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Sample records for high serum testosterone

  1. Positive Correlation between Serum Osteocalcin and Testosterone in Male Hyperthyroidism Patients with High Bone Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, N; Xu, B; Cui, R; Xu, M; Su, J; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Li, L; Sheng, C; Sheng, H; Qu, S

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies suggested that there is an independent bone-osteocalcin-gonadal axis, except of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Based on this hypothesis, the higher osteocalcin during the high bone turnover should be followed by higher testosterone formation. Yet such clinical evidence is limited. The patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism are proper model with high bone turnover. If this hypothesis is true, there should be high testosterone level in patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. Therefore, Graves' disease patients were recruited to study the correlation between osteocalcin and testosterone. 50 male hyperthyroidism patients with Graves' disease and 50 health persons matched by age and gender were enrolled in our cross-section study. Serum markers for thyroid hormone, sex hormone and bone metabolic markers including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen (CTX) were examined. The demographic parameters such as duration of disease were also collected. All data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. High testosterone and osteocalcin level was observed in the hyperthyroidism patients (T 36.35±10.72 nmol/l and OC 46.79±26.83 ng/ml). In simple Pearson correlation, testosterone was positively associated with OC (r=0.486, Phyperthyroidism patients, osteocalcin was positively correlated with serum testosterone, which indirectly supports the hypothesis that serum osteocalcin participates in the regulation of sex hormone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  4. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  5. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase ≥25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease ≥25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  6. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, CA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  7. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  8. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  9. Association of testosterone and BDNF serum levels with craving during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Lenz, Bernd; Opfermann, Birgitt; Gröschl, Michael; Janke, Eva; Stange, Katrin; Groh, Adrian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show associations between testosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) serum levels. BDNF and testosterone have been independently reported to influence alcohol consumption. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF contributing to alcohol dependence. Regarding possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF and the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA), we included cortisol serum levels in our research. We investigated testosterone and BDNF serum levels in a sample of 99 male alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them to a healthy male control group (n = 17). The testosterone serum levels were significantly (p BDNF serum levels (day 1: p = 0.008). In a subgroup of patients showing high cortisol serum levels (putatively mirroring high HPA activity), we found a significant association of BDNF and testosterone as well as with alcohol craving measured by the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Our data suggest a possible association of BDNF and testosterone serum levels, which may be relevant for the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to clarify our results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An improved ultrafiltration method for determining free testosterone in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, I.; MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.; Bowers, W.; Thompson, J.; Trawick, W.

    1982-01-01

    In this method, we use the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane in measuring free testosterone in serum. Two independent assays are combined: total testosterone and the ultrafiltrable fraction of added [ 3 H]testosterone. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.15-0.5 mL ultrafiltrates of 0.6 to 1 mL of variably diluted serum that has been equilibrated with [ 3 H]testosterone at 37 degrees C. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practicable (requires 0.6 mL of serum), and reproducible (CV 3.2% within assay, 3.9% between assays). Accuracy was evaluated as the fraction of free testosterone in the ultrafiltrate of dialyzed serum vs that in a prior dialysate; they were the same confirming the validity of the free testosterone measurement. Samples from ostensibly healthy men and women and from hirsute and pregnant women gave results that agreed with those obtained by equilibrium dialysis. Total testosterone concentrations for normal and hirsute women showed considerable overlap, but data on free testosterone concentrations in these populations were better resolved

  11. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... serum testosterone concentration during the non-breeding season is lower than that of the breeding season. .... confirm no impact of the stressful environmental conditions on the reproductive function of Arabian stallions.

  12. Serum testosterone levels in Nigerian male marijuana and cigarette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of marijuana and cigarette use on serum levels of testosterone, the principal androgen in man has been a matter of serious controversy; and there is a paucity of reports on the subject in Nigeria in West Africa south of Sahara. We therefore investigated the effects of the use of these substances on serum levels of ...

  13. Simultaneous measurement of testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in serum and plasma using Isotope-Dilution 2-Dimension Ultra High Performance Liquid-Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LC-MS/MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttler, R.M.; Martens, F.; Kushnir, M.M.; Ackermans, M.T.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal and gonadal androgens, testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) play an important role in sexual development as well as in other processes. We developed a method for simultaneous quantitative analysis of serum and plasma testosterone, androstenedione and DHEA

  14. Validity of Serum Testosterone, Free Androgen Index, and Calculated Free Testosterone in Women with Suspected Hyperandrogenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal K. Al Kindi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are technical limitations for the currently available methods of measuring serum total and free testosteronein females. The study objectives were to evaluate the usefulness of serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free androgen index (FAI, and calculated free testosterone (CFT in the assessment of androgen status in women investigated for suspected hyperandrogenism.Methods: This is a case control study that was conducted during the period from 1st May 2011 to 31st October 2011 on 122 patients aged (18-45 years whom were referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory from the Endocrinology and Gynecology Clinics, Royal Hospital, Oman. Women with no clinical feature or laboratory data indicative of hormonal dysfunction and with midluteal progesterone >30 nmol/L were selected as controls (group 1; n=18. The patients were divided into subgroups based on the clinical/laboratory diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS [group 2; n=19, hirsutism (group 3; n=18, menstrual disturbances (irregularities or infertility (group 4; n=49, as well as combination of PCOS or hirsutism and menstrual disturbances or infertility (group 5;n=18. Serum total testosterone and SHBG were measured, FAI was calculated as percentage ratio of total testosterone to SHBG values, and CFT was calculated according to Vermeulen equation.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean levels of testosterone, FAI and CFT in each patient group compared with the control group. For diagnosing hyperandrogenism, each indicator was selected at the recommended cut-off: testosterone >3.0 nmol/L, SHBG 5%, and CFT >32 pmol/L. In group 2, 89.5% and 94.7% of the patients had increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 36.4% for increased testosterone. In group 3, 88.9% and 88.9% of the patients had similarly increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 66.7% for testosterone. In group 4, patients had 63.3% and 73

  15. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... parameters suggest that low serum testosterone merely is a consequence of the advanced malignancy rather than a causative factor in the pathogenesis of prostatic cancer....

  16. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.; Meergans, U.; Traish, A.; Saad, F.; Doros, G.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Gooren, L.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L,

  17. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. SETTING: Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMI and serum...

  18. Low serum testosterone predicts upgrading and upstaging of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Often, pathological Gleason Score (GS and stage of prostate cancer (PCa were inconsistent with biopsy GS and clinical stage. However, there were no widely accepted methods predicting upgrading and upstaging PCa. In our study, we investigated the association between serum testosterone and upgrading or upstaging of PCa after radical prostatectomy (RP. We enrolled 167 patients with PCa with biopsy GS ≤6, clinical stage ≤T2c, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA <10 ng ml−1 from April 2009 to April 2015. Data including age, body mass index, preoperative PSA level, comorbidity, clinical presentation, and preoperative serum total testosterone level were collected. Upgrading occurred in 62 (37.1% patients, and upstaging occurred in 73 (43.7% patients. Preoperative testosterone was lower in the upgrading than nonupgrading group (3.72 vs 4.56, P< 0.01. Patients in the upstaging group had lower preoperative testosterone than those in the nonupstaging group (3.84 vs 4.57, P= 0.01. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, as both continuous and categorical variables, low serum testosterone was confirmed to be an independent predictor of pathological upgrading (P = 0.01 and P= 0.01 and upstaging (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02 after RP. We suggest that low serum testosterone (<3 ng ml−1 is associated with a high rate of upgrading and upstaging after RP. It is better for surgeons to ensure close monitoring of PSA levels and imaging examination when selecting non-RP treatment, to be cautious in proceeding with nerve-sparing surgery, and to be enthusiastic in performing extended lymph node dissection when selecting RP treatment for patients with low serum testosterone.

  19. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Positive Hepatitis C Virus in Liver Insufficiency Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.A.; Fekry, A.E.; Abdelgawad, M.R.; Ali, S.E.; Ali, W.I.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two positive HCV male patients with liver insufficiency were classified into 4 different groups: steatohepatitis (16), chronic hepatitis (17), cirrhosis (12) and HCC (7), beside 24 healthy subjects served as control to evaluate serum sex hormones testosterone and estradiol, and trace elements Zn and Cu in different liver insufficiency positive male HCV patients. The results of the present study showed significant decrease (P<0.05 and P<0.001) in serum testosterone level and testosterone/estradiol ratio in patients with different liver states when compared with control. The serum testosterone level was significantly decreased (P<0.05 and P<0.001)) in patients with cirrhosis than other patient groups. On the other hand, there was significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.001) in serum estradiol level in all groups as compared with control. Serum testosterone/estradiol ratio was less affected and significantly increased (P<0.01 and P<0.001) in patients with steatohepatitis than other patient groups. Also, the results showed significant decrease (P<0.001) in serum Zn level in patients when compared with control and significant decrease (P<0.05) in cirrhosis as compared with HCC. Also, significant increase (P<0.01 and P<0.001) was determined in serum Cu level and Cu/Zn ratio in different groups as compared with control group. Serum Cu level was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in chronic hepatitis as compared with cirrhosis and HCC. On the other hand, serum Cu/Zn ratio was significantly increased in cirrhosis as compared with steatohepatitis and chronic hepatitis groups (P<0.05 and P<0.01). The patient groups can be detected by using either zinc, copper, testosterone or estradiol contents in serum. It could be concluded that the levels of serum sex hormones (testosterone and estradiol) and trace elements (Zn and Cu and their ratio) may used as markers for liver insufficiency and liver complications, especially in the early diagnosis and prediction of HCC in patients

  20. Use of 6α- and 6β-carboxymethyl testosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugates in radioimmunoassay for testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.D.; Mason, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis of 6α- and 6β-testosterone-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates is described. 6β-Carboxymethyl-4-androstene-3,17-dione was prepared by a route analogous to that described earlier for 6β-carboxymethyl progesterone. Sodium borohydride reduction of the 3 and 17 keto groups and subsequent selective oxidation of the resulting 3β,17β-diol using MnO 2 provided 6β-carboxymethyl testosterone. Further acid catalyzed epimerization of the C-6 center gave the isomeric 6α-carboxymethyl testosterone. The 6α- and 6β-testosterone derivatives were attached to BSA via a mixed anhydride coupling employing tributylamine and i-butylchlorocarbonate. For each molecule of BSA, the 6α- and 6β-conjugates contained an average of 23 and 20 steroid residues, respectively. Antisera to the conjugates exhibited similar high specificities toward various steroids, the only incidence of serious cross-reaction being the expected case of dihydrotestosterone. (U.S.)

  1. Effect of serum testosterone and percent tumor volume on extra-prostatic extension and biochemical recurrence after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Chang Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have revealed that the preoperative serum testosterone and percent tumor volume (PTV predict extra-prostatic extension (EPE and biochemical recurrence (BCR after radical prostatectomy. This study investigated the prognostic significance of serum testosterone and PTV in relation to EPE and BCR after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP. We reviewed 520 patients who underwent LRP between 2004 and 2012. PTV was determined as the sum of all visually estimated tumor foci in every section. BCR was defined as two consecutive increases in the postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA >0.2 ng ml−1 . The threshold for serum total testosterone was 3.0 ng ml−1 . Multivariate logistic regression was used to define the effect of variables on the risk of EPE and BCR. A low serum testosterone (<3.0 ng ml−1 was associated with a high serum PSA, Gleason score, positive core percentage of the prostate biopsy, PTV, and all pathological variables. On multivariate analysis, similar to previous studies, the serum PSA, biopsy positive core percentage, Gleason score, and pathological variables predicted EPE and BCR. In addition, low serum testosterone (<3.0 ng ml−1 , adjusted OR, 8.52; 95% CI, 5.04-14.4, P= 0.001 predicted EPE and PTV (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05, P= 0.046 predicted BCR. In addition to previous predictors of EPE and BCR, low serum testosterone and PTV are valuable predictors of EPE and BCR after LRP.

  2. Retrospective Analysis of Dose Titration and Serum Testosterone Level Assessments in Patients Treated With Topical Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muram, David; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Boytsov, Natalie; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Ivanova, Jasmina; Birnbaum, Howard G; Swindle, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of care following topical testosterone agent (TTA) initiation are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize care following TTA initiation and compare results between patients with and without a serum testosterone (T) assay within 30 days before and including TTA initiation. Adult men (N=4,146) initiating TTAs from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, were identified from a commercially insured database. Patients were included if they initiated at recommended starting dose (RSD) and had ≥12 and ≥6 months of continuous eligibility preinitiation (baseline) and postinitiation (study period), respectively. Patients were stratified by preinitiation T assay. Maintenance dose attainment month was determined using unadjusted generalized estimating equations regression to compare dose relative to RSD month by month. Outcomes included maintenance dose attainment month, time to stopping of index TTA refills or a claim for nonindex testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), and proportion of patients with study period T assay or diagnosis of hypogonadism (HG) or another low testosterone condition, and were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Maintenance dose was attained in Month 4 postinitiation, at 115.2% of RSD. Approximately 46% of patients had a preinitiation T assay; these men were more likely to receive a diagnosis of HG or another low testosterone condition, to have a follow-up T assay, to continue treatment by filling a nonindex TRT, and less likely to stop refilling treatment with their index TTA. Differences in care following TTA initiation suggest that preinitiation T assays (i.e., guideline-based care) may be helpful in ensuring treatment benefits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Pretreatment Serum Testosterone and Androgen Deprivation: Effect on Disease Recurrence and Overall Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Adamovich, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Low testosterone has been implicated as a possible adverse prognostic factor in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. We evaluated the impact of pretreatment serum testosterone on survival after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From October 2001 to November 2004, 619 patients underwent brachytherapy and 546 had a pretreatment serum testosterone level measured. Pretreatment serum testosterone levels were assigned by the following criteria: below-normal (n = 105), low normal (n = 246), mid normal (n = 132), high normal (n = 50), and above normal (n = 13). Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Cause of death was determined for each deceased patient. Results: Six-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were 97.7%, 99.8%, and 89.2%. When comparing patients with low or low normal testosterone with those with average or higher testosterone, there was no significant difference in bPFS (97.6% vs. 98.4%; p = 0.72), CSS (99.8% vs. 100%; p = 0.72), or OS (88.9% vs. 90.8%; p = 0.73). Among patients with average and higher pretreatment testosterone, there was no significant difference in outcomes when comparing patients who did and did not receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). For patients with low or low normal testosterone levels, there was no significant difference in bPFS or CSS when comparing patients who did and did not receive ADT. However, there was a trend toward lower OS in patients with baseline lower testosterone levels who also received ADT (83.9% vs. 91.3%, p = 0.075). Conclusions: Low pretreatment testosterone levels alone did not affect disease recurrence or OS. Patients with baseline low testosterone who also were treated with ADT had a trend toward decreased OS.

  4. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  5. The effect of sex and time of day on testosterone concentrations in equine saliva and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Munk; Jensen, R.B.; Palme, R.

    2016-01-01

    In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone concentrat......In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone......:00-08:00), at midday (11:00-13:00) and in the evening (17:00-19:00). The results demonstrated a weak correlation between saliva and serum testosterone concentrations (rs=0.25, P=0.04). Stallions had higher serum testosterone concentrations than mares and geldings (Peffect of sex...

  6. Development of LC-MS/MS confirmatory method for the determination of testosterone in bovine serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the European Union the use of steroid growth promoters is prohibited under Council Directive 96/22/EC. For effective control of illegal use of natural steroids, highly sensitive analytical methods are required, because sex hormones can be present in very low concentrations in biological samples. The aim of the study was to develop a confirmatory method for the detection of testosterone in bovine serum at ppt level.

  7. Interrelationships of serum testosterone and free testosterone index with FFM and strength in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tracey Ann; Blackman, Marc R; Harman, S Mitchell; Tobin, Jordan D; Schrager, Matthew; Metter, E Jeffery

    2002-08-01

    Muscle mass and strength losses during aging may be associated with declining levels of serum testosterone (T) in men. Few studies have shown a direct relationship between T and muscle mass and strength. Subjects were 262 men, aged 24-90 yr, from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who had T and sex hormone-binding globulin sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) measurements, from which the free T index (FTI) was calculated (T/SHBG) from serum samples collected longitudinally since 1963, total body fat mass and arm and leg fat-free mass (FFM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and arm and leg strength by dynanomometry. Mixed-effects models estimated T and FTI at the time of mass and strength measurements. Age, total body fat, arm and leg FFM, T, and FTI were significantly associated with concentric and eccentric strength. FTI, not T, was modestly, but directly, related to arm and leg strength after fat, arm and leg FFM, height, and age were accounted for and indirectly through body mass. FTI is a better predictor of arm and leg strength than T in aging men.

  8. Modulation of serum concentrations and hepatic metabolism of 17{beta}-estradiol and testosterone by amitraz in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chen-Ping [National Taiwan University, Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taichung (China); Lu, Shui-Yuan [Taiwan Agricultural Chemicals and Toxic Substances Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taichung (China); Ueng, Tzuu-Huei [National Taiwan University, Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China)

    2008-10-15

    The present study has investigated the ability of amitraz, a widely used formamidine pesticide, to modulate serum concentrations and liver microsomal metabolism of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and testosterone in rats. Amitraz was administered intraperitoneally to male rats for 4 days and to intact female rats or ovariectomized (OVX) and 0.5 mg/kg E2-supplemented female rats for 7 days. E2 and metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection and testosterone and metabolites were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. In OVX and E2-supplemented females, 50 mg/kg amitraz caused an 85% decrease of serum E2 concentration and a marked increase of 2-OH-E2 concentration. Amitraz at 25 and 50 mg/kg produced 9.0-fold or greater increases of serum testosterone and 2{beta}-OH-testosterone levels in males. Amitraz at 25 mg/kg resulted in no or minimal increases of liver microsomal formation of E2 or testosterone metabolites. Amitraz at 50 mg/kg produced 1.4- to 3.6-fold increases of 2-OH-E2; estrone; 2{beta}-, 6{beta}-, and 16{alpha}-OH-testosterone; and androstenedione formation in males and intact females. Amitraz at 50 mg/kg preferentially increased intact female 16{beta}-OH-testosterone production by 8.6-fold. In OVX females, E2 supplement alone or cotreatment with E2 and 50 mg/kg amitraz produced 1.3- to several-fold increases of 2- and 4-OH-E2 formation and 2{beta}- and 16{alpha}-OH-testosterone production. The cotreatment increased 6{beta}- and 16{beta}-OH-testosterone formation by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. The present findings show that amitraz induces hepatic E2 and testosterone metabolism in male and female rats, decreases serum E2 concentration in OVX and E2-supplemented females, but increases serum testosterone in males. (orig.)

  9. Androgen receptors and serum testosterone levels identify different subsets of postmenopausal breast cancers

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    Secreto Giorgio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen receptors (AR are frequently expressed in breast cancers, but their implication in cancer growth is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the role of the androgen/AR pathway in breast cancer development. Methods AR expression was evaluated by immunochemistry in a cohort of 528 postmenopausal breast cancer patients previously examined for the association of serum testosterone levels with patient and tumor characteristics. AR expression was classified according to the percentage of stained cells: AR-absent (0% and AR-poorly (1%-30%, AR-moderately (>30%-60%, and AR-highly (>60% positive. Results Statistical analysis was performed in 451 patients who experienced natural menopause. AR-high expression was significantly related with low histologic grade and estrogen receptor (ER- and progesterone receptor (PR-positive status (P trendP=0.022, although a trend across the AR expression categories was not present. When women defined by ER status were analyzed separately, regression analysis in the ER-positive group showed a significant association of high testosterone levels with AR-highly-positive expression (OR 1.86; 95% CI, 1.10-3.16, but the association was essentially due to patients greater than or equal to 65 years (OR 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82. In ER-positive group, elevated testosterone levels appeared also associated with AR-absent expression, although the small number of patients in this category limited the appearance of significant effects (OR 1.92; 95% CI, 0.73–5.02: the association was present in both age groups ( Conclusions The findings in the present study confirm that testosterone levels are a marker of hormone-dependent breast cancer and suggest that the contemporary evaluation of ER status, AR expression, and circulating testosterone levels may identify different subsets of cancers whose growth may be influenced by androgens.

  10. Accuracy of serum luteinizing hormone and serum testosterone measurements to assess the efficacy of medical castration in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Comas, Imma; Ferrer, Roser; Planas, Jacques; Celma, Anna; Regis, Lucas

    2017-10-22

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists are the standard for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Current guidelines recommend serum testosterone measurement to assess the efficacy of ADT and to define castration resistance. However, serum testosterone does not reflect the exclusive effect of castration due to its extratesticular production. The aim of this study is to analyze if serum LH reflects better than serum testosterone the activity of LH-RH agonists. Serum LH and serum testosterone were measured with chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) in a cohort study of 1091 participants: 488 PCa patients "on LH-RH agonists", 303 "off LH-RH agonist" in whom LH-RH agonists were withdrawn, and 350 men with PCa suspicion "no LH-RH agonist" who never received LH-RH agonists. In a validation cohort of 147 PCa patients, 124 on "LH-RH agonists" and 19 "off LH-RH agonists", serum testosterone was also measured with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC MSMS). The area under the curve (AUC) to distinguish patients "on versus off LH-RH agonists" was 0.997 for serum LH and 0.740 for serum testosterone, P < 0.001. The 97.5 percentile of serum LH in patients "on LH-RH agonists" was 0.97 U/L, been the most efficient threshold 1.1 U/L. The AUCs for serum LH, testosterone measured with CLIA and with LC MSMS, in the validation cohort, were respectively 1.000, 0.646 and 0.814, P < 0.001. The efficacy to distinguish patients "on versus off LH-RH agonists" was 98.6%, 78.3%, and 89.5% respectively, using 1.1 U/L as threshold for serum LH and 50 ng/dL for serum testosterone regardless the method. Serum LH is more accurate than serum testosterone regardless the method, to distinguish patients "on versus off LH-RH agonists". The castrate level of serum LH is 1.1 U/l. These findings suggest that assessment of LH-RH agonist efficacy and castration resistance definition should be reviewed.

  11. The relation between serum testosterone levels and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Colak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the relationship between serum testos-terone levels and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF in patients after kidney transplantation and with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Seventy-five male patients, aged between 18 and 68 years, who had kidney transplantation at least six months earlier, were enrolled into the study. Only renal transplant recipients and CKD patients with a creatinine level of 0.05. Serum testosterone levels were independent risk factors affecting IVC collapse index, systolic BP and LA. m-TORi and CNIs drugs might have no negative effect on serum testosterone levels, and improvement of the serum testosterone levels after transplantation might have a positive contribution on cardiac risk factors.

  12. Serum Testosterone Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Comas, Inma; Planas, Jacques; Maldonado, Xavier; Celma, Ana; Placer, José; Ferrer, Roser; Carles, Joan; Regis, Lucas

    2018-04-01

    Serum testosterone measurement is recommended to assess the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and to diagnose castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Currently, the accepted castrate level of serum testosterone is 50 ng/dL. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC MSMS) is the appropriate method to measure testosterone, especially at low levels. However, worldwide, chemiluminescent assays (CLIAs) are used in clinical laboratories, despite their lack of accuracy and reproducibility, because they are automatable, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive. We compared serum testosterone levels measured using LC MSMS and CLIAs in 126 patients with PCa undergoing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy. The median serum testosterone level was 14.0 ng/dL (range, 2.0-67.0 ng/dL) with LC MSMS and 31.9 ng/dL (range, 10.0-91.6 ng/dL) with CLIA (P  50 ng/dL in 3 patients (2.4%). These ranges were found in 34 (27%), 72 (57.1%), and 20 (15.9%) patients when testosterone was measured using CLIA (P < .001). The castrate level of serum testosterone using LC MSMS and CLIA was 39.8 ng/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.1-43.4 ng/dL) and 66.5 ng/dL (95% CI, 62.3-71.2 ng/dL), respectively. We found that CLIA overestimated the testosterone levels in PCa patients undergoing LHRH agonist therapy. Thus, the castration level was incorrectly considered inadequate with CLIA in almost 15% of patients. The true castration level of serum testosterone using an appropriate method is < 50 ng/dL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  14. Dual action of high estradiol doses on MNU-induced prostate neoplasms in a rodent model with high serum testosterone: Protective effect and emergence of unstable epithelial microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bianca F; de Campos, Silvana G P; Góes, Rejane M; Scarano, Wellerson R; Taboga, Sebastião R; Vilamaior, Patricia S L

    2017-06-01

    Estrogens are critical players in prostate growth and disease. Estrogen therapy has been the standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer for several decades; however, it has currently been replaced by alternative anti-androgenic therapies. Additionally, studies of its action on prostate biology, resulting from an association between carcinogens and estrogen, at different stages of life are scarce or inconclusive about its protective and beneficial role on induced-carcinogenesis. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether estradiol exerts a protective and/or stimulatory role on N-methyl-N-nitrosurea-induced prostate neoplasms. We adopted a rodent model that has been used to study induced-prostate carcinogenesis: the Mongolian gerbil. We investigated the occurrence of neoplasms, karyometric patterns, androgen and estrogen receptors, basal cells, and global methylation status in ventral and dorsolateral prostate tissues. Histopathological analysis showed that estrogen was able to slow tumor growth in both lobes after prolonged treatment. However, a true neoplastic regression was observed only in the dorsolateral prostate. In addition to the protective effects against neoplastic progression, estrogen treatment resulted in an epithelium that exhibited features distinctive from a normal prostate, including increased androgen-insensitive basal cells, high androgens and estrogen receptor positivity, and changes in DNA methylation patterns. Estrogen was able to slow tumor growth, but the epithelium exhibited features distinct from a normal prostatic epithelium, and this unstable microenvironment could trigger lesion recurrence over time. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito, improves serum testosterone levels and affects sexual behavior in old male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi Jun; Ji, Su Yun; Dong, Wang; Zhang, Ya Nan; Zhang, Er Hong; Bin, Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a clinical syndrome characterized with aging and declined serum testosterone levels. Sexual symptoms are also essential for the diagnosis of LOH. Testosterone replacement therapy is used widely to treat LOH. However, the side effects of it should not be ignored, such as fluid retention, hypertension and spermatogenic suppression. Therefore, alternate treatment modalities have been pursued. Herbal medicines used widely in China have achieved satisfying results with little side effects. Nonetheless, there are few pharmacological researches on them. In this study, 24-month-old mice were used as LOH animal models to explore the pharmacological effects of a herbal medicine, saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), on serum testosterone levels and sexual functions. Furthermore, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, a kind of rate-limiting enzyme of testosterone synthesis, was also examined. As a result, SKRBT improved the serum testosterone levels of these mice at a dose of 300 and 450 mg/kg. Multiple measures of sexual behavior were enhanced. The expression of StAR was also increased. Therefore, this study suggested that SKRBT can improve the serum testosterone levels by activating the expression of StAR and might be a viable option to treat sexual symptoms caused by LOH.

  16. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... was confirmed as having significant prognostic value on progression-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival, and the hazard ratios of lower quartiles compared to the upper quartile for these endpoints were 2.3, 2.1, and 2.0, respectively. However, correlations with symptomatology and other pretreatment...

  17. Serum levels of INSL3, AMH, Inhibin B and Testosterone during pubertal transition in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    to luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, inhibin B, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during puberty in healthy boys.MethodsTen boys were included from the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. Pubertal evaluation, including testicular volume, was performed...... and blood samples drawn every 6 months for 5 years. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by a newly developed LC-MS/MS method, and serum concentrations of INSL3, AMH, inhibin B, FSH and LH, respectively, were determined by validated immunoassays.ResultsSerum INSL3 levels increased...... progressively with increasing age, pubertal onset and testicular volume. In six of ten boys, LH increased prior to the first observed increase in INSL3. In the remaining four boys, the increase in LH and INSL3 was observed at the same examination. The increases in serum concentrations of LH, testosterone...

  18. Serum testosterone level as a predictor of biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Berg, Kasper Drimer

    2012-01-01

    Study Type - Aetiology (individual cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The precise relationship between serum testosterone (T) and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and progression is controversial. Low pre-treatment serum T correlates with higher...

  19. Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in testicular interstitial fluid under thyroxine influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Isvania Maria S. da; Pereira, Simey de L.S.; Souza, Grace Mary L.; Carvalho, Elaine F.M.B.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de A.; Silveira, Maria de Fatima G. da; Lima Filho, Guilherme L.

    2000-01-01

    The thyroid hormones possibly exert a reciprocal action between testicular steroids and Sertoli's cells during the premature period. This work aims to evaluate thyroxine effect on testosterone serum levels and in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) in rats. Wistar males rats, 22 days old, 80g of body weight, were induced to hyperthyroidism with thyroxine (20μg/kg) in periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 consecutive days. After the treatment the animals were weighed and sacrificed for blood and testis collection. From the blood serum and from the TIF drained from the testis were performed testes in order to obtain testosterone attached to 125 I with a specific activity of 36,86 MBq/ig. The results have shown a testosterone significant lineal increase in both - serum and TIF - in the group treated with thyroxine as a time function. In the control group, testosterone levels remained low in both serum and TIF dosages. As a result, we were able to verify that the testosterone levels could be modified by thyroxine in serum and TIF. And so, it could affect luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in hypophysis. (author)

  20. Simultaneous measurement of total Estradiol and Testosterone in human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Yuesong; Gatcombe, Matthew; Farris, Jacob; Botelho, Julianne C.; Caudill, Samuel P.; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measurement of total testosterone and estradiol is critical for their use as biomarkers of hormone related disorders in patient care and translation research. We developed and validated a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify these analytes in human serum without chemical derivatization. Serum is equilibrated with isotopic internal standards and treated with acidic buffer to release hormones from their binding proteins. Lipids are isolated and polar impurities are removed by two serial liquid-liquid extraction steps. Total testosterone and estradiol are measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in combination of positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. The method shows broad analytical measurement range for both testosterone 0.03–48.5 nM (0.75–1400 ng/dL) and estradiol 11.0–5138 pM (2.99–1400 pg/mL) and excellent agreement with certified reference materials (mean bias less than 2.1% to SRM 971, BCR 576, 577, and 578) and a high order reference method (mean bias 1.25% for testosterone and −0.84% for estradiol). The high accuracy of the method was monitored and certified by CDC Hormone Standardization (HoSt) Program for two years with mean bias −0.7% (95%CI: −1.6% to 0.2%) for testosterone and 0.1% (95%CI: −2.2% to 2.3%) for estradiol. The method precision over a 2-year period for Quality Control pools at low, medium and high concentrations was 2.7–2.9% for testosterone and 3.3–5.3% for estradiol. With the consistently excellent accuracy and precision, this method is readily applicable for high-throughput clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:28801832

  1. Serum testosterone levels after external beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Pollack, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether serum total testosterone levels change after external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty-five men with clinically localized prostate cancer (T1-T3, N0/NX, M0) who underwent external beam radiation therapy without androgen ablation had pretreatment and 3-month posttreatment total serum testosterone levels determined by radioimmunoassay. Scattered doses to the testicles were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry in 10 men. Results: Pretreatment serum testosterone levels ranged from 185 to 783 ng/dl, with a mean of 400 ng/dl and a median of 390 ng/dl. The coefficient of variation was 30%. Postradiation 3-month testosterone levels ranged from 163 ng/dl to 796 ng/dl, with mean and median values of 356 ng/dl and 327 ng/ml, respectively. The coefficient of variation was 34%. The 3-month value was significantly lower than the pretreatment value (Wilcoxon paired p = 0.0001). The mean absolute fall was 94 ng/dl and the mean percentage fall was 9%. Although the fall in testosterone level was statistically significant, the difference was very small quantitatively. In contrast, serum prostate-specific antigen levels fell dramatically by 3 months after radiation. Testicular scattered doses ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 Gy, with a mean of 2.07 Gy for a prostatic tumor dose of 68 Gy. Conclusions: Although significant, the fall in serum testosterone level after radiation for localized prostate cancer was small and likely of no pathophysiologic consequence. It is unlikely that scattered testicular radiation plays any significant role in the genesis of this change in testosterone level, which most likely occurs as a nonspecific stress response

  2. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  3. Serum testosterone levels of HbSS (sickle cell disease male subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Adediran Adewumi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is a major problem in sickle cell disease patients, especially in males. In addition to low serum testosterone, other abnormalities involving the accessory sex organs, such as the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland, as well as marked decrease in ejaculate volume may be observed in male HbSS patients. Hence, the need to study the role of sex hormones as a cause of infertility in male HbSS patients. Methods An unmatched case-control study was performed using seventy-five consenting subjects from Lagos University Teaching Hospital. These included 47 patients with haemoglobin phenotype SS from the Sickle cell clinic and 28 volunteered medical students and members of staff with haemoglobin phenotype AA. Demographic data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 5 mls of blood was collected from each subject between 9.00 am & 11.am, and assayed for serum testosterone concentration. Results The concentrations of serum testosterone in HbSS patients ranged from 0.2 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean of 1.28 ± 0.72 ng/ml whilst the values in HbAA controls ranged from 1.2 to 6.9 ng/ml with a mean of 2.63 ± 1.04 ng/ml. Seven (25.0% of the 28 controls had serum testosterone concentration lower than the quoted reference (normal range whereas 44 (93.6% of the 47 HbSS subjects had serum testosterone concentration lower than the reference range. Conclusion Overall, subjects with HbSS have significantly lower mean serum testosterone than HbAA controls.

  4. Paradoxical sleep deprivation decreases serum testosterone and Leydig cells in male rats

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    Fitranto Arjadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chronic stress increases glucocorticoid levels and accelerates reduction in Leydig cells functions and numbers. Chronic stress models in the working place comprise sleep deprivation, sedentary stress, and physical stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various work stress models, such as stress from paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD, immobilization, and footshock, on serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats. Methods This study was of experimental randomized post-test only with control group design using 24 male Wistar albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The sample was divided into 4 groups: K1 (control, K2 (PSD, K3 (immobilization and K4 (footshock, receiving treatment for 25 days. Measured parameters were serum testosterone level and Leydig cell number. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc LSD. Results Mean serum testosterone levels (0.07 ± 0.08 ng/mL and Leydig cell numbers (4.22 ± l0.96 were lowest in the PSD stress model. Serum testosterone levels differed significantly between controls and PSD group (p=0.014, while there was a significant difference in numbers of Leydig cells between footshock stress and PSD (p=0.011 and between the three stress groups and controls (p=0.006. Conclusion This study demonstrated that PSD, immobilization and footshock stress significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and number of Leydig cells in male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The mechanism by which PSD affects serum testosterone is still unclear.

  5. Effect of Radiation Leakage of Microwave Oven on Rat Serum Testosterone at Pre and Post Pubertal Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Zare

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since discovery of high frequency waves, their biological effects have been in great attention. Increased male fertility problems proposed their possible relation to use of microwaves. Testes are of very active body tissues, which can be affected by these waves. Age of exposure may also be an important factor. Methods: This study was carried out to evaluated testosterone level in rats exposed to microwave radiation at pre and post puberty. For this study 18 adult (2 month old and 18 immature (1 month old male rats were selected and each group divided in two groups, control and test group. Test groups were exposed to 2450 MHZ microwaves produced by microwave oven (LG Brant, three times a day, 30 minute each time. Control groups were kept in laboratory at same temperature and light condition. After 60 days blood was collected by heart puncture and testosterone was measured in serum by RIA method. Mean testosterone levels were compared by T-test. Result: The results showed that in immature group testosterone has not changed significantly compare to control group; however in adult group this value was significantly decreased in test group in comparison with control (P<0.005. Conclusion: exposure to microwaves leakage of microwave oven decreased testosterone in adult male rats, which may be due to its direct effect on Leydig cells or indirectly through its effect on pituitary and hypothalamus.

  6. UGT2B17 genotype and the pharmacokinetic serum profile of testosterone during substitution therapy with testosterone undecanoate. A retrospective experience from 207 men with hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Kirstine; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Testosterone (T) is mainly excreted in the urine as testosterone glucuronide (TG). This glucuronidation is partly dependent on the UGT2B17 genotype, and TG excretion is therefore lower in men having the UGT2B17 deletion. However, the possible influence of UGT2B17 genotype on serum T...... during androgen therapy is unknown. We retrospectively investigated the possible association between the UGT2B17 gene polymorphism and serum T levels in hypogonadal men during Testosterone undecanoate (TU) substitution therapy. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and seven patients treated with TU (Nebido...

  7. The relationship between serum total testosterone and free testosterone levels with serum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a study in 1221 men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu Seob; You, Jae Hyung; Cha, Jai Seong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with anemia. We reviewed the records of 1221 subjects between March 2009 and December 2014. All the subjects' blood samples were drawn for TT and FT assays. Their serum hemoglobin (Hb) and serum hematocrit (Hct) levels were measured. The primary objective of our study was to investigate the association between TT and FT levels with Hb and Hct levels. The mean age was 59.82 ± 12.71 years. The mean TT and FT levels were 4.54 ± 2.02 ng/mL and 10.63 ± 3.69 pg/mL, respectively. The mean Hb and Hct levels were 14.72 ± 1.34 g/dL and 43.11 ± 3.75%, respectively. Subjects with low TT (<2.35 ng/mL) had low Hb and Hct levels (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). TT was positively associated with FT, Hb, and Hct. TT and FT levels were significantly lower in older men. Subjects with low TT and FT levels had low Hb and Hct levels. This suggests that TT and FT play a significant role in erythropoiesis. Testosterone replacement therapy may be effective in men with hypogonadism to reduce the incidence of anemia.

  8. The circadian variations of serum melatonin and testosterone levels in starved rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Marek, B.; Buntner, B.

    1995-01-01

    Circadian variations of serum melatonin and testosterone in sexually mature male Wistar rats after a one-week starvation were examined using, the radioimmunoassay RIA method at 2-h intervals under 12:12 h light-dark cycle. The population mean cosinor analysis justified the existence of a significant circadian rhythm of melatonin and testosterone in starved rats, whereas their mean 24-h concentration was lower. Both melatonin and testosterone circadian rhythms were disturbed with phase shifts from 1.58 to 16.59 h and from 18.00 to 3.49 h, respectively. A significant correlation between the melatonin and testosterone concentrations during day/night cycle was observed. (author). 38 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  9. Low levels of serum testosterone in middle-aged men impact pathological features of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llukani, Elton; Katz, Benjamin F; Agalliu, Ilir; Lightfoot, Andrew; Yu, Sue-Jean S; Kathrins, Martin; Lee, Ziho; Su, Yu-Kai; Monahan Agnew, Kelly; McGill, Alice; Eun, Daniel D; Lee, David I

    2017-03-01

    Serum testosterone deficiency increases with aging. Age is also a major risk factor for prostate cancer (PrCa) and PCa tumors are more frequently diagnosed among men >65 years old. We evaluated the relationship between preoperative serum testosterone and clinical/ pathological features of PrCa in middle-aged and elderly patients. A total of 605 PrCa patients who underwent robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy between September 2010 and January 2013 at the University of Pennsylvania, and who had serum testosterone levels measured using Elecsys Testosterone II Immunoassay were included in this IRB-approved protocol. Androgen deficiency was determined as serum free testosterone (FT) men with low vs. normal TT or FT were compared using t-test or chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of clinical and pathological variables with FT or TT levels. Among middle-aged men (45-64 years; n = 367), those with low FT and low TT had, on average, a higher BMI (29.7 vs. 27.4, P men with normal FT and normal TT values. Patients with low FT had also higher number of positive cores on biopsy (3.9 vs. 3.1 P = 0.019) and greater tumor volume (7.9 ml vs. 6.1 ml, P = 0.045) compared to those with normal FT. Among men ≥65 years ( n = 135) there was no difference in prostatectomy specimens of PrCa between patients with low or normal FT or TT. Among men aged 45-64 years low serum pretreatment FT and TT predicted more aggressive features of PrCa in prostatectomy specimens. In middle-aged patients low testosterone levels measured pre-operatively may indicate more aggressive disease parameters.

  10. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  11. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Polzer, Paula; Althof, Stanley; Bolyakov, Alexander; Donatucci, Craig; Ni, Xiao; Patel, Ankur B; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-09-01

    Although delayed ejaculation (DE) is typically characterized as a persistently longer than anticipated or desired time to ejaculation (or orgasm) during sexual activity, a timing-based definition of DE and its association with serum testosterone has not been established in a large cohort. To examine in an observational study estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and masturbatory ejaculation latency time (MELT) in men self-reporting DE, assess the association of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone levels, and determine whether correlation with demographic and sexual parameters exist. Men who resided in the United States, Canada, and Mexico were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Self-estimated IELT and MELT were captured using an Ejaculatory Function Screening Questionnaire in a sample of 988 men screened for possible inclusion in a randomized clinical trial assessing testosterone replacement therapy for ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and who self-reported the presence or absence of DE and symptoms of hypogonadism. Additional comorbid EjDs (ie, anejaculation, perceived decrease in ejaculate volume, and decreased force of ejaculation) were recorded. Men with premature ejaculation were excluded from this analysis. IELT and MELT were compared between men self-reporting DE and men without DE. The associations of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone were measured. IELT, MELT, and total testosterone levels. Sixty-two percent of screened men self-reported DE with or without comorbid EjDs; 38% did not report DE but did report at least one of the other EjDs. Estimated median IELTs were 20.0 minutes for DE vs 15 minutes for no DE (P IELTs and MELTs. Estimated ejaculation times during vaginal intercourse and/or masturbation were not associated with serum testosterone levels in this study; thus, routine androgen evaluation is not indicated in these men. This large systematic analysis attempted to objectively assess the ejaculation latency in men with self

  12. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  13. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Hamd, M; Farah, A

    2018-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE. In a prospective a case-controlled study, it was conducted on 90 male patients with PE and 90 male healthy participants as controls. Patients were evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values ≤60 s and PEDT total scores ≥11 were considered to have PE. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PL) were investigated in patients with PE and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with PE and controls regarding the serum levels of TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL (p value ˃.05). There was no significant correlation between the sex hormones levels (TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL) and (age, body mass index (BMI), IELTS and total PEDT scores of the patients; p value ˃.05). This study concluded that there was no disturbance in serum levels of testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE and controls. These hormones could not relate to pathogenesis of PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Serum testosterone level and affecting factors in Syrian Awassi ram lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Results showed that testosterone exists in the blood of ram lams as early as the first month of age with no significant difference between single and twin births. This level, however, increased gradually with advancing age of ram lambs, indicating that the gonads (testes) of these growing lambs were active in secreting testosterone hormone after birth, but the rate of secretion differed with age of the lambs. A sharp increase in testosterone level was recorded at age of 8 months in twin births (5.32 ± 20.99 nmol/l) and in single births (7.26 ± 3.29 nmol/l). Throughout the study period, mean testosterone serum level was 3.29 ± 2.73 and 2.54 ± 2.15 nmol/l for single and twin births, respectively, as compared with an overall mean of 3.00 ± 2.49 nmol/l. However, the monthly difference in testosterone level between single and twin births was not significant (P>0.05) throughout the study period (10 months). Results also indicated an increase in live weight of lambs with advancing age, and live weight in single births was higher, but not significantly, than in twin births throughout the study period. Results of the study showed a sharp increase in the mean live weight of single births at age of 8 months (48.5 ± 10.8 kg) as compared with an overall live weight of the lambs (35.8 ± 15.2 and 32.7 ± 15.4 kg for single and twin births, respectively). A positive and significant correlation (r= 0.95, P>0.0001) was found between serum testosterone level and lamb live weight during the first 10 months of their age. Finally and for the first time, normal serum testosterone levels in Syrian Awassi ram lambs were determined during early stages. It was concluded, based on both, testosterone level and lamb live weight, that puberty in Awassi ram lambs could be reached at 8 months of age with a mean live weight of around 47 kg. Type of birth, lamb birth weight or weaning weight had no significant effect on testosterone level. (author)

  15. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-09-22

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of 'free' money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game offers are interpreted as challenges, then high-testosterone men may be more likely to reject such offers. In this experiment, men who reject low offers ($5 out of $40) have significantly higher testosterone levels than those who accept. In addition, high testosterone levels are associated with higher ultimatum game offers, but this second finding is not statistically significant.

