ting; Liberman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable. As a result, tone 3 focus was less well identified by listeners (77.1%). We suggest that the relatively poor identification of tone 3 focus is due to the smaller capacity for pitch range expansion, the confusion from within-phrase local dissimilatory effects, and the relatively weak intensity of tone 3. This study demonstrates that even within a language where purely prosodic marking of focus is clear, the location of prosodic focus can be difficult to identify in certain circumstances. Our results underline the conclusion, established in other work, that prosodic marking of focus is not universal, but is expressed through the prosodic system of each language.

  9. Influence of a tone's tonal function on temporal change detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun-Guillaud, Géraldine; Tillmann, Barbara

    2007-11-01

    Music cognition research has provided evidence that the tonal function of a musical event influences perception and memory. Our study investigated whether tonal function influences a basic temporal judgment, notably the detection of a temporal change disrupting a sequence's regularity. The sequences consisted of six musical events presented in isochrony (or with the fifth event occurring earlier or later): Three chords (instilling a tonal context) were followed by a tone (repeated three times). The tones fulfilled one of two tonal functions in the tonal context. Participants had to detect whether the sequence contained a temporal change and were not informed about tonal manipulations. Discrimination performance (as measured by d') showed an influence of tonal function on temporal change detection: Performance was better for the tonic tone (having the most important tonal function in the key) than for the unstable leading tone, the less stable mediant tone, and even than the stable dominant tone. The outcome shows the influence of listeners' tonal knowledge on a perceptual time judgment and suggests that processing of tonal and temporal structures interact at some stage of processing.

  10. Is baroreflex control of sympathetic activity and heart rate active in the preterm fetal sheep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Lindsea C; Malpas, Simon C; Barrett, Carolyn J; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2009-03-01

    The arterial baroreflex is a fundamental reflex that buffers rapid changes in arterial blood pressure (BP) via regulation of the heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity to the vasculature. In adults a sigmoidal relationship between BP and both heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity is well documented. Its role in blood pressure control before birth is unclear. Preterm babies have a high incidence of low BP, especially in the first few days of life, which could be related, in part, to immaturity of the baroreflex. In the present study, we investigated the baroreflex control of fetal heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in preterm fetal sheep in utero (102 +/- 1 days of gestation; term 140 days). Phenylephrine was associated with a significant increase in BP from 38 +/- 2 to 58 +/- 3 mmHg and a decrease in heart rate (HR) from 177 +/- 4 to 116 +/- 8 beats per minute (bpm). Sodium nitroprusside was associated with a significant fall in BP from 38 +/- 2 to 26 +/- 1 mmHg and an increase in HR from 182 +/- 4 to 274 +/- 8 bpm. However, the time between the 50% changes in BP and HR was significantly greater after hypotension than hypertension (31 +/- 8 s vs. 14 +/- 5 s, P < 0.05). No significant changes in RSNA occurred with either stimulus. This suggests that there are different maturational tempos for the components of the central autonomic response to altered blood pressure.

  11. Nerve growth factor receptor from rabbit sympathetic ganglia membranes. Relationship between subforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchalakos, R N; Bradshaw, R A

    1986-12-05

    The receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF) was purified from Triton X-100 extracts of sympathetic ganglia membranes by affinity chromatography on NGF-Sepharose. Elution of purified receptor was accomplished at pH 5 in the presence of 1 M NaCl. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the purified iodinated receptor showed three major bands at Mr = 126,000, Mr = 105,000, and Mr = 81,000. Affinity labeling of the purified receptor using 125I-NGF and the photoreactive agent N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-p-azidobenzoate resulted in two major cross-linked complexes corresponding to Mr = 135,000 and Mr = 110,000. This labeling pattern is similar to that observed with sympathetic ganglia membranes (Massague, J., Guillette, B. J., Czech, M. P., Morgan, C. J., and Bradshaw, R. A. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9419-9424) and indicates that these two forms do not arise from the cross-linking procedure. Reaction of the photoaffinity labeled NGF receptors with increasing amounts of trypsin resulted in a progressive decrease in the high molecular weight complex with a concomitant increase in the low molecular weight form. When the larger complex was isolated by electroelution from a sodium dodecyl sulfate gel and treated with trypsin, a species corresponding to Mr = 100,000 was generated. These observations are best explained by a precursor-product relationship for the two NGF receptor species of sympathetic neurons.

  12. Berlyne Revisited: Evidence for the Multifaceted Nature of Hedonic Tone in the Appreciation of Paintings and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M.; Lampatz, Allegra; Wandl, Michaela; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    In his seminal book on esthetics, Berlyne (1971) posited an inverted-U relationship between complexity and hedonic tone in arts appreciation, however, converging evidence for his theory is still missing. The disregard of the multidimensionality of complexity may explain some of the divergent results. Here, we argue that definitions of hedonic tone are manifold and systematically examined whether the nature of the relationship between complexity and hedonic tone is determined by the specific measure of hedonic tone. In Experiment 1, we studied three picture categories with similar affective and semantic contents: 96 affective environmental scenes, which were also converted into 96 cartoons, and 96 representational paintings. Complexity varied along the dimension of elements. In a between-subjects design, each stimulus was presented for 5 s to 206 female participants. Subjective ratings of hedonic tone (either beauty, pleasantness or liking), arousal, complexity and familiarity were collected in three conditions per stimulus set. Complexity and arousal were positively associated in all conditions, with the strongest association observed for paintings. For environmental scenes and cartoons, there was no significant association between complexity and hedonic tone, and the three measures of hedonic tone were highly correlated (all rs > 0.85). As predicted, in paintings the measures of hedonic tone were less strongly correlated (all rs > 0.73), and when controlling for familiarity, the association with complexity was significantly positive for beauty (rs = 0.26), weakly negative for pleasantness (rs = -0.16) and not present for liking. Experiment 2 followed a similar approach and 77 female participants, all non-musicians, rated 92 musical excerpts (15 s) in three conditions of hedonic tone (either beauty, pleasantness or liking). Results indicated a strong relationship between complexity and arousal (all rs > 0.85). When controlling for familiarity effects, the

  13. Berlyne revisited: Evidence for the multifaceted nature of hedonic tone in the appreciation of paintings and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Maria Marin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal book on aesthetics, Berlyne (1971 posited an inverted-U relationship between complexity and hedonic tone in arts appreciation, however, converging evidence for his theory is still missing. The disregard of the multidimensionality of complexity may explain some of the divergent results. Here, we argue that definitions of hedonic tone are manifold and systematically examined whether the nature of the relationship between complexity and hedonic tone is determined by the specific measure of hedonic tone. In Experiment 1, we studied three picture categories with similar affective and semantic contents: 96 affective environmental scenes, which were also converted into 96 cartoons, and 96 representational paintings. Complexity varied along the dimension of elements. In a between-subjects design, each stimulus was presented for 5 s to 206 female participants. Subjective ratings of hedonic tone (either beauty, pleasantness or liking, arousal, complexity and familiarity were collected in three conditions per stimulus set. Complexity and arousal were positively associated in all conditions, with the strongest association observed for paintings. For environmental scenes and cartoons, there was no significant association between complexity and hedonic tone, and the three measures of hedonic tone were highly correlated (all rs >.85. As predicted, in paintings the measures of hedonic tone were less strongly correlated (all rs >.73, and when controlling for familiarity, the association with complexity was significantly positive for beauty (rs = .26, weakly negative for pleasantness (rs = -.16 and not present for liking. Experiment 2 followed a similar approach and 77 female participants, all non-musicians, rated 92 musical excerpts (15 s in three conditions of hedonic tone (either beauty, pleasantness or liking. Results indicated a strong relationship between complexity and arousal (all rs >.85. When controlling for familiarity effects, the

  14. 肾去交感神经对心力衰竭犬心室基质重构的影响%Renal sympathetic denervation suppresses ventricular substrate remodeling in a canine high-rate pacing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓占; 赵庆彦; 于胜波; 王徐乐; 肖金平; 代子玄; 黄鹤; 唐艳红; 黄从新

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨肾去交感神经(RSD)对心力衰竭(心衰,HF)犬心室基质重构的影响.方法 19只犬按照随机数字表法随机分为3组:假手术组(n=7),心衰组(n=6)和RSD组(n=6).假手术组植入起搏器不起搏;心衰组植入起搏器后行右室快速起搏3周;RSD组先行双侧肾动脉消融再行右室快速起搏3周,实验前后监测血流动力学变化,采用Masson染色、ELISA和Western印迹等方法检测心室间质纤维化、脑钠肽(BNP)、血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)、醛固酮和转化生长因子-β(TGF-β)的变化.结果 心衰组和RSD组犬的左右心室舒张末期内径均明显增大[左室:(27.0±2.4)mm 比(37.0±2.8) mm,P<0.01和(30.0±2.5) mm比(36.0±2.8) mm,P<0.05;右室:(11.0±1.5)mm比(14.0±1.7) mm,P=0.03和(12.0±1.1) mm比(14.0±1.2) mm,P<0.05].与RSD组相比,心衰组犬左室舒张末期压力升高[(25.0±3.7) mmHg比(3.3±1.6) mmHg,P<0.01],且心室肌组织纤维化程度明显升高(左室:24.1%±4.8%比8.5%±1.9%,P<0.01;右室:17.2%±5.2%比11.8%±3.9%,P<0.01).与假手术组和RSD组相比,心衰组犬心室中TGF-β表达明显增加,心室肌组织及血清中BNP,AngⅡ和醛固酮水平明显升高.结论 RSD可抑制长期快速心室起搏引起的心室肌基质重构.%Objective To explore the role of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) on ventricular substrate remodeling in dogs with pacing-induced heart failure (HF).Methods A total of 19 dogs were randomized into 3 groups of sham-operated control (n =7),right ventricular pacing induction of HF (n =6) and RSD (n =6).After 8-week pacing induction of HF.Hemodynamic variables were monitored at baseline and after HF.Masson's trichrome staining,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot were used to measure ventricular interstitial fibrosis,brain natriuretic peptide (BNP),angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ),aldosterone and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β).Results All dogs in HF and HF + RSD groups

  15. Effects of renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation on norepinephrine spillover rate and sympathetic nerve activity in dogs with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang YU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To evaluate the validity and explore the mechanism of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD in the treatment of dogs with hypertension reproduced by constriction of abdominal aorta. Methods  The hypertension model was reproduced by constriction of abdominal aorta in 20 adult healthy dogs. These dogs were then randomly divided into the treatment group and control group (10 each. Renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation was done in treatment group 1 month after modeling. The foreleg blood pressure, sympathetic activity and norepinephrine overflow rate of dogs in two groups were detected before modeling, and 1, 2 and 3 months after modeling, and the trend of the change was also observed. Results  One month after modeling, the systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP were elevated significantly in control group (146.7±21.0, 89.0±12.7 and 108.3±14.9mmHg compared with those before modeling (119.5±13.2, 76.5±7.8 and 90.9±8mmHg, P < 0.05. The renal sympathetic activity impulse and norepinephrine spillover rate were also enhanced significantly (P < 0.05. The renal sympathetic nerve activity obviously decreased in the treatment group after the operation, and then increased 2 months after the ablation. The norepinephrine spillover rate in treatment group increased significantly 1 month after modeling (P < 0.05, and decreased after ablation, and it lasted to the end of the experiment (P < 0.05. One and two months after ablation, the norepinephrine spillover rate was lower in treatment group than in control group (P < 0.05. Conclusion  Renal sympathetic nerve radiofrequency ablation significantly inhibits the elevation of norepinephrine spillover rate and sympathetic nerve activity in dogs with hypertension.

  16. Cardiovascular indices of peripheral and central sympathetic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schächinger, H; Weinbacher, M; Kiss, A; Ritz, R; Langewitz, W

    2001-01-01

    A number of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) parameters have been used in cardiovascular psychophysiology. This study aimed to describe the pattern and redundancy of a set of SNS parameters during peripherally induced changes of cardiac sympathetic activation and reflex modulation of central SNS control. Preejection period (PEP) was assessed as a marker of peripheral sympathetic activation. Low-frequency blood pressure variability (BPV) was assessed as an estimate of central SNS control. Peripheral beta-sympathetic stimulation and blockade were achieved with epinephrine and esmolol hydrochloride (beta1-blockade), respectively. Changes in central SNS output were induced by loading and unloading arterial baroreceptors with norepinephrine and nitroprusside sodium, respectively. This single-blinded, crossover study in 24 healthy men also included two placebo control periods. PEP was derived from impedance cardiography and adjusted individually for heart rate. BPV was calculated by power spectral analyses of beat-to-beat heart rate and systolic blood pressure (Finapres system) data. PEP decreased during epinephrine infusion (-40.1 +/- 3.8 ms, p SNS activation by nitroprusside (-16.8 +/- 2.9 ms, p information on both central SNS control and the level of sympathetic cardiac activation achieved.

  17. The articulo-cardiac sympathetic reflex in spinalized, anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Atsuko; Ito, Ryuzo

    2006-04-01

    Somatic afferent regulation of heart rate by noxious knee joint stimulation has been proven in anesthetized cats to be a reflex response whose reflex center is in the brain and whose efferent arc is a cardiac sympathetic nerve. In the present study we examined whether articular stimulation could influence heart rate by this efferent sympathetic pathway in spinalized rats. In central nervous system (CNS)-intact rats, noxious articular movement of either the knee or elbow joint resulted in an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate. However, although in acutely spinalized rats a noxious movement of the elbow joint resulted in a significant increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate, a noxious movement of the knee joint had no such effect and resulted in only a marginal increase in heart rate. Because this marginal increase was abolished by adrenalectomy suggests that it was due to the release of adrenal catecholamines. In conclusion, the spinal cord appears to be capable of mediating, by way of cardiac sympathetic nerves, the propriospinally induced reflex increase in heart rate that follows noxious stimulation of the elbow joint, but not the knee joint.

  18. GENDER-SELECTIVE INTERACTION BETWEEN AGING AND CARDIOVASCULAR SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorat D Kiran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically aging refers to the impaired ability to maintain homeostasis during external as wellas internal stresses. The sympathetic nervous system becomes tonically, progressively and markedlyactivated with aging in humans. Study is done to measure the cardiovascular sympatheticdysfunctions in the males and females of the different age groups. Total 80, healthy subjects nothaving any major illness and any chronic addiction, were selected for the study. All the subjects wereevaluated by using “CANWIN cardiac autonomic neuropathy analyzer” using the tests like Pulse rateby Palpatory method, Blood Pressure response to sudden standing and Sustained Handgrip test. In all the elderly subjects the sympathetic system was over activated and this over activation of the sympathetic system became more severe as the age advanced. Aging is accompanied by a greater increase in sympathetic activity in women than in men, independent of menopausal status. The study concludes that there is more marked influence of age on sympathetic nervous system activation and impaired sensitivity of baroreceptors in women than men.

  19. Sympathetic neuro-adipose connections mediate leptin-driven lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenwen; Pirzgalska, Roksana M; Pereira, Mafalda M A; Kubasova, Nadiya; Barateiro, Andreia; Seixas, Elsa; Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Kozlova, Albina; Voss, Henning; Martins, Gabriel G; Friedman, Jeffrey M; Domingos, Ana I

    2015-09-24

    Leptin is a hormone produced by the adipose tissue that acts in the brain, stimulating white fat breakdown. We find that the lipolytic effect of leptin is mediated through the action of sympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the adipose tissue. Using intravital two-photon microscopy, we observe that sympathetic nerve fibers establish neuro-adipose junctions, directly "enveloping" adipocytes. Local optogenetic stimulation of sympathetic inputs induces a local lipolytic response and depletion of white adipose mass. Conversely, genetic ablation of sympathetic inputs onto fat pads blocks leptin-stimulated phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and consequent lipolysis, as do knockouts of dopamine β-hydroxylase, an enzyme required for catecholamine synthesis. Thus, neuro-adipose junctions are necessary and sufficient for the induction of lipolysis in white adipose tissue and are an efferent effector of leptin action. Direct activation of sympathetic inputs to adipose tissues may represent an alternative approach to induce fat loss, circumventing central leptin resistance. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

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    Philip eTseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  1. Responses of Neurons in the Marmoset Primary Auditory Cortex to Interaural Level Differences: Comparison of Pure Tones and Vocalizations.

