WorldWideScience

Sample records for high speed passenger

  1. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  2. Noise in the passenger cars of high-speed trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Young; Cha, Yongwon; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of both room acoustic conditions and spectral characteristics of noises on acoustic discomfort in a high-speed train's passenger car. Measurement of interior noises in a high-speed train was performed when the train was operating at speeds of 100 km/h and 300 km/h. Acoustic discomfort caused by interior noises was evaluated by paired comparison methods based on the variation of reverberation time (RT) in a passenger car and the spectral differences in interior noises. The effect of RT on acoustic discomfort was not significant, whereas acoustic discomfort significantly varied depending on spectral differences in noise. Acoustic discomfort increased with increment of the sound pressure level (SPL) ratio at high frequencies, and variation in high-frequency noise components were described using sharpness. Just noticeable differences of SPL with low- and high-frequency components were determined to be 3.7 and 2.9 dB, respectively. This indicates that subjects were more sensitive to differences in SPLs at the high-frequency range than differences at the low-frequency range. These results support that, for interior noises, reduction in SPLs at high frequencies would significantly contribute to improved acoustic quality in passenger cars of high-speed trains.

  3. [Comfort of crew and passengers and atmospheric pressure, noise, wind speed in high-speed train of Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yi-biao; Huo, Wei; Liu, Qiao-ying; Chen, Bao-shan; Zhang, Jin-long; Shi, Lei

    2012-11-01

    To explore the crew and passengers' comfort on the Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line and physical factors, such as air pressure, noise, wind speed. Comfort investigation of all the crew (n = 244) and passengers (n = 377) on the Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line at speed of 250 km/h and 200 km/h and the detection of the air pressure, noise and wind speed were performed in 2011. Significantly higher ratio of comfortable feeling, lower ratio of seriously discomfortable feeling were observed in crew and passengers at 200 km/h compared with those at 250 km/h (P high-speed train passing through the tunnels. The individuals feel more comfortable at 200 km/h than 250 km/h in this line., which may be related with rapid variation of wind speed and noise when the train passes through the tunnels with high speed.

  4. Engineering Data on Selected High Speed Passenger Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to compile a list of high speed truck engineering parameters for characterization in dynamic performance modeling activities. Data tabulations are supplied for trucks from France, Germany, Italy, England, Japan, U.S.S.R...

  5. Aerodynamic effects of high-speed passenger trains on other trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    This study assesses the potential safety risks associated with aerodynamic loads produced by the Acela high-speed train when passing freight and bi-level commuter passenger cars. Acela operates at speeds up to 150 mph, on tangent tracks adjacent to n...

  6. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Quan Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  7. A Passenger Flow Risk Forecasting Algorithm for High-Speed Railway Transport Hub Based on Surveillance Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow risk forecasting is a vital task for safety management in high-speed railway transport hub. In this paper, we considered the passenger flow risk forecasting problem in high-speed railway transport hub. Based on the surveillance sensor networks, a passenger flow risk forecasting algorithm was developed based on spatial correlation. Computational results showed that the proposed forecasting approach was effective and significant for the high-speed railway transport hub.

  8. Investigating technical challenges and research needs related to shared corridors for high speed passenger and railroad freight operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The development of both incremental and dedicated high-speed rail lines in the United States poses a number of questions. Despite nearly 50 years of international experience in planning, designing, building and operating high-speed passenger infrastr...

  9. Intermodal competition in the London-Paris passenger market: High-speed rail and air transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, C.L.; Pels, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies inter- and intramodal competition in the London-Paris passenger market during the period 2003-2009. We identify the degree to and conditions under which High-Speed Rail is a viable substitute for airline travel. Using pooled cross-sectional data we estimate multinomial and mixed

  10. Prospects of high-speed traffic development on international routes to ukraine. an experience of other countries in establishing high-speed passenger traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віта Валеріївна Якименко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prospects and directions of high-speed traffic development on international railway communication, possible ways of solving the mismatch problem of the railway track width are described and analyzed in the article. An experience of other countries in addressing the issue of international high-speed passenger traffic, ways to overcome negative influences on the number of passengers and direction of their solution is analyzed and reviewed

  11. FORECASTING OF PASSENGER TRAFFIC UPON IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH-SPEED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Forecasting of passenger traffic flows in the future is an essential and integral part of the complex process of designing of high-speed network (HSN. HSN direction and its parameters are determined by the volume of passenger traffic, the estimated value of which depends on the economic performance of the country, as well as the material status of citizens living in HSN concentration area, transport mobility of population, development of competing modes of transport and so on. The purpose of this work is to analyse the existing methods of passenger traffic forecasting, to evaluate errors of the existing models concerning determination of traffic volumes and to specify the scientific approach to the development of high-speed rail transport in Ukraine. Methodology. The existing forecasting methods are reduced to the following ones: Delphi approach, extrapolation method, factor and correlation analysis, simulation method. The method described in this paper is based on scientific approaches such as analysis – a comprehensive and detailed study of various aspects of the known forecasting methods, comparing of existing methods for establishing differences and similarities, as well as deduction – use of general knowledge to get the new particular one. Thus, the unified indicators determined for the country as a whole, such as gross domestic product, national income, total population and others cannot be used to forecast the traffic flow on specific areas of HSN construction. Therefore, it is necessary to move from the overall forecast to traffic volume forecast on particular direction. Findings. The conclusions are derived from the analysis of different approaches and methods of passenger flow forecasting. It is proposed to create typical techniques of traffic flow forecasting using modern mathematical methods that would allow avoiding unreasonable decisions and shortening project development time. The resulting recommendations will help

  12. PASSIVE SAFETY OF HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER TRAINS AT ACCIDENT COLLISIONS ON 1520 MM GAUGE RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna SOBOLEVSKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental principles of the passive protection concept of high-speed passenger trains at accident collisions on 1520 mm gauge railways have been developed. The scientific methodology and mathematical models for the analysis of plastic deformation of cab frame elements and energy-absorbing devices (EAD at an impact have been developed. The cab frame and EAD for a new-generation locomotive have been designed. The EAD prototype crash test has been carried out.

  13. Coach design for the Korean high-speed train: a systematic approach to passenger seat design and layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E S; Han, S H; Jung, M; Choe, J

    1998-12-01

    Proper ergonomic design of a passenger seat and coach layout for a high-speed train is an essential component that is directly related to passenger comfort. In this research, a systematic approach to the design of passenger seats was described and the coach layout which reflected the tradeoff between transportation capacity and passenger comfort was investigated for the Korean high-speed train. As a result, design recommendations and specifications of the passenger seat and its layout were suggested. The whole design process is composed of four stages. A survey and analysis of design requirement was first conducted, which formed the base for designing the first and second class passenger seats. Prototypes were made and evaluated iteratively, and seat arrangement and coach layout were finally obtained. The systematic approach and recommendations suggested in this study are expected to be applicable to the seat design for public transportations and to help modify and redesign existing vehicular seats.

  14. BRAKING OF HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER TRAINS WITH REGARD TO THE OPERATION OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC RAIL BRAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Je. Naumenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of the braking process of high-speed passenger train with the use of compressed-air, electropneumatic and electromagnetic track brakes is carried out. The dependences of braking distance on motion speed for vehicles equipped by block or disk brakes as well as for a case of electromagnetic track brakes used in addition to existing braking means.

  15. Comparative Study on Options for High-Speed Intercontinental Passenger Transports: Air-Breathing- vs. Rocket-Propelled

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; Klevanski, Josef; Steelant, Johan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the technical options for high-speed intercontinental passenger transports on a preliminary basis. Horizontal take-off hypersonic air-breathing airliners are assessed as well as vertical take-off, rocket powered stages, capable of a safe atmospheric reentry. The study includes a preliminary sizing and performance assessment of all investigated vehicles and compares characteristic technical and passenger environment data. The aerodynamic shape of the air-bre...

  16. Schedule-Based Passenger Assignment for High-Speed Rail Networks considering the Ticket-Booking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyin Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a schedule-based passenger assignment method for high-speed rail networks considering the ticket-booking process. Passengers book tickets to reserve seats during the presale period in high-speed rail systems and passengers on trains are determined during the ticket-booking process. The ticket-booking process is modeled as a continuous and deterministic predecision process. A solution algorithm is designed using the discretization of the continuous process by partitioning the ticket-booking time and the optimal paths remain constant in any partition interval. Finally, an application to the Chinese high-speed rail network is presented. A comparison of the numerical results with the reality is conducted to validate the efficiency and precision of the method and algorithm. Based on the results, the operating efficiency of the current train schedule is evaluated and some specific improvement measures are proposed.

  17. High speed rail and coastal tourism: Identifying passenger profiles and travel behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Aaron; Ortuño, Armando

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we characterise tourists most likely to visit a coastal destination by high-speed rail (HSR). Our data came from a survey conducted among HSR passengers during 2014's high season (July and August) at Spain's Camp de Tarragona and Alicante Stations, each of which is near a mass tourism destination on the Mediterranean coast: the Costa Daurada and the Costa Blanca, respectively. We used responses to the survey, which presented binary discrete-choice situations, to construct a database necessary for a logistic regression model that allowed us to examine how passenger profile, trip characteristics, and stay conditions influenced the use of HSR services on visits to each coastal destination. Results highlighted significant differences in the profiles of tourists who arrived at each destination by HSR and, in turn, that no specific tourist profile is associated with HSR, even for two stations that serve sunny beach destinations. Among its implications, to analyse travellers that HSR can attract, it is vital to consider the specific characteristics of each destination and its current market.

  18. High speed rail and coastal tourism: Identifying passenger profiles and travel behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available In this paper, we characterise tourists most likely to visit a coastal destination by high-speed rail (HSR. Our data came from a survey conducted among HSR passengers during 2014's high season (July and August at Spain's Camp de Tarragona and Alicante Stations, each of which is near a mass tourism destination on the Mediterranean coast: the Costa Daurada and the Costa Blanca, respectively. We used responses to the survey, which presented binary discrete-choice situations, to construct a database necessary for a logistic regression model that allowed us to examine how passenger profile, trip characteristics, and stay conditions influenced the use of HSR services on visits to each coastal destination. Results highlighted significant differences in the profiles of tourists who arrived at each destination by HSR and, in turn, that no specific tourist profile is associated with HSR, even for two stations that serve sunny beach destinations. Among its implications, to analyse travellers that HSR can attract, it is vital to consider the specific characteristics of each destination and its current market.

  19. Ticket Fare Optimization for China’s High-Speed Railway Based on Passenger Choice Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzi Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although China’s high-speed railway (HSR is maturing after more than ten years of construction and development, the load factor and revenue of HSR could still be improved by optimizing the ticket fare structure. Different from the present unitary and changeless fare structure, this paper explores the application of multigrade fares to China’s HSR. On the premise that only one fare grade can be offered for each origin-destination (O-D at the same time, this paper addresses the questions of how to adjust ticket price over time to maximize the revenue. First, on the basis of piecewise pricing strategy, a ticket fare optimization model is built, which could be transformed to convex program to be solved. Then, based on the analysis of passenger arrival regularity using historical ticket data of Beijing-Shanghai HSR line, several experiments are performed using the method proposed in the paper to explore the properties of the optimal multigrade fare scheme.

  20. Speech privacy and annoyance considerations in the acoustic environment of passenger cars of high-speed trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Hong, Joo Young; Jang, Hyung Suk; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to consider not only annoyance of interior noises but also speech privacy to achieve acoustic comfort in a passenger car of a high-speed train because speech from other passengers can be annoying. This study aimed to explore an optimal acoustic environment to satisfy speech privacy and reduce annoyance in a passenger car. Two experiments were conducted using speech sources and compartment noise of a high speed train with varying speech-to-noise ratios (SNRA) and background noise levels (BNL). Speech intelligibility was tested in experiment I, and in experiment II, perceived speech privacy, annoyance, and acoustic comfort of combined sounds with speech and background noise were assessed. The results show that speech privacy and annoyance were significantly influenced by the SNRA. In particular, the acoustic comfort was evaluated as acceptable when the SNRA was less than -6 dB for both speech privacy and noise annoyance. In addition, annoyance increased significantly as the BNL exceeded 63 dBA, whereas the effect of the background-noise level on the speech privacy was not significant. These findings suggest that an optimal level of interior noise in a passenger car might exist between 59 and 63 dBA, taking normal speech levels into account.

  1. Preliminary Design Study of Main Rocket Engine for SpaceLiner High-Speed Passenger Transportation Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Sippel, Martin; Yamashiro, Ryoma

    2013-01-01

    The revolutionary ultrafast passenger transportation system SpaceLiner is under investigation at DLR in the EU-funded study Future high-Altitude high-Speed Transport 20XX. SpaceLiner’s configuration is being amended continuously, and SpaceLiner7 is the brand new version at the point of April in 2013. SpaceLiner7 is two staged reusable launch vehicle with liquid rocket engines. SpaceLiner Main Engine (SLME) is required to have high performance for the total system to be feasible, a...

  2. PRELIMINARY DESIGN STUDY OF STAGED COMBUSTION CYCLE ROCKET ENGINE FOR SPACELINER HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashiro, Ryoma; Sippel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The revolutionary ultrafast passenger transportation system SpaceLiner is under investigation at DLR in the EU-funded study Future high-Altitude high-Speed Transport 20XX. SpaceLiner’s configuration is being amended continuously, and SpaceLiner7 is the brand new version at the point of August in 2012. SpaceLiner7 is two staged reusable launch vehicle with liquid rocket engines. SpaceLiner Main Engine (SLME) is required to have high performance for the total system to be feasible, and also to ...

  3. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  4. Passenger comfort on high-speed trains: effect of tunnel noise on the subjective assessment of pressure variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanok, Sandra; Mendolia, Franco; Wittkowski, Martin; Rooney, Daniel; Putzke, Matthias; Aeschbach, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    When passing through a tunnel, aerodynamic effects on high-speed trains may impair passenger comfort. These variations in atmospheric pressure are accompanied by transient increases in sound pressure level. To date, it is unclear whether the latter influences the perceived discomfort associated with the variations in atmospheric pressure. In a pressure chamber of the DLR-Institute of Aerospace Medicine, 71 participants (M = 28.3 years ± 8.1 SD) rated randomised pressure changes during two conditions according to a crossover design. The pressure changes were presented together with tunnel noise such that the sound pressure level was transiently elevated by either +6 dB (low noise condition) or +12 dB (high noise condition) above background noise level (65 dB(A)). Data were combined with those of a recent study, in which identical pressure changes were presented without tunnel noise (Schwanitz et al., 2013, 'Pressure Variations on a Train - Where is the Threshold to Railway Passenger Discomfort?' Applied Ergonomics 44 (2): 200-209). Exposure-response relationships for the combined data set comprising all three noise conditions show that pressure discomfort increases with the magnitude and speed of the pressure changes but decreases with increasing tunnel noise. Practitioner Summary: In a pressure chamber, we systematically examined how pressure discomfort, as it may be experienced by railway passengers, is affected by the presence of tunnel noise during pressure changes. It is shown that across three conditions (no noise, low noise (+6 dB), high noise (+12 dB)) pressure discomfort decreases with increasing tunnel noise.

  5. Impact of high-speed passenger trains on freight train efficiency in shared railway corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, freight rail demand had doubled from 0.9 trillion ton-miles in 1980 to 1.8 trillion tonmiles : in 2007, and railroad carriers reached a 39.5% market penetration in 20071 : . As intercity passenger : rail is widely recognized as ...

  6. 75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... coordination with the States and other stakeholders. Proposals are sought for projects that would result in a... planning project, such as specific institutional barriers or operational complexities. Conditions that may... proposals for Federally-led multi- state passenger rail corridor planning demonstration projects. SUMMARY...

  7. How fast is a fast train? comparing attitudes and preferences for improved passenger rail service among urban areas in the south central high-speed rail corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "High-speed passenger rail is seen by many in the U.S. transportation policy and planning communities as : an ideal solution for fast, safe, and resource-efficient mobility in high-demand intercity corridors between : 100 and 500 miles in total endpo...

  8. Particle pollution in the French high-speed train (TGV) smoker cars: measurement and prediction of passengers exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, M.; Limam, K.; Bouilly, J.; Génin, D.

    The present study deals with particle pollution in a particular micro-environment: a French high-speed train smoker car. In the first part, measurements carried out in a real train are described. Both smoker and non-smoker cars' particle concentrations have been measured during a round trip. Additional experiments have been done in a stationary car with controlled particle pollution to evaluate parameters such as ventilation rates, deposition velocities and filter efficiencies involved in the particle mass balance of the studied zone. In the second part, a one-zone model has been developed to predict the particle concentration in the train car. Particle transport, deposition and filtration phenomena have been estimated from the stationary car experiments considering the well-mixed zone assumption. The model has then been applied to the round trip train to determine the particle concentration during the journey. Results show that the smoker car indoor air quality can be easily improved by changing the usual utilized filter by a high-efficiency H10-type filter, leading to a 34% reduction of the passengers inhaled dose.

  9. Slab track field test and demonstration program for shared freight and high-speed passenger service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Two types of slab tracks were installed on the High Tonnage Loop at the Facility for Accelerated Service Testing. Direct fixation slab track (DFST) and independent dual block track (IDBT) were installed into a 5-degree curve with 4-inch superelevatio...

  10. Passenger Sharing of the High-Speed Railway from Sensitivity Analysis Caused by Price and Run-time Based on the Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ning

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, governments around the world are active in constructing the high-speed railway. Therefore, it is significant to make research on this increasingly prevalent transport.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, we simulate the process of the passenger’s travel mode choice by adjusting the ticket fare and the run-time based on the multi-agent system (MAS.Findings: From the research we get the conclusion that increasing the run-time appropriately and reducing the ticket fare in some extent are effective ways to enhance the passenger sharing of the high-speed railway.Originality/value: We hope it can provide policy recommendations for the railway sectors in developing the long-term plan on high-speed railway in the future.

  11. Observational study of child restraining practice on Norwegian high-speed roads: restraint misuse poses a major threat to child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven-Martinsen; Naess, P A; Hansen, T B; Staff, T; Stray-Pedersen, A

    2013-10-01

    Restraint misuse and other occupant safety errors are the major cause of fatal and, severe injuries among child passengers in motor vehicle collisions. The main objectives of the present, study were to provide estimates of restraining practice among children younger than 16 years, traveling on Norwegian high-speed roads, and to uncover the high-risk groups associated with, restraint misuse and other safety errors. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in conjunction with regular traffic, control posts on high-speed roads. The seating and restraining of child occupants younger than 16, years were observed, the interior environment of the vehicles was examined, and a structured, interview of the driver was conducted according to a specific protocol. In total, 1260 child occupants aged 0-15 years were included in the study. Misuse of restraints, was observed in 38% of cases, with this being severe or critical in 24%. The presence of restraint, misuse varied significantly with age (prouted, seat belts. The highest frequency of severe and critical errors was observed among child occupants in, the age group 0-3 years. The most common errors were loose or improperly routed harness straps and, incorrect installations of the child restraint system. Moreover, 24% of the children were seated in, vehicles with heavy, unsecured objects in the passenger compartment and/or the trunk that were, likely to move into the compartment upon impact and cause injury. No totally unrestrained children, were observed. This study provides a detailed description of the characteristics of restraint misuse and, the occupant's exposure to unsecured objects. Future education and awareness campaigns should, focus on children aged routing and tightness of, harness straps and seat belts, correct installation of child restraints, and avoidance of premature, graduation from child restraints to seat belts only. Information campaigns should also advocate the use, of chest clips and address

  12. 78 FR 16358 - Safety Advisory 2013-02; Low-Speed, Wheel-Climb Derailments of Passenger Equipment With “Stiff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... less. The maximum allowable operating speed for passenger trains on Class 1 track, as defined under 49... under a variety of conditions, the rule focuses on high-speed and high cant deficiency operations, and... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2013-02; Low-Speed, Wheel-Climb Derailments of Passenger...

  13. High speed data converters

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed MA

    2016-01-01

    This book covers high speed data converters from the perspective of a leading high speed ADC designer and architect, with a strong emphasis on high speed Nyquist A/D converters. For our purposes, the term 'high speed' is defined as sampling rates that are greater than 10 MS/s.

  14. 76 FR 18298 - Notice of Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the DesertXpress High-Speed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... passenger rail transportation between southern California and Las Vegas using proven high-speed rail... DesertXpress High-Speed Passenger Train Project AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United... High-Speed Passenger Train Project (DesertXpress project). FRA is the Lead Agency for the environmental...

  15. PROSPECTS FOR RAISING PASSENGER TRAIN SPEED ON THE RECONSTRUCTED SECTION OF THE UZBEKISTAN RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidburhan DJABBAROV

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the state of technical equipment and railway infrastructure in the example section of the Tashkent-Andijan shows the possibility of increasing the speed of passenger trains. The results can be used in the reconstruction of railways operating under similar conditions, in order to increase train speed.

  16. Railroad Embankment Stabilization Demonstration for High-Speed Rail Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-09

    The development of high-speed railroad corridors in the United States is being considered by Congress as a fuel efficient and economical alternative to air or highway passenger travel. The exisiting infrastructure is, in many ways, suitable for freig...

  17. Safety evaluation of high-speed rail bogie concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The study defines the basic design concepts required to provide a safe, reliable, high-speed bogie for the next generation PRIIA passenger locomotive. The requirements and conditions for the U.S. market create unique design challenges that currently ...

  18. 76 FR 71353 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the DesertXpress Enterprises, LLC High-Speed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Enterprises, LLC High-Speed Passenger Train Project AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... Record of Decision (ROD) for the DesertXpress Enterprises, LLC High-Speed Passenger Train Project (Desert...-managed lands to build an Electrical Multiple Unit (EMU) high-speed passenger rail line in compliance with...

  19. Analysis of coupling between high-speed railway and common speed railway system in transportation corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongchang; Li, Haijun; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhu, Changfeng

    2017-04-01

    The high-speed railway and common speed railway subsystems as important components of the railway transportation system, can make railway traffic organization more orderly, when there are a rational division and balance development between them. In order to quantitatively evaluate the coordinate relations between high-speed railway subsystem and common speed railway subsystem, this paper takes the railway transportation corridor from Baoji to Lanzhou as an example. Firstly, using Logit model and grey forecasting model predict the passenger volume, passenger turnover and time value of high-speed railway and common speed railway in the Baoji-Lanzhou corridor. And then, the coupling forecast model of these two subsystems is established. Lastly, the coupling and coupling coordination of these two subsystems using are predicted and analyzed at theatrically level.

  20. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  1. 76 FR 8397 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO High Speed Rail Program Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ..., MO High Speed Rail Program Corridor AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of... High Speed Rail Corridor Program in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA... passenger trains. The EIS will consider increasing the number of frequencies of high-speed passenger rail...

  2. High Speed Ice Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  3. Assessment of potential aerodynamic effects on personnel and equipment in proximity to high-speed train operations : safety of high-speed ground transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Amtrak is planning to provide high-speed passenger train service at speeds significantly higher than their current top speed of 125 mph, and with these higher speeds, there are concerns with safety from the aerodynamic effects created by a passing tr...

  4. Speed-dependent emission of air pollutants from gasoline-powered passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungwoon; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Jongchoon; Lyu, Youngsook; Park, Junhong

    2011-01-01

    In Korea emissions from motor vehicles are a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities, and in Seoul a large proportion of the vehicle fleet is made up of gasoline-powered passenger cars. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in the exhaust emissions from 76 gasoline-powered passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts has been assessed by vehicle speed, vehicle mileage and model year. The results show that CO, HC, NOx and CO2 emissions remained almost unchanged at higher speeds but decreased rapidly at lower speeds. While a reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions was noticeable in vehicles of recent manufacture and lower mileage, CO2 emissions were found to be insensitive to vehicle mileage, but strongly dependent on gross vehicle weight. Lower emissions from more recent gasoline-powered vehicles arose mainly from improvements in three-way catalytic converter technology following strengthened emission regulations. The correlation between CO2 emission and fuel consumption has been investigated with a view to establishing national CO2 emission standards for Korea.

  5. The impact of high speed rail on airport competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, I.; Lijesen, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of introducing a high speed train connection on competition between airports, focusing on the new HST-link between Amsterdam and Brussels. We conduct a detailed analysis regarding the airport choice of passengers living in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Northern France

  6. Phoenix: Preliminary design of a high speed civil transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Joseph; Davis, Steven; Jett, Brian; Ringo, Leslie; Stob, John; Wood, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Phoenix Design Project was to develop a second generation high speed civil transport (HSCT) that will meet the needs of the traveler and airline industry beginning in the 21st century. The primary emphasis of the HSCT is to take advantage of the growing needs of the Pacific Basin and the passengers who are involved in that growth. A passenger load of 150 persons, a mission range of 5150 nautical miles, and a cruise speed of Mach 2.5 constitutes the primary design points of this HSCT. The design concept is made possible with the use of a well designed double delta wing and four mixed flow engines. Passenger comfort, compatibility with existing airport infrastructure, and cost competitive with current subsonic aircraft make the Phoenix a viable aircraft for the future.

  7. HIGH SPEED CAMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B.T. Jr.; Davis, W.C.

    1957-12-17

    This patent relates to high speed cameras having resolution times of less than one-tenth microseconds suitable for filming distinct sequences of a very fast event such as an explosion. This camera consists of a rotating mirror with reflecting surfaces on both sides, a narrow mirror acting as a slit in a focal plane shutter, various other mirror and lens systems as well as an innage recording surface. The combination of the rotating mirrors and the slit mirror causes discrete, narrow, separate pictures to fall upon the film plane, thereby forming a moving image increment of the photographed event. Placing a reflecting surface on each side of the rotating mirror cancels the image velocity that one side of the rotating mirror would impart, so as a camera having this short a resolution time is thereby possible.

  8. High speed preprocessing system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (a) Digitizing and writing the video data in the memory at HR rate, and (b) once the data are ready in the memory, reading the data and generating the LR image. Thus the execution time mainly depends on (i) processor speed, and (ii) the time taken for fetching video information/data. Figure 1. Hardware block diagram. 514.

  9. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  10. Fire ventilation for the high-speed line south train tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leur, P.H.E. van de; Oerle, N.J. van; Lemaire, A.D.; Molag, M.

    1999-01-01

    In The Netherlands, the High-Speed Line South project currently under development as a part of the European railway network for high speed trains. In support of a Quantitative Risk Assessment, CFD calculations provide data on the consequences of fire scenarios for escaping passengers. The paper

  11. All aboard for high-speed rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.

    1996-09-01

    A sleek, bullet-nosed train whizzing across the countryside is a fairly common sight in many nations. Since the Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV)--the record-setting ``train with great speed``--was introduced in France in 1981, Germany, Japan, and other countries have joined the high-speed club. In addition, the Eurostar passenger train, which travels between Great Britain and France through the Channel Tunnel, can move at 186 miles per hour once it reaches French tracks. Despite the technology`s growth elsewhere, rapid rail travel has not been seen on US shores beyond a few test runs by various manufacturers. Before the end of the century, however, American train spotters will finally be able to see some very fast trains here too. In March, Washington, DC-based Amtrak announced the purchase of 18 American Flyer high-speed train sets for the Northeast Corridor, which stretches from Boston through new York to the nation`s capital. Furthermore, Florida will get its own system by 2004, and other states are now taking a look at the technology. The American Flyer--designed by Montreal-based Bombardier and TGV manufacturer GEC Alsthom Transport in Paris--should venture onto US rails by 1999. Traveling at up to 150 miles per hour, the American Flyer will cut the New York-Boston run from 4 1/2 hours to 3 hours and reduce New York-Washington trip time from 3 hours to less than 2 3/4. Amtrak hopes the new trains and better times will earn it a greater share of travelers from air shuttles and perhaps from Interstate 95. This article describes how technologies that tilt railcars and propel the world`s fastest trains will be merged into one train set for the American Flyer, Amtrak`s first trip along high-speed rails.

  12. Study of high-speed civil transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A systems study to identify the economic potential for a high-speed commercial transport (HSCT) has considered technology, market characteristics, airport infrastructure, and environmental issues. Market forecasts indicate a need for HSCT service in the 2000/2010 time frame conditioned on economic viability and environmental acceptability. Design requirements focused on a 300 passenger, 3 class service, and 6500 nautical mile range based on the accelerated growth of the Pacific region. Compatibility with existing airports was an assumed requirement. Mach numbers between 2 and 25 were examined in conjunction with the appropriate propulsion systems, fuels, structural materials, and thermal management systems. Aircraft productivity was a key parameter with aircraft worth, in comparison to aircraft price, being the airline-oriented figure of merit. Aircraft screening led to determination that Mach 3.2 (TSJF) would have superior characteristics to Mach 5.0 (LNG) and the recommendation that the next generation high-speed commercial transport aircraft use a kerosene fuel. The sensitivity of aircraft performance and economics to environmental constraints (e.g., sonic boom, engine emissions, and airport/community noise) was identified together with key technologies. In all, current technology is not adequate to produce viable HSCTs for the world marketplace. Technology advancements must be accomplished to meet environmental requirements (these requirements are as yet undetermined for sonic boom and engine emissions). High priority is assigned to aircraft gross weight reduction which benefits both economics and environmental aspects. Specific technology requirements are identified and national economic benefits are projected.

  13. High speed rail distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Texas Central Partners are in the process of developing a high speed rail line connecting : Houston and Dallas, Texas. Ultimately, plans are for 8 car trains that accommodate 200 people per : vehicle scheduled every 30 minutes. In addition, Texas...

  14. High-Speed Electrochemical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momotenko, Dmitry; Byers, Joshua C; McKelvey, Kim; Kang, Minkyung; Unwin, Patrick R

    2015-09-22

    The design, development, and application of high-speed scanning electrochemical probe microscopy is reported. The approach allows the acquisition of a series of high-resolution images (typically 1000 pixels μm(-2)) at rates approaching 4 seconds per frame, while collecting up to 8000 image pixels per second, about 1000 times faster than typical imaging speeds used up to now. The focus is on scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM), but the principles and practicalities are applicable to many electrochemical imaging methods. The versatility of the high-speed scan concept is demonstrated at a variety of substrates, including imaging the electroactivity of a patterned self-assembled monolayer on gold, visualization of chemical reactions occurring at single wall carbon nanotubes, and probing nanoscale electrocatalysts for water splitting. These studies provide movies of spatial variations of electrochemical fluxes as a function of potential and a platform for the further development of high speed scanning with other electrochemical imaging techniques.

  15. 78 FR 36823 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-in Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--in... approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for the California High-Speed Rail Authority (Authority) to construct an approximately 65- mile high-speed passenger rail line between Merced and Fresno, California...

  16. 78 FR 28940 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Atlanta to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor AGENCY: Federal Rail Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... between Atlanta, GA and Charlotte, NC, along the Southeast High-Speed Rail Corridor (SEHSR) as designated... to implement high-speed rail. Build Alternatives will consist of an array of passenger rail...

  17. 78 FR 22031 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Merced, Madera and Fresno Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--In Merced... Administration (FRA) and California High-Speed Rail Authority (Authority). This Final EIS is titled ``California... of the planned California HST system, which would provide intercity, high-speed passenger rail...

  18. High Speed Compressor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    Davey G. The Design and Testing of a Stirling Cycle Domestic Freezer. Proc. of Conference on Applications for Natural Refrigerants , held in Aarhus...carried out on a relatively old design of compressor, initially developed for use with a Stirling cycle domestic freezer12, and subsequently used in a...limit’, and is suitable for high cycle fatigue. Beryllium copper has been largely superseded by stainless steel, which is more readily available

  19. Environmental impact statement : Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-16

    The proposed action would provide High-Speed Rail (HSR) passenger service between Chicago and St. Louis, operating at top speeds of 110 mph (180 kph) through most of the project area, except for a 29-kilometer (18-mile) segment between Lincoln and Sp...

  20. High-speed photonics interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chrostowski, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic increases in processing power have rapidly scaled on-chip aggregate bandwidths into the Tb/s range. This necessitates a corresponding increase in the amount of data communicated between chips, so as not to limit overall system performance. To meet the increasing demand for interchip communication bandwidth, researchers are investigating the use of high-speed optical interconnect architectures. Unlike their electrical counterparts, optical interconnects offer high bandwidth and negligible frequency-dependent loss, making possible per-channel data rates of more than 10 Gb/s. High-Speed

  1. High-speed pulse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Coekin, J A

    1975-01-01

    High-Speed Pulse Techniques covers the many aspects of technique in digital electronics and encompass some of the more fundamental factors that apply to all digital systems. The book describes the nature of pulse signals and their deliberate or inadvertent processing in networks, transmission lines and transformers, and then examines the characteristics and transient performance of semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Some of the problems associated with the assembly of these into viable systems operating at ultra high speed are also looked at. The book examines the transients and w

  2. A REVIEW OF HIGH-SPEED RAIL PLAN IN JAVA ISLAND: A COMPARISON WITH EXISTING MODES OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hartono

    2013-05-01

    It can be concluded that journey time and fare of the high-speed rail is very competitive to the air transport in Jakarta-Surabaya corridor. The journey time to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya is 4 hours and 19 minutes by high-speed train and 4 hours and 40 minutes by air. Based on the benchmarking analysis, the suitable fare for the high-speed rail should be 70% of the air transport. This study predicted that 61% of air passenger, 18% of conventional rail passenger and 12% of bus passenger will switch to the high-speed rail service in 2020. In total, the high-speed rail will have 24% of market share for the passenger transport and becomes the second largest market share after road transport (52%. The conventional rail and air transport have 14% and 9% of total market share to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya and vice versa. The high-speed rail development reduces carbon emissions caused by transportation systems in Java Island. It has been calculated that there are 2.542 million tonnages of CO2 per annum without introducing high-speed rail, however, the CO2 emissions decrease to 1.694 million tonnages per annum if the high-speed rail is developed in Java Island. Generalized cost of the high-speed rail is higher than road and conventional rail. However, it is lower than air transport. Keywords: Java high-speed rail, HSR Comparison, modal share, journey time

  3. High-speed OTDM switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Mikkelsen, Benny; Clausen, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Optical TDM (OTDM) continues to be of interest both for point-point transmission and as a networking technology for both LANs and long-distance fibre transmission. Recent research has demonstrated enabling techniques for OTDM networks at high speeds. In conclusion, OTDM is emerging as an attracti...

  4. TECHNICAL APPROACH TO THE EFFICIENCY DETERMINATION OF HIGH-SPEED TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Momot

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this article is to develop an approach and formulate arrangements concerning the definition of the economic appropriateness of high-speed movement implementation in Ukraine. Methodology. The economic feasibility for appropriateness of high-speed movement organization in Ukraine is an investment project, which involves step-by-step money investment into the construction. It will let get an annual profits from the passenger carriage. To solve such problems we use net present value, which UZ or newly created companies can get during the project realization and after its completion. Findings. Obtained studies can state the fact that the technical approach for full effectiveness definition of a construction and high-speed passenger trains service taking into account the cost of infrastructure, rolling stock, the impact of environmental factors, etc. was determined. Originality. We propose a scientific approach to determine the economic effectiveness of the construction and high-speed main lines service. It includes improved principles of defining the passenger traffic, the cost of high-speed rails construction, the number of rolling stock; optimizes income and expenditure calculations in the context of competitive advantages and the external factors impact on the company. A technical approach for the calculation of future traffic volumes along the high-speed line was improved. It differs essentially from the European one proposed by the French firm «SYSTRA», as it allows taking into account additional transit traffic through Ukraine. It helps to distribute the passengers on separate sections proportionally to the number of cities population, which are combined by high-speed main line, subject to the average population mobility, travel time and the coefficient that takes into account the frequency of additional passenger trips on a given section, depending on the purpose (business trip, transfer to a plane, recreation, etc

  5. High speed cryogenic monodisperse targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukharov, A.; Vishnevkii, E.

    2017-11-01

    The basic possibility of creation of high speed cryogenic monodisperse targets is shown. According to calculations at input of thin liquid cryogenic jets with a velocity of bigger 100 m/s in vacuum the jets don’t manage to freeze at distance to 1 mm and can be broken into monodisperse drops. Drops due to evaporation are cooled and become granules. High speed cryogenic monodisperse targets have the following advantages: direct input in vacuum (there is no need for a chamber of a triple point chamber and sluices), it is possible to use the equipment of a cluster target, it is possible to receive targets with a diameter of D 100m/s), exact synchronization of the target hitting moment in a beam with the moment of sensors turning on.

  6. High-speed passenger rail tie-ballast interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Research Results Report presents : evidence of poor tie support and increased : applied loads that were used to determine the : root cause of transient and permanent vertical : displacements at two Amtrak bridge transitions. : These result...

  7. Ultra high-speed sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James F

    2005-10-01

    Cell sorting has a history dating back approximately 40 years. The main limitation has been that, although flow cytometry is a science, cell sorting has been an art during most of this time. Recent advances in assisting technologies have helped to decrease the amount of expertise necessary to perform sorting. Droplet-based sorting is based on a controlled disturbance of a jet stream dependent on surface tension. Sorting yield and purity are highly dependent on stable jet break-off position. System pressures and orifice diameters dictate the number of droplets per second, which is the sort rate limiting step because modern electronics can more than handle the higher cell signal processing rates. Cell sorting still requires considerable expertise. Complex multicolor sorting also requires new and more sophisticated sort decisions, especially when cell subpopulations are rare and need to be extracted from background. High-speed sorting continues to pose major problems in terms of biosafety due to the aerosols generated. Cell sorting has become more stable and predictable and requires less expertise to operate. However, the problems of aerosol containment continue to make droplet-based cell sorting problematical. Fluid physics and cell viability restraints pose practical limits for high-speed sorting that have almost been reached. Over the next 5 years there may be advances in fluidic switching sorting in lab-on-a-chip microfluidic systems that could not only solve the aerosol and viability problems but also make ultra high-speed sorting possible and practical through massively parallel and exponential staging microfluidic architectures.

  8. 78 FR 32007 - Environmental Impact Statement for Tulsa-Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor, Oklahoma, Lincoln...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...) for the State of Oklahoma High-Speed Rail Initiative: Tulsa--Oklahoma City Passenger Rail Corridor... currently has no passenger rail service. This corridor is part of the South Central High Speed Rail Corridor and is a federally-designated high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. ODOT envisions the Tulsa--Oklahoma City...

  9. Proposal and preliminary design for a high speed civil transport aircraft. Swift: A high speed civil transport for the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuelos, Aerobel; Caballero, Maria L.; Fields, Richard S., Jr.; Ledesma, Martha E.; Murakami, Lynne A.; Reyes, Joe T.; Westra, Bryan W.

    1992-01-01

    To meet the needs of the growing passenger traffic market in light of an aging subsonic fleet, a new breed of aircraft must be developed. The Swift is an aircraft that will economically meet these needs by the year 2000. Swift is a 246 passenger, Mach 2.5, luxury airliner. It has been designed to provide the benefit of comfortable, high speed transportation in a safe manner with minimal environmental impact. This report will discuss the features of the Swift aircraft and establish a solid, foundation for this supersonic transport of tomorrow.

  10. Analysis of technological and competitive trends of weight reduction in high speed rolling stock industry

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto Moneo, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation to the transport of passengers sector of the high speed industry is preceded by a global society, which requires the possibility to travel quickly, comfortably and efficiently, imposing the current attitude of the concern with the environment. The development of the rail sector over recent decades, and especially in recent years, along with the technological development has allowed the formation of a network of high speed lines around the greatest part of the planet. Due...

  11. Towards high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Femke Chantal

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, two routes towards high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are described. The first possibility for high-speed scanning that is discussed is the use of MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems) devices as high-speed add-ons in STM microscopes. The functionality of these devices

  12. High speed nanofluidic protein accumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dapeng; Steckl, Andrew J

    2009-07-07

    Highly efficient preconcentration is a crucial prerequisite to the identification of important protein biomarkers with extremely low abundance in target biofluids. In this work, poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips integrated with 10 nm polycarbonate nanopore membranes were utilized as high-speed protein accumulators. Double-sided injection control of electrokinetic fluid flow in the sample channel resulted in highly localized protein accumulation at a very sharp point in the channel cross point. This greatly enhanced the ability to detect very low levels of initial protein concentration. Fluorescein labeled human serum albumin solutions of 30 and 300 pM accumulated to 3 and 30 microM in only 100 s. Initial solutions as low as 0.3 and 3 pM could be concentrated within 200 s to 0.3 and 3 microM, respectively. This demonstrates a approximately 10(5)-10(6) accumulation factor, and an accumulation rate as high as 5000/sec, yielding a >10x improvement over most results reported to date.

  13. The Impact of High-Speed Rail on Residents’ Travel Behavior and Household Mobility: A Case Study of the Beijing-Shanghai Line, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hongsheng Chen; Dongqi Sun; Zhenjun Zhu; Jun Zeng

    2016-01-01

    With the improvement of China’s high-speed rail network, there have been many economic and social benefits for local residents. Based on a questionnaire conducted in stations on the Beijing-Shanghai line, and through an analysis of high-speed rail passenger travel behavior and family relocation, we explored the social effects of high-speed rail. The study found that high-speed rail passengers are mainly young, highly educated, and have a middle to high income. However, with the popularization...

  14. High Speed Viterbi Decoder Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The fastest commercially available Viterbi decoders for the (171,133) standard rate 1/2 code operate with a decoding speed of 40-50 Mbit/s (net data rate). In this paper we present a suitable architecture for decoders operating with decoding speeds of 150-300 Mbit/s....

  15. Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.

  16. Wake flow characteristics at high wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2016-01-01

    Wake flow characteristic at high wind speeds is the main subject of this paper. Although the wake losses decrease at high wind speeds it has been found in a recent study that for multiple wake inflow the increase in loading due to wake effects are substantial even at wind speeds well above rated ...