  16. Which Exercise Is Better for Increasing Serum Testosterone Levels in Patients with Erectile Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Kyun Yeo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated the correlations of serum total testosterone (TT levels with body composition and physical fitness parameters in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED to know the best exercise for testosterone deficiency. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven ED patients underwent serum TT assessment as well as body composition and basic exercise testing. The bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess body composition. Seven types of basic exercise tests were used to determine physical fitness. Correlations between serum TT levels and body composition/physical function parameters were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. A serum TT cut-off value was obtained for the parameters significantly correlated with serum TT levels. Results: The subjects had a mean serum TT level of 342.1 ng/dL. Among the body composition parameters, body and abdominal fat percentages showed statistically significant negative correlations with serum TT levels. Among the basic exercise test parameters, only the cycle ergometer test for cardiorespiratory fitness showed a statistically significant positive correlation with serum TT levels. Conclusions: Serum TT levels in patients with ED, may be increased by reducing fat percentage and improving cardiorespiratory fitness via aerobic exercise.

  17. Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Haring, Robin; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Frank H; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Wallaschofski, Henri; Thurik, A Roy

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Apium graveolens hydroalcoholic Seed Extract on Sperm Parameters and Serum Testosterone Concentration in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kerishchi Khiabani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: apium graveolens contains antioxidant activity and high level of polyphenolics. The purpose of this study was to determaine the effect of Apium graveolens seeds extract on semen parameters and serum testosterone level in mice. Methods: In the present experimental study, sixty male mice were divided into three experimental groups and a control group. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of Apium graveolenas L. was administered intraperitoneally at the doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg for 14 days. A week after the final injection, blood samples were collected for hormonal assay. Then, the testes weight, sperm count and cauda epididymal sperm motility was assessed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results: The results were compared with the control group indicating a significant increase in the total number of sperm at dose 400 mg.kg and increase sperm motility was seen in groups receiving 200 and 400 mg.kg respectively (P<0.001. Increased testosterone levels in the group receiving 400 mg.kg compared with the control group was observed (P<0.01. A significant increase was seen in testes weight compared with the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Apium graveolens seed extract appeared to be effective in improving semen parameters and serum total testosterones were dose dependent.

  19. A systematic review of methods for quantifying serum testosterone in patients with prostate cancer who underwent castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, I; Ferrer, R; Planas, J; Celma, A; Regis, L; Morote, J

    2018-03-01

    The clinical practice guidelines recommend measuring serum testosterone in patients with prostate cancer (PC) who undergo castration. The serum testosterone concentration should be IA) has become widespread, although their metrological characteristics do not seem appropriate for quantifying low testosterone concentrations. The objective of this review is to analyse the methods for quantifying testosterone and to establish whether there is scientific evidence that justifies measuring it in patients with PC who undergo castration, through liquid chromatography attached to a mass spectrometry in tandem (LC-MSMS). We performed a search in PubMed with the following MeSH terms: measurement, testosterone, androgen suppression and prostate cancer. We selected 12 studies that compared the metrological characteristics of various methods for quantifying serum testosterone compared with MS detection methods. IAs are standard tools for measuring testosterone levels; however, there is evidence that IAs lack accuracy and precision for quantifying low concentrations. Most chemiluminescent IAs overestimate their concentration, especially below 100ng/dL. The procedures that use LC-MSMS have an adequate lower quantification limit and proper accuracy and precision. We found no specific evidence in patients with PC who underwent castration. LC-MSMS is the appropriate method for quantifying low serum testosterone concentrations. We need to define the level of castration with this method and the optimal level related to better progression of the disease. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of serum and seminal plasma zinc levels and serum testosterone in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Qasim, R.; Baig, M.; Rana, M.F.; Ali, M.; Khem, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To measure the zinc level in fertile and infertile population and to find out relationship of serum and seminal plasma zinc levels and serum testosterone in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men. Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The Infertility Clinic, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2002-July 2003. Patients and Methods: Fifty-eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, having normal and regular menstrual cycles without any uterine pathology or hormonal disturbance were selected from Infertile Clinic, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses, they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty-five known fertile male selected from general population (their spouse had given birth to a child within one year) and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria and serum and seminal plasma zinc was estimated by 5Br. PAPS colorimetric method. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH were measured by ELISA, using kits supplied by Diagnostic System Laboratories (DSL), U.S.A. Results: The mean value for testosterone was significantly low in oligospermic, (8.04+0.76) and azoospermic subjects (7.14+0.27) as compared to normospermic (9.90+0.14) control groups (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively), serum LH (p<0.05, p<0.001) respectively) and FSH (p<0.05) were significantly higher than normospermic control group. Serum and seminal plasma zinc levels was low in oligospermic, and azoospermic subjects when compared with normospermic control groups (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). This suggests its involvement in spermatogenesis and infertility in such patients. Seminal zinc level has weak correlation with testosterone in oligospermic (r=0.44, p<0.05) and with serum zinc in azoospermic

  1. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, T.; Bodrogi, L. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary). 1. Belklinika); Makray, S. (Mezoegazdasagi Foeiskola, Kaposvar (Hungary))

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormone level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration.

  2. Daily and seasonal variations of serum testosterone levels in bulls after chemical or surgical castration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, Tibor; Bodrogi, Lajos

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of serum testosterone levels were studied by a radio-immunological assay (RIA) in 7-9 months old Holstein-Friesian bulls. Significant correlation was found between the hormone level and age (rather than body mass) of adult animals. The daily dynamics of hormone level varied to a large extent indicating that only several and repeated hormonal investigations allowed the evaluation of hormonal state and sexual function in bulls. The serum testosterone lewel was the highest in October and the lowest in April; the seasonal differences were not significant. The hormon level of blood was minimal already 24 hours after the surgical castration. Chemical castration (tannic acid-ZnSOsub(4) injection into both testes) resulted in a slower and more moderate decrease of the hormone concentration. (author)

  3. Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT. We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT 6.6 ng mL−1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P<0.01 and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P<0.01, which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients.

  4. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  5. Comparison of serum testosterone and estradiol measurements in 3174 European men using platform immunoassay and mass spectrometry; relevance for the diagnostics in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terence W; Finn, Joseph D; Bartfai, György; Boonen, Steven; Casanueva, Felipe F; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Forti, Gianni; Wu, Frederick C W

    2012-06-01

    The limitations of serum testosterone and estradiol (E(2)) measurements using non-extraction platform immunoassays (IAs) are widely recognized. Switching to more specific mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods has been advocated, but directly comparative data on the two methods are scarce. We compared serum testosterone and E(2) measurements in a large sample of middle-aged/elderly men using a common platform IA and a gas chromatography (GC)-MS method, in order to assess their limitations and advantages, and to diagnose male hypogonadism. Of subjects from the European Male Aging Study (n=3174; age 40-79 years), peripheral serum testosterone and E(2) were analyzed using established commercial platform IAs (Roche Diagnostics E170) and in-house GC-MS methods. Over a broad concentration range, serum testosterone concentration measured by IA and MS showed high correlation (R=0.93, PIA/MS correlation was weaker in E(2) measurements (R=0.32, P40.8 pmol/l, and R=0.74, P40.8 pmol/l). Using MS as the comparator method, IA ascertained low testosterone compatible with hypogonadism (IA for the detection of low E(2) (40.7 pmol/l) were 13.3 and 99.3%, and for high E(2) (>120 pmol/l) 88.4 and 88.6%. A validated platform IA is sufficient to detect subnormal testosterone concentrations in the diagnosis of male hypogonadism. The IA used for E(2) measurements showed poor correlation with MS and may only be suitable for the detection of high E(2) in men.

  6. Variations of serum testosterone levels in prostate cancer patients under LH-releasing hormone therapy: an open question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    The hypothesis 'the lower the better when achieving castration levels of testosterone' is based on the data from second-line hormonal manipulation and its molecular basis, and on better oncological results reported for lower castration levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, including those achieved with maximal androgen blockade. In this regard, the equivalence of surgical and different pharmacological castrations has been controversial. The modified amino acid structure that makes LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs more potent than LHRH, and the method of delivering the analogs impacts on bioavailibility and potentially causes differences in androgen levels and in its final oncological efficacy. In addition to this, there is a myriad of circumstances, such as those related to ethnic variations and co-morbidities, which uniquely impact on the pharmacological approach in a highly heterogeneous population of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Ineffective testosterone suppression through hormonal escape is currently poorly recognized and may result in increased PCa mortality. Until now, the optimal serum testosterone level in patients under castration, and the impact of its variations in patients under LHRH therapy, remain open questions and have been merged to a broad spectra of patients who are highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity relates to a number of mechanisms regarding response to treatment, which influences the biology of the relapsing tumor and the sensitivity to subsequent therapies in the individual patient. The rationale to achieve testosterone levels below 20-50 ng/dl warrant further investigation as these levels have recently rescued CRPC patients. In the last few years and months, important advancements in prostate cancer treatment have been achieved. Nevertheless, these advances are measured in a few months of additional survival and under high costs, not available to most of the world population, compared with the benefits

  7. Nocturnal polyuria and decreased serum testosterone: is there an association in men with lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the putative association between nocturia and decreased serum testosterone in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Frequency volume charts and serum testosterone levels of patients visiting the outpatient clinic for lower urinary tract symptoms were collected and analyzed. Age, prostate volume, body mass index and the presence of comorbidities were accounted for. Frequency volume charts were analyzed for pathophysiological components of nocturnal polyuria, global polyuria, decreased nocturnal bladder capacity and increased frequency to identify associated risks. Frequency volume charts were also used to chart 8-h changes of volume, frequency and capacity to identify time diurnal interactions with risk factors based on serum testosterone levels. A total of 2180 patients were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis showed testosterone decreased 0.142 ng/mL for every increase in nocturia, independent of other factors. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant difference between pathophysiological components. Decreased testosterone was shown to carry a significant independent risk for overall nocturia (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.013-2.527, P = 0.044), and particularly nocturnal polyuria (odds ratio 1.934, 95% confidence interval 1.001-3.737, P = 0.027). Repeated measurement models showed patients with serum testosterone below 2.50 ng/mL to have a paradoxical increase in nocturnal urine volume at night. Nocturia, especially nocturnal polyuria, is associated with decreased serum testosterone. Patients with low serum testosterone show increased nocturnal urine output. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  8. Study on the relationship between serum testosterone level and forearm distal bone density in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenqi; Zhou Zhengli; Li Xin; Zhou Jiwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the androgen level and bone density in post-menopausal women. Methods: Serum testosterone (T) level and forearm distal bone density (BMD) were measured in 39 past-menopausal women who had never taken any estrogen or calcium preparation. Their serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels were about the same. According to their BMD, the 39 subjects were divided into normal (n = 22) and osteoporotic (n = 17) groups. Results: The mean serum testosterone (T) level in the normal group was significantly higher than that in the osteoporotic group (p 1 = 0.72, r 2 0.75; p 1 and r 2 was 0.14, suggesting similarity of the positive cor-relationship for both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Serum testosterone level seems to bear close relationship with bone density and osteoporosis

  9. Testosterone replacement elevates the serum uric acid levels in patients with female to male gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Masami; Sugimoto, Morito; Ariyoshi, Yuichi; Mahmood, Sabina; Araki, Motoo; Ishii, Kazushi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Nagai, Atsushi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) results from a disagreement between a person's biological sex and the gender to which he or she identifies. With respect to the treatment of female to male GID, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available. The uric acid (UA) level can be influenced by testosterone; however, the early effects and dose-dependency of TRT on the serum UA concentration have not been evaluated in this population. We herein conducted a dose-response analysis of TRT in 160 patients with female to male GID. The TRT consisted of three treatment groups who received intramuscular injections of testosterone enanthate: 125 mg every two weeks, 250 mg every three weeks and 250 mg every two weeks. Consequently, serum UA elevation was observed after three months of TRT and there was a tendency toward testosterone dose-dependency. The onset of hyperuricemia was more prevalent in the group who received the higher dose. We also demonstrated a positive correlation between increased levels of serum UA and serum creatinine. Since the level of serum creatinine represents an individual's muscle volume and the muscle is a major source of purine, which induces UA upregulation, the serum UA elevation observed during TRT is at least partially attributed to an increase in muscle mass. This is the first study showing an association between serum UA elevation and a TRT-induced increase in muscle mass. The current study provides important information regarding TRT for the follow-up and management of the serum UA levels in GID patients.

  10. Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Boisen, Kirsten A; Virtanen, Helena E

    2006-01-01

    in Denmark and at 0, 3 and 18 months in Finland with blood samples taken at 3 months (n = 630). Penile length and growth were registered and reproductive hormones (testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, oestradiol) were analysed. RESULTS: Penile length increased from birth (3.49+/-0.4 cm) to 3 years...... and growth. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal population-based study taking place at two large primary obstetric centres at the University Hospitals of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Turku, Finland. METHODS: Infant boys, 728 Danish and 1234 Finnish, underwent clinical examinations at 0, 3, 18 and 36 months...... of age (4.53+/-0.51 cm) with the highest growth velocity from birth to 3 months (1.0 mm/month). Penile length and growth were significantly, positively correlated to serum testosterone (r = 0.31 and 0.076, P = 0.006 and 0.001 respectively) and to free testosterone index (r = 0.385 and 0.094, P = 0...

  11. Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Juan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

  12. Ameliorative effects of curcumin on the spermatozoon tail length, count, motility and testosterone serum level in metronidazole-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalay-Doust, S; Noorafshan, A

    2011-01-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ) is used as an antiparasitic drug. Curcumin is considered as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. The ameliorative effects of curcumin on MTZ induced toxicity on mice spermatozoon tail length, count, motility and testosterone level were investigated. MTZ was administered in 500 and 165 (high and therapeutic doses) mg/kg/day, with and without curcumin (100 mg/kg/day). After 16 days the above parameters were assessed. Spermatozoon count and motility and serum testosterone level MTZ-treated (500 and 165) mice were reduced. In the mice treated with MTZ+curcumin these parameters decreased but in a lesser extent than the MTZ-treated animals. Mid-piece and total lengths of the spermatozoon tail in control animals were 31.6 ± 9.0 μm and 100.3 ± 15.0 μm and in the mice treated with high doses (500) of MTZ were reduced. The mid-piece and total spermatozoon tail length has been decreased in a lesser extent in the mice treated with high dose MTZ+curcumin than the mice treated with high dose MTZ (paverage increase in mid-piece and total lengths in comparison with the MTZ-treated (500) animals. Stereological estimation of the sperm tail length, including sampling of spermatozoa and also counting of the intersections of their tails with the stereological grids was a rapid technique and took only 5-10 minutes. It can be concluded that curcumin has an ameliorative effect on the spermatozoon, testosterone level and tail length in MTZ-treated mice.

  13. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF THE BASELINE VALUES OF SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND FREE ANDROGEN INDEX IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

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    M. E. Grigoryev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing incidence of prostate cancer (PC and its variable nature are an important problem today. PC is distinguished by its latent ability in many cases, which makes its screening difficult.Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is one of the most common tumor markers of PC, which are used for mass male screening. However, the detection rate of PC in men with normal PSA values is also very high. This promotes an active search for new markers and predictors of PC.The effect of androgens on hormonal carcinogenesis in the prostate suggests that the analysis of serum testosterone concentrations and free androgen index may be made in patients with low PSA levels in the early diagnosis and prognosis of PC.

  14. Association of Serum Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels in Females with Acne Based on its Severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiayani, A. J.; Rehman, R. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Androgens are involved in the development of acne. The aim of this study was to find out if there was an association of serum testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in females with acne based on its severity. Methods: It was a cross sectional study, conducted in Dermatology unit of Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi. Duration of study was eight months. Adult females with acne were enrolled in the study. Patients were categorized into minor, mild, moderate groups. Blood samples were taken for serum testosterone and SHBG. Results: Five hundred and thirty-one adult female were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 21.49±4.73 years. Acne was graded as minor in 78 (14.7 percent) cases, mild in 248 (46.7 percent) and moderate in 205 (38.6 percent). There was no statistically significant relationship between the levels of serum testosterone (p=0.776) and SHBG (p=0.711) with acne severity. Conclusion: There was no association of serum testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in females with acne based on its severity. (author)

  15. Low- and high-testosterone individuals exhibit decreased aversion to economic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; McLaurin, R Edward; Kuhn, Cynthia M; LaBar, Kevin S; Platt, Michael L; Huettel, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Testosterone is positively associated with risk-taking behavior in social domains (e.g., crime, physical aggression). However, the scant research linking testosterone to economic risk preferences presents inconsistent findings. We examined the relationship between endogenous testosterone and individuals' economic preferences (i.e., risk preference, ambiguity preference, and loss aversion) in a large sample (N = 298) of men and women. We found that endogenous testosterone levels have a significant U-shaped association with individuals' risk and ambiguity preferences, but not loss aversion. Specifically, individuals with low or high levels of testosterone (more than 1.5 SD from the mean for their gender) were risk and ambiguity neutral, whereas individuals with intermediate levels of testosterone were risk and ambiguity averse. This relationship was highly similar in men and women. In contrast to received wisdom regarding testosterone and risk, the present data provide the first robust evidence for a nonlinear association between economic preferences and levels of endogenous testosterone.

  16. Sperm production, testicular size, serum gonadotropins and testosterone levels in Merino and Corriedale breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Abella, D; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M; Villegas, N; Bentancur, O

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between testis size, hormone secretion and sperm production were studied during the spring (December) and autumn (May) in rams of two breeds with different breeding seasons and body weights (Corriedale and Australian Merino) maintained on native pastures and under natural photoperiods in Uruguay. Blood samples were collected at 20-min intervals during a 260-360-min period in 13 rams (four Corriedale, nine Australian Merino) during the late spring and autumn. Rams were weighed and testis size was estimated by orchimetry at each time period. Sperm production was estimated during a 2-week period, 2 months before blood collection and during each week following every blood collection. There was no relationship between testicular size and sperm production measured at the same time, nor between live weight and sperm production. In contrast, testicular volume during the late spring was correlated with sperm production in the autumn (r = 0.65; P = 0.02). The autumn serum LH was higher in Corriedale than in Merino rams. LH pulsatility was unaffected by season, but LH pulse frequency tended to be higher in Corriedale than in Merino rams, particularly in the late spring (2.37 versus 1.56 pulses/6 h; P = 0.08). Serum testosterone concentration was similar in both breeds and seasons. FSH levels were higher in the late spring than in the autumn in both breeds (Corriedale: 2.83 +/- 0.48 versus 2.17 +/- 0.24 ng x mL(-1); Merino: 2.23 +/- 0.24 versus 1.88 +/- 0.17 ng x mL(-1)). FSH and testosterone concentrations during the late spring were positively correlated with autumn sperm production (P = 0.07 and P = 0.03, respectively). In conclusion, the present experiment suggests that LH secretion is not a good parameter for the prediction of sperm production. In contrast, in our conditions (breeds and native pastures) testicular size and testosterone or FSH concentrations from the late spring may be used to predict sperm production in the autumn.

  17. Seasonal Changes in Serum Testosterone, LDH Concentration and Semen Characteristics in Markhoz Goats

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    A. Farshad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study variations of serum testosterone and seminal characteristics of Markhoz male goats. Blood samples were obtained via jugular vein, and semen was collected by using an artificial vagina from 14 fertile male goats (2–3 years of age, at 15-day intervals starting on 15 July and ending on 30 October 2010 (during breeding and non-breeding season. Semen volume, total sperm (volume×concentration, live sperm (%, abnormal sperm (% and semen pH were significantly superior during the late summer and early autumn (breeding season. Variation of sperm density, motility and progressive motility was not significant during the sampling period. The results presented show that the lowest and highest levels of lactate dehydrogenase in the seminal plasma were recorded in late October (2.82 U/ml and in late August (4.81 U/ml, respectively. Moreover, the study indicated that the serum testosterone concentration was higher during late summer and early autumn (p<0.05 than at any other of sampling period. There were negative correlations between volume and sperm density (−0.135, p<0.05, and positive correlations between volume and percentage live sperm (0.224 and percentage progressive motility (0.194, p<0.01. Sperm density was correlated with live sperm (0.200, p<0.05 and progressive motility (0.202, p<0.01. The correlation between live sperm and progressive motility was 0.554 (p<0.01. Furthermore, the results in this study indicated a significant positive correlation between live sperm and LDH (0.450 and a negative correlation between sperm density and LDH concentration (−0.272 (p<0.01. Significant, but positive correlations were found between sperm motility and LDH (0.542 and testosterone concentration (0.522, respectively (p<0.05. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the best obtained semen was collected in late summer (during decreasing photoperiod and early autumn (September and October. This also coincides with

  18. The comparison of free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome

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    M. Metin Yıldırımkaya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In many laboratories free testosterone can not be measured, so that free androgen index is suggested instead. The aim of this study was to compare free androgen index and serum free testosterone levels measured by radioimmunoassay in women with hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome.Materials and methods: Totally 94 women referred to the polyclinics of Ankara Numune Hospital were retrospectively included. Three patient groups were composed; 55 of hirsutism, 20 of polycystic ovary syndrome and 19 of both hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline levels were measured by chemiluminescence method and free testosterone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Free androgen index was calculated from total testosterone and sex hormone binding globuline.Results: There was a significant positive correlation between free testosterone and free androgen index in patients with hirsutism, in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, in patients with hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome, and in total patient group [r(hirsutism=0,597, r(PCOS=0,617, r(hirsutism and PCOS=0,779, r(total patient group=0,649, P<0,01].Receiver operating characteristics curves were drawn to assess the diagnostic power of parameters for all patient groups [For hirsutism (n=55 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,485] [For PCOS (n=20 auROC (FT=0,431 auROC (FAI=0,359] [For hirsutism and PCOS (n=19 auROC (FT=0,676 auROC (FAI=0,669]. In our study, free testosterone and free androgen index were found useful to diagnose ‘hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome’ but not others.Conclusion: Free androgen index can be used instead of free testosterone in hirsutism and polycystic ovary syndrome for diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:152-6

  19. Reference ranges for serum and salivary testosterone in young men of Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Víctor; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; García de Guadiana, Luis; Sánchez-Pellicer, Pedro; Alfayate, Rocío; Mauri, Montserrat; Sánchez-Payá, José; Picó, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The interassay variability found in the measurement of testosterone (T) levels warrants the need for laboratories to validate their methods to establish trustworthy cut-off points for diagnosis of male hypogonadism. The aims of this study were to validate measurement of total T (TT) at our laboratory in order to obtain reference ranges for TT, calculated free T (CFT), calculated bioavailable T (CBT), and salivary T (ST) in healthy young men from the Mediterranean region, and to evaluate the potential clinical value of ST by establishing its correlation with serum T. An observational, cross-sectional study with sequential sampling. men aged 18-30 years with body mass index (BMI)9.7 nmol/L, CFT>0.22 nmol/L, and/or CBT>4.9 nmol/L make the presence of biochemical hypogonadism unlikely. According to the correlation between serum and ST, the clinical value of ST remains to be established. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

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    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  1. Measurement of serum testosterone during androgenic suppression in patients with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, J; Regis, L; Celma, A; Planas, J

    2016-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend measuring serum testosterone (ST) during androgenic suppression (AS) to assess its efficacy and define castration resistance (CR). The objectives of this systematic review were to assess the level of scientific evidence that justify checking ST levels during AS, when to perform it and for what purpose. We performed a search in PubMed with the following mesh terms: androgen suppression, testosterone, and prostate cancer. The search was narrowed to original articles published in English. We found 8 publications that analysed the clinical impact of ST concentrations during AS. In all of the series, ST was measured using chemiluminescent assays. However, only indirect methods based on liquid or gas chromatography for its extraction and subsequent quantification using mass spectrometry are recommended, especially for measuring low levels. The endpoints were specific survival and CR-free survival. Six studies were retrospective. The series were not uniform in terms of clinical stage, types of AS and ST assessment methods. In general, low ST levels (<20ng/dL or <32ng/dL) were related to longer CR-free survival. The measurements were performed every 3 or 6 months. Four studies confirmed the beneficial effect of adding bicalutamide when detecting microelevations above 50ng/dL. The level of scientific evidence justifying the measurement of ST during AS is low, and the methods employed for quantifying ST levels are inadequate. However, we consider it useful to check ST levels during AS, and there appears to be an association between low ST levels and better disease outcomes. In the event of microelevations above 50ng/dL, we recommend the administration of bicalutamide. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Cynomorium songaricum improves sperm count and motility and serum testosterone level and promotes proliferation of undifferentiated spermatogonia in oligoasthenospermia rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi-Juan; Li, Zhen-Bei; Qi, Yu-Juan; Liu, Ying; Gu, Juan; Hu, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Wen-da; Hao, Lin; Hou, Jian-Quan; Han, Cong-Hui

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of cynomorium songaricum (CS) decoction on the testis weight, serum testosterone level, and sperm parameters of rats with oligoasthenospermia (OAS), explore its action mechanism of improving the proliferation of undifferentiated spermatogonial cells, and provide some experimental and theoretical evidence for the development of new Chinese drugs for OAS. Thirty 8-week-old male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups of equal number: blank control, model control, high-dose CS, medium-dose CS, and low-dose CS. OAS models were established by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide and, a month later, treated intragastrically with normal saline or CS at 2, 1, and 0.5 g per kg of the body weight per day, all for 4 weeks. Then, the testes of the animals were harvested to obtain the testicular weight, sperm concentration and motility, and the level of serum testosterone (T), detect the expressions of the transcription factor 1 (Oct4), Thy-1 cell surface antigen (Thy1), promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (C-kit) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the testis tissue of the rats in the low-dose CS group by real-time PCR. The testis weights in the blank control, model control, high-dose CS, medium-dose CS, and low-dose CS groups were (1.52±0.06), (1.55±0.06), (1.43±0.30), (1.35±0.40) and (1.34±0.04) g, respectively, not significantly different in the blank and model controls from those in the CS groups (P>0.05). The visual field sperm count per 10 HP was significantly increased in the high-, medium-, and low-dose CS groups (202±20, 196±5 and 216±25) as compared with the blank and model controls (200±15 and 134±30) (P0.05). The visual field sperm motility per 10 HP was markedly increased in the blank control ([52.1±5.5]%), model control ([38.1±2.5]%), high-dose CS ([59.1±9.5]%), medium-dose CS ([58.7±9.5]%), and low-dose CS ([49.6±1.0

  3. Osteocalcin is not a strong determinant of serum testosterone and sperm count in men from infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwetz, V; Gumpold, R; Graupp, M; Hacker, N; Schweighofer, N; Trummer, O; Pieber, T R; Ballon, M; Lerchbaum, E; Obermayer-Pietsch, B

    2013-07-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) - released by osteoblasts and known as a marker of bone turnover - has been suggested to influence male fertility in murine models by enhancing testosterone production and sperm count. Results from clinical studies are scarce, however. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the proposed association of OC, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) or carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) with testosterone and sperm count in a cohort of 159 young male adults from infertile couples. Semen analysis was performed. Testosterone, free testosterone, LH, OC and ucOC were measured in serum samples after an overnight fast. cOC and OC correlated weakly but significantly with testosterone (OC: r = 0.165, p = 0.040, cOC: r = 0.193, p = 0.017), but not after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR). %ucOC (ucOC levels expressed as percentage of total OC) correlated inversely with LH (r = -0.184, p = 0.023) and remained significant after the same adjustment. No significant correlations were observed between OC, cOC, ucOC, %ucOC and sperm count, semen volume and number of vital spermatozoa. In binary logistic regression analyses, none of the parameters of OC were predictors of oligozoospermia after adjusting for age and BMI or WHR. The weak association between %ucOC and LH has marginal clinical importance because of the lack of associations of parameters of OC with testosterone and sperm count. The current data thus cannot support the notion that OC is associated with male fertility in young men from infertile couples. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Normalization of serum testosterone levels in patients treated with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, Gilbert D.A.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Fuks, Zvi; Lee, Henry J.; Natale, Linda; Leibel, Steven A.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the expected time to serum testosterone normalization after short-course neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NAAD) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for patients with localized prostate cancer and to identify pretreatment predictors that correlated with the time to testosterone normalization. Methods: Between 1993 and 1999, 88 patients with localized prostate cancer, treated with NAAD and external beam radiotherapy, were prospectively monitored after treatment with sequential testosterone levels. NAAD was administered before and during the entire course of radiotherapy and discontinued at the end of treatment. The median duration of NAAD was 6 months. The actuarial rate of serum testosterone normalization from the end of treatment was evaluated, and the presence or absence of androgen deprivation-related symptoms was correlated with serum testosterone levels. Symptoms assessed included weight gain, loss of libido, breast tenderness, breast enlargement, hot flashes, and fatigue. Results: Serum testosterone levels returned to the normal range in 57 (65%) of the 88 patients and failed to normalize in 31 patients (35%). The median time to normalization was 18.3 months. The actuarial rate of normalization at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months was 10%, 26%, 38%, and 59%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, a pretreatment testosterone level in the lower range of normal was the only variable that predicted for delayed testosterone normalization after NAAD (p=0.00047). Among 45 patients with information concerning androgen deprivation-related symptoms recorded 1 year after cessation of NAAD, 24 (53%) had normalized testosterone levels, but in 21 patients (47%), the levels had not yet returned to normal. At 1 year, only 1 (4%) of 24 patients whose testosterone level had returned to normal experienced NAAD-related symptoms compared with 14 (67%) of 21 patients who did not have normal testosterone levels (p<0.001). Conclusion: Testosterone

  5. Cardiovascular risks and elevation of serum DHT vary by route of testosterone administration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Stephen E; Shuster, Jonathan J; Zou, Baiming; Ye, Fan; Jia, Huanguang; Wokhlu, Anita; Yarrow, Joshua F

    2014-11-27

    Potential cardiovascular (CV) risks of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are currently a topic of intense interest. However, no studies have addressed CV risk as a function of the route of administration of TRT. Two meta-analyses were conducted, one of CV adverse events (AEs) in 35 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TRT lasting 12 weeks or more, and one of 32 studies reporting the effect of TRT on serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). CV risks of TRT: Of 2,313 studies identified, 35 were eligible and included 3,703 mostly older men who experienced 218 CV-related AEs. No significant risk for CV AEs was present when all TRT administration routes were grouped (relative risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76 to 2.13, P = 0.34). When analyzed separately, oral TRT produced significant CV risk (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.45 to 3.55, P = 0.015), while neither intramuscular (RR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28 to 1.56, P = 0.32) nor transdermal (gel or patch) TRT (RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.62 to 2.62, P = 0.48) significantly altered CV risk. Serum testosterone/DHT following TRT: Of 419 studies identified, 32 were eligible which included 1,152 men receiving TRT. No significant difference in the elevation of serum testosterone was present between intramuscular or transdermal TRT. However, transdermal TRT elevated serum DHT (5.46-fold, 95% CI: 4.51 to 6.60) to a greater magnitude than intramuscular TRT (2.20-fold, 95% CI: 1.74 to 2.77). Oral TRT produces significant CV risk. While no significant effects on CV risk were observed with either injected or transdermal TRT, the point estimates suggest that further research is needed to establish whether administration by these routes is protective or detrimental, respectively. Differences in the degree to which serum DHT is elevated may underlie the varying CV risk by TRT administration route, as elevated serum dihydrotestosterone has been shown to be associated with CV risk in observational studies.

  6. Changes of Serum Total and Free Testosterone Concentrations in Male Chronic Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Response to Cinacalcet Treatment

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    Piotr Kuczera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR is expressed, among others also in testis. Cinacalcet binds to the CaSR, increases sensitivity of CaSR to serum calcium and is used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT in chronic hemodialysis patients (HDP. In most of male HDP, serum testosterone concentration is lower than in healthy males. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month treatment with cinacalcet on the serum total and free testosterone concentration in male HDP with sHPT. Methods: 38 male, hemodialysed CKD patients with sHPT (PTH>300 pg/ml were enrolled into the study. In each patient serum PTH, total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and then after 3 and 6 months of treatment. The results are presented as means with 95% confidence interval. Results: In 33 patients who completed the study cinacalcet treatment caused significant decrease of serum PTH from 1143 pg/ml (828 - 1458 pg/ml at the baseline, to 809 pg/ml (487 - 1132pg/ml after 3 month of treatment (p = 0.002, and to 607 pg/ml (281 - 934pg/ml; p Conclusion: Treatment with cinacalcet decreases serum total and free testosterone concentration in male hemodialysed patients with chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  7. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Intraindividual variation in levels of serum testosterone and other reproductive and adrenal hormones in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Donald J; O'Donnell, Amy B; Matsumoto, Alvin M; McKinlay, John B

    2007-12-01

    Estimates of intraindividual variation in hormone levels provide the basis for interpreting hormone measurements clinically and for developing eligibility criteria for trials of hormone replacement therapy. However, reliable systematic estimates of such variation are lacking. To estimate intraindividual variation of serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), SHBG, LH, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestrone, oestradiol and cortisol, and the contributions of biological and assay variation to the total. Paired blood samples were obtained 1-3 days apart at entry and again 3 months and 6 months later (maximum six samples per subject). Each sample consisted of a pool of equal aliquots of two blood draws 20 min apart. Men aged 30-79 years were randomly selected from the respondents to the Boston Area Community Health Survey, a study of the health of the general population of Boston, MA, USA. Analysis was based on 132 men, including 121 who completed all six visits, 8 who completed the first two visits and 3 who completed the first four visits. Day-to-day and 3-month (long-term) intraindividual standard deviations, after transforming measurements to logarithms to eliminate the contribution of hormone level to intraindividual variation. Biological variation generally accounted for more of total intraindividual variation than did assay variation. Day-to-day biological variation accounted for more of the total than did long-term biological variation. Short-term variability was greater in hormones with pulsatile secretion (e.g. LH) than those that exhibit less ultradian variation. Depending on the hormone, the intraindividual standard deviations imply that a clinician can expect to see a difference exceeding 18-28% about half the time when two measurements are made on a subject. The difference will exceed 27-54% about a quarter of the time. Given the level of intraindividual variability in hormone

  9. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-01-01

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of ‘free’ money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game...

  10. Prospective Analysis on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Semen Parameters in Males with Unexplained Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; Elkhayat, Yasser Ibrahim; Saleh, Sameh Fayek GamalEl Din; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-06-23

    We evaluated the role of Tribulus terrestris in males with unexplained infertility and its effect on serum testosterone and semen parameters. Thirty randomized male patients presenting to Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of idiopathic infertility were selected. They were given Tribulus terrestris (750 mg) in three divided doses for three months. The effect of Tribulus terrestris on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on semen parameters in those patients, was studied. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of testosterone (total and free) and LH and semen parameters (sperm concentration or motility, or abnormal forms) before and after the treatment. In addition, no statistically significant correlations were observed between testosterone (free and total) and LH and semen parameters before and after the treatment. Tribulus terrestris was ineffective in the treatment of idiopathic infertility.

  11. Testosterone like Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Mucuna pruriens Seeds and its Effects on Serum Biochemical Metabolites in Immature Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad*, Zia-ur-Rahman1, Nafees Akhtar and Shujait Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone like activity of seeds of Mucuna pruriens and its effects on serum biochemical metabolites in immature male rats were investigated. Forty eight immature male rats were divided into four equal groups. Rats of groups A and B were orally given ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Mucuna pruriens seeds daily at the dose rate of 500 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 14 days. Rats of group C were injected with testosterone at the dose rate of 2.5 mg/kg body weight daily, while rats of group D served as controls. After 7 days, six rats from each group were euthanized, while the remaining six rats from each group were euthanized after 14 days of treatment. Rats given ethanolic extract gained higher weight compared to controls (P<0.05. Testis weight was the highest in rats treated with testosterone. The effect of treatments on the weight of the liver and the kidneys was non significant. Rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum testosterone concentration than controls. Similarly, rats given ethanolic or aqueous extract had higher serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol compared to controls. Moreover, ethanolic extract treated rats also had higher total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol than aqueous extract treated rats. However, differences in serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol between control and testosterone injected rats were non significant. Serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and ALT activity did not differ among rats of four groups. Serum AST activity and urea were lower in rats treated with ethanolic or aqueous extract compared to controls. Thus, seeds of Mucuna pruriens had testosterone like activity and increased serum total proteins, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, with no adverse effects on the serum LDL cholesterol, liver or kidney functions.

  12. Serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone in children determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Fruekilde, Palle

    2013-01-01

    for quantification of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione and testosterone in serum from pre-pubertal children. Run time was 10.75min. Limits of quantification were as follows: DHEA, 0.88nM; DHEAS, 48nM; 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 0.19nM; Δ4-androstenedione, 0.18nM and testosterone, 0.10nM. Intra-day...

  13. Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in testicular interstitial fluid under thyroxine influence; Avaliacao da testosterona no fluido intersticial testicular sob influencia da tiroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Isvania Maria S. da; Pereira, Simey de L.S.; Souza, Grace Mary L.; Carvalho, Elaine F.M.B.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Silveira, Maria de Fatima G. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia; Lima Filho, Guilherme L. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Nazare da Mata, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Formacao de Professores

    2000-07-01

    The thyroid hormones possibly exert a reciprocal action between testicular steroids and Sertoli's cells during the premature period. This work aims to evaluate thyroxine effect on testosterone serum levels and in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) in rats. Wistar males rats, 22 days old, 80g of body weight, were induced to hyperthyroidism with thyroxine (20{mu}g/kg) in periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 consecutive days. After the treatment the animals were weighed and sacrificed for blood and testis collection. From the blood serum and from the TIF drained from the testis were performed testes in order to obtain testosterone attached to {sup 125} I with a specific activity of 36,86 MBq/ig. The results have shown a testosterone significant lineal increase in both - serum and TIF - in the group treated with thyroxine as a time function. In the control group, testosterone levels remained low in both serum and TIF dosages. As a result, we were able to verify that the testosterone levels could be modified by thyroxine in serum and TIF. And so, it could affect luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in hypophysis. (author)

  14. Serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol concentrations in older men self-reporting very good health: the healthy man study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Gideon; Spasevska, Sasa; Idan, Amanda; Turner, Leo; Forbes, Elise; Zamojska, Anna; Allan, Carolyn A; Ly, Lam P; Conway, Ann J; McLachlan, Robert I; Handelsman, David J

    2012-11-01

    To determine serum concentrations, intra-individual variability and impact of age-related co-morbidities on serum testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E(2)) and estrone (E(1)) in older men. Observational, repeated measures study. Men (n = 325) with 40 years and older self-reporting very good or excellent health. Standardized history, physical examination and collection of nine blood samples at fixed time intervals were measured over 3 months (three at 20 min intervals on days 1 (fasting) and 2 (non-fasting), one at days 7, 30 and 90). Serum T, DHT, E(2) and E(1) (n = 2900, > 99% of scheduled samples) measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were analysed by linear mixed model analysis with fasting, age and obesity as covariables. Mean serum T did not vary with age (P = 0·76) but obesity (-0·35 nM per body mass index (BMI) unit, P 0·28). Serum T, DHT and E(2) displayed no decrease associated with age among men over 40 years of age who self-report very good or excellent health although obesity and ex-smoking status were associated with decreased serum androgens (T and DHT) but not E(2). These findings support the interpretation that the age-related decline in blood T accompanying non-specific symptoms in older men may be due to accumulating age-related co-morbidities rather than a symptomatic androgen deficiency state. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Dynamic analysis of sexual organ weight and serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein, testosterone in male rats with short-term diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Donghui; Wang Zhongshan; Zhao Hui; Xu Zongge

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of short-term diabetes on the changes of sexual organ weights and serum levels of testosterone in male rats. Methods: All rats were divided into control (C) and diabetes (D). Diabetes group was observed on 1 day, 3 days, 5 days, 7 days, 14 days after injection of streptozotocin. All rats were killed for measurement of serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein, testosterone and weights of sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate). Results: The serum levels of glucose, glycosyl protein of diabetes group decreased significantly, compared with those of control group; the serum levels of T lowered remarkably compared with control levels after three days of injection of STZ. The weight of epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate reduced remarkably, compared with control group. The weights of seminal vesicle, prostate negatively correlated with serum levels of glucose and glycosyl protein, and they positively correlated with serum levels of testosterone. Conclusion: The sexual organs (testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate) of male rats with short-term diabetes were damaged, and the changes of sexual organs closely related with the serum levels of testosterone besides irregular metabolism in diabetes

  16. The effect of oral testosterone on serum TBG levels in alcoholic cirrhotic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-three euthyroid male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver were randomly allocated to oral testosterone (200 mg t.i.d.) or placebo and followed for up to 36 months. Triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and T4/TBG ratio were determined...

  17. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...... than 0.01) higher median serum concentrations of oestrone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. The patients were randomized to treatment with either oral micronized testosterone (200 mg t.d.s.) or placebo for a median duration of 1 year. In the placebo group (n...

  18. The study of the androgen receptor profile and changes of level of serum testosterone in human prostatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhining, Gui; Xiaoke, Hu; Hanping, Lu; Wei, Fan; Naiyun, Wu; Jinhui, Gao [Zhongshan University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, GD (China); Hua, Mei; Jinyun, Zeng [First Affiliated Hospital of Zhongshan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, GD (China)

    1993-11-01

    The androgen receptors in biopsy specimens of 22 cases of human prostatic cancer (PC) were studied by radioligand binding assay. The cytoplasmic androgen receptor (AcR) and nuclear androgen receptor (AnR) densities were 305.70 +- 461.68 and 363.04 +- 391.44 pmol/g protein respectively, both were significantly higher than those of 36 benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and 9 normal prostate (NP). Among the prostatic cancers, the AnR/AcR ratios were significantly different between metastatic and primary cancers. This result suggested that there might be migration of AR from nucleus to cytosol in the process of metastasis. The serum testosterone studied by RIA method are significantly lower than that of BPH and NP. Thawmounted autoradiography demonstrated that AR were mainly located in epithelial cells of the glandular tissue of prostate.

  19. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment...

  20. Effect Of Garlic Oil On Haematological Parameters, Blood Respiratory Functions And Serum Testosterone In Male Rats Exposed To An Electromagnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-SHAFEY, A.A.; ALI, E.A.; MARZOOK, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the biological effects of exposure to an electromagnetic field (EMF, 900 MHz) emitted from mobile base station antenna for 4 weeks on haematological parameters, respiratory function of blood (blood gases, acid-base status) and oxygen equilibrium curves beside the levels of serum testosterone and possible protective role of garlic oil (250 mg/kg b.w/day for 4 weeks) in male albino rats. The results revealed significant reductions in haemoglobin (Hb) contents, total leucocytes (WBC) count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and haematocrit value (Hct %) in rats exposed to EMF (GI). These reductions have been ameliorated by garlic oil treatment (GII). Significant increases in oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 ) were observed in arterial (a) and alveolar (A) blood. These increases were reduced by garlic oil treatment. The percent oxygen saturation (% O 2 sat) was significantly decreased in arterial while it was increased significantly in venous blood in both treated groups. There was a significant reduction in carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO 2 ) in the arterial blood after exposure to EMF (GI) which was decreased by garlic oil treatment. Significant reductions were recorded in arterial blood pH, bicarbonate (HCO - 3 ), total carbon dioxide (TCO 2 ) and arterial and venous blood base excess (BE). These reductions were decreased by garlic oil treatment in GII. The blood oxygen equilibrium curves (OEC) of (GI) and (GII) were shifted to the right compared to that of control group with non-significant increases in P 50 . The level of serum testosterone was highly significantly decreased in GI. This reduction was decreased in garlic oil treated group (GII). It can be concluded that garlic oil has a protective role against the hazardous effects of EMF.