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    Leo L Lui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Interaural level differences (ILDs are the dominant cue for localizing the sources of high frequency sounds that differ in azimuth. Neurons in the primary auditory cortex (A1 respond differentially to ILDs of simple stimuli such as tones and noise bands, but the extent to which this applies to complex natural sounds, such as vocalizations, is not known. In sufentanil/N2O anaesthetized marmosets, we compared the responses of 76 A1 neurons to three vocalizations (Ock, Tsik and Twitter and pure tones at cells’ characteristic frequency. Each stimulus was presented with ILDs ranging from 20dB favouring the contralateral ear to 20dB favouring the ipsilateral ear to cover most of the frontal azimuthal space. The response to each stimulus was tested at three average binaural levels (ABLs. Most neurons were sensitive to ILDs of vocalizations and pure tones. For all stimuli, the majority of cells had monotonic ILD sensitivity functions favouring the contralateral ear, but we also observed ILD sensitivity functions that peaked near the midline and functions favouring the ipsilateral ear. Representation of ILD in A1 was better for pure tones and the Ock vocalization in comparison to the Tsik and Twitter calls; this was reflected by higher discrimination indices and greater modulation ranges. ILD sensitivity was heavily dependent on ABL: changes in ABL by ±20 dB SPL from the optimal level for ILD sensitivity led to significant decreases in ILD sensitivity for all stimuli, although ILD sensitivity to pure tones and Ock calls was most robust to such ABL changes. Our results demonstrate differences in ILD coding for pure tones and vocalizations, showing that ILD sensitivity in A1 to complex sounds cannot be simply extrapolated from that to pure tones. They also show A1 neurons do not show level-invariant representation of ILD, suggesting that such a representation of auditory space is likely to require population coding, and further processing at subsequent

  2. 47 CFR 11.12 - Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder... SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.12 Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder. Existing two-tone Attention... Attention Signal decoder will no longer be required and the two-tone Attention Signal will be used...

  3. Mapping and Analysis of the Connectome of Sympathetic Premotor Neurons in the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of the Rat Using a Volumetric Brain Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Bowen; Le, Sheng; Turner, Anita; Bokiniec, Phil; Ramadas, Radhika; Bjaalie, Jan G.; Menuet, Clement; Neve, Rachael; Allen, Andrew M.; Goodchild, Ann K.; McMullan, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Spinally projecting neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) play a critical role in the generation of vasomotor sympathetic tone and are thought to receive convergent input from neurons at every level of the neuraxis; the factors that determine their ongoing activity remain unresolved. In this study we use a genetically restricted viral tracing strategy to definitively map their spatially diffuse connectome. We infected bulbospinal RVLM neurons with a recombinant rabies variant that drives reporter expression in monosynaptically connected input neurons and mapped their distribution using an MRI-based volumetric atlas and a novel image alignment and visualization tool that efficiently translates the positions of neurons captured in conventional photomicrographs to Cartesian coordinates. We identified prominent inputs from well-established neurohumoral and viscero-sympathetic sensory actuators, medullary autonomic and respiratory subnuclei, and supramedullary autonomic nuclei. The majority of inputs lay within the brainstem (88–94%), and included putative respiratory neurons in the pre-Bötzinger Complex and post-inspiratory complex that are therefore likely to underlie respiratory-sympathetic coupling. We also discovered a substantial and previously unrecognized input from the region immediately ventral to nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. In contrast, RVLM sympathetic premotor neurons were only sparsely innervated by suprapontine structures including the paraventricular nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray, and superior colliculus, and we found almost no evidence of direct inputs from the cortex or amygdala. Our approach can be used to quantify, standardize and share complete neuroanatomical datasets, and therefore provides researchers with a platform for presentation, analysis and independent reanalysis of connectomic data.

  4. Direct control of peripheral lipid deposition by CNS GLP-1 receptor signaling is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and blunted in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Pérez-Tilve, Diego; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Morgan, Donald A; Varela, Luis; Haynes, William G; Patterson, James T; Disse, Emmanuel; Pfluger, Paul T; López, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; DiMarchi, Richard; Diéguez, Carlos; Rahmouni, Kamal; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2009-05-06

    We investigated a possible role of the central glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) receptor system as an essential brain circuit regulating adiposity through effects on nutrient partitioning and lipid metabolism independent from feeding behavior. Both lean and diet-induced obesity mice were used for our experiments. GLP-1 (7-36) amide was infused in the brain for 2 or 7 d. The expression of key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism was measured by real-time PCR or Western blot. To test the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system may be responsible for informing adipocytes about changes in CNS GLP-1 tone, we have performed direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity combined with experiments in genetically manipulated mice lacking beta-adrenergic receptors. Intracerebroventricular infusion of GLP-1 in mice directly and potently decreases lipid storage in white adipose tissue. These effects are independent from nutrient intake. Such CNS control of adipocyte metabolism was found to depend partially on a functional sympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, the effects of CNS GLP-1 on adipocyte metabolism were blunted in diet-induced obese mice. The CNS GLP-1 system decreases fat storage via direct modulation of adipocyte metabolism. This CNS GLP-1 control of adipocyte lipid metabolism appears to be mediated at least in part by the sympathetic nervous system and is independent of parallel changes in food intake and body weight. Importantly, the CNS GLP-1 system loses the capacity to modulate adipocyte metabolism in obese states, suggesting an obesity-induced adipocyte resistance to CNS GLP-1.

  5. Propranolol for Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity with Lateralizing Hyperhidrosis after Stroke

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    Jason W. Siefferman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain injury can lead to impaired cortical inhibition of the hypothalamus, resulting in increased sympathetic nervous system activation. Symptoms of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity may include hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, vasodilation, and hyperhidrosis. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who suffered from a left middle cerebral artery stroke and subsequently developed central fever, contralateral temperature change, and hyperhidrosis. His symptoms abated with low-dose propranolol and then returned upon discontinuation. Restarting propranolol again stopped his symptoms. This represents the first report of propranolol being used for unilateral dysautonomia after stroke. Propranolol is a lipophilic nonselective beta-blocker which easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and may be used to treat paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity.

  6. Changes in cortical activity when subjects scan memory for tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, L; Curtis, S; Wang, J Z; Williamson, S J

    1992-04-01

    The magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was used to detect regional changes in spontaneous cortical activity accompanying short-term memory search. This method was chosen because magnetic fields are detectable only within a few centimeters of the projections of their sources onto the scalp. The specific hypothesis that auditory cortex is involved in scanning memory for tones was tested by sensing the field of the magnetic counterpart to N100 (N100m) which is known to originate in auditory cortex. N100m was measured at many different positions and the spontaneous cortical rhythms in the alpha bandwidth (8-12 Hz) were measured at the same places. These rhythms were found to be suppressed while subjects scanned memory for musical tones in a Sternberg paradigm. For 3 subjects, both the MEG suppression time (ST) and reaction time (RT) increased linearly with memory set size. The correlation between ST measured over the left hemisphere and set size was significant for two subjects but not significant for the third, and the slopes of the regression lines relating ST to set size were too shallow to be related to the time required to scan memory. However, the correlation between ST of the right hemisphere and set size was highly significant for all subjects, and the slopes of the regression lines were comparable to those relating RT to set size. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded with midline electrodes failed to reveal a significant relationship between suppression time and set size for 2 of the subjects, thus ruling out global alpha blockage and generalized arousal as the basis for the task-related suppression duration. The electric N100, measured at Cz, decreased significantly in amplitude with set size for 2 subjects, but it increased significantly in amplitude for the third subject. In contrast, RT increased with set size for all subjects. N100m measured over the right hemisphere was similar to the behavior of N100, while N100m measured over the left hemisphere showed

  7. Context, Contrast, and Tone of Voice in Auditory Sarcasm Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J

    2016-02-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative computer-generated context spoken in a flat emotional tone was followed by a literally positive statement spoken in a sincere or sarcastic tone of voice. Participants indicated for each statement whether the intonation was sincere or sarcastic. In Experiment 1, a congruent context/tone of voice pairing (negative/sarcastic, positive/sincere) produced fast response times and proportions of sarcastic responses in the direction predicted by the tone of voice. Incongruent pairings produced mid-range proportions and slower response times. Experiment 2 introduced ambiguous contexts to determine whether a lower context/statements contrast would affect the proportion of sarcastic responses and response time. Results showed the expected findings for proportions (values between those obtained for congruent and incongruent pairings in the direction predicted by the tone of voice). However, response time failed to produce the predicted pattern, suggesting potential issues with the choice of stimuli. Experiments 3 and 4 extended the results of Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, to auditory stimuli based on written vignettes used in neuropsychological assessment. Results were exactly as predicted by contrast effects in both experiments. Taken together, the findings suggest that both context and tone influence how sarcasm is perceived while supporting the importance of contrast effects in sarcasm perception.

  8. Role of sympathetic nervous system and neuropeptides in obesity hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Hall

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is the most common cause of human essential hypertension in most industrialized countries. Although the precise mechanisms of obesity hypertension are not fully understood, considerable evidence suggests that excess renal sodium reabsorption and a hypertensive shift of pressure natriuresis play a major role. Sympathetic activation appears to mediate at least part of the obesity-induced sodium retention and hypertension since adrenergic blockade or renal denervation markedly attenuates these changes. Recent observations suggest that leptin and its multiple interactions with neuropeptides in the hypothalamus may link excess weight gain with increased sympathetic activity. Leptin is produced mainly in adipocytes and is believed to regulate energy balance by acting on the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and to increase energy expenditure via sympathetic activation. Short-term administration of leptin into the cerebral ventricles increases renal sympathetic activity, and long-term leptin infusion at rates that mimic plasma concentrations found in obesity raises arterial pressure and heart rate via adrenergic activation in non-obese rodents. Transgenic mice overexpressing leptin also develop hypertension. Acute studies suggest that the renal sympathetic effects of leptin may depend on interactions with other neurochemical pathways in the hypothalamus, including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R. However, the role of this pathway in mediating the long-term effects of leptin on blood pressure is unclear. Also, it is uncertain whether there is resistance to the chronic renal sympathetic and blood pressure effects of leptin in obese subjects. In addition, leptin also has other cardiovascular and renal actions, such as stimulation of nitric oxide formation and improvement of insulin sensitivity, which may tend to reduce blood pressure in some conditions. Although the role of these mechanisms in human obesity has not been elucidated, this

  9. Bursting into space: alterations of sympathetic control by space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckberg, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Astronauts return to Earth with reduced red cell masses and hypovolaemia. Not surprisingly, when they stand, their heart rates may speed inordinately, their blood pressures may fall, and some may experience frank syncope. We studied autonomic function in six male astronauts (average +/- SEM age: 40 +/- 2 years) before, during, and after the 16-day Neurolab space shuttle mission. METHOD: We recorded electrocardiograms, finger photoplethysmographic arterial pressures, respiration, peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity, plasma noradrenaline and noradrenaline kinetics, and cardiac output, and we calculated stroke volume and total peripheral resistance. We perturbed autonomic function before and during spaceflight with graded Valsalva manoeuvres and lower body suction, and before and after the mission with passive upright tilt. RESULTS: In-flight baseline sympathetic nerve activity was increased above pre-flight levels (by 10-33%) in three subjects, in whom noradrenaline spillover and clearance also were increased. Valsalva straining provoked greater reductions of arterial pressure, and proportionally greater sympathetic responses in space than on Earth. Lower body suction elicited greater increases of sympathetic nerve activity, plasma noradrenaline, and noradrenaline spillover in space than on Earth. After the Neurolab mission, left ventricular stroke volume was lower and heart rate was higher during tilt, than before spaceflight. No astronaut experienced orthostatic hypotension or pre-syncope during 10 min of post-flight tilting. CONCLUSION: We conclude that baseline sympathetic outflow, however measured, is higher in space than on earth, and that augmented sympathetic nerve responses to Valsalva straining, lower body suction, and post-flight upright tilt represent normal adjustments to greater haemodynamic stresses associated with hypovolaemia.

  10. Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-alpha, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pellissier

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS involve brain-gut dysfunctions where vagus nerve is an important component. The aim of this work was to study the association between vagal tone and markers of stress and inflammation in patients with CD or IBS compared to healthy subjects (controls. The study was performed in 73 subjects (26 controls, 21 CD in remission and 26 IBS patients. The day prior to the experiment, salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00 AM and 10:00 PM. The day of the experiment, subjects completed questionnaires for anxiety (STAI and depressive symptoms (CES-D. After 30 min of rest, ECG was recorded for heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured in blood samples taken at the end of ECG recording. Compared with controls, CD and IBS patients had higher scores of state-anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A subgroup classification based on HRV-normalized high frequency band (HFnu as a marker of vagal tone, showed that control subjects with high vagal tone had significantly lower evening salivary cortisol levels than subjects with low vagal tone. Such an effect was not observed in CD and IBS patients. Moreover, an inverse association (r =  -0.48; p<0.05 was observed between the vagal tone and TNF-alpha level in CD patients exclusively. In contrast, in IBS patients, vagal tone was inversely correlated with plasma epinephrine (r =  -0.39; p<0.05. No relationship was observed between vagal tone and IL-6, norepinephrine or negative affects (anxiety and depressive symptomatology in any group. In conclusion, these data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in CD and IBS patients. Furthermore, they highlight the specific homeostatic link between vagal tone and TNF-alpha in CD and epinephrine in IBS and argue for the relevance of vagus nerve reinforcement interventions in those diseases.