  17. IMPROVED METHOD OF DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF HIGH SPEED MAINLINE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Barash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop an advanced methodology and formulate the measures concerning the definition of economic efficiency of high-speed movement organization taking into account the operating experience of rapid transportations in Ukraine, travel time, number of stops on the route, schedule and the demand for these transportations. Methodology. The economic feasibility for appropriateness of high-speed movement organization in Ukraine is an investment project, which involves step-by-step money investment to the construction. To solve such problems one uses net present value, which UZ or newly created companies can get during the project realization and after its completion. Findings. On the basis of obtained studies one can state that the methodology of complex determination of construction efficiency and high-speed passenger trains operation taking into account the cost of infrastructure, rolling stock, impact of environmental factors, etc. was developed in the article. Originality. We propose a scientific approach to determine the economic efficiency of the construction and high-speed main lines operation. This approach, unlike the existing one, includes the improved principles of determining the passenger traffic, the cost of high-speed mainline construction, the number of rolling stock; optimizes income and expenditure calculations in the context of competitive advantages and impact of the external factors on the company. For the first time it was taken into account the transit flow of passengers departing from CIS countries to the vacation in the Crimea, the Carpathians, Odessa and Lviv regions. The account of these factors increases the feasibility of administrative decisions concerning ensuring the efficiency of high-speed traffic functioning. Practical value. The proposed methodology and the research results allowed determining the construction reasonability of high-speed mainline for the passenger trains with a speed at least250 km/h in

  18. High Speed On-Wafer Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the High Speed On-Wafer Characterization Laboratory, researchers characterize and model devices operating at terahertz (THz) and millimeter-wave frequencies. The...

  19. High speed imaging - An important industrial tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alton; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    High-speed photography, which is a rapid sequence of photographs that allow an event to be analyzed through the stoppage of motion or the production of slow-motion effects, is examined. In high-speed photography 16, 35, and 70 mm film and framing rates between 64-12,000 frames per second are utilized to measure such factors as angles, velocities, failure points, and deflections. The use of dual timing lamps in high-speed photography and the difficulties encountered with exposure and programming the camera and event are discussed. The application of video cameras to the recording of high-speed events is described.

  20. High-speed imaging in fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Michel

    2013-01-01

    High-speed imaging is in popular demand for a broad range of experiments in fluids. It allows for a detailed visualization of the event under study by acquiring a series of image frames captured at high temporal and spatial resolution. This review covers high-speed imaging basics, by defining

  1. A Study on the Effects of Redundant Time on the Operation of Different Speed-Grade Trains in Passenger Railway Line Traffic System by Using Cellular Automata Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As an integrated kind of railway signal-control pattern, the four-aspect fixed autoblock system has been used in many train control systems. This paper takes the four-aspect fixed autoblock system as the research object and proposes the cellular automata model of the fixed autoblock system based on the existing theoretical researches on different train systems and traffic systems by means of the analytical study of the classical cellular automata model. The CA (cellular automata models combine complexity of passenger railway line with the theory of cellular automata and introduce some new CA models into the existing control systems. After analyzing the relevant simulation results, we study thoroughly and obtain efficiently the needed data for the variation of the section carrying capacity, the average train delay and the train speed which have been affected by redundant time on the operation of passenger trains with different speeds.

  2. [Experience in hygienic and ergonomic design of an inter-regional high-speed electric train "Sokol"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkol'nikov, B I; Boiarchuk, I F; Beresneva, T G; Losavio, N G; Leksin, A G; Ignat'ev, M A; Poliakova, V A; Siriachenko, S S

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental hygienic principles in the design of a high-speed Sokol electric train and its ergonometric approach cause one to anticipate a new rolling stock with high convenience for passengers, which will be an analogue of the world's best ones to appear.

  3. High speed curving performance of rail vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    On March 13, 2013, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) published a final rule titled Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations which amended the Track Safety Standards (49 CFR Part213) and ...

  4. High prevalence of Legionella in non-passenger merchant vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S L; Stevenson, D; Mentasti, M; Shaw, A; Johnson, A; Crossley, L; Willis, C

    2017-03-01

    There is a paucity of information on the risk from potable water in non-passenger merchant vessels (NPMVs) particularly with regard to Legionella and other bacteria. This retrospective study examined water samples from 550 NPMVs docked in eight UK ports. A total of 1027 samples from 412 NPMVs were examined for total aerobic colony counts (ACC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci; 41% of samples yielded ACC above the action level (>1 × 103 c.f.u./ml) and 4·5% contained actionable levels (>1 c.f.u./100 ml) of faecal indicator bacteria. Eight hundred and three samples from 360 NPMVs were cultured specifically for Legionella and 58% of vessels proved positive for these organisms with 27% of samples showing levels greater than the UK upper action limit of 1 × 103 c.f.u./l. Cabin showers (49%) and hospital shower (45%) were frequently positive. A subset of 106 samples was analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Legionella and identified a further 11 Legionella-positive NPMVs, returning a negative predictive value of 100%. There was no correlation between NPMV age or size and any microbial parameters (P > 0·05). Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 46% of NPMVs and sequence-based typing of 17 isolates revealed four sequence types (STs) previously associated with human disease. These data raise significant concerns regarding the management of microbial and Legionella risks on board NPMVs and suggest that better guidance and compliance are required to improve control.

  5. Higher speed freight truck market analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A market analysis was conducted on behalf of FRA to determine the viability for implementation of higher speed freight rail service in anticipation of high-speed passenger rail service on upgraded freight rail corridors. : The analysis focused on the...

  6. Deutsche Bahn's new high-speed multiple units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panier, Frank [Deutsche Bahn, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering and Purchasing Dept.

    2011-03-15

    Given the strong growth in international high-speed passenger business. Deutsche Bahn has decided to expand its relatively small fleet of four-voltage ICE 3s (class 406). The new ICE 3s are to be known as the class 407 and, in addition to operating on Deutsche Bahn's own network as well as in northern und eastern France and in Belgium, it is intended to have them running for the first time in southern France too. (orig.)

  7. Sensor Networks Hierarchical Optimization Model for Security Monitoring in High-Speed Railway Transport Hub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the sensor networks hierarchical optimization problem in high-speed railway transport hub (HRTH. The sensor networks are optimized from three hierarchies which are key area sensors optimization, passenger line sensors optimization, and whole area sensors optimization. Case study on a specific HRTH in China showed that the hierarchical optimization method is effective to optimize the sensor networks for security monitoring in HRTH.

  8. Jane's high-speed marine transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, S.J

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive reference yearbook covering the design, build and operation of high-speed marine transportation, worldwide, an annually updated reference book...

  9. 78 FR 73921 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... the project in advance of the environmental issues. The Authority states that its design-build... would, when completed, provide high-speed intercity passenger rail service over more than 800 miles of new rail line throughout California.\\1\\ The complete system would connect the major population centers...

  10. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TWO-SPAN CONTINUOUS CONCRETE BRIDGES UNDER MOVING OF HIGH-SPEED TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Marinichenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work provides a comparison of the results of the movement of a high-speed passenger train across the bridge, obtained as a result of finite element modeling in the SAP2000 software package, and real tests of a double-span concrete railway bridge. Analysis of the rigid characteristics of flying structures. Methodology.The numerical method presented in this study shows valid results concerning the dynamic analysis of the behavior of bridges in conditions of high-speed train traffic. The factors influencing the dynamic behavior of bridges under moving loads, the influence of design parameters and rolling stock, as well as the interaction of the train and spans are determined. The system was used in the form of moving concentrated forces simulating the axes of the train. Findings. Maximum movements and accelerations were obtained as a result of the dynamic calculation for different speeds of the train and compared with practical tests. The correctness of the model of a span structure with regard to continuous ferroconcrete spans was verified. Originality. Within the framework of the work, the latest test results were used, including those with speeds calculated on the prospect of rail passenger traffic. For these tests, a model of a span structure was developed. Practical value. The results of the research can be used to plan the introduction of high-speed train traffic on existing and planned flying structures of reinforced concrete bridges. An approach to the design of span structures that will be effective when passing high-speed passenger trains is implemented.

  11. Social exclusion and high speed rail: The case study of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliara, F.; Menicocci, F.; Vassallo, J.M.; Gomez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Very few contributions in the literature have dealt with the issue of social exclusion related to High Speed Rail systems. The objective of this manuscript is to understand what are the factors excluding users from choosing High Speed Rail services considering as case study Spain. For this purpose, a Revealed Preference survey was employed in November and December 2015. A questionnaire was submitted to users of the Spanish transport systems travelling for long distance-journeys. The aim was that of investigating their perception of High Speed Rail system and the factors inhibiting passengers or excluding them from its use. Data about their socioeconomic characteristics were collected as well. The main result of the survey has been that a relationship between social exclusion and High Speed Rail in Spain is present, especially in terms of geographical exclusion. (Author)

  12. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  13. High speed rail : challenges for the high speed rail project in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ringstad, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This Master Thesis has focus on parts of the public transport system in Norway. The main topic in this thesis is: What variables must be calculated for the decision concerning the construction and implementation of the Norwegian High Speed Rail project, and how are the variables calculated? High Speed Rail does not have a single standard definition. High Speed Rail definition, given in the European Union definition, Directive 96/48 is suitable for many different systems of rolling stock...

  14. Scientific Visualization in High Speed Network Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Arsi; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In several cases, new visualization techniques have vastly increased the researcher's ability to analyze and comprehend data. Similarly, the role of networks in providing an efficient supercomputing environment have become more critical and continue to grow at a faster rate than the increase in the processing capabilities of supercomputers. A close relationship between scientific visualization and high-speed networks in providing an important link to support efficient supercomputing is identified. The two technologies are driven by the increasing complexities and volume of supercomputer data. The interaction of scientific visualization and high-speed networks in a Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation/visualization environment are given. Current capabilities supported by high speed networks, supercomputers, and high-performance graphics workstations at the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NAS) at NASA Ames Research Center are described. Applied research in providing a supercomputer visualization environment to support future computational requirements are summarized.

  15. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-04-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  16. Brandaris ultra high-speed imaging facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajoinie, Guillaume; de Jong, Nico; Versluis, Michel; Tsuji, K.

    2017-01-01

    High-speed imaging is in popular demand for a broad range of scientific applications, including fluid physics, and bubble and droplet dynamics. It allows for a detailed visualization of the event under study by acquiring a series of images captured at high temporal and spatial resolution. The

  17. High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Sandra D.

    2009-01-01

    A High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review (HSD Review) is being conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-shelf in this rapidly progressing industry. Five HSD cameras supplied by four camera manufacturers participated in a Field Test during the Space Shuttle Discovery STS-128 launch. Each camera was also subjected to Bench Tests in the ASRC Imaging Development Laboratory. Evaluation of the data from the Field and Bench Tests is underway. Representatives from the imaging communities at NASA / KSC and the Optical Systems Group are participating as reviewers. A High Speed Digital Video Camera Draft Specification was updated to address Shuttle engineering imagery requirements based on findings from this HSD Review. This draft specification will serve as the template for a High Speed Digital Video Camera Specification to be developed for the wider OSG imaging community under OSG Task OS-33.

  18. High Speed Wireless Signal Generation and Demodulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Zibar, Darko

    We present the experimental demonstration of high speed wireless generation, up to 40 Gb/s, in the 75-110 GHz wireless band. All-optical OFDM and photonic up-conversion are used for generation and single side-band modulation with digital coherent detection for demodulation.......We present the experimental demonstration of high speed wireless generation, up to 40 Gb/s, in the 75-110 GHz wireless band. All-optical OFDM and photonic up-conversion are used for generation and single side-band modulation with digital coherent detection for demodulation....

  19. High-speed dynamic-clamp interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Adowski, Timothy; Ramamurthy, Bina; Neef, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic-clamp technique is highly useful for mimicking synaptic or voltage-gated conductances. However, its use remains rare in part because there are few systems, and they can be expensive and difficult for less-experienced programmers to implement. Furthermore, some conductances (such as sodium channels) can be quite rapid or may have complex voltage sensitivity, so high speeds are necessary. To address these issues, we have developed a new interface that uses a common personal computer platform with National Instruments data acquisition and WaveMetrics IGOR to provide a simple user interface. This dynamic clamp implements leak and linear synaptic conductances as well as a voltage-dependent synaptic conductance and kinetic channel conductances based on Hodgkin-Huxley or Markov models. The speed of the system can be assayed using a testing mode, and currently speeds of >100 kHz (10 μs per cycle) are achievable with short latency and little jitter. PMID:25632075

  20. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  1. The Impact of High-Speed Rail on Residents’ Travel Behavior and Household Mobility: A Case Study of the Beijing-Shanghai Line, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of China’s high-speed rail network, there have been many economic and social benefits for local residents. Based on a questionnaire conducted in stations on the Beijing-Shanghai line, and through an analysis of high-speed rail passenger travel behavior and family relocation, we explored the social effects of high-speed rail. The study found that high-speed rail passengers are mainly young, highly educated, and have a middle to high income. However, with the popularization of high-speed rail, such differences in the social stratum of high-speed rail passengers are expected to disappear. Through an analysis of passenger travel status, we found that the areas surrounding high-speed rail stations are very accessible to the main cities, and are well connected by other public transport. With the emergence of the “high mobility era” based on the high-speed rail network, the separation of workplace and residence and the number of “double city” households are increasing, primarily in the Beijing-Tianjin and Shanghai-Nanjing (especially in Suzhou-Kunshan-Shanghai regions. In addition, high-speed rail introduces the possibility of household mobility, with 22.7% of the respondents in this study having relocated since the Beijing-Shanghai line opened. Household mobility is apparent primarily among big cities, with movement toward nearby cities. We also found that occupation, income, residence time, and schooling of children have a significant impact on households. With the improvement of high-speed rail networks, household mobility will become a common phenomenon and research on domestic mobility will continue to increase.

  2. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, Nicole; Nash, Chris; Pels, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers,

  3. High-speed Rail & air transport competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, N; Nash, C.; Pels, E.

    2010-01-01

    This research develops a methodology to assess infrastructure investments and their effects on transport equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub-and-spoke legacy airlines and regional low-cost

  4. Crew Rostering for the High Speed Train

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Lentink (Ramon); M.A. Odijk; E. van Rijn

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAt the time of writing we entered the final stage of implementing the crew rostering system Harmony CDR to facilitate the planning of catering crews on board of the Thalys, the High Speed Train connecting Paris, Cologne, Brussels, Amsterdam, and Geneva. Harmony CDR optimally supports the

  5. Controllable High-Speed Rotation of Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D. L.; Zhu, F. Q.; Cammarata, R. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    We report a versatile method for executing controllable high-speed rotation of nanowires by ac voltages applied to multiple electrodes. The rotation of the nanowires can be instantly switched on or off with precisely controlled rotation speed (to at least 1800 rpm), definite chirality, and total angle of rotation. We have determined the torque due to the fluidic drag force on nanowire of different lengths. We also demonstrate a micromotor using a rotating nanowire driving a dust particle into circular motion. This method has been used to rotate magnetic and nonmagnetic nanowires as well as carbon nanotubes.

  6. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huey, Bryan D. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  7. Potential scenarios of concern for high speed rail operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    Currently, multiple operating authorities are proposing the : introduction of high-speed rail service in the United States. : While high-speed rail service shares a number of basic : principles with conventional-speed rail service, the operational : ...

  8. High speed, high current pulsed driver circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlen, Christopher R.

    2017-03-21

    Various technologies presented herein relate to driving a LED such that the LED emits short duration pulses of light. This is accomplished by driving the LED with short duration, high amplitude current pulses. When the LED is driven by short duration, high amplitude current pulses, the LED emits light at a greater amplitude compared to when the LED is driven by continuous wave current.

  9. Radiation-Tolerant High-Speed Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Radiation -Tolerant High-Speed Camera Esko Mikkola, Andrew Levy, Matt Engelman Alphacore, Inc. Tempe, AZ 85281 Abstract: As part of an... radiation -hardened CMOS image sensor and camera system. Radiation -hardened cameras with frame rates as high as 10 kfps and resolution of 1Mpixel are not...camera solution that is under development with a similar architecture. It also includes a brief description of the radiation -hardened camera that

  10. PMSM sensorless control with separate control strategies and smooth switch from low speed to high speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, SiYi; Luo, Ying; Pi, YouGuo

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes a smooth switching scheme with separate control strategies on low speed mode and high speed mode for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) sensorless control to improve the overall performance in full speed range. Constant voltage/frequency tuning method is used on low speed mode because the rotor position can hardly be estimated precisely at low speed. Along with the increasing speed, the control strategy can be switched to high speed mode smoothly when current and speed meet the given requirements. In this high speed mode, the current tracking with a sliding mode observer (SMO) and speed tracking with a sliding mode controller (SMC) are handled, respectively. Experimental demonstration is presented to show the desired performance in full speed range of the PMSM sensorless control using the proposed control scheme in this paper. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Circuity analyses of HSR network and high-speed train paths in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuo; Huang, Jie; Shan, Xinghua

    2017-01-01

    Circuity, defined as the ratio of the shortest network distance to the Euclidean distance between one origin–destination (O-D) pair, can be adopted as a helpful evaluation method of indirect degrees of train paths. In this paper, the maximum circuity of the paths of operated trains is set to be the threshold value of the circuity of high-speed train paths. For the shortest paths of any node pairs, if their circuity is not higher than the threshold value, the paths can be regarded as the reasonable paths. With the consideration of a certain relative or absolute error, we cluster the reasonable paths on the basis of their inclusion relationship and the center path of each class represents a passenger transit corridor. We take the high-speed rail (HSR) network in China at the end of 2014 as an example, and obtain 51 passenger transit corridors, which are alternative sets of train paths. Furthermore, we analyze the circuity distribution of paths of all node pairs in the network. We find that the high circuity of train paths can be decreased with the construction of a high-speed railway line, which indicates that the structure of the HSR network in China tends to be more complete and the HSR network can make the Chinese railway network more efficient. PMID:28945757

  12. Circuity analyses of HSR network and high-speed train paths in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinlei; Zhao, Shuo; Shi, Feng; Huang, Jie; Shan, Xinghua

    2017-01-01

    Circuity, defined as the ratio of the shortest network distance to the Euclidean distance between one origin-destination (O-D) pair, can be adopted as a helpful evaluation method of indirect degrees of train paths. In this paper, the maximum circuity of the paths of operated trains is set to be the threshold value of the circuity of high-speed train paths. For the shortest paths of any node pairs, if their circuity is not higher than the threshold value, the paths can be regarded as the reasonable paths. With the consideration of a certain relative or absolute error, we cluster the reasonable paths on the basis of their inclusion relationship and the center path of each class represents a passenger transit corridor. We take the high-speed rail (HSR) network in China at the end of 2014 as an example, and obtain 51 passenger transit corridors, which are alternative sets of train paths. Furthermore, we analyze the circuity distribution of paths of all node pairs in the network. We find that the high circuity of train paths can be decreased with the construction of a high-speed railway line, which indicates that the structure of the HSR network in China tends to be more complete and the HSR network can make the Chinese railway network more efficient.

  13. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Moon; Gupta, Anurag; Mueller, Craig; Morrisette, Monica; Dec, John; Brewer, Jason; Donofrio, Kevin; Sturisky, Hilton; Smick, Doug; An, Meng Lin

    1994-01-01

    In June 1992, the School of Aerospace Engineering at Georgia Tech was awarded a three year NASA University Space Research Association (USRA) Advanced Design Program (ADP) grant to address issues associated with the Integrated Design and Manufacturing of High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations in its graduate Aerospace Systems Design courses. This report provides an overview of the on-going Georgia Tech initiative to address these design/manufacturing issues during the preliminary design phases of an HSCT concept. The new design methodology presented here has been incorporated in the graduate aerospace design curriculum and is based on the concept of Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). The selection of the HSCT as a pilot project was motivated by its potential global transportation payoffs; its technological, environmental, and economic challenges; and its impact on U.S. global competitiveness. This pilot project was the focus of each of the five design courses that form the graduate level aerospace systems design curriculum. This year's main objective was the development of a systematic approach to preliminary design and optimization and its implementation to an HSCT wing/propulsion configuration. The new methodology, based on the Taguchi Parameter Design Optimization Method (PDOM), was established and was used to carry out a parametric study where various feasible alternative configurations were evaluated. The comparison criterion selected for this evaluation was the economic impact of this aircraft, measured in terms of average yield per revenue passenger mile ($/RPM).

  14. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desouki, Munir; Deen, M Jamal; Fang, Qiyin; Liu, Louis; Tse, Frances; Armstrong, David

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4∼5 μm) due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps).

  15. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamal Deen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4~5 μm due to limitations in the optics, CMOS technology scaling can allow for an increased number of transistors to be integrated into the pixel to improve both detection and signal processing. Such smart pixels truly show the potential of CMOS technology for imaging applications allowing CMOS imagers to achieve the image quality and global shuttering performance necessary to meet the demands of ultrahigh-speed applications. In this paper, a review of CMOS-based high-speed imager design is presented and the various implementations that target ultrahigh-speed imaging are described. This work also discusses the design, layout and simulation results of an ultrahigh acquisition rate CMOS active-pixel sensor imager that can take 8 frames at a rate of more than a billion frames per second (fps.

  16. Developing course lecture notes on high-speed rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-15

    1. Introduction a. World-wide Development of High-Speed Rail (Japan, Europe, China) b. High-speed Rail in the U.S. 2. High-Speed Rail Infrastructure a. Geometric Design of High Speed Rail i. Horizontal Curve ii. Vertical Curve iii. Grade and Turnout ...

  17. Gas turbine for high speed trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenard, J.-L. [Turbomeca (France)

    1994-12-31

    This presentation will show how the gas turbine engines can be the right compromise to face the challenges raised by the demand for high speed trains through out the world. From the steam locomotive still in use in China to the TGV or ICE in Europe and Shinkensen in Japan able to run at more than 300 kms/hour, the modes of traction for trains have been greatly improved during the last fifty years. Even more faster trains are under studies for the future with the magnetic levitation system. Three main propulsion system, diesel, electric and gas turbines are actually competing in the high speed train market. They will have to comply with the new environmental regulations, better efficiency and customers` requirements for the developed countries, and with the necessity to use the existing tracks for most of the applications

  18. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Adler; Chris Nash; Eric Pels

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers, maximize profit functions via prices, frequency and train/plane sizes, given infrastructure provision and costs and environmental charges. The methodology is subsequently applied to all 27 Europea...

  19. High-speed inline holographic Stokesmeter imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Heifetz, Alexander; Tseng, Shih C; Shahriar, M S

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate a high-speed inline holographic Stokesmeter that consists of two liquid crystal retarders and a spectrally selective holographic grating. Explicit choices of angles of orientation for the components in the inline architecture are identified to yield higher measurement accuracy than the classical architecture. We show polarimetric images of an artificial scene produced by such a Stokesmeter, demonstrating the ability to identify an object not recognized by intensity-only imaging systems.

  20. The Long-Term Settlement Deformation Automatic Monitoring System for the Chinese High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway is one of the milestones of China’s high-speed railway development and its security plays a significant role in China’s economic and social development. However, the evaluation methods used for large-scale security operations and important infrastructure systems, such as the high-speed railways, are discrete and nonlinear; thus they cannot issue emergency warnings in a timely manner. The emergence of optical fiber sensing technology can solve this problem. This technology has progressed rapidly in its application to the monitoring of railway security and it has attracted much attention within the industry. This study considers the newly built passenger railway line between Shijiazhuang and Jinan as an example. The web-based, all-in-one fiber Bragg grating static level is described as well as a set of online monitoring systems, which is automated, real-time, remote, visual, and adaptable to the standards of the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway. According to our theoretical analysis, the planned automated monitoring of settlement deformation for the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and the real-time analysis and calculation of monitoring data can ensure the operational security of this section of China’s high-speed railway system.

  1. Network Based High Speed Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    In the first decade of the 21st century, New Product Development has undergone major changes in the way NPD is managed and organised. This is due to changes in technology, market demands, and in the competencies of companies. As a result NPD organised in different forms of networks is predicted...... to be of ever-increasing importance to many different kinds of companies. This happens at the same times as the share of new products of total turnover and earnings is increasing at unprecedented speed in many firms and industries. The latter results in the need for very fast innovation and product development...... - a need that can almost only be resolved by organising NPD in some form of network configuration. The work of Peter Lindgren is on several aspects of network based high speed product innovation and contributes to a descriptive understanding of this phenomenon as well as with normative theory on how NPD...

  2. A current review of high speed railways experiences in Asia and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Aleksander; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Dwsbu, Chatarina Niken; Jafri, Muhammad; Pratomo, Priyo

    2017-11-01

    High-Speed Railways (HSR) is currently regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. At the beginning of 2008, there were about 10,000 kilometers of new high-speed lines in operation in Asia and Europe regions to provide high-speed services to passengers willing to pay for lower travel time and quality improvement in rail transport. And since 2010, HSR itself has received a great deal of attention in Indonesia. Some transportation analysts contend that Indonesia, particularly Java and Sumatera islands need a high-speed rail network to be economically competitive with countries in Asia and Europe. On April 2016, Indonesia-China consortium Kereta Cepat Indonesia China (KCIC) signed an engineering, procurement, and construction contract to build the HSR with a consortium of seven companies called the High-Speed Railway Contractor Consortium. The HSR is expected to debut by May 2019, offering a 45-minute trip covering a roughly 150 km route. However, building, maintaining and operating HSR line is expensive; it involves a significant amount of sunk costs and may substantially compromise both the transport policy of a country and the development of its transport sector for decades. The main objective of this paper is to discuss some characteristics of the HSR services from an economic viewpoint, while simultaneously developing an empirical framework that should help us to understand, in more detail, the factors determining the success of the HSR as transport alternative based on current experiences of selected Asian and European countries.

  3. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, D; Zhu, F; Qiu, R; Niu, Q

    2016-01-01

    High-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains generate high-frequency electric fields, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency wideband electromagnetic emissions when running. Potential human health concerns arise because the electromagnetic disturbances are transmitted mainly into the car body from windows, and from there to passengers and train staff. The transmission amount and amplitude distribution characteristics that dominate electromagnetic field emission need to be studied, and the exposure level of electromagnetic field emission to humans should be measured. We conducted a series of tests of the on board electromagnetic field distribution on several high-speed railway lines. While results showed that exposure was within permitted levels, the possibility of long-term health effects should be investigated.

  4. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  5. 14 CFR 23.253 - High speed characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High speed characteristics. 23.253 Section... Requirements § 23.253 High speed characteristics. If a maximum operating speed VMO/MMO is established under § 23.1505(c), the following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (a) Operating...

  6. High-speed multispectral confocal biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Gary E; Locknar, Sarah A; Morrison, William A; Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Farkas, Daniel L

    2014-03-01

    A new approach for generating high-speed multispectral confocal images has been developed. The central concept is that spectra can be acquired for each pixel in a confocal spatial scan by using a fast spectrometer based on optical fiber delay lines. This approach merges fast spectroscopy with standard spatial scanning to create datacubes in real time. The spectrometer is based on a serial array of reflecting spectral elements, delay lines between these elements, and a single element detector. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the instrument is described and illustrated by multispectral images of laser-induced autofluorescence in biological tissues.

  7. Theory Of High-Speed Stereophotogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongxun, Song; Junren, Chen

    1989-06-01

    The general equations of direct linear transformation (DLT) are derived according to the actual process of high-speed stereophotogrammetry. The equations are not only applicable to the ordinary photographic system, but also to the photographic system with reflectors or stereo-reflectors. The equations are also suitable to the enlarged, copied and projected measurements of photographic film. The linear and non-linear errors in photogrammetric process can be corrected. Finally, the equations of right angle intersection photogrammetry are given and the merits and demerits of this method are discussed.

  8. CONSIDERATION OF AERODYNAMIC IMPACT IN SETTING THE MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SPEEDS OF HIGH-SPEED TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Djabbarov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studies of the effect of aerodynamic pressure on the maximum permissible speeds of a high-speed train on the existing railway infrastructure. Methodology. The study of the magnitude and direction of the aerodynamic pressure, its effect on the maximum speeds of a high-speed train was carried out on a train model composed of axisymmetric bodies with conical forms of head and tail parts. Findings. Determined the values of the aerodynamic pressure at different distances from the train are, when the high-speed train moves at a speed of 200 km/h or more. The maximum speeds of a high-speed train are determined taking into account the state of the infrastructure of the existing railway, ensuring the safe operation of a high-speed railway. Originality. Theoretical studies of aerodynamic pressure from secondary air currents formed during the movement of high-speed trains are performed on a model of a train composed of identical axisymmetric bodies with conical forms of head and tail moving in a compressible medium. The results of the research allow the regularity of the change in aerodynamic pressure during the movement of a high-speed train. Practical value. The obtained results allow to establish: 1 the maximum permissible speeds of a high-speed train taking into account the technical condition of permanent devices and structures of the existing railway infrastructure; 2 technical parameters of individual objects and structural elements of the infrastructure of high-speed iron subjected to the effect of aerodynamic pressure for a given maximum speed of high-speed trains.

  9. Laser beam welding by high-speed beam deflection; Laserstrahlschweissen durch High-Speed-Strahlbewegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzbach, A.; Morgenthal, L.; Beyer, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoff- und Strahltechnik, Dresden (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    The beam deflection system developed at Fraunhofer IWS can be used for rapid moving of a high power laser beam over the workpiece surface. Therefore it is possible to scan even rather small paths with high speed. The system contents two galvanometer scanner with specially designed lightweight mirrors in combination with a beam focusing unit. (Fig. 1). The high-speed welding of contours with small diameter is favorably done with both focusing optics and workpiece fixed (Fig. 2,3). Thus all notorius problems of conventional handling systems, as limited velocity and accuracy resulting from the inertia of the moved focusing head or workpiece, vanish. (orig.)

  10. ACTS High-Speed VSAT Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quang K.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) developed by NASA has demonstrated the breakthrough technologies of Ka-band transmission, spot-beam antennas, and onboard processing. These technologies have enabled the development of very small and ultrasmall aperture terminals (VSAT s and USAT's), which have capabilities greater than have been possible with conventional satellite technologies. The ACTS High Speed VSAT (HS VSAT) is an effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to experimentally demonstrate the maximum user throughput data rate that can be achieved using the technologies developed and implemented on ACTS. This was done by operating the system uplinks as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), essentially assigning all available time division multiple access (TDMA) time slots to a single user on each of two uplink frequencies. Preliminary results show that, using a 1.2-m antenna in this mode, the High Speed VSAT can achieve between 22 and 24 Mbps of the 27.5 Mbps burst rate, for a throughput efficiency of 80 to 88 percent.

  11. High-speed analog CMOS pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möschen, J.; Caldwell, A.; Hervas, L.; Hosticka, B.; Kötz, U.; Sippach, B.

    1990-03-01

    We present a switched-capacitor readout system for high speed analog signals. It consists of a 10 MHz four-channel delay-line chip with 58 samples per channel and a 12 channel buffer chip with a sampling rate of 1 MHz and a depth of nine samples. In addition the buffer chip includes an analog multiplexer with 25 inputs for the buffer channels and for 13 additional unbuffered signals. Both chips have been fabricated in CMOS-technology and will be used for the readout of the ZEUS high resolution calorimeter. The circuit and chip concept will be presented and some design optimizations will be discussed. Measurements from integrated prototypes will be given including some experimental data from irradiated chips.

  12. 14 CFR 25.253 - High-speed characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High-speed characteristics. 25.253 Section...-speed characteristics. (a) Speed increase and recovery characteristics. The following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (1) Operating conditions and characteristics likely to cause...

  13. Using a High-Speed Camera to Measure the Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, William Nathan; Baird, William H.

    2012-01-01

    The speed of sound is a physical property that can be measured easily in the lab. However, finding an inexpensive and intuitive way for students to determine this speed has been more involved. The introduction of affordable consumer-grade high-speed cameras (such as the Exilim EX-FC100) makes conceptually simple experiments feasible. Since the…

  14. High-speed ground transportation noise and vibration impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report is the second edition of a guidance manual originally issued in 2005, which presents procedures for predicting and assessing noise and vibration impacts of high-speed ground transportation projects. Projects involving high-speed trains us...

  15. High Speed Magnetostrictive MEMS Actuated Mirror Deflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of this proposal is to develop high speed magnetostrictive and MEMS actuators for rapidly deflecting or deforming mirrors. High speed, light-weight,...

  16. South Carolina southeast high speed rail corridor improvement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    The Southeast Rail Corridor was originally designated as a high-speed corridor in Section 1010 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991. More specifically, it involved the high-speed grade-crossing improvement program o...

  17. High Speed Magnetostrictive MEMS Actuated Mirror Deflectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop high speed magnetostrictive and MEMS actuators for rapidly deflecting or deforming mirrors. High speed, light-weight, low voltage beam...

  18. High-speed electrical motor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-03

    Under this task, MTI conducted a general review of state-of-the-art high-speed motors. The purpose of this review was to assess the operating parameters, limitations and performance of existing motor designs, and to establish commercial sources for a motor compatible with the requirements of the Brayton-cycle system. After the motor requirements were established, a list of motor types, manufacturers and designs capable of achieving the requisite performance was compiled. This list was based on an in-house evaluation of designs. Following the establishment of these options, a technical evaluation of the designs selected was conducted. In parallel with their evaluations, MTI focused on the establishment of commercial sources.

  19. HIGH SPEED KERR CELL FRAMING CAMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, W.C.; Gilley, L.F.

    1964-01-01

    The present invention relates to a high speed camera utilizing a Kerr cell shutter and a novel optical delay system having no moving parts. The camera can selectively photograph at least 6 frames within 9 x 10/sup -8/ seconds during any such time interval of an occurring event. The invention utilizes particularly an optical system which views and transmits 6 images of an event to a multi-channeled optical delay relay system. The delay relay system has optical paths of successively increased length in whole multiples of the first channel optical path length, into which optical paths the 6 images are transmitted. The successively delayed images are accepted from the exit of the delay relay system by an optical image focusing means, which in turn directs the images into a Kerr cell shutter disposed to intercept the image paths. A camera is disposed to simultaneously view and record the 6 images during a single exposure of the Kerr cell shutter. (AEC)

  20. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  1. High-Speed Low-Jitter Frequency Multiplication in CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, R.C.H.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with high-speed Clock and Frequency Multiplication. The term `high-speedù applies to both the output and the reference frequency of the multiplier. Much emphasis is placed on analysis and optimization of the total timing inaccuracies, and on implementing a high-speed feedback

  2. Videokymography : High-speed line scanning of vocal fold vibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svec, JG; Schutte, HK

    A digital technique for high-speed visualization of vibration, called videokymography, was developed and applied to the vocal folds. The system uses a modified video camera able to work in two modes: high-speed (nearly 8,000 images/s) and standard (50 images/s in CCIR norm). In the high-speed mode,

  3. Automatic 6-speed transmissions for passenger cars - a milestone in powertrain development; Automatische 6-Gang-Getriebe fuer Personenkraftwagen - ein Meilenstein in der Antriebstechnik-Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G. [ZF Getriebe GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In order to respond to the demands made on passenger car power train systems regarding reduction of fuel consumption, pollutant and noise emissions, increased performance and drive comfort, corporate product identification and innovative products, an 6-speed automatic transmission for standard use with 8- and 12-cylinder engines was developed. The demands of customers as well as production aspects were taken into account in the development process. Compared with its predecessor, the ZF-6HP26 provides a higher torque capacity, is more compact and 13% lighter. As a result of consistent system and component optimization, the transmission has a reduced number of components, lower transmission losses and increased efficiency. At the same time, functionality regarding reduction of fuel consumption and increase in comfort has been expanded. Fuel consumption simulation for a vehicle with 8-cylinder Otto engine revealed that fuel consumption was cut by 5 to 6% while acceleration was improved by 4%. Consumption tests with prototype transmissions confirmed the computed results. The 6HP26 is worldwide the first 6-speed automatic transmission and a milestone in passenger car transmission technology. (orig.) [German] Um den zukuenftigen Anforderungen an den Pkw-Antrieb hinsichtlich der Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Schadstoff- und Geraeuschemissionen, einer Steigerung der Fahrleistung und Erhoehung des Fahrkomforts bei gleichzeitiger Differenzierung zum Wettbewerb durch innovative Produkte gerecht zu werden, wurde ein automatisches 6-Gang-Getriebe fuer den Einsatz im Standardantrieb mit 8- und 12-Zylindermotoren entwickelt. Im bisherigen Entwicklungsprozess fanden sowohl Kundenanforderungen als auch Fertigungsbelange Beruecksichtigung. Verglichen mit dem Vorgaengeraggregat ist das ZF-6HP26 bei gleichzeitig hoeherer Drehmomentkapazitaet kompakter, baut kleiner und ist etwa 13% leichter. Durch konsequente System- und Bauteiloptimierung ist es gelungen, die Anzahl der

  4. High-tech maintenance for high-speed trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Javier Rutz [Nertus Mantenimiento Ferroviario, S.A., Madrid (Spain); Hofmann, Manfred [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Mobility Div., Integrated Services

    2011-03-15

    Reliable, punctual trains cannot do without professional maintenance. Nertus S.A., a joint subsidiary of Siemens and Renfe, is responsible for providing precisely this for the Spanish high-speed train, Velaro E (AVE S103), which operates between Madrid and Barcelona. (orig.)

  5. Cleveland-Columbus-Cincinnati high-speed rail study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In the past five years, the evaluation of different high-speed rail (HSR) studies in the Midwest has resulted in a realization that high speed rail, with speeds greater than 110 miles per hour, is too expensive in the short term to be implemented in ...

  6. High-Speed Data Recorder for Space, Geodesy, and Other High-Speed Recording Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveniku, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed data recorder and replay equipment has been developed for reliable high-data-rate recording to disk media. It solves problems with slow or faulty disks, multiple disk insertions, high-altitude operation, reliable performance using COTS hardware, and long-term maintenance and upgrade path challenges. The current generation data recor - ders used within the VLBI community are aging, special-purpose machines that are both slow (do not meet today's requirements) and are very expensive to maintain and operate. Furthermore, they are not easily upgraded to take advantage of commercial technology development, and are not scalable to multiple 10s of Gbit/s data rates required by new applications. The innovation provides a softwaredefined, high-speed data recorder that is scalable with technology advances in the commercial space. It maximally utilizes current technologies without being locked to a particular hardware platform. The innovation also provides a cost-effective way of streaming large amounts of data from sensors to disk, enabling many applications to store raw sensor data and perform post and signal processing offline. This recording system will be applicable to many applications needing realworld, high-speed data collection, including electronic warfare, softwaredefined radar, signal history storage of multispectral sensors, development of autonomous vehicles, and more.

  7. Improving the Efficiency of a High Speed Catamaran Through the Replacement of the Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German de Melo Rodriguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The high speed vessels are primarily designed for short distances services as public transport of passengers and vehicles. The range of high speed, according to the Code of high-speed vessels begins at 20 knots, which depends on the cruise speed you desire for your vessel; you will have to use the most appropriate type of propellant. In general, in the past 20 years, they have been building high-speed vessels with speeds above 33 knots, which meant installing water jet propellants coupled to powerful engines and therefore of high consumption of fuel, increasing operating costs and causing increased air pollution. Although the prices of fuel have been reduced to half, due to the sharp fall in oil prices, the consumption of fuel and the air pollution remains high at these speeds and powers used, in addition to that the reduction of the time spent on each trip is not excessive, mainly in short routes that are less than an hour . This article is about adapting a ship of high-speed service, with a maximum speed in tests of 34 knots and to reduce its operating costs (fuel, maintenance, etc. and make it economically viable; before the transformation, this vessel was operating with a service speed of 22 knots, and with a consumption per mile of 135 litters of MGO. The transformation process has consisted by: – Replacement of the two original water jet with four shaft lines with fix pitch propeller. – Replacement of the two original main engines (2 x 6500 kW = 13000 kW by four engines (4 x 1380kW = 5.520 kW. – Changing the underwater hull shape to fit the new propellers and maximize its efficiency. – Relocation of auxiliary engines, to achieve the most efficient trim. – Installation of two lateral propellers to improve maneuverability and shorten the total time of journey. After the reform and the return to service of the vessel with a service speed of over 22 knots, it has been verified that the consumption per mile is of 45 litters MGO

  8. High-Speed Interferometry Under Impacting Drops

    KAUST Repository

    Langley, Kenneth R.

    2017-08-31

    Over the last decade the rapid advances in high-speed video technology, have opened up to study many multi-phase fluid phenomena, which tend to occur most rapidly on the smallest length-scales. One of these is the entrapment of a small bubble under a drop impacting onto a solid surface. Here we have gone from simply observing the presence of the bubble to detailed imaging of the formation of a lubricating air-disc under the drop center and its subsequent contraction into the bubble. Imaging the full shape-evolution of the air-disc has required μm and sub-μs space and time resolutions. Time-resolved 200 ns interferometry with monochromatic light, has allowed us to follow individual fringes to obtain absolute air-layer thicknesses, based on the eventual contact with the solid. We can follow the evolution of the dimple shape as well as the compression of the gas. The improved imaging has also revealed new levels of detail, like the nature of the first contact which produces a ring of micro-bubbles, highlighting the influence of nanometric surface roughness. Finally, for impacts of ultra-viscous drops we see gliding on ~100 nm thick rarified gas layers, followed by extreme wetting at numerous random spots.

  9. High Speed Link Radiated Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, P.; Pelissou, P.; Cissou, R.; Giniaux, M.; Vargas, O.