  1. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  2. Association of PSA, free-PSA and testosteron levels in serum of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwin Mailana; Kristina Dwi P; Sri Insani WW; Puji Widayati

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening can be done by measuring the concentration levels of PSA, free-PSA and testosterone in serum that examined with radioimmunoassay (RIA). A total of 30 patients of 45-81 years old had enrolled in this study and were taken their venous blood. The aim of research is to know the relationship between PSA and testosterone free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer. Results showed that there was no correlation between age with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.06), but there is a relationship between PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.002), the relationship between free-PSA with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between PSA ratio with BPH and prostate cancer as well as the absence of a relationship between testosterone with BPH and prostate cancer (p = 0.924). (author)

  3. Caffeine intake is not associated with serum testosterone levels in adult men: cross-sectional findings from the NHANES 1999-2004 and 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Advani, Shailesh; Qiu, Xueting; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khera, Mohit; Kim, Jeri; Canfield, Steven

    2018-04-25

    The association of caffeine intake with testosterone remains unclear. We evaluated the association of caffeine intake with serum testosterone among American men and determined whether this association varied by race/ethnicity and measurements of adiposity. Data were analyzed for 2581 men (≥20 years old) who participated in the cycles of the NHANES 1999-2004 and 2011-2012, a cross-sectional study. Testosterone (ng/mL) was measured by immunoassay among men who participated in the morning examination session. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day). Multivariable weighted linear regression models were conducted. We identified no linear relationship between caffeine intake and testosterone levels in the total population, but there was a non-linear association (p nonlinearity  < .01). Similarly, stratified analysis showed nonlinear associations among Mexican-American and Non-Hispanic White men (p nonlinearity  ≤ .03 both) and only among men with waist circumference <102 cm and body mass index <25 kg/m 2 (p nonlinearity  < .01, both). No linear association was identified between levels of caffeine intake and testosterone in US men, but we observed a non-linear association, including among racial/ethnic groups and measurements of adiposity in this cross-sectional study. These associations are warranted to be investigated in larger prospective studies.

  4. Effect of Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone and cortisol in male rats under stress of maximum intensive training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ling; Si Xulan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription on the concentration of the serum testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) in male rats under the stress of maximum intensive training. Methods: Wistar male rat models of stress under maximum intensity training were established (n=40) and half of them were treated with Chinese traditional medicine anti-fatigue prescription twenty undisturbed rats served as controls. Testosterone and cortisol serum levels were determined with RIA at the end of the seven weeks' experiment. Results: Maximum intensive training would cause the level of the serum testosterone lowered, the concentration of the cortisol elevated and the ratio of T/C reduced. The serum T levels and T/C ratio were significantly lower and cortisol levels significantly higher in the untreated models than those in the treated models and controls (P<0.01). The levels of the two hormones were markedly corrected in the treated models with no significantly differences from those in the controls. However, the T/C ratio was still significantly lower than that in the controls (P <0.05) due to a relatively slightly greater degree of reduction of T levels. Conclusion: Anti-fatigue prescription can not only promote the recovery of fatigue after the maximum intensive training but also strengthen the anabolism of the rats. (authors)

  5. Recovery of normal testicular temperature after scrotal heat stress in rams assessed by infrared thermography and its effects on seminal characteristics and testosterone blood serum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maíra Bianchi Rodrigues; Andrade, André Furugen Cesar de; Arruda, Rubens Paes de; Batissaco, Leonardo; Florez-Rodriguez, Shirley Andrea; Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins de; Torres, Mariana Andrade; Lançoni, Renata; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Prado Filho, Roberto Romano do; Vellone, Vinícius Silva; Losano, João Diego de Agostini; Franci, Celso Rodrigues; Nichi, Marcílio; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Reestablishment of testicular normal temperature after testicular heat stress is unknown and its effect varies widely. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of scrotal insulation (IN) on testicular temperature and its relation to semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. For this, 33 rams were used; 17 submitted to IN for 72 hours (using bags involving the testes) and 16 not submitted to IN (control group). The experiment was performed between August and December 2013 in Pirassununga, Brazil (21°56″13″ South/47°28'24″ West). Seminal characteristics, testosterone blood serum concentration, rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency, scrotal superficies mean temperature (SSMT), and eye area mean temperature (EAMT) were analyzed 7 days before IN and 21, 35, 49, 63, and 90 days afterward. Scrotal superficies mean temperature and EAMT were measured by thermography camera FLIR T620. Testosterone was evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance was used to determine the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-by-time interaction using PROC MIXED of SAS software adding command REPEAT. Pearson correlation test was used to verify correlation between SSMT, EAMT, RT, and respiratory frequency. Significant difference was considered when P ≤ 0.05. At the end of IN, SSMT was higher (P blood serum concentration was lesser in insulated rams (P = 0.03). Thus, the difference of 1.12 °C between RT and testicular temperature impacts semen quality and testosterone blood serum concentration. Moreover, this study shows that rams can recover testes temperature efficiently toward IN and that infrared thermography is an efficient tool to identify differences on SSMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in the treatment of male hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore M Lakshman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Kishore M Lakshman, Shehzad BasariaSection of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition. Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Transdermal testosterone gels were first introduced in the US in 2000. Since then, they have emerged as a favorable mode of testosterone substitution. Serum testosterone levels reach a steady-state in the first 24 hours of application and remain in the normal range for the duration of the application. This pharmacokinetic profile is comparable to that of testosterone patch but superior to injectable testosterone esters that are associated with peaks and troughs with each dose. Testosterone gels are as efficacious as patches and injectable forms in their effects on sexual function and mood. Anticipated increases in prostate-specific antigen with testosterone therapy are not significantly different with testosterone gels, and the risk of polycythemia is lower than injectable modalities. Application site reactions, a major drawback of testosterone patches, occur less frequently with testosterone gels. However, inter-personal transfer is a concern if appropriate precautions are not taken. Superior tolerability and dose flexibility make testosterone gel highly desirable over other modalities of testosterone replacement. Androgel and Testim, the two currently available testosterone gel products in the US, have certain brandspecific properties that clinicians may consider prior to prescribing.Keywords: testosterone gel, Androgel, Testim, hypogonadism

  7. High Yolk Testosterone Transfer Is Associated with an Increased Female Metabolic Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Canale, Cindy I; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Yolk androgens of maternal origin are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although in many species short-term benefits of exposure to high yolk androgen concentrations for the offspring have been observed, females differ substantially in the amount of androgens they transfer to their eggs. It suggests that costs for the offspring or the mother constrain the evolution of maternal hormone transfer. However, to date, the nature of these costs remains poorly understood. Unlike most previous work that focused on potential costs for the offspring, we here investigated whether high yolk testosterone transfer is associated with metabolic costs (i.e., a higher metabolic rate) for the mother. We show that Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) females that deposit higher testosterone concentrations into their eggs have a higher resting metabolic rate. Because a higher metabolic rate is often associated with a shorter life span, this relationship may explain the negative association between yolk testosterone transfer and female longevity observed in the wild. Our results suggest that metabolic costs for the mother can balance the short-term benefits of yolk testosterone exposure for the offspring, thereby contributing to the maintenance of variation in maternal yolk hormone transfer in natural populations.

  8. The correlation between LH determination in the urine (luteonosticon and HI-gonavis) and serum LH, FSH, oestradiol, progesterone testosterone and prolactin levels at midcycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeter, P.; Woegerbauer, C.; Gring, H.; Salzer, H.; Friedrich, F.; Breitenecker, G.

    1979-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays (RIA) were carried out of serum gonadotrophins, prolactin, oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone at the time of presumed ovulation in 15 normal cycles and in 4 clomiphen-stimulated cycles of 14 women. In addition, daily measurements of LH in urine were performed using two semiquantitative methods: Luteonosticon and HI-Gonavis. Finally, the viscosity of the cervical mucus was assessed daily in order to find out the optimum time for conception. LH in serum, as well as in urine, increased significantly at midcycle and so did FSH, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin and viscosity. Lutenosticon, used in the modification of Keller and Gerber 1970 showed the first significant increase 2 days before the serum LH peak. HI-Gonavis, on the other hand, showed a significant increase only on the day of LH peak in serum. The best correlation of the 3 LH methods was found between LH in serum (RIA) and HI-Gonavis in urine. For the evaluation of the optimum time for conception in normal and clomiphen-stimulated cycles, determination of the uriany LH increase at midcycle by HI-Gonavis appears to be the most economic, both in time and expense, hormone method tested. Since only one significant increase in LH becomes apparent at midcycle by this method, the interpretation of the results is easy and additional gynaecological investigations are, thus, not absolutely necessary. (author)

  9. Pilot Study on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Erectile Function in Aging Males With Partial Androgen Deficiency (PADAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; El Khayat, Yasser Ibrahim; GamalEl Din, Sameh Fayek; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-05-18

    This study was conducted on 30 consecutive male patients presenting to Kasr-Al Ainy Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of manifestations of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM). In this study (750 mg/day) of Tribulus terrestris in 3 divided doses, each of 250 mg, as an endogenous testosterone enhancer had been tried for a duration of 3 months and the evaluation of its effect had been monitored for each patient concerning its effect on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on erectile function, which was evaluated by the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire for those patients. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the level of testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant difference in the level of LH before and after treatment. Also, the study showed statistically significant correlation between testosterone (total and free) and IIEF-5, but no statistically significant correlation between the level of LH and the IIEF-5 before and after treatment.

  10. Power increases the socially toxic component of narcissism among individuals with high baseline testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Nicole L; Baumeister, Roy F; Stuppy, Anika; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2018-04-01

    The corrosive effects of power have been noted for centuries, but the self-related changes responsible for those effects have remained somewhat elusive. Narcissists tend to rise to-and abuse-positions of power, so we considered the possibility that positions of power may corrupt because they inflate narcissism. Two pathways were considered: Powerholders abuse their power because having power over others makes them feel superior (grandiosity pathway) or deserving of special treatment (entitlement pathway). Supporting the entitlement pathway, assigning participants to a position of power (vs. equal control) over a group task increased scores on the Exploitative/Entitlement component of narcissism among those with high baseline testosterone. What is more, heightened Exploitative/Entitlement scores among high-testosterone participants endowed with power (vs. equal control) statistically explained amplified self-reported willingness to misuse their power (e.g., taking fringe benefits as extra compensation). The grandiosity pathway was not well supported. The Superiority/Arrogance, Self-Absorption/Self-Admiration, and Leadership/Authority facets of narcissism did not change as a function of the power manipulation and testosterone levels. Taken together, these results suggest that people with high (but not low) testosterone may be inclined to misuse their power because having power over others makes them feel entitled to special treatment. This work identifies testosterone as a characteristic that contributes to the development of the socially toxic component of narcissism (Exploitative/Entitlement). It points to the possibility that structural positions of power and individual differences in narcissism may be mutually reinforcing, suggesting a vicious cycle with personal, relational, and societal implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Local Preparation and Evaluation of Double - antibody Liquid Phase Radioimmunoassay System for Detection of Human Testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafik, H.M.; Sallam, Kh.M.; Ebeid, N.H.; Elshaer, M.R.; Elshae, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation, evaluation and optimization of testosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) system using liquid phase double antibody is considered to be the main objective. Three primary components were prepared and characterized to obtain valid and accurate system. These components were polyclonal testosterone antibody, the "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer and set of testosterone standards. The production of polyclonal testosterone antibody was undertaken by immunizing two groups of females white New-Zealand rabbits with testosterone-3-(O-carboxy methyloxime): BSA as immunogen through primary immunization and five boosters. Both R 1 and R 4 gave anti-serum has a high immuno reactivity. The preparation of "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer was carried out using three different conjugates (testosterone-3-TME, testosterone-3-histamine and testosterone-3-BSA) by electrophilic substitution mechanism using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Tracers were characterized in terms of radiochemical yield %, radiochemical purity %, specific activity and immuno reactivity. A set of testosterone standards were prepared using highly purified testosterone antigen. Optimization and validation tests of the local liquid phase RIA system were carried out. In conclusion, the results showed that, the local testosterone RIA system is sensitive, specific and accurate with significant cost reduction in comparison with commertial kit and extended use of the method for routine investigation of variety of diseases especially hypogonadism and associated male infertility

  12. The bone mass density in men aged over 50 and its relation to the concentration of free and total testosterone in the blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purzycka-Jazdon, A.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Manysiak, S.

    2003-01-01

    As the mean length of life increases, osteoporosis affects a growing number of men and women, thus becoming an important medical and socioeconomic problem in many countries. Pathogenesis and the prevalence of the osteoporosis in women are well established, however, in men, they are still controversial. In this study, the bone mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was determined in 100 healthy men age 50-83, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Also, the total serum and free testosterone was measured. The mean BMD was 123.1I39.3 mg/cm 3 , and the values below a fracture threshold were noted in 39% of subjects. The mean concentration of total and free serum testosterone was 4.3I1.7 ng/ml and 6.2I3.7 pg/ml, respectively. There was a significant (p 3 , respectively). There was no correlation found between total testosterone and BMD. Results indicate that reduced bone mass density in males over 50 is as frequent as recently reported in females. Moreover, sex hormones seem to be related to osteoporosis development in men as well. (author)

  13. Synthesis of [1,2-3H] testosterone of high specific radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jiaxiu; Sun Zhiwei; Shen Decun

    1987-01-01

    [1,2- 3 H] testosterone of specific activity as high as 51 Ci/mmol, and radiochemical purity more than 99% has been prepared. The experimental conditions, such as reaction time, ratio of raw material to catalyst and separation method have been studied. The product was separated by silica-paper TLC (thin-laryer chromatography) at first, then purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The product has good stability with a purity of 95% after one year storage

  14. Levels of the natural hormones 17β-oestradiol and testosterone in serum of cattle: results from population studies in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study is a comprehensive overview of the natural occurrence of 17β-oestradiol and testosterone in serum of cattle in Poland. Material and Methods: The serum samples (n = 826 were collected from cattle within five years. The samples were examined for the presence of oestradiol and testosterone using ELISA or gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results: In 98 samples (24% 17β-oestradiol was detected above decision limits of applied methods, including five samples over the recommended concentration of 0.1 μg L-1. Of the serum samples taken from cows (≤18 months of age, 95 and 99 percentiles of the animals had 17β-oestradiol concentration below 0.027 and 0.086 μg L-1 and of samples from cows over 18 months of age - below 0.059 and 0.125 μg L-1 respectively. Calculated values for bulls (≤18 months of age were 0.025 and 0.034 μg L-1 and for the animals older than 18 months of age - 0.035 and 0.041 μg L-1. The natural presence of testosterone was detected in 201 serum samples (48.7%. According to the obtained data, 95% and 99% of cows (≤18 months of age serum samples had testosterone concentration below 0.05 and 0.23 μg L-1 and the animals over 18 months of age - 0.30 and 0.49 μg L-1, respectively. For bulls these values did not depend on the age of the animals and were in the ranges of 5 - 6.3 μg L-1 (95% and 11.4 - 12.1 μg L-1 (99%. Conclusion: Our study showed that the threshold values for these hormones in plasma of cattle designated years ago are correct, but they need to be supplemented for animals older than 18 months.

  15. Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Jefe de la Unidad de Reproducción, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura y Jefe del Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Doctor en Medicina y Doctor en Ciencias. Especialista en Endocrinología.

    2011-01-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulti...

  16. Long Rest Interval Promotes Durable Testosterone Responses in High-Intensity Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudese, Estevão; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; Vingren, Jakob L; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Baffi, Matheus; Miranda, Humberto

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of rest period duration (1 vs. 3 minute between sets) on acute hormone responses to a high-intensity and equal volume bench press workout. Ten resistance-trained men (25.2 ± 5.6 years; 78.2 ± 5.7 kg; 176.7 ± 5.4 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.3 ± 0.1 kg per kilogram of body mass) performed 2 bench press workouts separated by 1 week. Each workout consisted of 5 sets of 3 repetitions performed at 85% of 1 repetition maximum, with either 1- or 3-minute rest between sets. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol (C), testosterone/cortisol ratio (TT/C), and growth hormone (GH) were measured at preworkout (PRE), and immediately (T0), 15 minutes (T15), and 30 minutes (T30) postworkout. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded before and after each set. For TT, both rest lengths enhanced all postexercise verifications (T0, T15, and T30) compared with PRE, with 1 minute showing decreases on T15 and T30 compared with T0. For FT, both 1- and 3-minute rest protocols triggered augmentations on distinct postexercise moments (T0 and T15 for 1 minute; T15 and T30 for 3-minute) compared with PRE. The C values did not change throughout any postexercise verification for either rests. The TT/C ratio was significantly elevated for both rests in all postexercise moments compared with PRE. Finally, GH values did not change for both rest lengths. In conclusion, although both short and long rest periods enhanced acute testosterone values, the longer rest promoted a long-lasting elevation for both TT and FT.

  17. Acute effects of high-intensity interval, resistance or combined exercise protocols on testosterone - cortisol responses in inactive overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Orjuela, Gina P; Domínguez-Sanchéz, María A; Hernández, Enrique; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Triana-Reina, Héctor R; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Izquierdo, Mikel; Cadore, Eduardo L; Hackney, Anthony C; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2018-06-22

    The purpose of this study was to compare the hormonal responses to one session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% maximum heart rate [HRmax], interspersed with 4 min of recovery at 75-85% HRmax), resistance training (RT at 50-70% of one repetition maximum 12-15 repetitions per set with 60s of recovery) or both (HIIT+RT) exercise protocol in a cohort of physical inactivity, overweight adults (age 18-30 years old). Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial among fifty-one men (23.6 ± 3.5 yr; 83.5 ± 7.8 kg; 28.0 ± 1.9 kg/m2), physical inactivity (i.e., 6 months), with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm) or body mass index ≥25 and ≤30 kg/m 2 were randomized to the following 4 groups: high-intensity interval training (HIIT, n = 14), resistance training (RT, n = 12), combined high-intensity interval and resistance training (HIIT+RT, n = 13), or non-exercising control (CON, n = 12). Cortisol, total- and free-testosterone and total-testosterone/cortisol-ratio (T/C) assessments (all in serum) were determined before (pre) and 1-min post-exercise for each protocol session. Decreases in cortisol levels were -57.08 (95%CI, -75.58 to -38.58; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.61) and - 37.65 (95%CI, -54.36 to -20.93; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.51) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. Increases in T/C ratio were 0.022 (95%CI, 0.012 to 0.031; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.49) and 0.015 (95%CI, 0.004 to 0.025; P = 0.007; ɳ 2  = 0.29) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. In per-protocol analyses revealed a significant change in cortisol levels [interaction effect F( 7.777 ), ɳ 2  = 0.33] and T/C ratio [interaction effect F( 5.298 ), ɳ 2  = 0.25] between groups over time. Additionally, we showed that in both the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses, HIIT+RT did not change serum cortisol, total or free testosterone. The present

  18. Dynamics of serum testosterone during the menstrual cycle evaluated by daily measurements with an ID-LC-MS/MS method and a 2nd generation automated immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Hong N.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Blincko, Stuart; Knol, Dirk L.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in normally cycling women are assumed to be elevated around the time of ovulation. The clinical relevance of changing testosterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle, however, is unclear. Poor performance of current direct immunoassays for testosterone at low

  19. Testosterone and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  20. The "trouble" with salivary testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Douglas A; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Booth, Alan; Kivlighan, Katie T; Schwartz, Eve B

    2004-11-01

    In a series of studies, we identify several specific issues that can limit the value of integrating salivary testosterone in biosocial research. Salivary testosterone measurements can be substantially influenced during the process of sample collection, are susceptible to interference effects caused by the leakage of blood (plasma) into saliva, and are sensitive to storage conditions when samples have been archived. There are gender differences in salivary testosterone levels and variance, the serum-saliva association, the relationship of salivary testosterone to age and pubertal development, and the stability of individual differences in salivary testosterone levels over time. The findings have important implications at several levels of analysis for research that aims to test biosocial models of testosterone--behavior relationships. Recommendations are provided to steer investigators around these "troubles" with salivary testosterone.

  1. Increased level of miRNA 30b-3p in patients with prostatic hyperplasia and testosterone with high-level of prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasnaa Jumaa Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer (PCa is the most common causing cancer-related in death in men and lack of reliable diagnostic tool. MicroRNAs are small molecules single-stranded RNA that affecting protein expression at the level of translation and dysregulation can dramatically affect cell metabolism. However, the using of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for diagnosis of PCa is still unknown. Methods: Ten patients with prostatic hyperplasia with high-level of PSA and 10 healthy controls were conducted in this study. The reverse transcription of miRNA based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR were used for evaluating the dysregulation of miRNA 30b-3p and using of ELISA to evaluate the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA and testosterone hormone. Results: Circulating miRNA 30b-3p level was increased in patients with prostatic hyperplasia with higher level of PSA as compared with healthy controls. Also, the testosterone hormone was increased in those patients as compared with normal level of testosterone in healthy individuals. Conclusion: The serum miRNA 30b-3p level increased in patients with hyperplasia in prostate and may be one of potential biomarker for diagnosis of PCa.

  2. Ivermectin reduces motor coordination, serum testosterone, and central neurotransmitter levels but does not affect sexual motivation in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, N; Sandini, T M; Reis-Silva, T M; Navas-Suáresz, P; Auada, A V V; Lebrun, I; Flório, J C; Bernardi, M M; Spinosa, H S

    2017-12-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a macrocyclic lactone used for the treatment of parasitic infections and widely used in veterinary medicine as endectocide. In mammals, evidence indicates that IVM interacts with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated chloride channels. GABAergic system is involved in the manifestation of sexual behavior. We previously found that IVM at therapeutic doses did not alter sexual behavior in male rats, but at a higher dose, the appetitive phase of sexual behavior was impaired. Thus, we investigated whether the reduction of sexual behavior that was previously observed was a consequence of motor or motivational deficits that are induced by IVM. Data showed significant decrease in striatal dopaminergic system activity and lower testosterone levels but no effects on sexual motivation or penile erection. These findings suggest IVM may activate the GABAergic system and reduce testosterone levels, resulting in a reduction of motor coordination as consequence of the inhibition of striatal dopamine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  4. Testosterone for the aging male; current evidence and recommended practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Stanworth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger D Stanworth, T Hugh JonesCentre of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom; Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United KingdomAbstract: An international consensus document was recently published and provides guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in men. The diagnosis of LOH requires biochemical and clinical components. Controversy in defining the clinical syndrome continues due to the high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the aging male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Further controversy surrounds setting a lower limit of normal testosterone, the limitations of the commonly available total testosterone result in assessing some patients and the unavailability of reliable measures of bioavailable or free testosterone for general clinical use. As with any clinical intervention testosterone treatment should be judged on a balance of risk versus benefit. The traditional benefits of testosterone on sexual function, mood, strength and quality of life remain the primary goals of treatment but possible beneficial effects on other parameters such as bone density, obesity, insulin resistance and angina are emerging and will be reviewed. Potential concerns regarding the effects of testosterone on prostate disease, aggression and polycythaemia will also be addressed. The options available for treatment have increased in recent years with the availability of a number of testosterone preparations which can reliably produce physiological serum concentrations.Keywords: review, testosterone, male, aging

  5. PREVALENCE OF TESTOSTERONE DEFICIENCY IN PATIENTS OF DIABETES MELLITUS LESS THAN 40 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus is common endocrine disorder which involves multiple organs and leads to significant morbidity and mortality due to accompanying complications. Erectile dysfunction, reduced libido, orgasmic dysfunction, and retrograde ejaculation are established complications found with variable prevalence in men with diabetes. METHODOLOGY In the present study, total 90 male patients of diabetes mellitus of age below 40 years were taken from medical outpatient department and indoor patients of medical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital of South Delhi. They were evaluated for complains regarding sexual dysfunction. Hormonal assays of serum free testosterone, LH, FSH, C-peptide, HbA1c and lipid profile were carried out in all patients. RESULT Present study shows that testosterone deficiency is quite common in young diabetic patients. Low serum free testosterone was more common in type 2 diabetes as compared to type 1 diabetes (38.46% Vs 29.41%. BMI has significant effect on serum free testosterone levels. Patients with higher BMI had negative correlation to free testosterone although testosterone deficiency was also seen in few lean patients. High serum triglyceride and low serum HDL were seen more frequently in patients with low free testosterone. CONCLUSION This study reveals that hypogonadism is not a rarity even at initial stages of diabetes. This study, although small, highlights importance of assessment of young diabetic patients for sexual dysfunction and hypogonadism.

  6. Thyroid hormones and thyroxine-binding globulin in relation to liver function and serum testosterone in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, U; Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) increased with progressing liver dysfunction. Serum concentrations of tetraiodothyronine (T4), TBG and T4/TBG ratio did not correlate significantly with liver function. Serum T3 concentrations...

  7. Avaliação dos níveis séricos de testosterona em pacientes com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Drimel Molina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Homens com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS podem apresentar diminuição dos níveis de testosterona devido à hipóxia. OBJETIVOS: Relacionar os níveis séricos da testosterona, em pacientes com SAOS, com parâmetros clínico-laboratoriais. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados 103 prontuários de pacientes com SAOS, entre os anos de 2002 e 2009, e coletados os seguintes dados: idade à época da realização da polissonografia, valores do Hematócrito e Hemoglobina, nível sérico da testosterona total, IMC, índice de apneia/hipopneia(IAH e SatO2. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Estudo de casos retrospectivo em corte transversal. RESULTADOS: 79 pacientes (77% não apresentaram alteração hormonal e 24 (23% apresentaram níveis séricos inferiores. Dos pacientes com testosterona normal 70% estavam com sobrepeso, enquanto que 63% com testosterona alterada apresentaram obesidade grau I (pMales with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS may present decreased testosterone serum levels because of hypoxemia. AIM: To correlate testosterone levels in OSAS patients with laboratory parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 103 registries of OSAS patients were reviewed from 2002 to 2009. The following data collected: age when polysomnography was done, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, total testosterone serum levels, BMI, apnea/hypopnea index (AHI, and O2 saturation. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional retrospective case study. RESULTS: 79 patients (77% had no hormonal changes, and 24 patients (23% had decreased serum levels. In patients with normal testosterone levels, 70% were overweight; 63% with altered testosterone levels had obesity grade I (p<0.05. Patients with altered testosterone levels had significantly lower average doses of Ht, Hb and androgen compared to patients without altered androgen levels. The average BMI of patients with altered hormone levels was significantly higher compared to patients with normal hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship

  8. The Simultaneous measurement of serum testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannenberg, Frank; Fobker, Manfred; Schulte, Erhard; Pierściński, Grzegorz; Kelsch, Reinhard; Zitzmann, Michael; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; Schüring, Andreas N

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of testosterone (T) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is important for diagnosing androgen deficiency states and hyperandrogenism in males and females, respectively. However, immunoassays used for T and DHT determination suffer from inadequate specificity and sensitivity, while tandem mass spectrometry is expensive and demanding in use. We developed a selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for parallel T and DHT measurement. The assay showed a linear response up to 46.5nmol/L, intra- and interassay imprecision and inaccuracy 90% for both analytes. The limit of quantitation was 0.117nmol/L for T and 0.168nmol/L for DHT. Comparison with immunoassays revealed good agreement for T in males, but a bias in favour of immunoassays at low concentrations for T in females and DHT in both sexes. We established reference ranges for T and DHT and suggest interval partitioning for T according to age in men and menstrual cycle in women. Assay validation in a clinical setting suggests that measuring DHT or T/DHT ratio may help identify patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. We developed a selective, simple and inexpensive GC-MS method for parallel measurement of T and DHT with potential use in the clinical laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability of salivary testosterone measurements in diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Youssef

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active testosterone in the serum. Salivary testosterone provides a sensitive, simple, reliable, non-invasive and uncomplicated diagnostic approach for PCOS.

  10. Short-term parenteral and peroral testosterone administration in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Dietrichson, O

    1981-01-01

    other day, rather constant serum concentrations with median values of about 30 ng/ml were reached after 4 days. Peroral testosterone administration (800 mg micronized free testosterone) each day also resulted in fairly constant serum concentrations after 4 days, and the median values were about 50 ng......Serum concentrations of testosterone were measured in 24 male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis during testosterone administration. The purpose was to compare serum concentrations of testosterone during peroral with those during parenteral testosterone administration in these patients. Patients who...... were injected intramuscularly with a combination of short- and long-acting testosterone (Triolandren, 348 mg testosterone) had median peak values of serum testosterone of about 40 ng/ml, which fell to basal levels after a fortnight. During testosterone propionate injections (84 mg testosterone) every...

  11. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not apply any testosterone topical products to your penis or scrotum or to skin that has sores, ... are severe or do not go away: breast enlargement and/or pain decreased sexual desire acne depression ...

  12. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waksmonski, Sarah N; Huffman, Justin M; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels ( Glaucomys ): one known to regularly host a nematode species ( Strongyloides robustus ) without ill effects ( G. volans ) and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels ( G. sabrinus, G. volans ) with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV), and compared levels to endoparasites detected in individual squirrels. Qualitatively, we found highest levels of testosterone in male northern flying squirrels infected with Strongyloides robustus . This analytical approach represents an alternative and equally reliable method to using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), for detecting and quantifying fecal testosterone levels.

  13. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp. using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N. Waksmonski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys: one known to regularly host a nematode species (Strongyloides robustus without ill effects (G. volans and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels (G. sabrinus, G. volans with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV, and compared levels to endoparasites detected in individual squirrels. Qualitatively, we found highest levels of testosterone in male northern flying squirrels infected with Strongyloides robustus. This analytical approach represents an alternative and equally reliable method to using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, for detecting and quantifying fecal testosterone levels.

  14. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798...... serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes....... Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation...

  15. High serum enalaprilat in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, T; Heisterberg, J; Kamper, A L

    2001-01-01

    renal failure. METHODS: Fifty nine out-patients with plasma creatinine >150 micromol/L and chronic antihypertensive treatment with enalapril were investigated, in a cross-sectional design. RESULTS: Median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 23(range 6-60) ml/minute/1.73 m2. The daily dose of enalapril......-68) ml/minute and correlated linearly with GFR (r=0.86, p=0.003). Intra-subject day-to-day variation in trough concentrations was 19.7%. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic renal failure given small or moderately high doses of enalapril may thus have markedly elevated levels of serum enalaprilat. Whether...

  16. Hemoglobina y testosterona: importancia en la aclimatación y adaptación a la altura Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Gonzales

    2011-03-01

    temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  17. Serum levels at moment of breeding of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and progesterone in Saanen goats females during normal and induced heat and testosterone in 12 Saanen goats males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestes, Nereu C.; Vulcano, Luiz C.; Mamprim, Maria J.; Oba, Eunice

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to measure the level of triiodothyronine(T 3 ), thyroxine(T 4 ) and progesterone in the serum of females Saanen goats. The progesterone levels were: 0.59 and 0.79 ng/μl considering breeding during normal and induced heat respectively. The T 3 values were: 192.8 and 251.32 ng/dl while T 4 values were: 36.38 and 31.68 ng/dl in the same condition above. The average testosterone level at the moment of breeding in the serum of 12 males was 1.38 pg/ml. (author)

  18. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  19. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  20. Acute effect of a fight of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA on the serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, creatine kinase, lactate, and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Poderoso de Souza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the serum concentrations of testosterone (T, cortisol (C, lactate (LAC, creatine kinase (CK and glucose (GLU on mixed martial arts (MMA athletes, before and after a fight. We divided 20 MMA athletes into two groups of 10 fighters each, according to the result of a fight, and were then evaluated four times: 24 hours before (-24h, one hour before (-1h, immediately after (0h and 24 hours after the fight (+24h. It was observed: a significant decrease in T and T/C between moment -24h and 0h and a subsequent increase between the moment 0h and +24h and a reverse behaviour in variables C, LAC and GLU (p<0.0001; a decrease in CK between moment -24h and -1h and an increase between moment -1h and +24h (p<0.0001; and differences between winners and losers T levels, in moments -24h, -1h, 0h and +24h (p = 0.009 e p < 0.001, p = 0.005 e p = 0,001, T and C, respectively, in T/C in the moments -24h and 0h (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively and in GLU levels (p<0.0001 in the moment 0h. Therefore, it seems that an MMA fight leads to metabolic stress and muscle damage, regardless of the result of the fight. The coaches have now more biochemical and hormonal references and indicators in response to an MMA fight.

  1. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  2. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  3. Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lucas; Planas, Jacques; Carles, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Comas, Inma; Ferrer, Roser; Morote, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9-120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18-3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16-3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Generation of Small Single Domain Nanobody Binders for Sensitive Detection of Testosterone by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Zhu, Min; Ma, Lu; Yan, Junrong; Lu, Xiaoling; Shen, Yanfei; Wan, Yakun

    2016-06-08

    A phage display library of variable domain of the heavy chain only antibody or nanobody (Nb) was constructed after immunizing a bactrian camel with testosterone. With the smaller molecular size (15 kDa), improved solubility, good stability, high affinity, specificity, and lower immunogenicity, Nbs are a promising tool in the next generation of diagnosis and medical applications. Testosterone is a reproductive hormone, playing an important role in normal cardiac function and being the highly predictive marker for many diseases. Herein, a simple and sensitive immunosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Nbs was successfully developed for the determination of testosterone. We successfully isolated the antitestosterone Nbs from an immune phage display library. Moreover, one of the Nbs was biotinylated according to in vivo BirA system, which showed the highest production yield and the most stable case. Further, the EIS immunosensor was set up for testosterone detection by applying the biotinylated antitestosterone Nb. As a result, the biosensor exhibited a linear working range from 0.05 to 5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.045 ng mL(-1). In addition, the proposed immunosensor was successfully applied in determining testosterone in serum samples. In conclusion, the proposed immunosensor revealed high specificity of testosterone detection and showed as a potential approach for sensitive and accurate diagnosis of testosterone.

  5. High protein diets do not attenuate decrements in testosterone and IGF-I during energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Paul C; Margolis, Lee M; McClung, James P; Young, Andrew J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2014-05-01

    Energy deficit (ED) diminishes fat-free mass (FFM) with concomitant reductions in anabolic hormone secretion. A modest increase in protein to recommended dietary allowance (RDA) levels during ED minimally attenuates decrements in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). The impact of dietary protein above the RDA on circulating anabolic hormones and their relationships with FFM in response to ED are not well described. Thirty-three adults were assigned diets providing protein at 0.8 (RDA), 1.6 (2×-RDA), and 2.4 (3×-RDA) g/kg/d for 31days. Testosterone, sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I system components were assessed after a 10-day period of weight-maintenance (WM) and after a 21-day period of ED (40%) achieved by an increase in energy expenditure and decreased energy intake. Associations between the change in FFM and anabolic hormone levels were determined. As compared to WM and regardless of dietary protein intake, total and free testosterone, total IGF-I, and acid-labile subunit decreased (Phormones or IGF-I system components measured. Changes in FFM in response to ED were negatively associated with acid-labile subunit (ALS) (r=-0.62, Phormone concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. GnRHR-II knockdown swine have constitutively lower serum testosterone concentrations, impaired senstitivity to GnRH analogues and reduced semen quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second mammalian GnRH isoform (GnRH-II) and its specific receptor (GnRHR-II) are abundantly produced within swine testes. GnRHR-II localizes to porcine Leydig cells and exogenous GnRH-II treatment robustly stimulates testosterone production in vivo, despite minimal secretion of luteinizing hormo...

  7. Heavy Resistance Training and Supplementation With the Alleged Testosterone Booster Nmda has No Effect on Body Composition, Muscle Performance, and Serum Hormones Associated With the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal (HPG axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA (p 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p 0.05. In both groups, lower-body muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p 0.05. All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle.

  8. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette; Johannsen, Trine Holm; Main, Katharina Maria; Jørgensen, Niels; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Juul, Anders

    2014-11-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798 serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes and generally higher in males than in females except for Adione. The pubertal rise in T in males was more pronounced compared to females, reflecting contribution from the testes. Ratios between steroid metabolites varied and depended on sex and age. All ratios were lower during infancy compared to later in life. Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation to sex, age and pubertal development. Use of oral contraceptives strongly influences adrenal steroidogenesis and should be considered when diagnosing and monitoring treatment of patients with disorders of sex development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Low Testosterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine Agergaard; Jensen, Tina Kold; Linneberg, Allan René

    2016-01-01

    Context: Low serum T levels have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unresolved whether low T is a risk factor or rather a risk marker for these conditions. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate serum levels of total T, SHBG, fr...

  10. Vitamin D supplementation and testosterone concentrations in male human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Oosterwerff, Mirjam; Schroten, Nicolas F.; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M. W.; Chel, Victor G. M.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Lips, Paul

    ObjectiveA possible association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and testosterone levels has been reported; however, contradictory results have emerged. DesignTo investigate a causal link between vitamin D and testosterone status, we studied the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum

  11. A Low-Testosterone State Associated with Endometrioma Leads to the Apoptosis of Granulosa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshihiro J.; Tanabe, Akiko; Nakamura, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Hayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Tomohito; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), the mechanism(s) underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis. PMID:25536335

  12. A low-testosterone state associated with endometrioma leads to the apoptosis of granulosa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro J Ono

    Full Text Available Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI, the mechanism(s underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis.

  13. Treatment of pain in fibromyalgia patients with testosterone gel: Pharmacokinetics and clinical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hillary D; Brown, Lin A J; Gyurik, Robert J; Manganiello, Paul D; Robinson, Thomas D; Hallock, Linda S; Lewis, Lionel D; Yeo, Kiang-Teck J

    2015-08-01

    To test our hypothesis that testosterone deficiency plays an important role in chronic pain, a Phase I/II pilot study was initiated with 12 fibromyalgia patients to verify that a daily dose for 28days with transdermal testosterone gel would 1) significantly and safely increase mean serum testosterone concentrations from low baseline levels to mid/high-normal levels, and 2) effectively treat the pain and fatigue symptoms of fibromyalgia. Pharmacokinetic data confirmed that serum free testosterone concentrations were raised significantly above baseline levels, by assessment of maximum hormone concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) parameters: free testosterone Cmax was significantly raised from a mean of 2.64pg/mL to 3.91pg/mL (pfibromyalgia by patient questionnaire and tender point exam demonstrated significant change in: decreased muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue, and increased libido during study treatment. These results are consistent with the hypothesized ability of testosterone to relieve the symptoms of fibromyalgia. Symptoms not tightly related to fibromyalgia were not improved. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an essential hormone for women, with physiological actions mediated directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol throughout the body. Despite the crucial role of testosterone and the high circulating concentrations of this hormone relative to oestradiol in women, studies of its...... action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...

  15. Decline of plasma 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels upon testosterone administration to elderly men with subnormal plasma testosterone and high DHT levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Saad, F; Haide, A; Yassin, A

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to measure the impact of testosterone (T) administration on circulating levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Group 1 (32 men; mean age 61 years; mean T 6.9 +/- 1.9 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 15 months with long-acting T undecanoate. Group 2 (23 men, mean age 60 years, mean T 7.6 +/- 2.0 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 9 months with T gel. Plasma T and DHT were measured before and after 9 months T administration. In the men treated with T undecanoate plasma T and DHT were also measured after 12 and 15 months. Before T administration, plasma DHT ranged from 0.39 to 1.76 nmol l(-1) (0.30-1.90 nmol l(-1)). Mean DHT declined upon T administration from 0.95 +/- 0.50 to 0.55 +/- 0.30 nmol l(-1) (P DHT > 0.60 nmol l(-1) had fallen from 1.29 +/- 0.50 to 0.70 +/- 0.60 nmol l(-1) (P DHT levels declined upon T administration when they were in the higher range of normal (>0.6 nmol l(-1)), with a profound shift of DHT/T ratios presumed to be an indicator of a reduced 5alpha-reductase activity. Below plasma DHT levels of 0.6 nmol l(-1), responses of plasma DHT to T administration varied.

  16. EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE DOES NOT INDUCE OR EXACERBATE THE METABOLIC FEATURES ASSOCIATED WITH PCOS AMONG TRANSGENDER MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kelly J; Liang, Jennifer J; Jolly, Divya; Weinand, Jamie D; Safer, Joshua D

    2018-04-06

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition which can include menstrual irregularity, metabolic derangement, and increased androgen levels. The mechanism of PCOS is unknown. Some suggest that excess production of androgens by the ovaries may cause or exacerbate the metabolic findings. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of increased testosterone on metabolic parameters on individuals presumed to be chromosomally female by examination of these parameters in hormone-treated transgender men. In 2015 and 2016, we asked all transgender men who visited the Endocrinology Clinic at Boston Medical Center treated with testosterone for consent for a retrospective anonymous chart review. Of the 36 men, 34 agreed (94%). Serum metabolic factors and body mass index levels for each patient were graphed over time, from initiation of therapy through 6 years of treatment. Bivariate analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of added testosterone. Regressions measuring the impact of testosterone demonstrated no significant change in levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. There was a statistically significant decrease in BMI with increasing testosterone. There was also a statistically significant decrease in high density lipoprotein levels upon initiation of testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy in transgender men across a wide range of doses and over many years did not result in the abnormalities in HbA1c or dyslipidemia seen with PCOS. Instead, treatment of transgender men with testosterone resulted only in a shift of metabolic biomarkers toward the average physiologic male body. This retrospective chart review of 34 transgender men found that testosterone therapy does not induce or exacerbate the metabolic features associated with PCOS.

  17. CSF and plasma testosterone in attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Jon; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2016-12-01

    Very few studies have assessed testosterone levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters. Aggressiveness and impulsivity are common behavioural traits in suicide attempters. Dual-hormone serotonergic theory on human impulsive aggression implies high testosterone/cortisol ratio acting on the amygdala and low serotonin in the prefrontal cortex. Our aim was to examine the CSF and plasma testosterone levels in suicide attempters and in healthy volunteers. We also assessed the relationship between the testosterone/cortisol ratio, aggressiveness and impulsivity in suicide attempters. 28 medication-free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in the study. CSF and plasma testosterone sulfate and cortisol levels were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Karolinska Scales of Personality was used to assess impulsivity and aggressiveness. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up period was 21 years. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma testosterone levels than age- matched male healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences in CSF testosterone levels in female suicide attempters and healthy female volunteers. Testosterone levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. In male suicide attempters, the CSF testosterone/cortisol ratio showed a significant positive correlation with both impulsivity and aggressiveness. Higher CSF testosterone levels may be associated with attempted suicide in young men through association with both aggressiveness and impulsivity, a key endophenotype in young male suicide attempters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two...... radioimmunoassays using different purification procedures and antibody batches did not differ significantly and correlated significantly (r=0.91; p less than 0.001). The median serum concentration of non-protein bound testosterone was 0.265 nmol/l (range 0.068-0.495 nmol/l) when determined by equilibrium dialysis...... and 0.232 nmol/l (range 0.042-0.610 nmol/l) when calculated according to the law of mass action. This difference is insignificant. The concentrations of non-protein bound testosterone determined by the two methods correlated significantly (r=0.83; p less than 0.001). In the calculation of non...