  11. Central and cerebrovascular effects of leg crossing in humans with sympathetic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Harms; W. Wieling; W.N. Colier; J.W. Lenders; N.H. Secher; J.J. van Lieshout

    2010-01-01

    Leg crossing increases arterial pressure and combats symptomatic orthostatic hypotension in patients with sympathetic failure This study compared the central and cerebrovascular effects of leg crossing in patients with sympathetic failure and healthy controls. We addressed the relationship between M

  12. A Case Report of Renal Sympathetic Denervation for the Treatment of Polymorphic Ventricular Premature Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Márcio Galindo; Vitorio, Frederico Puppim; da Silva, Gustavo Ramalho; Paz, Luis Marcelo Rodrigues; Souto, Gladyston Luiz Lima

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Premature ventricular complexes are very common, appearing most frequently in patients with hypertension, obesity, sleep apnea, and structural heart disease. Sympathetic hyperactivity plays a critical role in the development, maintenance, and aggravation of ventricular arrhythmias. Recently, Armaganijan et al reported the relevance of sympathetic activation in patients with ventricular arrhythmias and suggested a potential role for catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation in reducing the arrhythmic burden. In this report, we describe a 32-year-old hypertensive male patient presenting with a high incidence of polymorphic premature ventricular complexes on a 24 hour Holter monitor. Beginning 1 year prior, the patient experienced episodes of presyncope, syncope, and tachycardia palpitations. The patient was taking losartan 100 mg/day, which kept his blood pressure (BP) under control, and sotalol 160 mg twice daily. Bisoprolol 10 mg/day was used previously but was not successful for controlling the episodes. The 24 hour Holter performed after the onset of sotalol 160 mg twice daily showed a heart rate ranging between 48 (minimum)–78 (average)–119 (maximum) bpm; 14,286 polymorphic premature ventricular complexes; 3 episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, the largest composed of 4 beats at a rate of 197 bpm; and 14 isolated atrial ectopic beats. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium perfusion performed at rest and under pharmacological stress with dipyridamole showed increased left atrial internal volume, preserved systolic global biventricular function, and an absence of infarcted or ischemic areas. The patient underwent bilateral renal sympathetic denervation. The only drug used postprocedure was losartan 25 mg/day. Three months after the patient underwent renal sympathetic denervation, the mean BP value dropped to 132/86 mmHg, the mean systolic/diastolic 24 hour ambulatory BP measurement was reduced to 128/83

  13. Arterial blood pressure is inversely associated with vascular sympathetic reactivity (isometric handgrip exercise) in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Shah, Hasmukh D; Nimbalkar, Archana S; Patel, Nilesh; Singh, S K

    2014-01-01

    Studies conducted earlier have found that vascular sympathetic reactivity to isometric handgrip exercise is either low or high in adolescents with higher blood pressure (Hypertensives) as compared to adolescents with relatively lower blood pressure (Normotensive). The current study was conducted to determine the correlation of vascular sympathetic reactivity to isometric handgrip exercise with blood pressure in Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to understand the pathogenesis and/consequences of Hypertension in this population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 651 Gujarati Indian adolescents (285 girls, 366 boys) of age group 13-19 years. Blood pressure was measured by oscillometry and vascular sympathetic reactivity (Percentage rise in Diastolic Blood Pressure, %RDBP) was assessed using isometric handgrip test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to study the correlation between %RDBP and blood pressure. In both girls and boys, %RDBP showed significant negative correlation with resting SBP, DBP and MAP. The study thus indicates that an inverse association exist between arterial blood pressure and vascular sympathetic reactivity to isometric handgrip exercise in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

  14. T-type Ca2+ channels are required for enhanced sympathetic axon growth by TNFα reverse signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiswa, Lilian; Erice, Clara; Ferron, Laurent; Wyatt, Sean; Osório, Catarina; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2017-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-activated TNFα reverse signalling, in which membrane-integrated TNFα functions as a receptor for TNFR1, enhances axon growth from developing sympathetic neurons and plays a crucial role in establishing sympathetic innervation. Here, we have investigated the link between TNFα reverse signalling and axon growth in cultured sympathetic neurons. TNFR1-activated TNFα reverse signalling promotes Ca2+ influx, and highly selective T-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors, but not pharmacological inhibitors of L-type, N-type and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, prevented enhanced axon growth. T-type Ca2+ channel-specific inhibitors eliminated Ca2+ spikes promoted by TNFα reverse signalling in axons and prevented enhanced axon growth when applied locally to axons, but not when applied to cell somata. Blocking action potential generation did not affect the effect of TNFα reverse signalling on axon growth, suggesting that propagated action potentials are not required for enhanced axon growth. TNFα reverse signalling enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and pharmacological inhibition of PKC prevented the axon growth response. These results suggest that TNFα reverse signalling promotes opening of T-type Ca2+ channels along sympathetic axons, which is required for enhanced axon growth. PMID:28100666

  15. Do you hear 'feather' when listening to 'rain'? Lexical tone activation during unconscious translation: Evidence from Mandarin-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Juan; Malins, Jeffrey G

    2017-12-01

    Although lexical tone is a highly prevalent phonetic cue in human languages, its role in bilingual spoken word recognition is not well understood. The present study investigates whether and how adult bilinguals, who use pitch contours to disambiguate lexical items in one language but not the other, access a tonal L1 when exclusively processing a non-tonal L2. Using the visual world paradigm, we show that Mandarin-English listeners automatically activated Mandarin translation equivalents of English target words such as 'rain' (Mandarin 'yu3'), and consequently were distracted by competitors whose segments and tones overlapped with the translations of English target words ('feather', also 'yu3' in Mandarin). Importantly, listeners were not distracted by competitors that overlapped with the translations of target words in all segments but not tone ('fish'; Mandarin 'yu2'), nor were they distracted by competitors that overlapped with the translations of target words in rime and tone ('wheat', Mandarin 'gu3'). These novel results demonstrate implicit access to L1 lexical representations through automatic/unconscious translation, as a result of cross-language top-down and/or lateral influence, and highlight the critical role of lexical tone activation in bilingual lexical access. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  17. Turbo-per-Tone Equalization for ADSL Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the equalization procedure in discrete multitone (DMT-based systems, in particular, in DMT-based ADSL systems. Traditionally, equalization is performed in the time domain by means of a channel shortening filter. Shifting the equalization operations to the frequency domain, as is done in per-tone equalization, increases the achieved bitrate by 5–10%. We show that the application of the turbo principle to per-tone equalization can provide significant additional gains. In the proposed receiver structure, referred to as a “turbo-per-tone equalization” structure, equalization and decoding are performed in an iterative fashion. Equalization is done by means of a linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE equalizer, using a priori information. We give a description of an efficient implementation of such an equalizer in the per-tone structure. Simulations show that we obtain a bitrate increase of 12–16% compared to the original per-tone equalization-based receiver structure.

  18. The Experiment of Tonal Elements' Pitch on Tones of Mandarin%普通话声调调素的音高实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯青青

    2015-01-01

    An experimental method is taken to research tonal elements' pitch on modern Chinese mono-syllable tone in this paper,obtaining register feature and arch feature of the tonal element. There are some experimental results. Standard Chinese tones contain three tonal elements,i.e.,high register tonal element H,middle register tonal element M, and low register tonal element L. Standard Chinese tones are represented with tonal elements as followsTone one HHH,Tone two MHH,Tone three LLM,Tone four HML. The tonal element has arch,and every tonal element is flat arch. Tonal arch grundmodus are made up of flat arch.%通过实验方法研究普通话单字调调素的音高,得出调素的音区特征和曲拱特征。实验发现:普通话声调包含三个调素,分别是高音区调素 H、中音区调素 M 和低音区调素 L,普通话四个声调用调素表示为阴平 HHH、阳平 MHH、上声 LLH、去声 HML。调素有曲拱,每个调素都是平拱,各声调的曲拱样态由平拱组合而成。

  19. HIF2A and IGF2 Expression Correlates in Human Neuroblastoma Cells and Normal Immature Sympathetic Neuroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Mohlin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During normal sympathetic nervous system (SNS development, cells of the ganglionic lineage can malignantly transform and develop into the childhood tumor neuroblastoma. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs mediate cellular responses during normal development and are central in the adaptation to oxygen shortage. HIFs are also implicated in the progression of several cancer forms, and high HIF-2α expression correlates with disseminated disease and poor outcome in neuroblastoma. During normal SNS development, HIF2A is transiently expressed in neuroblasts and chromaffin cells. SNS cells can, during development, be distinguished by distinct gene expression patterns, and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2 is a marker of sympathetic chromaffin cells, whereas sympathetic neuroblasts lack IGF2 expression. Despite the neuronal derivation of neuroblastomas, we show that neuroblastoma cell lines and specimens express IGF2 and that expression of HIF2A and IGF2 correlates, with the strongest correlation in high-stage tumors. In neuroblastoma, both IGF2 and HIF2A are hypoxia-driven and knocking down IGF2 at hypoxia resulted in downregulated HIF2A levels. HIF-2α and IGF2 were strongly expressed in subsets of immature neuroblastoma cells, suggesting that these two genes could be co-expressed also at early stages of SNS development. We show that IGF2 is indeed expressed in sympathetic chain ganglia at embryonic week 6.5, a developmental stage when HIF-2α is present. These findings provide a rationale for the unexpected IGF2 expression in neuroblastomas and might suggest that IGF2 and HIF2A positive neuroblastoma cells are arrested at an embryonic differentiation stage corresponding to the stage when sympathetic chain ganglia begins to coalesce.

  20. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  1. Ecofriendly ethanol-developable processes for electron beam lithography using positive-tone dextrin resist material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Sugino, Naoto; Hanabata, Makoto; Oshima, Akihiro; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2017-07-01

    From the viewpoints of the utilization of agricultural resources and advanced use of biomass, this study is aimed at expanding the resolution limits of ecofriendly ethanol-developable processes for electron-beam lithography using a positive-tone dextrin resist material with high hydrophilicity on a cellulose-based underlayer. The images of 20-nm-hole and 40-nm-line patterns with an exposure dose of approximately 1800 µC/cm2 were provided by ecofriendly ethanol-developable processes instead of the common development processes using tetramethylammonium hydroxide and organic solvents. The CF4 etching selectivity of the positive-tone dextrin resist material was approximately 10% lower than that of the polymethyl methacrylate used as a reference resist material.

  2. A comparison of sympathetic and conventional training methods on responses to initial horse training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Dierendonck, van M.; Ellis, A.D.; Rijksen, C.; Reenen, van C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In `sympathetic horsemanship¿ the importance of the natural behaviour of the horse and the use of body language in communication is emphasised. However, it is unclear what effect sympathetic horsemanship has on the welfare of horses. During a 5-week starting period the effect of a sympathetic (ST) v

  3. Effect of sympathetic nerve block on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Rung, G W; Kehlet, H

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerve blocks relieve pain in certain chronic pain states, but the role of the sympathetic pathways in acute pain is unclear. Thus the authors wanted to determine whether a sympathetic block could reduce acute pain and hyperalgesia after a heat injury in healthy volunteers....

  4. On the origin of impinging tones at low supersonic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wilke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Impinging compressible jets may cause deafness and material fatigue due to immensely loud tonal noise. It is generally accepted that a feedback mechanism similar to the screech feedback loop is responsible for impinging tones. The close of the loop remained unclear. One hypothesis hold up in the literature explains the emanated sound with the direct interaction of vortices and the wall. Other explanations name the standoff shock oscillations as the origin of the tones. Using direct numerical simulations (DNS) we were able to identify the source mechanism for under-expanded impinging jets with a nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 2.15 and a plate distance of 5 diameters. We found two different types of interactions between vortices and shocks to be responsible for the generation of the impinging tones. They are not related to screech.

  5. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones...... for the individual pitch-discrimination abilities, the musically trained listeners still allocated lower processing effort than did the non-musicians to perform the task at the same performance level. This finding suggests an enhanced pitch representation along the auditory system in musicians, possibly as a result......Understanding how the human auditory system processes the physical properties of an acoustical stimulus to give rise to a pitch percept is a fascinating aspect of hearing research. Since most natural sounds are harmonic complex tones, this work focused on the nature of pitch-relevant cues...

  6. Musical Tone Law Method for the Structural Damage Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage detection tests of inclined cables, steel pipes, spherical shells, and an actual cable-stayed bridge were conducted based on the proposed musical tone law method. The results show that the musical tone law method could be used in the damage detection of isotropic material structures with simple shape, like cables, pipes, plates, and shells. Having distinct spectral lines like a comb with a certain interval distribution rule is the main characteristic of the music tone law. Damage detection baseline could be established by quantizing the fitting relationship between modal orders and the corresponding frequency values. The main advantage of this method is that it could be used in the structural damage detection without vibration information of an intact structure as a reference.

  7. Lin28B and Let-7 in the Control of Sympathetic Neurogenesis and Neuroblastoma Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennchen, Melanie; Stubbusch, Jutta; Abarchan-El Makhfi, Ikram; Kramer, Marco; Deller, Thomas; Pierre-Eugene, Cécile; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Delattre, Olivier; Ernsberger, Uwe; Schulte, Johannes B; Rohrer, Hermann

    2015-12-16

    The RNA binding protein Lin28B is expressed in developing tissues and sustains stem and progenitor cell identity as a negative regulator of the Let-7 family of microRNAs, which induces differentiation. Lin28B is activated in neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood tumor in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla. Forced expression of Lin28B in embryonic mouse sympathoadrenal neuroblasts elicits postnatal NB formation. However, the normal function of Lin28B in the development of sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells and the mechanisms involved in Lin28B-induced tumor formation are unclear. Here, we demonstrate a mirror-image expression of Lin28B and Let-7a in developing chick sympathetic ganglia. Lin28B expression is not restricted to undifferentiated progenitor cells but, is observed in proliferating noradrenergic neuroblasts. Lin28 knockdown in cultured sympathetic neuroblasts decreases proliferation, whereas Let-7 inhibition increases the proportion of neuroblasts in the cell cycle. Lin28B overexpression enhances proliferation, but only during a short developmental period, and it does not reduce Let-7a. Effects of in vivo Lin28B overexpression were analyzed in the LSL-Lin28B(DBHiCre) mouse line. Sympathetic ganglion and adrenal medulla volume and the expression level of Let-7a were not altered, although Lin28B expression increased by 12- to 17-fold. In contrast, Let-7a expression was strongly reduced in LSL-Lin28B(DbhiCre) NB tumor tissue. These data demonstrate essential functions for endogenous Lin28 and Let-7 in neuroblast proliferation. However, Lin28B overexpression neither sustains neuroblast proliferation nor affects let-7 expression. Thus, in contrast to other pediatric tumors, Lin28B-induced NB is not due to expansion of proliferating embryonic neuroblasts, and Let-7-independent functions are implicated during initial NB development. Lin28A/B proteins are highly expressed in early development and maintain progenitor cells by blocking the biogenesis and

  8. Orofacial muscular activity and related skin movement during the preparatory and sustained phases of tone production on the French horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takeshi; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated activity of the embouchure-related orofacial muscles during pre- and postattack phases of sound production by 10 trained French-horn players. Surface electromyogram (EMG) from five selected facial muscles, and related facial skin kinematics were examined in relation to pitch and intensity of a tone produced. No difference in EMGs and facial kinematics between the two phases was found, indicating importance of appropriate formation of preattack embouchure. EMGs in all muscles during the postattack phase increased linearly with an increase in pitch, and they also increased with tone intensity without interacting with the pitch effect. Orofacial skin movement remained constant across all pitches and intensities except for lateral retraction of the lips during high-pitch tone production. Contraction of the orofacial muscles is fundamentally isometric by which tension on the lips and the cheeks is regulated for flexible sound parameter control.

  9. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Mandarin Lexical Tone Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan H; Shafer, Valerie L; Sussman, Elyse S

    2017-01-01

    Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs. These ISI differences were used to test whether cross-linguistic differences in processing Mandarin lexical tone are a function of differences in acoustic resolution and/or differences in long-term memory representations. Bisyllabic nonword tokens that differed in lexical tone categories were presented using a passive listening multiple oddball paradigm. Behavioral discrimination and identification data were also collected. The ERP results revealed robust MMNs to both easy and difficult lexical tone differences for both groups at short ISIs. At long ISIs, there was either no change or an enhanced MMN amplitude for the Mandarin group, but reduced MMN amplitude for the English group. In addition, the Mandarin listeners showed a larger late negativity (LN) discriminative response than the English listeners for lexical tone contrasts in the long ISI condition. Mandarin speakers outperformed English speakers in the behavioral tasks, especially under the long ISI conditions with the more similar lexical tone pair. These results suggest that the acoustic correlates of lexical tone are fairly robust and easily discriminated at short ISIs, when the auditory sensory memory trace is strong. At longer ISIs beyond 2.5 s language-specific experience is necessary for robust discrimination.

  10. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Mandarin Lexical Tone Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan H.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2017-01-01

    Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs. These ISI differences were used to test whether cross-linguistic differences in processing Mandarin lexical tone are a function of differences in acoustic resolution and/or differences in long-term memory representations. Bisyllabic nonword tokens that differed in lexical tone categories were presented using a passive listening multiple oddball paradigm. Behavioral discrimination and identification data were also collected. The ERP results revealed robust MMNs to both easy and difficult lexical tone differences for both groups at short ISIs. At long ISIs, there was either no change or an enhanced MMN amplitude for the Mandarin group, but reduced MMN amplitude for the English group. In addition, the Mandarin listeners showed a larger late negativity (LN) discriminative response than the English listeners for lexical tone contrasts in the long ISI condition. Mandarin speakers outperformed English speakers in the behavioral tasks, especially under the long ISI conditions with the more similar lexical tone pair. These results suggest that the acoustic correlates of lexical tone are fairly robust and easily discriminated at short ISIs, when the auditory sensory memory trace is strong. At longer ISIs beyond 2.5 s language-specific experience is necessary for robust discrimination. PMID:28321179

  11. Morphine-sensitive paroxysmal sympathetic storm in pontine intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sang-Bae; Kim, Chi Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Bae, Hee-Joon; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2010-11-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic storm (PSS) is a rare complication of severe traumatic brain injury or cerebrovascular disease. Various medications have been tried in patients with PSS, but the clinical responses of the patients were variable. We report a classic case of PSS after spontaneous pontine hemorrhage in which the patient's fluctuating blood pressure and body temperature were dramatically stabilized using morphine.