    2016-05-01

    To control the radiated emission of high-speed link and associated unit, the current approach is to implement overall harness shielding on cables bundles. This method is very efficient in the HF/ VHF (high frequency/ very high frequency) and UHF (ultra-high frequency) ranges when the overall harness shielding is properly bonded on EMC back-shell. Unfortunately, with the increasing frequency, the associated half wavelength matches with the size of Sub-D connector that is the case for the L band. Therefore, the unit connectors become the main source of interference emission. For the L-band and S-band, the current technology of EMC back-shell leaves thin aperture matched with the L band half wavelength and therefore, the shielding effectiveness is drastically reduced. In addition, overall harness shielding means significant increases of the harness mass.Airbus D&S Toulouse and Elancourt investigated a new solution to avoid the need of overall harness shielding. The objective is to procure EM (Electro-Magnetic) clean unit connected to cables bundles free of any overall harness shielding. The proposed solution is to implement EMC common mode filtering on signal interfaces directly on unit PCB as close as possible the unit connector.Airbus D&S Elancourt designed and manufactured eight mock-ups of LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling) interface PCBs' with different solutions of filtering. After verification of the signal integrity, three mock-ups were retained (RC filter and two common mode choke coil) in addition to the reference one (without EMC filter).Airbus D&S Toulouse manufactured associated LVDS cable bundles and integrated the RX (Receiver) and TX (Transmitter) LVDS boards in shielded boxes.Then Airbus D&S performed radiated emission measurement of the LVDS links subassemblies (e.g. RX and TX boxes linked by LVDS cables) according to the standard test method. This paper presents the different tested solutions and main conclusions on the feasibility of such

  10. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  11. Water Containment Systems for Testing High-Speed Flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trase, Larry; Thompson, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Water-filled containers are used as building blocks in a new generation of containment systems for testing high-speed flywheels. Such containment systems are needed to ensure safety by trapping high-speed debris in the event of centrifugal breakup or bearing failure. Traditional containment systems for testing flywheels consist mainly of thick steel rings. The effectiveness of this approach to shielding against high-speed debris was demonstrated in a series of tests.

  12. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  13. High-speed Stochastic Fatigue Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1990-01-01

    testing, quite unacceptable errors are introduced. Usually this problem is solved by running the tests at very low speeds and by editing the load history in order to reduce the duration of the test. In this paper a new method for control of stochastic fatigue tests is proposed. It is based on letting...

  14. High-speed rail-coming to America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David Ossian

    2009-01-01

    The United States lags many parts of the world when it comes to high-speed rail. But investing in high-speed rail could help us through current problems. Funds- $8 billion-in the economic stimulus package passed by Congress are designated for high-speed rail. Other funds in the pipeline total approximately $15.5 billion. High-speed rail can relieve congestion, free up national airspace, provide reliable transportation and positive economic development, create jobs, and is more energy efficient than other modes of travel.

  15. The high-speed train and its spatial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Gutiérrez Puebla

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the high-speed train from a spatial point of view. The basic characteristics of this transportation mode,the evolution of high-speed networks in several countries and the building of a trans-European high-speed railway network are studied.The paper analyses also the process of space-time convergence and its consequences on competitivity and cohesion;the tunel effect;the impact of the high speed-train on transportation demand;and the impacts on the city.

  16. Measurement and Analysis of High-speed Railway Subgrade Settlement in China: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qulin TAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Subgrade is an important component of railway engineering construction, which supports the upper loads of tracks and trains. Subgrade stability directly affects the high- speed train safety and passenger comfort. With the rapid development of China’s high-speed railway, it put a very high requirement for track smoothness, and thus the requirements of subgrade stability and deformation control become very stringent. In the paper, we studied the measurement methods, instruments, observation point set, observation frequency, precision and data prediction analysis etc. Using the subgrade settlement measured data of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway as a case study; we analyzed the relationship between the subgrade settlement and time, and applied hyperbolic model, exponential model and Poisson model to predict subgrade post-construction settlement. The results show that cumulative settlement of subgrade measuring point is 6.4 mm from the beginning to 118th day after roadbed filling construction, and the sedimentation rate becomes steady at 0.001 mm/d. Comparative analysis shows that the hyperbolic model has the best fitting performance among the three curve regression models. And the predicted roadbed post-construction settlement of 3.22 mm has met the subgrade requirements for ballastless-track laying.

  17. Energy Efficiency and Capacity Tradeoff in Cloud Radio Access Network of High-Speed Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the increasing demand of high-data-rate services of high-speed railway (HSR passengers, cloud radio access network (C-RAN is proposed. This paper investigates the tradeoff between energy efficiency (EE performance and capacity in C-RAN of HSR. Considering that the train location can be predicted, we propose a predictable path loss based time domain power allocation method (PPTPA to improve EE performance of HSR communication system. First, we consider that the communication system of HSR only bears the passenger information services (PISs. The energy-efficient power allocation problem with delay constraint is studied. The formulated problem is nonconvex. To deal with it, an equivalent convex problem is reformulated. Based on PPTPA, we propose an iterative algorithm to improve the EE performance. Second, we consider that the PISs and the train control services (TCSs are all bore. A capacity optimization problem with joint EE and services transmission delay constraints is formulated. Based on PPTPA, we propose a hybrid power allocation scheme to improve the capacity of the system. Finally, we analyze the effect of small-scale fading on EE performance. The effectiveness of the proposed power allocation algorithm is validated by HSR channel measurement trace based emulation results and extensive simulation results.

  18. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... light. Occurrence of injury to bus passengers is positively related to (i) the involvement of heavy vehicles, (ii) crossing intersections in yellow or red light, (iii) open areas, (iv) high speed limits, and (v) slippery road surface. Conclusions The findings of the current study provide a comprehensive......Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...

  19. High Speed and Wide Bandwidth Delta-Sigma ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolatkale, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and implementation of a high-speed, high-performance continuous-time delta-sigma (CT??) ADC for applications such as medical imaging, high-definition video processing, and wireline and wireless communications. In order to achieve a GHz clocking speed, this

  20. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  1. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design. High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devi...

  2. Design and Analysis of a High Speed Carry Select Adder

    OpenAIRE

    Simarpreet Singh Chawla; Swapnil Aggarwal; Anshika; Nidhi Goel

    2015-01-01

    An optimal high-speed and low-power VLSI architecture requires an efficient arithmetic processing unit that is optimized for speed and power consumption. Adders are one of the widely used in digital integrated circuit and system design.High speed adder is the necessary component in a data path, e.g. Microprocessors and a Digital signal processor. The present paper proposes a novel high-speed adder by combining the advantages of Carry Look Ahead Adder (CLAA) and Carry Select Adder (CSA), devis...

  3. High-Speed Rail for Central and Eastern European Countries: A Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandová Monika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The European transport strategy promotes the role of railways and expects that the key role in passenger transport should be played by high-speed rail (HSR. Although the core network of high-speed lines has already been built and is operating in Western Europe, there has been little coverage so far in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. The aim of the conference “High-Speed Rail for CEE Countries” that took place in Prague in June 2016 was to put together academics, policy-makers, and practitioners interested in HSR and to formulate recommendations for CEE countries based on West European countries’ experience. Based on the conference presentations and subsequent discussion, the following conclusions were formulated. Firstly, there are many crucial differences in national HSR build-up and operation, which means that former experience of Western Europe is not directly applicable to CEE countries. Secondly, in comparing presentations discussing experiences in France, Britain, Italy, and Germany, it was concluded that the German approach-upgrading existing lines where possible and only building new lines for bottleneck sections-was the most likely appropriate solution in CEE. Lastly, CEE has the additional problem of many border crossings, with a reduction of traffic in comparison with purely domestic routes, and this effect has to be taken into account.

  4. Experimental Characterization of LTE Wireless Links in High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Domínguez-Bolaño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia and data-based services experienced a nonstopping growth over the last few years. People are continuously on the move using devices to access multimedia contents or other data-based services. Due to this, railway companies are showing a great interest in deploying broadband mobile wireless networks in high-speed-trains with the aim of supporting both passenger services provisioning as well as automatic train control and signaling. Nowadays, the most widely used technology for communications between trains and the railway infrastructure is GSM for Railways (GSM-R; however, it has limited capabilities to support such advanced services. Due to its success in the mass market, Long Term Evolution (LTE seems to be the best candidate to substitute GSM-R. In this paper, we experimentally characterize the downlink between an LTE Evolved NodeB (eNodeB and a high-speed train in a commercial high-speed line. We consider two links: the one between the eNodeB and the antennas placed outdoors on the train roof, and the direct link between the eNodeB and a receiver inside the train. Such a characterization consists in assessing the path loss, the Signal to Noise Ratio, the K-Factor, the Power Delay Profile, the delay spread, and the Doppler Power Spectral Density.

  5. Florida High Speed Rail Authority - 2003 report to the legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Since its last full report to the Legislature in January 2002, the Florida High Speed Rail Authority (FHSRA) has continued to fulfill the duties defined in the Florida High Speed Rail Authority Act, Section 341.8201 to 341.842, Florida Statutes. The ...

  6. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  7. Optical Systems for Ultra-High-Speed TDM Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses key results in the field of high speed optical networking with particular focus on packet-based systems. Schemes for optical packet labeling, packet switching and packet synchronization will be discussed, along with schemes for optical clock recovery, channel identification...... and detection of ultra-high-speed optical signals....

  8. Optical Systems for Ultra-High-Speed TDM Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Galili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses key results in the field of high speed optical networking with particular focus on packet-based systems. Schemes for optical packet labeling, packet switching and packet synchronization will be discussed, along with schemes for optical clock recovery, channel identification and detection of ultra-high-speed optical signals.

  9. Rounding Technique for High-Speed Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Arithmetic technique facilitates high-speed rounding of 2's complement binary data. Conventional rounding of 2's complement numbers presents problems in high-speed digital circuits. Proposed technique consists of truncating K + 1 bits then attaching bit in least significant position. Mean output error is zero, eliminating introducing voltage offset at input.

  10. CMOS Image Sensors for High Speed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Deen, M.; Qiyin Fang; Louis Liu; Frances Tse; David Armstrong; Munir El-Desouki

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in deep submicron CMOS technologies and improved pixel designs have enabled CMOS-based imagers to surpass charge-coupled devices (CCD) imaging technology for mainstream applications. The parallel outputs that CMOS imagers can offer, in addition to complete camera-on-a-chip solutions due to being fabricated in standard CMOS technologies, result in compelling advantages in speed and system throughput. Since there is a practical limit on the minimum pixel size (4~5 μm) due to ...

  11. Human engineering analysis for the high speed civil transport flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Alter, Keith W.

    1993-01-01

    The Boeing Company is investigating the feasibility of building a second generation supersonic transport. If current studies support its viability, this airplane, known as the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), could be launched early in the next century. The HSCT will cruise at Mach 2.4, be over 300 feet long, have an initial range of between 5000 and 6000 NM, and carry approximately 300 passengers. We are presently involved in developing an advanced flight deck for the HSCT. As part of this effort we are undertaking a human engineering analysis that involves a top-down, mission driven approach that will allow a systematic determination of flight deck functional and information requirements. The present paper describes this work.

  12. Fading Characteristics of Wireless Channel on High-Speed Railway in Hilly Terrain Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyu Luan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the fading characteristics of wireless channel on High-Speed Railway (HSR in hilly terrain scenario. Due to the rapid speed, the fading characteristics of HSR channel are highly correlated with time or Transmit-Receive distance and have their own special property. To investigate the fading characteristics, the measurement is conducted on the Guangzhou-Shenzhen passenger-dedicated line in China with the speed of 295 km/h in the data-collection area at 2.4 GHz. From the measured data, the amplitude of each path is estimated by using the Subspace-Alternating Generalized Expectation-Maximization (SAGE algorithm along with other parameters of channel impulse responses. Then the fading parameters, including path loss, shadow fading, and K-factor, are analysed. With the numerical results in the measurement and analysis, the fading characteristics have been revealed and modelled. It is supposed that this work has a promotion for HSR communication system design and improvement.

  13. High-speed OCT light sources and systems [Invited

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Imaging speed is one of the most important parameters that define the performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. During the last two decades, OCT speed has increased by over three orders of magnitude. New developments in wavelength-swept lasers have repeatedly been crucial for this development. In this review, we discuss the historical evolution and current state of the art of high-speed OCT systems, with focus on wavelength swept light sources and swept source OCT systems.

  14. High-speed OCT light sources and systems [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Imaging speed is one of the most important parameters that define the performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. During the last two decades, OCT speed has increased by over three orders of magnitude. New developments in wavelength-swept lasers have repeatedly been crucial for this development. In this review, we discuss the historical evolution and current state of the art of high-speed OCT systems, with focus on wavelength swept light sources and swept source OCT systems.

  15. High-speed OCT light sources and systems [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Imaging speed is one of the most important parameters that define the performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. During the last two decades, OCT speed has increased by over three orders of magnitude. New developments in wavelength-swept lasers have repeatedly been crucial for this development. In this review, we discuss the historical evolution and current state of the art of high-speed OCT systems, with focus on wavelength swept light sources and swept source OCT systems. PMID:28270988

  16. HIGH SPEED SHIP TOTAL RESISTANCE CALCULATION (AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Endro W

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High speed design studies became very intense studies. One of the subject that can be explore is obtaining total resistace. A high speed ship has four stages of condition when she operates. Starting from low speed condition until developent of dinamics lift force. These four states that happened on high speed ship when she cuise on her operational speed, make a specific consideration on predicting her total resistance.  As high speed ship become more widely built and operate in Indonesia, the study of the state of art of high speed vessel  especially for obtaining total resistance has became more challenging In this paper is foccused on proposing an applicative methods for high speed resistance calculation based on savitsky method. Result which obtained form empirical study is compared to numerical software. Result of this study shows that there are no significant differences between empirical method and result form software application. Considering of sea margin would be effective to made the empirical method would be applicable. There is a 128,0812 KN of total resistance using empirical method, by considering sea margine factor, and a 128,512 KN of total resistance resulted form software calculation

  17. Parametric Optimization for High Speed FLIM Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jayul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy has been considered an effective technique to investigate chemical properties of the specimens, especially of biological samples. Despite of this advantageous trait, researchers in this field have had difficulties applying FLIM to their systems because acquiring an image using FLIM consumes too much time. To increase the FLIM speed, many methodologies have been developed and applied to the system. One of the recent methodologies is an analogue mean delay based FLIM using a PMT and digitizer for image reconstruction. In this system, however, imaging time is largely dependent upon several parameters such as data transfer rate, sampling rate of an A/D converter, and signal width etc. In this paper, such parametric optimization method is introduced for faster acquisition of the image.

  18. 75 FR 16552 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... energy efficiency and reduction in dependence on foreign oil, including use of renewable energy sources, energy savings from traffic diversions from other modes, employment of green building and manufacturing... expansion, and promotion of technical interoperability and standardization (including standardizing...

  19. Crashworthiness of passenger trains : safety of high-speed ground transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The results of analyses conducted to determine the effectiveness of structural and interior train design strategies in protecting occupants during collisions are presented. Structural design approaches considered include the conventional design appro...

  20. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Program rationale may also explore synergies between the proposed service and large-scale goals and... and industrial development, including U.S.-based manufacturing and supply industries. Developing...

  1. 75 FR 38365 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology; Involve particularly complex institutional relationships among project stakeholders (e.g... depend significantly on the size and complexity of the project. For relatively simple Individual... complexity between the parties involved with and affected by the project, two categories of agreement...

  2. 76 FR 14443 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... represent double-counting of costs otherwise accounted for in an indirect cost rate pursuant to which the... Development Program that is exceptionally complex, long-term, or broad in scope--to recognize the limited...

  3. 75 FR 38343 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., allocable, and in accordance with applicable OMB cost principles, and must not represent double-counting of... applicant who is submitting an application for a Service Development Program that is exceptionally complex...

  4. 76 FR 57924 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities at Intercity, Commuter, and High Speed Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... primarily designed or intended to assist persons with mobility disabilities (e.g., skateboards, bicycles... Department does not believe the cost or difficulty of designing the platforms to eliminate this hazard will...'' originated as a design concept, answering the question of what a vehicle lift should be designed to...

  5. The use of high-speed imaging in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, H.; McNamara, G.; Rayner, J.

    2017-02-01

    Recent improvements in camera technology and the associated improved access to high-speed camera equipment have made it possible to use high-speed imaging not only in a research environment but also specifically for educational purposes. This includes high-speed sequences that are created both with and for a target audience of students in high schools and universities. The primary goal is to engage students in scientific exploration by providing them with a tool that allows them to see and measure otherwise inaccessible phenomena. High-speed imaging has the potential to stimulate students' curiosity as the results are often surprising or may contradict initial assumptions. "Live" demonstrations in class or student- run experiments are highly suitable to have a profound influence on student learning. Another aspect is the production of high-speed images for demonstration purposes. While some of the approaches known from the application of high speed imaging in a research environment can simply be transferred, additional techniques must often be developed to make the results more easily accessible for the targeted audience. This paper describes a range of student-centered activities that can be undertaken which demonstrate how student engagement and learning can be enhanced through the use of high speed imaging using readily available technologies.

  6. Next Generation Modeling Technology for High Speed Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a new generation of high speed rotorcraft has been hampered by both an absence of strong predictive methods for rotors operating at very high advance...

  7. Modern trends in designing high-speed trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Snežana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased advantages of railway transportation systems over other types of transportation systems in the past sixty years have been a result of an intensive development of the new generations of high-speed trains. Not only do these types of trains comply with the need for increased speed of transportation and make the duration of the journey shorter, but they also meet the demands for increased reliability, safety and direct application of energy efficiency to the transportation system itself. Along with increased train speed, the motion resistance is increased as well, whereby at speeds over 200 km/h the proportion of air resistance becomes the most dominant member. One of the most efficient measures for reducing air resistance, as well as other negative consequences of high-speed motion, is the development of the aerodynamic shape of the train. This paper presents some construction solutions that affect the aerodynamic properties of high-speed trains, first and foremost, the nose shape, as well as the similarities and differences of individual subsystems necessary for the functioning of modern high-speed rail systems. We analysed two approaches to solving the problem of the aerodynamic shape of the train and the appropriate infrastructure using the examples of Japan and France. Two models of high-speed trains, Shinkansen (Japan and TGV, i.e. AGV (France, have been discussed.

  8. On-line high-speed rail defect detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    This report presents the results of phase 2 of the project On-line high-speed rail defect detection aimed at improving the reliability and the speed of current defect detection in rails. Ultrasonic guided waves, traveling in the rail running di...

  9. ON EFFICIENT OPERATIONAL CONCEPT OF FUTURE HIGH-SPEED RAILWAY IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Drábek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to elaborate a layout of the first operational concept of Rapid Services with 1 hour system travel time between Praha and Brno. Two basic methods are used – Integrated Periodic Timetable (periodic rendezvous of all services in IPT-nodes and Operational Concept Economy Approach, as defined below by the author. In this paper, three recent high-speed railway concepts for the future so-called Rapid Services network of the Czech Republic are followed-up. The first one is an operational traffic planning study by Kalcík, Janoš et al. on behalf of Czech Ministry of Transport from 2010. The second one is the high-speed railway promoting book High Speed Rail Even in the Czech Republic by Šlegr et al. from 2012, with likely the most detailed concept of Rapid Services network. The third one is a paper on progress of the official spatial-technical studies for some future Czech high-speed lines by Šulc from 2014. The importance of achievement of 1 hour travel time between the largest agglomerations is briefly presented. The presented methodological approach, although soft and manager-oriented, comprises some firm principles: segmentation of high-speed train offer, so that more expensive rolling stock is not wasted by operation on long conventional line sections, consideration of system travel times for efficient rolling stock circuit, restriction of need for links from high-speed to conventional lines, and utilization of high-speed lines as a "rail highway". This approach is intended to be particularized iteratively, with every application. So, in this paper, first version of Operational Concept Economy Approach is introduced. The key idea is that passengers should be offered such travel times and service intervals (headways and such number of direct services, which are adequate to their potential demand, but as much synergistic effect as possible should be strived to be achieved for every proposed construction (new or

  10. High speed electromechanical response of ionic microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cedric; Soyer, Caroline; Cattan, Eric; Vidal, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of thin and ultra-fast conducting polymer microactuators which can operate in the open air. Compared to all previous existing electronic conducting polymer based microactuators, this approach deals with the synthesis of robust interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) combined with a spincoating technique in order to tune and drastically reduce the thickness of conducting IPN microactuators using a so-called "trilayer" configuration. Patterning of electroactive materials has been performed with existing technologies, such as standard photolithography and dry etching. The smallest air-operating microbeam actuator based on conducting polymer is then described with dimensions as low as 160x30x6 μm3. Under electrical stimulation the translations of small ion motion into bending deformations are used as tools to demonstrate that small ion vibrations can still occur at frequency as several hundreds of Hz. Conducting IPN microactuators are then promising candidates to develop new MEMS combining downscaling, softness, low driving voltage, and fast response speed.

  11. High speed high dynamic range high accuracy measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibele, Craig E.; Curry, Douglas E.; Dickson, Richard W.; Xie, Zaipeng

    2016-11-29

    A measuring system includes an input that emulates a bandpass filter with no signal reflections. A directional coupler connected to the input passes the filtered input to electrically isolated measuring circuits. Each of the measuring circuits includes an amplifier that amplifies the signal through logarithmic functions. The output of the measuring system is an accurate high dynamic range measurement.

  12. High-speed optical measurement for the drumhead vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qican; Su, Xianyu

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a high-speed optical measurement for the vibrating drumhead is presented and verified by experiment. A projected sinusoidal fringe pattern on the measured drumhead is dynamically deformed with the vibration of the membrane and grabbed by a high-speed camera. The shape deformation of the drumhead at each sampling instant can be recovered from this sequence of obtained fringe patterns. The vibration of the membrane of a Chinese drum has been measured with a high speed sampling rate (1,000 fps) and a standard deviation (0.075 mm). The restored vibration of the drumhead is also presented in an animation.

  13. The Paris - Strasbourg high-speed line; Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrecke Paris - Strassburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brux, G.

    2007-07-01

    On 10th June 2007, TGV high-speed trains operated by French state railways SNCF, and ICE high-speed trains of Deutsche Bahn, will commence operations of France's eastern highspeed line Paris - Strasbourg, running services from Paris to Luxembourg, Frankfurt am Main and Stuttgart, and also to Basel and Zurich. As from the start of the new timetable on 9th December 2007, the service will also extend to Munich. The new high-speed line will shorten rail travels on these connections by several hours. (orig.)

  14. Measuring the influence of the Camp de Tarragona high-speed rail station on first-time and repeat tourists visiting a coastal destination

    OpenAIRE

    Saladié, Òscar; Clavé, Salvador Anton; Gutiérrez, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of high-speed rail (HSR) services on the destination choice of first-time tourists and repeat tourists arriving in the Costa Daurada, a mature coastal destination in Catalonia, using HSR services. The analysis is based on a probabilistic method and uses data from a survey of HSR passengers at the Camp de Tarragona HSR station during the summer of 2014. It concludes that the increase in probability of visiting this particular destination because of the existence...

  15. FPGA Flash Memory High Speed Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, April

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design and implement a VHDL ONFI Controller module for a Modular Instrumentation System. The goal of the Modular Instrumentation System will be to have a low power device that will store data and send the data at a low speed to a processor. The benefit of such a system will give an advantage over other purchased binary IP due to the capability of allowing NASA to re-use and modify the memory controller module. To accomplish the performance criteria of a low power system, an in house auxiliary board (Flash/ADC board), FPGA development kit, debug board, and modular instrumentation board will be jointly used for the data acquisition. The Flash/ADC board contains four, 1 MSPS, input channel signals and an Open NAND Flash memory module with an analog to digital converter. The ADC, data bits, and control line signals from the board are sent to an Microsemi/Actel FPGA development kit for VHDL programming of the flash memory WRITE, READ, READ STATUS, ERASE, and RESET operation waveforms using Libero software. The debug board will be used for verification of the analog input signal and be able to communicate via serial interface with the module instrumentation. The scope of the new controller module was to find and develop an ONFI controller with the debug board layout designed and completed for manufacture. Successful flash memory operation waveform test routines were completed, simulated, and tested to work on the FPGA board. Through connection of the Flash/ADC board with the FPGA, it was found that the device specifications were not being meet with Vdd reaching half of its voltage. Further testing showed that it was the manufactured Flash/ADC board that contained a misalignment with the ONFI memory module traces. The errors proved to be too great to fix in the time limit set for the project.

  16. Method for upgrading the performance at track transitions for high-speed service : next generation high-speed rail program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    High-speed trains in the speed range of 100 to 160 mph require tracks of nearly perfect geometry and mechanical uniformity, when subjected to moving wheel loads. Therefore, this report briefly describes the remedies being used by various railroads to...

  17. Effects of High-Speed Power Training on Muscle Performance and Braking Speed in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether high-speed power training (HSPT improved muscle performance and braking speed using a driving simulator. 72 older adults (22 m, 50 f; age = 70.6 ± 7.3 yrs were randomized to HSPT at 40% one-repetition maximum (1RM (HSPT: n=25; 3 sets of 12–14 repetitions, slow-speed strength training at 80%1RM (SSST: n=25; 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions, or control (CON: n=22; stretching 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Leg press and knee extension peak power, peak power velocity, peak power force/torque, and braking speed were obtained at baseline and 12 weeks. HSPT increased peak power and peak power velocity across a range of external resistances (40–90% 1RM; P<0.05 and improved braking speed (P<0.05. Work was similar between groups, but perceived exertion was lower in HSPT (P<0.05. Thus, the less strenuous HSPT exerted a broader training effect and improved braking speed compared to SSST.

  18. High Speed Frame Synchronization and Viterbi Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of Phase 1 of the study is to describe the system structure and algorithms in sufficient detail to allow drawing the high level architecture of units containing frame synchronization and Viterbi decoding. The systems we consider are high data rate space communication systems. Also...... components. Node synchronization performed within a Viterbi decoder is discussed, and algorithms for frame synchronization are described and analyzed. We present a list of system configurations that we find potentially useful. Further, the high level architecture of units that contain frame synchronization...

  19. Parallelism and pipelining in high-speed digital simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The attainment of high computing speed as measured by the computational throughput is seen as one of the most challenging requirements. It is noted that high speed is cardinal in several distinct classes of applications. These classes are then discussed; they comprise (1) the real-time simulation of dynamic systems , (2) distributed parameter systems, and (3) mixed lumped and distributed systems. From the 1950s on, the quest for high speed in digital simulators concentrated on overcoming the limitations imposed by the so-called von Neumann bottleneck. Two major architectural approaches have made ig possible to circumvent this bottleneck and attain high speeds. These are pipelining and parallelism. Supercomputers, peripheral array processors, and microcomputer networks are then discussed.

  20. Promoting intermodal connectivity at California's high-speed rail stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) has emerged as one of the most revolutionary and transformative transportation technologies, having a : profound impact on urban-regional accessibility and inter-city travel across Europe, Japan, and more recently China and othe...

  1. Florida High Speed Rail Authority - 2002 report to the legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses a legislative requirement that the Authority issue a report of its actions, findings and recommendations. Previous high speed ground transportation studies were reviewed as part of the preparation of this report. Independent ana...

  2. High-speed rail turnout literature review : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) turnout design criteria generally address unbalanced lateral acceleration or cant deficiency (CD), cant deficiency change rate (CDCR), and entry and exit jerk. Various countries have adopted different design values for their HSR...

  3. High-Speed-/-Hypersonic-Weapon-Development-Tool Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duchow, Erin M; Munson, Michael J; Alonge, Jr, Frank A

    2006-01-01

    Multiple tools exist to aid in the design and evaluation of high-speed weapons. This paper documents efforts to integrate several existing tools, including the Integrated Hypersonic Aeromechanics Tool (IHAT)1-7...

  4. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  5. High-Speed Thermal Characterization of Cryogenic Flows Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna proposes to continue development on a high-speed fiber optic sensor and readout system for cryogenic temperature measurements in liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid...

  6. Modern trends in designing high-speed trains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golubović, Snežana D; Rašuo, Boško P; Lučanin, Vojkan J

    2015-01-01

    Increased advantages of railway transportation systems over other types of transportation systems in the past sixty years have been a result of an intensive development of the new generations of high-speed trains...

  7. Application of Beyond Bound Decoding for High Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bomin; Larsen, Knud J.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the application of beyond bound decoding method for high speed optical communications. This hard-decision decoding method outperforms traditional minimum distance decoding method, with a total net coding gain of 10.36 dB....

  8. Characterising argon-bomb balloons for high-speed photography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available -1 SABO 2013 TME Workshop Alkantpan Characterising Argon-bomb balloons for High-speed Photography M Olivier and FJ Mostert Landward Sciences, Defence Peace Safety and Security, CSIR, Meiring Naude Road, Pretoria, RSA. Abstract A...

  9. Next Generation Modeling Technology for High Speed Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent R&D associated with designing high speed rotorcraft has been greatly hampered by a lack of test data and confidence in predictions for rotors operating...

  10. Long DNA passenger strand highly improves the activity of RNA/DNA hybrid siRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Kosuke; Tachibana, Akira; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2014-04-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are potent tools in biomedical research, which can reduce the expression level of target proteins through RNAi pathway. They are composed of 19-25 bp double strand RNA (dsRNAs), therefore, stimulate dsRNAs dependent interferon responses in a non-specific manner. This problem has prevented siRNAs from being applied as new therapeautic agents. In the present paper, we tried to circumvent interferon responses using RNA/DNA hetero siRNAs (HsiRNAs) composed of RNA guide and DNA passenger strands. It was previously reported that siRNAs which were partially substituted with DNA had RNAi activity and that DNA substitution often caused the activity loss. In our results, HsiRNAs, in which the passenger strand of siRNAs were exchanged with DNA also showed much lower activity than that of parental siRNAs. Here, we found that attachment of 5' flanking sequence to DNA passenger strand improved the activity of HsiRNAs. Furthermore, the effective HsiRNAs induced much lower interferon responses than parental siRNAs. Thus, HsiRNAs with 5' flanking sequence are expected to be novel siRNA drug candidates. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-speed optical signal processing using time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Guan, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle.......This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle....

  12. Minimum Plate Thickness in High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The minimum plate thickness requirements specified by the classification societies for high-speed craft are supposed to ensure adequate resistance to impact loads such as collision with floating objects and objects falling on the deck. The paper presents analytical methods of describing such impact...... phenomena and proposes performance requirements instead of thickness requirements for hull panels in high-speed craft made of different building materials....

  13. From periphery to core: economic adjustments to high speed rail

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Feddersen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that high speed rail systems, by bringing economic agents closer together, sustainably promote economic activity within regions that enjoy an increase in accessibility. Our results on the one hand confirm expectations that have led to huge public investments into high speed rail all over the world. On the other hand, they confirm theoretical predictions arising from a consolidate body of (New) Economic Geography literature taking a positive, man-made and reproduci...

  14. High Speed Frame Synchronization and Viterbi Decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.

    1998-01-01

    The study has been divided into two phases. The purpose of Phase 1 of the study was to describe the system structure and algorithms in sufficient detail to allow drawing the high level architecture of units containing frame synchronization and Viterbi decoding. After selection of which specific...... potentially useful.Algorithms for frame synchronization are described and analyzed. Further, the high level architecture of units that contain frame synchronization and various other functions needed in a complete system is presented. Two such units are described, one for placement before the Viterbi decoder...... towards a realization in an FPGA.Node synchronization performed within a Viterbi decoder is discussed, and the high level architectures of three possible implementations of Viterbi decoders are described: The first implementation uses a number of commercially available decoders while the the two others...

  15. Nanotechnology: high-speed integrated nanowire circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robin S; McAlpine, Michael C; Ricketts, David S; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M

    2005-04-28

    Macroelectronic circuits made on substrates of glass or plastic could one day make computing devices ubiquitous owing to their light weight, flexibility and low cost. But these substrates deform at high temperatures so, until now, only semiconductors such as organics and amorphous silicon could be used, leading to poor performance. Here we present the use of low-temperature processes to integrate high-performance multi-nanowire transistors into logical inverters and fast ring oscillators on glass substrates. As well as potentially enabling powerful electronics to permeate all aspects of modern life, this advance could find application in devices such as low-cost radio-frequency tags and fully integrated high-refresh-rate displays.

  16. Competitiveness of rail in long-distance passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Knotek, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis describes the current state of passenger rail transport and the most important long-distance projects in Europe in the 20th century. It also deals with current changes in the European rail market and its further development. The aim of this master's thesis is to analyze the state of long-distance rail passenger transport in the Czech Republic and abroad, a general view on the high speed rail, which is described in terms of its development, technology, benefits and costs a...

  17. An assessment of the dynamic interaction of the rolling stock and the long-span bridges on high-speed railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dyachenko Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When the high-speed railway traffic is being organized, it becomes necessary to elaborate bridge design standards for high-speed railways. To ensure safety of traffic and reliability of bridges one needs to resolve the dynamic problems of various types of high-speed trains moving along the structures. The article analyzes the magnitude of inertial response as the function of the external stress parameters. A simplified structure assessment technique is offered based on the criterion of passenger comfort while crossing the bridges. The usefulness of the given research arises from the reduction of complexity of the complicated dynamic calculations needed to describe a high-speed train travelling along the artificial structures. Dependences of relative elastic deflection values from the span length are proposed, which allows designing and calculating long-span structures using the simplified dynamic models.

  18. Optimization Based High-Speed Railway Train Rescheduling with Speed Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A decision support framework with four components is proposed for high-speed railway timetable rescheduling in case of speed restriction. The first module provides the speed restriction information. The capacity evaluation module is used to evaluate whether the capacity can fulfill the demand before rescheduling timetable based on deduction factor method. The bilayer rescheduling module is the key of the decision support framework. In the bilayer rescheduling module, the upper-layer objective is to make an optimal rerouting plan with selected rerouting actions. Given a specific rerouting plan, the lower-layer focuses on minimizing the total delay as well as the number of seriously impacted trains. The result assessment module is designed to invoke the rescheduling model iteratively with different settings. There are three prominent features of the framework, such as realized interaction with dispatchers, emphasized passengers’ satisfaction, and reduced computation complexity with a bilayer modeling approach. The proposed rescheduling model is simulated on the busiest part of Beijing to Shanghai high-speed railway in China. The case study shows the significance of rerouting strategy and utilization of the railway network capacity in case of speed restriction.

  19. Thoracic spine injury after a high-speed motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilney, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In late October, a hospital-based flight team was activated at 9:30 pm for an approximately 30-year-old man involved in a high-speed motor vehicle crash into a tree. Per emergency medical services (EMS) documentation, flight service was requested for advanced airway management and rapid transport of the patient to a Level 1 trauma center. Ground transport was estimated at 60+ minutes, whereas actual flight time was less than 15 minutes. On the crew's arrival at the designated landing zone, they were escorted to an ambulance where a 100-kg man was immobilized on a stretcher. Because the landing area was at a remote location, the flight team did not witness the scene; however, the ground paramedic reported that the patient was the single-occupant driver of a small sedan. Given the extent of damage to the front and passenger side of the vehicle, it was determined that the patient was driving at a high rate of speed when he struck the tree. He required approximately 20 to 25 minutes of extrication. An empty bottle of zolpidem (Ambien) was found on the floor of the vehicle; the 30-day prescription had been filled approximately a week before the accident occurred. 2010 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High-speed quantum networking by ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Simon J; Greentree, Andrew D; Stephens, Ashley M; Van Meter, Rodney

    2016-11-02

    Networked entanglement is an essential component for a plethora of quantum computation and communication protocols. Direct transmission of quantum signals over long distances is prevented by fibre attenuation and the no-cloning theorem, motivating the development of quantum repeaters, designed to purify entanglement, extending its range. Quantum repeaters have been demonstrated over short distances, but error-corrected, global repeater networks with high bandwidth require new technology. Here we show that error corrected quantum memories installed in cargo containers and carried by ship can provide a exible connection between local networks, enabling low-latency, high-fidelity quantum communication across global distances at higher bandwidths than previously proposed. With demonstrations of technology with sufficient fidelity to enable topological error-correction, implementation of the quantum memories is within reach, and bandwidth increases with improvements in fabrication. Our approach to quantum networking avoids technological restrictions of repeater deployment, providing an alternate path to a worldwide Quantum Internet.

  1. High-speed analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Demler, Michael J

    1991-01-01

    This book covers the theory and applications of high-speed analog-to-digital conversion. An analog-to-digital converter takes real-world inputs (such as visual images, temperature readings, and rates of speed) and transforms them into digital form for processing by computer. This book discusses the design and uses of such circuits, with particular emphasis on improving the speed of the conversion process and the accuracy of its output--how well the output is a corresponding digital representation of the output*b1input signal. As computers become increasingly interfaced to the outside world, ""

  2. Switching speed limitations of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Incau, Bogdan Ioan; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the switching speed limits of high power IGBT modules are investigated. The limitation of turn-on and turn-off switching speeds of the IGBTs are experimentally detected in a pulse tester. Different dc-bus stray inductances are considered, as well as the worst case scenario for the b......In this paper the switching speed limits of high power IGBT modules are investigated. The limitation of turn-on and turn-off switching speeds of the IGBTs are experimentally detected in a pulse tester. Different dc-bus stray inductances are considered, as well as the worst case scenario...... for the blocking dc-link voltage. Switching losses are analyzed upon a considerable variation of resistor value from turn-on gate driver side. Short circuit operations are investigated along with safe operating area for entire module to validate electrical capabilities under extreme conditions....

  3. High Speed Imaging of Diesel Fuel Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ja'kira; Bittle, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    Fuel sprays primarily serve as methods for fuel distribution, fuel/air mixing, and atomization. In this research, a constant pressure flow rig vessel is being tested at various pressures and temperatures using n-heptane. The experiment requires two imaging techniques: color Schlieren and Mie-scatter. Schlieren captures density gradients in a spray which includes both liquid and vapor phases while Mie-scatter is only sensitive to the liquid phase of the fuel spray. Essentially, studies are mainly focused on extracting the liquid boundary from the Schlieren to possibly eliminate the need for acquiring the Mie-Scatter technique. Four test conditions (combination of low and high pressure and temperatures) are used in the application to attempt to find the liquid boundary independent of the Mie-scatter technique. In this pursuit the following methods were used: a color threshold, a value threshold, and the time variation in color. All methods provided some indication of the liquid region but none were able to capture the full liquid boundary as obtained by the Mie-scatter results. Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  4. ALICE HLT high speed tracking on GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, Sergey; Aamodt, Kenneth; Alt, Torsten; Appelshauser, Harald; Arend, Andreas; Bach, Matthias; Becker, Bruce; Bottger, Stefan; Breitner, Timo; Busching, Henner; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cleymans, Jean; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; Djuvsland, Oystein; Engel, Heiko; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Fearick, Roger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hille, Per Thomas; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Kisel, Ivan; Kretz, Matthias; Lara, Camillo; Lindal, Sven; Lindenstruth, Volker; Masoodi, Arshad Ahmad; Ovrebekk, Gaute; Panse, Ralf; Peschek, Jorg; Ploskon, Mateusz; Pocheptsov, Timur; Ram, Dinesh; Rascanu, Theodor; Richter, Matthias; Rohrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Skaali, Bernhard; Smorholm, Olav; Stokkevag, Camilla; Steinbeck, Timm Morten; Szostak, Artur; Thader, Jochen; Tveter, Trine; Ullaland, Kjetil; Vilakazi, Zeblon; Weis, Robert; Yin, Zhong-Bao; Zelnicek, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The on-line event reconstruction in ALICE is performed by the High Level Trigger, which should process up to 2000 events per second in proton-proton collisions and up to 300 central events per second in heavy-ion collisions, corresponding to an inp ut data stream of 30 GB/s. In order to fulfill the time requirements, a fast on-line tracker has been developed. The algorithm combines a Cellular Automaton method being used for a fast pattern recognition and the Kalman Filter method for fitting of found trajectories and for the final track selection. The tracker was adapted to run on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) using the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) framework. The implementation of the algorithm had to be adjusted at many points to allow for an efficient usage of the graphics cards. In particular, achieving a good overall workload for many processor cores, efficient transfer to and from the GPU, as well as optimized utilization of the different memories the GPU offers turned out to be cri...

  5. Modern trends in designing high-speed trains

    OpenAIRE

    Golubović Snežana D.; Rašuo Boško P.; Lučanin Vojkan J.

    2015-01-01

    Increased advantages of railway transportation systems over other types of transportation systems in the past sixty years have been a result of an intensive development of the new generations of high-speed trains. Not only do these types of trains comply with the need for increased speed of transportation and make the duration of the journey shorter, but they also meet the demands for increased reliability, safety and direct application of energy efficiency to the transportation system itself...

  6. Energy-Absorbing Passenger Seat for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, C. P.; Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Development of energy-absorbing passenger seat, designed to minimize injury in commercial-aircraft crash, part of joint FAA/NASA controlledimpact flight test of transport-category commercial aircraft. Modified seat mechanism collapses under heavy load to absorb impact energy and thereby protect passenger. Results of simulation tests indicate probability of passenger survival high. Proposed seat mechanism mitigates passenger injuries by reducing impact forces in crash.

  7. Design Process for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft Improved by Neural Network and Regression Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    A key challenge in designing the new High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft is determining a good match between the airframe and engine. Multidisciplinary design optimization can be used to solve the problem by adjusting parameters of both the engine and the airframe. Earlier, an example problem was presented of an HSCT aircraft with four mixed-flow turbofan engines and a baseline mission to carry 305 passengers 5000 nautical miles at a cruise speed of Mach 2.4. The problem was solved by coupling NASA Lewis Research Center's design optimization testbed (COMETBOARDS) with NASA Langley Research Center's Flight Optimization System (FLOPS). The computing time expended in solving the problem was substantial, and the instability of the FLOPS analyzer at certain design points caused difficulties. In an attempt to alleviate both of these limitations, we explored the use of two approximation concepts in the design optimization process. The two concepts, which are based on neural network and linear regression approximation, provide the reanalysis capability and design sensitivity analysis information required for the optimization process. The HSCT aircraft optimization problem was solved by using three alternate approaches; that is, the original FLOPS analyzer and two approximate (derived) analyzers. The approximate analyzers were calibrated and used in three different ranges of the design variables; narrow (interpolated), standard, and wide (extrapolated).