  19. High-fat diet aggravates 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether-inhibited testosterone production via DAX-1 in Leydig cells in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan [State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Xu, Hengsen [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Wang, Chao [State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Ji, Minghui; Gu, Jun [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Yang, Lu; Zhu, Jiansheng [State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Dong, Huibin [Changzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 203 Taishan Road, Changzhou 2013022 (China); Wang, Shou-Lin, E-mail: wangshl@njmu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China); Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing 211166 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Growing evidence has revealed that a high-fat diet (HFD) could lead to disorders of glycolipid metabolism and insulin-resistant states, and HFDs have been associated with the inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could increase the risk of diabetes in humans and reduce testosterone production in rats. However, whether the HFD affects BDE47-inhibited testosterone production by elevating insulin levels and inducing related pathways remains unknown. In male rats treated with BDE47 by gavage for 12 weeks, the HFD significantly increased the BDE47 content of the liver and testis and increased the weight of the adipose tissue; increased macrovesicular steatosis in the liver and the levels of triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin; further aggravated the disruption of the seminiferous epithelium; and lowered the level of testosterone, resulting in fewer sperm in the epididymis. Of note, the HFD enhanced BDE47-induced DAX-1 expression and decreased the expression levels of StAR and 3β-HSD in the testicular interstitial compartments in rats. In isolated primary Leydig cells from rats, BDE47 or insulin increased DAX-1 expression, decreased the expression of StAR and 3β-HSD, and reduced testosterone production, which was nearly reversed by knocking down DAX-1. These results indicated that the HFD aggravates BDE47-inhibited testosterone production through hyperinsulinemia, and the accumulation of testicular BDE47 that induces the up-regulation of DAX-1 and the subsequent down-regulation of steroidogenic proteins, i.e., StAR and 3β-HSD, in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • High-fat diet (HFD) aggravates the accumulation of BDE47 in liver and testis in rats. • HFD aggravates BDE47-inhibited testosterone production via DAX-1 in Leydig cells. • HFD enhances BDE47-induced the disorder of glycolipid metabolism and hyperinsulinemia. • Both hyperinsulinemia and accumulation of BDE47

  20. High-fat diet aggravates 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether-inhibited testosterone production via DAX-1 in Leydig cells in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhan; Yu, Yongquan; Xu, Hengsen; Wang, Chao; Ji, Minghui; Gu, Jun; Yang, Lu; Zhu, Jiansheng; Dong, Huibin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed that a high-fat diet (HFD) could lead to disorders of glycolipid metabolism and insulin-resistant states, and HFDs have been associated with the inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) could increase the risk of diabetes in humans and reduce testosterone production in rats. However, whether the HFD affects BDE47-inhibited testosterone production by elevating insulin levels and inducing related pathways remains unknown. In male rats treated with BDE47 by gavage for 12 weeks, the HFD significantly increased the BDE47 content of the liver and testis and increased the weight of the adipose tissue; increased macrovesicular steatosis in the liver and the levels of triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin; further aggravated the disruption of the seminiferous epithelium; and lowered the level of testosterone, resulting in fewer sperm in the epididymis. Of note, the HFD enhanced BDE47-induced DAX-1 expression and decreased the expression levels of StAR and 3β-HSD in the testicular interstitial compartments in rats. In isolated primary Leydig cells from rats, BDE47 or insulin increased DAX-1 expression, decreased the expression of StAR and 3β-HSD, and reduced testosterone production, which was nearly reversed by knocking down DAX-1. These results indicated that the HFD aggravates BDE47-inhibited testosterone production through hyperinsulinemia, and the accumulation of testicular BDE47 that induces the up-regulation of DAX-1 and the subsequent down-regulation of steroidogenic proteins, i.e., StAR and 3β-HSD, in Leydig cells. - Highlights: • High-fat diet (HFD) aggravates the accumulation of BDE47 in liver and testis in rats. • HFD aggravates BDE47-inhibited testosterone production via DAX-1 in Leydig cells. • HFD enhances BDE47-induced the disorder of glycolipid metabolism and hyperinsulinemia. • Both hyperinsulinemia and accumulation of BDE47

  1. Testosterone is associated with self-employment among Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Francis J; Han, Liang; Martin, Sean; Zhang, Song; Wittert, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Testosterone has pronounced effects on men's physiological development and smaller, more nuanced, impacts on their economic behavior. In this study of 1199 Australian adult males, we investigate the relationship between the self-employed and their serum testosterone levels. Because prior studies have identified that testosterone is a hormone that is responsive to external factors (e.g. competition, risk-taking), we explicitly control for omitted variable bias and reverse causality by using an instrumental variable approach. We use insulin as our primary instrument to account for endogeneity between testosterone and self-employment. This is because prior research has identified a relationship between insulin and testosterone but not between insulin and self-employment. Our results show that there is a positive association between total testosterone and self-employment. Robustness checks using bioavailable testosterone and another similar instrument (daily alcohol consumption) confirm this positive finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of acute exercise and psychosocial stress on fine motor skills and testosterone concentration in the saliva of high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Wegner

    Full Text Available Little is known about the influence of different stressors on fine motor skills, the concentration of testosterone (T, and their interaction in adolescents. Therefore, 62 high school students aged 14-15 years were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (exercise, psychosocial stress and a control group. Exercise stress was induced at 65-75% of the maximum heart rate by running for 15 minutes (n = 24. Psychosocial stress was generated by an intelligence test (HAWIK-IV, which was uncontrollable and characterized by social-evaluative-threat to the students (n = 21. The control group followed was part of a regular school lesson with the same duration (n = 28. Saliva was collected after a normal school lesson (pre-test as well as after the intervention/control period (post-test and was analyzed for testosterone. Fine motor skills were assessed pre- and post-intervention using a manual dexterity test (Flower Trail from the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. A repeated measure ANCOVA including gender as a covariate revealed a significant group by test interaction, indicating an increase in manual dexterity only for the psychosocial stress group. Correlation analysis of all students shows that the change of testosterone from pre- to post-test was directly linked (r = -.31, p = .01 to the changes in manual dexterity performance. Participants showing high increases in testosterone from pre- to post-test made fewer mistakes in the fine motor skills task. Findings suggest that manual dexterity increases when psychosocial stress is induced and that improvement of manual dexterity performance corresponds with the increase of testosterone.

  3. Longitudinal Changes in Serum Levels of Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone in Testicular Cancer Patients after Orchiectomy Alone or Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    ) or combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: Changes in TT and LH were investigated during 5-yr follow-up (Stage I: n=75, BEP: n=81). A selected group of TC patients with mild Leydig cell dysfunction (LH ≥ 8 IU/l) were followed for a longer...... period (Stage I: n=20, BEP: n=23). An age-matched control group of 839 healthy men served as controls for TT and LH levels. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Changes in age-adjusted TT and LH were evaluated separately in each treatment group with univariate linear regression analysis....... The proportion of patients initiating testosterone substitution during follow-up was calculated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In the 75 Stage I patients there were no significant changes in LH and TT, while in the 81 BEP treated patients there was a significant decline in LH during follow-up (-24.2 percentage point...

  4. The impact of exogenic testosterone and nortestosterone-decanoate toxicological evaluation using a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Teodor Cristina

    Full Text Available The impact of exogenic testosterone (T: 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg.bw and 19-nortestosterone 17-decanoate (ND: 1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg.bw in castrated male rats was evaluated based on: (a weight increase of the androgen target tissues, respecting the Hershberger methodology; (b the 17α and β-testosterone, 17 α and β-estradiol and 17 α and β-nortestosterone levels using the GC-MS/MS technique; and (c observation of the serum free thyroxine levels (T4. Results revealed that T and ND significantly increased the weight of androgen target tissues as follows: ND was more influential on seminal vesicles, levator ani-bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC and Cowper's glands and T (at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg.bw influenced the weight of the ventral prostate and glans penis. Serum samples analyzed for steroid hormone levels showed the presence of 17β-testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17β-nor-testosterone, in castrated male rats injected with testosterone and nortestosterone, but no significant differences were found between thyroid responses and thyroid hormone levels. The results of this research proved the disrupting activity of T and ND when administered in high doses and the useful application of the Hershberger bioassay in the case of ND.

  5. Use of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Satav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial hood, vascularity of dartos pedicle in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. Injection aquaviron (oily solution each ml containing testosterone propionate 25 mg was given deep intramuscularly in three doses with an interval of 3 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Preoperatively penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of the penis were measured. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of penis was 1.01 ± 0.25 cm (P < 0.001, 1.250 ± 0.52 cm and 0.61 ± 0.35 cm, respectively, (P < 0.001. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Conclusion: Parenteral testosterone increased phallus size, diameter and prepuce hypertrophy without any adverse effects. However, due to lack of a control group we cannot make any inferences. Controlled studies are required to establish the benefits of parenteral testosterone.

  6. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome: the use of bivariate luteinizing hormone-testosterone reference charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens), including primary and secondary hypogonadism, delayed or precocious puberty, impotence in males and, in females...

  8. Analysis of seminal plasma from brown bear (Ursus arctos during the breeding season: Its relationship with testosterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Anel-López

    Full Text Available Seminal plasma (SP plays an important role in the motility, viability and maintenance of the fertilizing capacity of mammalian spermatozoa. This study is the first on brown bear (Ursus arctos SP components, and has two main objectives: 1 to define the SP composition in bear ejaculate and 2 to identify variations in SP composition in relation to high and low levels of testosterone in serum during the breeding season. Forty-eight sperm samples from 30 sexually mature male brown bears (Ursus arctos were obtained by electroejaculation, and their serum testosterone levels were assessed to sort the animals into 2 groups (high and low testosterone levels, threshold 5 ng/dl. The biochemical and protein compositions of the SP samples were assessed, and sperm motility was analyzed. We found that lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher in the low-serum-testosterone samples, while concentrations of lipase and Mg+ values were significantly higher in the high-serum-testosterone samples. In contrast, sperm motility did not significantly differ (P>0.05 between the testosterone level groups (total motility: 74.42.8% in the high-level group vs. 77.1±4.7% in the low-level group. A reference digital model was constructed since there is no information for this wild species. To do this, all gel images were added in a binary multidimensional image and thirty-three spots were identified as the most-repeated spots. An analysis of these proteins was done by qualitative equivalency (isoelectric point and molecular weight with published data for a bull. SP protein composition was compared between bears with high and low serum testosterone, and three proteins (binder of sperm and two enzymes not identified in the reference bull showed significant (P<0.05 quantitative differences. We conclude that male bears with high or low serum testosterone levels differs only in some properties of their SP, differences in enzyme LDIP2, energy source LACT2, one protein (similar to

  9. Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Jarvis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone to treat the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadal men has increased recently due to patient and physician awareness. However, concerns regarding the effect of testosterone on the prostate, in particular any possible effect on the risk of prostate cancer have prompted further research in this regard. Surprisingly, numerous retrospective or small, randomized trials have pointed to a possible improvement in male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in patients treated with testosterone. The exact mechanism of this improvement is still debated but may have a close relationship to metabolic syndrome. For the clinician, the results of these studies are promising but do not constitute high levels of evidence. A thorough clinical examination (including history, examination and laboratory testing of testosterone should be undertaken before considering the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism or instigating treatment for it. Warnings still remain on the testosterone supplement product labels regarding the risk of urinary retention and worsening LUTS, and these should be explained to patients.

  10. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCullough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  11. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889, which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by

  12. Effect of Purine Nucleoside Analogue-Acyclovir on The Sperm Parameters and Testosterone Production in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acyclovir (ACV, a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived fromguanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220± 20 g were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group. One groupserved as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally(i.p. injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drugtreatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day for 15 days. Eighteen days after the lastinjection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymideswere removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis,sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity wereanalyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined.Results: The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased spermmotility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increasedat 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damageat 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, asignificant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/kg doses.Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicityby adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in malerats.

  13. Increased survivorship of testosterone-treated female house mice (Mus musculus) in high-density field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Zielinski; J.G. Vandenbergh

    1991-01-01

    Differences in hormone levels influence sexual differences in aggression. survival, home-range size and dispcrsal in rodents. The role oftestosterone in establishing some of these differences in wild house mice was examined. Females treated with either 0·5 mg of testosterone enanthate (TE-treated) or oil (control), and an...

  14. Testosterone therapy in microphallic hypospadias: topical or parenteral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalapathi, G; Rao, K L N; Chowdhary, S K; Narasimhan, K L; Samujh, Ram; Mahajan, J K

    2003-02-01

    Local or systemic application of testosterone is reported to stimulate penile growth. Intramuscular testosterone has been found to be effective in 50% of patients; however, variable results have been reported with topical testosterone. The current study is an attempt to compare the efficacy of intramuscular versus topical testosterone application. A total of 26 consecutive patients with hypospadias and small penis (enlargement was observed in 60% children in group A and 75% in group B. Although the desired therapeutic effect of testosterone was achieved in both the groups, this study failed to show any significant difference between the 2 routes of administration. However, in group A, (topical) serum testosterone crossed the normal range in 15% of patients and was associated with significant reversible side effects. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes and testosterone concentration in Angus and Nellore heifers with high and low ovarian follicle count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Bárbara; Ereno, Ronaldo L; Favoreto, Mauricio G; Barros, Ciro M

    2016-07-15

    Follicle population is important when animals are used in assisted reproductive programs. Bos indicus animals have more follicles per follicular wave than Bos taurus animals. On the other hand, B taurus animals present better fertility when compared with B indicus animals. Androgens are positively related with the number of antral follicles; moreover, they increase growth factor expression in granulose cells and oocytes. Experimentation was designed to compare testosterone concentration in plasma, and follicular fluid and androgen enzymes mRNA expression (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) in follicles from Angus and Nellore heifers. Heifers were assigned into two groups according to the number of follicles: low and high follicle count groups. Increased testosterone concentration was measured in both plasma and follicular fluid of Angus heifers. However, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP11A1 gene was higher in follicles from Angus heifers; however, there was no difference within groups. Expression of CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD genes was higher in follicles from Nellore heifers, and expression of CYP17A1 and 3BHSD genes was also higher in HFC groups from both breeds. It was found that Nellore heifers have more antral follicles than Angus heifers. Testosterone concentration was higher in Angus heifers; this increase could be associated with the increased mRNA expression of CYP11A1. Increased expression of androgen-producing enzyme genes (CYP17A1, 3BHSD, and 17BHSD) was detected in Nellore heifers. It can be suggested that testosterone is acting through different mechanisms to increase follicle development in Nellore and improve fertility in Angus heifers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone suppresses the expression of regulatory enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and protects against hepatic steatosis in cholesterol-fed androgen deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel M; Nettleship, Joanne E; Akhtar, Samia; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Sellers, Donna J; Brooke, Jonathan C; McLaren, David S; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2014-07-30

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its precursor hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and type-2 diabetes and is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Men with type-2 diabetes and/or CVD have a high prevalence of testosterone deficiency. Testosterone replacement improves key cardiovascular risk factors. The effects of testosterone on hepatic steatosis are not fully understood. Testicular feminised (Tfm) mice, which have a non-functional androgen receptor (AR) and very low serum testosterone levels, were used to investigate testosterone effects on high-cholesterol diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic lipid deposition was increased in Tfm mice and orchidectomised wild-type littermates versus intact wild-type littermate controls with normal androgen physiology. Lipid deposition was reduced in Tfm mice receiving testosterone treatment compared to placebo. Oestrogen receptor blockade significantly, but only partially, reduced the beneficial effects of testosterone treatment on hepatic lipid accumulation. Expression of key regulatory enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were elevated in placebo-treated Tfm mice versus placebo-treated littermates and Tfm mice receiving testosterone treatment. Tfm mice on normal diet had increased lipid accumulation compared to littermates but significantly less than cholesterol-fed Tfm mice and demonstrated increased gene expression of hormone sensitive lipase, stearyl-CoA desaturase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma but FASN and ACACA were not altered. An action of testosterone on hepatic lipid deposition which is independent of the classic AR is implicated. Testosterone may act in part via an effect on the key regulatory lipogenic enzymes to protect against hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Testosterone and psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber, C; Wetterauer, U; Berner, M

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone, like other steroid hormones, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the androgen receptor is present in most parts of the human brain. Therefore, testosterone has many effects on the psyche, mainly in men but also in women. Most often discussed is its influence on sexuality, especially on desire and sexual fantasies, spontaneous nighttime erections, sexual activity, and the number of orgasms and ejaculations. Mood and energy are also testosterone related. Testosterone deficiency in male patients can lead to depressive disorders. In the past, elevated testosterone levels were seen as responsible for strongly aggressive behaviour. Some cognitive functions (spatial and mathematical sense, verbal skills) are, at least to a certain point, testosterone related. Due to the extremely complex functioning of the human brain, a scientifically exact statement regarding the true relationship between testosterone and human behaviour is not possible. On the one hand, the cause is definitively multifactorial, but on the other, testosterone is metabolised in the brain, and the metabolites act by themselves. Furthermore, a bidirectional relationship exists between hormones and human behaviour: Human behaviour is influenced by hormones, and human behaviour also has a direct influence on the levels of many hormones in the human body. Finally, much data in this field are derived from animal studies; studies on humans cannot be conducted because of ethical reasons or scientific and technical problems.

  18. Canine serum protein patterns using high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, O; Zanatta, R; Malisano, T; Dotta, U

    2000-03-01

    Serum protein values were determined in 26 healthy dogs using agarose gel electrophoresis (SPE), splitting the electrophoretic separation into six regions: albumin, alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), beta(2)and gamma globulins. High-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was used to separate single proteins. Serum proteins from dogs (26 healthy and 20 affected by various diseases) were then characterized by electrophoretic immunofixation (IFE) and Sudan black staining on HRE film. Haemoglobin and normal canine plasma and serum were used to identify haptoglobin and fibrinogen, respectively. In the standard pattern, determined by HRE, the following proteins were identified: albumin, alpha(1)-lipoprotein (alpha(1)-region), haptoglobin and alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)-region), beta -lipoprotein and C3 (beta(1)-region), transferrin and IgM (beta(2)-region), IgG (mostly in gamma -region and partly in beta(2)-region). The HRE pattern shown by healthy dogs could be compared with those of dogs affected by various diseases to obtain clinical information. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  19. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  20. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah MI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available M Iftekhar Ullah,1 Daniel M Riche,1,2 Christian A Koch1,31Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi, 3GV (Sonny Montgomery VA Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.Keywords: hypogonadism, transdermal, testosterone, sexual function, testosterone replacement therapy, estradiol

  2. Concentrations of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin in the serum as well as comparisons of sensitivity between radioimmunoassays and enzyme assays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase in the presence of carcinomas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopelius-Feldt, F. von.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between carcinomas of the prostate and the plasma levels of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin as well as the possible influence of these neoplasms on the testosterone binding capacity and free testosterone index are investigated for various tumour stages and degrees of histological differentiation, in connection with several forms of local therapy as well as a variety of contrasexual methods. The sensitivity of enzyme assays and radioimmunoassays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase is evaluated within the framework of this study. (MBL) [de

  3. Could you have low testosterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the testicles. It is important for a man's sex drive and physical appearance. Certain health conditions, medicines, or injury can lead to low testosterone (low-T). Testosterone level also naturally drops with age. Low testosterone can ... Testosterone makes a man look and feel like a man. In a ...

  4. Effects of Oral Administration of Nicotine on Organ Weight, Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of oral administration of nicotine on body and reproductive organ weight, serum testosterone level and testicular histology in adult male rats. Forty male rats divided into five groups and treated for a period of 30 days with 0.5mg/kg (low dose) and 1.0mg/kg (high dose) body weight of ...

  5. Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi; Maestripieri, Dario

    2009-09-08

    Women are generally more risk averse than men. We investigated whether between- and within-gender variation in financial risk aversion was accounted for by variation in salivary concentrations of testosterone and in markers of prenatal testosterone exposure in a sample of >500 MBA students. Higher levels of circulating testosterone were associated with lower risk aversion among women, but not among men. At comparably low concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aversion disappeared, suggesting that testosterone has nonlinear effects on risk aversion regardless of gender. A similar relationship between risk aversion and testosterone was also found using markers of prenatal testosterone exposure. Finally, both testosterone levels and risk aversion predicted career choices after graduation: Individuals high in testosterone and low in risk aversion were more likely to choose risky careers in finance. These results suggest that testosterone has both organizational and activational effects on risk-sensitive financial decisions and long-term career choices.

  6. Effects of Unripe Musa Paradisiaca on the Histochemistry of the Testis and Testosterone Levels in Adult Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, A S; Omotosho, G O; Tagoe, C N B; Akinola, O B; Enaibe, B U

    2017-06-30

    This study was aimed at determining the effects of the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca on the testis andtestosterone levels in male Wistar rats. The animals were grouped into three, comprising a control, and 2 treatment groupsadministered with different doses (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) daily of the fruit flour over 28 days. Histochemical evaluationof the testes was done using Haematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) and Feulgen staining techniques, whilethe serum and homogenised testicular tissue were evaluated for testosterone levels using Accu-Bind ELISA Kit. The testisof the treated groups showed more rapidly dividing cells and more population of sperm cells compared to the control group,and also showed more positivity for Feulgen staining and PAS reaction. Both serum and testicular testosterone levels werehowever reduced. Serum testosterone was significantly lowered in the animals given the low dose (0.67 ± 0.03 ng/ml),compared to those given high dose (0.85 ± 0.02 ng/ml) and the control animals (1.88 ± 0.15 ng/ml) (p paradisiaca fruit has reproductiveenhancing potential when consumed moderately, but this benefit may not be related to testosterone levels.

  7. High serum dihydrotestosterone examined by ultrasensitive LC-MS/MS as a predictor of benign prostatic hyperplasia or Gleason score 6 cancer in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Y; Uemura, H; Suzuki, K; Shibata, Y; Honma, S; Harada, M; Kubota, Y

    2017-03-01

    There has been no consensus on the role of serum androgen concentrations in prostate cancer detection in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10 ng/mL. In this study, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in blood were examined by a newly developed method using ultrasensitive liquid chromatography with two serially linked mass spectrometers (LC-MS/MS). We investigated the correlation between serum androgen levels and Gleason scores at biopsy. We analyzed data of 157 men with a total prostate-specific antigen range of 3-10 ng/mL who underwent initial systematic prostate needle biopsy for suspected prostate cancer between April 2000 and July 2003. Peripheral blood testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. Blood levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were compared with pathological findings by multivariate analyses. Median values of prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume measured by ultrasound were 5.7 ng/mL and 31.4 cm 3 , respectively. Benign prostatic hyperplasia was diagnosed in 97 patients (61.8%), and prostate cancer was diagnosed in 60 (38.2%) patients, including 31 (19.7%) patients with a Gleason score of 6 and 29 (18.5%) patients with a Gleason score of 7-10. Median values of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in blood were 3798.7 and 371.7 pg/mL, respectively. There was a strong correlation between serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. In multivariate analysis, age, prostate volume, and serum dihydrotestosterone were significant predictors of benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for age, prostate volume, and serum dihydrotestosterone were 0.67, 0.67, and 0.67, respectively . We confirmed that high dihydrotestosterone blood levels can predict benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 6 in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 3-10

  8. Testosterone concentrations in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łagowska, Karolina; Kapczuk, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Menstrual disorders are common among female athletes and ballet dancers. Endocrine changes, such as high testosterone (HT) levels and high luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratios, may suggest functional ovarian hyperandrogenism which may induce such dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate endocrine status in female athletes and ballet dancers with menstrual disorders. Their nutritional status and dietary habits were analysed in relation to the testosterone levels. In a cross-sectional approach, 31 female athletes (18.1 ± 2.6 years) and 21 ballerinas (17.1 ± 0.9) with menstrual disorders participated in the study. The levels of serum LH, FSH, progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulinwere measured to assess hormonal status. In addition, the free androgen index (FAI) was calculated. Nutritional status, total daily energy expenditure and nutritional habits were evaluated. Girls were assigned to one of the following groups: low testosterone (LT) level, normal testosterone level or HT level. There were significant differences between ballerinas and other female athletes in terms of testosterone levels, FAI, age at the beginning of training, length of training period and age at menarche. The PRL level was lowest in the LT group while the FAI index was highest in the HT group. Daily energy and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower in the HT group. T levels in the study subjects were found to be associated with nutritional factors, energy availability, age at the beginning of training and frequency of training. This is the first report of HT levels being associated with the status of a female ballet dancer, the age of menarche and the length of the training history. Further research is necessary to confirm the results in a larger study group.

  9. Variation in levels of serum inhibin B, testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin in monthly samples from healthy men during a 17-month period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2003-01-01

    To obtain information on the scale of the intraindividual variation in testicular hormone, blood samples for inhibin B determination were collected monthly in 27 healthy male volunteers during a 17-month period. In addition, the traditional reproductive hormones FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol....... A seasonal variation was observed in LH and testosterone levels, but not in the levels of the other hormones. The seasonal variation in testosterone levels could be explained by the variation in LH levels. The seasonal variation in LH levels seemed to be related to the mean air temperature during the month...... levels in men. The peak levels of both LH and testosterone were observed during June-July, with minimum levels present during winter-early spring. Air temperature, rather than light exposure, seems to be a possible climatic variable explaining the seasonal variation in LH levels....

  10. Sexual Health: Testosterone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low testosterone may contribute to a decrease in motivation or self-confidence. You may feel sad or ... vein (deep vein thrombosis), which could break loose, travel through your bloodstream and lodge in your lungs, ...

  11. Testosterone-Fatty Acid esterification: a unique target for the endocrine toxicity of tributyltin to gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Gerald A; Gooding, Meredith P; Sternberg, Robin M

    2005-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, a global occurrence of sexual aberration has occurred whereby females among populations of prosobranch snails exhibit male sex characteristics. This condition, called imposex, has been causally associated with exposure to the biocide tributyltin. Tributyltin-exposed, imposex snails typically have elevated levels of testosterone which have led to the postulate that this endocrine dysfunction is responsible for imposex. This overview describes recent evidence that supports this postulate. Gastropods maintain circulating testosterone levels and administration of testosterone to females or castrates stimulates male sex differentiation in several snail species. Studies in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta) have shown that gastropods utilize a unique strategy for regulating free testosterone levels. Excess testosterone is converted to fatty acid esters by the action of a testosterone-inducible, high capacity/low affinity enzyme, acyl-CoA:testosterone acyl transferase, and stored within the organisms. Free testosterone levels are regulated during the reproductive cycle apparently due to changes in esterification/desterification suggesting that testosterone functions in the reproductive cycle of the organisms. Testosterone esterification provides a unique target in the testosterone regulatory machinery of snails that is altered by tributyltin. Indeed, imposex and free testosterone levels were elevated in field collected snails containing high tin levels, while testosterone-fatty acid ester pools were reduced in these organisms. These observations indicate that tributyltin elevates free testosterone by reducing the retention of testosterone as fatty acid-esters. This endocrine effect of tributyltin may be responsible for imposex.

  12. Measurement of dihydro testosterone by radioimmunoassay after celite column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lando, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring dihydro testosterone after celite column chromatography is developed. One milliliter of serum containing 1000 cpm of tritiated dihydro testosterone was extracted with hexane: ethyl acetate (2:3): dried, diluted with non saturated iso octane and injected in the column previously washed with 3.5 ml of pure iso octane. The serum was eluted from the column with pure iso octane (3.5 ml) followed by 5% ethyl acetate in iso octane. The quantity of tritiated dihydro testosterone which was recovered ranged from 50% to 80% in all assays. The sensitivity of the method was 4 ng/d l. The intra-assay variation was less than 9% and the inter-assay variation was less than 9,7%. It was measured dihydro testosterone, testosterone and testosterone/dihydro testosterone ratio in the following groups: Group 1- forty-one normal adult subjects in basal conditions, Group 2 - six normal adult subjects, evaluated in basal conditions and after stimulus with 6000 International Unity of human Chorionic Gonadotropin; Group 3- six pre-puberal children with unilateral cryptochidism. Group 4- eight patients with male pseudo hermaphroditism due to 5-alpha-reductase deficiency in basal conditions and after HCG. (author)

  13. An examination of endoparasites and fecal testosterone levels in flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) using high performance liquid chromatography-ultra-violet (HPLC-UV)

    OpenAIRE

    Waksmonski, Sarah N.; Huffman, Justin M.; Mahan, Carolyn G.; Steele, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    The immuno-competence hypothesis proposes that higher levels of testosterone increases the susceptibility to parasitism. Here we examined the testosterone levels in two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys): one known to regularly host a nematode species (Strongyloides robustus) without ill effects (G. volans) and a closely related species that is considered negatively affected by the parasite. We quantified fecal testosterone levels in northern and southern flying squirrels (G. sabrinus, G...

  14. Dutasteride reduces prostate size and prostate specific antigen in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia undergoing testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T; Hirano, Lianne; Gilchriest, Janet; Dighe, Manjiri; Amory, John K; Marck, Brett T; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2011-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and hypogonadism are common disorders in aging men. There is concern that androgen replacement in older men may increase prostate size and symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We examined whether combining dutasteride, which inhibits testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion, with testosterone treatment in older hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia reduces androgenic stimulation of the prostate compared to testosterone alone. We conducted a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of 53 men 51 to 82 years old with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate volume 30 cc or greater and serum total testosterone less than 280 ng/dl (less than 9.7 nmol/l). Subjects were randomized to daily transdermal 1% T gel plus oral placebo or dutasteride for 6 months. Testosterone dosing was adjusted to a serum testosterone of 500 to 1,000 ng/dl. The primary outcomes were prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance imaging, serum prostate specific antigen and androgen levels. A total of 46 subjects completed all procedures. Serum testosterone increased similarly into the mid-normal range in both groups. Serum dihydrotestosterone increased in the testosterone only but decreased in the testosterone plus dutasteride group. In the testosterone plus dutasteride group prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (mean ± SEM) decreased 12% ± 2.5% and 35% ± 5%, respectively, compared to the testosterone only group in which prostate volume and prostate specific antigen increased 7.5% ± 3.3% and 19% ± 7% (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008), respectively, after 6 months of treatment. Prostate symptom scores improved in both groups. Combined treatment with testosterone plus dutasteride reduces prostate volume and prostate specific antigen compared to testosterone only. Coadministration of a 5α-reductase inhibitor with testosterone appears to spare the prostate from androgenic stimulation during testosterone replacement in older

  15. Effects of a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention on serum concentrations of reproductive steroid hormones in women with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Stefanick, Marcia L; Newman, Vicky A; Jones, Lovell A; Natarajan, Loki; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hollenbach, Kathryn A; Pierce, John P; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2004-06-15

    Diet intervention trials are testing whether postdiagnosis dietary modification can influence breast cancer recurrence and survival. One possible mechanism is an effect on reproductive steroid hormones. Serum reproductive steroid hormones were measured at enrollment and 1 year in 291 women with a history of breast cancer who were enrolled onto a randomized, controlled diet intervention trial. Dietary goals for the intervention group were increased fiber, vegetable, and fruit intakes and reduced fat intake. Estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured. The intervention (but not the comparison) group reported a significantly lower intake of energy from fat (21% v 28%), and higher intake of fiber (29 g/d v 22 g/d), at 1-year follow-up (P <.001). Significant weight loss did not occur in either group. A significant difference in the change in bioavailable estradiol concentration from baseline to 1 year in the intervention (-13 pmol/L) versus the comparison (+3 pmol/L) group was observed (P <.05). Change in fiber (but not fat) intake was significantly and independently related to change in serum bioavailable estradiol (P <.01) and total estradiol (P <.05) concentrations. Results from this study indicate that a high-fiber, low-fat diet intervention is associated with reduced serum bioavailable estradiol concentration in women diagnosed with breast cancer, the majority of whom did not exhibit weight loss. Increased fiber intake was independently related to the reduction in serum estradiol concentration.

  16. Identification of serum biomarkers for aging and anabolic response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Randall J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective With the progressive aging of the human population, there is an inexorable decline in muscle mass, strength and function. Anabolic supplementation with testosterone has been shown to effectively restore muscle mass in both young and elderly men. In this study, we were interested in identifying serum factors that change with age in two distinct age groups of healthy men, and whether these factors were affected by testosterone supplementation. Methods We measured the protein levels of a number of serum biomarkers using a combination of banked serum samples from older men (60 to 75 years and younger men (ages 18 to 35, as well as new serum specimens obtained through collaboration. We compared baseline levels of all biomarkers between young and older men. In addition, we evaluated potential changes in these biomarker levels in association with testosterone dose (low dose defined as 125 mg per week or below compared to high dose defined as 300 mg per week or above in our banked specimens. Results We identified nine serum biomarkers that differed between the young and older subjects. These age-associated biomarkers included: insulin-like growth factor (IGF1, N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PIIINP, monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG, epithelial-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA78, interleukin 7 (IL-7, p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL-12p40, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP-1β, platelet derived growth factor β (PDGFβ and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10. We further observed testosterone dose-associated changes in some but not all age related markers: IGF1, PIIINP, leptin, MIG and ENA78. Gains in lean mass were confirmed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that there are potential phenotypic biomarkers in serum that can be associated with healthy aging and that some but not all of these biomarkers reflect gains in muscle mass upon

  17. TESTOSTERONE CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH LIVER CIRRHOSIS BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH MELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo NITSCHE

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Hypogonadism is a common clinical situation in male patients with liver cirrhosis. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of orthotopic liver transplantation on testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in male with advanced liver disease and also to determine the relationship of these changes with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD score. Methods In a prospective study, serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin of 30 male adult patients with end-stage liver disease were measured 2 to 4 hours before and 6 months after orthotopic liver transplantation. Results Total testosterone levels increased after orthotopic liver transplantation and the number of patients with normal testosterone levels increased from 18 to 24. Free testosterone mean level in the pre-transplant group was 7.8 pg/mL and increased to 11.5 pg/mL (P = 0.10 and sex hormone-binding globulin level decreased after orthotopic liver transplantation returning to normal levels in MELD ≤18 - group (A (P<0.05. Conclusions Serum level changes of testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin are more pronounced in cirrhotic males with MELD ≤18. Serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone increase and serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin decrease after orthotopic liver transplantation.

  18. Testosterone regulates granzyme K expression in rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Dibyendu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Testosterone depletion induces increased germ cell apoptosis in testes. However, limited studies exist on genes that regulate the germ cell apoptosis. Granzymes (GZM are serine proteases that induce apoptosis in various tissues. Multiple granzymes, including GZMA, GZMB and GZMN, are present in testes. Th us, we investigated which granzyme may be testosterone responsive and possibly may have a role in germ cell apoptosis aft er testosterone depletion. Methods. Ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS, a toxicant that selectively ablates the Leydig cells, was injected into rats to withdraw the testosterone. The testosterone depletion effects after 7 days post-EDS were verified by replacing the testosterone exogenously into EDS-treated rats. Serum or testicular testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Using qPCR, mRNAs of granzyme variants in testes were quantified. The germ cell apoptosis was identified by TUNEL assay and the localization of GZMK was by immunohistochemistry. Results. EDS treatment eliminated the Leydig cells and depleted serum and testicular testosterone. At 7 days post-EDS, testis weights were reduced 18% with increased germ cell apoptosis plus elevation GZMK expression. GZMK was not associated with TUNEL-positive cells, but was localized to stripped cytoplasm of spermatids. In addition, apoptotic round spermatids were observed in the caput epididymis. Conclusions. GZMK expression in testes is testosterone dependent. GZMK is located adjacent to germ cells in seminiferous tubules and the presence of apoptotic round spermatids in the epididymis suggest its role in the degradation of microtubules in ectoplasmic specializations. Thus, overexpression of GZMK may indirectly regulate germ cell apoptosis by premature release of round spermatids from seminiferous tubule lumen.

  19. Effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual functioning in aging men: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Verhaar, H J J; Nakhai-Pour, H R; Grobbee, D E; van der Schouw, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Serum testosterone levels decline significantly with aging and this has been associated with reduced sexual function. We have conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual function in 237 elderly men with a testosterone level sexual function between the groups. Subanalysis showed that although a baseline testosterone level in the lowest tertile was associated with significantly lower scores for sexual fantasies, desire of sexual contact and frequency of sexual contact, supplementation of testosterone did not result in improvement on any of these items in this group. In conclusion, the findings do not support the view that testosterone undecanoate supplementation for 6 months to elderly men with low-normal testosterone concentrations favorably affects sexual function.

  20. Increased serum estrone and estradiol following spironolactone administration in hypertensive men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyatake, A; Noma, K; Nakao, K; Morimoto, Y; Yamamura, Y [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1978-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate long-term effects of spironolactone on basal serum estrone, estradiol, testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations in hypertensive male patients. Serum prolactin response to TRH was also evaluated. There were two groups, (a) six males with essential hypertension given 75 - 150 mg spironolactone daily for 12 weeks, and (b) two males with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism given 300 mg daily for over 40 weeks. In the conventional-dosage group, serum estrone concentrations significantly increased (P < 0.01) at 12 weeks serum estradiol gradually increased but not statistically significantly (P < 0,2). Basal serum testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations did not show significant changes. There was no increase in serum prolactin response to TRH. In the high-dosage group, serum estrone levels remained high, and serum estradiol increased with the development of gynaecomastia. Serum testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations showed no marked changes. The elevations in circulating oestrogens could well explain the oestrogenic side-effects of spironolactone treatment.

  1. Increased serum oestrone and oestradiol following spironolactone administration in hypertensive men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, A.; Noma, K.; Nakao, K.; Morimoto, Y.; Yamamura, Y.

    1978-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate long-term effects of spironolactone on basal serum oestrone, oestradiol, testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations in hypertensive male patients. Serum prolactin response to TRH was also evaluated. There were two groups, (a) six males with essential hypertension given 75 - 150 mg spironolactone daily for 12 weeks, and (b) two males with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism given 300 mg daily for over 40 weeks. In the conventional-dosage group, serum oestrone concentrations significantly increased (P < 0.01) at 12 weeks serum oestradiol gradually increased but not statistically significantly (P < 0,2). Basal serum testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations did not show significant changes. There was no increase in serum prolactin response to TRH. In the high-dosage group, serum oestrone levels remained high, and serum oestradiol increased with the development of gynaecomastia. Serum testosterone, LH and prolactin concentrations showed no marked changes. The elevations in circulating oestrogens could well explain the oestrogenic side-effects of spironolactone treatment. (author)

  2. Testosterone Responders to Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy Show Considerable Variations in Testosterone Levels on Followup: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyid, Rashid K; Sayyid, Abdallah K; Klaassen, Zachary; Fadaak, Kamel; Goldberg, Hanan; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Leao, Ricardo; Perlis, Nathan; Chadwick, Karen; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil E

    2018-01-01

    We determined whether men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy who achieve testosterone less than 0.7 nmol/l demonstrate subsequent testosterone elevations during followup and whether such events predict worse oncologic outcomes. We evaluated a random, retrospective sample of 514 patients with prostate cancer treated with continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom serum testosterone was less than 0.7 nmol/l at University Health Network between 2007 and 2016. Patients were followed from the date of the first testosterone measurement of less than 0.7 nmol/l to progression to castrate resistance, death or study period end. Study outcomes were the development of testosterone elevations greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, and progression to a castrate resistant state. Survival curves were constructed to determine the rate of testosterone elevations. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was done to assess whether elevations predicted progression to castrate resistance. Median patient age was 74 years and median followup was 20.3 months. Within 5 years of followup 82%, 45% and 18% of patients had subsequent testosterone levels greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, respectively. In 96% to 100% of these patients levels less than 0.7 nmol/l were subsequently reestablished within 5 years. No patient baseline characteristic was associated with elevations and elevations were not a significant predictor of progression to a castrate resistant state. Men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom initial testosterone is less than 0.7 nmol/l frequently show subsequent elevations in serum testosterone. Such a development should not trigger an immediate response from physicians as these events are prognostically insignificant with regard to oncologic outcomes. Levels are eventually reestablished at less than 0.7 nmol/l. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  3. Pretreated high lipid serum method and its significance before determine INS C-P by RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Guangxia; Zhu Liqiang; Wu Yufang

    2004-01-01

    The method of predigest high lipid serum before determine INS and C-P for elimination of the high lipid in serum was studied. The specimen was divided into two groups, one was directly tested, the other was pretreated, then determined(including INS and QC of serum, normal and high lipid serum, pretreating serum). The results were compared by examine and analysed correlatively. Results show that INS and C-P of the specimens pretreated by PEG, were no statistic difference in relation to direct tested (P>0.05) and those were close correlatively (P<0.001) in normal. The results of high lipid serum after the specimens were predigest by PEG were marked by decrease in relation to direct tested (P<0.001). High lipid and INS antibody were eliminated by PEG so that was increased the results nicety. (authors)

  4. Testosterone secretion during gubernacular development and testicular descent in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumans, V; Dieleman, S J; Wouterse, H S; van Tol, L; Dijkstra, G; Wensing, C J

    1985-01-01

    Serum testosterone concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1.45 nmol/l between Day 53 post coitum (p.c.) until Day 40 post partum (p.p.) and did not show variations that could be correlated with the process of testicular descent. The intratesticular androgen appeared to be mainly testosterone, its concentration being about 5000-fold higher than that in serum whereas 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone could not be demonstrated. The intratesticular testosterone concentration at the initiation of gubernacular regression (Day 0) was apparently, but not significantly, higher than at Day 49 p.c. and at Day 40 p.p. The ability of the neonatal canine testis to synthesize testosterone was indicated by increased serum testosterone concentrations after hCG stimulation.

  5. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  6. Serum creatine kinase elevations in ultramarathon runners at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Danielle; Khodaee, Morteza; San-Millán, Iñigo; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Provance, Aaron J

    2017-05-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) is a sensitive enzyme marker for muscle damage in athletes. Elevated CK levels have been reported in many endurance physical activities. The consequence and possible long-term sequela of the CK elevation in athletes is unknown. There is a paucity of literature stating actual numerical values of CK associated with competing in an ultramarathon with extreme environmental conditions. Our hypothesis was that the serum CK levels increase significantly as a result of running a 161 km ultramarathon at high altitude. This was a prospective observational study of participants of the Leadville 100 ultramarathon race in Leadville, Colorado at high altitude (2800-3840 m) in August 2014. We collected blood samples from sixty-four volunteer runners before and eighty-three runners immediately after the race. Out of 669 athletes who started the race, 352 successfully completed the race in less than the 30-hour cut-off time (52%). The majority of runners were male (84%). We were able to collect both pre- and post-race blood samples from 36 runners. Out of these 36 runners, the mean pre-race CK was increased from 126 ± 64 U/L to 14,569 ± 14,729 U/L (p athletes' age, BMI, or finishing time. Significant elevation of CK level occurs as a result of running ultramarathons. The majority of athletes with significantly elevated CK levels were asymptomatic and required no major medical attention.