  12. Cardiac sympathetic nerve terminal function in congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-seng LIANG

    2007-01-01

    Increased cardiac release of norepinephrine (NE) and depleted cardiac stores of NE are two salient features of the human failing heart. Researches from my labo-ratory have shown that these changes are accompanied by a functional defect of NE uptake in the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals. Our studies have shown that the decrease of NE uptake is caused by reduction of NE transporter density in the sympathetic nerve endings, and this change is responsible, at least in part, for the increased myocardial interstitial NE, decreased myocardial adrenoceptor density, and increased myocyte apoptosis in experimental cardiomyopathies. We have also provided evidence in both intact animals and cultured PC12 cells that the decrease of NE transporter is induced by the actions of oxidative metabolites of exogenous NE, involving endoplasmic reticulum stress and impaired N-glycosylation of the NE transporter. This change in the cardiac sympathetic NE uptake function, as demonstrated by [123I] metaiodobenzylguanidine in human studies, may not only serve as an important prognostic variable in patients with congestive heart failure, but also be used as a surrogate for the efficacies of various therapeutic interventions for heart failure. Finally, increasing evidence suggests and further studies are needed to show that the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminal function may be a direct target for pharmacologic treatment of congestive heart failure.

  13. Prolonged Paroxysmal Sympathetic Storming Associated with Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli.

  14. Sympathetic neuroaxonal dystrophy in the aged rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Parvin, Curtis A; Beaudet, Lucie N

    2006-10-01

    Dysfunction of circadian melatonin production by the pineal gland in aged humans and rats is thought to reflect the functional loss of its sympathetic innervation. Our ultrastructural neuropathologic studies of the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland of aged (24 months old) Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats showed loss of nerve terminals as well as the development of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), an ultrastructurally distinctive distal axonopathy, far in excess of that in young control rats. Immunolocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase confirmed the age-related loss of normal noradrenergic innervation and development of NAD. NAD was more frequent in aged female rats compared to males and was particularly severe in aged female Sprague-Dawley rats compared to Fischer-344 rats. Pineal NGF content was significantly increased or unchanged in female and male aged Fischer-344 rats, respectively, compared to young controls. The rat pineal is a sensitive experimental model for the quantitative ultrastructural examination of age-related neuropathological changes in nerve terminals of postganglionic noradrenergic sympathetic axons, changes which may reflect similar changes in the diffusely distributed sympathetic innervation of other targeted endorgans.

  15. Sympathetically evoked Ca2+ signaling in arterial smooth muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-jin ZANG; Joseph ZACHARIA; Christine LAMONT; Withrow Gil WIER

    2006-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system plays an essential role in the control of total peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow, by controlling the contraction of small arteries. Perivascular sympathetic nerves release ATP, norepinephrine (NE) and neuropeptide Y. This review summarizes our knowledge of the intracellular Ca2+ signals that are activated by ATP and NE, acting respectively on P2X1 and α1 adrenoceptors in arterial smooth muscle. Each neurotransmitter produces a unique type of post-synaptic Ca2+ signal and associated contraction. The neural release of ATP and NE is thought to vary markedly with the pattern of nerve activity, probably reflecting both pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms. Finally, we show that Ca2+ signaling during neurogenic contractions activated by trains of sympathetic nerve fiber action potentials are in fact significantly different from that elicited by simple bath application of exogenous neurotransmitters to isolated arteries (a common experimental technique), and end by identifying important questions remaining in our understanding of sympathetic neurotransmission and the physiological regulation of contraction of small arteries.

  16. Sympathetic Nerves in Breast Cancer: Angiogenesis and Antiangiogenic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    decreased TH synthesis or an accelerated rate of NE uptake into sympathetic nerve terminals (6). To confirm that NE in the synapse is increased with DMI...21. Dimitrijevic M, Pilipovic I, Stanojevic S, Mitic K, Radojevic K, Pesic V, et al. Chronic propranolol treatment affects expression of

  17. Menstrual cycle effects on sympathetic neural responses to upright tilt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Q.; Okazaki, K.; Shibata, S.; Shook, R.P.; Gunday, T.B. van; Galbreath, M.M.; Reelick, M.F; Levine, B.D.

    2009-01-01

    Young women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance than men, though the sex-specific pathophysiology remains unknown. As blood pressure (BP) is regulated through the baroreflex mechanism, we tested the hypothesis that baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during

  18. Causes and consequences of increased sympathetic activity in renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; Koomans, HA

    2004-01-01

    Much evidence indicates increased sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) in renal disease. Renal ischemia is probably a primary event leading to increased SNA. Increased SNA often occurs in association with hypertension. However, the deleterious effect of increased SNA on the diseased kidney is not only

  19. Implementation and preliminary evaluation of 'C-tone': A novel algorithm to improve lexical tone recognition in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Lichuan; Wang, Ningyuan; Tang, Guofang; Lu, Thomas; Yin, Li; Tu, Wenhe; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2017-09-01

    Because of limited spectral resolution, Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty perceiving fundamental frequency (F0) cues that are important to lexical tone recognition. To improve Mandarin tone recognition in CI users, we implemented and evaluated a novel real-time algorithm (C-tone) to enhance the amplitude contour, which is strongly correlated with the F0 contour. The C-tone algorithm was implemented in clinical processors and evaluated in eight users of the Nurotron NSP-60 CI system. Subjects were given 2 weeks of experience with C-tone. Recognition of Chinese tones, monosyllables, and disyllables in quiet was measured with and without the C-tone algorithm. Subjective quality ratings were also obtained for C-tone. After 2 weeks of experience with C-tone, there were small but significant improvements in recognition of lexical tones, monosyllables, and disyllables (P C-tone were greater for disyllables than for monosyllables. Subjective quality ratings showed no strong preference for or against C-tone, except for perception of own voice, where C-tone was preferred. The real-time C-tone algorithm provided small but significant improvements for speech performance in quiet with no change in sound quality. Pre-processing algorithms to reduce noise and better real-time F0 extraction would improve the benefits of C-tone in complex listening environments. Chinese CI users' speech recognition in quiet can be significantly improved by modifying the amplitude contour to better resemble the F0 contour.

  20. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie S.; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, ToneInk, a prototype of a music based play scenario that investigates player collaboration, is introduced. ToneInk is an explorative sound environment that differs from the majority of music based games in that players can collaborate and be creative in the way they express...... mutual awareness, and in general were more passive when they needed to monitor a screen interface that supported the sound environment. Player collaboration was strongest when players negotiated rhythm, while the negotiation of melody was temporally offset and consisted of long individual explorations....

  1. Partial cardiac sympathetic denervation after bilateral thoracic sympathectomy in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moak, Jeffrey P; Eldadah, Basil; Holmes, Courtney; Pechnik, Sandra; Goldstein, David S

    2005-06-01

    Upper thoracic sympathectomy is used to treat several disorders. Sympathetic nerve fibers emanating from thoracic ganglia innervate the heart. Whether unilateral or bilateral upper thoracic sympathectomy affects cardiac sympathetic innervation in humans in vivo has been unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess whether thoracic sympathectomy decreases cardiac sympathetic innervation, as indicated by positron emission tomographic scanning after intravenous injection of the sympathoneural imaging agent 6-[18F]fluorodopamine. Nine patients with previous upper thoracic sympathectomies (four right-sided, one left-sided, four bilateral) underwent thoracic 6-[18F]fluorodopamine scanning between 1 and 2 hours after injection of the imaging agent. In each case, a low rate of entry of norepinephrine into the arm venous drainage (norepinephrine spillover) verified upper limb sympathectomy. Data were compared with those from the interventricular septum of patients with cardiac sympathetic denervation associated with pure autonomic failure and from normal volunteers. All four patients with bilateral sympathectomy had low septal myocardial 6-[18F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity (2,673 +/- 92 nCi-kg/cc-mCi at an average of 89 minutes after injection) compared with normal volunteers (3,634 +/- 311 nCi-kg/cc-mCi at 83 minutes, N = 22, P = .007) and higher radioactivity than in patients with pure autonomic failure (1,320 +/- 300 nCi-kg/cc-mCi at 83 minutes, N = 7, P = .003). Patients with unilateral sympathectomy had normal 6-[18F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity (3,971 +/- 337 nCi-kg/cc-mCi at 87 minutes). Bilateral upper thoracic sympathectomy partly decreases cardiac sympathetic innervation density.

  2. Increased vascular sympathetic modulation in mice with Mas receptor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello Casali, Karina; Ravizzoni Dartora, Daniela; Moura, Marina; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Bader, Michael; Haibara, Andrea; Alenina, Natalia; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Santos, Robson A

    2016-01-01

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7)/Mas axis could modulate the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure variabilities (BPV) which are important predictors of cardiovascular risk and provide information about the autonomic modulation of the cardiovascular system. Therefore we investigated the effect of Mas deficiency on autonomic modulation in wild type and Mas-knockout (KO) mice. Blood pressure was recorded at high sample rate (4000 Hz). Stationary sequences of 200-250 beats were randomly chosen. Frequency domain analysis of HR and BPV was performed with an autoregressive algorithm on the pulse interval sequences and on respective systolic sequences. The KO group presented an increase of systolic arterial pressure (SAP; 127.26±11.20 vs 135.07±6.98 mmHg), BPV (3.54±1.54 vs 5.87±2.12 mmHg(2)), and low-frequency component of systolic BPV (0.12±0.11 vs 0.47±0.34 mmHg(2)). The deletion of Mas receptor is associated with an increase of SAP and with an increased BPV, indicating alterations in autonomic control. Increase of sympathetic vascular modulation in absence of Mas evidences the important role of Ang-(1-7)/Mas on cardiovascular regulation. Moreover, the absence of significant changes in HR and HRV can indicate an adaptation of autonomic cardiac balance. Our results suggest that the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis seems more important in autonomic modulation of arterial pressure than HR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Relationship between three phase bone scintigram and prognosis after sympathetic blockade in reflex sympathetic dystrophy of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokono, Atsuko; Yokono, Satoshi; Oguri, Kenji (Kagawa Medical School, Miki (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    The authors attempted to correlate the changes in three phase bone scintigram (TPBS) with prognosis after sympathetic blockade in reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) of the hand. Subjects were 12 patients of RSD in acute or dystrophic stage, who all had increased images on TPBS. Either intravenous regional sympathectomy with guanethidine or stellate ganglion block was performed repeatedly. We compared TPBS obtained just before and after this series of sympathetic blocks and evaluated the eventual recovery of function of the hand. In 8 patients, blood flow (phase 1) image of TPBS decreased after the blockade. Of these patients, those who showed almost normalized tracer activity not only on flow image but on blood pool (phase 2) and delayed (phase 3) image, returned to normal. But others with normalized blood flow and still increased activity in blood pool and delayed image, remained with mild contracture of the hand. These results suggest that normalization of blood pool and delayed image on TPBS is a predictor of subsequent recovery after sympathetic blockade in RSD. (author).

  4. 降调的种类%A Classification of Falling Tones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓农

    2012-01-01

    Although the falling tone is the commonest contour type in tone languages, its distinctive types have never been seriously studied before. This paper examines falling tone types in the Multi-Register and Four-Level tonal model with four parameters: register, length, pitch height and contour. First, a category of 'pure low tone' (PLT) is set up. It includes various contours sharing the same distinctive feature of [+low]: low falling, low level, low dipping, low rising, and creaky dipping. Then six Rg M falling tone types are identified: high falling, low falling, slight falling, short falling, delayed falling and depressed falling. Four of them also occur in Rg L: high falling with creaky voice, delayed falling with slack voice, depressed falling with slack voice, and low falling with slack voice. Five pairs of distinctive features are called for in classifying falling tones: [±RgM], [±straight], [±long], [±high] and [±slop]. There are at most three falling tones in a single register and up to four in two registers.%降调是声调系统中最为常见的拱形,可对它的区别性类型从未有过全面深入的研究。本文以调域、长度、高度、拱度四参数声调模型来考察降调类型。首先提出一个"纯低调"的调型概念,涵盖低降、低平、低凹、低升、嘎裂凹调等以[+low]为区别特征的拱形。然后辨认出六型出现在中域的降调拱形:高降、低降、微降、短降、高弯降和低凸降。其中四型还出现于低域:弛声高长凸降(弯降变体)、弛声低短凸降、弛声低降、嘎裂高降。用于区分降调的区别特征有五对:调域[±RgM],拱度[±直],长度[±长],高度[±高],再拱度[±斜]。单域中最多三个降调,双域中可有四个降调。

  5. Gaussian Pulse-Based Two-Threshold Parallel Scaling Tone Reservation for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Guan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone Reservation (TR is a technique proposed to combat the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR problem of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM signals. However conventional TR suffers from high computational cost due to the difficulties in finding an effective cancellation signal in the time domain by using only a few tones in the frequency domain. It also suffers from a high cost of hardware implementation and long handling time delay issues due to the need to conduct multiple iterations to cancel multiple high signal peaks. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach, called two-threshold parallel scaling, for implementing a previously proposed Gaussian pulse-based Tone Reservation algorithm. Compared to conventional approaches, this technique significantly reduces the hardware implementation complexity and cost, while also reducing signal processing time delay by using just two iterations. Experimental results show that the proposed technique can effectively reduce the PAPR of OFDM signals with only a very small number of reserved tones and with limited usage of hardware resources. This technique is suitable for any OFDM-based communication systems, especially for Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB systems employing large IFFT/FFT transforms.

  6. Increased Feeding Speed Is Associated with Higher Subsequent Sympathetic Activity in Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyo Ohtani

    Full Text Available Although the domestication process has altered the feeding behavior of dogs, some breeds still demonstrate a remarkable ability to gorge, and will eat exceptionally large quantities of food whenever it is available. Lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus increase appetite and lead to obesity, suggesting that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in feeding. Focusing on the autonomic activities closely involved in food intake, we investigated sympathetic activities before and after feeding in dogs. The subjects were 56 healthy dogs of 21 different breeds (29 males and 27 females. Based on feeding habits, the 56 dogs were divided into three groups: Fast (n = 19, Slow (n = 24 and Leftover (n = 13. The feeding speed and the amount of food per mouthful of the Fast dogs were significantly greater than those of the Slow and the Leftover dogs. The plasma norepinephrine level in dogs of the Fast group was significantly increased after feeding, while those in the Slow and Leftover groups were significantly decreased after feeding, compared with the pre-feeding concentrations. The low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability is a good indicator of sympathetic activity and was also significantly higher in the Fast group than in the other groups. Delayed feeding using automatic feeding equipment decreased the plasma norepinephrine concentration and low frequency/high frequency ratio observed after feeding in dogs of the Fast group. In conclusion, dogs eating rapidly with less chewing, which indicates increased sympathetic activity during feeding, may benefit from delayed feeding. The slow eating may activate the parasympathetic nervous system after feeding, which could enhance the activity of the digestive system.

  7. Representing morphological tone in a computational grammar of Hausa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthold Crysmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I shall discuss the representation of morphological tone in Hausa, as implemented in a computational grammar of the language, referred to as HaG, which has been developed within the framework of Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Based on an in-depth study of segmental and suprasegmental properties manipulated by morphological processes, I shall argue that two fundamental insights from Autosegmental Phonology needs to be seamlessly integrated into typed feature structure grammars of languages with grammatical tone, namely (i the systematic separation of tonal and metrical information from the string of consonants and vowels, and (ii the possibility of tonal spreading, i.e. the possibility for a tonal specification to be assigned to an arbitrary number of adjacent tone-bearing units (syllables. To this end, I present a formalisation of tonal melodies in terms of typed list constraints that implement a notion of tonal spreading, allowing for an underspecified description of tonal melodies, independent of the number of tone-bearing units. I shall finally show that this minimal encoding is sufficient and flexible enough to capture the range of suprasegmental phenomena in Hausa.