  8. Cost-Benefit Analysis of High-Speed Rail Link between Hong Kong and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Legislative Council in Hong Kong has approved a funding of USD$8.60 billion to build the high-speed rail (HSR line linking mainland China. HSR is a break-through technology that allows trains running at a speed over 250 km per hour. The most controversial part of the HSR investment is whether its cost could be compensated by the social benefits. In this study, a cost-benefit analysis of the Hong Kong to mainland HSR (HKM-HSR line is carried out. First, all the direct and indirect costs, and social benefits are defined; then, monetary equivalents are assigned to these elements; third, all the future values are discounted into present values and aggregated. The results show that the project has a positive net present value (NPV up to USD$2,068.49 million, which proves that the investment is worth. In addition, other transport alternatives, i.e. the existing roadway and conventional railway, are examined and compared with HKM-HSR, which unveils that HSR has the largest positive NPV among these three passenger transportation modes because of its excellent performance in ticket revenue, travel time savings and safety improvement.

  9. Speed Kills: Highly Relativistic Spaceflight Would be Fatal for People and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, William; Edelstein, Arthur

    2010-02-01

    Stories, books and movies about space travel often describe journeys at near-light velocities. Such high speed is desirable, as the resulting relativistic time dilation reduces the duration of the trip, at least for the travelers, so that they can cover interstellar distances in a reasonable amount of time (by their own clocks) and live long enough to reach their destination. The relativistic rocket equation shows the enormous difficulty of achieving such velocities. As spaceship velocities approach the speed of light, interstellar hydrogen, although only present on average at a density of about 2 atoms per cm^3, impinges on the spacecraft and turns into intense radiation (Purcell, 1963) that would quickly kill passengers and destroy instrumentation. In addition, the energy loss of ionizing radiation passing through the ship's hull represents an increasing heat load which necessitates large expenditures of energy to cool the ship. Preventing this irradiation by the use of material or electromagnetic shields is a daunting and, as far as we know, unsolvable problem. The presence of interstellar hydrogen is yet another formidable obstacle to interstellar travel. )

  10. Extremely high-speed imaging based on tubeless technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingzhen

    2008-11-01

    This contribution focuses on the tubeless imaging, the extreme-high speed imaging. A detail discussion is presented on how and why to make them, which would be the most important in the high speed imaging field in the future. Tubeless extreme-high speed imaging can not only be used to observe the transient processes like collision, detonating, and high voltage discharge, but also to research the processes like disintegration and transfer of phonon and exacton in solid, photosynthesis primitive reaction, and electron dynamics inside atom shell. Its imaging frequency is about 107~1015fps. For this kind of imaging, the mechanism of how forming both high speed and framing would better make fine use of the light speed, the light parallelism, the parameters of light wave such as its amplitude, phase, polarization and wave length, and even quantum characteristics of photons. In the cascade connection system of electromagnetic wave and particle wave, it is able to simultaneously realize high level both the temporal resolution and the spatial resolution, and it would be possible to break through the limit of the Heisenberg uncertainty correlation of the optical frequency band.

  11. Assessment of rural soundscapes with high-speed train noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, rural soundscapes with high-speed train noise were assessed through laboratory experiments. A total of ten sites with varying landscape metrics were chosen for audio-visual recording. The acoustical characteristics of the high-speed train noise were analyzed using various noise level indices. Landscape metrics such as the percentage of natural features (NF) and Shannon's diversity index (SHDI) were adopted to evaluate the landscape features of the ten sites. Laboratory experiments were then performed with 20 well-trained listeners to investigate the perception of high-speed train noise in rural areas. The experiments consisted of three parts: 1) visual-only condition, 2) audio-only condition, and 3) combined audio-visual condition. The results showed that subjects' preference for visual images was significantly related to NF, the number of land types, and the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq). In addition, the visual images significantly influenced the noise annoyance, and LAeq and NF were the dominant factors affecting the annoyance from high-speed train noise in the combined audio-visual condition. In addition, Zwicker's loudness (N) was highly correlated with the annoyance from high-speed train noise in both the audio-only and audio-visual conditions. © 2013.

  12. HDR {sup 192}Ir source speed measurements using a high speed video camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Gabriel P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Viana, Rodrigo S. S.; Yoriyaz, Hélio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil); Podesta, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Rubo, Rodrigo A.; Sales, Camila P. de [Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo—HC/FMUSP, São Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil); Reniers, Brigitte [Department of Radiation Oncology - MAASTRO, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Research Group NuTeC, CMK, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw H, Diepenbeek B-3590 (Belgium); Verhaegen, Frank, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology - MAASTRO, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The dose delivered with a HDR {sup 192}Ir afterloader can be separated into a dwell component, and a transit component resulting from the source movement. The transit component is directly dependent on the source speed profile and it is the goal of this study to measure accurate source speed profiles. Methods: A high speed video camera was used to record the movement of a {sup 192}Ir source (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Stockholm, Sweden) for interdwell distances of 0.25–5 cm with dwell times of 0.1, 1, and 2 s. Transit dose distributions were calculated using a Monte Carlo code simulating the source movement. Results: The source stops at each dwell position oscillating around the desired position for a duration up to (0.026 ± 0.005) s. The source speed profile shows variations between 0 and 81 cm/s with average speed of ∼33 cm/s for most of the interdwell distances. The source stops for up to (0.005 ± 0.001) s at nonprogrammed positions in between two programmed dwell positions. The dwell time correction applied by the manufacturer compensates the transit dose between the dwell positions leading to a maximum overdose of 41 mGy for the considered cases and assuming an air-kerma strength of 48 000 U. The transit dose component is not uniformly distributed leading to over and underdoses, which is within 1.4% for commonly prescribed doses (3–10 Gy). Conclusions: The source maintains its speed even for the short interdwell distances. Dose variations due to the transit dose component are much lower than the prescribed treatment doses for brachytherapy, although transit dose component should be evaluated individually for clinical cases.

  13. Thermal Behavior of High-Speed Helical Gear Trains Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    High-speed and heavily loaded gearing are commonplace in the rotorcraft systems employed in helicopter and tiltrotor transmissions. The components are expected to deliver high power from the gas turbine engines to the high-torque, low-speed rotor, reducing the shaft rotational speed in the range of 25:1 to 100:1. These components are designed for high power-to-weight ratios, thus the components are fabricated as light as possible with the best materials and processing to transmit the required torque and carry the resultant loads without compromising the reliability of the drive system. This is a difficult task that is meticulously analyzed and thoroughly tested experimentally prior to being applied on a new or redesigned aircraft.

  14. Unsteady Flow Simulation of High-speed Turbopumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Kwak, dochan; Chan, William; Housman, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    Computation of high-speed hydrodynamics requires high-fidelity simulation to resolve flow features involving transient flow, cavitation, tip vortex and multiple scales of unsteady fluctuations. One example of this type in aerospace is related to liquid-fueled rocket turbopump. Rocket turbopumps operate under severe conditions at very high rotational speeds typically at thousands of rpm. For example, the Shuttle orbiter low-pressure-fuel-turbopump creates transient flow features associated with reverse flows, tip clearance effects, secondary flows, vortex shedding, junction flows, and cavitation effects. Flow unsteadiness originating from the orbiter Low-Pressure-Fuel-Turbopump (LPFTP) inducer is one of the major contributors to the high frequency cyclic loading that results in high cycle fatigue damage to the flow liners just upstream of the LPFTP. The reverse flow generated at the tip of the inducer blades travels upstream and interacts with the bellows cavity. Simulation procedure for this type high-speed hydrodynamic problems requires a method for quantifying multi-scale and multi-phase flow as well as an efficient high-end computing strategy. The current paper presents a high-fidelity computational procedure for unsteady hydrodynamic problems using a high-speed liquid-fueled rocket turbopump.

  15. A Case Study of the High-speed Train Crash Outside Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Rebecca; Vázquez, José Antonio Iglesias

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide use of rail transport has increased, and the train speeds are escalating. Concurrently, the number of train disasters has been amplified globally. Consequently, railway safety has become an important issue for the future. High-velocity crashes increase the risk for injuries and mortality; nevertheless, there are relatively few studies on high-speed train crashes and the influencing factors on travelers' injuries occurring in the crash phase. The aim of this study was to investigate the fatal and non-fatal injuries and the main interacting factors that contributed to the injury process in the crash phase of the 2013 high-velocity train crash that occurred at Angrois, outside Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Hospital records (n=157) of all the injured who were admitted to the six hospitals in the region were reviewed and compiled by descriptive statistics. The instant fatalities (n=63) were collected on site. Influencing crash factors were observed on the crash site, by carriage inspections, and by reviewing official reports concerning the approximated train speed. The main interacting factors that contributed in the injury process in the crash phase were, among other things, the train speed, the design of the concrete structure of the curve, the robustness of the carriage exterior, and the interior environment of the carriages. Of the 222 people on board (218 passengers and four crew), 99% (n=220) were fatally or non-fatally injured in the crash. Thirty-three percent (n=72) suffered fatal injuries, of which 88% (n=63) died at the crash site and 13% (n=9) at the hospital. Twenty-one percent (n=32) of those admitted to hospital suffered multi-trauma (ie, extensive, severe, and/or critical injuries). The head, face, and neck sustained 42% (n=123) of the injuries followed by the trunk (chest, abdomen, and pelvis; n=92; 32%). Fractures were the most frequent (n=200; 69%) injury. A mass-casualty incident with an extensive amount of fatal, severe, and critical

  16. Tactile shoe inlays for high speed pressure monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    pressure sensitive cells and the use of high speed electronics and multiplexing algorithms provides frame rates of 100 Hz. The sensors tolerate overloads while showing a consistent output. The developed prototypes show a high potential not only for robotics, but also for use in sensorised human prosthetics....

  17. High-speed T-38A landing gear extension loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    Testing of T-38A landing gear extension at high speed and high altitude is described. The mechanisms are shown together with peak hydraulic pressure data during landing gear deployment with active and inactive strut door flaps. Results of strain gage measurements of stress on various structural members are included.

  18. High-speed modulation of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietala, V.M.; Armendariz, M.G.; Choquette, K.D.; Lear, K.L.

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes work on the development of high-speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for multi-gigabit per second optical data communications applications (LDRD case number 3506.010). The program resulted in VCSELs that operate with an electrical bandwidth of 20 GHz along with a simultaneous conversion efficiency (DC to light) of about 20%. To achieve the large electrical bandwidth, conventional VCSELs were appropriately modified to reduce electrical parasitics and adapted for microwave probing for high-speed operation.

  19. Method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Chi, Nan; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2004-01-01

    A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated.......A method for high-speed Manchester encoded optical signal generation is proposed and demonstrated with a specially configured electro-optical modulator. A 10 Gb/s Manchester encoded optical signal was generated, and its bit-error-ratio (BER) performance was evaluated....

  20. Secondary Containment Design for a High Speed Centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, K.W.

    1999-03-01

    Secondary containment for high speed rotating machinery, such as a centrifuge, is extremely important for operating personnel safety. Containment techniques can be very costly, ungainly and time consuming to construct. A novel containment concept is introduced which is fabricated out of modular sections of polycarbonate glazed into a Unistrut metal frame. A containment study for a high speed centrifuge is performed which includes the development of parameters for secondary containment design. The Unistrut/polycarbonate shield framing concept is presented including design details and proof testing procedures. The economical fabrication and modularity of the design indicates a usefulness for this shielding system in a wide variety of containment scenarios.

  1. Miniature high speed compressor having embedded permanent magnet motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei (Inventor); Zheng, Liping (Inventor); Chow, Louis (Inventor); Kapat, Jayanta S. (Inventor); Wu, Thomas X. (Inventor); Kota, Krishna M. (Inventor); Li, Xiaoyi (Inventor); Acharya, Dipjyoti (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high speed centrifugal compressor for compressing fluids includes a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) having a hollow shaft, the being supported on its ends by ball bearing supports. A permanent magnet core is embedded inside the shaft. A stator with a winding is located radially outward of the shaft. The PMSM includes a rotor including at least one impeller secured to the shaft or integrated with the shaft as a single piece. The rotor is a high rigidity rotor providing a bending mode speed of at least 100,000 RPM which advantageously permits implementation of relatively low-cost ball bearing supports.

  2. Effects of high sound speed confiners on ANFO detonations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyanda, Charles; Jackson, Scott; Short, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The interaction between high explosive (HE) detonations and high sound speed confiners, where the confiner sound speed exceeds the HE's detonation speed, has not been thoroughly studied. The subsonic nature of the flow in the confiner allows stress waves to travel ahead of the main detonation front and influence the upstream HE state. The interaction between the detonation wave and the confiner is also no longer a local interaction, so that the confiner thickness now plays a significant role in the detonation dynamics. We report here on larger scale experiments in which a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is detonated in aluminium confiners with varying charge diameter and confiner thickness. The results of these large-scale experiments are compared with previous large-scale ANFO experiments in cardboard, as well as smaller-scale aluminium confined ANFO experiments, to characterize the effects of confiner thickness.

  3. Ultra-high-speed optical and electronic distributed devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.; Wendt, J.R.; Armendariz, M.G.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes work on the development of ultra-high-speed semiconductor optical and electronic devices. High-speed operation is achieved by velocity matching the input stimulus to the output signal along the device`s length. Electronic devices such as field-effect transistors (FET`s), should experience significant speed increases by velocity matching the electrical input and output signals along the device. Likewise, optical devices, which are typically large, can obtain significant bandwidths by velocity matching the light being generated, detected or modulated with the electrical signal on the device`s electrodes. The devices discussed in this report utilize truly distributed electrical design based on slow-wave propagation to achieve velocity matching.

  4. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  5. Recent Advances in Ultra-High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Hu, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We review recent advances in the optical signal processing of ultra-high-speed serial data signals up to 1.28 Tbit/s, with focus on applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Experimental methods for the generation of symbol rates up to 1.28 Tbaud are also described....

  6. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  7. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-08

    Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) ...............................................................................................5 High Speed Rail In...conventional steel wheel on steel rail technology, or magnetic levitation (in which superconducting magnets levitate a train above a guide rail...transported.14 Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) Maglev train technology was developed in the United States in the 1960s. It uses electromagnets to suspend

  8. Visualization of Projectile Flying at High Speed in Dusty Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Chihiro; Watanabe, Yasumasa; Suzuki, Kojiro

    2017-10-01

    Considering a spacecraft that encounters particle-laden environment, such as dust particles flying up over the regolith by the jet of the landing thruster, high-speed flight of a projectile in such environment was experimentally simulated by using the ballistic range. At high-speed collision of particles on the projectile surface, they may be reflected with cracking into smaller pieces. On the other hand, the projectile surface will be damaged by the collision. To obtain the fundamental characteristics of such complicated phenomena, a projectile was launched at the velocity up to 400 m/s and the collective behaviour of particles around projectile was observed by the high-speed camera. To eliminate the effect of the gas-particle interaction and to focus on only the effect of the interaction between the particles and the projectile's surface, the test chamber pressure was evacuated down to 30 Pa. The particles about 400μm diameter were scattered and formed a sheet of particles in the test chamber by using two-dimensional funnel with a narrow slit. The projectile was launched into the particle sheet in the tangential direction, and the high-speed camera captured both projectile and particle motions. From the movie, the interaction between the projectile and particle sheet was clarified.

  9. Time-interleaved high-speed D/A converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, E.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is on power efficient very high-speed digital-to-analog converters (DACs) in CMOS technology, intended to generate signals from DC to RF. Components in RF signal chains are nowadays often moved from the analog domain to the digital domain. This allows for more flexibility and better

  10. Bottom Raking Damage to High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the raking damage to high speed craft (HSC) and conventional ships. The analysis is based on a detailed theoretical model for the raking resistance of an assembled ship bottom structure and on the idea that the impact conditions for various ship types have...

  11. Research notes : high-speed rail survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The survey was conducted from April 2010 to June 2010 using both a print and a web version with identical questions. The print version of the survey was distributed at open house meetings on high-speed rail held in Eugene, Junction City, Albany, Sale...

  12. High-Speed Low Power Design in CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghani, Arfan; Usmani, S. H.; Stassen, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    Static CMOS design displays benefits such as low power consumption, dominated by dynamic power consumption. In contrast, MOS Current Mode Logic (MCML) displays static rather than dynamic power consumption. High-speed low-power design is one of the many application areas in VLSI that require...

  13. High-speed photodiodes in standard CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes high-speed photodiodes in standard CMOS technology which allow monolithic integration of optical receivers for short-haul communication. The electronics for (multiple users) long-haul communication is very expensive (InP, GaAs), but the usage is justified by the large number of

  14. Optimization and performance of a high-speed plasma position ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 62; Issue 1. Optimization and performance of a high-speed plasma position digital control system. M Emami A R Babazadeh H Rasouli. Research Articles Volume 62 Issue 1 January 2004 pp 53-60 ...

  15. Faster than "g", Revisited with High-Speed Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of modern high-speed cameras in physics teaching provides a tool not only for easy visualization, but also for quantitative analysis of many simple though fast occurring phenomena. As an example, we present a very well-known demonstration experiment--sometimes also discussed in the context of falling chimneys--which is commonly…

  16. High speed ultrafast laser surface processing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincuzzi, Girolamo; Kling, Rainer; Lopez, John; Hoenninger, Clemens; Audouard, Eric; Mottay, Eric P.

    2017-03-01

    Surface functionalization is a rapidly growing application for industrial ultrafast lasers. There is an increasing interest for high throughput surface processing, especially for texturing and engraving large manufacturing tools for different industrial fields such as injection molding, embossing and printing. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, colored or deep black metal surfaces can now be industrially produced. The engraving speed is continuously improving following improvements in beam scanning technology and high average power industrial ultrafast lasers. Several tenths of MHz for the laser repetition rate and several hundreds of meter per second for the beam speed are available. More than 100 m/s scanning speed is then possible for laser surface structuring. But these surfaces are quite hard to produce since it is necessary to have a good compromise between high removal rate and high surface quality (low roughness, burr-free, narrow heat affected zone). In this work, we apply a simple engineering model based on the two temperature description of ultra-fast ablation to estimate key processing parameters. In particular, the pulse-to-pulse overlap which depends on the scanning velocity, the spot size, and the laser repetition rate all have to be adjusted to optimize the depth and roughness, otherwise heat accumulation and heat affected zone may appear. Optimal sequences of time and spatial superposition of pulses are determined and applied with a polygonal scanner. Ablation depth and processing speed obtained are compared with experimental results.

  17. Optimization and performance of a high-speed plasma position ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a time domain of the order of few milliseconds. In order to achieve maximum performance it is essential to optimize the control system. In this paper plasma position measurement and the details of implementing high-speed PID controllers based on a TMS320c25 digital signal processor along with the system optimization ...

  18. Parallel and distributed processing in high speed traffic monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristea, Mihai Lucian

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a parallel and distributed approach for the purpose of processing network traffic at high speeds. The proposed architecture provides the processing power required to run one or more traffic processing applications at line rates by means of processing full packets at

  19. Soliton-based ultra-high speed optical communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All these facts are the outcome of research on optical solitons in fibers in spite of the fact that the commonly used RZ format is not always called a soliton format. The overview presented here attempts to incorporate the role of soliton-based communications research in present day ultra-high speed communications.

  20. A High-Speed Train Operation Plan Inspection Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a train operation simulation tool to inspect a train operation plan. In applying an improved Petri Net, the train was regarded as a token, and the line and station were regarded as places, respectively, in accordance with the high-speed train operation characteristics and network function. Location change and running information transfer of the high-speed train were realized by customizing a variety of transitions. The model was built based on the concept of component combination, considering the random disturbance in the process of train running. The simulation framework can be generated quickly and the system operation can be completed according to the different test requirements and the required network data. We tested the simulation tool when used for the real-world Wuhan to Guangzhou high-speed line. The results showed that the proposed model can be developed, the simulation results basically coincide with the objective reality, and it can not only test the feasibility of the high-speed train operation plan, but also be used as a support model to develop the simulation platform with more capabilities.

  1. High-speed cinematography of compressible mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, R.; Loth, Eric

    1994-07-01

    Experiments are performed using high-speed film cinematography to temporally resolve compressible planar mixing layer structures using shadowgraphs and planar light sheet visualization. The technique is relatively inexpensive and allows multiple images. The time-dependent shadowgraph and Mie scattering images are documented with a rotating mirror camera operating at approximately 350 kHz. The results show the presence of large scale structures in the mixing layer which flatten as they convect downstream. Both spatial and temporal covariances have been obtained through digital image processing which yield, on average, elliptical structures with convective speeds above the isentropic prediction, and non-isotropic streamwise and transverse scalar transport fluctuations.

  2. Investigations in high speed blanking: cutting forces and microscopic observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larue A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new hopefull technique, called high speed blanking, has been investigated since few years. To understand the cutting process and how the tools have to be designed, this study is interrested in the cutting force measurement. A new cutting force measurement device has to be designed consider the industrial interest of such a study. The designed test bench induces a calibration process in order to stucy the cutting forces evolution. The paper is discussing the result that the peack load seems to decrease when the punch speed increases. Finally microscopic observations are made in order to find Adiabatic Shear Bands.

  3. Speed Acquisition Methods for High-Bandwidth Servo Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Bähr, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A servo control needs the actual values of speed and position.Usually, the latter is computed from the signals of a position encoder; its 1st derivative is smoothed by a low-pass filter and used as actual speed signal. A number of enhanced and alternative methods is experimentally investigated in this thesis. Based on an equal steady-state behavior, the controlled servo's dynamic stiffness is used as the performance measure. The used setup has a special feature: because of its rather high res...

  4. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  5. Imaging acoustic sources moving at high-speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodony, Daniel; Papanicolaou, George

    2006-11-01

    In the quantification of the noise radiated by a turbulent flow the source motion is important. It is well known that moving acoustic sources radiate sound preferrentially in the direction of motion in a phenomenon termed `convective amplification.' Modern acoustic theories have utilized this behavior in their predictions. In the inverse problem the imaging of noise sources, by techniques such as beam forming, the source motion is not explicitly taken into account. In this talk we consider the imaging of acoustic sources moving at speeds on the order of the the ambient speed of sound, as typical of high-speed jets, for which the D"oppler shift approximation is not appropriate. An analysis will be presented that can be used to estimate the source motion based on the radiated acoustic field.

  6. Modeling Compressibility Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Man has strived to make objects fly faster, first from subsonic to supersonic and then to hypersonic speeds. Spacecraft and high-speed missiles routinely fly at hypersonic Mach numbers, M greater than 5. In defense applications, aircraft reach hypersonic speeds at high altitude and so may civilian aircraft in the future. Hypersonic flight, while presenting opportunities, has formidable challenges that have spurred vigorous research and development, mainly by NASA and the Air Force in the USA. Although NASP, the premier hypersonic concept of the eighties and early nineties, did not lead to flight demonstration, much basic research and technology development was possible. There is renewed interest in supersonic and hypersonic flight with the HyTech program of the Air Force and the Hyper-X program at NASA being examples of current thrusts in the field. At high-subsonic to supersonic speeds, fluid compressibility becomes increasingly important in the turbulent boundary layers and shear layers associated with the flow around aerospace vehicles. Changes in thermodynamic variables: density, temperature and pressure, interact strongly with the underlying vortical, turbulent flow. The ensuing changes to the flow may be qualitative such as shocks which have no incompressible counterpart, or quantitative such as the reduction of skin friction with Mach number, large heat transfer rates due to viscous heating, and the dramatic reduction of fuel/oxidant mixing at high convective Mach number. The peculiarities of compressible turbulence, so-called compressibility effects, have been reviewed by Fernholz and Finley. Predictions of aerodynamic performance in high-speed applications require accurate computational modeling of these "compressibility effects" on turbulence. During the course of the project we have made fundamental advances in modeling the pressure-strain correlation and developed a code to evaluate alternate turbulence models in the compressible shear layer.

  7. Sound transmission loss of windows on high speed trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumei; Xiao, Xinbiao; Thompson, David; Squicciarini, Giacomo; Wen, Zefeng; Li, Zhihui; Wu, Yue

    2016-09-01

    The window is one of the main components of the high speed train car body structure through which noise can be transmitted. To study the windows’ acoustic properties, the vibration of one window of a high speed train has been measured for a running speed of 250 km/h. The corresponding interior noise and the noise in the wheel-rail area have been measured simultaneously. The experimental results show that the window vibration velocity has a similar spectral shape to the interior noise. Interior noise source identification further indicates that the window makes a contribution to the interior noise. Improvement of the window's Sound Transmission Loss (STL) can reduce the interior noise from this transmission path. An STL model of the window is built based on wave propagation and modal superposition methods. From the theoretical results, the window's STL property is studied and several factors affecting it are investigated, which provide indications for future low noise design of high speed train windows.

  8. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography - Ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution ophthalmic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Cense, B.; Pierce, M. C.; Nassif, N. A.; Park, B. H.; Yun, S. H.; White, B.; Bouma, B. E.; Tearney, G. J.; de Boer, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To introduce a new ophthalmic optical coherence tomography technology that allows unprecedented simultaneous ultra-high speed and ultra-high resolution. Methods: Using a superluminescent diode source, a clinically viable ultra-high speed, ultra-high resolution spectral domain optical

  9. High speed tracking control of ball screw drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Yi; Huang, Ruei-Yu; Lee, An-Chen

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a new method to achieve the requirement of high speed and high precision for ball screw drive. First, a PI controller is adopted to increase the equivalent structural damping in the velocity loop. Next, the design of the position controller is implemented by a two-stage method. The Doubly Coprime Factorization Disturbance Observer (DCFDOB) is developed to suppress disturbance and resist modelling error in the inner loop, while the outer loop is then designed based on method to extend the system bandwidth over first resonant frequency so that high speed and high accuracy can be achieved. Finally, a feedforward controller is implemented to improve tracking performance. The experiment results showed that the proposed method has smaller tracking error and better performance for suppressing disturbance when compared to the conventional cascaded P-PI control.

  10. Ping-Pong Robotics with High-Speed Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hailing; Wu, Haiyan; Lou, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The performance of vision-based control is usually limited by the low sampling rate of the visual feedback. We address Ping-Pong robotics as a widely studied example which requires high-speed vision for highly dynamic motion control. In order to detect a flying ball accurately and robustly......, a multithreshold legmentation algorithm is applied in a stereo-vision running at 150Hz. Based on the estimated 3D ball positions, a novel two-phase trajectory prediction is exploited to determine the hitting position. Benefiting from the high-speed visual feedback, the hitting position and thus the motion planning...... of the manipulator are updated iteratively with decreasing error. Experiments are conducted on a 7 degrees of freedom humanoid robot arm. A successful Ping-Pong playing between the robot arm and human is achieved with a high successful rate of 88%....

  11. Development of Industrial High-Speed Transfer Parallel Robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung In; Kyung, Jin Ho; Do, Hyun Min; Jo, Sang Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Parallel robots used in industry require high stiffness or high speed because of their structural characteristics. Nowadays, the importance of rapid transportation has increased in the distribution industry. In this light, an industrial parallel robot has been developed for high-speed transfer. The developed parallel robot can handle a maximum payload of 3 kg. For a payload of 0.1 kg, the trajectory cycle time is 0.3 s (come and go), and the maximum velocity is 4.5 m/s (pick amp, place work, adept cycle). In this motion, its maximum acceleration is very high and reaches approximately 13g. In this paper, the design, analysis, and performance test results of the developed parallel robot system are introduced.

  12. High-speed gears for gas turbine drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J.

    1995-06-01

    Recently, Lufkin Industries, Power Transmission Div., full-load tested a high-speed gear designed to couple a 50 Hz electric power generator to a GE LM6000 gas turbine for a power generation project in Australia. The gear is rated 52.2 MW to match the output of the LM6000 gas turbine believed to be one of the largest gear testing operations for this type and size of gear. Each gear drive manufactured by Lufkin is full-speed tested to verify its performance. Tests performed on high-speed units duplicate field conditions, as closely as possible, in order to verify critical speed analysis results and new bearing designs, if used. Lufkin also tests design techniques used in the development of new products. The finite element analysis performed to predict housing deflection in the thrust bearing area of a new extruder driveline was verified by testing of a prototype unit housing. Recently, housing structure stiffness and natural frequencies were predicted and verified on the test stand for some 50 MW vertically offset gear units. A complete data acquisition system is used to gather data from bearing, inlet and drain temperature monitoring points. The temperature monitoring system will accommodate type T,K,J, and E thermocouples and platinum and nickel RTDs.

  13. High Speed Genetic Lips Detection by Dynamic Search Domain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Takuya; Wakasa, Yuji; Tanaka, Kanya; Karungaru, Stephen; Fukumi, Minoru

    In this paper, high-speed size and orientation invariant lips detection of a talking person in an active scene using template matching and genetic algorithms is proposed. As part of the objectives, we also try to acquire numerical parameters to represent the lips. The information is very important for many applications, where high performance is required, such as audio-visual speech recognition, speaker identification systems, robot perception and personal mobile devices interfaces. The difficulty in lips detection is mainly due to deformations and geometric changes of the lips during speech and the active scene by free camera motion. In order to enhance the performance in speed and accuracy, initially, the performance is improved on a single still image, that is, the base of video processing. Our proposed system is based on template matching using genetic algorithms (GA). Only one template is prepared per experiment. The template is the closed mouth of a subject, because the application is for personal devices. In our previous study, the main problem was trade-off between search accuracy and search speed. To overcome this problem, we use two methods: scaling window and dynamic search domain control (SD-Control). We therefore focus on the population size of the GA, because it has a direct effect on search accuracy and speed. The effectiveness of the proposed system is demonstrated by performing computer simulations. We achieved a lips detection accuracy of 91.33% at an average processing time of 33.70 milliseconds per frame.

  14. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. A Hybrid Approach Based on Grey Correlation Analysis and Fuzzy Comprehensive Judgment for Evaluating Service Quality of Passenger Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxiang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The satisfaction of passengers plays an important role in choosing the transportation mode which directly influences train service quality. Based on passengers’ needs, the evaluation index system of train service quality was built. A field example was applied in Chinese high-speed rail, G33 passenger train. The evaluation value of service quality can be calculated by the hybrid method based on grey correlation analysis (GCA and fuzzy comprehensive judgment (FCJ. The result indicates that the index system and the integration of GCA and FCJ could effectively evaluate passenger train service quality.

  16. Difference in muscle activation patterns during high-speed versus standard-speed yoga: A randomized sequence crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiaumpai, Melanie; Martins, Maria Carolina Massoni; Wong, Claudia; Desai, Trusha; Rodriguez, Roberto; Mooney, Kiersten; Signorile, Joseph F

    2017-02-01

    To compare the difference in muscle activation between high-speed yoga and standard-speed yoga and to compare muscle activation of the transitions between poses and the held phases of a yoga pose. Randomized sequence crossover trial SETTING: A laboratory of neuromuscular research and active aging Interventions: Eight minutes of continuous Sun Salutation B was performed, at a high speed versus a standard-speed, separately. Electromyography was used to quantify normalized muscle activation patterns of eight upper and lower body muscles (pectoralis major, medial deltoids, lateral head of the triceps, middle fibers of the trapezius, vastus medialis, medial gastrocnemius, thoracic extensor spinae, and external obliques) during the high-speed and standard-speed yoga protocols. Difference in normalized muscle activation between high-speed yoga and standard-speed yoga. Normalized muscle activity signals were significantly higher in all eight muscles during the transition phases of poses compared to the held phases (pyoga across the entire session. Our results show that transitions from one held phase of a pose to another produces higher normalized muscle activity than the held phases of the poses and that overall activity is greater during highspeed yoga than standard-speed yoga. Therefore, the transition speed and associated number of poses should be considered when targeting specific improvements in performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance analysis of WAVE communication under high-speed driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-young Kang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments is a technology designed for the high-speed mobile environments, WAVE communication performance in a real road environment is highly dependent on the surrounding environments such as moving vehicles, road shape, and topography. In particular, when a vehicle moves at high speed, the location of the vehicle and its proximity to the road-side device are rapidly changed and thus affect communication performance. Accordingly, we build a performance evaluation system based on the WAVE-LTE network cooperative operation. We also analyzed the performance differences based on external environmental factors, such as information volume and velocity, from the data acquired through actual vehicle tests.

  18. High Speed Imaging of Cavitation around Dental Ultrasonic Scaler Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nina; Pecheva, Emilia; Dehghani, Hamid; Sammons, Rachel L; Wang, Qianxi X; Leppinen, David M; Walmsley, A Damien

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation occurs around dental ultrasonic scalers, which are used clinically for removing dental biofilm and calculus. However it is not known if this contributes to the cleaning process. Characterisation of the cavitation around ultrasonic scalers will assist in assessing its contribution and in developing new clinical devices for removing biofilm with cavitation. The aim is to use high speed camera imaging to quantify cavitation patterns around an ultrasonic scaler. A Satelec ultrasonic scaler operating at 29 kHz with three different shaped tips has been studied at medium and high operating power using high speed imaging at 15,000, 90,000 and 250,000 frames per second. The tip displacement has been recorded using scanning laser vibrometry. Cavitation occurs at the free end of the tip and increases with power while the area and width of the cavitation cloud varies for different shaped tips. The cavitation starts at the antinodes, with little or no cavitation at the node. High speed image sequences combined with scanning laser vibrometry show individual microbubbles imploding and bubble clouds lifting and moving away from the ultrasonic scaler tip, with larger tip displacement causing more cavitation.

  19. Quantification of the uncertainties of high-speed camera measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbe C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a combined theoretical and experimental approach to assess and quantify the global uncertainty of a high-speed camera velocity measurement. The study is divided in five sections: firstly, different sources of measurement uncertainties performed by a high-speed camera are identified and quantified. They consist of geometrical uncertainties, pixel discretisation uncertainties or optical uncertainties. Secondly, a global uncertainty factor, taking into account the previously identified sources of uncertainties, is computed. Thirdly, a sensibility study of the camera set-up parameters is performed, allowing the experimenter to optimize these parameters in order to minimize the final uncertainties. Fourthly, the theoretical computed uncertainty is compared with experimental measurements. Good concordance has been found. Finally, the velocity measurement uncertainty study is extended to continuous displacement measurements as a function of time. The purpose of this article is to propose all the mathematical tools necessary to quantify the individual and global uncertainties, to highlight the important aspects of the experimental set-up, and to give recommendations on how to improve a specific set-up in order to minimize the global uncertainty. Taking all these into account, it has been shown that highly dynamic phenomena such as a ballistic phenomenon can be measured using a high-speed camera with a global uncertainty of less than 2%.

  20. Theoretical research and experimental validation of elastic dynamic load spectra on bogie frame of high-speed train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ning; Sun, Shouguang; Li, Qiang; Zou, Hua

    2016-05-01

    When a train runs at high speeds, the external exciting frequencies approach the natural frequencies of bogie critical components, thereby inducing strong elastic vibrations. The present international reliability test evaluation standard and design criteria of bogie frames are all based on the quasi-static deformation hypothesis. Structural fatigue damage generated by structural elastic vibrations has not yet been included. In this paper, theoretical research and experimental validation are done on elastic dynamic load spectra on bogie frame of high-speed train. The construction of the load series that correspond to elastic dynamic deformation modes is studied. The simplified form of the load series is obtained. A theory of simplified dynamic load-time histories is then deduced. Measured data from the Beijing-Shanghai Dedicated Passenger Line are introduced to derive the simplified dynamic load-time histories. The simplified dynamic discrete load spectra of bogie frame are established. Based on the damage consistency criterion and a genetic algorithm, damage consistency calibration of the simplified dynamic load spectra is finally performed. The computed result proves that the simplified load series is reasonable. The calibrated damage that corresponds to the elastic dynamic discrete load spectra can cover the actual damage at the operating conditions. The calibrated damage satisfies the safety requirement of damage consistency criterion for bogie frame. This research is helpful for investigating the standardized load spectra of bogie frame of high-speed train.

  1. 36 CFR 1192.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-speed rail cars... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.175 High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems. (a) All cars for high-speed rail systems, including but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed...

  2. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast pressure of 8.2-25.0%. 3) Combined with smaller blast waves, these large variations in peak blast pressure of DDNP-based primers led to delayed ignition and failure to fire in brief field tests.

  3. Characterizing pyrotechnic igniter output with high-speed schlieren imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, M. N.; Hargather, M. J.; Cooper, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale pyrotechnic igniter output has been characterized using a high-speed schlieren imaging system for observing critical features of the post-combustion flow. The diagnostic, with laser illumination, was successfully applied towards the quantitative characterization of the output from Ti/KClO_4 and TiH_{1.65}/KClO_4 pyrotechnic igniters. The high-speed image sequences showed shock motion, burned gas expansion, and particle motion. A statistical-based analysis methodology for tracking the full-field shock motion enabled straightforward comparisons across the experimental parameters of pyrotechnic material and initial density. This characterization of the mechanical energy of the shock front within the post-combustion environment is a necessary addition to the large body of literature focused on pyrotechnic combustion behavior within the powder bed. Ultimately, understanding the role that the combustion behavior has on the resulting multiphase environment is required for tailored igniter development and comparative performance assessments.

  4. High-speed imaging polarimetry using liquid crystal modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambs P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with dynamic polarimetric imaging techniques. The basics of modern polarimetry have been known for one and a half century, but no practical high-speed implementation providing the full polarization information is currently available. Various methods are reviewed which prove to be a trade-off between the complexity of the optical set-up and the amount of polarimetric information they provide (ie the number of components of the Stokes vector. Techniques using liquid crystal devices, incepted in the late 1990's, are emphasized. Optical set-ups we implemented are presented. We particularly focus on high-speed techniques (i.e. faster than 200 Hz using ferroelectric liquid crystal devices.

  5. Clinical application of high speed B mode echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, T; Nishimura, K; Hibi, N; Sakakibara, T; Kato, T

    1977-06-01

    This study discusses the clinical application of high speed B mode echocardiography to a wide variety of heart diseases. We used a rapid mechanical sector scan at 30 frames per second and 120 scanning lines per frame, resulting in real time observation of cardiac structures. The sector angle was relatively wide (maximum 90 degrees). The tomograms were synchronized with the electrocardiogram and recorded on ordinary 35 mm or Polaroid film in conjunction with 8 mm cinematography. Heart cross sections could be recorded even in the presence of arrhythmia. We used a flat or focused, 10 mm diameter transducer made of lead zirconate-titanate with a resonant frequency of 2 or 3 MHz at a repetition rate of 3.6 kHz. High speed B mode echocardiography is a means of observing cross sections of the heart that can contribute to the improvement of accuracy in cardiac diagnosis.

  6. HIPO: a high-speed imaging photometer for occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Edward W.; Elliot, James L.; Bida, Thomas A.; Taylor, Brian W.

    2004-09-01

    HIPO is a special purpose instrument for SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy. It is a high-speed, imaging photometer that will be used for a variety of time-resolved precise photometry observations, including stellar occultations by solar system objects and transits by extrasolar planets. HIPO has two independent CCD detectors and can also co-mount with FLITECAM, an InSb imager and spectrometer, making simultaneous photometry at three wavelengths possible. HIPO's flexible design and high-speed imaging capability make it well suited to carry out initial test observations on the completed SOFIA system, and to this end a number of additional features have been incorporated. Earlier papers have discussed the design requirements and optical design of HIPO. This paper provides an overview of the instrument, describes the instrument's features, and reviews the actual performance, in most areas, of the completed instrument.

  7. Embedded function methods for compressible high speed turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D. A.

    1994-09-01

    This is the final report on the work performed on the grant 'Embedded Function Methods for Compressible High Speed Turbulent Flow' carried out at Lehigh University during the contract period from September, 1987, to October of 1991. Work has continued at Lehigh on this project on an unfunded basis to the present. The original proposed work had two separate thrusts which were associated with developing embedded function methods in order to obviate the need to expend computational resources on turbulent wall layers in Navier Stokes and boundary-layer calculations. Previous work on the incompressible problem had indicated that this could be done successfully for two-dimensional and three-dimensional incompressible flows. The central objective here was to extend the basic approach to the high speed compressible problem.

  8. High-Speed Coherent Raman Fingerprint Imaging of Biological Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Camp, Charles H; Heddleston, John M; Hartshorn, Christopher M; Walker, Angela R Hight; Rich, Jeremy N; Lathia, Justin D; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a coherent Raman imaging platform using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (BCARS) that provides an unprecedented combination of speed, sensitivity, and spectral breadth. The system utilizes a unique configuration of laser sources that probes the Raman spectrum over 3,000 cm$^{-1}$ and generates an especially strong response in the typically weak Raman "fingerprint" region through heterodyne amplification of the anti-Stokes photons with a large nonresonant background (NRB) while maintaining high spectral resolution of $<$ 13 cm$^{-1}$. For histology and pathology, this system shows promise in highlighting major tissue components in a non-destructive, label-free manner. We demonstrate high-speed chemical imaging in two- and three-dimensional views of healthy murine liver and pancreas tissues and interfaces between xenograft brain tumors and the surrounding healthy brain matter.

  9. Comparison of high-speed rail and maglev systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, F.T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Nassar, F.E. [Keith and Schnars, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)

    1996-07-01

    European and Japanese high-speed rail (HSR) and magnetically levitated (maglev) systems were each developed to respond to specific transportation needs within local economic, social, and political constraints. Not only is maglev technology substantially different from that of HSR, but also HSR and maglev systems differ in trainset design, track characteristics, cost structure, and cost sensitivity to design changes. This paper attempts to go beyond the traditional technology comparison table and focuses on the characteristics and conditions for which existing European and Japanese systems were developed. The technologies considered are the French train a grand vitesse (TGV), the Swedish X2000, the German Intercity Express (ICE) and Transrapid, and the Japanese Shinkansen, MLU, and high-speed surface train (HSST).