  7. Effects of crude kerosene on testosterone levels, aggression and toxicity in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel W. Njoroge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of crude kerosene as a dietary supplement in boarding schools has been a common practice in east Africa and other countries for many years, with the belief of it reducing the sex drive (libido at the pubertal stage. There is however no scientific basis for this belief. The present study aimed at using a rat animal model to investigate the effects of crude kerosene on serum testosterone levels, aggression and its possible toxic effects. Fifteen male albino rats of approximately similar age and average weights were put into three groups of five animals each; the control group (placebo, low kerosene dose (10 μl/day group and high kerosene dose (300 μl/day group. ELISA was used to determine the serum testosterone levels. During treatment, changes in aggression were observed and noted. Liver toxicity was determined using enzyme assays, total protein and albumin while renal toxicity was monitored using serum creatinine levels. A full hemogram was conducted to determine hematological effects. Various tissue biopsies were obtained and examined using histopathological techniques for evidence of toxicity. Contrary to the common belief, our findings showed an overall increase of serum testosterone levels of up to 66% in the low dose and 75% in the high dose groups, with an increasing trend by the end of the study. The high dose group showed significantly increased levels of white blood cells (WBC (p = 0.036, red blood cells (RBC (p = 0.025, hematocrit (HCT (p = 0.03, red cell distribution width (p = 0.028 and platelets (p = 0.017. The histological results of the stomach indicated chronic gastritis.

  8. Testosterone: action, deficiency, substitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieschlag, E; Nieschlag, S. (Susan); Behre, H. M. (Hermann M.)

    2004-01-01

    ... reviews applications in male contraception, the role of 5 -reductase inhibitors and the controversial use of DHEA. For this book the editors have assembled the world leaders in testosterone research and clinical andrology and endocrinology. A special feature of the book is the fact that its 24 chapters were submitted simultaneously to ens...

  9. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Consequences of Testosterone Supplements in Young and Old Male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Implications for Testosterone Supplements in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasso, Carolina; Patil, Chetan N; Yanes Cardozo, Licy L; Romero, Damian G; Maranon, Rodrigo O

    2017-10-17

    The safety of testosterone supplements in men remains unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that in young and old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), long-term testosterone supplements increase blood pressure and that the mechanism is mediated in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. In untreated males, serum testosterone exhibited a sustained decrease after 5 months of age, reaching a nadir by 18 to 22 months of age. The reductions in serum testosterone were accompanied by an increase in body weight until very old age (18 months). Testosterone supplements were given for 6 weeks to young (12 weeks-YMSHR) and old (21-22 months-OMSHR) male SHR that increased serum testosterone by 2-fold in young males and by 4-fold in old males. Testosterone supplements decreased body weight, fat mass, lean mass, and plasma leptin, and increased plasma estradiol in YMSHR but had no effect in OMSHR. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in OMSHR than in YMSHR and testosterone supplements decreased MAP in OMSHR, but significantly increased MAP in YMSHR. Enalapril, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, reduced MAP in both control and testosterone-supplemented YMSHR, but had a greater effect on MAP in testosterone-treated rats, suggesting the mechanism responsible for the increase in MAP in YMSHR is mediated at least in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Taken together with previous studies, these data suggest that testosterone supplements may have differential effects on men depending on age, cardiovascular and metabolic status, and dose and whether given long-term or short-term. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Prenatal testosterone exposure worsen the reproductive performance of male rat at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar; Piryaei, Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive system is extremely susceptible to environmental insults, for example exogenous steroids during gestational development and differentiation. Experimental induction of androgen excess during prenatal life in female animal models reprograms their reproductive physiology, however the fetal programming of the male reproductive system by androgen excess has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal exposure of two different doses of testosterone on different gestational days, on the male reproductive system using a rat model. Sixteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. Experimental group І were subcutaneously injected with 3 mg free testosterone on gestational days 16-19 and its controls received solvent for that time; experimental group П were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg free testosterone on day 20 of gestational period and its controls received solvent at the same time. The reproductive system morphology and function of 32 male offspring of these study groups were compared at days 6-30-60 of age and after puberty. The anogenital distance of the male offspring of both experimental groups had no significant differences on the different days of measurement, compared with controls. In the offspring of experimental group І, the testes weight, number of Sertoli, Spermatocyte and Spermatid cells, sperm count and motility and the serum concentration of testosterone after puberty were significantly decreased; except for reduction of sperm motility (pmale rat fetuses to excess testosterone disrupted reproductive function, an effect highly dependent on the time, duration and level of exposure. It seems that the reproductive system in individuals exposed to high levels of androgens during fetal life should be evaluated at puberty and likely to be treated.

  11. Serum leptin is correlated to high turnover in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipmair, Gunter; Böhler, Nikolaus; Maschek, Wilma; Soriguer, Federico; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Pichler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Clinical data have suggested that obesity protects against osteoporosis. Leptin, mainly secreted by white adipose tissue, might be involved by mediating an effect on bone metabolism. This study was conducted to investigate a possible relationship of leptin and bone turn-over in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We measured bone mineral density (BMD), serum leptin levels and markers of bone metabolism, including osteocalcin and cross-laps in 44 patients with osteoporosis. The main group consisted of 32 postmenopausal women. Mean serum leptin was 13.1 microg/L and showed no statistically significant difference to the levels measured in a collective of normal persons adjusted for age and BMI. When related to serum cross-laps as markers of bone resorption, a positive correlation (posteoporosis.

  12. A cross-sectional pilot study to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome in working population of Indian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apul Goel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS in healthy Indian men employed in a hospital aged above 40 years. Materials and Methods: A general medical health check-up camp was organized for all male employees above 40 years age working in surgical departments. After clinical history and systemic inquiry, subjects were requested to fill the St. Louis University′s ADAM Questionnaire based on which the total and free-serum testosterone estimation was then done. Results: One hundred fifty seven healthy volunteers enrolled for the study (mean age 53.1 years; range 40-60. The androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM Questionnaire detected 106 men (67.5% to be symptomatic for TDS. Serum testosterone estimation in these subjects revealed 41/106 to have low free-serum testosterone levels and 32/106 to have low total-serum testosterone. In 11 and 6 cases, respectively, the serum free- and total-testosterone levels were found to be low although the subjects were asymptomatic for TDS. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptomatic biochemical hypogonadism was 26.1%. The higher prevalence of symptoms alone of TDS was unusual. It could be because of the nature of the questionnaire. Free-serum testosterone may be a better single test to diagnose symptomatic hypogonadism than total-serum testosterone.

  13. Testosterone inhibits trust, but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; van den Bergh, B.; van Son, V.; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smids, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  14. Testosterone Inhibits Trust but Promotes Reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  15. Serum-free Erythroid Differentiation for Efficient Genetic Modification and High-Level Adult Hemoglobin Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Naoya; Demirci, Selami; Haro-Mora, Juan J; Fujita, Atsushi; Raines, Lydia N; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2018-06-15

    In vitro erythroid differentiation from primary human cells is valuable to develop genetic strategies for hemoglobin disorders. However, current erythroid differentiation methods are encumbered by modest transduction rates and high baseline fetal hemoglobin production. In this study, we sought to improve both genetic modification and hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells in vitro . To model therapeutic strategies, we transduced human CD34 + cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lentiviral vectors and compared erythropoietin-based erythroid differentiation using fetal-bovine-serum-containing media and serum-free media. We observed more efficient transduction (85%-93%) in serum-free media than serum-containing media (20%-69%), whereas the addition of knockout serum replacement (KSR) was required for serum-free media to promote efficient erythroid differentiation (96%). High-level adult hemoglobin production detectable by electrophoresis was achieved using serum-free media similar to serum-containing media. Importantly, low fetal hemoglobin production was observed in the optimized serum-free media. Using KSR-containing, serum-free erythroid differentiation media, therapeutic adult hemoglobin production was detected at protein levels with β-globin lentiviral transduction in both CD34 + cells and PBMCs from sickle cell disease subjects. Our in vitro erythroid differentiation system provides a practical evaluation platform for adult hemoglobin production among human erythroid cells following genetic manipulation.

  16. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    estimation of total bilirubin by DiaSys and Randox reagents along with simultaneous re-estimation by Roche reagents in ... been used mainly due to slightly lower cost in ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... air-conditioned laboratory overnight. ..... Elevated IgG causing spurious elevation in serum total bilirubin assay. Asia.

  17. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  18. Dihydrotestosterone and testosterone levels in men screened for prostate cancer: a study of a randomized population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, O; Norming, U; Gustafsson, S; Eneroth, P; Aström, G; Nyman, C R

    1996-03-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone, sexual-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and tumour stage, grade and ploidy in 65 cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in a screening study compared to 130 controls from the same population. From a population of 26,602 men between the ages of 55 and 70 years, 2400 were selected randomly and invited to undergo screening for prostate cancer using a digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasonography and PSA analysis. Among the 1782 attendees, 65 cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed. Each case was matched with two control subjects of similar age and prostate volume from the screening population. Frozen serum samples were analysed for PSA, DHT, testosterone and SHBG, and compared to the diagnosis and tumour stage, grade and ploidy. Comparisons between these variables, and multivariate and regression analyses were performed. There were significant differences in PSA level with all variables except tumour ploidy. DHT levels were slightly lower in patients with prostate cancer but the difference was not statistically significant. There was a trend towards lower DHT values in more advanced tumours and the difference for T-stages was close to statistical significance (P = 0.059). Testosterone levels were lower in patients with cancer than in the control group, but the differences were not significant. There was no correlation between testosterone levels, tumour stage and ploidy, but the differences in testosterone level in tumours of a low grade of differentiation compared to those with intermediate and high grade was nearly significant (P = 0.058). The testosterone/DHT ratio tended to be higher in patients with more advanced tumours. SHBG levels were lower in patients with cancer than in controls but the differences were not statistically significant. There were no systematic variations of tumour stage, grade and ploidy. Multivariate

  19. Evaluation of three high abundance protein depletion kits for umbilical cord serum proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Jing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High abundance protein depletion is a major challenge in the study of serum/plasma proteomics. Prior to this study, most commercially available kits for depletion of highly abundant proteins had only been tested and evaluated in adult serum/plasma, while the depletion efficiency on umbilical cord serum/plasma had not been clarified. Structural differences between some adult and fetal proteins (such as albumin make it likely that depletion approaches for adult and umbilical cord serum/plasma will be variable. Therefore, the primary purposes of the present study are to investigate the efficiencies of several commonly-used commercial kits during high abundance protein depletion from umbilical cord serum and to determine which kit yields the most effective and reproducible results for further proteomics research on umbilical cord serum. Results The immunoaffinity based kits (PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent displayed higher depletion efficiency than the immobilized dye based kit (PROTBA-Sigma in umbilical cord serum samples. Both the PROTIA-Sigma and 5185-Agilent kit maintained high depletion efficiency when used three consecutive times. Depletion by the PROTIA-Sigma Kit improved 2DE gel quality by reducing smeared bands produced by the presence of high abundance proteins and increasing the intensity of other protein spots. During image analysis using the identical detection parameters, 411 ± 18 spots were detected in crude serum gels, while 757 ± 43 spots were detected in depleted serum gels. Eight spots unique to depleted serum gels were identified by MALDI- TOF/TOF MS, seven of which were low abundance proteins. Conclusions The immunoaffinity based kits exceeded the immobilized dye based kit in high abundance protein depletion of umbilical cord serum samples and dramatically improved 2DE gel quality for detection of trace biomarkers.

  20. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The many faces of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald Bain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance

  2. Development of the fast, simple and fully validated high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector for quantification of testosterone esters in an oil-based injectable dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlik, Petr; Tircova, Barbora

    2016-11-01

    Counterfeit steroids are available on the black market, ultimately to consumers who believe they are buying a legitimate pharmaceutical item from the labeled company. In many cases, counterfeit steroids can contain lower doses or some products can be overdosed. This can unwittingly expose users to a significant health risks. The mixture of testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form belongs to the one of the most misused illicit drugs by a variety of athletes. This study developed a new, fast, simple and reliable HPLC method combined with a simple sample preparation step to determine testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form without the use of sophisticated and expensive instrumentation. The developed analytical procedure provides high throughput of samples where LC analysis takes only 6min and sample preparation of oil matrix in one step takes approximately 10min with precision ranging from 1.03 to 3.38% (RSD), and accuracy (relative error %) within ±2.01%. This method was found to be precise, linear, accurate, sensitive, selective and robust for routine application in screening of commercial pharmaceutical products based on content of mentioned testosterone esters in their oil-based injectable dosage form for counterfeit drugs. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of nine samples of commercial testosterone mixtures purchased from various sources and will be further used as an effective screening method for determination of previously mentioned testosterone esters in samples confiscated by Institute of Forensic Science (Slovakia) during the illegal trade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. AB19. Testosterone replacement therapy: how safe is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone has a ubiquitous role in the male body and the importance of a decline in testosterone levels has wide ranging impact on: regulation of gonadal function, prostate development and growth, libido, cerebral function, behavior, mood, muscle mass, liver function, lipid regulation, bone formation, atherogenesis, erythropoiesis, hair growth and immune function. What the minimum required level of serum testosterone for the optimal health of each of these areas, nor whether each organ system’s biological response to increasing or decreasing testosterone levels follows a ‘dose-response’, ‘threshold’ or other behaviour is unclear. Late-onset hypogonadism (also known as age-associated testosterone deficiency syndrome) is a syndrome associated with advancing age and characterized by a spectrum of symptoms and a biochemical deficiency in serum testosterone levels below the young healthy adult male reference range (280-300 ng/dL; 9.8-10.4 nmol/L- Note: this level may vary in different laboratories). The decrease in serum testosterone levels seems to be a gradual, age-related process resulting in an approximate 1-2% annual decline after age 30 years, with a steep decline in bioavailable and free testosterone levels. The findings Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging demonstrated that 30% of men in their eighth have total testosterone values in the hypogonadal range (that is between 200 and 400 ng/dL), and 50% have low free testosterone values (5-9 ng/dL; 0.17-0.31 nmol/L). An estimated 500,000 new cases of late-onset hypogonadism occur annually in the USA, with similar levels reported worldwide. Testosterone deficiency has marked physiological and clinical effects on men in middle age and beyond. With subnormal testosterone levels, the potential positive benefits of TRT on factors such as muscle mass, libido or erectile function are likely a dose-response phenomena, and should be considered differently than the threshold impact on the prostate. The

  4. Fish Oil Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Male Mouse Reproductive Dysfunction via Modifying the Rhythmic Expression of Testosterone Synthesis Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs against high-fat diet induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and to explore circadian regulation mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed a normal chow diet (control group, CON, a high-fat diet (HFD group or a HFD supplemented with fish oil (FO group for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of feeding, the body weight and the ratio of perinephric and epididymal fat weight to body weight were significantly higher in the HFD group compared with the CON group. The supplement of fish oil rich in ω-3PUFAs only slightly reduced the HFD-induced obesity but remarkably ameliorated HFD-induced dyslipidemia, sexual hormones disorder, testicle lesions and germ cell apoptosis. Fish oil supplementation restored the expression of steroid synthesis associated genes in HFD fed mouse and flattened the HFD-induced oscillations in circadian genes’ expression. Fish oil supplementation prevented HFD-induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and modified the rhythmic expression of testosterone synthesis related genes.

  5. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanth N. Surampudi; Christina Wang; Ronald Swerdloff

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young...

  6. Comparison of the pre-treatment testosterone levels in benign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.E. Orakwe

    2017-01-26

    Jan 26, 2017 ... Abstract. Objectives: To compare serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of patients diagnosed of prostate cancer to those with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Subjects and methods: One hundred and thirteen male patients with or without LUTS who had indica- tion(s) for prostate ...

  7. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects. Biometric measurements including weight, height and waist circumference were also recorded. Results: Serum testosterone levels of Ugandan men were within the normal physiological ranges. Married participants and ...

  8. Testosterone levels and the genetic variation of sex hormone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samy Naeem

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... 1Physiology and Hormones Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural ... Firstly, this study aimed to determine the levels of testosterone in different-age ..... reduction in steroid-binding affinity due to impairment .... gene influence serum SHBG levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  9. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. This decrease seems to be due to decreased liver function, decreasing hepatic blood flow, and increased portosystemic shunting. Oral testosterone loading may therefore be of prognostic significance in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.......The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...

  10. Serum sex hormone and growth arrest-specific protein 6 levels in male patients with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6, is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001 and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001 in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD.

  11. Serum Protein Profile Study of Clinical Samples Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Laser Induced Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Ukendt, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested for estab...

  12. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P traits (r = 0. 376, P trait (r = 0. 544, P trait (r = 0. 485, P trait (r = 0.632, P traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits.

  13. Testosterone inhibits trust but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although dominance behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior but also through prosocial behavior. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of testosterone

  14. High-Flux Hemodialysis and High-Volume Hemodiafiltration Improve Serum Calcification Propensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Dekker

    Full Text Available Calciprotein particles (CPPs may play an important role in the calcification process. The calcification propensity of serum (T50 is highly predictive of all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease patients. Whether T50 is therapeutically improvable, by high-flux hemodialysis (HD or hemodiafiltration (HDF, has not been studied yet.We designed a cross-sectional single center study, and included stable prevalent in-center dialysis patients on HD or HDF. Patients were divided into two groups based on dialysis modality, were on a thrice-weekly schedule, had a dialysis vintage of > 3 months and vascular access providing a blood flow rate > 300 ml/min. Calcification propensity of serum was measured by the time of transformation from primary to secondary CPP (T50 test, by time-resolved nephelometry.We included 64 patients, mean convective volume was 21.7L (SD 3.3L. In the pooled analysis, T50 levels increased in both the HD and HDF group with pre- and post-dialysis (mean (SD of 244(64 - 301(57 and 253(55 - 304(61 min respectively (P = 0.43(HD vs. HDF. The mean increase in T50 was 26.29% for HD and 21.97% for HDF patients (P = 0.61 (HD vs. HDF. The delta values (Δ of calcium, phosphate and serum albumin were equal in both groups. Baseline T50 was negatively correlated with phosphate, and positively correlated with serum magnesium and fetuin-A. The ΔT50 was mostly influenced by Δ phosphate (r = -0.342; P = 0.002 HD and r = -0.396; P<0.001 HDF in both groups.HD and HDF patients present with same baseline T50 calcification propensity values pre-dialysis. Calcification propensity is significantly improved during both HD and HDF sessions without significant differences between both modalities.

  15. Seasonal changes in testosterone and corticosterone levels in four social classes of a desert dwelling sociable rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten

    2008-04-01

    Animals have to adjust their physiology to seasonal changes, in response to variation in food availability, social tactics and reproduction. I compared basal corticosterone and testosterone levels in free ranging striped mouse from a desert habitat, comparing between the sexes, breeding and philopatric non-breeding individuals, and between the breeding and the non-breeding season. I expected differences between breeders and non-breeders and between seasons with high and low food availability. Basal serum corticosterone was measured from 132 different individuals and serum testosterone from 176 different individuals of free living striped mice. Corticosterone and testosterone levels were independent of age, body weight and not influenced by carrying a transmitter. The levels of corticosterone and testosterone declined by approximately 50% from the breeding to the non-breeding season in breeding females as well as non-breeding males and females. In contrast, breeding males showed much lower corticosterone levels during the breeding season than all other classes, and were the only class that showed an increase of corticosterone from the breeding to the non-breeding season. As a result, breeding males had similar corticosterone levels as other social classes during the non-breeding season. During the breeding season, breeding males had much higher testosterone levels than other classes, which decreased significantly from the breeding to the non-breeding season. My results support the prediction that corticosterone decreases during periods of low food abundance. Variation in the pattern of hormonal secretion in striped mice might assist them to cope with seasonal changes in energy demand in a desert habitat.

  16. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule. PMID:24470750

  17. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Gill, Thomas M; Shumaker, Sally A; Pleasants, Debbie D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P; Cunningham, Glenn R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Farrar, John T; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2017-02-21

    Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to -26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, -290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, -80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the testosterone group and 245 men in the placebo completed the memory study. There was no significant mean

  18. INFLUENCE OF HIGH CORTISOL DOSES UPON THE SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Voja Pavlovic; Zoran Pavlovic

    2001-01-01

    The effects of Cortisol upon the serum immunoglobulin concentration areexamined. The experiment involved male guinea pigs of the body weight from 300 to400 g that were nonnally fed and lived under the common laboratory conditions. Theguinea pigs were divided into an experimental and a control group. The experimentalgroup's guinea pigs were given every day (in a 6 days' period) a subcutaneous dose of80 g of corti sol/kg/per day, while the control group ones were given only one ml ofthe physiol...

  19. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Musicki

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH levels compared with wild type (WT mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR, but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  20. Prevalence of low testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A Al Hayek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of low serum testosterone (LST in men with type 2 diabetes have been reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of LST in men with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted among 1,089 men (aged 30-70 years with type 2 diabetes who consecutively attended a major diabetes center in Amman, Jordan, between August 2008 and February 2009. The patients′ demographic characteristics were collected using a prestructured questionnaire. Duration of diabetes, smoking habits, presence of retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy were collected from the medical records. All participants were asked to complete the Androgen Deficiency in Ageing Male (ADAM questionnaire. Venous blood sample was collected to test for total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin (PRL, serum lipids, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. LST was defined as TT <3 ng/ml. Results: Overall, 36.5% of patients with diabetes had TT level <3 ng/ml and 29% had symptoms of androgen deficiency. Of those with serum testosterone level <3 ng/ml, 80.2% had symptoms of androgen deficiency, 16.9% had primary hypogonadism (HG, and 83.1% had secondary HG. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between age, income, education, body mass index (BMI, smoking, duration of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and HbA1c. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy as the independent risk factors of LST. Conclusions: The prevalence of LST among men with type 2 diabetes is high. Age, income, BMI, and diabetic neuropathy were found to be the independent risk factors for LST.

  1. Variation in circulating testosterone during mating predicts reproductive success in a wild songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Apfelbeck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is an important sex hormone and mediates reproduction in male vertebrates. There is ample evidence that testosterone coordinates the expression of physiological, morphological and behavioural traits during reproduction and many of these traits are under sexual selection. However, only few studies so far have examined if individual variation in testosterone is correlated with reproductive success. Because socially monogamous bird species pass through different phases within a breeding cycle and each of these phases requires the expression of different behaviours, the relation between testosterone and reproductive success could vary with breeding stage. Here we investigate the link between reproductive success and testosterone in European stonechats – a socially monogamous songbird with biparental care. Previous studies found that territorial aggression in breeding stonechats depends on testosterone and that testosterone levels peak during the mating phase. Thus, high testosterone levels during mating may influence reproductive success by promoting territorial aggression and mate guarding. We found that males with two breeding attempts produced a similar number of fledglings as males with three breeding attempts. However, males with two breeding attempts expressed higher levels of testosterone than males with just one or those with three breeding attempts, regardless of whether testosterone was measured during the mating or the parental phase of the first brood. Furthermore, testosterone levels during mating, but not during parenting correlated with the total annual number of fledglings. Thus, individual variation in levels of plasma testosterone predicted reproductive success in stonechats.

  2. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  3. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  4. The Effect of Testosterone Topical Solution in Hypogonadal Men With Suboptimal Response to a Topical Testosterone Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patrick R; Kim, Edward D; Ruff, Dustin D; Seftel, Allen D

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of axillary administration of a 2% testosterone solution (Axiron ® ) in hypogonadal (HGN) men who had had a suboptimal response to treatment with a commercially available topical testosterone gel. HGN men averaging 57 years old, with a mean body mass index of 31.9 kg/m 2 and median baseline testosterone level (T-level) of 185.2 ng/dL, who had failed to reach normal T-levels with a topical testosterone gel (Androgel 1.62%, Androgel, Testim, or Fortesta) were treated with a 2% testosterone solution until T-levels reached a normal range (from ≥300 to ≤1,050 ng/dL) or for up to 9 weeks. Outcomes included the cumulative percentage of men with a serum T-level in the normal range during treatment with Axiron and improvement in symptoms of low energy level and low sexual drive. During the study, 95% of HGN men (72/78) attained a T-level in the normal range. The median T-level at endpoint was 495.7 ng/dL, a threefold increase over baseline, p levels within the first 2 weeks of treatment. In a post hoc analysis, all subjects with baseline body mass indexes >35 kg/m 2 ( n = 19) achieved T-levels in the normal range. Prior to treatment, over 61% of subjects (48/78) reported impairment in either energy level or sexual drive. After treatment (or testosterone normalization), energy level improved in 75% of subjects and sexual drive improved in 70%. Topical 2% testosterone solution is a safe and effective treatment for HGN men who have had a suboptimal response to previous treatment with topical testosterone gels.

  5. High serum creatinine nonlinearity: a renal vital sign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palant, Carlos E; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Faselis, Charles; Li, Ping; Pallone, Thomas L; Kimmel, Paul L; Amdur, Richard L

    2016-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have nonlinear serum creatinine concentration (SC) trajectories, especially as CKD progresses. Variability in SC is associated with renal failure and death. However, present methods for measuring SC variability are unsatisfactory because they blend information about SC slope and variance. We propose an improved method for defining and calculating a patient's SC slope and variance so that they are mathematically distinct, and we test these methods in a large sample of US veterans, examining the correlation of SC slope and SC nonlinearity (SCNL) and the association of SCNL with time to stage 4 CKD (CKD4) and death. We found a strong correlation between SCNL and rate of CKD progression, time to CKD4, and time to death, even in patients with normal renal function. We therefore argue that SCNL may be a measure of renal autoregulatory dysfunction that provides an early warning sign for CKD progression. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Autoantibodies, histocompatibility antigens and testosterone in males with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo; Bahnsen, M

    1981-01-01

    Titres and immunoglobulin classes of autoantibodies were examined in 69 male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the findings were related to particular human leucocyte antigens and serum concentration of testosterone. Both anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and smooth muscle antibodies (SMA...... had higher titres of ANA (n.s.) and SMA (P less than 0.05) than patients without these HLA antigens. Serum concentrations of testosterone were significantly lower in ANA-positive patients than in those negative (P less than 0.05), and a similar tendency was found in SMA-positive patients....... With increasing titres of ANA the concentration of testosterone fell. Serum concentration of testosterone correlated inversely (P less than 0.05) with plasma immunoglobulin G and A. It is concluded that both genetic and hormonal factors may influence the humoral immune response in these patients....

  7. Optimizing cationic and neutral lipids for efficient gene delivery at high serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chia-Ling; Ewert, Kai K; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Liang, Keng S; Leal, Cecília; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposome (CL)-DNA complexes are promising gene delivery vectors with potential application in gene therapy. A key challenge in creating CL-DNA complexes for application is that their transfection efficiency (TE) is adversely affected by serum. In particular, little is known about the effects of a high serum content on TE, even though this may provide design guidelines for application in vivo. We prepared CL-DNA complexes in which we varied the neutral lipid [1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine, glycerol-monooleate (GMO), cholesterol], the headgroup charge and chemical structure of the cationic lipid, and the ratio of neutral to cationic lipid; we then measured the TE of these complexes as a function of serum content and assessed their cytotoxicity. We tested selected formulations in two human cancer cell lines (M21/melanoma and PC-3/prostate cancer). In the absence of serum, all CL-DNA complexes of custom-synthesized multivalent lipids show high TE. Certain combinations of multivalent lipids and neutral lipids, such as MVL5(5+)/GMO-DNA complexes or complexes based on the dendritic-headgroup lipid TMVLG3(8+) exhibited high TE both in the absence and presence of serum. Although their TE still dropped to a small extent in the presence of serum, it reached or surpassed that of benchmark commercial transfection reagents, particularly at a high serum content. Two-component vectors (one multivalent cationic lipid and one neutral lipid) can rival or surpass benchmark reagents at low and high serum contents (up to 50%, v/v). We propose guidelines for optimizing the serum resistance of CL-DNA complexes based on a given cationic lipid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  9. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Testosterone supplementation, glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis in the ageing male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdžanović, Vladimir Z; Filipović, Branko R; Šošić Jurjević, Branka T; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2017-08-01

    Male ageing is entwined with a continuous fall in free testosterone levels, which contributes to the pathogenesis of bone loss. Glucocorticoid excess, either dependent on the ageing process or iatrogenically induced, was found to additionally impair the bone structure and metabolism. Cautious testosterone supplementation in this respect may positively affect the glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis, while testosterone-induced changes in the glucocorticoid output could serve as a determinant of bone-related therapeutic outcome. Namely, bone mineral content/density, the parameters of trabecular bone structure as well as bone strength are enhanced, serum calcitonin levels tend to increase, while serum osteocalcin, serum parathyroid hormone and urinary calcium decrease, all upon testosterone administration to the ageing male. In parallel, testosterone application decreases glucocorticoid secretion in the animal models of male ageing, while clinical data in this field are still inconsistent. Importantly, a physiological link exists between testosterone-induced changes in glucocorticoid levels and the tendency of bone status improvement in the ageing male. We believe that the assessment of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations together with glucocorticoid levels, reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback loop operativeness during testosterone supplementation, represents a well-balanced bone-related therapeutic update. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  11. Long-Duration Space Flight and Bed Rest Effects on Testosterone and Other Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Wang, Zuwei; Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited data suggest that testosterone is decreased during space flight, which could contribute to bone and muscle loss. Objective: The main objective was to assess testosterone and hormone status in long- and short-duration space flight and bed rest environments and to determine relationships with other physiological systems, including bone and muscle. Design: Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after long-duration space flight. Samples were also collected before and after 12- to 14-d missions and from participants in 30- to 90-d bed rest studies. Setting: Space flight studies were conducted on the International Space Station and before and after Space Shuttle missions. Bed rest studies were conducted in a clinical research center setting. Data from Skylab missions are also presented. Participants: All of the participants were male, and they included 15 long-duration and nine short-duration mission crew members and 30 bed rest subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Serum total, free, and bioavailable testosterone were measured along with serum and urinary cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG. Results: Total, free, and bioavailable testosterone was not changed during long-duration space flight but were decreased (P space flight. There were no changes in other hormones measured. Testosterone concentrations dropped before and soon after bed rest, but bed rest itself had no effect on testosterone. Conclusions: There was no evidence for decrements in testosterone during long-duration space flight or bed rest. PMID:22049169

  12. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  13. Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Karalias, N.; Christodoulou, B.; Kafatos, A.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the

  14. Segmentectomy for giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangiomas with high serum KL-6 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroaki; Mun, Mingyon; Okumura, Sakae; Nakagawa, Ken

    2012-01-01

    We describe a 61-year old female patient with a giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangioma (PSH) and an extremely high preoperative serum KL-6 level. During an annual health screening, the patient showed a posterior mediastinal mass on chest radiography. Chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-circumscribed 60 mm diameter nodule with a marked contrast enhancement in the left lower lobe. The preoperative serum KL-6 level was elevated to 8204 U/ml. We performed a four-port thoracoscopic basal segmentectomy and lymph node sampling for diagnosis and therapy. The postoperative diagnosis showed PSH. The serum KL-6 level decreased dramatically with tumour resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with PSH showing a high serum KL-6 level. PMID:22454483

  15. Segmentectomy for giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangiomas with high serum KL-6 levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroda, Hiroaki; Mun, Mingyon; Okumura, Sakae; Nakagawa, Ken

    2012-01-01

    We describe a 61-year old female patient with a giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangioma (PSH) and an extremely high preoperative serum KL-6 level. During an annual health screening, the patient showed a posterior mediastinal mass on chest radiography. Chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-circumscribed 60 mm diameter nodule with a marked contrast enhancement in the left lower lobe. The preoperative serum KL-6 level was elevated to 8204 U/ml. We performed a fo...

  16. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-β-[ 75 Se] selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor

  17. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  18. Elevated level of serum triglyceride among high risk stress bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate lipid profile among high risk stress bank employees' correlated with heart disorders in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 129 patients with high risk stress employees were involved in this study, which were divided into 69 males and 60 females between the age of 25 to 55 years.

  19. No effect of oral testosterone treatment on sexual dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhotic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Wantzin, P; Eriksen, J

    1988-01-01

    -binding globulin-bound testosterone concentrations disappeared, however, when age, ethanol consumption, and severity of liver disease were included as covariates in the analysis. During follow-up (median 30 mo, range 1-48 mo) sexual dysfunction improved significantly (p less than 0.05) at 6, 12, and 24 mo......The prevalence and course of sexual dysfunction was evaluated in 221 alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment on liver disease. At entry, 67% (95% confidence limits, 61%-74%) complained of sexual dysfunction....... Sexual dysfunction was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with lower serum concentrations of testosterone, non-protein-bound testosterone, and non-sex hormone-binding globulin-bound testosterone. The significant associations between sexual dysfunction and non-protein-bound and non-sex hormone...

  20. The hormone level of both the testosterone and the gonadotropin. Chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Concentration of testosterone and gonadotropin hormones in blood serum was studied at 120 examined sick persons. It is shown that the statistically reliable (P<0.5) decrease of testosterone level is exhibiting under influence of radiation doses over 0.25 Gy. During radiation doses action increasing the legible tendency to of testosterone level reduction is noted. Results of pituitary gland-gonad system study in dependence of sexual dysfunctions are presented. Data evident that sexual dysfunction does not depend from suppression of hormone activity of gonads. It is revealed, that common testosterone level in sicks suffered from low radiation action was reduced. Differences in testosterone content at sicks with sexual dysfunction and without its have not been revealed

  1. Effects of Shiitake Intake on Serum Lipids in Rats Fed Different High-Oil or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Norihiko; Kairiku, Rumi; Tobo, Mika; Ono, Akifumi

    2018-04-27

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) extract, eritadenine, has been shown to reduce cholesterol levels, and its hypocholesterolemic actions are involved in the metabolism of methionine. However, the mechanisms by which eritadenine affects cholesterol metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet containing different sources of lipids have not yet been elucidated in detail. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shiitake supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in rats fed a diet including a high amount of a plant oil (HO [high oil] and HOS [high oil with shiitake] groups), animal fat (HF [high fat] and HFS [high fat with shiitake] groups), or MCT- (medium-chain triglyceride-) rich plant oil (HM [high MCT] and HMS [high MCT with shiitake] groups). Rats in the HOS, HFS, and HMS groups were fed shiitake. When rats were fed a diet containing shiitake, serum triglyceride, cholesterol levels, and LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) activities were lower in rats given MCT-rich plant oil than in those that consumed lard. The lipid type in the diet with shiitake also affected serum cholesterol levels and LCAT activities. The diet containing MCT-rich plant oil showed the greatest rates of decrease in all serum lipid profiles and LCAT activities. These results suggest that shiitake and MCT-rich plant oil work together to reduce lipid profiles and LCAT activity in serum.

  2. The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronsini Salvatore

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-aspartic acid is an amino acid present in neuroendocrine tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, including rats and humans. Here we investigated the effect of this amino acid on the release of LH and testosterone in the serum of humans and rats. Furthermore, we investigated the role of D-aspartate in the synthesis of LH and testosterone in the pituitary and testes of rats, and the molecular mechanisms by which this amino acid triggers its action. Methods For humans: A group of 23 men were given a daily dose of D-aspartate (DADAVIT® for 12 days, whereas another group of 20 men were given a placebo. For rats: A group of 10 rats drank a solution of either 20 mM D-aspartate or a placebo for 12 days. Then LH and testosterone accumulation was determined in the serum and D-aspartate accumulation in tissues. The effects of D-aspartate on the synthesis of LH and testosterone were gauged on isolated rat pituitary and Leydig cells. Tissues were incubated with D-aspartate, and then the concentration (synthesis of LH and cGMP in the pituitary and of testosterone and cAMP in the Leydig cells was determined. Results In humans and rats, sodium D-aspartate induces an enhancement of LH and testosterone release. In the rat pituitary, sodium D-aspartate increases the release and synthesis of LH through the involvement of cGMP as a second messenger, whereas in rat testis Leydig cells, it increases the synthesis and release of testosterone and cAMP is implicated as second messenger. In the pituitary and in testes D-Asp is synthesized by a D-aspartate racemase which convert L-Asp into D-Asp. The pituitary and testes possesses a high capacity to trapping circulating D-Asp from hexogen or endogen sources. Conclusion D-aspartic acid is a physiological amino acid occurring principally in the pituitary gland and testes and has a role in the regulation of the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats.

  3. The laboratory diagnosis of testosterone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Darius A; Brannigan, Robert E; Fuchs, Eugene F; Kim, Edward D; Marmar, Joel L; Sandlow, Jay I

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and treatment of hypogonadal men has become an important part of urologic practice. Fatigue, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported, but nonspecific symptoms and laboratory verification of low testosterone (T) are an important part of evaluation in addition to a detailed history and physical examination. Significant intraindividual fluctuations in serum T levels, biologic variation of T action on end organs, the wide range of T levels in human serum samples, and technical limitations of currently available assays have led to poor reliability of T measurements in the clinical laboratory setting. There is no universally accepted threshold of T concentration that distinguishes eugonadal from hypogonadal men; thus, laboratory results have to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical setting. This review focuses on clinical, biological, and technological challenges that affect serum T measurements to educate clinicians regarding technological advances and limitations of the currently available laboratory methods to diagnose hypogonadism. A collaborative effort led by the American Urological Association between practicing clinicians, patient advocacy groups, government regulatory agencies, industry, and professional societies is underway to provide optimized assay platforms and evidence-based normal assay ranges to guide clinical decision making. Until such standardization is commonplace in clinical laboratories, the decision to treat should be based on the presence of signs and symptoms in addition to serum T measurements. Rigid interpretation of T ranges should not dictate clinical decision making or define coverage of treatment by third party payers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of obesity and exercise on testicular leptin signal transduction and testosterone biosynthesis in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xuejie; Gao, Haining; Chen, Dequan; Tang, Donghui; Huang, Wanting; Li, Tao; Ma, Tie; Chang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    To explore the role of the testicular leptin and JAK-STAT[leptin (LEP)-JAK-STAT] pathway in testosterone biosynthesis during juvenile stages and exercise for weight loss, male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into normal-diet and high-fat diet groups. After 10 wk, mice in the high-fat diet-fed group were further divided randomly into obese control, obese moderate-volume exercise, and obese high-volume exercise groups. Mice in the obese moderate-volume exercise group were provided with 2 h/day, 6 days/wk swimming exercise for 8 wk, and mice in the obese high-volume exercise group underwent twice the amount of daily exercise intervention as the obese moderate-volume exercise group. The results showed that a high-fat diet causes obesity, leptin resistance, inhibition of the testicular LEP-JAK-STAT pathway, decreased mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and the P -450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, a decrease in the serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio, and declines in sperm quality parameters. Both moderate and high-volume exercise were able to reduce body fat and increase the mRNA and protein expression of LEP-JAK-STAT, but only moderate exercise significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenic factor-1, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and P -450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and significantly reversed the serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio and sperm quality parameters. These findings suggest that by impairing the testicular LEP-JAK-STAT pathway, early-stage obesity inhibits the biosynthesis of testosterone and sexual development and reduces male reproductive potential. Long-term moderate and high-volume exercise can effectively reduce body fat and improve obesity-induced abnormalities in testicular leptin signal transduction, whereas only moderate-volume exercise can reverse the negative impacts of obesity on male reproductive function. Copyright © 2017 the American

  5. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  6. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Z.; Shahid, K.U.; Mazahir, I.; Lakho, G.R.; Nafees, M.

    2006-01-01

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  7. Effects of high grade bentonite on performance, organ weights and serum biochemistry during aflatoxicosis in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Indresh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of different levels of High Bentonite on growth performance, organ weight and serum biochemistry in broiler fed on diets containing aflatoxin. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 day-old commercial broiler chicks were divided at random into 8 dietary treatment groups of 42 chicks each having 3 replicates. Dietary levels of aflatoxin (0.5 ppm and High-grade bentonite (0.5, 0.75 and 1.00% were tested in a completely randomized design manner, forming a total of 8 dietary treatments each with three replicates. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At 5 wk, six birds from each treatment were sacrificed and liver, kidney, gizzard, pancreas, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus were extracted and weighed. The serum samples were analyzed for total proteins, uric acid, serum albumin, serum globulin and the activities of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, alanine amino transferase (ALT and for antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND and infectious bursal disease (IBD using ELISA technique. Results: A significant (P<0.05 decrease in body weight, feed consumption, relative weights of bursa, thymus, serum protein, anti body titers against NDV and IBDV, and increase in FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, and the activity of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT was observed. However, the relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, spleen, serum albumin, uric acid and the activity of Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT were not influenced by inclusion of AF or HGB. Conclusion: The addition of HGB restored the harmful effects of AF on body weight, feed consumption, FCR, mortality, relative weight of liver, kidney, serum protein, IBDV and NDV. Supplementation of high grade bentonite at 1.0 per cent level was found to be beneficial in ameliorating the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF in broiler chickens. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 313-317

  8. Prediabetes Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Testosterone Deficiency, Independent of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chen-Hsun; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Liao, Wan-Chung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The association between type 2 diabetes and low testosterone has been well recognized. However, testosterone levels in men with prediabetes have been rarely reported. We aimed to investigate whether prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency. Methods This study included 1,306 men whose sex hormones was measured during a medical examination. Serum total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured; free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations were calculated by Vermeulen’s formula. Prediabetes was defined by impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired postprandial glucose (IPG), or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 5.7%-6.4%. Logistic regression was performed to obtain the odds ratios (OR) for subnormal total testosterone (prediabetic and diabetic men compared with normoglycemic individuals, while adjusting for age, BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Results Normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 577 (44.2%), 543 (41.6%), and 186 (14.2%) men, respectively. Prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of subnormal total testosterone compared to normoglycemic individuals (age-adjusted OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.38-2.54). The risk remained significant in all multivariate analyses. After adjusting for MetS, the OR in prediabetic men equals that of diabetic patients (1.49 versus 1.50). IFG, IPG, and HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% were all associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, with different levels of significance in multivariate analyses. However, neither prediabetes nor diabetes was associated with subnormal free testosterone in multivariate analyses. Conclusions Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, independent of obesity and MetS. After adjusting for MetS, the risk equals that of diabetes. Our data suggest that testosterone should be measured routinely in men with prediabetes. PMID:24069277

  9. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, χ2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion: Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile

  10. DJ-1 is a reliable serum biomarker for discriminating high-risk endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cello, Annalisa; Di Sanzo, Maddalena; Perrone, Francesca Marta; Santamaria, Gianluca; Rania, Erika; Angotti, Elvira; Venturella, Roberta; Mancuso, Serafina; Zullo, Fulvio; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    New reliable approaches to stratify patients with endometrial cancer into risk categories are highly needed. We have recently demonstrated that DJ-1 is overexpressed in endometrial cancer, showing significantly higher levels both in serum and tissue of patients with high-risk endometrial cancer compared with low-risk endometrial cancer. In this experimental study, we further extended our observation, evaluating the role of DJ-1 as an accurate serum biomarker for high-risk endometrial cancer. A total of 101 endometrial cancer patients and 44 healthy subjects were prospectively recruited. DJ-1 serum levels were evaluated comparing cases and controls and, among endometrial cancer patients, between high- and low-risk patients. The results demonstrate that DJ-1 levels are significantly higher in cases versus controls and in high- versus low-risk patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis shows that DJ-1 has a very good diagnostic accuracy in discriminating endometrial cancer patients versus controls and an excellent accuracy in distinguishing, among endometrial cancer patients, low- from high-risk cases. DJ-1 sensitivity and specificity are the highest when high- and low-risk patients are compared, reaching the value of 95% and 99%, respectively. Moreover, DJ-1 serum levels seem to be correlated with worsening of the endometrial cancer grade and histotype, making it a reliable tool in the preoperative decision-making process.