  8. The Role of Tone in Some Cushitic Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The morphological function of tone/accent is examined in a number of Cushitic languages, with the objective of determining whether any comparative statement can be made validly at the group level. Three languages, the Somali dialect cluster, Afar, and Oromo, are the basis for the study. Patterns in case, gender, and the jussive form are analyzed.…

  9. Consonance perception of complex-tone dyads and chords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marc; Santurette, Sébastien; MacDonald, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Sensory consonance and dissonance are perceptual attributes of musical intervals conveying pleasant- ness, tension, and harmony in musical phrases. For complex-tone dyads, corresponding to two musical notes played simultaneously, consonance is known to vary with the ratio in fundamental frequency...... for a potential role of frequency selectivity for consonance perception of dyads, might not hold for chords...

  10. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Tone Modal Structure Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation is part of a test series that was extremely comprehensive and included aerodynamic and acoustic testing of a fan stage using two different fan rotors and three different stator designs. The test series is known as the Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) and was conducted by NASA Glenn as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. Tone mode measurements of one of the rotors with three different stators were made. The stator designs involve changes in vane count and sweep at constant solidity. The results of both inlet and exhaust tone mode measurements are presented in terms of mode power for both circumferential and radial mode orders. The results show benefits of vane sweep to be large, up to 13 dB in total tone power. At many conditions, the increase in power due to cutting on the rotor/stator interaction is more than offset by vane sweep. The rotor locked mode is shown as an important contributor to tone power when the blade tip speed is near and above Mach one. This is most evident in the inlet when the direct rotor field starts to cut on.

  11. Context, Contrast, and Tone of Voice in Auditory Sarcasm Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative…

  12. STEM Tones Pre-Activate Suffixes in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle; Roll, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Results from the present event-related potentials (ERP) study show that tones on Swedish word stems can rapidly pre-activate upcoming suffixes, even when the word stem does not carry any lexical meaning. Results also show that listeners are able to rapidly restore suffixes which are replaced with a cough. Accuracy in restoring suffixes correlated…

  13. Perceptual Weights for Loudness Judgments of 6-Tone Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    of SPL or SL values was tested. Both tasks used two-interval forced-choice trials, with level “jitter” introduced by selecting the level of each tone from a normal distribution with specified mean level and standard deviation of 5 dB. Subjects were instructed to indicate which complex was louder......In a series of studies, 6 subjects with normal hearing (NH) and 3 with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of 6-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. In two tasks, tones were equated in level in dB SPL or in sensation level (SL) and a range....... In the “loudness” task there was no difference in mean level across the two intervals. In the “sample discrimination” task, the two complexes differed by an average of 5 dB. For both tasks, perceptual weights were derived by correlating the differences in level between matched-frequency tones in the complexes...

  14. Periodic Repolarisation Dynamics: A Natural Probe of the Ventricular Response to Sympathetic Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizas, Konstantinos D; Hamm, Wolfgang; Kääb, Stefan; Schmidt, Georg; Bauer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Periodic repolarisation dynamics (PRD) refers to low-frequency (≤0.1Hz) modulations of cardiac repolarisation instability. Spontaneous PRD can be assessed non-invasively from 3D high-resolution resting ECGs. Physiological and experimental studies have indicated that PRD correlates with efferent sympathetic nerve activity, which clusters in low-frequency bursts. PRD is increased by physiological provocations that lead to an enhancement of sympathetic activity, whereas it is suppressed by pharmacological β-blockade. Electrophysiological studies revealed that PRD occurs independently from heart rate variability. Increased PRD under resting conditions is a strong predictor of mortality in post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) patients, yielding independent prognostic value from left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), heart rate variability, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score and other established risk markers. The predictive value of PRD is particularly strong in post-MI patients with preserved LVEF (>35 %) in whom it identifies a new high-risk group of patients. The upcoming Implantable Cardiac Monitors in High-Risk Post-Infarction Patients with Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction and Moderately Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (SMART-MI) trial will test prophylactic strategies in high-risk post-MI patients with LVEF 36–50 % identified by PRD and deceleration capacity of heart rate (NCT02594488). PMID:27403291

  15. Association between left ventricular regional sympathetic denervation and mechanical dyssynchrony in phase analysis: a cardiac CZT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Genovesi, Dario; Giorgetti, Assuero; Kusch, Annette [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Liga, Riccardo [Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Marzullo, Paolo [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); CNR, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    To evaluate the relationships among myocardial sympathetic innervation, perfusion and mechanical synchronicity assessed with cardiac cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) scintigraphy. A group of 29 patients underwent an evaluation of myocardial perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin CZT scintigraphy and adrenergic innervation with {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) CZT scintigraphy. The summed rest score (SRS), motion score (SMS) and thickening score (STS), as well as the summed {sup 123}I-MIBG defect score (SS-MIBG), were determined. Regional tracer uptake for both {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 123}I-MIBG was also calculated. Finally, the presence of significant myocardial mechanical dyssynchrony was evaluated in phase analysis on gated CZT images and the region of latest mechanical activation identified. Significant mechanical dyssynchrony was present in 17 patients (59 %) and associated with higher SRS (P = 0.030), SMS (P < 0.001), STS (P = 0.003) and early SS-MIBG (P = 0.037) as well as greater impairments in left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.001) and end-diastolic volume (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis a higher end-diastolic volume remained the only predictor of mechanical dyssynchrony (P = 0.047). Interestingly, while in the whole population regional myocardial perfusion and adrenergic activity were strongly correlated (R = 0.68), in patients with mechanical dyssynchrony the region of latest mechanical activation was predicted only by greater impairment in regional {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake (P = 0.012) that overwhelmed the effect of depressed regional perfusion. Left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony is associated with greater depression in contractile function and greater impairments in regional myocardial perfusion and sympathetic activity. In patients with dyssynchrony, the region of latest mechanical activation is characterized by a significantly altered adrenergic tone. (orig.)

  16. Woodwind Tone Hole Acoustics and the Spectrum Transformation Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas Howard

    This report describes an investigation of woodwind musical instrument tone holes and their effect on the radiated spectrum, the total dissipation, the stability of oscillation, the psychoacoustical cues important in perception, and the tuning and response of the instrument. Varying tone hole proportions significantly affect the radiative and frictional damping near a single hole, the mutual interactions between holes, the onset of streaming and turbulence near the holes, and the perceived woodwind timbre. The interconnections between related fields are explored through a brief review of sound production in woodwinds plus more extensive reviews of room and psychological acoustics. A theoretical and experimental discussion of the spectrum transformation function from the mouthpiece into the room relates all these fields. Also, considered are differences between cylindrical and conical bore woodwinds, the systematic shifts in saxophone spectra produced by the beating of the reed, the coupling of many closely spaced tone holes to the room excitation, the role of the player, and the results pertaining to computer music synthesis. The complicated acoustical flow inside the main air column near a single tone hole has been examined using a Green function, integral equation approach. A variational formulation allows explicit calculation of the open and closed hole impedance parameters needed in the transmission line description of a woodwind, and experiments have verified the theory in detail. Major acoustical topics considered are listed below. The effective length t(,e) of an open hole, relevant for instrument design and modification, is calculated and measured in terms of the main bore diameter 2a, hole diameter 2b, and the height t of the hole chimney; the effect of a hanging pad is a semi-empirical correction on t(,e). When the fundamental plane-wave mode of the main air column oscillation is at a pressure node, both the open and closed hole series impedances are

  17. Sympathetic-leptin relationship in obesity: effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliot, Didier; Böhme, Philip; Zannad, Faiez; Ziegler, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    Obese patients have high plasma leptin concentrations that do not induce the expected responses on weight regulation, suggesting a leptin resistance in obesity. Elevated leptin levels are also thought to be related to a high sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. This effect could be preserved, lowered, or even abolished in obesity. We planned to investigate the possible association in a longitudinal study. Ninety-five normotensive healthy women, aged 40.4 +/- 11.4 years and body mass index of 33.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m(2), were studied. Baseline leptin, fat mass, and heart rate variability were measured and included in a 6-month longitudinal study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorption. Time domain heart rate variability, QT dynamicity, and spectral components on ambulatory electrocardiographs were analyzed. Dietary advice was given by a dietitian to the patient (maximum caloric reduction of 30%), and subjects were randomized in 3 treatment groups: sibutramine 10 mg, sibutramine 20 mg, or placebo. At baseline, low frequencies (LF) and the LF-high frequencies (HF) ratio, mainly related to the SNS, were negatively correlated to leptin concentration (r = -0.30, P = .002 and r = -0.36, P < .001) and to the leptin-fat mass ratio (r = -0.28, P = .004 and r = - 0.33, P = .0007), thus explaining 38% of the LF variance and 33% of the LF/HF variance. Diastolic blood pressure was also negatively correlated to leptin concentrations (-0.20, P = .04) and to the leptin-fat mass ratio (-0.22, P = .022). In contrast, no consistent correlations between leptin and the time domain components related to vagal activity were observed. At 6 months, after completion of the weight loss program, LF significantly decreased (-7.7% +/- 7.9%, P < .001), whereas HF was higher than the initial value (+20% +/- 5.2%). The leptin-fat mass ratio remained negatively correlated to the LF (r = -0.34, P = .030) and to LF/HF (r = -0.35, P = .021) values, explaining 21% of the LF

  18. SGLT1 protein expression in plasma membrane of acinar cells correlates with the sympathetic outflow to salivary glands in diabetic and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Silva, Robinson; Alves-Wagner, Ana B T; Burgi, Katia; Okamoto, Maristela M; Alves, Adilson S; Lima, Guilherme A; Freitas, Helayne S; Antunes, Vagner R; Machado, Ubiratan F

    2010-12-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is a feature in diabetes and hypertension. We hypothesized that sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) participates in salivary dysfunctions through a sympathetic- and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated pathway. In Wistar-Kyoto (WKY), diabetic WKY (WKY-D), spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and diabetic SHR (SHR-D) rats, PKA/SGLT1 proteins were analyzed in parotid and submandibular glands, and the sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to the glands was monitored. Basal SNA was threefold higher in SHR (P acinar cells were regulated in parallel to the SNA. Electrical stimulation of the sympathetic branch to salivary glands increased (∼30%, P acinar cells. Taken together, our results show highly coordinated regulation of sympathetic activity upon PKA activity and plasma membrane SGLT1 content in salivary glands. Furthermore, the present findings show that diabetic- and/or hypertensive-induced changes in the sympathetic activity correlate with changes in SGLT1 expression in basolateral membrane of acinar cells, which can participate in the salivary glands dysfunctions reported by patients with these pathologies.

  19. Development of a robust reverse tone pattern transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; Doyle, Gary; Resnick, Douglas J.; Ye, Zhengmao; LaBrake, Dwayne; Milligan, Brennan; Alokozai, Fred; Chen, Jerry

    2017-03-01

    Pattern transfer is critical to any lithographic technology, and plays a significant role in defining the critical features in a device layer. As both the memory and logic roadmaps continue to advance, greater importance is placed on the scheme used to do the etching. For many critical layers, a need has developed which requires a multilayer stack to be defined in order to perform the pattern transfer. There are many cases however, where this standard approach does not provide the best results in terms of critical dimension (CD) fidelity and CD uniformity. As an example, when defining a contact pattern, it may be advantageous to apply a bright field mask (in order to maximize the normalized inverse log slope (NILS)) over the more conventional dark field mask. The result of applying the bright field mask in combination with positive imaging resist is to define an array of pillar patterns, which then must be converted back to holes before etching the underlying dielectric material. There have been several publications on tone reversal that is introduced in the resist process itself, but often an etch transfer process is applied to reverse the pattern tone. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of a three layer reverse tone process (RTP) that is capable of reversing the tone of every printed feature type. The process utilizes a resist pattern, a hardmask layer and an additional protection layer. The three layer approach overcomes issues encountered when using a single masking layer. Successful tone reversal was demonstrated both on 300mm wafers and imprint masks, including the largest features in the pattern, with dimensions as great as 60 microns. Initial in-field CD uniformity is promising. CDs shifted by about 2.6nm and no change was observed in either LER or LWR. Follow-up work is required to statistically qualify in-field CDU and also understand both across wafer uniformity and feature linearity.

  20. Deep cerebellar nuclei play an important role in two-tone discrimination on delay eyeblink conditioning in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Toshiro; Endo, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN)-lesioned mice develop conditioned responses (CR) on delay eyeblink conditioning when a salient tone conditioned stimulus (CS) is used, which suggests that the cerebellum potentially plays a role in more complicated cognitive functions. In the present study, we examined the role of DCN in tone frequency discrimination in the delay eyeblink-conditioning paradigm. In the first experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to standard simple eyeblink conditioning under low-frequency tone CS (LCS: 1 kHz, 80 dB) or high-frequency tone CS (HCS: 10 kHz, 70 dB) conditions. DCN-lesioned mice developed CR in both CS conditions as well as sham-operated mice. In the second experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to two-tone discrimination tasks, with LCS+ (or HCS+) paired with unconditioned stimulus (US), and HCS- (or LCS-) without US. CR% in sham-operated mice increased in LCS+ (or HCS+) trials, regardless of tone frequency of CS, but not in HCS- (or LCS-) trials. The results indicate that sham-operated mice can discriminate between LCS+ and HCS- (or HCS+ and LCS-). In contrast, DCN-lesioned mice showed high CR% in not only LCS+ (or HCS+) trials but also HCS- (or LCS-) trials. The results indicate that DCN lesions impair the discrimination between tone frequency in eyeblink conditioning. Our results suggest that the cerebellum plays a pivotal role in the discrimination of tone frequency.

  1. Deep cerebellar nuclei play an important role in two-tone discrimination on delay eyeblink conditioning in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN-lesioned mice develop conditioned responses (CR on delay eyeblink conditioning when a salient tone conditioned stimulus (CS is used, which suggests that the cerebellum potentially plays a role in more complicated cognitive functions. In the present study, we examined the role of DCN in tone frequency discrimination in the delay eyeblink-conditioning paradigm. In the first experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to standard simple eyeblink conditioning under low-frequency tone CS (LCS: 1 kHz, 80 dB or high-frequency tone CS (HCS: 10 kHz, 70 dB conditions. DCN-lesioned mice developed CR in both CS conditions as well as sham-operated mice. In the second experiment, DCN-lesioned and sham-operated mice were subjected to two-tone discrimination tasks, with LCS+ (or HCS+ paired with unconditioned stimulus (US, and HCS- (or LCS- without US. CR% in sham-operated mice increased in LCS+ (or HCS+ trials, regardless of tone frequency of CS, but not in HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that sham-operated mice can discriminate between LCS+ and HCS- (or HCS+ and LCS-. In contrast, DCN-lesioned mice showed high CR% in not only LCS+ (or HCS+ trials but also HCS- (or LCS- trials. The results indicate that DCN lesions impair the discrimination between tone frequency in eyeblink conditioning. Our results suggest that the cerebellum plays a pivotal role in the discrimination of tone frequency.

  2. Implicit target substitution and sequencing for lexical tone production in Chinese: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Chuan; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Kuo, Wen-Jui

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the neural substrates underlying Tone 3 sandhi and tone sequencing in Mandarin Chinese using fMRI. Tone 3 sandhi is traditionally described as the substitution of Tone 3 with Tone 2 when followed by another Tone 3 (i.e., 33→23). According to current speech production models, target substitution is expected to engage the posterior inferior frontal gyrus. Since Tone 3 sandhi is, to some extent, independent of segments, which makes it more similar to singing, right-lateralized activation in this region was predicted. As for tone sequencing, based on studies in sequencing, we expected the involvement of the supplementary motor area. In the experiments, participants were asked to produce twelve four-syllable sequences with the same tone assignment (the repeated sequences) or a different tone assignment (the mixed sequences). We found right-lateralized posterior inferior frontal gyrus activation for the sequence 3333 (Tone 3 sandhi) and left-lateralized activation in the supplementary motor area for the mixed sequences (tone sequencing). We proposed that tones and segments could be processed in parallel in the left and right hemispheres, but their integration, or the product of their integration, is hosted in the left hemisphere.