  10. Optical communication equalized technique suitable for high-speed transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaolin; Guan, Hao

    2017-07-01

    To solve the phase distortion and high error rate in optical signal transmission, an equalized technique is proposed, which aims to improve the constant modulus algorithm (CMA). In order to correct phase rotating and reduce the error rate with 64 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), the method takes the mean square error as the judgment and utilizes the time-varying step size. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can improve the convergence speed of constellation points, make the eye opening larger, and the signal noise ratio (SNR) can be increased by 4 dB under the same bit error rate (BER), which is efficient for the recovery of information in high-speed transmission.

  11. Corrosion Inhibition of High Speed Steel by Biopolymer HPMC Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Shi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition characteristics of the derivatives of biopolymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS film are investigated. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements and potentiodynamic polarization, the corrosion inhibition performance of high speed steel coated with HPMC derivatives is evaluated. The Nyquist plot and Tafel polarization demonstrate promising anti-corrosion performance of HPMC and HPMCP. With increasing film thickness, both materials reveal improvement in corrosion inhibition. Moreover, because of a hydrophobic surface and lower moisture content, HPMCP shows better anti-corrosion performance than HPMCAS. The study is of certain importance for designing green corrosion inhibitors of high speed steel surfaces by the use of biopolymer derivatives.

  12. High-speed FPGA-based phase measuring profilometry architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guomin; Tang, Hongwei; Zhong, Kai; Li, Zhongwei; Shi, Yusheng; Wang, Congjun

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a high-speed FPGA architecture for the phase measuring profilometry (PMP) algorithm. The whole PMP algorithm is designed and implemented based on the principle of full-pipeline and parallelism. The results show that the accuracy of the FPGA system is comparable with those of current top-performing software implementations. The FPGA system achieves 3D sharp reconstruction using 12 phase-shifting images and completes in 21 ms with 1024 × 768 pixel resolution. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fully pipelined architecture for PMP systems, and this makes the PMP system very suitable for high-speed embedded 3D shape measurement applications.

  13. High-speed cell sorting: fundamentals and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sherrif F; van den Engh, Ger

    2003-02-01

    Cell sorters have undergone dramatic technological improvements in recent years. Driven by the increased ability to differentiate between cell types, modern advances have yielded a new generation of cytometers, known as high-speed cell sorters. These instruments are capable of higher throughput than traditional sorters and can distinguish subtler differences between particles by measuring and processing more optical parameters in parallel. These advances have expanded their use to facilitate genomic and proteomic discovery, and as vehicles for many emerging cell-based therapies. High-speed cell sorting is becoming established as an essential research tool across a broad range of scientific fields and is poised to play a pivotal role in the latest therapeutic modalities.

  14. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of High Speed Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J. S. Mohamed; Omar, Ashraf Ali; Ali, Muhammad ‘Atif B.; Baseair, Abdul Rahman Bin Mohd

    2017-03-01

    In this work, initially the effect of nose shape on the drag characteristics of a high speed train is studied. Then the influence of cross winds on the aerodynamics and hence the stability of such modern high speed trains is analyzed. CFD analysis was conducted using STAR-CCM+ on trains with different features and important aerodynamic coefficients such as the drag, side force and rolling moment coefficients have been calculated for yaw angles of crosswinds ranging from 0° to 90°. The results show that the modification on train nose shape can reduce the drag up to more than 50%. It was also found that, bogie faring only reduces small percentage of drag but significantly contributed to higher rolling moment and side force coefficient hence induced train instability.

  15. Robust adaptive cruise control of high speed trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faieghi, Mohammadreza; Jalali, Aliakbar; Mashhadi, Seyed Kamal-e-ddin Mousavi

    2014-03-01

    The cruise control problem of high speed trains in the presence of unknown parameters and external disturbances is considered. In particular a Lyapunov-based robust adaptive controller is presented to achieve asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection. The system under consideration is nonlinear, MIMO and non-minimum phase. To deal with the limitations arising from the unstable zero-dynamics we do an output redefinition such that the zero-dynamics with respect to new outputs becomes stable. Rigorous stability analyses are presented which establish the boundedness of all the internal states and simultaneously asymptotic stability of the tracking error dynamics. The results are presented for two common configurations of high speed trains, i.e. the DD and PPD designs, based on the multi-body model and are verified by several numerical simulations. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High speed turning of compacted graphite iron using controlled modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalbaum, Tyler Paul

    Compacted graphite iron (CGI) is a material which emerged as a candidate material to replace cast iron (CI) in the automotive industry for engine block castings. Its thermal and mechanical properties allow the CGI-based engines to operate at higher cylinder pressures and temperatures than CI-based engines, allowing for lower fuel emissions and increased fuel economy. However, these same properties together with the thermomechanical wear mode in the CGI-CBN system result in poor machinability and inhibit CGI from seeing wide spread use in the automotive industry. In industry, machining of CGI is done only at low speeds, less than V = 200 m/min, to avoid encountering rapid wear of the cutting tools during cutting. Studies have suggested intermittent cutting operations such as milling suffer less severe tool wear than continuous cutting. Furthermore, evidence that a hard sulfide layer which forms over the cutting edge in machining CI at high speeds is absent during machining CGI is a major factor in the difference in machinability of these material systems. The present study addresses both of these issues by modification to the conventional machining process to allow intermittent continuous cutting. The application of controlled modulation superimposed onto the cutting process -- modulation-assisted machining (MAM) -- is shown to be quite effective in reducing the wear of cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools when machining CGI at high machining speeds (> 500 m/min). The tool life is at least 20 times greater than found in conventional machining of CGI. This significant reduction in wear is a consequence of reduction in the severity of the tool-work contact conditions with MAM. The propensity for thermochemical wear of CBN is thus reduced. It is found that higher cutting speed (> 700 m/min) leads to lower tool wear with MAM. The MAM configuration employing feed-direction modulation appears feasible for implementation at high speeds and offers a solution to this challenging

  17. Analysis and design technology for high-speed aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Camarda, Charles J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent high-speed aircraft structures research activities at NASA Langley Research Center are described. The following topics are covered: the development of analytical and numerical solutions to global and local thermal and structural problems, experimental verification of analysis methods, identification of failure mechanisms, and the incorporation of analysis methods into design and optimization strategies. The paper describes recent NASA Langley advances in analysis and design methods, structural and thermal concepts, and test methods.

  18. Ocular Imaging Combining Ultrahigh Resolution and High Speed OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Tilman; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    The impact of ultrahigh-resolution and ultrahigh-speed OCT technique on corneal and retinal imaging is shown. The capabilities of advanced OCT system for imaging of the cornea and the thickness determination of the tear film, corneal epithelium, and Bowman's layer over a wide field of view are demonstrated. The high transverse and axial resolution of OCT system allowing one to image individual nerve fiber bundles, the parafoveal capillary network, and individual cone photoreceptors is described.

  19. High-speed deformation processing of a titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamirisakandala, S.; Medeiros, S.C.; Malas, J.C. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Yellapregada, P.V.R.K. [Department of Metallurgy, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Karnataka 560 012 (India); Frazier, W.G. [NCPA Coliseum Drive, University, MS 38677 (United States); Dutta, B. [Department of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    The deformation rate is the critical parameter for the phase transforming mechanism and subsequently the morphology of Ti-Al-V alloys, which in turn determines the feasibility of high-speed deformation. The evolution of defect-free equiaxed microstructures is due to dislocation-induced heterogeneous nucleation and growth. The Figure shows a microstructure of a Ti-6Al-4V specimen deformed at 1000 C in a backscattered SEM image. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Design and specification of a high speed transport protocol

    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Due to the increase in data throughput potential provided by high speed (fiber optic) networks, existing transport protocols are becoming increasingly incapable of providing reli­able and timely transfer of data. Whereas in networks of the past it was the transmission medium that caused the greatest communications delay, it is the case today that the transport protocols themselves have become the bottleneck. This thesis provides de...

  1. High Speed White Dwarf Asteroseismology with the Herty Hall Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Aaron; Kim, A.

    2012-01-01

    Asteroseismology is the process of using observed oscillations of stars to infer their interior structure. In high speed asteroseismology, we complete that by quickly computing hundreds of thousands of models to match the observed period spectra. Each model on a single processor takes five to ten seconds to run. Therefore, we use a cluster of sixteen Dell Workstations with dual-core processors. The computers use the Ubuntu operating system and Apache Hadoop software to manage workloads.

  2. Study and improvement of a high speed hydraulic jack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. S.; Nouillant, M.; Viot, P.

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the control problem of a high speed hydraulic jack. We shall estimate the performances of a servo-control with a classic controlled correction of type PD (Proportional Derivate). The study will be performed from a model (servo valve + jack + load), whose simulation will be performed in the Matlab-SimulinK environment. The aim of this article is to characterize, by simulating, the interdependence between the experimental apparatus and the tested object.

  3. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  4. Approximating actual flows in physical infrastructure networks: the case of the Yangtze River Delta high-speed railway network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weiyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous empirical research on urban networks has used data on infrastructure networks to guesstimate actual inter-city flows. However, with the exception of recent research on airline networks in the context of the world city literature, relatively limited attention has been paid to the degree to which the outline of these infrastructure networks reflects the actual flows they undergird. This study presents a method to improve our estimation of urban interaction in and through infrastructure networks by focusing on the example of passenger railways, which is arguably a key potential data source in research on urban networks in metropolitan regions. We first review common biases when using infrastructure networks to approximate actual inter-city flows, after which we present an alternative approach that draws on research on operational train scheduling. This research has shown that ‘dwell time’ at train stations reflects the length of the alighting and boarding process, and we use this insight to estimate actual interaction through the application of a bimodal network projection function. We apply our method to the high-speed railway (HSR network within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, discuss the difference between our modelled network and the original network, and evaluate its validity through a systemic comparison with a benchmark dataset of actual passenger flows.

  5. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J.

    1996-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  6. Double Helical Gear Performance Results in High Speed Gear Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Ehinger, Ryan; Sinusas, Eric; Kilmain, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The operation of high speed gearing systems in the transmissions of tiltrotor aircraft has an effect on overall propulsion system efficiency. Recent work has focused on many aspects of high-speed helical gear trains as would be used in tiltrotor aircraft such as operational characteristics, comparison of analytical predictions to experimental data and the affect of superfinishing on transmission performance. Baseline tests of an aerospace quality system have been conducted in the NASA Glenn High-Speed Helical Gear Train Test Facility and have been described in earlier studies. These earlier tests had utilized single helical gears. The results that will be described in this study are those attained using double helical gears. This type of gear mesh can be configured in this facility to either pump the air-oil environment from the center gap between the meshing gears to the outside of tooth ends or in the reverse direction. Tests were conducted with both inward and outward air-oil pumping directions. Results are compared to the earlier baseline results of single helical gears.

  7. Direct Numerical Simulation of Disperse Multiphase High-Speed Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourgaliev, R R; Dinh, T N; Theofanous, T G; Koning, J M; Greenman, R M; Nakafuji, G T

    2004-02-17

    A recently introduced Level-Set-based Cartesian Grid (LSCG) Characteristics-Based Matching (CBM) method is applied for direct numerical simulation of shock-induced dispersal of solid material. The method incorporates the latest advancements in the level set technology and characteristics-based numerical methods for solution of hyperbolic conservation laws and boundary treatment. The LSCG/CBM provides unique capabilities to simulate complex fluid-solid (particulate) multiphase flows under high-speed flow conditions and taking into account particle-particle elastic and viscoelastic collisions. The particular emphasis of the present study is placed on importance of appropriate modeling of particle-particle collisions, which are demonstrated to crucially influence the global behavior of high-speed multiphase particulate flows. The results of computations reveal the richness and complexity of flow structures in compressible disperse systems, due to dynamic formation of shocks and contact discontinuities, which provide an additional long-range interaction mechanism in dispersed high-speed multiphase flows.

  8. Software Developed for Analyzing High- Speed Rolling-Element Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David P.

    2005-01-01

    COBRA-AHS (Computer Optimized Ball & Roller Bearing Analysis--Advanced High Speed, J.V. Poplawski & Associates, Bethlehem, PA) is used for the design and analysis of rolling element bearings operating at high speeds under complex mechanical and thermal loading. The code estimates bearing fatigue life by calculating three-dimensional subsurface stress fields developed within the bearing raceways. It provides a state-of-the-art interactive design environment for bearing engineers within a single easy-to-use design-analysis package. The code analyzes flexible or rigid shaft systems containing up to five bearings acted upon by radial, thrust, and moment loads in 5 degrees of freedom. Bearing types include high-speed ball, cylindrical roller, and tapered roller bearings. COBRA-AHS is the first major upgrade in 30 years of such commercially available bearing software. The upgrade was developed under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the NASA Glenn Research Center, and incorporates the results of 30 years of NASA and industry bearing research and technology.

  9. Heterogeneous LTE/802.11a mobile relays for data rate enhancement and energy-efficiency in high speed trains

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-12-01

    Performance enhancements of cellular networks for passengers in high speed railway systems are investigated. Relays placed on top of each train car are proposed. These relays communicate with the cellular base station (BS) over Long Term Evolution (LTE) long range links and with the mobile terminals (MTs) inside the train cars using IEEE 802.11a short range links. Scenarios with unicasting and multicasting from the BS are studied, both in the presence and absence of the relays. In addition, LTE resource allocation is taken into account. The presence of the relays is shown to lead to significant enhancements in the effective data rates of the MTs, in addition to leading to huge savings in the energy consumption from the batteries of the MTs. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Train Stop Scheduling in a High-Speed Rail Network by Utilizing a Two-Stage Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the most commonly used methods of scheduling train stops are practical experience and various “one-step” optimal models. These methods face problems of direct transferability and computational complexity when considering a large-scale high-speed rail (HSR network such as the one in China. This paper introduces a two-stage approach for train stop scheduling with a goal of efficiently organizing passenger traffic into a rational train stop pattern combination while retaining features of regularity, connectivity, and rapidity (RCR. Based on a three-level station classification definition, a mixed integer programming model and a train operating tactics descriptive model along with the computing algorithm are developed and presented for the two stages. A real-world numerical example is presented using the Chinese HSR network as the setting. The performance of the train stop schedule and the applicability of the proposed approach are evaluated from the perspective of maintaining RCR.

  11. High speed rail as a complex sociotechnical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The primary goal of this research is to study the impact of Amtraks performance in the Northeast Corridor (NEC). This report focuses on Amtraks Acela and Regional passengers, as well as the travel time performance of these services in the last ...

  12. High-speed rail markets, infrastructure investments and manufacturing capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Driven by increasing demand for passenger transportation and congestion in key corridors in the U.S., such as in California, the Northeast, Florida and parts of the Midwest, the U.S. has embarked on various initiatives to examine alternative solution...

  13. Development of High-speed Machining Database with Case-based Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Applying high-speed machining technology in shop floor has many benefits, such as manufacturing more accurate parts with better surface finishes. The selection of the appropriate machining parameters plays a very important role in the implementation of high-speed machining technology. The case-based reasoning is used in the developing of high-speed machining database to overcome the shortage of available high-speed cutting parameters in machining data handbooks and shop floors. The high-speed machining data...

  14. Numerical analysis of dipole sound source around high speed trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Takehisa; Sagawa, Akio; Nagakura, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Tatsuo

    2002-06-01

    As the maximum speed of high speed trains increases, the effect of aeroacoustic noise on the sound level on the ground becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the distribution of dipole sound sources at the bogie section of high speed trains is predicted numerically. The three-dimensional unsteady flow around a train is solved by the large eddy simulation technique. The time history of vortices shows that unstable shear layer separation at the leading edge of the bogie section sheds vortices periodically. These vortices travel downstream while growing to finally impinge upon the trailing edge of the section. The wavelength of sound produced by these vortices is large compared to the representative length of the bogie section, so that the source region can be regarded as acoustically compact. Thus a compact Green's function adapted to the shape can be used to determine the sound. By coupling the instantaneous flow properties with the compact Green's function, the distribution of dipole sources is obtained. The results reveal a strong dipole source at the trailing edge of the bogie section where the shape changes greatly and the variation of flow with time is also great. On the other hand, the bottom of the bogie section where the shape does not change, or the leading edge and boundary layer where the variation of flow with time is small, cannot generate a strong dipole source.

  15. Rational Formations of a Metro Train Improve Its Efficiencies of Both Traction Energy Utilization and Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on simulations of passenger transports of two representative types of metro trains in China, this study analyzes efficiencies of energy consumption and passenger transport of a metro train in the effect of its target speed, formation scale (FS (i.e., length and mass of the formation, relative traction capacity (RTC (i.e., ratio of the motoring cars to all its cars, and so forth. It is found that increasing energy cost efficiency of a metro train with decreasing its target speed is evidently accelerated with reducing its RTC below 0.50 at the expense of obviously lowering its passenger transport efficiency. Moreover, if the passenger capacity of the train is sufficiently utilized, increasing its FS for the same RTC is easy to have its passenger transport efficiency improved significantly even for a meanwhile much decreased target speed with consuming energy less intensively. Therefore, metro trains in peak hours may take comparatively big FSs, relatively high target speeds, and RTCs over 0.50 to meet usually urgent and large-scale travel demands in such time. In contrast, trains in nonpeak hours ought to have small FSs, relatively low target speeds, and RTCs smaller than 0.50 for mainly avoiding energy waste.

  16. High speed coding for velocity by archerfish retinal ganglion cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretschmer Viola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archerfish show very short behavioural latencies in response to falling prey. This raises the question, which response parameters of retinal ganglion cells to moving stimuli are best suited for fast coding of stimulus speed and direction. Results We compared stimulus reconstruction quality based on the ganglion cell response parameters latency, first interspike interval, and rate. For stimulus reconstruction of moving stimuli using latency was superior to using the other stimulus parameters. This was true for absolute latency, with respect to stimulus onset, as well as for relative latency, with respect to population response onset. Iteratively increasing the number of cells used for reconstruction decreased the calculated error close to zero. Conclusions Latency is the fastest response parameter available to the brain. Therefore, latency coding is best suited for high speed coding of moving objects. The quantitative data of this study are in good accordance with previously published behavioural response latencies.

  17. Analog parallel processor hardware for high speed pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, T.; Tawel, R.; Langenbacher, H.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI-based analog processor for fully parallel, associative, high-speed pattern matching is reported. The processor consists of two main components: an analog memory matrix for storage of a library of patterns, and a winner-take-all (WTA) circuit for selection of the stored pattern that best matches an input pattern. An inner product is generated between the input vector and each of the stored memories. The resulting values are applied to a WTA network for determination of the closest match. Patterns with up to 22 percent overlap are successfully classified with a WTA settling time of less than 10 microsec. Applications such as star pattern recognition and mineral classification with bounded overlap patterns have been successfully demonstrated. This architecture has a potential for an overall pattern matching speed in excess of 10 exp 9 bits per second for a large memory.

  18. High speed cutting of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using LBR-370 numerical control lathe, high speed cutting was applied to AZ31 magnesium alloy. The influence of cutting parameters on microstructure, surface roughness and machining hardening were investigated by using the methods of single factor and orthogonal experiment. The results show that the cutting parameters have an important effect on microstructure, surface roughness and machine hardening. The depth of stress layer, roughness and hardening present a declining tendency with the increase of the cutting speed and also increase with the augment of the cutting depth and feed rate. Moreover, we established a prediction model of the roughness, which has an important guidance on actual machining process of magnesium alloy.

  19. Dynamics of High-Speed Rotors Supported in Sliding Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, J.; Svoboda, R.

    The higher the operating speed, the more serious are problems with rotor stability. Three basic groups of rotors are analyzed and some methods of suppressing instability are shown. In the first group are classical elastic rotors supported in hydrodynamic bearings. Practically all high-speed rotors now run in tilting pad bearings, which are inherently stable, but in specific conditions even tiling pad bearings may not ensure rotor stability. The second group is composed of combustion engines turbocharger rotors, which are characteristic by heavy impellers at both overhung ends of elastic shaft. These rotors are in most cases supported in floating ring bearings, which bring special features to rotor behaviour. The third group of rotors with gas bearings exhibits special features.

  20. Adaptations to speed endurance training in highly trained soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Fiorenza, Matteo; Lund, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined whether a period of additional speed endurance training would improve intense intermittent exercise performance in highly trained soccer players during the season and whether the training changed aerobic metabolism and the level of oxidative enzymes in type I...... and II muscle fibers. METHODS: During the last nine weeks of the season, thirteen semi-professional soccer players performed additional speed endurance training sessions consisting of 2-3 sets of 8 - 10 repetitions of 30 m sprints with 10 s of passive recovery (SET). Before and after SET, subjects......-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (YYIRT-1) was performed and a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest. RESULTS: YYIRT-1 performance was 11.6±6.4% (mean±SD) better (2803±330 vs. 3127±383 m, P

  1. High Speed Gear Sized and Configured to Reduce Windage Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Robert F. (Inventor); Medvitz, Richard B. (Inventor); Hill, Matthew John (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gear and drive system utilizing the gear include teeth. Each of the teeth has a first side and a second side opposite the first side that extends from a body of the gear. For each tooth of the gear, a first extended portion is attached to the first side of the tooth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates. The gear may be utilized in drive systems that may have high rotational speeds, such as speeds where the tip velocities are greater than or equal to about 68 m/s. Some embodiments of the gear may also utilize teeth that also have second extended portions attached to the second sides of the teeth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates.

  2. Implementation of High Speed Distributed Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Anju P.; Sekhar, Ambika

    2012-09-01

    This paper introduces a high speed distributed data acquisition system based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The aim is to develop a "distributed" data acquisition interface. The development of instruments such as personal computers and engineering workstations based on "standard" platforms is the motivation behind this effort. Using standard platforms as the controlling unit allows independence in hardware from a particular vendor and hardware platform. The distributed approach also has advantages from a functional point of view: acquisition resources become available to multiple instruments; the acquisition front-end can be physically remote from the rest of the instrument. High speed data acquisition system transmits data faster to a remote computer system through Ethernet interface. The data is acquired through 16 analog input channels. The input data commands are multiplexed and digitized and then the data is stored in 1K buffer for each input channel. The main control unit in this design is the 16 bit processor implemented in the FPGA. This 16 bit processor is used to set up and initialize the data source and the Ethernet controller, as well as control the flow of data from the memory element to the NIC. Using this processor we can initialize and control the different configuration registers in the Ethernet controller in a easy manner. Then these data packets are sending to the remote PC through the Ethernet interface. The main advantages of the using FPGA as standard platform are its flexibility, low power consumption, short design duration, fast time to market, programmability and high density. The main advantages of using Ethernet controller AX88796 over others are its non PCI interface, the presence of embedded SRAM where transmit and reception buffers are located and high-performance SRAM-like interface. The paper introduces the implementation of the distributed data acquisition using FPGA by VHDL. The main advantages of this system are high

  3. High-speed and high-fidelity system and method for collecting network traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Eric H [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-08-24

    A system is provided for the high-speed and high-fidelity collection of network traffic. The system can collect traffic at gigabit-per-second (Gbps) speeds, scale to terabit-per-second (Tbps) speeds, and support additional functions such as real-time network intrusion detection. The present system uses a dedicated operating system for traffic collection to maximize efficiency, scalability, and performance. A scalable infrastructure and apparatus for the present system is provided by splitting the work performed on one host onto multiple hosts. The present system simultaneously addresses the issues of scalability, performance, cost, and adaptability with respect to network monitoring, collection, and other network tasks. In addition to high-speed and high-fidelity network collection, the present system provides a flexible infrastructure to perform virtually any function at high speeds such as real-time network intrusion detection and wide-area network emulation for research purposes.

  4. Signal Conditioning in Process of High Speed Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Hargas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of cinematic analysis with camera system depends on frame rate of used camera. Specific case of cinematic analysis is in medical research focusing on microscopic objects moving with high frequencies (cilia of respiratory epithelium. The signal acquired by high speed video acquisition system has very amount of data. This paper describes hardware parts, signal condition and software, which is used for image acquiring thru digital camera, intelligent illumination dimming hardware control and ROI statistic creation. All software parts are realized as virtual instruments.

  5. Design and Analysis of High Speed Capacitive Pipeline DACs

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Quoc-Tai; Dabrowski, Jerzy; Alvandpour, Atila

    2014-01-01

    Design of a high speed capacitive digital-to-analog converter (SC DAC) is presented for 65 nm CMOS technology. SC pipeline architecture is used followed by an output driver. For GHz frequency operation with output voltage swing suitable for wireless applications (300 mVpp) the DAC performance is shown to be limited by the capacitor array imperfections. While it is possible to design a highly linear output driver with HD3 < -70 dB and HD2 < -90 dB over 0.55 GHz band as we show, the maxi...

  6. High-speed optical links for UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Grier, A.; Malfa, M.; Booen, E.; Harding, H.; Xia, C.; Hunwardsen, M.; Demers, J.; Kudinov, K.; Mak, G.; Smith, B.; Sahasrabudhe, A.; Patawaran, F.; Wang, T.; Wang, A.; Zhao, C.; Leang, D.; Gin, J.; Lewis, M.; Nguyen, D.; Quirk, K.

    2017-02-01

    High speed optical backbone links between a fleet of UAVs is an integral part of the Facebook connectivity architecture. To support the architecture, the optical terminals need to provide high throughput rates (in excess of tens of Gbps) while achieving low weight and power consumption. The initial effort is to develop and demonstrate an optical terminal capable of meeting the data rate requirements and demonstrate its functions for both air-air and air-ground engagements. This paper is a summary of the effort to date.

  7. Development of FPGA-based High-Speed serial links for High Energy Physics Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Perrella, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments generate high volumes of data which need to be transferred over long distance. Then, for data read out, reliable and high-speed links are necessary. Over the years, due to their extreme high bandwidth, serial links (especially optical) have been preferred over the parallel ones. So that, now, high-speed serial links are commonly used in Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) systems of HEP experiments, not only for data transfer, but also for the distributio...

  8. Fusion: ultra-high-speed and IR image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, T. Goji; Dao, V. T. S.; Nguyen, Quang A.; Kimata, M.

    2015-08-01

    Most targets of ultra-high-speed video cameras operating at more than 1 Mfps, such as combustion, crack propagation, collision, plasma, spark discharge, an air bag at a car accident and a tire under a sudden brake, generate sudden heat. Researchers in these fields require tools to measure the high-speed motion and heat simultaneously. Ultra-high frame rate imaging is achieved by an in-situ storage image sensor. Each pixel of the sensor is equipped with multiple memory elements to record a series of image signals simultaneously at all pixels. Image signals stored in each pixel are read out after an image capturing operation. In 2002, we developed an in-situ storage image sensor operating at 1 Mfps 1). However, the fill factor of the sensor was only 15% due to a light shield covering the wide in-situ storage area. Therefore, in 2011, we developed a backside illuminated (BSI) in-situ storage image sensor to increase the sensitivity with 100% fill factor and a very high quantum efficiency 2). The sensor also achieved a much higher frame rate,16.7 Mfps, thanks to the wiring on the front side with more freedom 3). The BSI structure has another advantage that it has less difficulties in attaching an additional layer on the backside, such as scintillators. This paper proposes development of an ultra-high-speed IR image sensor in combination of advanced nano-technologies for IR imaging and the in-situ storage technology for ultra-highspeed imaging with discussion on issues in the integration.

  9. Next Generation Train. New potential for high-speed rail in Europe; Next Generation Train. Neue Potenziale fuer den europaeischen HGV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Tilo; Lemmer, Karsten [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssystemtechnik

    2013-02-01

    In the context of the Next Generation Train project, the DLR (German national research centre for aeronautics and space) has analysed the situation of passenger transport in Europe and established the potential for a 400-km/h high-speed network throughout the continent. The transport model used was calibrated with origin/destination data from Eurostat. The result is a recommended network that makes sense economically and which it would be possible to operate covering costs. The biggest increase in traffic volume would be achieved in Central Europe as well as in national traffic in Poland, Romania and Turkey. International traffic would increase by a factor of seven.

  10. AC_ICAP: A Flexible High Speed ICAP Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andres Cardona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internal Configuration Access Port (ICAP is the core component of any dynamic partial reconfigurable system implemented in Xilinx SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs. We developed a new high speed ICAP controller, named AC_ICAP, completely implemented in hardware. In addition to similar solutions to accelerate the management of partial bitstreams and frames, AC_ICAP also supports run-time reconfiguration of LUTs without requiring precomputed partial bitstreams. This last characteristic was possible by performing reverse engineering on the bitstream. Besides, we adapted this hardware-based solution to provide IP cores accessible from the MicroBlaze processor. To this end, the controller was extended and three versions were implemented to evaluate its performance when connected to Peripheral Local Bus (PLB, Fast Simplex Link (FSL, and AXI interfaces of the processor. In consequence, the controller can exploit the flexibility that the processor offers but taking advantage of the hardware speed-up. It was implemented in both Virtex-5 and Kintex7 FPGAs. Results of reconfiguration time showed that run-time reconfiguration of single LUTs in Virtex-5 devices was performed in less than 5 μs which implies a speed-up of more than 380x compared to the Xilinx XPS_HWICAP controller.

  11. How sand grains stop a high speed intruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Robert

    When a speeding intruder impacts on a granular material, it comes rapidly to rest after penetrating only a modest distance. Empirical dynamical models, dating to the 19th century (if not earlier), describe the drag on the intruder in terms of two types of depth-dependent forces: one a static force, which also includes gravity, and the other a collisional force proportional to the square of the instantaneous speed of the intruder. What processes occur in the material to so quickly decelerate the intruder? We address this question through experiments and simulations (work of Lou Kondic and collaborators). We first probe the granular response using quasi-two-dimensional granular materials consisting of photoelastic discs. When such a particle experiences a force, it appears bright under cross-polarized illumination. High speed video reveals dynamic force transmission into the material along force chains that form in response to the intruder motion. These chains are nearly normal to the intruder surface, implying that collisional rather than frictional forces dominate the momentum transfer from intruder to grains. These observations allow the formation of a collision-based model that correctly captures the collisional drag force for both 2D and 3D intruders of a variety of shapes. This talk will develop a collisional picture of impact, and also explore the change in the system response as the impact speed increases. Experimental collaborators include Abe Clark, Cacey Stevens Bester, and Alec Petersen. This work supported by DTRA, NSF Grant DMR1206351, NASA Grant NNX15AD38G, and the William M. Keck Foundation.

  12. High-sensitivity, high-speed continuous imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Bender, III, Howard A

    2014-11-18

    A continuous imaging system for recording low levels of light typically extending over small distances with high-frame rates and with a large number of frames is described. Photodiode pixels disposed in an array having a chosen geometry, each pixel having a dedicated amplifier, analog-to-digital convertor, and memory, provide parallel operation of the system. When combined with a plurality of scintillators responsive to a selected source of radiation, in a scintillator array, the light from each scintillator being directed to a single corresponding photodiode in close proximity or lens-coupled thereto, embodiments of the present imaging system may provide images of x-ray, gamma ray, proton, and neutron sources with high efficiency.

  13. Profile parameters of wheelset detection for high speed freight train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Ma, Li; Gao, Xiaorong; Wang, Li

    2012-04-01

    Because of freight train, in China, transports goods on railway freight line throughout the country, it does not depart from or return to engine shed during a long phase, thus we cannot monitor the quality of wheel set effectively. This paper provides a system which uses leaser and high speed camera, applies no-contact light section technology to get precise wheel set profile parameters. The paper employs clamping-track method to avoid complex railway ballast modification project. And detailed descript an improved image-tracking algorithm to extract central line from profile curve. For getting one pixel width and continuous line of the profile curve, uses local gray maximum points as direction control points to direct tracking direction. The results based on practical experiment show the system adapted to detection environment of high speed and high vibration, and it can effectively detect the wheelset geometric parameters with high accuracy. The system fills the gaps in wheel set detection for freight train in main line and has an enlightening function on monitoring the quality of wheel set.

  14. High-speed signal processing using highly nonlinear optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2009-01-01

    We review recent progress in all-optical signal processing techniques making use of conventional silica-based highly nonlinear fibres. In particular, we focus on recent demonstrations of ultra-fast processing at 640 Gbit/s and above, as well as on signal processing of novel modulation formats...... relying on the phase of the optical field. Topics covered include all-optical switching of 640 Gbit/s and 1.28 Tbit/s serial data, wavelength conversion at 640 Gbit/s, optical amplitude regeneration of differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signals, as well as midspan spectral inversion for differential 8......-state phase shift keying (D8PSK) signals....

  15. Generation of an Optimum High Speed High Accuracy Operational Amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    certainly will have gains and emitter resistances that are not identical. In mono- lithic op-amps, it is highly desirable that all of the tran- sistors on a...external resistances ( a and K . altered). In general, w and Q are functions of a and K. p .p , "It is desirable to select these values such that the...220),OMEGA(220) COMPLEX HH,S,DENOM REAL K,ANUM c THE FOLLOWING ARE CONSTANTS TO BE UTILIZED:A01=>DC GAIN OF FIRST c OPAMP ;A02=>DC GAIN OF SECOND OPAMP

  16. Exploring THz band for high speed wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhang, Hangkai; Jia, Shi

    2016-01-01

    We overview recent trend in developing high speed wireless communication systems by exploring large bandwidth available in the THz band, and we also present our recent experimental achievements on 400 GHz wireless transmission with a data rate of up to 60 Gbit/s by using a uni-travelling carrier...... photodiode (UTC-PD) as emitter and a Schottky diode as receiver. This system is foreseen to be capable of accommodating faster data rates beyond 100 Gbit/s, and would find application in bandwidth hungry scenarios....

  17. HORNET: High-speed Onion Routing at the Network Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chen; Asoni, Daniele Enrico; Barrera, David; Danezis, George; Perrig, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We present HORNET, a system that enables high-speed end-to-end anonymous channels by leveraging next generation network architectures. HORNET is designed as a low-latency onion routing system that operates at the network layer thus enabling a wide range of applications. Our system uses only symmetric cryptography for data forwarding yet requires no per-flow state on intermediate nodes. This design enables HORNET nodes to process anonymous traffic at over 93 Gb/s. HORNET can also scale as requ...

  18. An adaptive finite element method for high speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraire, J.; Morgan, K.; Peiro, J.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

    1987-01-01

    The solution of the equations of compressible high speed flow, on unstructured triangular grids in 2D and tetrahedral grids in 3D, is considered. Solution methods based upon both Taylor-Galerkin and Runge-Kutta time-stepping techniques are presented and the incorporation of the ideas of flux corrected transport (FCT) is discussed. These methods are combined with an adaptive mesh regeneration procedure and are employed in the solution of several examples, consisting of Euler flows in both 2D and 3D and Navier-Stokes flows in 2D.

  19. Flexible, High-Speed CdSe Nanocrystal Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, F Scott; Lai, Yuming; Straus, Daniel B; Diroll, Benjamin T; Kim, David K; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2015-10-14

    We report large-area, flexible, high-speed analog and digital colloidal CdSe nanocrystal integrated circuits operating at low voltages. Using photolithography and a newly developed process to fabricate vertical interconnect access holes, we scale down device dimensions, reducing parasitic capacitances and increasing the frequency of circuit operation, and scale up device fabrication over 4 in. flexible substrates. We demonstrate amplifiers with ∼7 kHz bandwidth, ring oscillators with <10 μs stage delays, and NAND and NOR logic gates.

  20. 3D high-speed cinematography and its problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisfeld, Fritz

    1999-06-01

    Many fast events are three dimensional but the normal high- speed cameras are only suitable for 2-D images. Therefore it was investigated which stereoscopic methods could be used to study three dimensional processes. The choice of the optimal method is dependent on the investigated event. To record the 3-D spreading of an injection jet in a laboratory has to use other methods as to record an explosion from a smoke bomb in open air. Three methods are described and critically compared. Furthermore it is shown how from films with double pictures a cinematographic film can be made.

  1. High-Speed EMU TCMS Design and LCC Technology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the high-speed electrical multiple unit (EMU life cycle, including the design, manufacturing, testing, and maintenance stages. It also presents the train control and monitoring system (TCMS software development platform, the TCMS testing and verification bench, the EMU driving simulation platform, and the EMU remote data transmittal and maintenance platform. All these platforms and benches combined together make up the EMU life cycle cost (LCC system. Each platform facilitates EMU LCC management and is an important part of the system.

  2. Pushbroom Stereo for High-Speed Navigation in Cluttered Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Andrew J.; Tedrake, Russ

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel stereo vision algorithm that is capable of obstacle detection on a mobile ARM processor at 120 frames per second. Our system performs a subset of standard block-matching stereo processing, searching only for obstacles at a single depth. By using an onboard IMU and state-estimator, we can recover the position of obstacles at all other depths, building and updating a local depth-map at framerate. Here, we describe both the algorithm and our implementation on a high-speed, sma...

  3. Photonic Technologies for Ultra-High-Speed Information Highways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchoule, S; Lèfevre, R.; Legros, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ACTS project HIGHWAY (AC067) addresses promising ultra-high speed optoelectronic components and system technologies for 40 Gbit/s time-division-multiplexed (TDM) transport systems. Advanced 40 Gbit/s TDM system lab demonstrators are to be realized and tested over installed field fiber testbeds....... This paper reviews the current status of 40 Gbit/s TDM components and subsystem technologies achieved in HIGHWAY. The results of HIGHWAY 40 Gbit/s TDM systems and field tests will be reported in a subsequent paper. (C) 1999 Academic Press....

  4. Preliminary results from the High Speed Airframe Integration Research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Peter G.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of the accomplishment of the near term objectives of developing an analysis system and optimization methods during the first year of the NASA Langley High Speed Airframe Integration Research (HiSAIR) project. The characteristics of a Mach 3 HSCT transport have been analyzed utilizing the newly developed process. In addition to showing more detailed information about the aerodynamic and structural coupling for this type of vehicle, this exercise aided in further refining the data requirements for the analysis process.

  5. A quick-retrieval high-speed digital framing camera

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, A.H.; Yee, J; Bellan, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    A new high-speed digital framing camera is described. The design is built around a rotating polygon mirror that provides a framing rate of 24 000 frames/s. The camera electronics digitizes an image into a 32×104 grid of pixels, where the second dimension of the grid can be varied and is determined by the 8 bit computer-aided measurement and control digitizer sampling rate. Available digitizer memory provides for 314 frames at this horizontal resolution. The advantages over other available hig...

  6. High-speed digital-to-analog converter concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Kottke, Christoph; Jungnickel, Volker; Freund, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    In today's fiber-optic communication systems, the bandwidth of the photonic components, i.e. modulators and photo diodes, is way greater than that of their electrical counterparts, i.e. digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). In order to increase the transmission capacity, the bandwidth limitations need to be overcome. We review the progress and the recent results in the field of high-speed DACs, which are desirable for software-defined transmitters. Furthermore, we evaluate interleaving concepts regarding their ability to overcome the above mentioned limitations and demonstrate recent experimental results for a bandwidth interleaved DAC with 40 GHz analog electrical bandwidth.

  7. High Speed Capacitor-Inverter Based Carbon Nanotube Full Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashtian M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon Nanotube filed-effect transistor (CNFET is one of the promising alternatives to the MOS transistors. The geometry-dependent threshold voltage is one of the CNFET characteristics, which is used in the proposed Full Adder cell. In this paper, we present a high speed Full Adder cell using CNFETs based on majority-not (Minority function. Presented design uses eight transistors and eight capacitors. Simulation results show significant improvement in terms of delay and power-delay product in comparison to contemporary CNFET Adder Cells. Simulations were carried out using HSPICE based on CNFET model with 0.6 V VDD.

  8. Ultra-High-Speed Image Signal Accumulation Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Goji Etoh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Averaging of accumulated data is a standard technique applied to processing data with low signal-to-noise ratios (SNR, such as image signals captured in ultra-high-speed imaging. The authors propose an architecture layout of an ultra-high-speed image sensor capable of on-chip signal accumulation. The very high frame rate is enabled by employing an image sensor structure with a multi-folded CCD in each pixel, which serves as an in situ image signal storage. The signal accumulation function is achieved by direct connection of the first and the last storage elements of the in situ storage CCD. It has been thought that the multi-folding is achievable only by driving electrodes with complicated and impractical layouts. Simple configurations of the driving electrodes to overcome the difficulty are presented for two-phase and four-phase transfer CCD systems. The in situ storage image sensor with the signal accumulation function is named Image Signal Accumulation Sensor (ISAS.

  9. Storage and compression design of high speed CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xichang; Zhai, LinPei

    2009-05-01

    In current field of CCD measurement, large area and high resolution CCD is used to obtain big measurement image, so that, speed and capacity of CCD requires high performance of later storage and process system. The paper discusses how to use SCSI hard disk to construct storage system and use DSPs and FPGA to realize image compression. As for storage subsystem, Because CCD is divided into multiplex output, SCSI array is used in RAID0 way. The storage system is com posed of high speed buffer, DM A controller, control M CU, SCSI protocol controller and SCSI hard disk. As for compression subsystem, according to requirement of communication and monitor system, the output is fixed resolution image and analog PA L signal. The compression means is JPEG 2000 standard, in which, 9/7 wavelets in lifting format is used. 2 DSPs and FPGA are used to com pose parallel compression system. The system is com posed of FPGA pre-processing module, DSP compression module, video decoder module, data buffer module and communication module. Firstly, discrete wavelet transform and quantization is realized in FPGA. Secondly, entropy coding and stream adaption is realized in DSPs. Last, analog PA L signal is output by Video decoder. Data buffer is realized in synchronous dual-port RAM and state of subsystem is transfer to controller. Through subjective and objective evaluation, the storage and compression system satisfies the requirement of system.