  11. Serum osteoprotegerin levels and mammographic density among high-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Olivia; Zaman, Tasnim; Eisen, Andrea; Demsky, Rochelle; Blackmore, Kristina; Knight, Julia A; Elser, Christine; Ginsburg, Ophira; Zbuk, Kevin; Yaffe, Martin; Narod, Steven A; Salmena, Leonardo; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2018-06-01

    Mammographic density is a risk factor for breast cancer but the mechanism behind this association is unclear. The receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) pathway has been implicated in the development of breast cancer. Given the role of RANK signaling in mammary epithelial cell proliferation, we hypothesized this pathway may also be associated with mammographic density. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a decoy receptor for RANKL, is known to inhibit RANK signaling. Thus, it is of interest to evaluate whether OPG levels modify breast cancer risk through mammographic density. We quantified serum OPG levels in 57 premenopausal and 43 postmenopausal women using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cumulus was used to measure percent density, dense area, and non-dense area for each mammographic image. Subjects were classified into high versus low OPG levels based on the median serum OPG level in the entire cohort (115.1 pg/mL). Multivariate models were used to assess the relationship between serum OPG levels and the measures of mammographic density. Serum OPG levels were not associated with mammographic density among premenopausal women (P ≥ 0.42). Among postmenopausal women, those with low serum OPG levels had higher mean percent mammographic density (20.9% vs. 13.7%; P = 0.04) and mean dense area (23.4 cm 2 vs. 15.2 cm 2 ; P = 0.02) compared to those with high serum OPG levels after covariate adjustment. These findings suggest that low OPG levels may be associated with high mammographic density, particularly in postmenopausal women. Targeting RANK signaling may represent a plausible, non-surgical prevention option for high-risk women with high mammographic density, especially those with low circulating OPG levels.

  12. The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (≤45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in delayed C-LA (P = 0.01). Milk yield in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days increased more than cows with C-LA 45 days or less postpartum (P = 0.002). Insulin concentrations increased relatively in parallel from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in cows either with C-LA greater than 45 or with C-LA 45 days or less. We showed for the first time the profile of serum adiponectin concentrations

  13. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  14. Stress-induced suppression of testosterone secretion in male alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, V A; Elsey, R M

    1986-08-01

    In order to test the effect of acute stress on gonadal hormone secretion in reptiles, six mature male alligators were captured, and a blood sample was taken within 5 min of capture. Additional blood samples were taken at timed intervals for up to 41 hr, and plasma testosterone and corticosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma testosterone declined to 50% of the initial value by 4 hr and dropped to less than 10% of initial by 24 hr. Plasma corticosterone increased during the first 12 hr, declined at 24 hr, and rose again at 40 hr. Blood samples from male alligators collected in North and South Carolina, south Florida, and in south Louisiana in two consecutive breeding seasons were also assayed for testosterone and corticosterone. In these populations there were significant differences in mean plasma testosterone and corticosterone levels. Elevated corticosterone levels were consistently seen in alligators caught in traps and from which a blood sample was taken several hours later. Plasma testosterone, although consistently lower in trapped alligators, did not show a negative correlation with plasma corticosterone. Farm-reared alligators bled once, released, and bled again at 24 hr also showed a highly significant suppression of testosterone secretion. These results demonstrate that stress has a rapid and dramatic effect on testicular steroid secretion in both farm-reared and wild alligators.

  15. Persistent high serum bilirubin level after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 32 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, In Wook; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1986-01-01

    The aim of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is to decrease serum bilirubin level and promote liver function in patient with biliary tract disease, especially obstruction by malignant disease. But some patients showed persistent high serum bilirubin level or higher than pre-PTBD level. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed in 341 patients of obstructive jaundice for 5 years form July, 1981 to July, 1986 at department of radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. Follow up check of the serum bilirubin level was possible in 188 patients. Among them the authors analysed 32 patients who showed persistent high serum bilirubin level after PTBD. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio was 3.4:1 and the age ranged from 33 to 75. 2. The causes of obstructive jaundice included 30 malignant diseases and 2 benign diseases. Malignant disease were 16 cases of bile duct carcinoma, 7 cases of pancreatic cancer and 7 cases of metastasis from stomach, colon and uterine cervix. Benign disease were 1 case of common hepatic duct stone and 1 case of intrahepatic duct stones. 3. The most common level of obstruction was trifurcation in 17 cases. 4. The most common indication of PTBD was palliative drainage of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 28 cases. 5. Change of serum bilirubin level ratio (post-PTBD level/pre-PTBD level) was 1.28, 1.22, 1.38, 1.51 in serial period of 1-3 days, 4-6 days, 1-2 week 2-3 week after PTBD. 6. Causes of persistent high serum bilirubin level after PTBD were 12 cases of partial drainage of intrahepatic bile, 13 cases of hepatic dysfunction including 9 cases of metastatic nodule, 2 cases of biliary cirrhosis, 2 cases of multiple liver abscess, and 7 cases of poor function of catheter including 4 cases of hemobilia, 1 case of multiple intrahepatic stones, pyobilia and intrahepatic Clonorchis sinensis.

  16. Persistent high serum bilirubin level after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: analysis of 32 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, In Wook; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    The aim of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is to decrease serum bilirubin level and promote liver function in patient with biliary tract disease, especially obstruction by malignant disease. But some patients showed persistent high serum bilirubin level or higher than pre-PTBD level. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed in 341 patients of obstructive jaundice for 5 years form July, 1981 to July, 1986 at department of radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. Follow up check of the serum bilirubin level was possible in 188 patients. Among them the authors analysed 32 patients who showed persistent high serum bilirubin level after PTBD. The results were as follows: 1. The male to female ratio was 3.4:1 and the age ranged from 33 to 75. 2. The causes of obstructive jaundice included 30 malignant diseases and 2 benign diseases. Malignant disease were 16 cases of bile duct carcinoma, 7 cases of pancreatic cancer and 7 cases of metastasis from stomach, colon and uterine cervix. Benign disease were 1 case of common hepatic duct stone and 1 case of intrahepatic duct stones. 3. The most common level of obstruction was trifurcation in 17 cases. 4. The most common indication of PTBD was palliative drainage of obstruction secondary to malignant tumor in 28 cases. 5. Change of serum bilirubin level ratio (post-PTBD level/pre-PTBD level) was 1.28, 1.22, 1.38, 1.51 in serial period of 1-3 days, 4-6 days, 1-2 week 2-3 week after PTBD. 6. Causes of persistent high serum bilirubin level after PTBD were 12 cases of partial drainage of intrahepatic bile, 13 cases of hepatic dysfunction including 9 cases of metastatic nodule, 2 cases of biliary cirrhosis, 2 cases of multiple liver abscess, and 7 cases of poor function of catheter including 4 cases of hemobilia, 1 case of multiple intrahepatic stones, pyobilia and intrahepatic Clonorchis sinensis.

  17. Resting serum concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resting serum concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in sportsmen and untrained male adults. F.A. Niyi-Odumosu, O. A. Bello, S.A. Biliaminu, B.V. Owoyele, T.O. Abu, O.L. Dominic ...

  18. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. High-pressure liquid chromatographic assay of Bay n 7133 in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasching, C E; Hughes, C E; Hector, R F; Peterson, L R

    1984-01-01

    A high-pressure liquid chromatographic method that includes a Sep-Pak (Waters Associates, Inc., Milford , Mass.) preparation of human serum was employed for the quantitative assay of Bay n 7133. Drug levels of 0.1 to 20 micrograms/ml could be detected. No interference from amphotericin B was found in the chromatographic analysis of Bay n 7133.

  20. High serum ACE activity predicts severe hypoglycaemia over time in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Louise; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2011-01-01

    High serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) within 1 year in type 1 diabetes. We wanted to find out whether ACE activity is stable over time and predicts SH beyond 1 year, and if gender differences exist in the association...

  1. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  2. Synthesis of testosteron-1,2-T and its metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Barna, Catalina; Condac, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    of labelled testosterone and dehydrotestosterone revealed a radiochemical purity higher than 98 % and a high specific activity. Radiochemical characteristics of the labelled compounds obtained by chemical synthesis are given. Testosterone-T was highly purified by liquid chromatography using a Celite column activated at 600 deg. C and isooctane, then isooctane: toluene as eluant. It was then used as substrate in the biosynthesis of labelled metabolites of testosterone. The enzymatic assay was performed on the prostate tissular homogenate and human skin. The substrates were incubated with the labelled testosterone and NADPH was used as cofactor. After the enzymatic reaction was stopped, the labelled testosterone and its metabolites were extracted with a cyclohexane-ethyl acetate mixture. Labelled products were separated by liquid chromatography using Celite as substrate. Radiochromatogram of testosterone-1,2-T metabolites is shown. The obtained labelled compound can be utilized in molecular biology studies and as labelled antigen (testosterone-T) in RIA kits for dosage of steroids in food products. (authors)

  3. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo.

  4. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interspecific variation in egg testosterone levels: implications for the evolution of bird song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, L Z; Biard, C; Eens, M; Møller, A P; Saino, N

    2007-05-01

    Although interspecific variation in maternal effects via testosterone levels can be mediated by natural selection, little is known about the evolutionary consequences of egg testosterone for sexual selection. However, two nonexclusive evolutionary hypotheses predict an interspecific relationship between egg testosterone levels and the elaboration of sexual traits. First, maternal investment may be particularly enhanced in sexually selected species, which should generate a positive relationship. Secondly, high prenatal testosterone levels may constrain the development of sexual characters, which should result in a negative relationship. Here we investigated these hypotheses by exploring the relationship between yolk testosterone levels and features of song in a phylogenetic study of 36 passerine species. We found that song duration and syllable repertoire size were significantly negatively related to testosterone levels in the egg, even if potentially confounding factors were held constant. These relationships imply that high testosterone levels during early development of songs may be detrimental, thus supporting the developmental constraints hypothesis. By contrast, we found significant evidence that song-post exposure relative to the height of the vegetation is positively related to egg testosterone levels. These results support the hypothesis that high levels of maternal testosterone have evolved in species with intense sexual selection acting on the location of song-posts. We found nonsignificant effects for intersong interval and song type repertoire size, which may suggest that none of the above hypothesis apply to these traits, or they act simultaneously and have opposing effects.

  6. Association Between Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and Testosterone Testing and Initiation in the United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, J Bradley; Kim, Yoonsang; Alexander, G Caleb; Emery, Sherry L

    2017-03-21

    Testosterone initiation increased substantially in the United States from 2000 to 2013, especially among men without clear indications. Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) also increased during this time. To investigate associations between televised DTCA and testosterone testing and initiation in the United States. Ecologic study conducted in designated market areas (DMAs) in the United States. Monthly testosterone advertising ratings were linked to DMA-level testosterone use data from 2009-2013 derived from commercial insurance claims. Associations between DTCA and testosterone testing, initiation, and initiation without recent baseline tests were estimated using Poisson generalized estimating equations. Monthly Nielsen ratings for testosterone DTCA in the 75 largest DMAs. (1) Rates of new serum testosterone testing; (2) rates of testosterone initiation (in-office injection, surgical implant, or pharmacy dispensing) for all testosterone products combined and for specific brands; and (3) rates of testosterone initiation without recent serum testosterone testing. Of 17 228 599 commercially insured men in the 75 DMAs, 1 007 990 (mean age, 49.6 [SD, 11.5] years) had new serum testosterone tests and 283 317 (mean age, 51.8 [SD, 11.3] years) initiated testosterone treatment. Advertising intensity varied by geographic region and time, with the highest intensity seen in the southeastern United States and with months ranging from no ad exposures to a mean of 13.6 exposures per household. Nonbranded advertisements were common prior to 2012, with branded advertisements becoming more common during and after 2012. Each household advertisement exposure was associated with a monthly increase in rates of new testosterone testing (rate ratio [RR], 1.006; 95% CI, 1.004-1.008), initiation (RR, 1.007; 95% CI, 1.004-1.010), and initiation without a recent test (RR, 1.008; 95% CI, 1.002-1.013). Mean absolute rate increases were 0.14 tests (95% CI, 0.09-0.19), 0.05 new

  7. Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

  8. Association of serum uric acid with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, A; Ostovar, A; Vahdat, K; Rezaei, P; Darabi, H; Moshtaghi, D; Nabipour, I

    2017-02-01

    To explore the independent correlation between serum uric acid and low-grade inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hs-CRP) in postmenopausal women. A total of 378 healthy Iranian postmenopausal women were randomly selected in a population-based study. Circulating hs-CRP levels were measured by highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and an enzymatic calorimetric method was used to measure serum levels of uric acid. Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple linear regression and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between uric acid and hs-CRP levels. A statistically significant correlation was seen between serum levels of uric acid and log-transformed circulating hs-CRP (r = 0.25, p uric acid levels (β = 0.20, p uric acid levels (odds ratio =1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.18-1.96). Higher serum uric acid levels were positively and independently associated with circulating hs-CRP in healthy postmenopausal women.

  9. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  10. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Mark D; Fox, Elliott C; Larsen, Gregory D; Batson, Christopher G; Wagner, Benjamin A; Maher, Jack

    2013-05-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats' strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The use of a sensitive equilibrium dialysis method for the measurement of free testosterone levels in healthy, cycling women and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, I; Arver, S; Beall, G; Shen, R; Guerrero, M; Sattler, F; Shikuma, C; Nelson, J C; Landgren, B M; Mazer, N A; Bhasin, S

    1998-04-01

    Measurements of total and free testosterone levels in women have lacked precision and accuracy because of limited assay sensitivity. The paucity of normative data on total and free testosterone levels in healthy women has confounded interpretation of androgen levels in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other disease states. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop sensitive assays for the measurement of the low total and free testosterone levels in women to define the range for these hormones during the normal menstrual cycle and assess the total and free testosterone levels in HIV-infected women. By using a larger volume of serum, increasing the incubation time, and reducing the antibody concentration, the sensitivity of the total testosterone assay was increased to 0.008 nmol/L, and that of the free testosterone assay was increased to 2 pmol/L. The mean percent free testosterone was 1.0 +/- 0.1% of the total testosterone. Serum total and free testosterone levels in the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, but both demonstrated a modest preovulatory increase, 3 days before the LH peak. Serum total [0.50 +/- 0.32 (14.60 +/- 9.22) vs. 1.2 +/- 0.7 nmol/L (34.3 +/- 21.0 ng/dL); P copy number. Serum FSH, but not LH, levels were significantly higher in HIV-infected women than in controls. Using assays with sufficient sensitivity, we defined the range for total and free testosterone levels during the normal menstrual cycle. Serum total and free testosterone levels are lower in HIV-infected women and correlate inversely with plasma HIV ribonucleic acid levels. The hypothesis that androgen deficiency contributes to wasting in HIV-infected women remains to be tested.

  12. High-protein diets in hyperlipidemia : effect of wheat gluten on serum lipids, uric acid, and renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, D.J.A.; Kendall, C.W.C.; Vidgen, E.; Augustin, L.S.A.; Erk, van M.; Geelen, A.; Parker, T.; Faulkner, D.; Vuksan, V.; Josse, R.G.; Leiter, L.A.; Connelly, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein have not been assessed despite much recent interest in the effect of soy proteins in reducing serum cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein (specifically, wheat gluten) on serum

  13. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth N. Surampudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men.

  14. Hypogonadism in the Aging Male Diagnosis, Potential Benefits, and Risks of Testosterone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Prasanth N.; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Hypogonadism in older men is a syndrome characterized by low serum testosterone levels and clinical symptoms often seen in hypogonadal men of younger age. These symptoms include decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, decreased vitality, decreased muscle mass, increased adiposity, depressed mood, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism is a common disorder in aging men with a significant percentage of men over 60 years of age having serum testosterone levels below the lower limits of young male adults. There are a variety of testosterone formulations available for treatment of hypogonadism. Data from many small studies indicate that testosterone therapy offers several potential benefits to older hypogonadal men. A large multicenter NIH supported double blind, placebo controlled study is ongoing, and this study should greatly enhance the information available on efficacy and side effects of treatment. While safety data is available across many age groups, there are still unresolved concerns associated with testosterone therapy. We have reviewed the diagnostic methods as well as benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism in aging men. PMID:22505891

  15. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...... with wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = +0.54; P less than 0.01). The increase of testosterone after the load did not correlate significantly with sex hormone-binding globulin (r = +0.35; P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the hepatic extraction of testosterone is significantly decreased...

  16. Association of high post-transplant soluble CD30 serum levels with chronic allograft nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Tedesco-Silva, Hélio; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcello F; Soares, Maria Fernanda; Medina-Pestana, José Osmar; Gerbase-Delima, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of post-transplant soluble CD30 (sCD30) levels, isolated or in combination with of anti-HLA class II antibodies and of serum creatinine levels, with kidney graft loss due to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), and type of lesions in graft biopsies for cause. The study comprised 511 first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, with a graft functioning for at least 2.8 years. A single blood sample was collected from each patient. sCD30 levels were determined by ELISA, and HLA antibodies by Luminex assay. The minimum follow-up after testing was 9.3 years. High sCD30 levels, set at sCD30 ≥ 34.15 ng/mL, the presence of HLA class II antibodies, and serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL were independently associated with CAN-graft loss (P values sCD30 levels and creatinine were independently associated with interstitial lesions. Post-transplant sCD30 serum levels, especially in conjunction with information regarding HLA class II antibodies and serum creatinine levels, provide valuable information regarding graft outcome and could be useful for the management of kidney transplant recipients. © 2013.

  17. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpou, P; Odén, A; Simonsson, T; Wilhelmsen, L; Landin-Wilhelmsen, K

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for osteoporotic fractures were evaluated in 1,396 men and women for a period of 20 years. Serum total cholesterol was found to be an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. A population random sample of men and women aged 25-64 years (the Gothenburg WHO MONICA project, N = 1,396, 53% women) was studied prospectively. The 1985 baseline examination recorded physical activity at work and during leisure time, psychological stress, smoking habits, coffee consumption, BMI, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fibrinogen. Osteoporotic fractures over a period of 20 years were retrieved from the Gothenburg hospital registers. Poisson regression was used to analyze the predictive power for osteoporotic fracture of each risk factor. A total number of 258 osteoporotic fractures occurred in 143 participants (10.2%). As expected, we found that previous fracture, smoking, coffee consumption, and lower BMI each increase the risk for osteoporotic fracture independently of age and sex. More unexpectedly, we found that the gradient of risk of serum total cholesterol to predict osteoporotic fracture significantly increases over time (p = 0.0377). Serum total cholesterol is an independent osteoporotic fracture risk factor whose predictive power improves with time. High serum total cholesterol is a long-term cause of osteoporotic fracture.

  18. Effects of moderate-dose versus high-dose trimethoprim on serum creatinine and creatinine clearance and adverse reactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Naderer, O; Nafziger, A N; Bertino, J S

    1997-01-01

    The effects of a 10-day course of moderate-dose (10 mg/kg/day) or high-dose (20 mg/kg/day) trimethoprim therapy on serum creatinine, measured creatinine clearance, urinary creatinine excretion, and serum folate were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. Serum creatinine concentrations increased significantly during trimethoprim therapy, began to decrease near day 10, and returned to baseline during the washout phase at both dosage levels. At the same time, measured creatinine clearance and urine ...

  19. Estradiol to testosterone ratio in metabolic syndrome men aged started 40 years above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, R.; Siregar, Y.; Mardianto

    2018-03-01

    Disruption of adipose tissue, an endocrine organ, could turn out into the so-called metabolic syndrome. Aging men with lowering testosterone were related to metabolic syndrome and excessive aromatase activity in adipose tissue would increase estradiol level. This study hypothesized that estradiol to testosterone ratio is increasedin aging, metabolic syndrome men. A total of 52 men were randomly recruited for this study. A blood samplewas drawn before 11.00 AM after 10 hoursof overnight fasting, then aliquot serum kept in -20°C pending the research. Subjects were divided evenly into the metabolic syndrome and nonmetabolicsyndrome group. The hormonal assaywas measured on the day of research. Then examined with student t-test. Estradiol level in metabolic syndrome group was increased, but insignificant differ to the other group. Testosterone level decreased and significantly different between groups. In conclusion, estradiol to testosterone ratio was increased in themetabolic syndrome group but insignificant.

  20. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. METHODS: Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice...... weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. RESULTS: The patients' testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n = 20) (19.5 (8......-9370) ng/mL versus 3244 (3020-3983), P muscle fibre size (n = 12) remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased...

  1. [Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatograph--application to serum aluminium monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, H; Kaneko, E

    1996-01-01

    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with the reversed-phase partition mode separation (including ion-pair one) towards metal chelate compounds prepared in an off-line fashion (precolumn chelation) is most versatile in terms of high sensitivity with base-line flatness, unique selectivity and cost effectiveness. The extraordinary toughness to the complicated matrices encountered in clinical testing is exemplified by the successful application to the aluminium monitoring of human serum samples. The A1 chelate with 2,2'-dihydroxyazobenzene is efficiently chromatographed on a LiChroCART RP-18 column using an aqueous methanol eluent (63.6 wt%) containing tetrabutylammonium bromide as an ion-pair agent. The serum concentration level of A1 down to 6 micrograms dm-3 is readily monitored without influences from iron, chyle and haemolysis.

  2. Testosterone is inversely related to brain activity during emotional inhibition in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ans Vercammen

    Full Text Available Sex steroids affect cognitive function as well as emotion processing and regulation. They may also play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the effects of sex steroids on cognition and emotion-related brain activation in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone relates to brain activation in men with schizophrenia compared to healthy men during cognitive-emotional processing. We assessed brain activation in 18 men with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy men during an emotional go/no-go task using fMRI and measured total serum testosterone levels on the same morning. We performed an ROI analysis to assess the relationship between serum testosterone and brain activation, focusing on cortical regions involved the emotional go/no-go task. Slower RT and reduced accuracy was observed when participants responded to neutral stimuli, while inhibiting responses to negative stimuli. Healthy men showed a robust increase in activation of the middle frontal gyrus when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli, but there was no significant association between activation and serum testosterone level in healthy men. Men with schizophrenia showed a less pronounced increase in activation when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli; however, they did show a strong inverse association between serum testosterone level and activation of the bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left insula. Additionally, increased accuracy during inhibition of response to negative words was associated with both higher serum testosterone levels and decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus in men with schizophrenia only. We conclude that endogenous hormone levels, even within the normal range, may play an enhanced modulatory role in determining the neural and behavioural response during cognitive-emotional processing in schizophrenia.

  3. Quantification of steroid hormones in human serum by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysik, Silke; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2017-12-01

    A limited specificity is inherent to immunoassays for steroid hormone analysis. To improve selectivity mass spectrometric analysis of steroid hormones by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been introduced in the clinical laboratory over the past years usually with low mass resolution triple-quadrupole instruments or more recently by high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Here we introduce liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/HR-MS) to further increase selectivity of steroid hormone quantification. Application of HR-MS demonstrates an enhanced selectivity compared to low mass resolution. Separation of isobaric interferences reduces background noise and avoids overestimation. Samples were prepared by automated liquid-liquid extraction with MTBE. The LC-MS/HR-MS method using a quadrupole-Orbitrap analyzer includes eight steroid hormones i.e. androstenedione, corticosterone, cortisol, cortisone, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, and testosterone. It has a run-time of 5.3min and was validated according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. For most of the analytes coefficient of variation were 10% or lower and LOQs were determined significantly below 1ng/ml. Full product ion spectra including accurate masses substantiate compound identification by matching their masses and ratios with authentic standards. In summary, quantification of steroid hormones by LC-MS/HR-MS is applicable for clinical diagnostics and holds also promise for highly selective quantification of other small molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High serum soluble CD30 does not predict acute rejection in liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinlauri, I; Höckerstedt, K; Isoniemi, H

    2006-12-01

    Increased pre- and posttransplantation values of soluble CD30 (sCD30) have been shown to be associated with acute kidney transplant rejection. We sought to study whether high sCD30 could predict rejection early after liver transplantation. The study population included 54 consecutive liver transplant patients, whose samples were collected before liver transplantation and at discharge, which was at a mean time of 3 weeks after transplantation. During the first 6 months posttransplantation, 22 patients experienced an acute rejection episode. Serum sCD30 concentrations were measured by an enzyme-linked immunoassay; changes in serum sCD30 levels posttransplantation were also expressed as relative values compared with pretransplantation results. Liver patients before transplantation displayed higher serum sCD30 values compared with healthy controls: mean values +/- SD were 93 +/- 58 IU/mL vs 17 +/- 8 IU/mL, respectively. At 3 weeks after transplantation the mean sCD30 concentration in liver transplant patients decreased to 59 +/- 42 IU/mL (P = .005). The mean pretransplantation serum sCD30 value was slightly lower among rejecting vs nonrejecting patients: 78 +/- 43 IU/mL vs 104 +/- 65 IU/mL (P = NS). Posttransplantation values in both groups decreased significantly: 47 +/- 34 IU/mL in patients with rejection (P = .014) vs 69 +/- 45 IU/mL in patients without rejection (P = .012). The relative value at 3 weeks posttransplantation decreased slightly more among patients with vs without rejection (70% vs 88%; NS). No correlation was found between serum sCD30 and anti-HLA class I antibodies or crossmatch positivity. In conclusion, neither pre- nor posttransplantation sCD30 levels were associated with acute rejection in liver transplant patients.

  5. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum biomarker profile associated with high bone turnover and BMD in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Siegel, Eric R; Achenbach, Sara J; Khosla, Sundeep; Suva, Larry J

    2008-07-01

    Early diagnosis of the onset of osteoporosis is key to the delivery of effective therapy. Biochemical markers of bone turnover provide a means of evaluating skeletal dynamics that complements static measurements of BMD by DXA. Conventional clinical measurements of bone turnover, primarily the estimation of collagen and its breakdown products in the blood or urine, lack both sensitivity and specificity as a reliable diagnostic tool. As a result, improved tests are needed to augment the use of BMD measurements as the principle diagnostic modality. In this study, the serum proteome of 58 postmenopausal women with high or low/normal bone turnover (training set) was analyzed by surface enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and a diagnostic fingerprint was identified using a variety of statistical and machine learning tools. The diagnostic fingerprint was validated in a separate distinct test set, consisting of serum samples from an additional 59 postmenopausal women obtained from the same Mayo cohort, with a gap of 2 yr. Specific protein peaks that discriminate between postmenopausal patients with high or low/normal bone turnover were identified and validated. Multiple supervised learning approaches were able to classify the level of bone turnover in the training set with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In addition, the individual protein peaks were also significantly correlated with BMD measurements in these patients. Four of the major discriminatory peaks in the diagnostic profile were identified as fragments of interalpha-trypsin-inhibitor heavy chain H4 precursor (ITIH4), a plasma kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein that is a component of the host response system. These data suggest that these serum protein fragments are the serum-borne reflection of the increased osteoclast activity, leading to the increased bone turnover that is associated with decreasing BMD and presumably an increased risk of fracture. In conjunction with the

  7. Endogenous testosterone is not associated with the trade-off between paternal and mating effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    Males may face a trade-off between caring for offspring and pursuing additional matings. In birds, the androgen testosterone has been suggested to be a key proximate mediator in this trade-off for several reasons. At the population level, high testosterone is typically associated with the period of

  8. Exogenous testosterone enhances responsiveness to social threat in the neural circuitry of social aggression in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.; Ramsey, N.F.; Honk, J. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a range of species, the androgen steroid testosterone is known to potentiate neural circuits involved in intraspecific aggression. Disorders of impulsive aggression in humans have likewise been associated with high testosterone levels, but human evidence for the link between

  9. The relationship between total testosterone levels and prostate cancer: a review of the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klap, Julia; Schmid, Marianne; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2015-02-01

    For many years it was believed that higher total testosterone contributed to prostate cancer and caused rapid cancer growth. International guidelines consider that adequate data are not available to determine whether there is additional risk of prostate cancer from testosterone replacement. Numerous studies with multiple designs and contradictory conclusions have investigated the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer development. To establish current knowledge in this field we reviewed the literature on total testosterone and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer as well as the safety of exogenous testosterone administration in patients with a history of prostate cancer. We searched the literature to identify articles from 1994 to 2014 related to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer. Emphasis was given to prospective studies, series with observational data and randomized, controlled trials. Case reports were excluded. Articles on testosterone replacement safety were selected by patient population (under active surveillance or with a prostate cancer history). We organized our results according to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, including 1) the possible link between low total testosterone and prostate cancer, 2) the effect of high levels and 3) the absence of any link. Finally, we summarized studies of the risk of exogenous testosterone administration in patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer, treated or on active surveillance. We selected 45 articles of the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, of which 18 and 17 showed a relationship to low and high total testosterone, respectively, and 10 showed no relation. Total testosterone was defined according to the definition in each article. Contradictory findings have been reported, largely due to the disparate methodologies used in many studies. Most studies did not adhere to professional society guidelines

  10. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N.; Marlowe, Frank W.; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    The ‘challenge hypothesis’ posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male–male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men. PMID:18826936

  11. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrbach, Michael; Krauss, Martin; Preiss, Alfred; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Hollender, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4- 14 C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5α-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  12. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Michael, E-mail: michael.fahrbach@web.d [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Krauss, Martin, E-mail: martin.krauss@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Preiss, Alfred, E-mail: alfred.preiss@item.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Kohler, Hans-Peter E., E-mail: hkohler@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hollender, Juliane, E-mail: juliane.hollender@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5{alpha}-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  13. The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor axis during testosterone replacement therapy in GH-treated hypopituitary males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Nørrelund, Helene; Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    in relation to two testosterone injections. Mean baseline IGF-I levels were 352 +/- 135 microg/L, and they remained unaltered during the study period (analysis of variance (ANOVA), P = 0.88). Free IGF-I levels did not change either (ANOVA, P = 0.35). Serum IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and acid......-labile subunit decreased (ANOVA, P = 0.04 and P = 0.02 respectively) but post hoc analysis did not reveal a particular difference between days. IGFBP-1 increased following testosterone administration (ANOVA, P = 0.05), whereas GH binding protein levels tended to decrease following testosterone administration...... (ANOVA, P = 0.08). Prostate-specific antigen tended slightly to increase after each testosterone injection (ANOVA, P = 0.08, post hoc, NS). We conclude that major changes in total IGF-I are not induced during conventional intramuscular testosterone replacement in GH-treated hypopituitary males...

  14. Increased serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Boso, Marianna; Brondino, Natascia; Pietra, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-05-30

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that functions as an activator for inducing the immune response and can be released from neurons after glutamate excitotoxicity. The objective of the present study was to measure serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with autistic disorder and to study their relationship with clinical characteristics. We enrolled 22 adult patients with autistic disorder (mean age: 28.1+/-7.7 years) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 28.7+/-8.1 years). Serum levels of HMGB1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with healthy subjects, serum levels of HMGB1 were significantly higher in patients with autistic disorder (10.8+/-2.6 ng/mL versus 5.6+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, Pautistic disorder. Increased HMGB1 may be a biological correlate of the impaired reciprocal social interactions in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum induced degradation of 3D DNA box origami observed by high speed atomic force microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Chuanxu

    2015-01-01

    3D DNA origami holds tremendous potential to encapsulate and selectively release therapeutic drugs. Observations of real-time performance of 3D DNA origami structures in physiological environment will contribute much to its further applications. Here, we investigate the degradation kinetics of 3D...... DNA box origami in serum using high-speed atomic force microscope optimized for imaging 3D DNA origami in real time. The time resolution allows characterizing the stages of serum effects on individual 3D DNA box origami with nanometer resolution. Our results indicate that the whole digest process...... is a combination of a rapid collapse phase and a slow degradation phase. The damages of box origami mainly happen in the collapse phase. Thus, the structure stability of 3D DNA box origami should be further improved, especially in the collapse phase, before clinical applications...

  16. Immobilization of Bovine Serum Albumin Upon Multiwall Carbon Nanotube for High Speed Humidity Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sankhya; Sasmal, Milan

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-speed humidity sensor based on immobilization of bovine serum albumin upon multiwall carbon nanotube (IBC). A simple and versatile drop casting technique was employed to make the humidity sensor using novel material IBC at room temperature. IBC was synthesized using easy solution process technique. The working principle of the IBC humidity sensor depends upon the variation of output current or conductance with the exposure of different humidity level. Humidity sensing properties of our device is explained on the basis of charge transfer from water molecules to IBC and bovine serum albumin to multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). Our sensor exhibits faster response time around 1.2 s and recovery time 1.5 s respectively.

  17. High serum level of the soluble CD30 identifies Chinese kidney transplant recipients at high risk of unfavorable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iv, R; He, Q; Wang, H P; Jin, J; Chen, Y; Chen, J H

    2008-12-01

    We sought to investigate the relationship between serum level of sCD30 and recipient/graft survival rates, rejection types, as well as other prognostic factors among Chinese kidney transplant patients. We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of serum sCD30 levels in duplicate among retrospective cohort of 707 renal transplant patients. The incidences of rejection increased in relation to the pretransplant sCD30 level. The reversal rates of rejection were 100%, 90.6%, and 78.6% for the low, intermediate, and high sCD30 groups. This observation suggested that high levels of sCD30 and pretransplant panel-reactive antibody (PRA)-positive patients are risk factors for acute rejection with odds ratios of 6.862 and 1.756. High sCD30 was an independent risk factor for functional graft survival. The 5-year graft survival rates were 99.39% +/- 6.1%, 93.11% +/- 1.93%, and 82.07% +/- 3.97% among the low, intermediate, and high sCD30 groups, while the 5-year recipient survival rates were 89.25% +/- 2.41%, 91.82% +/- 1.64%, and 88.85% +/- 2.36%, respectively. Increased sCD30 levels were observed among patients who were PRA-positive, cytomegalovirus antigens or antibodies positive, on long-term dialysis, and sCD30 serum levels reflect immune status.

  18. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A NEW TOPICAL TESTOSTERONE REPLACEMENT GEL THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF MALE HYPOGONADISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn; Belkoff, Laurence; Brock, Gerald; Efros, Mitchell; Gittelman, Marc; Carrara, Dario; Neijber, Anders; Ando, Masakazu; Mitchel, Jules

    2017-05-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy is indicated for male hypogonadism. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of testosterone gel 2% (Tgel) over 90 days. This phase 3, open-label, noncomparator study was conducted in adult hypogonadal men (2 consecutive fasting serum testosterone values 86% subjects with symptoms consistent with testosterone deficiency). Subjects applied Tgel 23 mg/day (single pump-actuation using a hands-free cap applicator). The dose was uptitrated to 46 mg/day after 2 weeks if the 4-hour serum total testosterone level was <500 ng/dL. The dose could be further up- or downtitrated to 23, 46, and 69 mg on Days 21, 42, and 63. The primary endpoint included the percentage of subjects with average testosterone concentration (C ave (0-24) ) between 300 and 1,050 ng/dL on Day 90. Safety endpoints were adverse events (AEs), laboratory parameters, and vital signs. Of the 159 who enrolled, 139 men completed the study. Approximately three-quarters (76.1%) of subjects met C ave criteria on Day 90. Most AEs were mild to moderate. There were 5 serious AEs, and 1 (myocardial infarction) was judged as possibly related to Tgel. Confirmed excessive increases in prostate-specific antigen or hematocrit levels were rare. Tgel had a favorable local skin tolerability profile. Overall, 76% of subjects achieved C ave between 300 and 1,050 ng/dL with Tgel. Symptoms of testosterone deficiency improved with few safety concerns. AE = adverse event C ave(0-24) = average testosterone concentration CI = confidence interval C max = maximum concentration IIEF = International Index of Erectile Function MAF = Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue PK = pharmacokinetic PSA = prostate-specific antigen SAE = serious adverse event SF-12 = Short Form 12 Health Survey Tgel = testosterone gel 2% T max = time to achieve maximum concentration TRT = testosterone replacement therapy.

  19. Lower testosterone levels with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy than with surgical castration: new insights attained by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Tim M.; Bui, Hong N.; Meuleman, Eric J. H.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Hartman, Jeroen F.; van Adrichem, Nick; Boevé, Egbert; de Ronde, Willem; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; Vis, André N.

    2012-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy by bilateral orchiectomy (surgical castration) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy (medical castration) is recommended for advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Both methods aim at reducing serum testosterone concentrations to a castrate level

  20. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1. Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA. PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  1. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is associated with fatty acid composition of high density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshtam, Maryam; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Pourfarzam, Morteza; Ani, Mohsen; Naderi, Gholam Ali; Basati, Gholam; Mansourian, Marjan; Dinani, Narges Jafari; Asgary, Seddigheh; Abdi, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω 6 fatty acids of HDL. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  2. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  3. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on bone metabolism in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: focus on the role of androgen receptor CAG polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; delli Muti, N; Gioia, A; Biagioli, A; Lenzi, A; Balercia, G

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between androgen receptor (AR) CAG polymorphism and bone metabolism is highly controversial. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the independent role of AR CAG repeat polymorphism on bone metabolism improvement induced by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition frequently associated with hypopituitarism and in which the effects of TRT have to be distinguished from those resulting from concomitant administration of pituitary function replacing hormones. 12 men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism [mean duration of hypogonadism 8.3 ± 2.05 (SD) months] were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT (from 74 to 84 weeks after the beginning of therapy). The following measures were studied: parameters of bone metabolism [serum markers and bone mineral density (BMD)], pituitary dependent hormones and genetic analysis (AR CAG repeat number). Total testosterone, estradiol, free T4 (FT4) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increased between the two phases, while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) decreased. While serum markers did not vary significantly between the two phases, BMD improved slightly but significantly in all the studied sites. The number of CAG triplets correlated negatively and significantly with all the variations (Δ-) of BMDs. Conversely, Δ-testosterone correlated positively and significantly with all studied Δ-BMDs, while Δ-FSH, Δ-estradiol, Δ-FT4, and Δ-IGF-1 did not correlate significantly with any of the Δ-BMDs. Multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for Δ-testosterone, showed that CAG repeat length was negatively and significantly associated with ∆-BMD of all measured sites. Our data suggest that, in post-surgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, shorter AR CAG tract is independently associated with greater TRT-induced improvement of BMD.

  4. Testosterone Administration Moderates Effect of Social Environment on Trust in Women Depending on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, Vincent; Raub, Werner; van Miltenburg, Nynke; Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack

    2016-06-10

    Animal research has established that effects of hormones on social behaviour depend on characteristics of both individual and environment. Insight from research on humans into this interdependence is limited, though. Specifically, hardly any prior testosterone experiments in humans scrutinized the interdependency of testosterone with the social environment. Nonetheless, recent testosterone administration studies in humans repeatedly show that a proxy for individuals' prenatal testosterone-to-estradiol ratio, second-to-fourth digit-ratio (2D:4D ratio), influences effects of testosterone administration on human social behaviour. Here, we systematically vary the characteristics of the social environment and show that, depending on prenatal sex hormone priming, testosterone administration in women moderates the effect of the social environment on trust. We use the economic trust game and compare one-shot games modelling trust problems in relations between strangers with repeated games modelling trust problems in ongoing relations between partners. As expected, subjects are more trustful in repeated than in one-shot games. In subjects prenatally relatively highly primed by testosterone, however, this effect disappears after testosterone administration. We argue that impairments in cognitive empathy may reduce the repeated game effect on trust after testosterone administration in subjects with relatively high prenatal testosterone exposure and propose a neurobiological explanation for this effect.

  5. Testosterone versus clomiphene citrate in managing symptoms of hypogonadism in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Dadhich

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Both TST and CC are effective medications in treating hypogonadism; however, our study indicates that TST is more effective in raising serum testosterone levels and improving hypogonadal symptoms. CC remains a viable treatment modality for hypogonadal men but its adverse effect on libido warrant further study.

  6. Re: Could Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Hypogonadal Men Ameliorate Anemia, a Cardiovascular Risk Factor? An Observational, 54-week Cumulative Registry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Bakırcıoğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency syndrome may associate with erectile dysfunction, increased abdominal fat and reduced muscle mass. Low serum testosterone is also related with anemia, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. In this study, the authors investigated if testosterone undecanoate (TU reduces anemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with hypogonadism A total of 58 participants with a total testosterone level of less than 2.35 ng/ml received an injection of 1.000 mg TU 6 times; at initial visit, 6, 18, 30, 42 and 54 weeks. They observed that total testosterone and free testosterone levels were restored by TU. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels significantly increased while anemia and total cholesterol levels significantly reduced. Although there are some limitations of this study e.g. it is not a randomized controlled and a long-term study, TU treatment in hypogonadal men decreased the prevalence of anemia, improved lipid profiles and lowered the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Measurement of serum leptin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenemia and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yande; Zhang Zhiping; Lu Gen; Luo Beilei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum leptin concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with hyperandrogenemia (HA) and its relationship with testosterone (T) level and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 53 patients with PCOS, in which 36 cases were of the in non-obesity group and 17 cases in obese group. 30 non-obese cases and 20 obese cases without PCOS served as controls. Results: The levels of leptin in PCOS with HA in obese and non-obese group were significantly higher than those in control group (all p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and testosterone levels in both groups (r = 0.51, p < 0.01 and r = 0.58, p < 0.01). No correlation existed between serum leptin levels and body mass index (BMI) in PCOS patients of non-obese group but there was positive correlation in obesity group (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). Conclusion: High serum leptin levels is one of the characteristic in PCOS patients. The HA in PCOS patients is related to serum leptin levels and heavyweight or obese patients have the phenomenon of leptin resistance

  8. High serum lactate as an adjunct in the early prediction of anastomotic leak following oesophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, B; Ng, K T; Packer, S; Paterson-Brown, S; Couper, G W

    2017-10-01

    Anastomotic leak (AL) following oesophagectomy carries a high mortality and morbidity. Early detection and intervention is required for a successful outcome. We have examined the role of a high postoperative serum lactate in predicting which patients are at risk of developing an anastomotic leak(AL). All patients who underwent transthoracic oesophagectomy over a 3-year period were identified from a prospectively collected database. Medical records were reviewed to identify the highest serum lactate recorded from blood gas analysis over each 24hr post-operative period. Patients who underwent transhiatal and left thoraco-abdominal oesophagectomies were excluded. Patients who developed a chyle leak were excluded. Of a total of 136 oesophagectomies included for analysis, 18 developed an AL (13.2%). Of these patients, 10 underwent thoracoscopic oesophageal mobilization with cervical anastomosis and the rest an Ivor Lewis procedure. Predictive factors for AL included neoadjuvant chemotherapy (15/18 83.3% vs 55/118 46.6% p = 0.0046) and number of positive lymph nodes (mean 4.2 vs control mean 2.3 p = 0.045). Overall net fluid balance was comparable between the 2 groups, although AL patients received slightly more fluid on Day 3. High lactate levels on days 1-3 were associated with an AL. Using a Day 2 lactate of 1.7 mmol/L, the sensitivity of predicting AL was 72% and specificity 88%. The mean lag time using existing diagnostic modalities was 7.9 days. A serum lactate of >1.7 mmol/l on day 2 should raise the possibility of a potential AL. Such patients should be selected for more intensive monitoring, optimization and selective gastroscopy. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Bryan C; Snyder, Shannon M; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether consumption of blueberries could reduce postprandial oxidation when consumed with a typical high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Participants (n 14) received each of the three treatments over 3 weeks in a cross-over design. Treatments consisted of a high blueberry dose (75 g), a low blueberry dose (35 g) and a control (ascorbic acid and sugar content matching that of the high blueberry dose). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) and serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were measured at fasting, and at 1, 2 and 3 h after sample consumption. The mean serum ORAC was significantly higher in the 75 g group than in the control group during the first 2 h postprandially, while serum LO lag time showed a significant trend over the 3 h for both blueberry doses. Changes in serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were not significantly different among the groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report that has demonstrated that increased serum antioxidant capacity is not attributable to the fructose or ascorbate content of blueberries. In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.