  3. Implicit target substitution and sequencing for lexical tone production in Chinese: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chuan Chang

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the neural substrates underlying Tone 3 sandhi and tone sequencing in Mandarin Chinese using fMRI. Tone 3 sandhi is traditionally described as the substitution of Tone 3 with Tone 2 when followed by another Tone 3 (i.e., 33→23. According to current speech production models, target substitution is expected to engage the posterior inferior frontal gyrus. Since Tone 3 sandhi is, to some extent, independent of segments, which makes it more similar to singing, right-lateralized activation in this region was predicted. As for tone sequencing, based on studies in sequencing, we expected the involvement of the supplementary motor area. In the experiments, participants were asked to produce twelve four-syllable sequences with the same tone assignment (the repeated sequences or a different tone assignment (the mixed sequences. We found right-lateralized posterior inferior frontal gyrus activation for the sequence 3333 (Tone 3 sandhi and left-lateralized activation in the supplementary motor area for the mixed sequences (tone sequencing. We proposed that tones and segments could be processed in parallel in the left and right hemispheres, but their integration, or the product of their integration, is hosted in the left hemisphere.

  4. Perceptual evidence for protracted development in monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tone production in preschool children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan

    2013-01-01

    This study used the same methodology in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to examine the perceived accuracy of monosyllabic Mandarin tones produced by 4- and 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and combined the findings with those of 3-year-olds reported in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to track the development of monosyllabic tone production in preschool children. Tone productions of adults and children were collected in a picture naming task and low-pass filtered to remove lexical information and reserve tone information. Five native-speakers categorized the target tones in the filtered productions. Children's tone accuracy was compared to adults' to determine mastery and developmental changes. The results showed that preschool children in Taiwan have not fully mastered the production of monosyllabic Mandarin tones. None of the tones produced by the children in the three age groups reached adult-like accuracy. Little developmental change was found in children's tone accuracy during the preschool years. A similar order of accuracy of the tones was observed across the three age groups and the order appeared to follow the order of articulatory complexity in producing the tones. The findings suggest a protracted course of development in children's acquisition of Mandarin tones and that tone development may be constrained by physiological factors.

  5. Lexical tone and stuttering loci in Mandarin: evidence from preschool children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Chi; Zebrowski, Patricia; Yang, Shu-Lan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M = 4:9; range = 3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.

  6. Development of nNOS-positive neurons in the rat sensory and sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliukov, P M; Emanuilov, A I; Madalieva, L V; Moiseev, K Y; Bulibin, A V; Korzina, M B; Porseva, V V; Korobkin, A A; Smirnova, V P

    2014-01-03

    Neurochemical features in sympathetic and afferent neurons are subject to change during development. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a developmental role in the nervous system. To better understand the neuroplasticity of sympathetic and afferent neurons during postnatal ontogenesis, the distribution of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was studied in the sympathetic para- and prevertebral, nodose ganglion (NG) and Th2 and L4 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from female Wistar rats of different ages (newborn, 10-day-old, 20-day-old, 30-day-old, 2-month-old, 6-month-old, 1-year-old, and 3-year-old). nNOS-positive neurons were revealed in all sensory ganglia but not in sympathetic ones from birth onward. The percentage of nNOS-immunoreactive (IR) neurons increased during first 10 days of life from 41.3 to 57.6 in Th2 DRG, from 40.9 to 59.1 in L4 DRG and from 31.6 to 38.5 in NG. The percentage of nNOS-IR neurons did not change in the NG later during development and senescence. However, in Th2 and L4 DRG the proportion of nNOS-IR neurons was high in animals between 10 and 30days of life and decreased up to the second month of life. In 2-month-old rats, the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons was 52.9 in Th2 DRG and 51.3 in L4 DRG. We did not find statistically significant differences in the percentage of nNOS-IR neurons between Th2 and L4 DRG and between young and aged rats. In NG and DRG of 10-day-old and older rats, a high proportion of nNOS-IR neurons binds isolectin B4. In newborn animals, only 41.3%, 45.3% and 28.4% of nNOS neuron profiles bind to IB4 in Th2, L4 DRG and NG, respectively. In 10-day-old and older rats, the number of sensory nNOS-IR neurons binding IB4 reached more than 90% in DRG and more than 80% in NG. Only a small number of nNOS-positive cells showed immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide, neurofilament 200, calretinin. The information provided here will also serve as a basis for future studies investigating mechanisms of the development of

  7. Polysialic Acid Regulates Sympathetic Outflow by Facilitating Information Transfer within the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokiniec, Phillip; Shahbazian, Shila; McDougall, Stuart J; Berning, Britt A; Cheng, Delfine; Llewellyn-Smith, Ida J; Burke, Peter G R; McMullan, Simon; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Hildebrandt, Herbert; Braet, Filip; Connor, Mark; Packer, Nicolle H; Goodchild, Ann K

    2017-07-05

    Expression of the large extracellular glycan, polysialic acid (polySia), is restricted in the adult, to brain regions exhibiting high levels of plasticity or remodeling, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The NTS, located in the dorsal brainstem, receives constant viscerosensory afferent traffic as well as input from central regions controlling sympathetic nerve activity, respiration, gastrointestinal functions, hormonal release, and behavior. Our aims were to determine the ultrastructural location of polySia in the NTS and the functional effects of enzymatic removal of polySia, both in vitro and in vivo polySia immunoreactivity was found throughout the adult rat NTS. Electron microscopy demonstrated polySia at sites that influence neurotransmission: the extracellular space, fine astrocytic processes, and neuronal terminals. Removing polySia from the NTS had functional consequences. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings revealed altered intrinsic membrane properties, enhancing voltage-gated K(+) currents and increasing intracellular Ca(2+) Viscerosensory afferent processing was also disrupted, dampening low-frequency excitatory input and potentiating high-frequency sustained currents at second-order neurons. Removal of polySia in the NTS of anesthetized rats increased sympathetic nerve activity, whereas functionally related enzymes that do not alter polySia expression had little effect. These data indicate that polySia is required for the normal transmission of information through the NTS and that changes in its expression alter sympathetic outflow. polySia is abundant in multiple but discrete brain regions, including sensory nuclei, in both the adult rat and human, where it may regulate neuronal function by mechanisms identified here.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT All cells are coated in glycans (sugars) existing predominantly as glycolipids, proteoglycans, or glycoproteins formed by the most complex form of

  8. Manifestation of peripherial coding in the effect of increasing loudness and enhanced discrimination of the intensity of tone bursts before and after tone burst noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimskaya-Korsavkova, L. K.

    2017-07-01

    To find the possible reasons for the midlevel elevation of the Weber fraction in intensity discrimination of a tone burst, a comparison was performed for the complementary distributions of spike activity of an ensemble of space nerves, such as the distribution of time instants when spikes occur, the distribution of interspike intervals, and the autocorrelation function. The distribution properties were detected in a poststimulus histogram, an interspike interval histogram, and an autocorrelation histogram—all obtained from the reaction of an ensemble of model space nerves in response to an auditory noise burst-useful tone burst complex. Two configurations were used: in the first, the peak amplitude of the tone burst was varied and the noise amplitude was fixed; in the other, the tone burst amplitude was fixed and the noise amplitude was varied. Noise could precede or follow the tone burst. The noise and tone burst durations, as well as the interval between them, was 4 kHz and corresponded to the characteristic frequencies of the model space nerves. The profiles of all the mentioned histograms had two maxima. The values and the positions of the maxima in the poststimulus histogram corresponded to the amplitudes and mutual time position of the noise and the tone burst. The maximum that occurred in response to the tone burst action could be a basis for the formation of the loudness of the latter (explicit loudness). However, the positions of the maxima in the other two histograms did not depend on the positions of tone bursts and noise in the combinations. The first maximum fell in short intervals and united intervals corresponding to the noise and tone burst durations. The second maximum fell in intervals corresponding to a tone burst delay with respect to noise, and its value was proportional to the noise amplitude or tone burst amplitude that was smaller in the complex. An increase in tone burst or noise amplitudes was caused by nonlinear variations in the two

  9. Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5 promotes dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Dennis

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BMP-5 is expressed in the nervous system throughout development and into adulthood. However its effects on neural tissues are not well defined. BMP-5 is a member of the 60A subgroup of BMPs, other members of which have been shown to stimulate dendritic growth in central and peripheral neurons. We therefore examined the possibility that BMP-5 similarly enhances dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons. Results Sympathetic neurons cultured in the absence of serum or glial cells do not form dendrites; however, addition of BMP-5 causes these neurons to extend multiple dendritic processes, which is preceded by an increase in phosphorylation of the Smad-1 transcription factor. The dendrite-promoting activity of BMP-5 is significantly inhibited by the BMP antagonists noggin and follistatin and by a BMPR-IA-Fc chimeric protein. RT-PCR and immunocytochemical analyses indicate that BMP-5 mRNA and protein are expressed in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG during times of initial growth and rapid expansion of the dendritic arbor. Conclusions These data suggest a role for BMP-5 in regulating dendritic growth in sympathetic neurons. The signaling pathway that mediates the dendrite-promoting activity of BMP-5 may involve binding to BMPR-IA and activation of Smad-1, and relative levels of BMP antagonists such as noggin and follistatin may modulate BMP-5 signaling. Since BMP-5 is expressed at relatively high levels not only in the developing but also the adult nervous system, these findings suggest the possibility that BMP-5 regulates dendritic morphology not only in the developing, but also the adult nervous system.

  10. Jaw-thrust induces sympathetic responses during induction of general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Bum Soo; Jee, Dae-Lim

    2013-08-01

    Jaw-thrust is a noxious stimulus that might induce sympathetic responses. The purpose of this study, was to evaluate the effects of jaw-thrust on sympathetic responses. We investigated seventy three patients. Patients who received general anesthesia were randomly divided into a control group (maintenance of combined airway maneuver with head tilt, open mouth by mouthpiece, and chin-lift, n = 30) and jaw-thrust group (maintenance of head tilt, open mouth and jaw-thrust, n = 30). In the jaw-thrust group, four minutes of endoscopy-guided force to the mandible to get the best laryngeal view were applied. For the control group, the combined airway maneuver was maintained during the same period. Arterial blood pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at predetermined time points (1 min before anesthesia induction, 2 min after fiberoptic bronchoscopy placement, and thereafter 1 min-interval during each airway maneuver) during jaw-thrust and chin-lift maneuver. The force amplitude applied for best laryngeal view during jaw-thrust was also measured. Peak systolic and diastolic AP increased 39.0 ± 17.6 and 39.9 ± 22.8 mmHg from the baseline (P thrust group. HR was also 32.5 ± 19.4 beats/min from the baseline (P thrust group. These remained high at all time points, compared with the control group (P thrust was not correlated to the AP and HR changes (P > 0.05). Performing the jaw-thrust maneuver induces significant sympathetic responses, irrespective of the force magnitude.

  11. Does Singing a Low-Pitch Tone Make You Look Angrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Bach, Christian; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have shown that auditory and visual information influence each other, the link between some intermodal associations are less clear. We here replicate and extend an earlier experiment with ratings of pictures of people singing high and low-pitched tones. To this aim, we video...... recorded 19 participants singing high and low pitches and combined these into picture pairs. In a two-alternative forced choice test, two groups of six assessors were then asked to view the 19 picture pairs and select the "friendlier", and "angrier" expression respectively. The result is that assessors...

  12. Effects of production training and perception training on lexical tone perception--A behavioral and ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuang; Wayland, Ratree; Kaan, Edith

    2015-10-22

    The present study recorded both behavioral data and event-related brain potentials to examine the effectiveness of a perception-only training and a perception-plus-production training procedure on the intentional and unintentional perception of lexical tone by native English listeners. In the behavioral task, both the perception-only and the perception-plus-production groups improved on the tone discrimination abilities after the training session. Moreover, the participants in both groups generalized the improvements gained through the trained stimuli to the untrained stimuli. In the ERP task, the Mismatch Negativity was smaller in the post-training task than in the pre-training task. However, the two training groups did not differ in tone processing at the intentional or unintentional level after training. These results suggest that the employment of the motor system does not specifically benefit the tone perceptual skills. Furthermore, the present study investigated whether some tone pairs are more easily confused than others by native English listeners, and whether the order of tone presentation influences non-native tone discrimination. In the behavioral task, Tone2-Tone1 (rising-level) and Tone2-Tone4 (rising-falling) were the most difficult tone pairs, while Tone1-Tone2 and Tone4-Tone2 were the easiest tone pairs, even though they involved the same tone contrasts respectively. In the ERP task, the native English listeners had good discrimination when Tone2 and Tone4 were embedded in strings of Tone1, while poor discrimination when Tone1 was inserted in the context of Tone2 or Tone4. These asymmetries in tone perception might be attributed to the interference of native intonation system and can be altered by training.

  13. Regulation of the renal sympathetic nerves in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit eRamchandra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a serious debilitating condition with poor survival rates and an increasing level of prevalence. Heart failure is associated with an increase in renal norepinephrine spillover, which is an independent predictor of mortality in HF patients. The excessive sympatho-excitation that is a hallmark of heart failure has long-term effects that contribute to disease progression. An increase in directly recorded renal sympathetic nerve activity has also been recorded in animal models of heart failure. This review will focus on the mechanisms controlling sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney during normal conditions and alterations in these mechanisms during heart failure. In particular the roles of afferent reflexes and central mechanisms will be discussed.

  14. Orexin-A controls sympathetic activity and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Giovanni; Dalia, Carmine; Tafuri, Domenico; Monda, Vincenzo; Palmieri, Filomena; Dato, Amelia; Russo, Angelo; De Blasio, Saverio; Messina, Antonietta; De Luca, Vincenzo; Chieffi, Sergio; Monda, Marcellino

    2014-01-01

    It is extremely important for the health to understand the regulatory mechanisms of energy expenditure. These regulatory mechanisms play a central role in the pathogenesis of body weight alteration. The hypothalamus integrates nutritional information derived from all peripheral organs. This region of the brain controls hormonal secretions and neural pathways of the brainstem. Orexin-A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness rhythm, and neuroendocrine homeostasis. This neuropeptide is involved in the control of the sympathetic activation, blood pressure, metabolic status, and blood glucose level. This minireview focuses on relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and orexin-A in the control of eating behavior and energy expenditure. The "thermoregulatory hypothesis" of food intake is analyzed, underlining the role played by orexin-A in the control of food intake related to body temperature. Furthermore, the paradoxical eating behavior induced orexin-A is illustrated in this minireview.

  15. Orexin-A controls sympathetic activity and eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eMessina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important for the health to understand the regulatory mechanisms of energy expenditure. These regulatory mechanisms play a central role in the pathogenesis of body weight alteration. The hypothalamus integrates nutritional information derived from all peripheral organs. This region of the brain controls hormonal secretions and neural pathways of the brainstem. Orexin-A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness rhythm, and neuroendocrine homeostasis. This neuropeptide is involved in the control of the sympathetic activation, blood pressure, metabolic status, and blood glucose level. This minireview focuses on relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and orexin-A in the control of eating behavior and energy expenditure. The thermoregulatory hypothesis of food intake is analyzed, underlining the role played by orexin-A in the control of food intake related to body temperature. Furthermore, the paradoxical eating behavior induced orexin-A is illustrated in this minireview.