  10. High speed optical filtering using active resonant subwavelength gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, A. V.; Kemme, S. A.; Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Briggs, R. D.; Wendt, J. R.; Ellis, A. R.; Marshall, L. H.; Carter, T. R.; Hunker, J. D.; Samora, S.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we describe the most recent progress towards the device modeling, fabrication, testing and system integration of active resonant subwavelength grating (RSG) devices. Passive RSG devices have been a subject of interest in subwavelength-structured surfaces (SWS) in recent years due to their narrow spectral response and high quality filtering performance. Modulating the bias voltage of interdigitated metal electrodes over an electrooptic thin film material enables the RSG components to act as actively tunable high-speed optical filters. The filter characteristics of the device can be engineered using the geometry of the device grating and underlying materials. Using electron beam lithography and specialized etch techniques, we have fabricated interdigitated metal electrodes on an insulating layer and BaTiO3 thin film on sapphire substrate. With bias voltages of up to 100V, spectral red shifts of several nanometers are measured, as well as significant changes in the reflected and transmitted signal intensities around the 1.55um wavelength. Due to their small size and lack of moving parts, these devices are attractive for high speed spectral sensing applications. We will discuss the most recent device testing results as well as comment on the system integration aspects of this project.

  11. High speed and wide bandwidth delta-sigma ADCs

    CERN Document Server

    Bolatkale, Muhammed; Makinwa, Kofi A A

    2014-01-01

    This book describes techniques for realizing wide bandwidth (125MHz) over-sampled analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in nanometer-CMOS processes.  The authors offer a clear and complete picture of system level challenges and practical design solutions in high-speed Delta-Sigma modulators.  Readers will be enabled to implement ADCs as continuous-time delta-sigma (CT∆Σ) modulators, offering simple resistive inputs, which do not require the use of power-hungry input buffers, as well as offering inherent anti-aliasing, which simplifies system integration. The authors focus on the design of high speed and wide-bandwidth ΔΣMs that make a step in bandwidth range which was previously only possible with Nyquist converters. More specifically, this book describes the stability, power efficiency, and linearity limits of ΔΣMs, aiming at a GHz sampling frequency.   • Provides overview of trends in Wide Bandwidth and High Dynamic Range analog-to-digital converters (ADCs); • Enables the design of a wide band...

  12. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  13. Role of the eye in high-speed motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzer, William G.

    1997-05-01

    Prior to the investigation of the photographic process over 150 years ago, the analyses of rapid motions were limited by the dynamic efficacies of the human eye, which has a temporal resolution of approximately 1/10 sec and a maximum information acquisition rate estimated at 103 to 104 bits/sec. At high rates of object motion, only the simplest actions can be resolved, comprehended and retained in human memory. Advances in the field of high-speed photography drastically changed all this by providing us with the ability today to capture permanent images of transient events at acquisition rates in excess of 1012 bits/sec. As remarkable as these improvements in temporal resolution and image retention may be, the final step in correctly interpreting any image still rests largely upon the analyst's ability to process visual data. Those who enter the field of image analysis soon learn how capricious the eye can be in this task. It is incumbent upon anyone performing important image analyses to have at least a basic understanding of the eye's performance characteristics, especially its limitations and capricious anomalies. Exemplary data presented in this paper are drawn from the scientific literature and the author's forty years of experience as a researcher, author and educator in the field of high-speed imaging.

  14. Reflectively coupled waveguide photodetector for high speed optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    To fully utilize GaAs high drift mobility, techniques to monolithically integrate In0.53Ga0.47As p-i-n photodetectors with GaAs based optical waveguides using total internal reflection coupling are reviewed. Metal coplanar waveguides, deposited on top of the polyimide layer for the photodetector's planarization and passivation, were then uniquely connected as a bridge between the photonics and electronics to illustrate the high-speed monitoring function. The photodetectors were efficiently implemented and imposed on the echelle grating circle for wavelength division multiplexing monitoring. In optical filtering performance, the monolithically integrated photodetector channel spacing was 2 nm over the 1,520-1,550 nm wavelength range and the pass band was 1 nm at the -1 dB level. For high-speed applications the full-width half-maximum of the temporal response and 3-dB bandwidth for the reflectively coupled waveguide photodetectors were demonstrated to be 30 ps and 11 GHz, respectively. The bit error rate performance of this integrated photodetector at 10 Gbit/s with 2(7)-1 long pseudo-random bit sequence non-return to zero input data also showed error-free operation.

  15. Material Properties of High-Speed Steel Rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been required to improve the material properties of high-speed steel (HSS rolls, because of the low wear resistance and low mechanical properties. To improve them, several new steels have been proposed, which have high wear resistance as well as excellent mechanical properties, e.g., hardness and tensile properties, where additional elements (V, Cr and W were employed. However, their steels may have still technical issues, as the roll surfaces become roughened during the production process. The reason for this problem is found to be affected by the oxidation of the HSS surface. In this work, we have provided the suggestions to make high wear resistance of the HSS rolls

  16. Dark matter phenomenology of high-speed galaxy cluster collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy [Izmir University of Economics, Faculty of Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Ji, Chueng-Ryong [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-08-15

    We perform a general computational analysis of possible post-collision mass distributions in high-speed galaxy cluster collisions in the presence of self-interacting dark matter. Using this analysis, we show that astrophysically weakly self-interacting dark matter can impart subtle yet measurable features in the mass distributions of colliding galaxy clusters even without significant disruptions to the dark matter halos of the colliding galaxy clusters themselves. Most profound such evidence is found to reside in the tails of dark matter halos' distributions, in the space between the colliding galaxy clusters. Such features appear in our simulations as shells of scattered dark matter expanding in alignment with the outgoing original galaxy clusters, contributing significant densities to projected mass distributions at large distances from collision centers and large scattering angles of up to 90 {sup circle}. Our simulations indicate that as much as 20% of the total collision's mass may be deposited into such structures without noticeable disruptions to the main galaxy clusters. Such structures at large scattering angles are forbidden in purely gravitational high-speed galaxy cluster collisions. Convincing identification of such structures in real colliding galaxy clusters would be a clear indication of the self-interacting nature of dark matter. Our findings may offer an explanation for the ring-like dark matter feature recently identified in the long-range reconstructions of the mass distribution of the colliding galaxy cluster CL0024+017. (orig.)

  17. Investigation of a Plasma Ball using a High Speed Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, James; Zweben, Stewart; Raitses, Yevgeny; Zwicker, Andrew; Kaganovich, Igor

    2008-11-01

    The physics of how a plasma ball works is not clearly understood. A plasma ball is a commercial ``toy'' in which a center electrode is charged to a high voltage and lightning-like discharges fill the ball with many plasma filaments. The ball uses high voltage applied on the center electrode (˜5 kV) which is covered with glass and capacitively coupled to the plasma filaments. This voltage oscillates at a frequency of ˜26 kHz. A Nebula plasma ball from Edmund Scientific was filmed with a Phantom v7.3 camera, which can operate at speeds up to 150,000 frames per second (fps) with a limit of >=2 μsec exposure per frame. At 100,000 fps the filaments were only visible for ˜5 μsec every ˜40 μsec. When the plasma ball is first switched on, the filaments formed only after ˜800 μsec and initially had a much larger diameter with more chaotic behavior than when the ball reached its final plasma filament state at ˜30 msec. Measurements are also being made of the final filament diameter, the speed of the filament propagation, and the effect of thermal gradients on the filament density. An attempt will be made to explain these results from plasma theory and movies of these filaments will be shown. Possible theoretical models include streamer-like formation, thermal condensation instability, and dielectric barrier discharge instability.

  18. Control-Surface Instability on High-Speed Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William H.

    1942-01-01

    Tests of several modern airplanes indicate that control surfaces with a high degree of aerodynamic balance are likely to possess characteristics which make them unsatisfactory or dangerous in high-speed flight. Dive tests made in the spring of 1940 at the NACA on a naval fighter-type airplane illustrate one form of instability that may be encountered. During a dive at an indicated airspeed of 365 miles per hour, the ailerons suddenly overbalanced. The efforts of the pilot to bring the ailerons back to neutral resulted in a violent oscillation of the control stick from side to side. Fortunately, the force required to return the ailerons to neutral was within the pilot's capabilities. A time history of the maneuver is given in figure1 and typical frames from motion pictures of the cockpit and of the wing, taken during the maneuver, are given in figure 2. In the illustrated case, the occurrence of aerodynamic overbalance was attributed to a slight bulge, approximately 1/16 inch thick, on the lower surface of the leading edges of the ailerons, caused by the installation of additional mass balance ahead of the hinge line. A drawing showing the shape of the bulge is given in figure 3. After this slight protuberance had been eliminated, dives were successfully made at higher speeds.

  19. Preliminary design of nine high speed civil transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlin, Doral; Vantriet, Robert; Soban, Dani; Hoang, TY

    1992-01-01

    Sixty senior design students at Cal Poly, SLO have completed a year-long project to design the next generation of High Speed Civil Transports (HSCT). The design process was divided up into three distinct phases. The first third of the project was devoted entirely to research into the special problems associated with an HSCT. These included economic viability, airport compatibility, high speed aerodynamics, sonic boom minimization, environmental impact, and structures and materials. The result of this research was the development of nine separate Requests for Proposal (RFP) that outlined reasonable yet challenging design criteria for the aircraft. All were designed to be technically feasible in the year 2015. The next phase of the project divided the sixty students into nine design groups. Each group, with its own RFP, completed a Class 1 preliminary design of an HSCT. The nine configurations varied from conventional double deltas to variable geometry wings to a pivoting oblique wing design. The final phase of the project included a more detailed Class 2 sizing as well as performance and stability and control analysis. Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo presents nine unique solutions to the same problem: that of designing an economically viable, environmentally acceptable, safe and comfortable supersonic transport.

  20. Active resonant subwavelength grating devices for high speed spectroscopic sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, A. V.; Kemme, S. A.; Boye, R. R.; Peters, D. W.; Ihlefeld, J. F.; Briggs, R. D.; Wendt, J. R.; Marshall, L. H.; Carter, T. R.; Samora, S.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we describe progress towards a multi-color spectrometer and radiometer based upon an active resonant subwavelength grating (RSG). This active RSG component acts as a tunable high-speed optical filter that allows device miniaturization and ruggedization not realizable using current sensors with conventional bulk optics. Furthermore, the geometrical characteristics of the device allow for inherently high speed operation. Because of the small critical dimensions of the RSG devices, the fabrication of these sensors can prove challenging. However, we utilize the state-of-the-art capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to realize these subwavelength grating devices. This work also leverages previous work on passive RSG devices with greater than 98% efficiency and ~1nm FWHM. Rigorous coupled wave analysis has been utilized to design RSG devices with PLZT, PMN-PT and BaTiO3 electrooptic thin films on sapphire substrates. The simulated interdigitated electrode configuration achieves field strengths around 3×107 V/m. This translates to an increase in the refractive index of 0.05 with a 40V bias potential resulting in a 90% contrast of the modulated optical signal. We have fabricated several active RSG devices on selected electro-optic materials and we discuss the latest experimental results on these devices with variable electrostatic bias and a tunable wavelength source around 1.5μm. Finally, we present the proposed data acquisition hardware and system integration plans.

  1. High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Remer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.

  2. High-speed digital fiber optic links for satellite traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryoush, A. S.; Ackerman, E.; Saedi, R.; Kunath, R. R.; Shalkhauser, K.

    1989-01-01

    Large aperture phased array antennas operating at millimeter wave frequencies are designed for space-based communications and imaging platforms. Array elements are comprised of active T/R modules which are linked to the central processing unit through high-speed fiber-optic networks. The system architecture satisfying system requirements at millimeter wave frequency is T/R level data mixing where data and frequency reference signals are distributed independently before mixing at the T/R modules. This paper demonstrates design procedures of a low loss high-speed fiber-optic link used for transmission of data signals over 600-900 MHz bandwidth inside satellite. The fiber-optic link is characterized for transmission of analog and digital data. A dynamic range of 79 dB/MHz was measured for analog data over the bandwidth. On the other hand, for bursted SMSK satellite traffic at 220 Mbps rates, BER of 2 x 10 to the -7th was measured for E(b)/N(o) of 14.3 dB.

  3. High-speed atomic force microscopy: imaging and force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghiaian, Frédéric; Rico, Felix; Colom, Adai; Casuso, Ignacio; Scheuring, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the type of scanning probe microscopy that is probably best adapted for imaging biological samples in physiological conditions with submolecular lateral and vertical resolution. In addition, AFM is a method of choice to study the mechanical unfolding of proteins or for cellular force spectroscopy. In spite of 28 years of successful use in biological sciences, AFM is far from enjoying the same popularity as electron and fluorescence microscopy. The advent of high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM), about 10 years ago, has provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of membrane proteins and molecular machines from the single-molecule to the cellular level. HS-AFM imaging at nanometer-resolution and sub-second frame rate may open novel research fields depicting dynamic events at the single bio-molecule level. As such, HS-AFM is complementary to other structural and cellular biology techniques, and hopefully will gain acceptance from researchers from various fields. In this review we describe some of the most recent reports of dynamic bio-molecular imaging by HS-AFM, as well as the advent of high-speed force spectroscopy (HS-FS) for single protein unfolding. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent high-speed rail vehicles; Kosoku tetsudo sharyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Ishizu, K. [Central Japan Railway Company, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshie, N. [Nishi-Nippon Railroad Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan); Hata, T. [East Japan Railway Co., Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, T.; Hata, H. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Brun, D.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the latest progress in high speed rail vehicles. It was in 1981 when TGV has inaugurated commercial operation with a speed of 260 km/h. Japan is trying to recover from a setback by putting forward the 300-line vehicle of discrete motive force system, and the 500-line vehicle of complete discrete motive force system featured by reduced weight and a unique power collection system. Central Japan Railway is moving forward a 700-line train aimed at improving comfortability and reducing noise. The 500-line vehicle has vehicular features such as the sharpened head shape, weight reduction and adoption of vibration control, and also such features in electric circuits as centralized main circuit devices and improved monitoring devices. The vehicle`s running test verified stable run at 300 km/h. The Shinkansen vehicle designed by East Japan Railway adopted collective control on the main circuit system, and transferred to a system in which large capacity GTOs are used to drive three-phase induction motors. The Inter City Express has been put into practical use in Germany, with traction vehicles arranged on both ends of a train. Technological characteristics in TGV may be pointed out as avoidance of curves and high gradient. Exchange of electric train technologies is in progress between Japan and Europe. 19 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. High-speed digital video tracking system for generic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, James S.; Hallamasek, Karen G.

    2001-04-01

    The value of high-speed imaging for making subjective assessments is widely recognized, but the inability to acquire useful data from image sequences in a timely fashion has severely limited the use of the technology. 4DVideo has created a foundation for a generic instrument that can capture kinematic data from high-speed images. The new system has been designed to acquire (1) two-dimensional trajectories of points; (2) three-dimensional kinematics of structures or linked rigid-bodies; and (3) morphological reconstructions of boundaries. The system has been designed to work with an unlimited number of cameras configured as nodes in a network, with each camera able to acquire images at 1000 frames per second (fps) or better, with a spatial resolution of 512 X 512 or better, and an 8-bit gray scale. However, less demanding configurations are anticipated. The critical technology is contained in the custom hardware that services the cameras. This hardware optimizes the amount of information stored, and maximizes the available bandwidth. The system identifies targets using an algorithm implemented in hardware. When complete, the system software will provide all of the functionality required to capture and process video data from multiple perspectives. Thereafter it will extract, edit and analyze the motions of finite targets and boundaries.

  6. Quantitative Image Analysis Techniques with High-Speed Schlieren Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Victoria J.; Herron, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Optical flow visualization techniques such as schlieren and shadowgraph photography are essential to understanding fluid flow when interpreting acquired wind tunnel test data. Output of the standard implementations of these visualization techniques in test facilities are often limited only to qualitative interpretation of the resulting images. Although various quantitative optical techniques have been developed, these techniques often require special equipment or are focused on obtaining very precise and accurate data about the visualized flow. These systems are not practical in small, production wind tunnel test facilities. However, high-speed photography capability has become a common upgrade to many test facilities in order to better capture images of unsteady flow phenomena such as oscillating shocks and flow separation. This paper describes novel techniques utilized by the authors to analyze captured high-speed schlieren and shadowgraph imagery from wind tunnel testing for quantification of observed unsteady flow frequency content. Such techniques have applications in parametric geometry studies and in small facilities where more specialized equipment may not be available.

  7. High-Speed Solar Wind and Geomagnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyak, M. R.

    2015-03-01

    The impact of high-speed solar wind disturbances on the occurrence of geomagnetic storms is analyzed. The solar wind velocity values, determined from scintillation observations at the UTR-2 and URAN-2 Ukrainian decameter radio telescopes are analyzed together with the solar wind parameters at the Earth’s orbit and geomagnetic indices Ap. The solar wind velocity increase during observations was chiefly caused by the high-speed streams from coronal holes. At the time of February 2011, the X-class solar flare, accompanied by coronal mass ejections, was also observed. It was found that the geomagnetic disturbances of that period occurred at negative daily values of the interplanetary magnetic field component being perpendicular to the ecliptic plane. It was shown that the increasing solar wind velocity observed with the UTR-2 and URAN-2 within a wide range of helio- latitudes leads to increase in geomagnetic index Ap and to geomagnetic disturbance. Whereas the increase of solar wind velocity in a narrow range of helio-latitudes near to the ecliptic plane was never accompanied by geomagnetic perturbations.

  8. High-speed visual feedback for realizing high-performance robotic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Bergström, N.; Yamakawa, Y.; Senoo, T.; Ishikawa, M.

    2017-02-01

    High-speed vision sensing becomes a driving factor in developing new methods for robotic manipulation. In this paper we present two such methods in order to realize high-performance manipulation. First, we present a dynamic compensation approach which aims to achieve simultaneously fast and accurate positioning under various (from system to external environment) uncertainties. Second, a high-speed motion strategy for manipulating flexible objects is introduced to address the issue of deformation uncertainties. Both methods rely on high-speed visual feedback and are model independent, which we believe is essential to ensure good flexibility in a wide range of applications. The high-speed visual feedback tracks the relative error between the working tool and the target in image coordinates, which implies that there is no need for accurate calibrations of the vision system. Tasks for validating these methods were implemented and experimental results were provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  9. A report of dangerously high carbon monoxide levels within the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smithline Howard A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to determine how quickly carbon monoxide would accumulate in the passenger compartment of a snow-obstructed vehicle. Methods A 1992 sedan was buried in snow to the level of the undercarriage, the ignition was then engaged and carbon monoxide levels recorded at 2.5-minute intervals. The primary outcome was the time at which a lethal carbon monoxide level was detected. Six trials were conducted: windows closed; windows open one inch; windows open 6 inches; windows closed and tailpipe swept clear of snow; windows closed and one cubic foot of snow removed around tailpipe; windows closed and tailpipe completely cleared of snow to ground level in a path 12 inches wide. Results Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within 2.5 minutes in the vehicle when the windows were closed, within 5 minutes when the widows were opened one inch, and within 7.5 minutes when the widows were opened six inches. Dangerously high levels of carbon monoxide were detected within the vehicle when the tailpipe had been swept clear of snow and when a one cubic foot area had been cleared around the tailpipe. When the tailpipe was completely unobstructed the carbon monoxide level was zero. Conclusions Lethal levels of carbon monoxide occurred within minutes in this snow-obstructed vehicle.

  10. Passengers, Information, and Disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Hurk (Evelien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Passengers traveling in public transport generate a detailed digital track record of their journey through using automated fare collection systems and carrying mobile devices. This information on passenger behavior has only recently become available to public

  11. Influence of “J”-Curve Spring Stiffness on Running Speeds of Segmented Legs during High-Speed Locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runxiao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the linear leg spring model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness have been broadly used as template models to investigate bouncing gaits for legged robots with compliant legs. In addition to these two models, the other stiffness leg spring models developed using inspiration from biological characteristic have the potential to improve high-speed running capacity of spring-legged robots. In this paper, we investigate the effects of “J”-curve spring stiffness inspired by biological materials on running speeds of segmented legs during high-speed locomotion. Mathematical formulation of the relationship between the virtual leg force and the virtual leg compression is established. When the SLIP model and the two-segment leg model with constant spring stiffness and with “J”-curve spring stiffness have the same dimensionless reference stiffness, the two-segment leg model with “J”-curve spring stiffness reveals that (1 both the largest tolerated range of running speeds and the tolerated maximum running speed are found and (2 at fast running speed from 25 to 40/92 m s−1 both the tolerated range of landing angle and the stability region are the largest. It is suggested that the two-segment leg model with “J”-curve spring stiffness is more advantageous for high-speed running compared with the SLIP model and with constant spring stiffness.

  12. Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

    2007-03-31

    Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at

  13. Ultra-high-speed Optical Signal Processing using Silicon Photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Ji, Hua; Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    on silicon photonics. In particular we use nano-engineered silicon waveguides (nanowires) [1] enabling efficient phasematched four-wave mixing (FWM), cross-phase modulation (XPM) or self-phase modulation (SPM) for ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of ultra-high bit rate serial data signals. We show......— In supercomputers, the optical inter-connects are getting closer and closer to the processing cores. Today, a single supercomputer system has as many optical links as the whole worldwide web together, and it is envisaged that future computing chips will contain multiple electronic processor cores...... that silicon can indeed be used to control Tbit/s serial data signals [2], perform 640 Gbit/s wavelength conversion [3] 640 Gbit/s serial-to-parallel conversion [4], 160 Gbit/s packet switching as well as all-optical regeneration [5]. We will also discuss the performance limitations of crystalline silicon...

  14. High speed MSM photodetector based on Ge nanowires network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Veerendra; Das, Samaresh

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the photoresponse characteristics of a high speed Ge nanowires (NWs) network metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector. Ge NWs with different diameters (30 nm-100 nm) were grown by a vapour-liquid-solid method on SiO2/Si (100) wafers. Responsivity up to 1.75 A W-1 has been observed for a 30 nm NWs device compared to 0.5 A W-1 for a 100 nm NWs detector. A large population of surface states results in higher responsivity in a smaller diameter NWs device. The high gain in photocurrent has been explained using back-to-back Schottky junctions in a NWs network. The 30 nm NWs detector shows a fast photoresponse with a rise time of 95 μs and a fall time of 100 μs. The observed diameter-dependent time response in network NWs devices has been explained using barrier-dominant photo-conductance.

  15. Physiological consequences of military high-speed boat transits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Stephen D; Dobbins, Trevor D; King, Stuart; Hall, Benjamin; Ayling, Ruth M; Holmes, Sharon R; Gunston, Tom; Dyson, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the consequences of a high-speed boat transit on physical performance. Twenty-four Royal Marines were randomly assigned to a control (CON) or transit (TRAN) group. The CON group sat onshore for 3 h whilst the TRAN group completed a 3-h transit in open-boats running side-by-side, at 40 knots in moderate-to-rough seas, with boat deck and seat-pan acceleration recorded. Performance tests (exhaustive shuttle-run, handgrip, vertical-jump, push-up) were completed pre- and immediately post-transit/sit, with peak heart rate (HRpeak) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) recorded. Serial blood samples (pre, 24, 36, 48, 72 h) were analyzed for creatine kinase (CK) activity. The transit was typified by frequent high shock impacts, but moderate mean heart rates (boat transits.

  16. High-Speed, Three Dimensional Object Composition Mapping Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, M Y

    2001-02-14

    This document overviews an entirely new approach to determining the composition--the chemical-elemental, isotopic and molecular make-up--of complex, highly structured objects, moreover with microscopic spatial resolution in all 3 dimensions. The front cover depicts the new type of pulsed laser system at the heart of this novel technology under adjustment by Alexis Wynne, and schematically indicates two of its early uses: swiftly analyzing the 3-D composition governed structure of a transistor circuit with both optical and mass-spectrometric detectors, and of fossilized dinosaur and turtle bones high-speed probed by optical detection means. Studying the composition-cued 3-D micro-structures of advanced composite materials and the microscopic scale composition-texture of biological tissues are two near-term examples of the rich spectrum of novel applications enabled by this field-opening analytic tool-set.

  17. High Speed Water Sterilization Using One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Schoen, David T.

    2010-09-08

    The removal of bacteria and other organisms from water is an extremely important process, not only for drinking and sanitation but also industrially as biofouling is a commonplace and serious problem. We here present a textile based multiscale device for the high speed electrical sterilization of water using silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and cotton. This approach, which combines several materials spanning three very different length scales with simple dying based fabrication, makes a gravity fed device operating at 100000 L/(h m2) which can inactivate >98% of bacteria with only several seconds of total incubation time. This excellent performance is enabled by the use of an electrical mechanism rather than size exclusion, while the very high surface area of the device coupled with large electric field concentrations near the silver nanowire tips allows for effective bacterial inactivation. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. High Speed Running and Sprinting Profiles of Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miñano-Espin Javier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Real Madrid was named as the best club of the 20th century by the International Federation of Football History and Statistics. The aim of this study was to compare if players from Real Madrid covered shorter distances than players from the opposing team. One hundred and forty-nine matches including league, cup and UEFA Champions League matches played by the Real Madrid were monitored during the 2001-2002 to the 2006-2007 seasons. Data from both teams (Real Madrid and the opponent were recorded. Altogether, 2082 physical performance profiles were examined, 1052 from the Real Madrid and 1031 from the opposing team (Central Defenders (CD = 536, External Defenders (ED = 491, Central Midfielders (CM = 544, External Midfielders (EM = 233, and Forwards (F = 278. Match performance data were collected using a computerized multiple-camera tracking system (Amisco Pro®, Nice, France. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed for distances covered at different intensities (sprinting (>24.0 km/h and high-speed running (21.1-24.0 km/h and the number of sprints (21.1-24.0 km/h and >24.0 km/h during games for each player sectioned under their positional roles. Players from Real Madrid covered shorter distances in high-speed running and sprint than players from the opposing team (p 0.01 from Real Madrid covered shorter distances in high-intensity running and sprint and performed less sprints than their counterparts. Finally, no differences were found in the high-intensity running and sprint distances performed by players from Real Madrid depending on the quality of the opposition.

  19. Propulsion challenges and opportunities for high-speed transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, William C.

    1987-01-01

    For several years there was a growing interest in the subject of efficient sustained supersonic cruise technology applied to a high-speed transport aircraft. The major challenges confronting the propulsion community for supersonic transport (SST) applications are identified. Both past progress and future opportunities are discussed in relation to perceived technology shortfalls for an economically successful SST that satisfies environmental constraints. A very large improvement in propulsion system efficiency is needed both at supersonic and subsonic cruise conditions. Toward that end, several advanced engine concepts are being considered that, together with advanced discipline and component technologies, promise at least 40 percent better efficiency that the Concorde engine. The quest for higher productivity through higher speed is also thwarted by the lack of a conventional, low-priced fuel that is thermally stable at the higher temperatures associated with faster flight. Airport noise remains a tough challenge because previously researched concepts fall short of achieving FAR 36 Stage 3 noise levels. Innovative solutions may be necessary to reach acceptably low noise. While the technical challenges are indeed formidable, it is reasonable to assume that the current shortfalls in fuel economy and noise can be overcome through an aggressive propulsion research program.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Oil Jet Lubrication for High Speed Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Fondelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Geared Turbofan technology is one of the most promising engine configurations to significantly reduce the specific fuel consumption. In this architecture, a power epicyclical gearbox is interposed between the fan and the low pressure spool. Thanks to the gearbox, fan and low pressure spool can turn at different speed, leading to higher engine bypass ratio. Therefore the gearbox efficiency becomes a key parameter for such technology. Further improvement of efficiency can be achieved developing a physical understanding of fluid dynamic losses within the transmission system. These losses are mainly related to viscous effects and they are directly connected to the lubrication method. In this work, the oil injection losses have been studied by means of CFD simulations. A numerical study of a single oil jet impinging on a single high speed gear has been carried out using the VOF method. The aim of this analysis is to evaluate the resistant torque due to the oil jet lubrication, correlating the torque data with the oil-gear interaction phases. URANS calculations have been performed using an adaptive meshing approach, as a way of significantly reducing the simulation costs. A global sensitivity analysis of adopted models has been carried out and a numerical setup has been defined.

  1. Minimum Climb to Cruise Noise Trajectories Modeled for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    The proposed U.S. High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) will revolutionize commercial air travel by providing economical supersonic passenger service to destinations worldwide. Unlike the high-bypass turbofan engines that propel today's subsonic airliners, HSCT engines will have much higher jet exhaust speeds. Jet noise, caused by the turbulent mixing of high-speed exhaust with the surrounding air, poses a significant challenge for HSCT engine designers. To resolve this challenge, engineers have designed advanced mixer rejector nozzles that reduce HSCT jet noise to airport noise certification levels by entraining and mixing large quantities of ambient air with the engines' jet streams. Although this works well during the first several minutes of flight, far away from the airport, as the HSCT gains speed and climbs, poor ejector inlet recovery and ejector ram drag contribute to poor thrust, making it advantageous to turn off the ejector. Doing so prematurely, however, can cause unacceptable noise levels to propagate to the ground, even when the aircraft is many miles from the airport. This situation lends itself ideally to optimization, where the aircraft trajectory, throttle setting, and ejector setting can be varied (subject to practical aircraft constraints) to minimize the noise propagated to the ground. A method was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center that employs a variation of the classic energy state approximation: a trajectory analysis technique historically used to minimize climb time or fuel burned in many aircraft problems. To minimize the noise on the ground at any given throttle setting, high aircraft altitudes are desirable; but the HSCT may either climb quickly to high altitudes using a high, noisy throttle setting or climb more slowly at a lower, quieter throttle setting. An optimizer has been programmed into NASA's existing aircraft and noise analysis codes to balance these options by dynamically choosing the best altitude-velocity path and

  2. Changes of indicators of high-speed and high-speed and power preparedness at volleyball players of 12–13 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Shevchenko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: to define changes of indicators of high-speed and high-speed and power preparedness of volleyball players of 12–13 years old. Material & Methods: the test exercises, which are recommended by the training program of CYSS on volleyball, were used for the definition of the level of development of high-speed and high-speed and power abilities of volleyball players. 25 young volleyball players from the group of the previous basic preparation took part in the experiment. Sports experie...

  3. High-speed single-pixel digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Humberto; Martínez-León, Lluís.; Soldevila, Fernando; Araiza-Esquivel, Ma.; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús

    2017-06-01

    The complete phase and amplitude information of biological specimens can be easily determined by phase-shifting digital holography. Spatial light modulators (SLMs) based on liquid crystal technology, with a frame-rate around 60 Hz, have been employed in digital holography. In contrast, digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) can reach frame rates up to 22 kHz. A method proposed by Lee to design computer generated holograms (CGHs) permits the use of such binary amplitude modulators as phase-modulation devices. Single-pixel imaging techniques record images by sampling the object with a sequence of micro-structured light patterns and using a simple photodetector. Our group has reported some approaches combining single-pixel imaging and phase-shifting digital holography. In this communication, we review these techniques and present the possibility of a high-speed single-pixel phase-shifting digital holography system with phase-encoded illumination. This system is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, with a DMD acting as the modulator for projecting the sampling patterns on the object and also being used for phase-shifting. The proposed sampling functions are phaseencoded Hadamard patterns generated through a Lee hologram approach. The method allows the recording of the complex amplitude distribution of an object at high speed on account of the high frame rates of the DMD. Reconstruction may take just a few seconds. Besides, the optical setup is envisaged as a true adaptive system, which is able to measure the aberration induced by the optical system in the absence of a sample object, and then to compensate the wavefront in the phasemodulation stage.

  4. High-speed cinematography of gas-metal atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Jason [ALCOA Specialty Metals Division, 100 Technical Drive, Alcoa Center, PA 15069 (United States)]. E-mail: jason.ting@alcoa.com; Connor, Jeffery [Material Science Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Ridder, Stephen [Metallurgical Processing Group, NIST, 100 Bureau Dr. Stop 8556, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2005-01-15

    A high-speed cinematographic footage of a 304L stainless steel gas atomization, recorded at the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST), was analyzed using a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm. The analysis showed the gas atomization process possesses two prominent frequency ranges of melt oscillation (pulsation). A low-frequency oscillation in the melt flow occurring between 5.41 and 123 Hz, with a dominant frequency at 9.93 Hz, was seen in the recirculation zone adjacent to the melt orifice. A high-frequency melt oscillation range was observed above 123 Hz, and was more prominent one melt-tip-diameter downstream in the melt atomization image than upstream near the melt tip. This high-frequency range may reflect the melt atomization frequency used to produce finely atomized powder. This range also included a prominent high frequency at 1273 Hz, which dominated in the image further away downstream from the melt tip. This discrete high-frequency oscillation is most probably caused by the aeroacoustic ''screech'' phenomenon, intrasound (<20 kHz), a result of the atomizing gas jets undergoing flow resonance. It is hypothesized that this discrete intrinsic aeroacoustic tone may enhance melt breakup in the atomization process with evidence of this fact in the melt images.

  5. High-speed Integrated Circuits for electrical/Optical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christoffer Felix

    2008-01-01

    of LC-oscillators with oscillator criteria, phase noise and different topologies are given as background. The theory of PLL circuits is also presented. Guidelines and suggestions for static divider, VCO, LA and CDR design are presented using static divider, 50-100 GHz VCO and 100Gb/s LA+CDR circuits......This thesis is a continuation of the effort to increase the bandwidth of communicationnetworks. The thesis presents the results of the design of several high-speed electrical ircuits for an electrical/optical interface. These circuits have been a contribution to the ESTA project in collaboration...... circuits at the receiver interface, though VCOs are also found in the transmitter where a multitude of independent sources have to be mutually synchronized before multiplexing. The circuits are based on an InP DHBT process (VIP-2) supplied by Vitesse and made publicly available as MPW. The VIP-2 process...

  6. Simplified Dynamic Model for High-Speed Checkweigher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Yuji; Yamazaki, Takanori

    In this paper, we concern with the dynamic behaviors of a high speed mass measurement system with conveyor belt (a checkweigher). The goal of this paper is to construct a simple model of the measurement system so as to duplicate a response of the system. The checkweigher with electromagnetic force compensation can be approximated by the combined spring-mass-damper systems as the physical model, and the equation of motion is derived. The model parameters (a damping coefficient and a spring constant) can be obtained from the experimental data for open-loop system. Finally, the validity of the proposed model can be confirmed by comparison of the simulation results with the realistic responses. The simple dynamic model obtained offers practical and useful information to examine control scheme.

  7. AGAINTS AND FOR THE HIGH SPEED TRAINS’ MULTIMPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benea Ciprian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this exposure we intend to make visible the situation in which global warming is given by road and air transport, how could be revitalized railways, and how high speed trains could become a preferred mode of transport. But there is manifesting an opposition to railway development, nurtured by different interests, ranking from governments themselves, to oil importing countries, oil exporting countries, oil companies with their colligate partners situated along the oil distribution chain. But, there could be identified some voices which could create themselves the possibility to speak lauder in order to promote railway transportation. The greens, NGOs, the epistemic communities, for example, could unite their force to make something in order to provide the framework for rail transportation’s development, and for road and air transport reduction, for the benefit of while humankind.

  8. Design implications of high-speed digital PPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Martin J. N.

    1993-11-01

    Work in the area of digital pulse position modulation (digital PPM) has shown that this type of modulation can yield sensitivities that are typically 4 - 5 dB better than an equivalent PCM system. Recent experimental work has shown that the receiver in a digital PPM system does not need to have a wide bandwidth. Instead, the bandwidth can be very low so that the receiver is effectively impulsed by the digital PPM signal. The advent of very high speed Si digital ICs, and fast lasers, means that digital PPM can now be used to code gigabit PCM signals. This paper presents original theoretical results for a digital PPM system coding 1 Gbit/s PCM signals into 8 Gbit/s digital PPM signals. The paper also addresses the difficulties that the system designer is likely to encounter, and discusses some possible solutions.

  9. Machining Chatter Analysis for High Speed Milling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, M.; Kantharaj, I.; Amit Siddhappa, Savale

    2017-10-01

    Chatter in high speed milling is characterized by time delay differential equations (DDE). Since closed form solution exists only for simple cases, the governing non-linear DDEs of chatter problems are solved by various numerical methods. Custom codes to solve DDEs are tedious to build, implement and not error free and robust. On the other hand, software packages provide solution to DDEs, however they are not straight forward to implement. In this paper an easy way to solve DDE of chatter in milling is proposed and implemented with MATLAB. Time domain solution permits the study and model of non-linear effects of chatter vibration with ease. Time domain results are presented for various stable and unstable conditions of cut and compared with stability lobe diagrams.

  10. Premiere in high speed materials inter-operability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Eurostar trains have been designed to meet the safety requirements of the Channel Tunnel. In particular, ti must be possible to remove the train from the tunnel in most fault scenarios. The train design is based upon an optimal capacity/price ratio. As far as the installation of electrical equipment is concerned (power supply, power conversion, motor units), the variety of track configurations is another consideration in addition to the questions of safety. The original solutions adopted give traction and braking performance that are satisfactory by comparison with the high-speed trains (TGV) in service on appropriate track, and the best possible for the British track. The trains are heavier and less powerful, but they are capable of getting out of the tunnel with only one motor out of three in service. (author). 6 figs.

  11. Towards high-speed autonomous navigation of unknown environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles; Roy, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we summarize recent research enabling high-speed navigation in unknown environments for dynamic robots that perceive the world through onboard sensors. Many existing solutions to this problem guarantee safety by making the conservative assumption that any unknown portion of the map may contain an obstacle, and therefore constrain planned motions to lie entirely within known free space. In this work, we observe that safety constraints may significantly limit performance and that faster navigation is possible if the planner reasons about collision with unobserved obstacles probabilistically. Our overall approach is to use machine learning to approximate the expected costs of collision using the current state of the map and the planned trajectory. Our contribution is to demonstrate fast but safe planning using a learned function to predict future collision probabilities.

  12. Dynamic Control of High-speed Train Following Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Both safety and efficiency should be considered in high-speed train following control. The real-time calculation of dynamic safety following distance is used by the following train to understand the quality of its own following behavior. A new velocity difference control law can help the following train to adjust its own behavior from a safe and efficient steady-following state to another one if the actual following distance is greater than the safe following distance. Meanwhile, the stopping control law would work for collision avoidance when the actual following distance is less than the safe following distance. The simulation shows that the dynamic control of actual inter-train distance can be well accomplished by the behavioral adjustment of the following train, and verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of our presented methods for train following control.

  13. High-speed counters in Fibonacci numerical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Olexiy; Chernyak, Olexandr; Komada, Paweł; Kozhambardiyeva, Miergul; Kalizhanova, Aliya

    2017-08-01

    Possibility of executing the carriers and borrowings by means of elementary additive transformations in the process of calculation in Fibonacci numerical system is substantiated. Methods of counting in the given numerical system, based on the usage of information redundancy are suggested. The methods consist in the fact that at every step executed all possible elementary addition transformations of code in the counter simultaneously with adding one. The suggested methods enable to construct up-, down- and up/down counters with high speed, independent on the data capacity and small hardware cost that linearly grow with the increase of the capacity. Schemes of structural organization of one digit for each of the suggested methods are given.

  14. High-Speed Edge-Detecting Line Scan Smart Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Norman F.

    2012-01-01

    A high-speed edge-detecting line scan smart camera was developed. The camera is designed to operate as a component in a NASA Glenn Research Center developed inlet shock detection system. The inlet shock is detected by projecting a laser sheet through the airflow. The shock within the airflow is the densest part and refracts the laser sheet the most in its vicinity, leaving a dark spot or shadowgraph. These spots show up as a dip or negative peak within the pixel intensity profile of an image of the projected laser sheet. The smart camera acquires and processes in real-time the linear image containing the shock shadowgraph and outputting the shock location. Previously a high-speed camera and personal computer would perform the image capture and processing to determine the shock location. This innovation consists of a linear image sensor, analog signal processing circuit, and a digital circuit that provides a numerical digital output of the shock or negative edge location. The smart camera is capable of capturing and processing linear images at over 1,000 frames per second. The edges are identified as numeric pixel values within the linear array of pixels, and the edge location information can be sent out from the circuit in a variety of ways, such as by using a microcontroller and onboard or external digital interface to include serial data such as RS-232/485, USB, Ethernet, or CAN BUS; parallel digital data; or an analog signal. The smart camera system can be integrated into a small package with a relatively small number of parts, reducing size and increasing reliability over the previous imaging system..

  15. Parallel scanning laser ophthalmoscope (PSLO) for high-speed retinal imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienola, K.V.; Braaf, Boy; Damodaran, Mathi; Vermeer, Koenraad A.; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose High-speed imaging of the retina is crucial for obtaining high quality images in the presence of eye motion. To improve the speed of traditional scanners, a high-speed ophthalmic device is presented using a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) for confocal imaging with multiple simultaneous

  16. 49 CFR 236.1007 - Additional requirements for high-speed service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by this subpart, and which have been utilized on high-speed rail systems with similar technical and... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for high-speed service..., AND APPLIANCES Positive Train Control Systems § 236.1007 Additional requirements for high-speed...

  17. Dual-camera system for high-speed imaging in particle image velocimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, K; Hara, T; Onogi, S; Mouri, H

    2012-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry is an important technique in experimental fluid mechanics, for which it has been essential to use a specialized high-speed camera. However, the high speed is at the expense of other performances of the camera, i.e., sensitivity and image resolution. Here, we demonstrate that the high-speed imaging is also possible with a pair of still cameras.

  18. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance

  19. An Ultra-High Speed Whole Slide Image Viewing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Yagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the goals for a Whole Slide Imaging (WSI system is implementation in the clinical practice of pathology. One of the unresolved problems in accomplishing this goal is the speed of the entire process, i.e., from viewing the slides through making the final diagnosis. Most users are not satisfied with the correct viewing speeds of available systems. We have evaluated a new WSI viewing station and tool that focuses on speed.