  10. Impact of Scattered Radiation onTestosterone Deficiency and MaleHypogonadism in Rectal Cancer Treatedwith External Beam Pelvic Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Khatoon Ahmadi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effects of pelvic irradiation on FSH, LH and testosterone levels in male patients with rectal adenocarcinoma. Our aim was to compare the level of male sex hormones in peripheral blood serum before and after pelvic irradiation.Methods:The eligible participants were 40 men with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent pelvic radiotherapy as part of their treatment for primary tumor, either beforeor after surgery. All patients received a 50-Gy radiation dose to the pelvis, 2 Gy perfraction, five days per week. Blood was sampled three times during the study: once before radiation, at the end of the radiation course and 4 to 6 weeks after radiotherapy.Results:Median age of the patients was 58 years (range 18-82. The mean testis dose of radiation per fraction in all 40 patients was 16.3 cGy with a standard deviation of 15.22 (range 5.5-64.8. Serum levels of FSH revealed a significant increase from 7.5 ± 1.7 IU/L(before treatment to 20.9 ± 17.8 IU/L[end of radiotherapy (P<0.001]and 24.1 ± 20.5 IU/L[4 to 6 weeks after radiotherapy (P<0.001]. Serum LH levelswere significantly elevated from 8.04 ± 1.2 IU/L before radiation to 11.6 ± 11.5 IU/Lat the end of radiotherapy (P<0.001 and 12.5 ± 9.9 IU/L4 to 6 weeks after the final course of radiotherapy (P<0.001. There was a decrease in serum testosterone from5.3±2.1 ng/mL before radiation to 4.2 ± 1.9 ng/mLat the end of radiotherapy (P=0.004and 4.5 ± 2 ng/mL4 to 6 weeks after radiotherapy (P=0.035. No significant correlation was seen between age and differences in sex hormones (LH, P=0.605; FSH, P=0.380;testosterone,P=0.161.Conclusion:There was a significant change in serum levels of male sex hormones after pelvic irradiation for rectal cancer (total dose, 50 Gy that indicates considerable testicular damage under these circumstances. Thus, it seems logical to use techniques that reduce the radiation dose to the testicles and to consider the

  11. Correlation of Serum Androgens and Pituitary Hormone Levels with Serum PSA Less Than 2.5 NG/ML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sofikerim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether there is a relationship between total serum testosterone, free testosterone, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, LH (Luteinizing Hormone and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels. We postulated that such a correlation existed then the use of hormone specific reference ranges might enhance the usefullness of PSA concentrations <2.5 ng/mL as a marker for prostate cancer.

  12. High serum alanine aminotransferase is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chang Mo; Yun, Kyung Eun; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Park, Dong Il

    2017-07-01

    An elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is frequently observed in subjects with metabolic syndrome, which is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA). However, the relationship between ALT and CRA remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether high serum ALT is associated with the risk of CRA in a metabolically healthy population. We conducted this cross-sectional study in 27,717 asymptomatic Korean adults who underwent a health checkup. Subjects were categorized as adenoma-free, hyperplastic polyp, low-risk adenoma, or high-risk adenoma. High-risk adenoma was defined as three or more adenomas, any adenoma ≥ 10 mm, or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia or villous features. Among all participants, 10.3% and 1.5% of cases were categorized as low-risk and high-risk adenoma, respectively. In multivariate analyses adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol intake, regular exercise, aspirin and analgesics use, family history of colon cancer, education level, fatty liver, high-sensitivity C reactive protein, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, and triglyceride, an increase in ALT was positively associated with the prevalence of low-risk and high-risk adenoma (P for trend = 0.029 and 0.027, respectively). The highest quartile group of ALT level showed a significantly increased prevalence in low-risk (odds ratio, 1.17) and high-risk adenoma (odds ratio, 1.48) groups compared with the lowest quartile group. This phenomenon persisted in the subgroup analysis in men, but not in women. In the asymptomatic healthy population, high serum ALT is significantly associated with the risk of CRA. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  14. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism.

  15. Women's Preference for Attractive Makeup Tracks Changes in Their Salivary Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Claire I; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that women's motivation to appear attractive is increased around the time of ovulation. However, the specific hormonal correlates of within-woman changes in motivation to appear attractive have not been investigated. To address this issue, we used a longitudinal design and a data-driven visual preference task. We found that women's preference for attractive makeup increases when their salivary testosterone levels are high. The relationship between testosterone level and preference for attractive makeup was independent of estradiol level, progesterone level, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. These results suggest that testosterone may contribute to changes in women's motivation to wear attractive makeup and, potentially, their motivation to appear attractive in general. Our results are also consistent with recent models of the role of testosterone in social behavior, according to which testosterone increases the probability of behaviors that could function to support the acquisition of mates and competition for resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and concentration of testosterone in the urine. Forty young men age between 23 to 31 years were used for this study. The subjects were ...

  17. Effects of HRV-Guided vs. Predetermined Block Training on Performance, HRV and Serum Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuuttila, Olli-Pekka; Nikander, Aku; Polomoshnov, Dmitry; Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare heart rate variability -guided (HRVG) and predetermined (PD) block periodization of high intensity aerobic training (HIT). Endurance performance, neuromuscular performance, heart rate variability (HRV) and serum hormone concentrations were measured before, in the middle and after the 8-week training period in 24 endurance trained males. Both groups improved significantly maximal treadmill velocity (V max ) (pHRV (RMSSD, LF and TP) increased significantly only in HRVG (pHRV and serum testosterone levels observed in HRVG, individually HRV -guided block training may be more optimal compared to predetermined training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The putative effects of D-Aspartic acid on blood testosterone levels: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Roshanzamir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp is in invertebrate and vertebrate neuroendocrine tissues, where it carries out important physiological functions. Recently, it has been reported that D-Asp is involved in the synthesis and release of testosterone and is assumed can be used as a testosterone booster for infertile men, and by athletes to increase muscle mass and strength. Objective: The aim of this review is to summarize available evidence related to the effects of D-Asp on serum testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review of all type studies, which evaluated the effect of the D-Asp on blood testosterone including published papers until October 2015, using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, ProQuest and Scopus database. Results: With 396 retrieved records, 23 animal studies and 4 human studies were included. In vivo and in vitro animal studies revealed the effect of D-Asp depending on species, sex and organ-specific. Our results showed that exogenous D-Asp enhances testosterone levels in male animal’s studies, whereas studies in human yielded inconsistent results. The evidence for this association in man is still sparse, mostly because of limited number and poor quality studies. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for more and well-designed human clinical trials with larger sample sizes and longer duration to investigate putative effects of D-Asp on testosterone concentrations.

  19. Unsuspected Clenbuterol Toxicity in a Patient Using Intramuscular Testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Griswold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol is a beta-agonist that has been abused by fitness-oriented individuals for muscle growth and weight loss. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who presented tachycardic, hypokalemic, and hyperglycemic after injecting testosterone obtained from Brazil. He developed refractory hypotension and was started on an esmolol infusion for suspected beta-agonist toxicity. Laboratory analysis showed a detectable clenbuterol serum concentration. Analysis of an unopened ampule contained boldenone undecylenate, clenbuterol, and vitamin E. This case illustrates a novel exposure that caused beta-agonist toxicity and was treated successfully with rapid-onset beta blocker.

  20. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck are associated with short survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslind, Anne; Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Ib J

    2008-01-01

    by immunohistochemistry in 50 patients. Pretreatment serum YKL-40 was elevated in 53%. Patients with high serum YKL-40 had shorter survival than patients with normal serum YKL-40 (33 vs. 84 months; p = 0.008). Multivariate Cox analysis including pretreatment serum YKL-40, age, sex, primary tumor site, TNM classification...... and treatment demonstrated that TNM classification (HR = 2.61, p = 0.02) and serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable: HR = 1.55, p...

  1. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  2. A Comparison of Secondary Polycythemia in Hypogonadal Men Treated with Clomiphene Citrate versus Testosterone Replacement: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Karen M; Smith, Ryan P; Kumar, Raj A; Setia, Shaan; Costabile, Raymond A; Kavoussi, Parviz K

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the relative prevalence of secondary polycythemia in hypogonadal men treated with clomiphene citrate or testosterone replacement therapy. In this retrospective, multi-institutional study, we included 188 men who received clomiphene citrate and 175 who received testosterone replacement therapy with symptomatic hypogonadism. The overall prevalence and ORs of secondary polycythemia for clomiphene citrate treatment vs testosterone replacement were primarily measured, as were baseline characteristics. Subset analysis included polycythemia rates for different types of testosterone replacement therapy. Overall, men on testosterone replacement therapy were older than clomiphene citrate treated men (age 51.5 vs 38 years). Men on testosterone replacement had longer treatment duration than clomiphene citrate treated men (19.6 vs 9.2 months). For testosterone replacement therapy and clomiphene citrate the mean change in hematocrit was 3.0% and 0.6%, and the mean change in serum testosterone was 333.1 and 367.6 ng/dl, respectively. The prevalence of polycythemia in men on testosterone replacement was 11.2% vs 1.7% in men on clomiphene citrate (p = 0.0003). This significance remained on logistic regression after correcting for age, site, smoking history and pretreatment hematocrit. The prevalence of polycythemia in men treated with clomiphene citrate was markedly lower than that in men on testosterone replacement therapy. The improvement in absolute serum testosterone levels was similar to that in men on testosterone replacement. There is no significant risk of polycythemia in men treated with clomiphene citrate for hypogonadism. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High serum uric acid levels are a protective factor against unfavourable neurological functional outcome in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Fang; Li, Jiao-Xing; Sun, Xun-Sha; Lai, Rong; Sheng, Wen-Li

    2018-05-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the association between serum uric acid levels at the onset and prognostic outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Methods We retrospectively analysed the outcomes of 1166 patients with ischaemic stroke who were hospitalized in our centre during August 2008 to November 2012. Correlations of serum uric acid levels and prognostic outcomes were analysed. Results Men had higher serum uric acid levels and better neurological functional outcomes compared with women. There was a strong negative correlation between serum uric acid levels and unfavourable neurological functional outcomes. Generalized estimated equation analysis showed that a higher serum uric acid level (>237 µmol/L) was a protective factor for neurological functional outcome in male, but not female, patients. Among five trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment classification subtypes, only patients with the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype had a significant protective effect of serum uric acid levels on neurological outcome. Conclusions Our study shows that high serum uric acid levels are a significant protective factor in men and in the large-artery atherosclerosis subtype in patients with ischaemic stroke. This is helpful for determining the prognostic value of serum uric acid levels for neurological outcome of acute ischaemic stroke.

  4. Clomiphene citrate and testosterone gel replacement therapy for male hypogonadism: efficacy and treatment cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick; Levine, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of oral clomiphene citrate (CC) in the treatment of male hypogonadism and male infertility (MI) with low serum testosterone and normal gonadotropin levels has been reported. The aim of this article is to evaluate CC and testosterone gel replacement therapy (TGRT) with regard to biochemical and clinical efficacy and cost. The main outcome measures were change in serum testosterone with CC and TGRT therapy, and change in the androgen deficiency in aging male (ADAM) questionnaire scores with CC therapy. Men receiving CC or TGRT with either Androgel 1% or Testim 1% for hypogonadism (defined as testosterone treatment initiation and semi-annually thereafter. Retrospective data collection was performed via chart review. Subjective follow up of patients receiving CC was performed via telephone interview using the ADAM questionnaire. A hundred and four men (65 CC and 39 TGRT) were identified who began CC (50 mg every other day) or TGRT (5 g). Average age (years) was 42(CC) vs. 57 (TGRT). Average follow up was 23 months (CC, range 8-40 months) vs. 46 months (TGRT, range 6-149 months). Average posttreatment testosterone was 573 ng/dL in the CC group and 553 ng/dL in the TGRT group (P value treatment option for men with hypogonadism, demonstrating biochemical and clinical efficacy with few side effects and lower cost as compared with TGRT.

  5. Expression of human apolipoprotein A-I epitopes in high density lipoproteins and in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcel, Y.L.; Jewer, D.; Vezina, C.; Milthorp, P.; Weech, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    The expression and immunoreactivity of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I epitopes in high density lipoproteins (HDL) and serum has been investigated using two series of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) which have been described elsewhere. Series 1 Mabs, identified as 3D4, 6B8, and 5G6, were obtained by immunization and screening with apoA-I, and series 2 Mabs, identified as 2F1, 4H1, 3G10, 4F7, and 5F6, were obtained by immunization and screening with HDL. These Mabs were characterized with respect to their binding to HDL particles in solution. In series 2 Mabs, 2F1, 3G10, and 4F7, which react with apoA-I CNBr-fragments 1 and 2, could precipitate 100% of 125 I-labeled HDL, while 4H1 and 5F6, which react with CNBr fragments 1 and 3, precipitated 90 and 60% of 125 I-labeled HDL, respectively. Therefore, three distinct epitopes mapped to CNBr fragments 1 and 2 have been identified which are expressed on all HDL particles, indicating that several antigenic do mains exist on apoA-I which have the same conformation on all apoA-I-containing lipoproteins. The Mabs reacting at these sites have significantly higher affinity constants for 125 I-labeled HDL than those that failed to precipitate 100% of HDL. This suggests that the high affinity Mabs react with apoA-I epitopes that are both expressed on all lipoproteins and located in thermo-dynamically stable regions of the molecules. All Mabs from series 1 precipitated 35% or less of 125 I-labeled HDL prepared from freshly collected serum, but the proportion of HDL particles expressing the epitopes for these Mabs doubled or more upon serum storage at 4 degrees C. The time course of the alteration of apoA-I antigen in vitro was measured in three normolipemic donors

  6. Is a high serum copper concentration a risk factor for implantation failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Kitaya, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Nishiyama, Rie; Takaya, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Tomomoto

    2017-08-10

    Copper-containing contraceptive devices may deposit copper ions in the endometrium, resulting in implantation failure. The deposition of copper ions in many organs has been reported in patients with untreated Wilson's disease. Since these patients sometimes exhibit subfertility and/or early pregnancy loss, copper ions were also considered to accumulate in the uterine endometrium. Wilson's disease patients treated with zinc successfully delivered babies because zinc interfered with the absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract. These findings led to the hypothesis that infertile patients with high serum copper concentrations may have implantation failure due to the excess accumulation of copper ions. The relationship between implantation (pregnancy) rates and serum copper concentrations has not yet been examined. The Japanese government recently stated that actual copper intake was higher among Japanese than needed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether serum copper concentrations are related to the implantation (pregnancy) rates of human embryos in vivo. We included 269 patients (age copper, and zinc concentrations were measured 16 days after the first date of progesterone replacement. We compared 96 women who were pregnant without miscarriage at 10 weeks of gestation (group P) and 173 women who were not pregnant (group NP). No significant differences were observed in age or BMI between the groups. Copper concentrations were significantly higher in group NP (average 193.2 μg/dL) than in group P (average 178.1 μg/dL). According to the area under the curve (AUC) on the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction of clinical pregnancy rates, the Cu/Zn ratio (AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.71) was a better predictor than copper or zinc. When we set the cut-off as 1.59/1.60 for the Cu/Zn ratio, sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.98, 0.29, 0.71, and 0

  7. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandawana William Majoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9 years. 1244 (79.3% were Indigenous. 44.2% (n=693 were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1 versus 57.4 (15.2, p<0.001] and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35 versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5, p<0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522 versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0, p<0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37 versus 28% (20–38, p=0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2=0.11, p<0.001, no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p<0.001, and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p<0.001, Indigenous ethnicity (p<0.001, urea reduction ratio (p=0.001, and gender (p<0.001 after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation.

  8. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaar Harald JJ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth ( At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively.

  9. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  10. Adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis, splenomegaly, and highly elevated serum ferritin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco M; Alexiadis, Varvara; Gagos, Marios; Strollo, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    erythema. We present a case of adult Kawasaki's disease with myocarditis and splenomegaly. The patient's myocarditis rapidly resolved, and he did not develop coronary artery aneurysms. In addition to splenomegaly, this case of adult Kawasaki's disease is remarkable because the patient had highly elevated serum ferritin levels of 944-1303 ng/mL; (normalfever for> or =5 days with conjunctival suffusion, cervical adenopathy, swelling of the dorsum of the hands/feet, thrombocytosis and otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of serum androgens and pituitary hormone levels with serum PSA less than 2.5 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofikerim, Mustafa; Oruç, Ozgür; Eskicorapci, Sadettin; Guliyev, Fuat; Ozen, Haluk

    2007-07-27

    The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether there is a relationship between total serum testosterone, free testosterone, FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone), LH (Luteinizing Hormone) and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. We postulated that such a correlation existed then the use of hormone specific reference ranges might enhance the usefullness of PSA concentrations 40 years of age visiting our urology outpatient clinics. PSA was correlated to age (r = 0.23, p = 0.019), but there none between serum testosterone and age. No significant correlation was noted between testosterone or free testosterone and serum PSA levels, and none between serum FSH or LH and PSA. In age specific reference groups (41-49; 50-59; 60-69 years), we found no significant correlation between PSA and hormone concentrations. In this population of eugonadal men with serum PSA values less than 2.5 ng/ml, serum androgens and pituitary hormones do not appear to correlate with serum PSA.

  12. Can treatment of nocturia increase testosterone level in men with late onset hypogonadism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Wook; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jin Wook; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-04-01

    To assess the effect of desmopressin on serum testosterone level in men with nocturia and late onset hypogonadism. We prospectively enrolled men with nocturia and symptoms of late onset hypogonadism. Desmopressin (0.1 mg) was administered once daily to patients for 12 weeks, and we then compared serum testosterone levels, electrolytes, frequency volume chart indices, and changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Index of Erectile Function, and Aging Male's Symptom scales before and after treatment. Patients with a history of cardiovascular disease or hyponatremia, those using hypnotics, and those who had primary hypogonadism or hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism were excluded from the study. Sixty-two men (mean age, 68.4 years) completed pre- and post-treatment questionnaires and underwent laboratory testing. At the end of the study, the testosterone levels in men with low testosterone levels (treatment (2.85 ± 0.58 to 3.97 ± 1.44 ng/mL; P = .001). Mean scores had decreased from 17.7 to 13.9 (IPSS), 3.8 to 3.2 (IPSS-Quality of Life), and 33.7 to 31.1 (Aging Male's Symptom). On the frequency volume chart, nocturnal urine volume, nocturnal polyuria index, actual number of nocturia events, nocturia index, and nocturnal bladder capacity index were significantly decreased. Desmopressin improved nocturia and other urinary symptoms. Moreover, serum testosterone levels increased significantly in men with low testosterone levels after 12-week desmopressin treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High serum YKL-40 level in a cohort of octogenarians is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. S.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2007-01-01

    YKL-40 is secreted by macrophages, neutrophils, chondrocytes, endothelial-, vascular smooth muscle- and cancer cells. Interleukin (IL)-6 stimulates YKL-40 production in human in vivo studies. High serum YKL-40 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with inflammatory diseases and cancer. We...... studied whether serum YKL-40 was associated with systemic low-level inflammation, an immune risk phenotype, and mortality in relatively healthy 80-year old humans. Serum YKL-40, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in octogenarians (n...

  14. Hyperandrogenemia in polycystic ovary syndrome: exploration of the role of free testosterone and androstenedione in metabolic phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lerchbaum

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome. METHODS: We analyzed the association between androstenedione, testosterone, and free testosterone and metabolic parameters in a cross-sectional study including 706 polycystic ovary syndrome and 140 BMI-matched healthy women. Polycystic ovary syndrome women were categorized into 4 groups: normal androstenedione and normal free testosterone (NA/NFT, elevated androstenedione and normal free testosterone (HA/NFT, normal androstenedione and elevated free testosterone (NA/HFT, elevated androstenedione and free testosterone (HA/HFT. RESULTS: Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels (HA/HFT and NA/HFT have an adverse metabolic profile including 2 h glucose, HbA1c, fasting and 2 h insulin, area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda, triglycerides, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to NA/NFT (p<0.05 for all age- and BMI-adjusted analyses. In binary logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, odds ratio for insulin resistance was 2.78 (1.34-5.75, p = 0.006 for polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/HFT compared to NA/NFT. We found no significantly increased risk of metabolic disorders in polycystic ovary syndrome women with HA/NFT. In multiple linear regression analyses (age- and BMI-adjusted, we found a significant negative association between androstenedione/free testosterone-ratio and area under the insulin response curve, insulin resistance, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol-ratio and a positive association with Matsuda-index, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSIONS: Polycystic ovary syndrome women with elevated free testosterone levels but not with isolated androstenedione elevation have an adverse metabolic phenotype

  15. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Among sex hormones, estrogen is particularly well known to act as neuroprotective agent. Unlike estrogen, testosterone has not been well investigated in regard to its effects on the brain, especially under psychological stress. To investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. BALB/c mice were subjected to either an orchiectomy or sham operation. After allowing 15 days for recovery, mice were re-divided into four groups according to exposure of restraint stress: sham, sham plus stress, orchiectomy, and orchiectomy plus stress. Serum testosterone was undetectable in orchiectomized groups and restraint-induced stress significantly reduced testosterone levels in sham plus stress group. The serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably elevated by restraint stress, and these elevated hormones were markedly augmented by orchiectomy. Two oxidative stressors and biomarkers for lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by restraint stress, while the reverse pattern was observed in antioxidant enzymes. These results were supported by histopathological findings, with 4-hydroxynonenal staining for oxidative injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining showing the degenerating neurons. The aforementioned patterns of oxidative injury were accelerated by orchiectomy. These findings strongly suggest the conclusion that testosterone exerts a protective effect against oxidative brain damage, especially under stressed conditions. Unlike estrogen, the effects of testosterone on the brain have not been thoroughly investigated. In order to investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. Orchiectomy markedly augmented the restraint stress-induced elevation of serum corticosterone and adrenaline levels as well as oxidative alterations

  16. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  17. Free testosterone concentration is inversely associated with markers of liver fibrosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Shozo; Miyake, Teruki; Miyazaki, Masumi; Eguchi, Toru; Niiya, Tetsuji; Yamamoto, Shin; Senba, Hidenori; Furukawa, Shinya; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2017-12-28

    The association between serum testosterone level and liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is unclear. To clarify this association, we investigated the relationship between serum free testosterone concentration and markers of liver fibrosis in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus but no obvious features of alcohol consumption. This retrospective observational cross-sectional study enrolled 248 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The FIB-4 index was measured as a marker of liver fibrosis, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine its association with serum free testosterone concentration. In addition, the 7S domain of type IV collagen (IV-7S) was examined in 140 of the 248 patients. The mean free testosterone concentration was 10.6 ± 6.8 pg/mL and the means of the FIB-4 index and IV-7S were 1.64 ± 1.19 and 4.02 ± 1.11 ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for all relevant variables, serum free testosterone concentrations were inversely associated with both the FIB-4 index and IV-7S (β; -0.28, P diabetes mellitus may help to predict progression to advanced liver disease. Identifying patients at risk may help to prevent the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Exogenous testosterone enhances cortisol and affective responses to social-evaluative stress in dominant men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Erik L; Christian, Colton B; Morales, Pablo J; Harbaugh, William T; Mayr, Ulrich; Mehta, Pranjal H

    2017-11-01

    Stress often precedes the onset of mental health disorders and is linked to negative impacts on physical health as well. Prior research indicates that testosterone levels are related to reduced stress reactivity in some cases but correlate with increased stress responses in other cases. To resolve these inconsistencies, we tested the causal influence of testosterone on stress reactivity to a social-evaluative stressor. Further, prior work has failed to consider status-relevant individual differences such as trait dominance that may modulate the influence of testosterone on responses to stressors. Participants (n=120 males) were randomly assigned to receive exogenous testosterone or placebo (n=60 testosterone treatment group) via topical gel prior to a well-validated social-evaluative stressor. Compared to placebo, testosterone significantly increased cortisol and negative affect in response to the stressor, especially for men high in trait dominance (95% confidence intervals did not contain zero). The findings suggest that the combination of high testosterone and exposure to status-relevant social stress may confer increased risk for stress-mediated disorders, particularly for individuals high in trait dominance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H

    1997-01-01

    correlated strongly with age, and when the effect of age was taken into account, only the partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone remained statistically significant. At stage II of puberty, the positive partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone was still present. At stage......Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels...... of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured. Serum levels of inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol all increased significantly between stages I and II of puberty. From stage II of puberty the inhibin B level was relatively constant, whereas the FSH level continued to increase...

  20. High-sensitivity serum C-reactive protein levels in subjects with or without myocardial infarction or periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, G Rutger; Pettersson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Ola; Renvert, Stefan

    2005-03-01

    Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsC-rp) is a non-specific marker of inflammation. Elevated hsC-rp levels are found in subjects with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Periodontitis may influence hsC-rp levels. To assess periodontal status and hsC-rp serum levels in consecutive subjects hospitalized and diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n=85) and in a group of carefully matched subjects (gender, age social, ethnic, and smoking habits) without clinical evidence of CVD (n=63). hsC-rp levels, other routine serum values, and clinical periodontal conditions were studied. Subjects with AMI had higher hsC-rp levels than control subjects (pperiodontitis (30% or more sites with>4.0 mm loss of alveolar bone) had serum hsC-rp>1.8 mg/l was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-7.3, pperiodontal parameters in an explanatory model to hsC-rp values. Only the serum leucocyte (white blood cell (WBC)) counts were explanatory to hsC-rp values (beta standard coefficient=0.45, t=3.2, pperiodontitis (pperiodontitis in subjects with no evidence of CVD. (3) Periodontal parameters are not explanatory to elevated serum hsC-rp values if serum WBC and low-density lipoprotein counts are included in the regression model. Copyright 2005 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  1. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  2. Reduction in 24-Hour Plasma Testosterone Levels in Subjects Who Showered 15 or 30 Minutes After Application of Testosterone Gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; Vogel, S.; Bui, H.N.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Design. Prospective 3-way crossover trial.

  3. A longitudinal analysis of women's salivary testosterone and intrasexual competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Cobey, Kelly D; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-02-01

    Research on within-subject changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness has generally focused on possible relationships between women's intrasexual competitiveness and estimates of their fertility. While this approach is useful for testing hypotheses about the adaptive function of changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness, it offers little insight into the proximate mechanisms through which such changes might occur. To investigate this issue, we carried out a longitudinal study of the hormonal correlates of changes in intrasexual competitiveness in a large sample of heterosexual women (N=136). Each woman provided saliva samples and completed an intrasexual competitiveness questionnaire in five weekly test sessions. Multilevel modeling of these data revealed a significant, positive within-subject effect of testosterone on intrasexual competitiveness, indicating that women reported greater intrasexual competitiveness when testosterone was high. By contrast, there were no significant effects of estradiol, progesterone, estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, or cortisol and no significant effects of any hormones on reported relationship jealousy. This is the first study to demonstrate correlated changes in measured testosterone levels and women's reported intrasexual competitiveness, implicating testosterone in the regulation of women's intrasexual competitiveness. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  5. Plasmatic testosterone values in 105 Klinefelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboch, J; Neuwirth, J; Starka, L

    1975-01-01

    Clinical, spermiologic and karyologic examinations and determinations of plasmatic testosterone were performed in a group of 105 chromatin-positive patients aged 16 to 45 years. A comparison with a control group of 108 somatosexually well developed and fertile men at the age of 21 to 55 years has established that in the Klinefelter's syndrome the male sex hormone level in the blood was highly significantly lower. Whereas in the control group the male sex hormone values in the blood were dependent on age, it was not possible to prove any dynamic changes in the process of ageing between 21 and 45 years in chromatin-positive patients. A comparison of some phenotypical and laboratory findings in the various chromosomal variants of Klinefelter's syndrome shows that comparatively the least changes were found in patients with a mosaic of 46,XY/47,XXY.

  6. Quantitative proteomic analysis for high-throughput screening of differential glycoproteins in hepatocellular carcinoma serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hua-Jun; Chen, Ya-Jing; Zuo, Duo; Xiao, Ming-Ming; Li, Ying; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Rui-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Novel serum biomarkers are required to increase the sensitivity and specificity of serum screening for early HCC diagnosis. This study employed a quantitative proteomic strategy to analyze the differential expression of serum glycoproteins between HCC and normal control serum samples. Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) was used to enrich glycoproteins from the serum samples. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis combined with stable isotope dimethyl labeling and 2D liquid chromatography (LC) separations were performed to examine the differential levels of the detected proteins between HCC and control serum samples. Western blot was used to analyze the differential expression levels of the three serum proteins. A total of 2,280 protein groups were identified in the serum samples from HCC patients by using the 2D LC-MS/MS method. Up to 36 proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum, whereas 19 proteins were down-regulated. Three differential glycoproteins, namely, fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG), FOS-like antigen 2 (FOSL2), and α-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase B (MGAT5B) were validated by Western blot. All these three proteins were up-regulated in the HCC serum samples. A quantitative glycoproteomic method was established and proven useful to determine potential novel biomarkers for HCC

  7. Effects of physiologic testosterone therapy on quality of life, self-esteem, and mood in women with primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Gioia M; Martinez, Pedro E; Klug, Summer P; Haq, Nazli A; Vanderhoof, Vien H; Koziol, Deloris E; Popat, Vaishali B; Kalantaridou, Sophia N; Calis, Karim A; Rubinow, David R; Schmidt, Peter J; Nelson, Lawrence M

    2014-09-01

    Women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) display low androgen levels, which could contribute to mood and behavioral symptoms observed in this condition. We examined the effects of physiologic testosterone therapy added to standard estrogen/progestin therapy on quality of life, self-esteem, and mood in women with POI. One hundred twenty-eight women with 46,XX spontaneous POI participated in a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-design investigation of the efficacy of testosterone augmentation of estrogen/progestin therapy. Quality of life, self-esteem, and mood symptoms were evaluated with standardized rating scales and a structured clinical interview. Differences in outcome measures between the testosterone and placebo treatments were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum tests. No differences in baseline characteristics, including serum hormone levels (P > 0.05), were found. Baseline mean (SD) Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale scores were 10.7 (8.6) and 9.2 (7.8) for testosterone and placebo, respectively (P = 0.35). After 12 months of treatment, measures of quality of life, self-esteem, and mood symptoms did not differ between treatment groups. Serum testosterone levels achieved physiologic levels in the testosterone group and were significantly higher compared with placebo (P self-esteem and had minimal effects on mood. Other mechanisms might play a role in the altered mood accompanying this disorder.

  8. Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pranjal H; van Son, Veerle; Welker, Keith M; Prasad, Smrithi; Sanfey, Alan G; Smidts, Ale; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The present experiment tested the causal impact of testosterone on human competitive decision-making. According to prevailing theories about testosterone's role in social behavior, testosterone should directly boost competitive decisions. But recent correlational evidence suggests that testosterone's behavioral effects may depend on specific aspects of the context and person relevant to social status (win-lose context and trait dominance). We tested the causal influence of testosterone on competitive decisions by combining hormone administration with measures of trait dominance and a newly developed social competition task in which the victory-defeat context was experimentally manipulated, in a sample of 54 female participants. Consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone has context- and person-dependent effects on competitive behavior, testosterone increased competitive decisions after victory only among high-dominant individuals but testosterone decreased competitive decisions after defeat across all participants. These results suggest that testosterone flexibly modulates competitive decision-making depending on prior social experience and dominance motivation in the service of enhancing social status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder affecting women. Melatonin, a small lipophilic indoleamine, and reproductive hormones may be interrelated. Melatonin influences sex steroid production at different stages of ovarian follicular maturation as melatonin receptors have been demonstrated at multiple sites in ovary and in intrafollicular fluid. It plays role as an antioxidant and free radical scavanger which protects follicles from oxidative stress, rescuing them from atresia, leading to complete follicular maturation and ovulation. Aims: To study the role of melatonin in PCOS and to investigate its correlation with testosterone in patients suffering from PCOS. Settings and Design: A total of 50 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria, 2003 and 50 age and weight matched healthy controls were selected and serum melatonin estimation was done in both the groups and correlated with serum total testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, detailed history, clinical examination and hormonal evaluation [basal levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin, total testosterone, progesterone and melatonin] were carried out in all the participants including both cases and controls. For melatonin estimation, blood samples were collected between 12:00 am and 04:00 am on day 2 nd of menstrual cycle and analyzed by using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the significant difference in mean values between cases and control groups. Chi-square test was used to test the significant association between the qualitative variables. Linear correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done to see the amount and direction of relationship between quantitative variables. Results: The mean melatonin level was observed to be significantly

  11. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Testosterone levels and sexual function disorders in depressive female patients: effects of antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsar, Şükrü; Kumsar, Neslihan Akkişi; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Köse, Osman; Budak, Salih; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2014-02-01

    Women suffer from depression more frequently than men, which indicates that sex hormones might be involved in the etiology of this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between testosterone and depression pathophysiology in depressive women along with sexual function. We also investigated whether antidepressant treatment causes any change in levels of this hormone or in sexual function. Premenopausal female patients aged 25-46 years (n = 52) with diagnosed major depression were included in this study as the patient group, and 25- to 46-year-old premenopausal women without depression (n = 30) were included as the control group. Serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured twice, before and after the antidepressant treatment. Bioavailable testosterone (cBT) levels were calculated using the assay results for total testosterone (TT), SHBG, and albumin according to the formulas of Vermeulen et al. Depression severity was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and sexual function was evaluated with the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale. The mean TT and cBT levels significantly increased in the patient group after the antidepressant treatment (P treatment TT and cBT levels were significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P treatment serum TT and cBT levels in the patient and control groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of SHBG level. The low testosterone levels in depressed women compared with women in the control group and the elevated levels post-pharmacotherapy suggest that testosterone may be involved in depression. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Endogenous testosterone attenuates neointima formation after moderate coronary balloon injury in male swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Darla L; Masseau, Isabelle; Ivey, Jan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Bowles, Douglas K

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that testosterone increases coronary smooth muscle protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) both in vivo and in vitro and inhibits coronary smooth muscle proliferation by inducing G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest in a PKC delta-dependent manner. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether endogenous testosterone limits coronary neointima (NI) formation in a porcine model of post-angioplasty restenosis. Sexually mature, male Yucatan miniature swine were either left intact (IM), castrated (CM), or castrated with testosterone replacement (CMT; Androgel, 10 mg/day). Angioplasty was performed in both the left anterior descending and left circumflex coronary arteries with balloon catheter overinflation to induce either moderate (1.25-1.3 x diameter; 3 x 30 s) or severe (1.4x diameter; 3 x 30 s) injury, and animals were allowed to recover for either 10 or 28 days. Injured coronary sections were dissected, fixed, stained (Verheoff-Van Gieson, Ki67, PKC delta, p27), and analysed. Vessels without internal elastic laminal rupture were excluded. Following moderate injury, intimal area, intima-to-media ratio (I/M), and I/M normalized to rupture index (RI) were increased in CM compared with IM and CMT. RI, medial area, and intimal/medial thickness (IMT) were not different between groups. NI formation was inversely related to serum testosterone concentration. Conversely, following severe injury, there were no significant differences between the groups. Testosterone inhibited proliferation and stimulated PKC delta and p27(kip1) expression during NI formation (10 days post-injury). These findings demonstrate that endogenous testosterone limits coronary NI formation in male swine and provides support for a protective role for testosterone in coronary vasculoproliferative diseases, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis.

  15. Pentobarbital quantitation using EMIT serum barbiturate assay reagents: application to monitoring of high-dose pentobarbital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, B E; Cary, P L; Clay, L C; Godolphin, W

    1983-01-01

    Pentobarbital serum concentrations associated with a high-dose therapeutic regimen were determined using EMIT immunoassay reagents. Replicate analyses of serum controls resulted in a within-assay coefficient of variation of 5.0% and a between-assay coefficient of variation of 10%. Regression analysis of 44 serum samples analyzed by this technique (y) and a reference procedure (x) were y = 0.98x + 3.6 (r = 0.98; x = ultraviolet spectroscopy) and y = 1.04x + 2.4 (r = 0.96; x = high-performance liquid chromatography). Clinical evaluation of the results indicates the immunoassay is sufficiently sensitive and selective for pentobarbital to allow accurate quantitation within the therapeutic range associated with high-dose therapy.

  16. Separation of hemagglutination-inhibiting immunoglobulin M antibody to rubella virus in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, N; Suzuki, M; Nakagawa, T; Matumoto, M

    1986-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography was successfully used to separate hemagglutination-inhibiting immunoglobulin M (IgM) rubella virus antibody from IgG rubella virus antibody in human serum. The fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography was as effective as sucrose density gradient centrifugation in separating IgM antibody from IgG antibody.

  17. High serum uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cai-Feng; Feng, Pin-Ning; Yao, Zhen-Rong; Yu, Xue-Gao; Lin, Wen-Bin; Qian, Yuan-Min; Guo, Yun-Miao; Li, Lai-Sheng; Liu, Min

    2017-10-01

    Uric acid is a product of purine metabolism. Recently, uric acid has gained much attraction in cancer. In this study, we aim to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of serum uric acid concentration in breast cancer patients. A total of 443 female patients with histopathologically diagnosed breast cancer were included. After a mean follow-up time of 56months, survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. To further evaluate the prognostic significance of uric acid concentrations, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied. Of the clinicopathological parameters, uric acid concentration was associated with age, body mass index, ER status and PR status. Univariate analysis identified that patients with increased uric acid concentration had a significantly inferior overall survival (HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.15-3.94, p=0.016). In multivariate analysis, we found that high uric acid concentration is an independent prognostic factor predicting death, but insufficient to predict local relapse or distant metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high uric acid concentration is related to the poor overall survival (p=0.013). High uric acid concentration predicts poor survival in patients with breast cancer, and might serve as a potential marker for appropriate management of breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, and sexual behavior with aging and testosterone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Gore, Andrea C

    2010-07-01

    Reproductive aging in males is characterized by a diminution in sexual behavior beginning in middle age. We investigated the relationships among testosterone, androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) cell numbers in the hypothalamus, and their relationship to sexual performance in male rats. Young (3months) and middle-aged (12months) rats were given sexual behavior tests, then castrated and implanted with vehicle or testosterone capsules. Rats were tested again for sexual behavior. Numbers of AR and ERalpha immunoreactive cells were counted in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus, and serum hormones were measured. Middle-aged intact rats had significant impairments of all sexual behavior measures compared to young males. After castration and testosterone implantation, sexual behaviors in middle-aged males were largely comparable to those in the young males. In the hypothalamus, AR cell density was significantly (5-fold) higher, and ERalpha cell density significantly (6-fold) lower, in testosterone- than vehicle-treated males, with no age differences. Thus, restoration of serum testosterone to comparable levels in young and middle-aged rats resulted in similar preoptic AR and ERalpha cell density concomitant with a reinstatement of most behaviors. These data suggest that age-related differences in sexual behavior cannot be due to absolute levels of testosterone, and further, the middle-aged brain retains the capacity to respond to exogenous testosterone with changes in hypothalamic AR and ERalpha expression. Our finding that testosterone replacement in aging males has profound effects on hypothalamic receptors and behavior has potential medical implications for the treatment of age-related hypogonadism in men. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingsheng Chen

    Full Text Available The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2 from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2 proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses.

  1. Serum high molecular weight complex of adiponectin correlates better with glucose tolerance than total serum adiponectin in Indo-Asian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, F F M; Trujillo, M E; Hanif, W; Barnett, A H; McTernan, P G; Scherer, P E; Kumar, S

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that total systemic adiponectin is reduced in type 2 diabetic subjects. To date most studies have been concerned with the singular full-length protein or proteolytically cleaved globular domain. It is, however, apparent that the native protein circulates in serum as a lower molecular weight hexamer and as larger multimeric structures of high molecular weight (HMW). In this study we address the clinical significance of each form of the protein with respect to glucose tolerance. Serum was obtained from 34 Indo-Asian male subjects (BMI 26.5+/-3.1; age 52.15+/-10.14 years) who had undertaken a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. An aliquot of serum was fractionated using velocity sedimentation followed by reducing SDS-PAGE. Western blots were probed for adiponectin, and HMW adiponectin as a percentage of total adiponectin (percentage of higher molecular weight adiponectin [S(A)] index) was calculated from densitometry readings. Total adiponectin was measured using ELISA; leptin, insulin and IL-6 were determined using ELISA. Analysis of the cohort demonstrated that total adiponectin (r = 0.625, p = 0.0001), fasting insulin (r = -0.354, p = 0.040) and age (r = 0.567, p = 0.0001) correlated with S(A). S(A) showed a tighter, inverse correlation with 2-h glucose levels (r = -0.58, p = 0.0003) than total adiponectin (r = -0.38, p = 0.0001). This study demonstrates the importance of the S(A) index as a better determinant of glucose intolerance than measurements of total adiponectin. Our findings suggest that HMW adiponectin is the active form of the protein.

  2. No Association between the 2D:4D Fetal Testosterone Marker and Multidimensional Attentional Abilities in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiere, Jurgen; Boets, Bart; Danckaerts, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: It has been suggested that high levels of prenatal testosterone exposure are implied in the aetiology of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined the association between the ratio of the length of the second and fourth digits (2D:4D ratio), a marker of fetal testosterone exposure, and the presence of ADHD-related…

  3. Liver lipase and high-density lipoprotein. Lipoprotein changes after incubation of human serum with rat liver lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, P H; Scheek, L M; Jansen, H

    1983-05-16

    Human sera were incubated with rat liver lipase after inactivation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase, and the changes in serum lipoprotein composition were measured. In the presence of liver lipase serum triacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine were hydrolyzed. The main changes in the concentrations of these lipids were found in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. Subfractionation of high-density lipoprotein by rate-zonal ultracentrifugation showed a prominent decrease in all constituents of high-density lipoprotein2, a smaller decrease in the 'light' high-density lipoprotein3 and an increase in the 'heavy' high-density lipoprotein3. These data support a concept in which liver lipase is involved in high-density lipoprotein2 phospholipid and triacylglycerol catabolism and suggest that as a result of this action high-density lipoprotein2 is converted into high-density lipoprotein3.