  16. "Mirror, mirror...." a preliminary investigation of skin tone dissatisfaction and its impact among British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Henry, Amy; Peacock, Nicola; Roberts-Dunn, Ahkin; Porter, Alan

    2013-10-01

    This study examined skin tone dissatisfaction, measured using a skin tone chart, among a multiethnic sample of British adults. A total of 648 British White individuals, 292 British South Asians, and 260 British African Caribbean participants completed a visual task in which they were asked to indicate their actual and ideal skin tones. They also completed measures of body appreciation, self-esteem, and ethnic identity attachment. Results showed that Asians had a lighter skin tone ideal than White and African Caribbean participants. Conversely, White participants had higher skin tone dissatisfaction (preferring a darker skin tone) than Asian and African Caribbean participants, who preferred a lighter skin tone. Results also showed that skin tone dissatisfaction predicted body appreciation once the effects of participant ethnicity, age, ethnic identity attachment, and self-esteem had been accounted for. Implications of our findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  17. A Rare Tumor in the Cervical Sympathetic Trunk: Ganglioneuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan Erol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganglioneuroblastoma is a rare tumor with moderate malignancy, which is composed of mature ganglion cells and seen in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla. The diagnosis is possible after cytological and immunohistochemical studies following a needle biopsy or surgical excision. There is no consensus regarding the need for chemo- or radiotherapy after surgery. In this case report, clinical behavior and diagnosis and treatment of the rare tumor cervical ganglioneuroblastoma were discussed.

  18. Effects of leptin on sympathetic nerve activity in conscious mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Donald A; Despas, Fabien; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2015-09-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, has emerged as an important regulator of regional sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) with pathophysiological implications in obesity. Genetically engineered mice are useful to understand the molecular pathways underlying the SNA responses evoked by leptin. However, so far the effect of leptin on direct SNA in mice has been studied under general anesthesia. Here, we examined the sympathetic responses evoked by leptin in conscious mice. Mice were instrumented, under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, with renal or lumbar SNA recordings using a thin (40 gauge) bipolar platinum-iridium wire. The electrodes were exteriorized at the nape of the neck and mice were allowed (5 h) to recover from anesthesia. Interestingly, the reflex increases in renal and lumbar SNA caused by sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced hypotension was higher in the conscious phase versus the anesthetized state, whereas the increase in both renal and lumbar SNA evoked by leptin did not differ between anesthetized or conscious mice. Next, we assessed whether isoflurane anesthesia would yield a better outcome. Again, the SNP-induced increase in renal SNA and baroreceptor-renal SNA reflex were significantly elevated in the conscious states relative to isoflurane-anesthetized phase, but the renal SNA response induced by leptin in the conscious states were qualitatively comparable to those evoked above. Thus, despite improvement in sympathetic reflexes in conscious mice the sympathetic responses evoked by leptin mimic those induced during anesthesia. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. Normalization of muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in special schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglyak M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The features of using exercise to reduce muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in training at a special school. The study involved children with cerebral palsy 7-10 years. Presents the results of evaluation of motor function and muscle tone. The efficacy of the use of physical rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy, a positive effect of using special exercise in stretching the muscles with increased tone, improve motor function and normalization of muscle tone.

  20. Illusory vowels and illusory tones in the perception of consonant clusters by monolingual Chinese Mandarin speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Qianwen

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception...

  1. [The somato-sympathetic and somato-somatic reflexes in the spontaneous hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbin, Iu I; Tsyrlin, V A

    2014-01-01

    In anaesthetized normotensive (Wistar) and hypertensive (SHR) rats, sympathetic and somatic reflexes were studied before and after cervical spinal cord transection. Single shock stimulation of a peripheral afferent nerve of brachial plexus produced reflex discharges in the cervical sympathetic trunk and the radial nerve. In rats with intact brain stem, evoked response in the cervical sympathetic trunk was composed of three components, but evoked response in radial nerve consisted of two components. The total somato-sympathetic reflex in hypertensive rats was more on 54 % than the somato-sympathetic reflex in normotensive rats. The total somato-somatic reflex in hypertensive rats was more on 70 % than the somato-somatic reflex in normotensive rats. In rats with transected brain stem, evoked response in the cervical sympathetic trunk was composed of two components, but evoked response in radial nerve consisted of one component. After neuraxis transection the total sympathetic and somatic reflexes in normotensive rats decreased by 85 and 83 %, respectively. The total sympathetic and somatic reflexes in hypertensive rats decreased by 88 and 84 %, respectively. However, the peak value of evoked discharges in sympathetic and somatic nerves were more in hypertensive rats than in normotensive rats. Suprasegmental and spinal mechanisms responsible for the augmentation of both sympathetic and somatic reflexes are discussed.

  2. Sympathetic Responses to Noxious Stimulation of Muscle and Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alexander R; Fazalbhoy, Azharuddin; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2016-01-01

    Acute pain triggers adaptive physiological responses that serve as protective mechanisms that prevent continuing damage to tissues and cause the individual to react to remove or escape the painful stimulus. However, an extension of the pain response beyond signaling tissue damage and healing, such as in chronic pain states, serves no particular biological function; it is maladaptive. The increasing number of chronic pain sufferers is concerning, and the associated disease burden is putting healthcare systems around the world under significant pressure. The incapacitating effects of long-lasting pain are not just psychological - reflexes driven by nociceptors during the establishment of chronic pain may cause serious physiological consequences on regulation of other body systems. The sympathetic nervous system is inherently involved in a host of physiological responses evoked by noxious stimulation. Experimental animal and human models demonstrate a diverse array of heterogeneous reactions to nociception. The purpose of this review is to understand how pain affects the sympathetic nervous system by investigating the reflex cardiovascular and neural responses to acute pain and the long-lasting physiological responses to prolonged (tonic) pain. By observing the sympathetic responses to long-lasting pain, we can begin to understand the physiological consequences of long-term pain on cardiovascular regulation.

  3. Sympathetic nerves bridge the cross-transmission in hemifacial spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuesheng; Hong, Wenyao; Tang, Yinda; Wu, Zhenghai; Shang, Ming; Zhang, Wenchuan; Zhong, Jun; Li, Shiting

    2012-05-23

    The pathophysiologic basis of hemifacial spasm is abnormal cross-transmission between facial nerve fibers. The author hypothesized that the demyelinated facial nerve fibers were connected with the sympathetic nerve fibers on the offending artery wall, and thus the latter function as a bridge in the cross-transmission circuit. This hypothesis was tested using a rat model of hemifacial spasm. A facial muscle response was recorded while the offending artery wall was electrically stimulated. The nerve fibers on the offending artery wall were blocked with lidocaine, or the superior cervical ganglion, which innervates the offending artery, was resected, and meanwhile the abnormal muscle response was monitored and analyzed. A waveform was recorded from the facial muscle when the offending artery wall was stimulated, named as "Z-L response". The latency of Z-L response was different from that of abnormal muscle response. When the nerve fibers on the offending artery wall were blocked by lidocaine, the abnormal muscle response disappeared gradually and recovered in 2h. The abnormal muscle response disappeared permanently after the sympathetic ganglion was resected. Our findings indicate that cross-transmission between the facial nerve fibers is bridged by the nerve fibers on the offending artery wall, probably sympathetic nerve fibers.

  4. Understanding paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly S Meyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH is a condition occurring in a small percentage of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI. It is characterized by a constellation of symptoms associated with excessive adrenergic output, including tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, and diaphoresis. Diagnosis is one of exclusion and, therefore, is often delayed. Treatment is aimed at minimizing triggers and pharmacologic management of symptoms. Methods: A literature review using medline and cinahl was conducted to identify articles related to PSH. Search terms included paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, autonomic storming, diencephalic seizures, and sympathetic storming. Reference lists of pertinent articles were also reviewed and these additional papers were included. Results: The literature indicates that the understanding of PSH following TBI is in its infancy. The majority of information is based on small case series. The review revealed treatments that may be useful in treating PSH. Conclusions: Nurses play a critical role in the identification of at-risk patients, symptom complexes, and in the education of family. Early detection and treatment is likely to decrease overall morbidity and facilitate recovery. Further research is needed to establish screening tools and treatment algorithms for PSH.

  5. Sympathetic nerve activity and simulated diving in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuzzaman, Abu; Ackerman, Michael J; Kuniyoshi, Fatima Sert; Accurso, Valentina; Davison, Diane; Amin, Raouf S; Somers, Virend K

    2014-04-01

    The goal of our study was to develop a simple and practical method for simulating diving in humans using facial cold exposure and apnea stimuli to measure neural and circulatory responses during the stimulated diving reflex. We hypothesized that responses to simultaneous facial cold exposure and apnea (simulated diving) would be synergistic, exceeding the sum of responses to individual stimuli. We studied 56 volunteers (24 female and 32 male), average age of 39 years. All subjects were healthy, free of cardiovascular and other diseases, and on no medications. Although muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, and vascular resistance increased markedly during both early and late phases of simulated diving, significant reductions in heart rate were observed only during the late phase. Total MSNA during simulated diving was greater than combined MSNA responses to the individual stimuli. We found that simulated diving is a powerful stimulus to sympathetic nerve traffic with significant bradycardia evident in the late phase of diving and eliciting synergistic sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. Our data provide insight into autonomic triggers that could help explain catastrophic cardiovascular events that may occur during asphyxia or swimming, such as in patients with obstructive sleep apnea or congenital long QT syndrome.

  6. Neuronal morphology and the synaptic organisation of sympathetic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, I L; Jobling, P; Messenger, J P; Teo, E H; Morris, J L

    2000-07-01

    In this article, we provide a short review of the structure and synaptic organisation of the final motor neurons in the sympathetic ganglia of mammals. Combinations of pathway tracing, multiple-labelling immunofluorescence and intracellular dye injection have shown that neurons in different functional pathways differ not only in their patterns of neuropeptide expression, but also in the size of their cell bodies and dendritic fields. Thus, vasoconstrictor neurons consistently are smaller than any other major functional class of neurons. Serial section ultrastructural analysis of dye filled neurons, together with electron microscopic and confocal microscopic analysis of immunolabelled synaptic inputs to sympathetic final motor neurons indicate that synapses are rare and randomly distributed over the surface of the neurons. The total number of synapses is simply proportional to the total surface area of the neurons. Many terminal boutons of peptide-containing preganglionic neurons do not make conventional synapses with target neurons. Furthermore, there is a spatial mismatch in the distribution of peptide-containing terminals and neurons expressing receptors for the corresponding peptides. Together, these results suggest that there are likely to be significant differences in the ways that the final sympathetic motor neurons in distinct functional pathways integrate their synaptic inputs. In at least some pathways, heterosynaptic actions of neuropeptides probably contribute to subtle modulation of ganglionic transmission.

  7. Mental fatigue caused by prolonged cognitive load associated with sympathetic hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuratsune Hirohiko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that chronic fatigue is associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. However, the relationship between autonomic function and mental fatigue caused by a prolonged mental load in healthy humans is still unclear. Thus, in order to clarify the mechanisms underlying mental fatigue, we examined the association between mental fatigue and autonomic functions. Methods The study group comprised 10 healthy participants. To induce mental fatigue, participants performed mental tasks, which consisted of the advanced trail making test, kana pick-out test and mirror drawing test, for 8 hr, corresponding to a normal work day. Autonomic functions were measured by accelerated plethysmography before and after the fatigue-inducing mental tasks. As a control, the same participants completed an 8-hr relaxation session 4 weeks before the fatigue session. Results After the 8-hr relaxation session, low-frequency component power (LF, high-frequency component power (HF and low-frequency component power/high-frequency component power ratio (LF/HF ratio were not changed from baseline. In contrast, after the fatigue session, the HF and LF/HF ratio were significantly changed from baseline; specifically, the HF was lower and LF/HF ratio was higher as compared to those after the relaxation session. Conclusions Sympathetic hyperactivity based on decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with mental fatigue induced by prolonged cognitive load.

  8. 主持人的话——道县官话声调特点及与土话声调比较%A Comparison of Mandarin Tone and Tuhua Tone in Daoxian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冠英; 谢奇勇

    2012-01-01

    通过声学实验法研究得到的道县官话声调,与前人传统方法所记录的道县官话声调有一定的差异。通过与典型的西南官话以及其他同属湘南片的西南官话相比较,发现道县官话具有阳平读高降调等特点。这些特点的形成与道县是官话与土话双方言区,官话受到土话声调的影响有一定关系。%Through the acoustic experimental study, it is found that there are some differences between the result and previous record of Daoxian mandarin tone by traditional means. By comparison of the typical south-west mandarin tone and others belong to the south-west of Hunan, it is concluded that yangping in Daoxian mandarin is pronounced in high falling tone. The formation of these characteristics may have some relationship with the surrounding patois tones.

  9. Global analysis of gene expression in NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons identifies molecular pathways associated with cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Mark

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing sympathetic neurons depend on nerve growth factor (NGF for survival and die by apoptosis after NGF withdrawal. This process requires de novo gene expression but only a small number of genes induced by NGF deprivation have been identified so far, either by a candidate gene approach or in mRNA differential display experiments. This is partly because it is difficult to obtain large numbers of sympathetic neurons for in vitro studies. Here, we describe for the first time, how advances in gene microarray technology have allowed us to investigate the expression of all known genes in sympathetic neurons cultured in the presence and absence of NGF. Results We have used Affymetrix Exon arrays to study the pattern of expression of all known genes in NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons. We identified 415 up- and 813 down-regulated genes, including most of the genes previously known to be regulated in this system. NGF withdrawal activates the mixed lineage kinase (MLK-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK-c-Jun pathway which is required for NGF deprivation-induced death. By including a mixed lineage kinase (MLK inhibitor, CEP-11004, in our experimental design we identified which of the genes induced after NGF withdrawal are potential targets of the MLK-JNK-c-Jun pathway. A detailed Gene Ontology and functional enrichment analysis also identified genetic pathways that are highly enriched and overrepresented amongst the genes expressed after NGF withdrawal. Five genes not previously studied in sympathetic neurons - trib3, ddit3, txnip, ndrg1 and mxi1 - were validated by real time-PCR. The proteins encoded by these genes also increased in level after NGF withdrawal and this increase was prevented by CEP-11004, suggesting that these genes are potential targets of the MLK-JNK-c-Jun pathway. Conclusions The sympathetic neuron model is one of the best studied models of neuronal apoptosis. Overall, our microarray data gives a comprehensive

  10. Tones inferior to eye movements in the EMDR treatment of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Rijkeboer, Marleen M; Engelhard, Iris M; Klugkist, Irene; Hornsveld, Hellen; Toffolo, Marieke J B; Cath, Danielle C

    2012-05-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, patients make eye movements (EMs) while recalling traumatic memories, but recently therapists have replaced EMs by alternating beep tones. There are no outcome studies on the effects of tones. In an earlier analogue study, tones were inferior to EMs in the reduction of vividness of aversive memories. In a first EMDR session, 12 PTSD patients recalled trauma memories in three conditions: recall only, recall + tones, and recall + EMs. Three competing hypotheses were tested: 1) EMs are as effective as tones and better than recall only, 2) EMs are better than tones and tones are as effective as recall only, and 3) EMs are better than tones and tones are better than recall only. The order of conditions was balanced, each condition was delivered twice, and decline in memory vividness and emotionality served as outcome measures. The data strongly support hypothesis 2 and 3 over 1: EMs outperformed tones while it remained unclear if tones add to recall only. The findings add to earlier considerations and earlier analogue findings suggesting that EMs are superior to tones and that replacing the former by the latter was premature.

  11. Learning a Tonal Language by Attending to the Tone: An in Vivo Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; Brubaker, Brian; Wu, Sumei; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to the critical features of a component (tone in…

  12. Child and Mother Cardiac Vagal Tone: Continuity, Stability, and Concordance across the First 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.