  20. High-Speed, Low-Power Digitizer II (2007037) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future detectors and arrays for visible, IR, and submillimeter imaging and spectroscopy require much higher speed digitizers than are currently available. In...

  1. High-Speed, Low-Power Digitizer (9725) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future detectors and arrays for visible, IR, and submillimeter imaging and spectroscopy require much higher speed digitizers than are currently available. In...

  2. Feasibility Studies on the Use of Higher Frequency Bands and Beamforming Selection Scheme for High Speed Train Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotunde O. Laiyemo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing popularity of high speed trains and traffic forecast for future cellular networks, the need to provide improved data rates using higher frequency bands (HFBs for train passengers is becoming crucial. In this paper, we modify the OFDM frame structure for HST, taking into account the increasing sensitivity to speed at HFBs. A lower bound on the SNR/SINR for a given rate for reliable communication was derived considering the physical layer parameters from the OFDM frame. We also analyze different pathloss models in the context of examining the required gain needed to achieve the same performance as with microwave bands. Finally, we present a time-based analogue beamforming selection approach for HST. We observed that, irrespective of the pathloss models used, the required gains are within the same range. For the same SNR/SINR at different frequency bands, the achievable data rate varies with respect to the frequency bands. Our results show the potential of the use of HFBs. However, due to the increased sensitivity of some channel parameters, a maximum frequency band of 38 GHz is suggested. Evaluation of our proposed beamforming scheme indicates a close performance to the optimal SVD scheme with a marginal rate gap of less than 2 b/s/Hz.

  3. Plastic straw: future of high-speed signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ha Il; Jin, Huxian; Bae, Hyeon-Min

    2015-11-01

    The ever-increasing demand for bandwidth triggered by mobile and video Internet traffic requires advanced interconnect solutions satisfying functional and economic constraints. A new interconnect called E-TUBE is proposed as a cost-and-power-effective all-electrical-domain wideband waveguide solution for high-speed high-volume short-reach communication links. The E-TUBE achieves an unprecedented level of performance in terms of bandwidth-per-carrier frequency, power, and density without requiring a precision manufacturing process unlike conventional optical/waveguide solutions. The E-TUBE exhibits a frequency-independent loss-profile of 4 dB/m and has nearly 20-GHz bandwidth over the V band. A single-sideband signal transmission enabled by the inherent frequency response of the E-TUBE renders two-times data throughput without any physical overhead compared to conventional radio frequency communication technologies. This new interconnect scheme would be attractive to parties interested in high throughput links, including but not limited to, 100/400 Gbps chip-to-chip communications.

  4. Changes of indicators of high-speed and high-speed and power preparedness at volleyball players of 12–13 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shevchenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define changes of indicators of high-speed and high-speed and power preparedness of volleyball players of 12–13 years old. Material & Methods: the test exercises, which are recommended by the training program of CYSS on volleyball, were used for the definition of the level of development of high-speed and high-speed and power abilities of volleyball players. 25 young volleyball players from the group of the previous basic preparation took part in the experiment. Sports experience of sportsmen is 3–4 years. The analysis of scientifically-methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics were carried out. Results: the analyzed level of high-speed and high-speed and power abilities of volleyball players. Conclusions: the results had reliable changes (t=2,2–2,4 at р<0,05 of the level of high-speed and high-speed and power abilities of volleyball players of 12–13years old in the experimental group at the end of the experiment, except run on 30 m that demonstrates a positive influence of application of special exercises in the educational-training process.

  5. Towards real-time feedback in high performance speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Eb, Jeroen; Zandee, Willem; van den Bogaard, Timo; Geraets, Sjoerd; Veeger, H.E.J.; Beek, Peter; Potthast, Wolfgang; Niehoff, Anja; David, Sina

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate several performance indicators to be used as real-time feedback in the coming experiments to enhance performance of elite speeds skaters. Six speed skaters, wearing one IMU per skate, collected data over one full training season to evaluate and pinpoint

  6. Fire protection for high speed line tunnels; Risk analysis and exceptional robotic application results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, F.W.J. van de; Gijsbers, F.B.J.; Klok, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Green Hart Tunnel in The Netherlands is a 7 km long high speed railway tunnel with an exterior diameter of 14.5 metres. A separation wall devides the tunnel into two single tubes. High speed trains will pass the tunnel at speeds of more than 300 kph. Inside the tunnel 200,000 m2 fire resistant

  7. Improvement of vocal pathologies diagnosis using high-speed videolaryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  8. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  9. Lagrangian transported MDF methods for compressible high speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlinger, Peter

    2017-06-01

    This paper deals with the application of thermochemical Lagrangian MDF (mass density function) methods for compressible sub- and supersonic RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) simulations. A new approach to treat molecular transport is presented. This technique on the one hand ensures numerical stability of the particle solver in laminar regions of the flow field (e.g. in the viscous sublayer) and on the other hand takes differential diffusion into account. It is shown in a detailed analysis, that the new method correctly predicts first and second-order moments on the basis of conventional modeling approaches. Moreover, a number of challenges for MDF particle methods in high speed flows is discussed, e.g. high cell aspect ratio grids close to solid walls, wall heat transfer, shock resolution, and problems from statistical noise which may cause artificial shock systems in supersonic flows. A Mach 2 supersonic mixing channel with multiple shock reflection and a model rocket combustor simulation demonstrate the eligibility of this technique to practical applications. Both test cases are simulated successfully for the first time with a hybrid finite-volume (FV)/Lagrangian particle solver (PS).

  10. Submonolayer Quantum Dots for High Speed Surface Emitting Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov ND

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe report on progress in growth and applications of submonolayer (SML quantum dots (QDs in high-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs. SML deposition enables controlled formation of high density QD arrays with good size and shape uniformity. Further increase in excitonic absorption and gain is possible with vertical stacking of SML QDs using ultrathin spacer layers. Vertically correlated, tilted or anticorrelated arrangements of the SML islands are realized and allow QD strain and wavefunction engineering. Respectively, both TE and TM polarizations of the luminescence can be achieved in the edge-emission using the same constituting materials. SML QDs provide ultrahigh modal gain, reduced temperature depletion and gain saturation effects when used in active media in laser diodes. Temperature robustness up to 100 °C for 0.98 μm range vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs is realized in the continuous wave regime. An open eye 20 Gb/s operation with bit error rates better than 10−12has been achieved in a temperature range 25–85 °Cwithout current adjustment. Relaxation oscillations up to ∼30 GHz have been realized indicating feasibility of 40 Gb/s signal transmission.

  11. Dynamics of High-Speed Precision Geared Rotor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Teik C.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gears are one of the most widely applied precision machine elements in power transmission systems employed in automotive, aerospace, marine, rail and industrial applications because of their reliability, precision, efficiency and versatility. Fundamentally, gears provide a very practical mechanism to transmit motion and mechanical power between two rotating shafts. However, their performance and accuracy are often hampered by tooth failure, vibrations and whine noise. This is most acute in high-speed, high power density geared rotor systems, which is the primary scope of this paper. The present study focuses on the development of a gear pair mathematical model for use to analyze the dynamics of power transmission systems. The theory includes the gear mesh representation derived from results of the quasi-static tooth contact analysis. This proposed gear mesh theory comprising of transmission error, mesh point, mesh stiffness and line-of-action nonlinear, time-varying parameters can be easily incorporated into a variety of transmission system models ranging from the lumped parameter type to detailed finite element representation. The gear dynamic analysis performed led to the discovery of the out-of-phase gear pair torsion modes that are responsible for much of the mechanical problems seen in gearing applications. The paper concludes with a discussion on effectual design approaches to minimize the influence of gear dynamics and to mitigate gear failure in practical power transmission systems.

  12. Prototype high speed optical delay line for stellar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavita, M. M.; Hines, B. E.; Shao, M.; Klose, G. J.; Gibson, B. V.

    1991-01-01

    The long baselines of the next-generation ground-based optical stellar interferometers require optical delay lines which can maintain nm-level path-length accuracy while moving at high speeds. NASA-JPL is currently designing delay lines to meet these requirements. The design is an enhanced version of the Mark III delay line, with the following key features: hardened, large diameter wheels, rather than recirculating ball bearings, to reduce mechanical noise; a friction-drive cart which bears the cable-dragging forces, and drives the optics cart through a force connection only; a balanced PZT assembly to enable high-bandwidth path-length control; and a precision aligned flexural suspension for the optics assembly to minimize bearing noise feedthrough. The delay line is fully programmable in position and velocity, and the system is controlled with four cascaded software feedback loops. Preliminary performance is a jitter in any 5 ms window of less than 10 nm rms for delay rates of up to 28 mm/s; total jitter is less than 10 nm rms for delay rates up to 20 mm/s.

  13. The Kaye effect revisited: High speed imaging of leaping shampoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Michel; Blom, Cock; van der Meer, Devaraj; van der Weele, Ko; Lohse, Detlef

    2003-11-01

    When a visco-elastic fluid such as shampoo or shower gel is poured onto a flat surface the fluid piles up forming a heap on which rather irregular combinations of fluid buckling, coiling and folding are observed. Under specific conditions a string of fluid leaps from the heap and forms a steady jet fed by the incoming stream. Momentum transfer of the incoming jet, combined with the shear-thinning properties of the fluid, lead to a spoon-like dimple in the highly viscous fluid pool in which the jet recoils. The jet can be stable for several seconds. This effect is known as the Kaye effect. In order to reveal its mechanism we analyzed leaping shampoo through high-speed imaging. We studied the jet formation, jet stability and jet disruption mechanisms. We measured the velocity of both the incoming and recoiled jet, which was found to be thicker and slower. By inclining the surface on which the fluid was poured we observed jets leaping at upto five times.

  14. Composite flywheel material design for high-speed energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Conteh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lamina and laminate mechanical properties of materials suitable for flywheel high-speed energy storage were investigated. Low density, low modulus and high strength composite material properties were implemented for the constant stress portion of the flywheel while higher density, higher modulus and strength were implemented for the constant thickness portion of the flywheel. Design and stress analysis were used to determine the maximum energy densities and shape factors for the flywheel. Analytical studies along with the use of the CADEC-online software were used to evaluate the lamina and laminate properties. This study found that a hybrid composite of M46J/epoxy–T1000G/epoxy for the flywheel exhibits a higher energy density when compared to known existing flywheel hybrid composite materials such as boron/epoxy–graphite/epoxy. Results from this study will contribute to further development of the flywheel that has recently re-emerged as a promising application for energy storage due to significant improvements in composite materials and technology.

  15. High-Speed Visualisation of Combustion in Modern Gasoline Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, W.; Nauwerck, A.; Han, K.-M.; Pfeil, J.; Velji, A.; Spicher, U.

    2006-07-01

    Today research and development in the field of gasoline engines have to face a double challenge: on the one hand, fuel consumption has to be reduced, while on the other hand, ever more stringent emission standards have to be fulfilled. The development of engines with its complexity of in-cylinder processes requires modern development tools to exploit the full potential in order to reduce fuel consumption. Especially optical, non-intrusive measurement techniques will help to get a better understanding of the processes. With the presented high-speed visualisation system the electromagnetic radiation from combustion in the UV range is collected by an endoscope and transmitted to a visualisation system by 10, 000 optical fibres. The signal is projected to 1, 920 photomultipliers, which convert the optical into electric signals with a maximum temporal resolution of 200 kHz. This paper shows the systematic application of flame diagnostics in modern combustion systems. For this purpose, a single-cylinder SI engine has been modified for a spray guided combustion strategy as well as for HCCI. The characteristics of flame propagation in both combustion modes were recorded and correlated with thermodynamic analyses. In case of the spray guided GDI engine, high pressure fuel injection was applied and evaluated.

  16. Materials, structures, and devices for high-speed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, John A.; Snyder, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in materials, devices, and instrumentation made under this grant began with ex-situ null ellipsometric measurements of simple dielectric films on bulk substrates. Today highly automated and rapid spectroscopic ellipsometers are used for ex-situ characterization of very complex multilayer epitaxial structures. Even more impressive is the in-situ capability, not only for characterization but also for the actual control of the growth and etching of epitaxial layers. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has expanded from the research lab to become an integral part of the production of materials and structures for state of the art high speed devices. Along the way, it has contributed much to our understanding of the growth characteristics and material properties. The following areas of research are summarized: Si3N4 on GaAs, null ellipsometry; diamondlike carbon films; variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) development; GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures; Ta-Cu diffusion barrier films on GaAs; GaAs-AlGaAs superlattices and multiple quantum wells; superconductivity; in situ elevated temperature measurements of III-V's; optical constants of thermodynamically stable InGaAs; doping dependence of optical constants of GaAs; in situ ellipsometric studies of III-V epitaxial growth; photothermal spectroscopy; microellipsometry; and Si passivation and Si/SiGe strained-layer superlattices.

  17. New Drive Train Concept with Multiple High Speed Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenhorst, F.; Serowy, S.; Andrei, C.; Schelenz, R.; Jacobs, G.; Hameyer, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the research project RapidWind (financed by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy under Grant 0325642) an alternative 6 MW drive train configuration with six high-speed (n = 5000 rpm) permanent magnet synchronous generators for wind turbine generators (WTG) is designed. The gearbox for this drive train concept is assembled with a six fold power split spur gear stage in the first stage, followed by six individual 1 MW geared driven generators. Switchable couplings are developed to connect and disconnect individual geared generators depending on the input power. With this drive train configuration it is possible to improve the efficiency during partial load operation, increasing the energy yield about 1.15% for an exemplary low-wind site. The focus of this paper is the investigation of the dynamic behavior of this new WTG concept. Due to the high gear ratio the inertia relationship between rotor and generator differs from conventional WT concepts, possibly leading to intensified vibration behavior. Moreover there are switching procedures added, that might also lead to vibration issues.

  18. Numerical study of a high-speed miniature centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi

    A miniature centrifugal compressor is a key component of reverse Brayton cycle cryogenic cooling system. The system is commonly used to generate a low cryogenic temperature environment for electronics to increase their efficiency, or generate, store and transport cryogenic liquids, such as liquid hydrogen and oxygen, where space limit is also an issue. Because of space limitation, the compressor is composed of a radial IGV, a radial impeller and an axial-direction diffuser (which reduces the radial size because of smaller diameter). As a result of reduction in size, rotating speed of the impeller is as high as 313,000 rpm, and Helium is used as the working fluid, in order to obtain the required static pressure ratio/rise. Two main characteristics of the compressor---miniature and high-speed, make it distinct from conventional compressors. Higher compressor efficiency is required to obtain a higher COP (coefficient of performance) system. Even though miniature centrifugal compressors start to draw researchers' attention in recent years, understanding of the performance and loss mechanism is still lacking. Since current experimental techniques are not advanced enough to capture details of flow at miniature scale, numerical methods dominate miniature turbomachinery study. This work numerically studied a high speed miniature centrifugal compressor with commercial CFD code. The overall performance of the compressor was predicted with consideration of interaction between blade rows by using sliding mesh model. The law of similarity of turbomachinery was validated for small scale machines. It was found that the specific ratio effect needs to be considered when similarity law is applied. But Reynolds number effect can be neglected. The loss mechanism of each component was analyzed. Loss due to turning bend was significant in each component. Tip leakage loss of small scale turbomachines has more impact on the impeller performance than that of large scale ones. Because the

  19. Development and Performance of the ACTS High Speed VSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, J.; Tran, Q.; Dendy, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS), developed by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has demonstrated the breakthrough technologies of Ka-band, spot beam antennas, and on-board processing. These technologies have enabled the development of very small aperture terminals (VSAT) and ultra-small aperture terminals (USAT) which have capabilities greater than were previously possible with conventional satellite technologies. However, the ACTS baseband processor (BBP) is designed using a time division multiple access (TDMA) scheme, which requires each earth station using the BBP to transmit data at a burst rate which is much higher than the user throughput data rate. This tends to mitigate the advantage of the new technologies by requiring a larger earth station antenna and/or a higher-powered uplink amplifier than would be necessary for a continuous transmission at the user data rate. Conversely, the user data rate is much less than the rate that can be supported by the antenna size and amplifier. For example, the ACTS TI VSAT operates at a burst rate of 27.5 Mbps, but the maximum user data rate is 1.792 Mbps. The throughput efficiency is slightly more than 6.5%. For an operational network, this level of overhead will greatly increase the cost of the user earth stations, and that increased cost must be repeated thousands of times, which may ultimately reduce the market for such a system. The ACTS High Speed VSAT (HS VSAT) is an effort to experimentally demonstrate the maximum user throughput data rate which can be achieved using the technologies developed and implemented on ACTS. Specifically, this was done by operating the system uplinks as frequency division multiple access (FDMA), essentially assigning all available TDMA time slots to a single user on each of two uplink frequencies. Preliminary results show that using a 1.2-m antenna in this mode, the HS VSAT can achieve between 22 and 24 Mbps out of the 27.5 Mbps burst

  20. A Novel High Dimensional and High Speed Data Streams Algorithm: HSDStream

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad Ahmed; Irfan Ahmed; Waseem Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel high speed clustering scheme for high-dimensional data stream. Data stream clustering has gained importance in different applications, for example, network monitoring, intrusion detection, and real-time sensing. High dimensional stream data is inherently more complex when used for clustering because the evolving nature of the stream data and high dimensionality make it non-trivial. In order to tackle this problem, projected subspace within the high dimensions and l...

  1. Holistic design in high-speed optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Saman

    Integrated circuit scaling has enabled a huge growth in processing capability, which necessitates a corresponding increase in inter-chip communication bandwidth. As bandwidth requirements for chip-to-chip interconnection scale, deficiencies of electrical channels become more apparent. Optical links present a viable alternative due to their low frequency-dependent loss and higher bandwidth density in the form of wavelength division multiplexing. As integrated photonics and bonding technologies are maturing, commercialization of hybrid-integrated optical links are becoming a reality. Increasing silicon integration leads to better performance in optical links but necessitates a corresponding co-design strategy in both electronics and photonics. In this light, holistic design of high-speed optical links with an in-depth understanding of photonics and state-of-the-art electronics brings their performance to unprecedented levels. This thesis presents developments in high-speed optical links by co-designing and co-integrating the primary elements of an optical link: receiver, transmitter, and clocking. In the first part of this thesis a 3D-integrated CMOS/Silicon-photonic receiver will be presented. The electronic chip features a novel design that employs a low-bandwidth TIA front-end, double-sampling and equalization through dynamic offset modulation. Measured results show -14.9dBm of sensitivity and energy eciency of 170fJ/b at 25Gb/s. The same receiver front-end is also used to implement source-synchronous 4-channel WDM-based parallel optical receiver. Quadrature ILO-based clocking is employed for synchronization and a novel frequency-tracking method that exploits the dynamics of IL in a quadrature ring oscillator to increase the effective locking range. An adaptive body-biasing circuit is designed to maintain the per-bit-energy consumption constant across wide data-rates. The prototype measurements indicate a record-low power consumption of 153fJ/b at 32Gb/s. The

  2. Cadence® High High-Speed PCB Design Flow Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Last release of Cadence High-Speed PCB Design methodology (PE142) based on Concept-HDL schematic editor, Constraint Manager, SPECCTRAQuest signal integrity analysis tool and ALLEGRO layout associated with SPECCTRA auto router tools, is now enough developed and stable to be taken into account for high-speed board designs at CERN. The implementation of this methodology, build around the new Constraint Manager program, is essential when you have to develop a board having a lot of high-speed design rules such as terminated lines, large bus structures, maximum length, timing, crosstalk etc.. that could not be under control by traditional method. On more conventional designs, formal aspect of the methodology could avoid misunderstanding between hardware and ALLEGRO layout designers, minimizing prototype iteration, development time and price. The capability to keep trace of the original digital designer intents in schematic or board layout, loading formal constraints in EDMS, could also be considered for LHC electro...

  3. High speed QWIP FPAs on InP substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, S. U.; Arslan, Y.; Besikci, C.

    2011-05-01

    Quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology has allowed the realization of low cost staring focal plane arrays (FPAs). However, AlGaAs/(In)GaAs QWIP FPAs suffer from low quantum and conversion efficiencies under high frame rate and/or low background conditions. We extensively discuss the effect of sensor gain on the FPA performance under various operating conditions, and highlight the superiority of the InP/InGaAs material system with respect to AlGaAs/GaAs for high speed/low background thermal imaging applications. InP/InGaAs QWIPs, providing a bias adjustable gain in a wide range, offer the flexibility of adapting the FPA to strict operating conditions. We also present an experimental comparison of large format AlGaAs/GaAs and (strained) InP/InGaAs QWIP FPAs under different operating conditions. A 640 × 512 QWIP FPA constructed with the 40-well strained InP/In 0.48Ga 0.52As material system displays a cut-off wavelength of 9.7 μm ( λ p = 8.9 μm) with a BLIP temperature higher than 65 K ( f/2), and a peak quantum efficiency as high as 12% with a broad spectral response (Δ λ/ λ p = 17%). The conversion efficiency of the FPA pixels is as high as 20% under large bias (4 V) where the detectivity is reasonably high (˜3 × 10 10 cm Hz 1/2/W, f/2, 65 K). While providing a considerably higher quantum efficiency than the pixels of a similar AlGaAs/GaAs FPA, the InP/InGaAs QWIP provides similar NETD values with much shorter integration times and, being less sensitive to the read noise, successfully operates with sub-millisecond integration times. The results clearly demonstrate that InP based material systems display high potential for single- and dual-band QWIP FPAs by overcoming the limitations of the standard GaAs based QWIPs under high frame rate and/or low background conditions.

  4. Yonjung High-Speed Railway Bridge Assessment Using Output-Only Structural Health Monitoring Measurements under Train Speed Changing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yonjung Bridge is a hybrid multispan bridge that is designed to transport high-speed trains (HEMU-430X with maximum operating speed of 430 km/h. The bridge consists of simply supported prestressed concrete (PSC and composite steel girders to carry double railway tracks. The structural health monitoring system (SHM is designed and installed to investigate and assess the performance of the bridge in terms of acceleration and deformation measurements under different speeds of the passing train. The SHM measurements are investigated in both time and frequency domains; in addition, several identification models are examined to assess the performance of the bridge. The drawn conclusions show that the maximum deflection and acceleration of the bridge are within the design limits that are specified by the Korean and European codes. The parameters evaluation of the model identification depicts the quasistatic and dynamic deformations of PSC and steel girders to be different and less correlated when higher speeds of the passing trains are considered. Finally, the variation of the frequency content of the dynamic deformations of the girders is negligible when high speeds are considered.

  5. In defence of high-speed memory scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Saul

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the evidence that bears on the existence of a mental high-speed serial exhaustive scanning process (SES) used by humans to interrogate the active memory of a set of items to determine whether it contains a test item. First proposed in the 1960s, based on patterns of reaction times (RTs), numerous later studies supported, elaborated, extended, and limited the generality of SES, while critics claimed that SES never occurred, that predictions from SES were violated, and that other mechanisms produced the RT patterns that led to the idea. I show that some of these claims result from ignoring variations in experimental procedure that produce superficially similar but quantitatively different RT patterns and that, for the original procedures, the most frequently repeated claims that predictions are violated are false. I also discuss evidence against the generality of competing theories of active-memory interrogation, especially those that depend on discrimination of directly accessible "memory-strength". Some of this evidence has been available since the 1960s but has been ignored by some proponents of alternative theories. Other evidence presented herein is derived from results of one relevant experiment described for the first time, results of another described in more detail than heretofore, and new analyses of old data. Knowledge of brain function acquired during the past half century has increased the plausibility of SES. SES is alive and well, but many associated puzzles merit further investigation, suggestions for which are offered.

  6. Measurements of granular flow dynamics with high speed digital images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jingeol [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The flow of granular materials is common to many industrial processes. This dissertation suggests and validates image processing algorithms applied to high speed digital images to measure the dynamics (velocity, temperature and volume fraction) of dry granular solids flowing down an inclined chute under the action of gravity. Glass and acrylic particles have been used as granular solids in the experiment. One technique utilizes block matching for spatially averaged velocity measurements of the glass particles. This technique is compared with the velocity measurement using an optic probe which is a conventional granular flow velocity measurement device. The other technique for measuring the velocities of individual acrylic particles is developed with correspondence using a Hopfield network. This technique first locates the positions of particles with pattern recognition techniques, followed by a clustering technique, which produces point patterns. Also, several techniques are compared for particle recognition: synthetic discriminant function (SDF), minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter, modified minimum average correlation energy (MMACE) filter and variance normalized correlation. The author proposes an MMACE filter which improves generalization of the MACE filter by adjusting the amount of averaged spectrum of training images in the spectrum whitening stages of the MACE filter. Variance normalized correlation is applied to measure the velocity and temperature of flowing glass particles down the inclined chute. The measurements are taken for the steady and wavy flow and qualitatively compared with a theoretical model of granular flow.

  7. A DSP Based POD Implementation for High Speed Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Nian Zhang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the cable network services, the audio/video entertainment contents should be protected from unauthorized copying, intercepting, and tampering. Point-of-deployment (POD security module, proposed by OpenCableTM, allows viewers to receive secure cable services such as premium subscription channels, impulse pay-per-view, video-on-demand as well as other interactive services. In this paper, we present a digital signal processor (DSP (TMS320C6211 based POD implementation for the real-time applications which include elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA, elliptic curve Diffie Hellman (ECDH key exchange, elliptic curve key derivation function (ECKDF, cellular automata (CA cryptography, communication processes between POD and Host, and Host authentication. In order to get different security levels and different rates of encryption/decryption, a CA based symmetric key cryptography algorithm is used whose encryption/decryption rate can be up to 75 Mbps. The experiment results indicate that the DSP based POD implementation provides high speed and flexibility, and satisfies the requirements of real-time video data transmission.

  8. A high-speed linear algebra library with automatic parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    Parallel or distributed processing is key to getting highest performance workstations. However, designing and implementing efficient parallel algorithms is difficult and error-prone. It is even more difficult to write code that is both portable to and efficient on many different computers. Finally, it is harder still to satisfy the above requirements and include the reliability and ease of use required of commercial software intended for use in a production environment. As a result, the application of parallel processing technology to commercial software has been extremely small even though there are numerous computationally demanding programs that would significantly benefit from application of parallel processing. This paper describes DSSLIB, which is a library of subroutines that perform many of the time-consuming computations in engineering and scientific software. DSSLIB combines the high efficiency and speed of parallel computation with a serial programming model that eliminates many undesirable side-effects of typical parallel code. The result is a simple way to incorporate the power of parallel processing into commercial software without compromising maintainability, reliability, or ease of use. This gives significant advantages over less powerful non-parallel entries in the market.

  9. Entrainment characteristics of fine particles under high speed airflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Shaowu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine silicon particles (mean size of 2.7 μm are used as entrained materials, and the entrainment characteristics of fine particles are investigated in a cylindrical fluidized-bed (inner diameter of 28 mm and height of 1000 mm under high speed airflow. The effects of the volume flow of gas (Q, 1 m3/h to 2.5 m3/h, the number of holes (N, 1 to 4, the size of holes (D, 1 mm to 3 mm, and the distance between holes and the upper surface of the material layer (H, -100 mm to 200 mm on the entrainment characteristics (entrainment rate W and entrained powder-gas ratio R are experimentally studied through orthogonal experiment. The experimental results show that an increase in Q and H constantly improves the entrainment characteristics; a decrease in D enhances such characteristics, whereas the number of holes N has no significant effect on the entrainment characteristics. An optimal operating condition can result in optimal entrainment characteristics (W, 3.1 g/min and R, 0.058 g/g, which can be achieved with a Q of 2.5 m3/h, N of 1, D of 2 mm and H of 200 mm.

  10. Hardware demonstration of high-speed networks for satellite applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, Jonathon W.; Lee, David S.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the implementation results of a hardware demonstration utilizing the Serial RapidIO{trademark} and SpaceWire protocols that was funded by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL's) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) office. This demonstration was one of the activities in the Modeling and Design of High-Speed Networks for Satellite Applications LDRD. This effort has demonstrated the transport of application layer packets across both RapidIO and SpaceWire networks to a common downlink destination using small topologies comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom devices. The RapidFET and NEX-SRIO debug and verification tools were instrumental in the successful implementation of the RapidIO hardware demonstration. The SpaceWire hardware demonstration successfully demonstrated the transfer and routing of application data packets between multiple nodes and also was able reprogram remote nodes using configuration bitfiles transmitted over the network, a key feature proposed in node-based architectures (NBAs). Although a much larger network (at least 18 to 27 nodes) would be required to fully verify the design for use in a real-world application, this demonstration has shown that both RapidIO and SpaceWire are capable of routing application packets across a network to a common downlink node, illustrating their potential use in real-world NBAs.

  11. Increasing the life of high-speed steel cutting tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, Y.G.

    1984-05-01

    The paper describes work on determining the rational area of use, mastering of production operations, and introduction into the plants of the industry of various methods of increasing the life of high-speed tools. Among these methods are carbonitriding, treatment of the tool by shock cooling and by application of a magnetic field, and the application of wear resistant coatings by the method of cathodic-ionic bombardment. The article briefly characterizes each method. Experience in the introduction of the carbonitriding process has shown that the greatest increase in life is obtained for relatively large cutting tools such as hubs and large diameter drills. The effectiveness of shock cooling depends to a great degree upon the original structure of the tool material and upon the requirements imposed on it in service (for stability). Experience in the magnetic treatment of drills and end mills up to 30mm in diameter has shown that the life of a magnetically treated tool with subsequent demagnetization increases by 1.2-1.4 times and without demagnetization by 1.7-2 times. The effectiveness of magnetic hardening depends not only upon the correctly selected strength of the magnetic field and time of application, but also upon the time of postmagnetic aging. Wear resistant coatings applied by the cathodic-ionic bombardment method increases by 2-5 times the life of a cutting tool. However, careful preparation of the tool surface is required as well as careful control of the temperature and thickness of the coating.

  12. An Early Evaluation of Italian High Speed Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Beria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Italy has undergone, in the last 15 years, an exceptional public financial effort to build approximately 1,000 km of high speed rail lines. Further extensions are under construction or planned, especially in the most important international relations. This network is widely considered as fundamental to comply the European vision of a continental-wide transport system.The paper analyses the past and the future of such network, where possible from a quantitative point of view. The first part of the article reviews the history of the Alta Velocità scheme, particularly focusing on the issues related to the economic regulation of the investments and the financial troubles at first and then on the present issues related to the regulation of rail services.The analysis of the supply, the time gains, the demand and the costs allows to build a simple but independent evaluation of the past projects from an ex-post perspective, pointing out the successes, but also important critical issues.The second part of the paper analyses the future expansion plans looking at the costs, the existing and expected demand and derives some policy indications and cost reduction strategies capable both to control public expenditure in a period of crisis and not to abandon the idea of a modern and effective rail network.

  13. Spiral Tube Assembly for High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y.; Clary, R.; Powell, J.; Knight, M.; Finn, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal elution modes were determined for four typical two-phase solvent systems each with different physical parameters to achieve the best peak resolution and retention of the stationary phase by spiral tube high-speed countercurrent chromatography using a suitable set of test samples. Both retention of the stationary phase and partition efficiency are governed by an interplay between two forces, i.e., Archimedean Screw force and radial centrifugal force gradient of the spiral channel. In the polar solvent system represented by 1-butanol./acetic acid/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) with settling time of over 30 s, the effect by the radial centrifugal gradient force dominates giving the best separation of dipeptides either by pumping the lower phase from the inner terminal or the upper phase from the outer terminal of the spiral channel. In the moderately hydrophobic two-phase solvent system represented by hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/0.1 M HCl (1:1:1:1) with settling time of 19 s, and two hydrophobic solvent systems of hexane/ethanol/water (5:4:1, v/v/v) and non-aqueous binary system of hexane/acetonitrile both having settling time of 9, the effect of the Archimedean screw force play a major role in hydrodynamic equilibrium, giving the best separations by pumping the lower phase from the head or the upper phase from the tail of the spiral channel. PMID:19343107

  14. Innovative Airbreathing Propulsion Concepts for High-speed Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Woodrow, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The current cost to launch payloads to low earth orbit (LEO) is approximately loo00 U.S. dollars ($) per pound ($22000 per kilogram). This high cost limits our ability to pursue space science and hinders the development of new markets and a productive space enterprise. This enterprise includes NASA's space launch needs and those of industry, universities, the military, and other U.S. government agencies. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) proposes a vision of the future where space travel is as routine as in today's commercial air transportation systems. Dramatically lower launch costs will be required to make this vision a reality. In order to provide more affordable access to space, NASA has established new goals in its Aeronautics and Space Transportation plan. These goals target a reduction in the cost of launching payloads to LEO to $lo00 per pound ($2200 per kilogram) by 2007 and to $100' per pound by 2025 while increasing safety by orders of magnitude. Several programs within NASA are addressing innovative propulsion systems that offer potential for reducing launch costs. Various air-breathing propulsion systems currently are being investigated under these programs. The NASA Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research and Technology Program supports long-term fundamental research and is managed at GLenn Research Center. Currently funded areas relevant to space transportation include hybrid hyperspeed propulsion (HHP) and pulse detonation engine (PDE) research. The HHP Program currently is addressing rocket-based combined cycle and turbine-based combined cycle systems. The PDE research program has the goal of demonstrating the feasibility of PDE-based hybrid-cycle and combined cycle propulsion systems that meet NASA's aviation and access-to-space goals. The ASTP also is part of the Base Research and Technology Program and is managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. As technologies developed under the Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base

  15. Linear friction welding for constructing and repairing rail for high speed and intercity passenger service rail : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This project developed a solid-state welding process based on linear friction welding (LFW) technology. While resistance flash welding or : thermite techniques are tried and true methods for joining rails and performing partial rail replacement repai...

  16. Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurements using stereo-digital image correlation and a single color high-speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurement using stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) technique and a single high-speed color camera is proposed. With the aid of a skillfully designed pseudo stereo-imaging apparatus, color images of a test object surface, composed of blue and red channel images from two different optical paths, are recorded by a high-speed color CMOS camera. The recorded color images can be separated into red and blue channel sub-images using a simple but effective color crosstalk correction method. These separated blue and red channel sub-images are processed by regular stereo-DIC method to retrieve full-field 3D shape and deformation on the test object surface. Compared with existing two-camera high-speed stereo-DIC or four-mirror-adapter-assisted singe-camera high-speed stereo-DIC, the proposed single-camera high-speed stereo-DIC technique offers prominent advantages of full-frame measurements using a single high-speed camera but without sacrificing its spatial resolution. Two real experiments, including shape measurement of a curved surface and vibration measurement of a Chinese double-side drum, demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed technique.

  17. Method and apparatus for high speed data acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, J.R.

    1997-02-11

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for high speed digital data acquisition. The apparatus includes one or more multiplexers for receiving multiple channels of digital data at a low data rate and asserting a multiplexed data stream at a high data rate, and one or more FIFO memories for receiving data from the multiplexers and asserting the data to a real time processor. Preferably, the invention includes two multiplexers, two FIFO memories, and a 64-bit bus connecting the FIFO memories with the processor. Each multiplexer receives four channels of 14-bit digital data at a rate of up to 5 MHz per channel, and outputs a data stream to one of the FIFO memories at a rate of 20 MHz. The FIFO memories assert output data in parallel to the 64-bit bus, thus transferring 14-bit data values to the processor at a combined rate of 40 MHz. The real time processor is preferably a floating-point processor which processes 32-bit floating-point words. A set of mask bits is prestored in each 32-bit storage location of the processor memory into which a 14-bit data value is to be written. After data transfer from the FIFO memories, mask bits are concatenated with each stored 14-bit data value to define a valid 32-bit floating-point word. Preferably, a user can select any of several modes for starting and stopping direct memory transfers of data from the FIFO memories to memory within the real time processor, by setting the content of a control and status register. 15 figs.

  18. Contact freezing observed with a high speed video camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Nadine; Koch, Michael; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Freezing of supercooled cloud droplets on collision with ice nucleating particle (INP) has been considered as one of the most effective heterogeneous freezing mechanisms. Potentially, it could play an important role in rapid glaciation of a mixed phase cloud especially if coupled with ice multiplication mechanism active at moderate subzero temperatures. The necessary condition for such coupling would be, among others, the presence of very efficient INPs capable of inducing ice nucleation of the supercooled drizzle droplets in the temperature range of -5°C to -20°C. Some mineral dust particles (K-feldspar) and biogenic INPs (pseudomonas bacteria, birch pollen) have been recently identified as such very efficient INPs. However, if observed with a high speed video (HSV) camera, the contact nucleation induced by these two classes of INPs exhibits a very different behavior. Whereas bacterial INPs can induce freezing within a millisecond after initial contact with supercooled water, birch pollen need much more time to initiate freezing. The mineral dust particles seem to induce ice nucleation faster than birch pollen but slower than bacterial INPs. In this contribution we show the HSV records of individual supercooled droplets suspended in an electrodynamic balance and colliding with airborne INPs of various types. The HSV camera is coupled with a long-working-distance microscope, allowing us to observe the contact nucleation of ice at very high spatial and temporal resolution. The average time needed to initiate freezing has been measured depending on the INP species. This time do not necessarily correlate with the contact freezing efficiency of the ice nucleating particles. We discuss possible mechanisms explaining this behavior and potential implications for future ice nucleation research.

  19. Very High Speed Discrete Time Optical Signal Generation and Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Vishwa

    Optical lattice filters constitute a class of devices that generate and operate upon high bandwidth optical signals. This dissertation describes the design, analysis, construction and testing of such devices. We derive elegant z-transform based filter transfer functions and develop a convenient state variable based scattering matrix filter description. A variety of filters are designed and analyzed. We also design locally optimal optical lattice filters with mirror imperfections such as losses and finite reflectivity round-off error. We conduct a quantitative sensitivity analysis of the degrading effects of these imperfections on system performance, and study the distorting effects of phase error on pulse train shape. Experimentally, we use mirror based optical lattice filters to generate 667 GHz repetition rate pulse bursts with step and ramp envelopes, and coded pulse bursts. We also demonstrate the quadrupling and octupling of the 76 MHz repetition rate of a mode-locked laser. We demonstrate the low pass filtering property of optical lattice filters by realizing a high speed discrete time optical integrator. Step functions are integrated to ramps, and ramps to quadratics, at 667 GHz. We also constructed a mechanical variable repetition rate filter with a tuning range of 2.14 to 100 GHz. We design and analyze a gain based mirror filter with active gain elements. Small signal linear constant gain tends to improve filter performance by increasing the output, and reducing fluctuations in the frequency response. We study the behavior of these filters at the stability limit, characterized by large fluctuations in the frequency response. Optical lattice filters may be used as wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers in lightwave systems, as variable repetition rate pulse train generators for tunable repetition rate optical spectroscopy, as optical clock generators, and as discrete time/analog optical signal filters.

  20. Prediction Of Limit Rotational Speeds In A High-Speed Tool Bason FE Computed J-Integral Intensitiesed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Bjørn; Langmack, Lasse; Kristensen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    In order to obtain an estimate of the critical number of rotations for a high speed milling tool crack growth analysis has been performed. The crack growth is determined from stress intensities computed by J-integrals. The problem is solved in 3D using ANSYS. Boundary conditions arising from a co...

  1. Development of precision casting in high speed steel; Seimitsu chuzo haisu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, H.; Fujii, T. [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-07-25

    As to the high speed steel manufactured by precision casting process, effect of decarbonization technology and low temperature casting, and difference between the characteristics of a steel and a high speed steel were examined. The high speed steel was cast by vacuum casing process using a mold manufactured by the lost wax process. Effect of superheating in casting on the product structure and the bending strength was examined. Decarbonization can be prevented by the vacuum casting process. By low temperature casting, the high speed steel structure becomes fine, and the bending strength or toughness is improved; 80% of the T-direction bending strength of the steel can be secured in the high speed steel. The high speed steel exceeds the steel by a little bit in abrasion resistance. When the high speed steel was applied to a spiral cutter, the high speed steel product exceeded 1.2 times the machined steel in the tool life. In the high speed steel, the cutting process is drastically reduced, and reduction of the material cost is also possible compared with the machined steel. The high speed steel is considered to show good results because of excellent abrasion resistance since the tool life depended more on abrasion than on toughness because of the machining conditions. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Salivary hormonal values from high-speed resistive exercise workouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John F; Lutz, Brant M; Davidson, Mark E; Wilson, Kyle; Crane, Chris S; Craig, Chrsity E; Nissen, Tim E; Mason, Melissa L; Coday, Michael A; Sheaff, Robert J; Potter, William T

    2012-03-01

    Our study purpose examined salivary hormonal responses to high-speed resistive exercise. Healthy subjects (n = 45) performed 2 elbow flexor workouts on a novel (inertial kinetic exercise; Oconomowoc, WI, USA) strength training device. Our methods included saliva sample collection at both preexercise and immediately postexercise; workouts entailed two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest period. The samples were analyzed in duplicate for their testosterone and cortisol concentrations ([T], [C]). Average and maximum elbow flexor torque were measured from each exercise bout; they were later analyzed with a 2(gender) × 2(workout) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for workout. The [T] and [C] each underwent a 2(gender) × 2(time) ANOVA with repeated measures for time. A within-subject design was used to limit error variance. Average and maximum torque each had gender (men > women; p time, but women's values were unchanged. Yet multivariate regression revealed that 3 predictor variables (body mass and average and maximum torques) did not account for a significant amount of variance associated with the rise in male [T]. Changes in [C] were not significant. In conclusion, changes in [T] concur with the results from other studies that showed significant elevations in male [T], despite the brevity of current workouts and the rather modest volume of muscle mass engaged. Practical applications imply that salivary assays may be a viable alternative to blood draws from athletes, yet coaches and others who may administer this treatment should know that our results may have produced greater pre-post hormonal changes if postexercise sample collection had occurred at a later time point.

  3. High quality yarns from high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highest quality yarns from upland cotton are typically produced by using combing in the textile mill. Combing is a resource-intensive process in which short fibers are removed from cotton before spinning. The improvement in fiber length and length uniformity of upland cotton when high speed ro...

  4. Prospects of introduction of innovative technology overhead passenger traffic on the basis of the passenger ropeways for the modernization of the public transport system of the Bryansk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the current situation in the field of public transport in the Bryansk city was shown the main problems in the implementation of innovative technology for the aerial passenger transport on the basis of suspended passenger ropeways (Cable metro. Shows the advantages of the cable metro-based mechatronic technology transportation compared to the traditional suspended passenger ropeways. Was made the technical and economic feasibility analysis of the construction of the cable metro in conditions of a highly urbanized urban environment of large cities, metropolises and urban agglomerations. Presented the statistical data on the development of vehicles in the Bryansk city in the period 2004-2016 years and based on the analysis of these data shows the feasibility of the development of aerial passenger transport as the most high-speed and environmentally friendly mode of transport compared with automobile and electric transport. Considered the possible sources of financing of design and construction works and shows the commercial attractiveness of the project to potential investors in the framework of public-private partnerships. For existing urban development and major transport flows of the Bryansk city was formulated proposals for the location of future transport cable metro lines, order their gaskets, the formation routes of movement of the rolling stock. Made the estimation of labor and financial costs for the implementation of the project of modernization of the public transport system of the city of Bryansk on the basis of the suspended passenger ropeways. The proposed option has the following characteristics: the number of transport lines - 6, total length - 54.8 km, total number of passenger boarding stations - 26, hub passenger stations – 6, the total number of intermediate supports – 100...110 pieces with a span between supports of 400...600 m. the cost of construction of transport lines and the purchase of necessary

  5. Automatic in-process chatter avoidance in the high-speed milling process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, N.J.M. van; Doppenberg, E.J.J.; Faassen, R.P.H.; Wouw, N. van de; Oosterling, J.A.J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    High-speed milling is often used in industry to maximize productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components, such as aeronautical components, mold, and dies. The occurrence of chatter highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high-speed milling operations. In this paper, two control

  6. High performance multi-channel high-speed I/O circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Taehyoun

    2013-01-01

    This book describes design techniques that can be used to mitigate crosstalk in high-speed I/O circuits. The focus of the book is in developing compact and low power integrated circuits for crosstalk cancellation, inter-symbol interference (ISI) mitigation and improved bit error rates (BER) at higher speeds. This book is one of the first to discuss in detail the problem of crosstalk and ISI mitigation encountered as data rates have continued beyond 10Gb/s. Readers will learn to avoid the data performance cliff, with circuits and design techniques described for novel, low power crosstalk cancel

  7. Substructure method in high-speed monorail dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, I. I.

    2008-12-01

    The study of actions of high-speed moving loads on bridges and elevated tracks remains a topical problem for transport. In the present study, we propose a new method for moving load analysis of elevated tracks (monorail structures or bridges), which permits studying the interaction between two strained objects consisting of rod systems and rigid bodies with viscoelastic links; one of these objects is the moving load (monorail rolling stock), and the other is the carrying structure (monorail elevated track or bridge). The methods for moving load analysis of structures were developed in numerous papers [1-15]. At the first stage, when solving the problem about a beam under the action of the simplest moving load such as a moving weight, two fundamental methods can be used; the same methods are realized for other structures and loads. The first method is based on the use of a generalized coordinate in the expansion of the deflection in the natural shapes of the beam, and the problem is reduced to solving a system of ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients [1-3]. In the second method, after the "beam-weight" system is decomposed, just as in the problem with the weight impact on the beam [4], solving the problem is reduced to solving an integral equation for the dynamic weight reaction [6, 7]. In [1-3], an increase in the number of retained forms leads to an increase in the order of the system of equations; in [6, 7], difficulties arise when solving the integral equations related to the conditional stability of the step procedures. The method proposed in [9, 14] for beams and rod systems combines the above approaches and eliminates their drawbacks, because it permits retaining any necessary number of shapes in the deflection expansion and has a resolving system of equations with an unconditionally stable integration scheme and with a minimum number of unknowns, just as in the method of integral equations [6, 7]. This method is further developed for

  8. An Alternative Approach for High Speed Railway Carrying Capacity Calculation Based on Multiagent Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a multiobjective mixed integer programming problem that calculates the carrying capacity of high speed railway based on mathematical programming method. The model is complex and difficult to solve, and it is difficult to comprehensively consider the various influencing factors on the train operation. The multiagent theory is employed to calculate high speed railway carrying capacity. In accordance with real operations of high speed railway, a three-layer agent model is developed to simulate the operating process of high speed railway. In the proposed model, railway network agent, line agent, station agent, and train agent are designed, respectively. To validate the proposed model, a case study is performed for Beijing–Shanghai high speed railway by using NetLogo software. The results are consistent with the actual data, which implies that the proposed multiagent method is feasible to calculate the carrying capacity of high speed railway.

  9. Adaptive wall technology for three-dimensional models at high subsonic speeds and aerofoil testing through the speed of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M. C.; Taylor, N. J.; Goodyer, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    Adaptive wall research at the University of Southampton has been directed towards the development of testing techniques for use in nonporous test sections where two flexible walls are profiled in single curvature. This paper highlights the recent advances that have been made in the testing of 2D airfoils through the speed of sound and the testing of 3D models at high subsonic speeds. Techniques have been developed to accommodate the variety of flow regimes encountered in near sonic airfoil tests. The experimental evidence to date suggests that the new techniques coupled with established procedures allow airfoil data, free from top and bottom wall interference, to be gathered from adaptive flexible walled test sections throughout the entire subsonic, transonic and supersonic speed ranges. Techniques applicable to the testing of 3D models have evolved primarily from experience gained by testing sidewall mounted half-wings. Emphasis has been placed upon models with planforms similar to those of current transport wings. Techniques for high subsonic speeds have now been developed to the point where the residual levels of interference are low.

  10. Verifying cell loss requirements in high-speed communication networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry W. Fendick

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-speed communication networks it is common to have requirements of very small cell loss probabilities due to buffer overflow. Losses are measured to verify that the cell loss requirements are being met, but it is not clear how to interpret such measurements. We propose methods for determining whether or not cell loss requirements are being met. A key idea is to look at the stream of losses as successive clusters of losses. Often clusters of losses, rather than individual losses, should be regarded as the important “loss events”. Thus we propose modeling the cell loss process by a batch Poisson stochastic process. Successive clusters of losses are assumed to arrive according to a Poisson process. Within each cluster, cell losses do not occur at a single time, but the distance between losses within a cluster should be negligible compared to the distance between clusters. Thus, for the purpose of estimating the cell loss probability, we ignore the spaces between successive cell losses in a cluster of losses. Asymptotic theory suggests that the counting process of losses initiating clusters often should be approximately a Poisson process even though the cell arrival process is not nearly Poisson. The batch Poisson model is relatively easy to test statistically and fit; e.g., the batch-size distribution and the batch arrival rate can readily be estimated from cell loss data. Since batch (cluster sizes may be highly variable, it may be useful to focus on the number of batches instead of the number of cells in a measurement interval. We also propose a method for approximately determining the parameters of a special batch Poisson cell loss with geometric batch-size distribution from a queueing model of the buffer content. For this step, we use a reflected Brownian motion (RBM approximation of a G/D/1/C queueing model. We also use the RBM model to estimate the input burstiness given the cell loss rate. In addition, we use the RBM model to

  11. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Investigation of Gearbox Motion and High-Speed-Shaft Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-18

    This paper extends a model-to-test validation effort to examine the effect of different constant rotor torque and moment conditions and intentional generator misalignment on the gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads. Fully validating gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads across a range of test conditions is a critical precursor to examining the bearing loads, as the gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads are the drivers of these bearing loads.

  12. Construction of luxury passenger ship `Pacific Venus`; Goka kyakusen `Pacific Venus` no kenzo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Inoue, A.; Yamamoto, G.; Arami, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Concerning a luxury passenger ship Pacific Venus, its special features and the points given heed during the designing process are described. In the process of basic design formulation for a passenger ship, the number of passenger cabins and their grading, saloons for entertaining passengers, and the arrangement of facilities are decided upon with the highest priority. In the process of the designing of lateral cross section curves and shapes which exert a great influence on propulsion performance, the latest CFD (computational fluid dynamics) technology is utilized, and this enables hull development to progress efficiently. Thanks to CFD, furthermore, the ship is improved in seaworthiness, and is now equipped with large stabilizer fins which, even in bad weather, protect passengers against discomfort and allow the ship to navigate with safety. As for the development and improvement of the propeller blade geometry, a variable pitch propeller is examined in a cavitation water tank, and a success is attained in reducing propeller cavitation across a wide range from low to high speeds. The ship is then subjected to sea trials, when both propulsion performance and low noise feature are found quite satisfying. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  13. A Review on High-Speed Machining of Titanium Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RAHMAN, Mustafizur; WANG, Zhi-Gang; WONG, Yoke-San

    2006-01-01

    .... However, it is very difficult to machine them due to their poor machinability. When machining titanium alloys with conventional tools, the tool wear rate progresses rapidly, and it is generally difficult to achieve a cutting speed of over 60m/min...

  14. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  15. High-speed non-intrusive measurements of fuel velocity fields at high-pressure injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, Johannes; Schlüßler, Raimund; Fischer, Andreas; Czarske, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Using a single high-speed camera and a frequency modulated laser, a novel approach is presented for fast velocity field measurements in unsteady spray flows. The velocity range is from zero up to several 100 m/s, which requires a high measurement rate and a large dynamic. Typically, flow measurements require to seed tracer particles to the fluid. A paradigm shift to seeding-free measurements is presented. The light scattered at the phase boundaries of the fluid droplets is evaluated. In order to validate the high-speed measurement system, a detailed uncertainty analysis is performed by means of measurements as well as simulations. Thereby, variations of the scattered light intensity, which are based on the high temporal velocity gradients, are found to be the main contribution to the uncertainty. The eventually measurement results, obtained at a measurement rate of 500 kHz, exhibit spray velocities ranging from 0 m/s up to 400 m/s in less than 1 ms, and the detection of unsteady and irregular flow phenomena with a characteristic time of several μs is achieved. This demonstrates the high measurement rate, the high temporal resolution and the large measurement range of the proposed high-speed measurement system.

  16. Large motion high cycle high speed optical fibers for space based applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, Peter G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tandon, Rajan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Cory S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rasberry, Roger David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohr, Garth David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Future remote sensing applications will require higher resolution and therefore higher data rates (up to perhaps 100 gigabits per second) while achieving lower mass and cost. A current limitation to the design space is high speed high bandwidth data does not cross movable gimbals because of cabling issues. This requires the detectors to be off gimbal. The ability to get data across the gimbal would open up efficiencies in designs where the detectors and the electronics can be placed anywhere on the system. Fiber optic cables provide light weight high speed high bandwidth connections. Current options are limited to 20,000 cycles as opposed to the 1,000,000 cycles needed for future space based applications. To extend this to the million+ regime, requires a thorough understanding of the failure mechanisms and the materials, proper selection of materials (e.g., glass and jacket material) allowable geometry changes to the cable, radiation hardness, etc.

  17. Study of fish response using particle image velocimetry and high-speed, high-resolution imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mueller, R. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gruensch, G. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Fish swimming has fascinated both engineers and fish biologists for decades. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging are recently developed analysis tools that can help engineers and biologists better understand how fish respond to turbulent environments. This report details studies to evaluate DPIV. The studies included a review of existing literature on DPIV, preliminary studies to test the feasibility of using DPIV conducted at our Flow Biology Laboratory in Richland, Washington September through December 2003, and applications of high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging with advanced motion analysis to investigations of fish injury mechanisms in turbulent shear flows and bead trajectories in laboratory physical models. Several conclusions were drawn based on these studies, which are summarized as recommendations for proposed research at the end of this report.

  18. High Speed and High Spatial Density Parameter Measurement Using Fiber Optic Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Allen R. Jr. (Inventor); Chan, Hon Man (Inventor); Richards, William Lance (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Inventor); Hamory, Philip J (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is an improved fiber optic sensing system (FOSS) having the ability to provide both high spatial resolution and high frequency strain measurements. The inventive hybrid FOSS fiber combines sensors from high acquisition speed and low spatial resolution Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM) systems and from low acquisition speed and high spatial resolution Optical Frequency Domain Reflection (OFDR) systems. Two unique light sources utilizing different wavelengths are coupled with the hybrid FOSS fiber to generate reflected data from both the WDM sensors and OFDR sensors operating on a single fiber optic cable without incurring interference from one another. The two data sets are then de-multiplexed for analysis, optionally with conventionally-available WDM and OFDR system analyzers.

  19. Smart Materials Technology for High Speed Adaptive Inlet/Nozzle Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Enabling a new generation of high speed civil aircraft will require breakthrough developments in propulsion design, including novel techniques to optimize inlet...

  20. High-speed velocity measurements on an EFI-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinse, W. C.; van't Hof, P. G.; Cheng, L. K.; Scholtes, J. H. G.

    2007-01-01

    For the development of an Exploding Foil Initiator for Insensitive Munitions applications the following topics are of interest: the electrical circuit, the exploding foil, the velocity of the flyer, the driver explosive, the secondary flyer and the acceptor explosive. Several parameters of the EFI have influences on the velocity of the flyer. To investigate these parameters a Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) has been used. The light to and from the flyer is transported by a multimode fibre terminated with a GRIN-lens. By this method the velocity of very tiny objects (0.1 mm), can be measured. The velocity of flyer can be recorded with nanosecond resolution, depending on the Fabry-Perot etalon and the streak camera. With this equipment the influence of the dimensions of the exploding foil and the flyer on the velocity and the acceleration of the flyer are investigated. Also the integrity of the flyer during flight can be analyzed. To characterize the explosive material, to be used as driver explosive in EFI's, the initiation behaviour of the explosive has been investigated by taking pictures of the explosion with a high speed framing and streak camera. From these pictures the initiation distance and the detonation behaviour of the explosive has been analyzed. Normally, the driver explosive initiates the acceptor explosive (booster) by direct contact. This booster explosive is embedded in the main charge of the munitions. The combination of initiator, booster explosive and main charge explosive is called the detonation train. In this research the possibility of initiation of the booster by an intermediate flyer is investigated. This secondary flyer can be made of different materials, like aluminium, steel and polyester with different sizes. With the aid of the F-PVIS the acceleration of the secondary flyer is investigated. This reveals the influence of the thickness and density of the flyer on the acceleration and final velocity. Under certain

  1. Transient flow characteristics of a high speed rotary valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Patrick H.

    were experimentally mapped as a function of valve speed, inter-cylinder pressure ratios and volume ratios and the results were compared to compressible flow theoretical models. Specifically, the transient behavior suggested a short-lived loss-mode initiation closely resembled by shock tube theory followed by a quasi-steady flow regime resembling choked flow behavior. An empirical model was then employed to determine the useful range of the CCV design as applied to a four-stroke CIBAI engine cycle modeled using a 1-D quasi-steady numerical method, with particular emphasis on the cyclic timing of the CCV opening. Finally, a brief discussion of a high-temperature version of the CCV design is presented.

  2. A New High-Speed Low Distortion Switched-Current Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan; Toumazou, Christofer

    1996-01-01

    A new switched-current cell is presented which simultaneously offers high speed, low distortion, low gain error, and a virtual ground input. In a simulation example 0.01% distortion was achieved at 50MHz sampling rate which makes the cell very well suited for high accuracy high speed filtering...

  3. High-speed high-sensitivity infrared spectroscopy using mid-infrared swept lasers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, David T. D.; Groom, Kristian M.; Hogg, Richard A.; Revin, Dmitry G.; Cockburn, John W.; Rehman, Ihtesham U.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a highly attractive read-out technology for compositional analysis of biomedical specimens because of its unique combination of high molecular sensitivity without the need for exogenous labels. Traditional techniques such as FTIR and Raman have suffered from comparatively low speed and sensitivity however recent innovations are challenging this situation. Direct mid-IR spectroscopy is being speeded up by innovations such as MEMS-based FTIR instruments with very high mirror speeds and supercontinuum sources producing very high sample irradiation levels. Here we explore another possible method - external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL's) with high cavity tuning speeds (mid-IR swept lasers). Swept lasers have been heavily developed in the near-infrared where they are used for non-destructive low-coherence imaging (OCT). We adapt these concepts in two ways. Firstly by combining mid-IR quantum cascade gain chips with external cavity designs adapted from OCT we achieve spectral acquisition rates approaching 1 kHz and demonstrate potential to reach 100 kHz. Secondly we show that mid-IR swept lasers share a fundamental sensitivity advantage with near-IR OCT swept lasers. This makes them potentially able to achieve the same spectral SNR as an FTIR instrument in a time x N shorter (N being the number of spectral points) under otherwise matched conditions. This effect is demonstrated using measurements of a PDMS sample. The combination of potentially very high spectral acquisition rates, fundamental SNR advantage and the use of low-cost detector systems could make mid-IR swept lasers a powerful technology for high-throughput biomedical spectroscopy.

  4. Detecting and Blocking Network Attacks at Ultra High Speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxson, Vern

    2010-11-29

    Stateful, in-depth, in-line traffic analysis for intrusion detection and prevention has grown increasingly more difficult as the data rates of modern networks rise. One point in the design space for high-performance network analysis - pursued by a number of commercial products - is the use of sophisticated custom hardware. For very high-speed processing, such systems often cast the entire analysis process in ASICs. This project pursued a different architectural approach, which we term Shunting. Shunting marries a conceptually quite simple hardware device with an Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) running on commodity PC hardware. The overall design goal is was to keep the hardware both cheap and readily scalable to future higher speeds, yet also retain the unparalleled flexibility that running the main IPS analysis in a full general-computing environment provides. The Shunting architecture we developed uses a simple in-line hardware element that maintains several large state tables indexed by packet header fields, including IP/TCP flags, source and destination IP addresses, and connection tuples. The tables yield decision values the element makes on a packet-by-packet basis: forward the packet, drop it, or divert ('shunt') it through the IPS (the default). By manipulating table entries, the IPS can, on a fine-grained basis: (i) specify the traffic it wishes to examine, (ii) directly block malicious traffic, and (iii) 'cut through' traffic streams once it has had an opportunity to 'vet' them, or (iv) skip over large items within a stream before proceeding to further analyze it. For the Shunting architecture to yield benefits, it needs to operate in an environment for which the monitored network traffic has the property that - after proper vetting - much of it can be safely skipped. This property does not universally hold. For example, if a bank needs to examine all Web traffic involving its servers for regulatory compliance, then a

  5. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    automobiles. ?? Community Noise: Hub and smaller GA airports are facing increasing noise restrictions, and while commercial airliners have dramatically decreased their community noise footprint over the past 30 years, GA aircraft noise has essentially remained same, and moreover, is located in closer proximity to neighborhoods and businesses. ?? Operating Costs: GA operating costs have risen dramatically due to average fuel costs of over $6 per gallon, which has constrained the market over the past decade and resulted in more than 50% lower sales and 35% less yearly operations. Infusion of autonomy and electric propulsion technologies can accomplish not only a transformation of the GA market, but also provide a technology enablement bridge for both larger aircraft and the emerging civil Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) markets. The NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) project successfully used a similar approach to enable the introduction of primary composite structures and flat panel displays in the 1990s, establishing both the technology and certification standardization to permit quick adoption through partnerships with industry, academia, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Regional and airliner markets are experiencing constant pressure to achieve decreasing levels of community emissions and noise, while lowering operating costs and improving safety. But to what degree can these new technology frontiers impact aircraft safety, the environment, operations, cost, and performance? Are the benefits transformational enough to fundamentally alter aircraft competiveness and productivity to permit much greater aviation use for high speed and On-Demand Mobility (ODM)? These questions were asked in a Zip aviation system study named after the Zip Car, an emerging car-sharing business model. Zip Aviation investigates the potential to enable new emergent markets for aviation that offer "more flexibility than the existing transportation solutions

  6. Slab track systems for high-speed railways.

    OpenAIRE

    Michas, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    In the last 40 years an increase in train speed and axle load around the world and other challenges in the conventional ballasted track system gave birth to ballastless railway track system. This study examines in depth the various slab track systems that are being used today. Their design characteristics as well as the various requirements for efficient use are thoroughly explained. At least 34 different ballastless systems have been recorded in many railway networks throughout the world. Th...

  7. Comprehensive Sustainability Evaluation of High-Speed Railway (HSR Construction Projects Based on Unascertained Measure and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the sustainability of high-speed railway (HSR construction projects in a comprehensive manner. To this end, the author established an index system, involving 4 primary indices, 9 secondary indices, and 32 tertiary indices. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP and the unascertained measure were introduced to calculate the weights of these indices. Then, the index system was applied to evaluate the sustainability of the China’s Harbin-Dalian Passenger Dedicated Line (PDL. The results show that the Harbin-Dalian PDL project achieved good results in terms of process, economic benefit, impact, and sustainability, and will bring long-term benefits in the fields of tourism, economy, and transport capacity, as well as many other fields. In spite of its good overall sustainability, the project needs to further increase its economic benefits and reduce its negative environmental impact. For this purpose, it is necessary to adopt the management mode of “separation between network and transportation” and apply noise prevention measures like noise barriers, tunnels, and overhead viaducts. This research lays a solid basis for the sustainability evaluation of HSR construction projects, and simplifies the modelling process for designers of HSR.

  8. Double-reflection polygon mirror for high-speed optical coherence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linbo; Chen, Nanguang; Sheppard, C J R

    2007-12-15

    We report on a high-speed, high-efficiency, high-duty-cycle, path-length-maintaining and linear beam scanner suitable for en face scanning optical coherence microscopy. Fast transverse beam scanning is achieved by use of a double-reflection polygon mirror (DRPM) rotating at a constant speed. With a motor speed of 18,000 rpm and a scanner diameter of 50 mm, the DRPM provides a line rate up to 3 kHz, +/-1.8 degrees scanning range, and 90% duty cycle. A much higher scanning speed and much larger scanning range can be readily achieved by increasing the scanner diameter.

  9. High Speed Rail System and the Tourism Market: Between Accessibility, Image and Coordination Tool

    OpenAIRE

    marie delaplace; sylvie bazin; francesca pagliara; Antonio Sposaro

    2014-01-01

    the aim of this P is to propose a state-of-the-art concerning the interaction between High-Speed Rail systems and the tourism market, in order to identify the possible best practices aiming to enhance the value of the tourist activities. This question arises because there are many projects of High-Speed Rail and others are ongoing, whose economic justification is based on the benefits deriving from them. In November 2013 there were 21.472 km of High Speed Railways (i.e., whose speed is greate...

  10. Composite reinforced metallic cylinder for high speed rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to design and development of the composite reinforced thin metallic cylinder to increase the peripheral speed significantly and thereby improve the separation performance in a centrifugal gas separation processes through proper optimization of the internal parameters. According to Dirac equation (Cohen (1951)), the maximum separative work for a centrifugal gas separation process increase with 4th power of the peripheral speed. Therefore, it has been intended to reinforce the metallic cylinder with composites (carbon fibers: T-700 and T- 1000 grade with suitable epoxy resin) to increase the stiffness and hoop stress so that the peripheral speed can be increased significantly, and thereby enhance the separative output. Here, we have developed the mathematical model to investigate the elastic stresses of a laminated cylinder subjected to mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanical loading. A detailed analysis is carried out to underline the basic hypothesis of each formulation. Further, we evaluate the steady state creep response of the rotating cylinder and analyze the stresses and strain rates in the cylinder.

  11. Algorithms for High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Lambert, James

    2010-01-01

    Two image-data-processing algorithms are essential to the successful operation of a system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person s gaze in real time. The system was described in High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System (NPO-30700) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 51. To recapitulate from the cited article: Like prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems, this system is based on (1) illumination of an eye by a low-power infrared light-emitting diode (LED); (2) acquisition of video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected infrared light; (3) digitization of the images; and (4) processing the digital image data to determine the direction of gaze from the centroids of the pupil and cornea in the images. Most of the prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems rely on standard video cameras, which operate at frame rates of about 30 Hz. Such systems are limited to slow, full-frame operation. The video camera in the present system includes a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector plus electronic circuitry capable of implementing an advanced control scheme that effects readout from a small region of interest (ROI), or subwindow, of the full image. Inasmuch as the image features of interest (the cornea and pupil) typically occupy a small part of the camera frame, this ROI capability can be exploited to determine the direction of gaze at a high frame rate by reading out from the ROI that contains the cornea and pupil (but not from the rest of the image) repeatedly. One of the present algorithms exploits the ROI capability. The algorithm takes horizontal row slices and takes advantage of the symmetry of the pupil and cornea circles and of the gray-scale contrasts of the pupil and cornea with respect to other parts of the eye. The algorithm determines which horizontal image slices contain the pupil and cornea, and, on each valid slice, the end coordinates of the pupil and cornea

  12. Design of noise barrier inspection system for high-speed railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingqian; Shao, Shuangyun; Feng, Qibo; Ma, Le; Cholryong, Kim

    2016-10-01

    The damage of noise barriers will highly reduce the transportation safety of the high-speed railway. In this paper, an online inspection system of noise barrier based on laser vision for the safety of high-speed railway is proposed. The inspection system, mainly consisted of a fast camera and a line laser, installed in the first carriage of the high-speed CIT(Composited Inspection Train).A Laser line was projected on the surface of the noise barriers and the images of the light line were received by the camera while the train is running at high speed. The distance between the inspection system and the noise barrier can be obtained based on laser triangulation principle. The results of field tests show that the proposed system can meet the need of high speed and high accuracy to get the contour distortion of the noise barriers.

  13. Integrated design and manufacturing for the high speed civil transport (a combined aerodynamics/propulsion optimization study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecher, Juergen; Bandte, Oliver; DeLaurentis, Dan; Lewis, Kemper; Sicilia, Jose; Soboleski, Craig

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the efforts of a Georgia Tech High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aerospace student design team in completing a design methodology demonstration under NASA's Advanced Design Program (ADP). Aerodynamic and propulsion analyses are integrated into the synthesis code FLOPS in order to improve its prediction accuracy. Executing the integrated product and process development (IPPD) methodology proposed at the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL), an improved sizing process is described followed by a combined aero-propulsion optimization, where the objective function, average yield per revenue passenger mile ($/RPM), is constrained by flight stability, noise, approach speed, and field length restrictions. Primary goals include successful demonstration of the application of the response surface methodolgy (RSM) to parameter design, introduction to higher fidelity disciplinary analysis than normally feasible at the conceptual and early preliminary level, and investigations of relationships between aerodynamic and propulsion design parameters and their effect on the objective function, $/RPM. A unique approach to aircraft synthesis is developed in which statistical methods, specifically design of experiments and the RSM, are used to more efficiently search the design space for optimum configurations. In particular, two uses of these techniques are demonstrated. First, response model equations are formed which represent complex analysis in the form of a regression polynomial. Next, a second regression equation is constructed, not for modeling purposes, but instead for the purpose of optimization at the system level. Such an optimization problem with the given tools normally would be difficult due to the need for hard connections between the various complex codes involved. The statistical methodology presents an alternative and is demonstrated via an example of aerodynamic modeling and planform optimization for a HSCT.

  14. Environmental risks of high-speed railway in China: Public participation, perception and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Mol, A.P.J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Two decades ago China entered an era with rapid expansion of transport infrastructure. In an ambitious plan on high-speed railway development, China plans to have the longest high-speed railway network by 2020. Social concerns and anxiety with the adverse environmental and social risks and impacts

  15. Calibration and test capabilities of the Langley 7- by 10- foot high speed tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C. H., Jr.; Huffman, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a new subsonic calibration of the Langley 7 by 10 foot high speed tunnel with the test section in a solid wall configuration are presented. A description of the test capabilities of the 7 by 10 foot high speed tunnel is also given.

  16. L1 Adaptive Manoeuvring Control of Unmanned High-speed Water Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper H.; Holck, Niels Ole; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of designing an adaptive robust control system to govern the steering of a high speed unmanned personal watercraft (PWC) maintaining equal performance across the craft’s envelope of operation. The maneuvering dynamics of a high speed PWC is presented and a strong...

  17. Tri-state high speed rail study : Chicago - Milwaukee - Twin Cities corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This report, the Final Report for the Tri-State Study of High Speed Rail Service, describes the work carried out by TMS/Benesch in analyzing the potential for high speed rail in the Tri-State Corridor. Specifically, the study provides a pre-feasibili...

  18. Impact of high-speed railway accessibility on the location choices of office establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigers, J.

    2006-01-01

    High-speed railways are becoming increasingly common in Europe. In the Netherlands soon the HSL-South will be opened. This high-speed railway line connects the Randstad to Brussels and Paris. A prominent aim of this new railway is to improve international competitiveness of the Netherlands. As a

  19. Developing seamless connections in the urban transit network : a look toward high-speed rail interconnectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In the past, U.S. studies on high-speed rail (HSR) have focused primarily on the economic implications of high-speed rail development. Recently, however, studies have begun evaluating multimodal connectivity of HSR stations. The ways in which differe...

  20. Evaluation of intrusion detection technologies for high speed rail grade crossings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The rail industry is in the process of developing a prototype system for high speed rail. One of the concerns when using high speed rail is the danger of obstructions on the track. This level of danger is much higher than with traditional railway veh...

  1. Evaluation of a new device for sterilizing dental high-speed handpieces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T; Andersen, H K; Fiehn, N E

    1997-01-01

    Dental high-speed turbines and handpieces can take up and expel microorganisms during operation and thus need regular sterilization. This study established a method for validating devices used to sterilize high-speed turbines and handpieces. The air and water channels and turbine chambers were...

  2. Flow-Visualization Techniques Used at High Speed by Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel-Test Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, John E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes a variety of optically based flow-visualization techniques used for high-speed research by the Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel Test Team of the High-Speed Research Program during its tenure. The work of other national experts is included for completeness. Details of each technique with applications and status in various national wind tunnels are given.

  3. Verification of high-speed solar wind stream forecasts using operational solar wind models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    High-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes are frequently impinging on the Earth's magnetosphere causing recurrent, medium-level geomagnetic storm activity. Modeling high-speed solar wind streams is thus an essential element of successful space weather forecasting. Here we evaluate...

  4. Ultra-high-speed optical signal processing of serial data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist

    2012-01-01

    To ensure that ultra high-speed serial data signals can be utilised in future optical communication networks, it is indispensable to have all-optical signal processing elements at our disposal. In this paper, the most recent advances in our use of non-linear materials incorporated in different...... function blocks for high-speed signal processing are reviewed....

  5. Smart Sensor Based Obstacle Detection for High-Speed Unmanned Surface Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Dan; Galeazzi, Roberto; Andersen, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an obstacle detection system for a high-speed and agile unmanned surface vehicle (USV), running at speeds up to 30 m/s. The aim is a real-time and high performance obstacle detection system using both radar and vision technologies to detect obstacles within a range of 175 m. ...

  6. Signal Integrity Analysis of High-Speed Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean Karlsson, A

    2007-01-01

    LHC detectors and future experiments will produce very large amount of data that will be transferred at multi-Gigabit speeds. At such data rates, signal-integrity effects become important and traditional rules of thumb are no longer enough for the design and layout of the traces. Simulations for signal-integrity effects at board level provide a way to study and validate several scenarios before arriving at a set of optimized design rules prior to building the actual printed circuit board (PCB). This article describes some of the available tools at CERN. Two case studies will be used to highlight the capabilities of these programs.

  7. Simulation of high-speed interaction between impactor and layered-spaced design involving explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, Aleksandr; Afanas'eva, Svetlana; Belov, Nikolai; Burkin, Viktor; Zykova, Angelica; Rogaev, Konstantin; Yugov, Nikolai

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we present calculating and experimental study of high-speed interaction between explosive content, protected by layered-spaced design, and the cermet impactor in wide speed range. An experimental technique and mathematical model of during the behavior of explosives, protected by layer-spaced design, by with high-speed impact. The process of the interaction between the cermet impactor and element of the protective design is customized and depends on the materials of the interacting bodies, the speed and angle of impact.

  8. High resolution, high speed, long working distance, large field of view confocal fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Shaun; Wang, Chengliang; Chawla, Monica K; Nguyen, Minhkhoi; Baggett, Brend K; Utzinger, Urs; Barnes, Carol A; Liang, Rongguang

    2017-10-17

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy is often used in brain imaging experiments, however conventional confocal microscopes are limited in their field of view, working distance, and speed for high resolution imaging. We report here the development of a novel high resolution, high speed, long working distance, and large field of view confocal fluorescence microscope (H2L2-CFM) with the capability of multi-region and multifocal imaging. To demonstrate the concept, a 0.5 numerical aperture (NA) confocal fluorescence microscope is prototyped with a 3 mm × 3 mm field of view and 12 mm working distance, an array of 9 beams is scanned over the field of view in 9 different regions to speed up the acquisition time by a factor of 9. We test this custom designed confocal fluorescence microscope for future use with brain clarification methods to image large volumes of the brain at subcellular resolution. This multi-region and multi-spot imaging method can be used in other imaging modalities, such as multiphoton microscopes, and the field of view can be extended well beyond 12 mm × 12 mm.

  9. A simulation-based study of HighSpeed TCP and its deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Evandro de [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The current congestion control mechanism used in TCP has difficulty reaching full utilization on high speed links, particularly on wide-area connections. For example, the packet drop rate needed to fill a Gigabit pipe using the present TCP protocol is below the currently achievable fiber optic error rates. HighSpeed TCP was recently proposed as a modification of TCP's congestion control mechanism to allow it to achieve reasonable performance in high speed wide-area links. In this research, simulation results showing the performance of HighSpeed TCP and the impact of its use on the present implementation of TCP are presented. Network conditions including different degrees of congestion, different levels of loss rate, different degrees of bursty traffic and two distinct router queue management policies were simulated. The performance and fairness of HighSpeed TCP were compared to the existing TCP and solutions for bulk-data transfer using parallel streams.

  10. Dynamic of Friction Coupling Independently Rotating Wheels for High Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new lateral coupling structure with independently rotating wheels (IRW is proposed, and longitudinal creepage is obtained by replacing the gear pair with the friction pair to synchronize the rotation speed of left and right wheels. The auxiliary wheelset made up of two friction wheels can be placed either under the primary suspension or on the frame. Vehicles dynamics models with three different kinds of bogies are developed, including friction coupling bogie with independently rotating wheels (FCIRW-bogie, bogie with independently rotating wheels (IRW-bogie, and bogie with rigid wheelsets, and their guiding and resetting capability when negotiating large-radius curves are compared and analyzed. Results show that FCIRW has the advantages of both IRW and rigid wheelset. On the straight track, FCIRW has sufficient wheel-rail longitudinal creep force to assist the reset; its critical speed is much higher than that of the rigid wheelset. On the curved track, the whole vehicle wear power of FCIRW-bogie vehicle is about 2/3 of the rigid axle level.

  11. High speed image acquisition system of absolute encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianxiang; Chen, Xin; Chen, Xindu; Zhang, Fangjian; Wang, Han

    2017-01-01

    Absolute optical encoder as a product of optical, mechanical and electronic integration has been widely used in displacement measuring fields. However, how to improve the measurement velocity and reduce the manufacturing cost of absolute optical encoder is the key problem to be solved. To improve the measurement speed, a novel absolute optical encoder image acquisition system is proposed. The proposed acquisition system includes a linear CCD sensor is applied for capturing coding pattern images, an optical magnifying system is used for enlarging the grating stripes, an analog-digital conversion(ADC) module is used for processing the CCD analogy signal, a field programmable gate array(FPGA) device and other peripherals perform driving task. An absolute position measurement experiment was set up to verify and evaluate the proposed image acquisition system. The experimental result indicates that the proposed absolute optical encoder image acquisition system has the image acquisition speed of more than 9500fp/s with well reliability and lower manufacture cost.

  12. Downforce variation dependence of angle of incidence modification for the rear wing of high speed vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, R.; Tarulescu, S.; Leahu, C.

    2017-10-01

    The conventional downforce devices (with fixed geometry) of high speed vehicles have parameters such as area, angle of incidence and head resistance coefficients, all with constant values. The downforce is proportional with the square of movement speed and the power consumed for the neutralization of aerodynamic road resistance is proportional with the cube of speed. The authors carried out an analytical study of downforce, adjustable/monitored by optimum incidence (modification of incidence angle of rear wing for performance improvement).

  13. High-Speed Additive Manufacturing Through High-Aspect-Ratio Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leon; Islam, Mashfiqul; Li, Jie; Li, Ling; Ayub, S. M. Imran

    2018-01-01

    The feasibility of layer-by-layer manufacturing through high-aspect-ratio (HAR) nozzles for microextrusion of paste to deposit planes has been investigated. Various conditions for paste extrusion, including nozzle moving speed, piston speed, extrusion rate, and distance between the nozzle tip and substrate, have been evaluated. By linking various microextrusion parameters together with the aid of a critical distance concept derived from microextrusion using circular nozzles and addressing the extrusion delay in response to the change of the piston speed and air pocket problems properly, we successfully microextruded single planes, multilayer objects, and larger planes made of multiple smaller planes side by side through HAR nozzles. It is further demonstrated that the X-Y dimensions of an extruded plane in the steady-state extrusion stage are determined by the nozzle travel distance and the length of the HAR nozzle opening if microextrusion is conducted with proper conditions. However, the height of the extruded plane is not only determined by the microextrusion conditions, but also affected by the drying shrinkage of the paste after microextrusion. This demonstration of the feasibility of using a HAR nozzle machine opens the door to manufacture of multimaterial, multilayer devices with high productivity in the near future.

  14. Measurement and Analysis of High-speed Railway Subgrade Settlement in China: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qulin Tan; Leijuan Li; Senlin Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... With the rapid development of China's high-speed railway, it puts a very high requirement for track smoothness, and thus the requirements of subgrade stability and deformation control become very stringent...

  15. Estimating workforce development needs for high-speed rail in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This study provides an assessment of the job creation and attendant education and training needs associated with the creation of the California High-Speed Rail (CHSR) network, scheduled to begin construction in September 2012. Given the high profile ...

  16. The influence of passenger car front shape on pedestrian injury risk observed from German in-depth accident data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guibing; Lyons, Mathew; Wang, Bingyu; Yang, Jikuang; Otte, Dietmar; Simms, Ciaran

    2017-04-01

    odds increase by 74% for a 10% increase in NBLEH. These findings suggest that passenger car bumpers should support the lower leg with a low and flat lower bumper and even contact up to the femur area with a high upper bumper which extends above the knee to protect the pedestrian's leg. A low passenger car bonnet leading edge helps to reduce femur/pelvis injury risk. The passenger car front shape parameters are less influential than impact speed and pedestrian age for pedestrian injury risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. HIGH SPEED RAILWAY LINES – FUTURE PART OF CZECH RAILWAY NETWORK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Týfa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper first describes high speed rail generally and explains the relationship between high speed and conventional railway networks (according to the vehicle types in operation on the network. The core of the paper is comprised of the methodology for choosing the best route for a railway line and its application to the high speed railway connection Praha – Brno. The Algorithm used assumes the existence of more route proposals, which could be different in terms of the operational conception, line routing or types of vehicles used. The optimal variant is the one with the lowest daily cost, which includes infrastructure and vehicle costs; investment and operational costs. The results from applying this model confirmed the assumption, that a dedicated high speed railway line, only for high speed trains, has the same or lower investment costs than a line for both high speed and conventional trains. Furthermore, a dedicated high line also has a lower cost for infrastructure maintenance but a higher cost for buying high speed multiple units.

  18. Protective Effectiveness of Porous Shields Under the Influence of High-Speed Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramshonkov E.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical simulations of a compact steel impactor with the aluminum porous shields under high-speed shock loading are presented. The porosity of barrier varies in wide range provided that its mass stays the same, but the impactor has always equal (identical mass. Here presented the final assessment of the barrier perforation speed depending on its porosity and initial shock speed. The range of initial impact speed varies from 1 to 10 km/s. Physical phenomena such as: destruction, melting, vaporization of a interacting objects are taken into account. The analysis of a shield porosity estimation disclosed that the protection effectiveness of porous shield reveals at the initial impact speed grater then 1.5 km/s, and it increases when initial impact speed growth.

  19. High power CO2 laser development with AOM integration for ultra high-speed pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard; Jamalieh, Murad

    2017-01-01

    There is a 500 billion USD world market for packaging expected to grow to a trillion in 2030. Austria plays an important role world wide for high speed laser engraving applications — especially when it comes to high end solutions. Such high end solutions are fundamental for the production of print forms for the packaging and decorating industry (e. g. cans). They are additionally used for security applications (e. g. for printing banknotes), for the textile printing industry and for creating embossing forms (e. g. for the production of dashboards in the automotive industry). High speed, high precision laser engraving needs laser resonators with very stable laser beams (400 - 800W) especially in combination with AOMs. Based upon a unique carbon fiber structure - stable within the sub-micrometer range - a new resonator has been developed, accompanied by most recent thermo-mechanical FEM calculations. The resulting beam is evaluated on an automated optical bench using hexapods, allowing to optimize the complete beam path with collimators and AOM. The major steps related to laser engraving of dry offset printing plates during the full workflow from the artists design to the printed result on an aluminum can is presented in this paper as well as laser characteristics, AOM integration and correlative CLSM and SEM investigation of the results.

  20. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Eric [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Krejci, Michael [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Mathieu, Olivier [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vissotski, Andrew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ravi, Sankat [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Plichta, Drew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Sikes, Travis [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Levacque, Anthony [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Camou, Alejandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Aul, Christopher [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-01-24

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.