    2000-01-01

    Measured vagal tone and heart period at 2 months and 5 years in children and their mothers to evaluate the development of vagal regulation at rest and during an environmental task. Found that children reached adult levels of baseline vagal tone by 5 years and did not differ from mothers in baseline-to-task change in vagal tone or heart period.…

  13. Pairing tone trains with vagus nerve stimulation induces temporal plasticity in auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetake, Jai A; Engineer, Navzer D; Vrana, Will A; Wolf, Jordan T; Kilgard, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    The selectivity of neurons in sensory cortex can be modified by pairing neuromodulator release with sensory stimulation. Repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis, for example, induces input specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Pairing nucleus basalis stimulation (NBS) with a tone increases the number of A1 neurons that respond to the paired tone frequency. Pairing NBS with fast or slow tone trains can respectively increase or decrease the ability of A1 neurons to respond to rapidly presented tones. Pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with a single tone alters spectral tuning in the same way as NBS-tone pairing without the need for brain surgery. In this study, we tested whether pairing VNS with tone trains can change the temporal response properties of A1 neurons. In naïve rats, A1 neurons respond strongly to tones repeated at rates up to 10 pulses per second (pps). Repeatedly pairing VNS with 15 pps tone trains increased the temporal following capacity of A1 neurons and repeatedly pairing VNS with 5 pps tone trains decreased the temporal following capacity of A1 neurons. Pairing VNS with tone trains did not alter the frequency selectivity or tonotopic organization of auditory cortex neurons. Since VNS is well tolerated by patients, VNS-tone train pairing represents a viable method to direct temporal plasticity in a variety of human conditions associated with temporal processing deficits.

  14. Perception and Production of Lexical Tones by 3-Year-Old, Mandarin-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Jenkins, James J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children's perception and production of Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. Thirteen 3-year-old, Mandarin-speaking children participated in the study. Tone perception was examined by a picture-pointing task, and tone production was investigated by picture naming. To compare children's productions…

  15. Influences of Vowel and Tone Variation on Emergent Word Knowledge: A Cross-Linguistic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Hui, Tam Jun; Chan, Calista; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2014-01-01

    To learn words, infants must be sensitive to native phonological contrast. While lexical tone predominates as a source of phonemic contrast in human languages, there has been little investigation of the influences of lexical tone on word learning. The present study investigates infants' sensitivity to tone mispronunciations in two groups of…

  16. Analytical Solution and Numerical Simulation of Real-Time Dispersion Monitoring Using Tone Subcarrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He; CHEN Fushen; JIANG Yi

    2003-01-01

    A method for online dispersion monitoring by adding a single in-band subcarrier tone is introduced. According to the theoretical analysis, the dispersion monitor and measurement range are determined by the specific frequency of the subcarrier tone. By using simulation tools, figures about relationship between power of subcarrier tone and transmission distance in ideal condition are shown.

  17. Perception of Mandarin Tones: The Effect of L1 Background and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinchun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…

  18. An Annotated Bibliography on Tone. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddieson, Ian, Comp.; Gandour, Jack, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, which has been entered into the SOLAR Bibliography File, focuses on the phonetics and phonology of tone, including studies on the physiology of phonation and pitch control, pitch perception, inherent pitch of vowels, the interaction of tone with musical melody in tone languages, and other related issues. An attempt has…

  19. Physiological Self-Regulation and Information Processing in Infancy: Cardiac Vagal Tone and Habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the role of physiological self-regulation (cardiac vagal tone) in information processing (habituation) in infants. Found that decreases in vagal tone consistently related to habituation efficiency at 2 and 5 months. Within- and between- age suppression of vagal tone predicted accumulated looking time (ALT), but ALT did not predict…

  20. Dynamic properties of excitation and two-tone inhibition in the cochlear nucleus studied using amplitude-modulated tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, A R

    1976-06-18

    The dynamic properties of excitation and two-tone inhibition in the cochlear nucleus were studied from extracellularly recorded unit responses to two simultaneously presented tones. One tone was presented at the unit's characteristic frequency, CF, the other at the unit's best inhibitory frequency, BIF. One or both of the tones were amplitude-modulated with pseudorandom noise. The system under study is in general nonlinear, but can be considered to function as a linear system for small changes in sound intensity around a certain operating point. The dynamic properties are likely to be different at different operating points. A suitable method for the study of dynamic properties of such a system employs tones that are amplitude-modulated with pseudorandom noise. In the present study, the dynamic properties were assessed by cross-correlating the unit discharge rate with the modulation. This was accomplished by computing the cross-covariance function between a period of noise and a period histogram of the discharges, the histogram being locked to the periodicity of the pseudorandom noise. In this way, it has been shown in previous works (Moller, 1973, 1974b), that the cross-covariance function is a valid approximation of the system's impulse response function at a certain sound intensity, provided the modulation is kept at a low value. In the present study the computed cross-covariance function is thus an approximation of the change in discharge rate of the cochlear nucleus units in response to a brief increase in stimulus intensity. As the response of the system under the given circumstances is approximately that of a linear system, the integrated cross-covariance is an approximation of the system's step response function, i.e the change in discharge rate that resulte from a hypothetical step increase in stimulus intensity. The results of the present study can be summarized as follows: 1. The impulse and step response functions computed from the responses to the

  1. Evaluation of the Sympathetic Skin Response to the Dry Needling Treatment in Female Myofascial Pain Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Ali Veysel; Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Esmaeilzadeh, Sina; Cihan, Cem; Aki, Semih; Aksoy, Cihan; Oncu, Julide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity following dry needling (DN) treatment, by using the sympathetic skin response (SSR) method in female patients diagnosed with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Twenty-nine MPS patients with trapezius muscle pain and 31 healthy subjects were included in this study. During a single treatment session, DN treatment was applied into trigger points, for a duration of 10 minutes. Healthy patients were subjected to SSR in weeks 1 and 4; whereas the patient group was subjected to SSR 1 week prior to their treatment and in the first, second, third and fourth weeks following the completion of their treatment. We found diminished latency on both sides. A significantly high algometer measurement (P 0.05). DN is an effective treatment in MPS and trigger point (TP). This original study is the first to deal with the SSR in MPS and weekly SSR trailing, requiring further investigation to solidy findings.

  2. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien;

    , specifically those showing enhanced pitch cues (i.e., musicians) and those typically having disrupted pitch cues (i.e., hearing-impaired listeners). In particular, two main topics were addressed: the relative importance of resolved and unresolved harmonics for normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI......) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones...... discrimination to that of NH listeners. In the second part of this work, behavioral and objective measures of pitch discrimination were carried out in musicians and non-musicians. Musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance relative to non-musicians for both resolved and unresolved harmonics...

  3. Modulation masking produced by complex-tone modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, Stephan; Verhey, J.L.; Dau, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    Thresholds were measured for detecting sinusoidal amplitude modulation in the presence of a complex-tone masker modulation. Both modulations were applied to the same sinusoidal carrier. Two different masker modulations were used: (i) a pair of components beating at the difference frequency and (ii......) a three-tone complex producing a sinusoidal amplitude modulation of the modulation depth at the difference frequency between adjacent components. Both maskers show a periodicity in the waveform that is not contained in the envelope spectrum itself but can be observed when the envelope of the envelope......, referred to as the "venelope" [Ewert et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112. 2921-2931 (2002)], is calculated. For a signal frequency equal to the masker-venelope periodicity, modulation depth at threshold was measured as a function of the signal phase relative to the phase of the masker-venelope component...

  4. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction.

  5. Gray tone image watermarking with complementary computer generated holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Christophe; Laulagnet, Fabien; Lemonnier, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    We present herein an original approach for the watermarking of holograms in gray tone images for use in microscopic halftone image archiving. Our concept is based on the principle of complementary holography presented in a previous contribution. The efficiency of the concept is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate the interest of elliptical diffraction patterns as an alternative to the usual rectangular diffraction patterns and confirm the subsidiary role of the hologram amplitude in the hologram recovery process.

  6. The Effect of Structured Contextual Tones on Psychophysical Frequency Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-14

    The absence of timbre and Musical structure, as well as the short-duration of the tones in the current experiment certainly contribute to the absence...contextual constraints top-down processing 20. ABSTRACT (Continua a evee side Of nooeceep muW Identify S b eaki nobo) ---->Six musically and six non- musically ...patterns in the structured condition were arranged to reflect structural rules. Musical training made no difference, but magnitude of the frequency

  7. The use of fractal tones in tinnitus patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Sweetow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of noises have been employed for decades in an effort to facilitate habituation, mask, or suppress tinnitus. Many of these sounds have reportedly provided benefit, but success has not been universal. More recently, musical stimuli have been added as a sound therapy component. The potential advantages of using such stimuli, in particular fractal tones, in combination with amplification are discussed in this paper.

  8. The Potential Role of Catheter-Based Renal Sympathetic Denervation in Chronic and End-Stage Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Yusuke; Schlaich, Markus P

    2016-07-01

    Sympathetic activation is a hallmark of chronic and end-stage renal disease and adversely affects cardiovascular prognosis. Hypertension is present in the vast majority of these patients and plays a key role in the progressive deterioration of renal function and the high rate of cardiovascular events in this patient cohort. Augmentation of renin release, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renal vascular resistance are direct consequences of efferent renal sympathetic nerve stimulation and the major components of neural regulation of renal function. Renal afferent nerve activity directly influences sympathetic outflow to the kidneys and other highly innervated organs involved in blood pressure control via hypothalamic integration. Renal denervation of the kidney has been shown to reduce blood pressure in many experimental models of hypertension. Targeting the renal nerves directly may therefore be specifically useful in patients with chronic and end-stage renal disease. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of catheter-based renal denervation in patients with impaired kidney function and also reflect on the potential impact on other cardiovascular conditions commonly associated with chronic kidney disease such as heart failure and arrhythmias.

  9. TONE DEVELOPMENT STUDIES WITH A STUDENT DURING FLUTE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begum Aytemur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the effect of a five stage study program applied by the researcher to one student who had entered university playing the flute, but who had not resolved lip and tone problems in one educational semester through basic long sound studies and scale studies. The participant in the research was a 19 year old student who had completed first year of the music teaching program and had performed in the year-end concert; however she was criticized by listeners and flute teachers for forced and scratchy tone. The research had the basic aim of solving these problems. As a result the “single subject study model”, chosen for research on individuals requesting private training, was chosen for this research model. The findings of the study were collected as video recordings of scale, study and piece work in initial, training and final stages of a six-week education course run every day. To evaluate the obtained recordings, a “Behavior for Quality Flute Tone Scale” was created. The video recordings were investigated by three flute teaching staff, expert in the area, who provided points in accordance with the scale. The obtained points were analyzed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The results showed that the study program created by the researcher provided rapid tonal development of the student. It is considered that the study is important to present an alternative route for flute students experiencing similar problems.

  10. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Andersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  11. Categorical Perception of Lexical Tones in Mandarin-speaking Congenital Amusics

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    Wan Ting Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that within Mandarin-speaking congenital amusics, only a subgroup has behavioral lexical tone perception impairments (tone agnosia, whereas the rest of amusics do not. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the categorical nature of lexical tone perception in Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without behavioral lexical tone deficits. Three groups of listeners (controls, pure amusics and amusics with tone agnosia participated in tone identification and discrimination tasks. Indexes of the categorical perception of a physical continuum of fundamental frequencies ranging from a rising to level tone were measured. Specifically, the stimulus durations were manipulated at 100 and 200 ms. For both stimulus durations, all groups exhibited similar categorical boundaries. The pure amusics showed sharp identification slopes and significantly peaked discrimination functions similar to those of normal controls. However, such essential characteristics for the categorical perception of lexical tones were not observed in amusics with tone agnosia. An enlarged step-size from 20 Hz to 35 Hz was not able to produce any discrimination peaks in tone agnosics either. The current study revealed that only amusics with tone agnosia showed a lack of categorical tone perception, while the pure amusics demonstrated typical categorical perception of lexical tones, indicating that the deficit of pitch processing in music does not necessarily result in the deficit in the categorical perception of lexical tones. The different performance between congenital amusics with and without tone agnosia provides a new perspective on the proposition of the relationship between music and speech perception.

  12. Local Sympathetic Denervation of Femoral Artery in a Rabbit Model by Using 6-Hydroxydopamine In Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both artery bundle and sympathetic nerve were involved with the metabolism of bone tissues. Whether the enhancing effects of artery bundle result from its accompanying sympathetic nerve or blood supply is still unknown. There is no ideal sympathetic nerve-inhibited method for the in situ denervation of artery bundle. Therefore, we dipped the femoral artery in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA locally and observed its effect. Compared with control group, the in situ treatment of 6-OHDA did not damage the normal structure of vascular bundle indicated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. However, the functions of sympathetic nerve was completely inhibited for more than 2 weeks, and only a few function of sympathetic nerve resumed 4 weeks later, evidenced by glyoxylic acid staining and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and nerve peptide Y (NPY. Thus, 6-OHDA is promising as an ideal reagent for the local denervation of sympathetic nerve from artery system.

  13. Neural regulation of gastrointestinal inflammation: role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervi, Andrea L; Lukewich, Mark K; Lomax, Alan E

    2014-05-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract regulates motility, secretion and blood flow by inhibiting the activity of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and direct vasoconstrictor innervation of the gut microvasculature. In addition to these well-established roles, there is evidence that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) can modulate GI inflammation. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons innervate lymphoid tissues and immune cells within the GI tract. Furthermore, innate and adaptive immune cells express receptors for sympathetic neurotransmitters. Activation of these receptors can affect a variety of important immune cell functions, including cytokine release and differentiation of helper T lymphocyte subsets. This review will consider the neuroanatomical evidence of GI immune cell innervation by sympathetic axons, the effects of blocking or enhancing SNS activity on GI inflammation, and the converse modulation of sympathetic neuroanatomy and function by GI inflammation.

  14. The effect of the transplanted pineal gland on the sympathetic innervation of the rat sublingual gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthaphavong, R S; Murphy, S M; Anderson, C R

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effect of the pineal on sympathetic neurons that normally innervate the sublingual gland of the rat. When the pineal gland was transplanted into the sublingual gland, it remained as a distinct mass that was innervated by sympathetic axons. Injection of the retrograde tracer, Fast Blue, into the sublingual gland labelled sympathetic neurons in the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Thirty per cent of all neurons labelled retrogradely by Fast Blue injection into transplanted pineal glands were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calbindin. This combination is characteristic of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in its normal location, but not the sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons normally innervating the sublingual gland. This, and our previous study in which the pineal gland was shown to similarly influence the phenotype of salivary secretomotor neurons, suggests that a range of different functional classes of sympathetic neuron are able to change their phenotype in response to signals released by the pineal gland.

  15. Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Stress-Mediated Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Dagmara; Lachowska, Kamila; Schlaich, Markus

    2015-10-01

    A high incidence of acute cardiovascular events and sudden cardiac death following unexpected acute emotional stress or a natural catastrophic disaster has been well-documented over the past decades. Chronic psychosocial factors have been shown to be directly linked to the development of hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Activation of various neurogenic pathways is an important mediator of acute and chronic stress-induced hypertension and heart disease. Heightened sympathetic activation has been shown to be a critical contributor linking psychogenic effects on cardiovascular regulation to serious and often fatal CV outcomes. Accordingly, several therapeutic approaches that attenuate autonomic imbalance via modulation of increased sympathetic outflow by either non-pharmacological or interventional means have been shown to alleviate clinical symptoms. Likewise stress reduction per se achieved with transcendental medicine has been linked to improved patient outcomes. Therapies that oppose adrenergic activity and/or have the potential to attenuate negative emotions are likely to reduce cardiovascular risk and its adverse consequences attributable to chronic mental stress.

  16. Sympathetic Blocks Provided Sustained Pain Relief in a Patient with Refractory Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin ...

  17. Statins decrease dendritic arborization in rat sympathetic neurons by blocking RhoA activation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Woo-Yang; Gonsiorek, Eugene A.; Barnhart, Chris; Davare, Monika A.; Engebose, Abby J.; Lauridsen, Holly; Bruun, Donald; Lesiak, Adam; Wayman, Gary; Bucelli, Robert; Higgins, Dennis; Lein, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that statins decrease sympathetic activity, but whether peripheral mechanisms involving direct actions on post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons contribute to this effect is not known. Because tonic activity of these neurons is directly correlated with the size of their dendritic arbor, we tested the hypothesis that statins decrease dendritic arborization in sympathetic neurons. Oral administration of atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day for 7 days) significantly...

  18. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S.; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  19. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomi S Asaridou

    Full Text Available We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch. We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel. We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  20. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.