  4. Trends in Testosterone Replacement Therapy Use from 2003 to 2013 among Reproductive-Age Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pravin Kumar; Boulet, Sheree L; Mehta, Akanksha; Hotaling, James; Eisenberg, Michael L; Honig, Stanton C; Warner, Lee; Kissin, Dmitry M; Nangia, Ajay K; Ross, Lawrence S

    2017-04-01

    Although testosterone replacement therapy use in the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade, to our knowledge trends in testosterone replacement therapy use among reproductive-age men have not been investigated. We assessed changes in testosterone replacement therapy use and practice patterns among 18 to 45-year-old American men from 2003 to 2013 and compared them to older men. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of men 18 to 45 and 56 to 64 years old who were enrolled in the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims Databases throughout each given calendar year from 2003 to 2013, including 5,094,868 men in 2013. Trends in the yearly rates of testosterone replacement therapy use were calculated using Poisson regression. Among testosterone replacement therapy users, the Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess temporal trends in age, formulation type, semen analysis and serum testosterone level testing during the 12 months preceding the documented use of testosterone replacement therapy. Between 2003 and 2013, there was a fourfold increase in the rate of testosterone use among 18 to 45-year-old men from 29.2/10,000 person-years to 118.1/10,000 person-years (p replacement therapy users, topical gel formulations were initially most used. Injection use then doubled between 2009 and 2012 (23.5% and 46.2%, respectively) and surpassed topical gel use in 2013. In men 56 to 64 years old there was a statistically significant threefold increase in testosterone replacement therapy use (p replacement therapy use increased fourfold in men 18 to 45 years old compared to threefold in older men. This younger age group should be a focus for future studies due to effects on fertility and unknown long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum irisin and myostatin levels after 2 weeks of high-altitude climbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Śliwicka

    Full Text Available Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OHD and indices of inflammatory processes. The study was performed in 8 men aged between 23 and 31 years, who participated in a 2-week climbing expedition in the Alps. The measurements of body composition and serum concentrations of irisin, myostatin, 25(OHD, interleukin-6, myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, and high-sensitivity soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL were performed before and after expedition. A 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia caused significant decrease in body mass, body mass index (BMI, free fat mass and irisin, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels. On the other hand, significant increase in the levels of myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and osteoprotegerin were noted. The observed correlations of irisin with 25(OHD levels, as well as myostatin levels with inflammatory markers and the OPG/RANKL ratio indicate that these myokines may be involved in the energy-related processes and skeletal muscle regeneration in response to 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia.

  6. Serum irisin and myostatin levels after 2 weeks of high-altitude climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwicka, Ewa; Cisoń, Tomasz; Kasprzak, Zbigniew; Nowak, Alicja; Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak, Łucja

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes. The study was performed in 8 men aged between 23 and 31 years, who participated in a 2-week climbing expedition in the Alps. The measurements of body composition and serum concentrations of irisin, myostatin, 25(OH)D, interleukin-6, myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, osteoprotegerin, and high-sensitivity soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) were performed before and after expedition. A 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia caused significant decrease in body mass, body mass index (BMI), free fat mass and irisin, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels. On the other hand, significant increase in the levels of myoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and osteoprotegerin were noted. The observed correlations of irisin with 25(OH)D levels, as well as myostatin levels with inflammatory markers and the OPG/RANKL ratio indicate that these myokines may be involved in the energy-related processes and skeletal muscle regeneration in response to 2-week exposure to hypobaric hypoxia.

  7. Proton Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Is Not Associated With Post-Treatment Testosterone Suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R. Charles, E-mail: rnichols@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Morris, Christopher G.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Henderson, Randal H.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, William M.; Li Zuofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph A. [Division of Urology, University of Florida Shands Hospital, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Three independent studies of photon (x-ray) radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer have demonstrated evidence of testosterone suppression after treatment. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this would also be the case with conformal protons. Methods and Materials: Between August 2006 and October 2007, 171 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were enrolled and underwent treatment according to University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute institutional review board-approved PR01 and PR02 protocols. Of the 171 patients, 18 were excluded because they had received androgen deprivation therapy either before (n = 17) or after (n = 1) RT. The pretreatment serum testosterone level was available for 150 of the remaining 153 patients. These 150 patients were included in the present study. The post-treatment levels were compared with the pretreatment levels. Results: The median baseline pretreatment serum testosterone level was 357.9 ng/dL. The median post-treatment testosterone value was 375.5 ng/dL at treatment completion (p = .1935) and 369.9 ng/dL (p = .1336), 348.7 ng/dL (p = .7317), 353.4 ng/dL (p = .6996), and 340.9 ng/dL (p = .1669) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after proton therapy, respectively. Conclusions: Conformal proton therapy to the prostate, as delivered using University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute PR01 and PR02 protocols, did not appear to significantly affect the serum testosterone levels within 24 months after RT.

  8. Proton Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Is Not Associated With Post-Treatment Testosterone Suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R. Charles; Morris, Christopher G.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Henderson, Randal H.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, William M.; Li Zuofeng; Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph A.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Three independent studies of photon (x-ray) radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer have demonstrated evidence of testosterone suppression after treatment. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this would also be the case with conformal protons. Methods and Materials: Between August 2006 and October 2007, 171 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were enrolled and underwent treatment according to University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute institutional review board-approved PR01 and PR02 protocols. Of the 171 patients, 18 were excluded because they had received androgen deprivation therapy either before (n = 17) or after (n = 1) RT. The pretreatment serum testosterone level was available for 150 of the remaining 153 patients. These 150 patients were included in the present study. The post-treatment levels were compared with the pretreatment levels. Results: The median baseline pretreatment serum testosterone level was 357.9 ng/dL. The median post-treatment testosterone value was 375.5 ng/dL at treatment completion (p = .1935) and 369.9 ng/dL (p = .1336), 348.7 ng/dL (p = .7317), 353.4 ng/dL (p = .6996), and 340.9 ng/dL (p = .1669) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after proton therapy, respectively. Conclusions: Conformal proton therapy to the prostate, as delivered using University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute PR01 and PR02 protocols, did not appear to significantly affect the serum testosterone levels within 24 months after RT.

  9. Serum immunoreactive erythropoietin in high altitude natives with and without excessive erythrocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Velarde, F; Monge, C C; Vidal, A; Carcagno, M; Criscuolo, M; Bozzini, C E

    1991-05-01

    We report the estimation of blood hemoglobin (Hb), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), and serum immunoreactive erythropoietin (siEPO) in a group of Peruvian workers residing in Cerro de Pasco at 4300 m showing "excessive erythrocytosis" (EE, Monge's disease, chronic mountain sickness). These estimates were compared with those of humans residing either in Cerro de Pasco and showing "normal erythrocytosis" (NE) or in Lima (sea level, SL) to determine whether Hb and SaO2 are related to siEPO in high altitude (HA) natives with NE or EE. The three parameters showed statistically significant differences between HA and SL groups--the values in SL being lower. Significant differences were also found between NE and EE groups in Hb and SaO2. There was no statistical difference in siEPo between the two groups. The results indicate, therefore, that HA residents who develop EE are not distinguishable from residents who develop NE on the basis of estimates of siEPO. As a result, siEPO and Hb do not show a dose-response relationship in HA residents, and variation in EPO does not explain the striking variation in Hb at high altitudes.

  10. Low IDL-B and high LDL-1 subfraction levels in serum of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaye, J B; Patin, F; Piver, E; Bruno, C; Vasse, M; Vourc'h, P; Andres, C R; Corcia, P; Blasco, H

    2017-09-15

    Converging evidence highlights that lipid metabolism plays a key role in ALS pathophysiology. Dyslipidemia has been described in ALS patients and may be protective but peripheral lipoprotein subclasses have never been studied. We collected sera from 30 ALS patients and 30 gender and age-matched controls. We analyzed 11 distinct lipoprotein subclasses by linear polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Lipoprint, Quantimetrix Corporation, USA). We also measured lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein E levels. ALS patients had significant higher total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels than controls (pALS patients than controls. Our preliminary work confirmed the association between ALS and dyslipidemia. The low IDL-B levels may explain the hepatic steatosis frequently reported in ALS. The high levels of the cholesterol-rich LDL-1 subfraction is consistent with previously reported hypercholesterolemia. This study describes, for the first time, the distribution of serum lipoproteins in ALS patients, with low IDL-B and high LDL-1 subfraction level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A soluble form of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc-epsilon-RI, circulates in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dehlink

    Full Text Available Soluble IgE receptors are potential in vivo modulators of IgE-mediated immune responses and are thus important for our basic understanding of allergic responses. We here characterize a novel soluble version of the IgE-binding alpha-chain of Fc-epsilon-RI (sFcεRI, the high affinity receptor for IgE. sFcεRI immunoprecipitates as a protein of ∼40 kDa and contains an intact IgE-binding site. In human serum, sFcεRI is found as a soluble free IgE receptor as well as a complex with IgE. Using a newly established ELISA, we show that serum sFcεRI levels correlate with serum IgE in patients with elevated IgE. We also show that serum of individuals with normal IgE levels can be found to contain high levels of sFcεRI. After IgE-antigen-mediated crosslinking of surface FcεRI, we detect sFcεRI in the exosome-depleted, soluble fraction of cell culture supernatants. We further show that sFcεRI can block binding of IgE to FcεRI expressed at the cell surface. In summary, we here describe the alpha-chain of FcεRI as a circulating soluble IgE receptor isoform in human serum.

  12. Sustained high serum caspase-3 concentrations and mortality in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, L; Martín, M M; Pérez-Cejas, A; González-Rivero, A F; López, R O; Ferreres, J; Solé-Violán, J; Labarta, L; Díaz, C; Palmero, S; Jiménez, A

    2018-02-01

    Caspase-3 is the main executor of the apoptotic process. Higher serum caspase-3 concentrations in non-survivor compared to survivor septic patients have been found. The objectives of this work (with the increase of sample size to 308 patients, and the determination of serum caspase-3 concentrations also on days 4 and 8 of diagnosis of severe sepsis) were to know whether an association between serum caspase-3 concentrationss during the first week, degree of apoptosis, sepsis severity, and sepsis mortality exists. We collected serum samples of 308 patients with severe sepsis from eight intensive care units on days 1, 4 and 8 to measure concentrations of caspase-3 and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18 (to assess degree of apoptosis). End point was 30-day mortality. We found higher serum concentrations of caspase-3 and CCCK-18 in non-survivors compared to survivors on days 1 (p < 0.001), 4 (p < 0.001), and 8 (p < 0.001). We found an association between serum caspase-3 concentrations on days 1, 4 and 8 of severe sepsis diagnosis and serum CCCK-18 concentrations (p < 0.001), SOFA (p < 0.001), serum acid lactic concentrations (p < 0.001), and 30-day sepsis mortality (p < 0.001). The new findings of this work were that an association between serum caspase-3 concentrations during the first week, apoptosis degree, sepsis severity, and sepsis mortality exists.

  13. Clinical and biochemical assessment of high serum vitamin B12 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Nexø, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Measurement of serum cobalamin (Cbl) is routinely used to assess suspected Cbl deficiency. Surprisingly, 15% of all samples analysed for serum Cbl show values above the reference range of 200-600 pmol/L. Aim: We hypothesized that increased Cbl levels are caused by alterations...... in the circulating Cbl binding proteins haptocorrin (HC) and/or transcobalamin (TC), and that such changes may be of clinical importance. Materials and methods: We collected 834 blood samples from hospital treated patients with serum Cbl levels: 1000 pmol/L. In-house ELISAs were used...

  14. Choosing Fighting Competitors Among Men: Testosterone, Personality, and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Rantala, Markus J; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2018-01-01

    Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity. Participants completed three personality questionnaires and donated two saliva samples (pre-test and post-test sample) to quantify their testosterone levels. We found that the probability of choosing high-dominant masculine men as rivals increased with higher aggressiveness scores. In Study 2, the task of choosing rivals was accompanied by motivations to fight (pictures of women with high or low waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]). In this context, we observed that the probability of choosing dominant masculine men as rivals depended on the WHR of the women. Overall, average levels of post-test testosterone, aggressiveness, and high self-esteem increased the probability to fight for women with low WHR independently of the dominance masculinity of the rivals. Our results indicate that human decisions, in the context of intrasexual competition and mate choice, are regulated by physiological and psychological mechanisms allowing men to increase their biological fitness. We discuss our results in the light of the plasticity of human behavior according to biological and environmental forces.

  15. Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitris, Michelle C; Perumal, Nandita; Craig-Barnes, Hayley A; Leadley, Michael; Mahmud, Abdullah A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D status is conventionally defined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, it has been proposed that the serum cholecalciferol concentration (D3) also determines functional vitamin D sufficiency. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on inter-dose serum D3 in pregnant women. We conducted a sub-study of a completed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (35,000 IU/week) supplementation in late pregnancy (AViDD trial) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study included pregnant women enrolled at 26-29 weeks gestation who fully adhered to the prenatal supplement intervention for ≥8 consecutive weeks and for whom serum samples were available for D3 analysis (n=65). Serum D3 was uniformly low at enrolment. Mean D3 increased and was maximal at 1 day after vitamin D dose administration (152.09nmol/L, SD 25.11nmol/L) and remained significantly higher in VitD vs. Pl at 7 days (29.59nmol/L vs. 1.92nmol/L, p=0.007). Daily average of the group mean D3 during the week following dosing was 66.97nmol/L in VitD versus 2.13nmol/L in Pl. In conclusion, serum D3 remained significantly elevated throughout the week following ≥8 consecutive weekly doses of 35,000 IU D3 in pregnant women. However, the clinically significant minimum threshold of serum D3 remains to be established. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone and aging: clinical research directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liverman, Catharyn T; Blazer, Dan G., II

    2004-01-01

    .... In particular there has been growing concern about an increase in the number of middle-aged and older men using testosterone and the lack of scientific data on the effect it may have on aging males...

  17. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  18. A randomized double-blind study of testosterone replacement therapy or placebo in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency (Einstein-intervention).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders; Lauritsen, Jakob; Kreiberg, Michael; Oturai, Peter Sandor; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Daugaard, Gedske

    2017-07-03

    Elevated serum levels of luteinizing hormone and slightly decreased serum levels of testosterone (mild Leydig cell insufficiency) is a common hormonal disturbance in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. A number of studies have shown that low serum levels of testosterone is associated with low grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, so far, no studies have evaluated whether testosterone substitution improves metabolic dysfunction in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. This is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, designed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Seventy subjects will be randomized to receive either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo. The subjects will be invited for an information meeting where informed consent will be obtained. Afterwards, a 52-weeks treatment period begins in which study participants will receive a daily dose of transdermal testosterone or placebo. Dose adjustment will be made three times during the initial 8 weeks of the study to a maximal daily dose of 40 mg of testosterone in the intervention arm. Evaluation of primary and secondary endpoints will be performed at baseline, 26 weeks post-randomization, at the end of treatment (52 weeks) and 3 months after completion of treatment (week 64). This study is the first to investigate the effect of testosterone substitution in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. If positive, it may change the clinical handling of testicular cancer survivors with borderline low levels of testosterone. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02991209 (November 25, 2016).

  19. Endocrine Society of Australia position statement on male hypogonadism (part 1): assessment and indications for testosterone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu B; Grossmann, Mathis; McLachlan, Robert I; Handelsman, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Conway, Ann J; Stuckey, Bronwyn Ga; Lording, Douglas W; Allan, Carolyn A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Burger, Henry G

    2016-08-15

    This article, Part 1 of the Endocrine Society of Australia's position statement on male hypogonadism, focuses on assessment of male hypogonadism, including the indications for testosterone therapy. (Part 2 will deal with treatment and therapeutic considerations.) Key points and recommendations are:Pathological hypogonadism arises due to diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or testes (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). It is a clinical diagnosis with a pathological basis, confirmed by hormone assays.Hormonal assessment is based on measurement of circulating testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. Measurement of sex hormone-binding globulin levels can be informative, but use of calculated free testosterone is not recommended for clinical decision making.Testosterone replacement therapy is warranted in men with pathological hypogonadism, regardless of age.Currently, there are limited data from high-quality randomised controlled trials with clinically meaningful outcomes to justify testosterone treatment in older men, usually with chronic disease, who have low circulating testosterone levels but without hypothalamic, pituitary or testicular disease.Obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with lowering of circulating testosterone level, but without elevation of LH and FSH levels. Whether these are non-specific consequences of non-reproductive disorders or a correctable deficiency state is unknown, but clear evidence for efficacy and safety of testosterone therapy in this setting is lacking.Glucocorticoid and opioid use is associated with possibly reversible reductions in circulating testosterone level, without elevation of LH and FSH levels. Where continuation of glucocorticoid or opioid therapy is necessary, review by an endocrinologist may be warranted.Changes in management as result of the position statement: Men with pathological hypogonadism should

  20. Relationship between high serum ferritin level and glaucoma in a South Korean population: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gye, Hyo Jung; Kim, Joon Mo; Yoo, Chungkwon; Shim, Seong Hee; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki Chul; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and glaucoma in a South Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 164 029 subjects who underwent screening at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between August 2012 and July 2013. All subjects underwent a physical examination, answered sociodemographic and behavioural questions, and provided samples for laboratory analyses. A digital fundus photograph of both eyes was taken, and all photographs were reviewed by ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists determined if an eye had glaucoma based on criteria set forth by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology and the appearance of the retinal nerve fibre layer and optic disc. The mean serum ferritin level was 56.98 ng/mL in women and 223.82 ng/mL in men. After adjusting for age, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) and total vitamin D level, males in the highest quartile for serum ferritin level had a higher OR for glaucoma than males in the lowest quartile (OR=1.176, 95% CI 1.030 to 1.342, p=0.016); we did not observe this relationship among women. Other markers of iron metabolism, such as iron level, transferrin saturation and TIBC, and inflammation measures, including WBC, HsCRP and total vitamin D, were not associated with glaucoma. High serum ferritin level was associated with a high risk of glaucoma in men, but not in women. Because serum ferritin is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it might play a role in glaucoma development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Differential expression of miRNAs in the serum of patients with high-risk oral lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, Sara Ann; Lawson, James; Baik, Jonathan; Guillaud, Martial; Poh, Catherine Fang-Yeu; Garnis, Cathie

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Disease is often diagnosed at later stages, which is associated with a poor 5-year survival rate and a high rate of local recurrence. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small, noncoding RNAs, can be isolated from blood serum samples and have demonstrated utility as biomarkers in multiple cancer types. The aim of this study was to examine the expression profiles of circulating miRNAs in the serum of patients with high-risk oral lesions (HRLs; oral cancer or carcinoma in situ) and to explore their utility as potential oral cancer biomarkers. Global serum miRNA profiles were generated using quantitative PCR method from 1) patients diagnosed with HRLs and undergoing intent-to-cure surgical treatment (N = 30) and 2) a demographically matched, noncancer control group (N = 26). We next honed our list of serum miRNAs associated with disease by reducing the effects of interpatient variability; we compared serum miRNA profiles from samples taken both before and after tumor resections (N = 10). Based on these analyses, fifteen miRNAs were significantly upregulated and five were significantly downregulated based on presence of disease (minimum fold-change >2 in at least 50% of samples, P < 0.05, permutation). Five of these miRNAs (miR-16, let-7b, miR-338-3p, miR-223, and miR-29a) yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) >0.8, suggesting utility as noninvasive biomarkers for detection of oral cancer or high-grade lesions. Combining these serum miRNA profiles with other screening techniques could greatly improve the sensitivity in oral cancer detection

  2. High-dose vitamin B6 decreases homocysteine serum levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodownik, Chanoch; Lerner, Vladimir; Vishne, Tali; Sela, Ben-Ami; Levine, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin B6 plays an essential role in the normal functioning of the central nervous system. Normal homocysteine (Hcy) serum level is maintained by remethylation of Hcy to methionine by enzymes that require folic acid and vitamin B12 and by catabolism to cysteine by a vitamin B6-dependent enzyme. These findings may be consistent with the hypothesis that the vitamin B6 status may influence plasma Hcy levels. The aims of this preliminary study were (1) to determine whether a correlation exists between Hcy and vitamin B6 levels in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders and (2) to investigate whether treatment with high-dose vitamin B6 may reduce Hcy levels in these patients. In this preliminary study, we enrolled 11 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (7 men and 4 women; mean age +/- SD, 50 +/- 12 years) receiving high doses of vitamin B6 treatment (1200 mg/d) for 12 weeks. Blood samples for the assessment of pyridoxal-5-phosphate and Hcy serum levels were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Age was significantly positively correlated with Hcy levels at baseline (r = 0.392, P = 0.004). All other parameters, including diagnosis, disease duration, and pyridoxal-5-phosphate serum level, were not correlated with Hcy serum levels at baseline. After vitamin B6 treatment, Hcy serum levels significantly decreased (14.2 +/- 3.4 vs. 11.8 +/- 2.0 micromol/L, respectively, t = 2.679, P = 0.023); this decrease being statistically significant in men but not in women. High doses of vitamin B6 lead to a decrease in Hcy serum level in male patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  3. SERUM LEVEL OF LIPIDS, APOLIPOPROTEINS AND VITAMIN D IN CHILDREN AT HIGH RISK OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M BASHTAM

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the most prevalent disease in human population that has high prevalence and mortality in lsfahan (Iran. As positive family history and changes in serum lipids and lipoproteins are risk factors of these diseases, and also studies have showed the relationship between serum vitamin D and CAD, we studied serum level of lipids, lipoproteins and vitamin D in high risk children compared with control group, and the relation between serum vitamin D and other factors. Methods. This case-control study was done on 44 subjects (25 boys, 19 girls aged 2-18 years old with positive CAD family history as case group and also 44 persons with negative CAD family history as control group with the same age groups. The subjects were selected by convenience sampling method. Children who consumed antiepilepthic drugs as phenytoin or phenobarbital and those who had positive family histroy for renal stone were excluded for variable vitamin D levels due to drug interaction and genetic susceptibility, respectively. All subjects were invited to Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center. Using a questionnaire, information on personal characteristics, CVD family history and ... were obtained. A fasting (12-14 hr blood sample was drawn from each one. Serum APOA1, APO B100 and vitamin Dwere measured by radioimmunoassay and serum lipids by ELAN 2000 autoanalyzer. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS. The level of serum APOA1, APO B100 and vitamin D were compared between two groups by independent t test and the relation of the mentioned apolipoproteins with vitamin D was studied using multiple linear regression. Results. Serum vitamin D was significantly lower in case group (P < 0.045. Among studied factors, only triglyceride was significantly higher in control group (P < 0.0001 and also no significant relaitonship was observed between serum APO A1, APO B100 and vitamin D. Sex comparision in case group showed those mean levels

  4. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Lin, Suhan; Zippi, Maddalena; Geng, Wujun; Stock, Simon; Zimmer, Vincent; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs) were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model) was developed to predict SAP as follows: -2.25-0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl) at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl) at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl) at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  5. Long term stability of paraoxonase-1 and high-density lipoprotein in human serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beekhof Piet K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an enzyme with numerous functions and receives an increasing interest in clinical and epidemiological studies. Sometimes samples are stored for longer periods at a certain temperature. Therefore the stability of PON1 activity must be checked and retained upon storage for longer periods. Results In this study the stability of PON1 activity has been tested in human serum samples during storage up to 12 months at 3 commonly used temperatures, -20°C, -70°C and −196°C. It was found that the stability of the PON1 activity is constant during 12 months of storage at −70°C and −196°C. Storage at −20°C resulted in a small but statistically significant decrease after 6 months to about 94% of its original value. Nonetheless, the rank order between the samples at T = 0 and 12 months remained the same. The same temperature dependence was found for the associated high-density lipoprotein. Conclusions It can be concluded that −70°C is the right temperature for storage to maintain the PON1 activity for at least one year. Storage at a lower temperature in liquid nitrogen (−196°C is not necessary.

  6. Serum vitamin E concentrations among highly functioning hip fracture patients are higher than in nonfracture controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; Shardell, Michelle D; Hicks, Gregory E; Orwig, Denise L; Hochberg, Marc C; Semba, Richard D; Yu-Yahiro, Janet A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay S; Miller, Ram R

    2011-03-01

    Malnutrition after hip fracture is common and associated with poor outcomes and protracted recovery. Low concentrations of vitamin E have been associated with incident decline in physical function among older adults and may, therefore, be particularly important to functionally compromised patients hip fracture patients. Serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, the 2 major forms of vitamin E, were assessed in 148 female hip fracture patients 65 years or older from the Baltimore Hip Studies cohort 4 around the time of fracture (baseline) and at 2, 6, and 12 month postfracture follow-up visits (recovery). It was hypothesized that mean concentrations of both forms of vitamin E among these hip fracture patients would be lowest at the baseline visit and increase at each study visit during the year after fracture. Linear regression and generalized estimating equations were used to assess changes in vitamin E concentrations after adjustment for covariates and to determine predictors of vitamin E concentrations at baseline and throughout recovery. It was also hypothesized that vitamin E concentrations shortly after hip fracture would be lower than those in nonfracture controls after adjustment for covariates. To evaluate this hypothesis, linear regression was used to perform adjusted comparisons of baseline vitamin E concentrations among Baltimore Hip Studies cohort 4 participants to 1076 older women without history of hip fracture from the Women's Health and Aging Study I, Invecchiare in Chianti Study, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Mean α-tocopherol was lowest at baseline, and time from fracture to blood draw was positively associated with baseline α-tocopherol (P = .005). Mean γ-tocopherol did not change appreciably throughout the year after fracture, although it fluctuated widely within individuals. Serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol were highest among the hip fracture population after adjustment (P hip

  7. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck are associated with short survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslind, A.; Johansen, J.S.; Christensen, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    by immunohistochemistry in 50 patients. Pretreatment serum YKL-40 was elevated in 53%. Patients with high serum YKL-40 had shorter survival than patients with normal serum YKL-40 (33 vs. 84 months; p = 0.008). Multivariate Cox analysis including pretreatment serum YKL-40, age, sex, primary tumor site, TNM classification...... and treatment demonstrated that TNM classification (HR = 2.61, p = 0.02) and serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable: HR = 1.55, p classification (HR = 5.77, p = 0.001) and serum...... YKL-40 (dichotomous variable: HR = 2.75, p = 0.01) were independent predictors of recurrence-free survival. During follow-up after radiotherapy, a high serum YKL-40 (log-transformed continuous variable) in patients with TNM Stage III and TV disease predicted poorer OS within 6 months (HR = 1.95, p

  8. Quantitation of bilirubin conjugates with high-performance liquid chromatography in patients with low total serum bilirubin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Cuypers, H. T.; Peters, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Bilirubin mono- and diconjugates were determined by alkaline methanolysis and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum from patients with metastatic liver disease and liver cirrhosis. Conjugates could be detected and quantitated at normal or low total bilirubin levels. Comparison with

  9. The preparation and properties of a highly specific antiserum elicited with 3-dehydrocholylglycine 3-succinyl-bovine serum albumin conjugate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orban, E.C.; Pal, Z.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis of a new cholylglycine derivative-bovine serum albumin conjugate. The hapten is linked to the carrier protein at the C-3 position, through a hemisuccinate bridge. Antiserum elicited by this antigen is highly specific to cholylglycine. Cross-reactions with free cholic acid (less than 0.1%) or cholyltaurine (0.5%) are minimal. (author)

  10. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, N.; Kumari, Minal; Kalra, Nitish; Arjun, P.; Naik, Savitha B.; Pradeep, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of progranulin (PGRN) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP) in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis. PMID:24191130

  11. Crevicular Fluid and Serum Concentrations of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP in Chronic Periodontitis and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was designed to correlate the serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF levels of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs CRP in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Design. PGRN and hs CRP levels were estimated in 3 groups: healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 DM with chronic periodontitis. Results. The mean PGRN and hs CRP concentrations in serum and GCF were the highest for group 3 followed by group 2 and the least in group 1. Conclusion. PGRN and hs CRP may be biomarkers of the inflammatory response in type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis.

  12. Determination of carbamazepine in serum and saliva samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Carbamazepine is antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. Due to low therapeutic index of carbamazepine there is a need for routine measuring its concentrations in biological fluids. The aim of the study was to describe a method for concomitant determination of carbamazepine in the serum and saliva. Methods. Separation of the drug from matrix is achieved by reversedphase chromatography on a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:34:1 at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was effected by ultra-violet absorption at 285 nm. The total run time was 5 min. Samples were prepared by alkaline extraction (pH 10 using chlorophorm. Results. Calibration curves were in the range 0.1-5 μg/mL for serum and saliva samples. Mean recoveries of spiked serum and saliva were 97.59 and 92.30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD of carbamazepine in serum and saliva were 0.166 and 0.178 μg/mL, respectively. Limits of quantification (LOQ in the serum and saliva were 0.237 and 0.226 μg/mL, respectively. The method precision was carried out with coefficient of variation of 2.10% and 4.03% for the serum and saliva, respectively. The obtained data showed that there was a strong correlation between saliva and serum concentrations (r = 0.9481, p < 0.001. Conclusion. The method described here is rapid, precise, accurate and simple, and can be used for quantitative determination of carbamazepine in human serum and saliva after therapy applying. Saliva samples could be used as an alternative matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring of this antiepileptic drug.

  13. Determination of carbamazepine in serum and saliva samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordević, Snezana; Kilibarda, Vesna; Stojanović, Tomislav

    2009-05-01

    Carbamazepine is antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of epilepsy. Due to low therapeutic index of carbamazepine there is a need for routine measuring its concentrations in biological fluids. The aim of the study was to describe a method for concomitant determination of carbamazepine in the serum and saliva. Separation of the drug from matrix is achieved by reversed-phase chromatography on a C18 column, with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:34:1) at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was effected by ultra-violet absorption at 285 nm. The total run time was 5 min. Samples were prepared by alkaline extraction (pH 10) using chlorophorm. Calibration curves were in the range 0.1-5 microg/mL for serum and saliva samples. Mean recoveries of spiked serum and saliva were 97.59 and 92.30%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD) of carbamazepine in serum and saliva were 0.166 and 0.178 microg/mL, respectively. Limits of quantification (LOQ) in the serum and saliva were 0.237 and 0.226 microg/mL, respectively. The method precision was carried out with coefficient of variation of 2.10% and 4.03% for the serum and saliva, respectively. The obtained data showed that there was a strong correlation between saliva and serum concentrations (r = 0.9481, p < 0.001). The method described here is rapid, precise, accurate and simple, and can be used for quantitative determination of carbamazepine in human serum and saliva after therapy applying. Saliva samples could be used as an alternative matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring of this antiepileptic drug.

  14. Attenuating the mortality risk of high serum uric acid: the role of physical activity underused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Wen, Chi Pang; Wu, Shiuan Bei; Lan, Joung-Liang; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tai, Ya-Ping; Lee, June Han; Hsu, Chih Cheng; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wai, Jackson Pui Man; Chiang, Po Huang; Pan, Wen Han; Hsiung, Chao Agnes

    2015-11-01

    High serum uric acid (sUA) has been associated with increased mortality risks, but its clinical treatment varied with potential side effects. The role of physical activity has received limited attention. A cohort, consisting of 467 976 adults, who went through a standard health screening programme, with questionnaire and fasting blood samples, was successively recruited between 1996 and 2008. High sUA is defined as uric acid above 7.0 mg/dL. Leisure time physical activity level was self-reported, with fully active defined as those with 30 min per day for at least 5 days a week. National death file identified 12 228 deaths with a median follow-up of 8.5 years. Cox proportional model was used to analyse HRs, and 12 variables were controlled, including medical history, life style and risk factors. High sUA constituted one quarter of the cohort (25.6%). Their all-cause mortality was significantly increased [HR: 1.22 (1.15-1.29)], with much of the increase contributed to by the inactive (HR: 1.27 (1.17-1.37)), relative to the reference group with sUA level of 5-6 mg/dL. When they were fully active, mortality risks did not increase, but decreased by 11% (HR: 0.89 (0.82-0.97)), reflecting the benefits of being active was able to overcome the adverse effects of high sUA. Given the same high sUA, a 4-6 years difference in life expectancy was found between the active and the inactive. Physical activity is a valuable alternative to pharmacotherapy in its ability to reduce the increases in mortality risks from high sUA. By being fully active, exercise can extend life span by 4-6 years, a level greater than the 1-4 years of life-shortening effect from high sUA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Circatrigintan cycle of testosterone in human male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celec, P.; Kudela, M.; Bursky, P.; Ostatnikova, D.; Zdenek PUTZ, Z.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the influence of testosterone on physical and mental well-being has become a focus of research attention. Testosterone is no more considered the m ale hormone . It was proved to influence woman's behaviour and mental functioning as well as that of a man. Cyclic changes throughout the menstrual cycle in women are known. To search for the infradian variations of human male testosterone levels in a follow up study, which was held in autumn 1999 (one month of continuous sampling) and in autumn 2000 (two and a half months of continuous sampling). Testosterone was determined in saliva, which contains biologically active fraction, unbound to proteins. In autumn 2000 sampling of 31 males (mean age 21.3 ± 1.3) collected saliva in the morning 30 minutes after waking-up every second day during one month and every third day during the following 6 weeks. Saliva was deeply frozen and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Data of our preliminary study (based on samples collected in 1999) indicated circatrigintan variations of male salivary testosterone. By the use of two different methods (zones of minimum-moving averages and analysis of variance) circatrigintan and circavigintan cycles of salivary testosterone were found in the collected data of our subjects. The article considerates clinical applications of variation of hormonal levels. (authors)

  16. Obesity, serum steroid levels, and pulsatile gonadotropin secretion in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, T; Tulenheimo, A; Andersson, B; Kärkkäinen, J

    1983-04-01

    Serum binding capacity of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG-BC), steroid concentrations, and secretion patterns of LH and FSH were compared between groups of seven nonobese and seven obese patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). Obese patients with PCOD differed from those with normal weight in having very low SHBG-BC and elevated serum levels of free and albumin bound testosterone. Compared to healthy women in the follicular phase, both nonobese and obese patients with PCOD showed equally elevated serum levels of androstenedione, estrone, and albumin-bound and free estradiol. Pattern of gonadotropin secretion was studied from blood samples taken at 15 min intervals for 6 h. In 6 patients of both groups low pulses of FSH were found coincidently with pulses of LH. Serum level of LH showed a clear pulsatile pattern in all patients with PCOD, varying from 4.5 to 7.5 pulses per 6 h. The mean pulse rate in the groups of nonobese and obese patients with PCOD was similar, 5.9 pulses per 6 h. In the obese patients the mean LH levels were, however, less elevated and the pulse amplitudes were smaller than those in the nonobese patients. We suggest that this difference is due to high levels of biologically active testosterone in obese patients with PCOD.

  17. Inverse relationship between bioavailable testosterone and subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese Korean men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byoung-Jin Park; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Jae Lee; Jung-Hyun Lee; Hye-Ree Lee

    2012-01-01

    Although low testosterone levels in men have been associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease,little is known about the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary disease in men with apparently low cardiometabolic risk.This study was performed to investigate the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary artery calcification measured as coronary calcium score in non-obese Korean men.We examined the relationship of total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin,bioavai lable testosterone and free testosterone with coronary calcium score in 291 non-obese Korean men (mean age:52.8±9.3 years)not having a history of cardiovascular disease.Using multiple linear regression,we evaluated associations between log (sex hormone)levels and log (coronary calcium score) after adjusting for confounding variables in 105 men with some degree of coronary calcification defined as coronary calcium score ≥ 1.In multiple linear regression analysis,bioavailable testosterone was inversely associated with coronary calcium score (P=0.046) after adjusting for age,body mass index,smoking status,alcohol consumption,regular exercise,mean blood pressure,resting heart rate,C-reactive protein,fasting plasma glucose,total cholesterol,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,hypertension medication and hyperlipidemia medication,whereas total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone were not (P=0.674,P=0.121 and P=0.102,respectively).Our findings indicate that bioavailable testosterone is inversely associated with the degree of subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese men.

  18. Diet-induced obesity and low testosterone increase neuroinflammation and impair neural function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Lent-Schochet, Daniella; Pike, Christian J

    2014-09-16

    Low testosterone and obesity are independent risk factors for dysfunction of the nervous system including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigate the independent and cooperative interactions of testosterone and diet-induced obesity on metabolic, inflammatory, and neural health indices in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Male C57B6/J mice were maintained on normal or high-fat diet under varying testosterone conditions for a four-month treatment period, after which metabolic indices were measured and RNA isolated from cerebral cortex and sciatic nerve. Cortices were used to generate mixed glial cultures, upon which embryonic cerebrocortical neurons were co-cultured for assessment of neuron survival and neurite outgrowth. Peripheral nerve damage was determined using paw-withdrawal assay, myelin sheath protein expression levels, and Na+,K+-ATPase activity levels. Our results demonstrate that detrimental effects on both metabolic (blood glucose, insulin sensitivity) and proinflammatory (cytokine expression) responses caused by diet-induced obesity are exacerbated by testosterone depletion. Mixed glial cultures generated from obese mice retain elevated cytokine expression, although low testosterone effects do not persist ex vivo. Primary neurons co-cultured with glial cultures generated from high-fat fed animals exhibit reduced survival and poorer neurite outgrowth. In addition, low testosterone and diet-induced obesity combine to increase inflammation and evidence of nerve damage in the peripheral nervous system. Testosterone and diet-induced obesity independently and cooperatively regulate neuroinflammation in central and peripheral nervous systems, which may contribute to observed impairments in neural health. Together, our findings suggest that low testosterone and obesity are interactive regulators of neuroinflammation that, in combination with adipose-derived inflammatory pathways and other factors

  19. Testosterone conjugating activities in invertebrates: are they targets for endocrine disruptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; Sternberg, R M; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-02-10

    Testosterone conjugation activities, microsomal acyltransferases and cytosolic sulfotransferases, were investigated in three invertebrate species, the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The goals of the study were to characterize steroid conjugation pathways in different invertebrate phyla and to assess the susceptibility of those processes to disruption by environmental chemicals. All three species exhibited palmitoyl-CoA: testosterone acyltransferase activity (ATAT) in the range of 100-510 pmol/min/mg protein. Despite similarities in specific activities, kinetic studies indicated that ATAT had a higher affinity for testosterone but a lower V(max) in M. cornuarietis than in P. lividus, and intermediate values were found for H. azteca. In contrast, the activity of testosterone sulfotransferase (SULT) was rather low (0.05-0.18 pmol/min/mg protein) in M. cornuarietis and H. azteca. The low activity precluded kinetic analyses and inhibition studies with these species. P. lividus digestive tube displayed high SULT activity (50-170 pmol/min/mg protein) at moderate testosterone concentrations, but was inhibited at high testosterone concentrations. The interference of model pollutants (triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin (TBT), and fenarimol) with these conjugation pathways was investigated in vitro. Both TPT and TBT (100 microM) inhibited ATAT in P. lividus (68 and 42% inhibition, respectively), and appeared to act as non-competitive inhibitors. ATAT activity in M. cornuarietis was less affected by organotins, and a significant inhibition (20% inhibition) was detected only with TBT. Fenarimol (100 microM) did not affect ATAT in any of the species tested. Sulfation of testosterone was suppressed by the organotins as well as fenarimol when using cytosolic preparations from P. lividus. These results demonstrated the existence of interphyla differences in testosterone conjugation, and revealed that these

  20. Hypofractionated passively scattered proton radiotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer is not associated with post-treatment testosterone suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kil, Whoon Jong; Nichols, Romaine C. Jr. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Univ. of Florida Proton Therapy Inst., Jacksonville (United States)], e-mail: rnichols@floridaproton.org; And others

    2013-04-15

    Background: To investigate post-treatment changes in serum testosterone in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with hypofractionated passively scattered proton radiotherapy. Material and methods: Between April 2008 and October 2011, 228 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer were enrolled into an institutional review board-approved prospective protocol. Patients received doses ranging from 70 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) to 72.5 CGE at 2.5 CGE per fraction using passively scattered protons. Three patients were excluded for receiving androgen deprivation therapy (n = 2) or testosterone supplementation (n = 1) before radiation. Of the remaining 226 patients, pretreatment serum testosterone levels were available for 217. Of these patients, post-treatment serum testosterone levels were available for 207 in the final week of treatment, 165 at the six-month follow-up, and 116 at the 12-month follow-up. The post-treatment testosterone levels were compared with the pretreatment levels using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test for matched pairs. Results: The median pretreatment serum testosterone level was 367.7 ng/dl (12.8 nmol/l). The median changes in post-treatment testosterone value were as follows: +3.0 ng/dl (+0.1 nmol/l) at treatment completion; +6.0 ng/dl (+0.2 nmol/l) at six months after treatment; and +5.0 ng/dl (0.2 nmol/l) at 12 months after treatment. None of these changes were statistically significant. Conclusion: Patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated passively scattered proton radiotherapy do not experience testosterone suppression. Our findings are consistent with physical measurements demonstrating that proton radiotherapy is associated with less scatter radiation exposure to tissues beyond the beam paths compared with intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy.

  1. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Serena; Ferrari, Giovanna; Maresca, Paola

    2017-08-01

    The extent of enzymatic proteolysis mainly depends on accessibility of the peptide bonds, which stabilize the protein structure. The high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) process is able to induce, at certain operating conditions, protein displacement, thus suggesting that this technology can be used to modify protein resistance to the enzymatic attack. This work aims at investigating the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis assisted by HHP performed under different processing conditions (pressure level, treatment time). Bovine serum albumin was selected for the experiments, solubilized in sodium phosphate buffer (25 mg mL -1 , pH 7.5) with α-chymotrypsin or trypsin (E/S ratio = 1/10) and HPP treatment (100-500 MPa, 15-25 min). HHP treatment enhanced the extent of the hydrolysis reaction of globular proteins, being more effective than conventional hydrolysis. At HHP treatment conditions maximizing the protein unfolding, the hydrolysis degree of proteins was increased as a consequence of the increased exposure of peptide bonds to the attack of proteolytic enzymes. The maximum hydrolysis degree (10% and 7% respectively for the samples hydrolyzed with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin) was observed for the samples processed at 400 MPa for 25 min. At pressure levels higher than 400 MPa the formation of aggregates was likely to occur; thus the degree of hydrolysis decreased. Protein unfolding represents the key factor controlling the efficiency of HHP-assisted hydrolysis treatments. The peptide produced under high pressure showed lower dimensions and a different structure with respect to those of the hydrolysates obtained when the hydrolysis was carried out at atmospheric pressure, thus opening new frontiers of application in food science and nutrition. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. REG4 Is Highly Expressed in Mucinous Ovarian Cancer: A Potential Novel Serum Biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lehtinen

    Full Text Available Preoperative diagnostics of ovarian neoplasms rely on ultrasound imaging and the serum biomarkers CA125 and HE4. However, these markers may be elevated in non-neoplastic conditions and may fail to identify most non-serous epithelial cancer subtypes. The objective of this study was to identify histotype-specific serum biomarkers for mucinous ovarian cancer. The candidate genes with mucinous histotype specific expression profile were identified from publicly available gene-expression databases and further in silico data mining was performed utilizing the MediSapiens database. Candidate biomarker validation was done using qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue microarrays. The expression level of the candidate gene in serum was compared to the serum CA125 and HE4 levels in a patient cohort of prospectively collected advanced ovarian cancer. Database searches identified REG4 as a potential biomarker with specificity for the mucinous ovarian cancer subtype. The specific expression within epithelial ovarian tumors was further confirmed by mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of ovarian tumor tissue arrays showed distinctive cytoplasmic expression pattern only in mucinous carcinomas and suggested differential expression between benign and malignant mucinous neoplasms. Finally, an ELISA based serum biomarker assay demonstrated increased expression only in patients with mucinous ovarian cancer. This study identifies REG4 as a potential serum biomarker for histotype-specific detection of mucinous ovarian cancer and suggests serum REG4 measurement as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for postoperative follow-up of patients with mucinous ovarian cancer.

  4. Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Basal testosterone cortisol ratio is considered very important to maintain homeostasis. Increase in this ratio has various beneficial effects on body. In this study we determined the effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: It was quasi experimental study carried out in department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during October 2006 to September 2007. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups with ten rats in each group and above mentioned antioxidants supplementation were given along with standard diet for one month. After this, blood samples were taken and analyzed for serum testosterone and cortisol by ELISA and malondialdehyde levels colorimetrically. Data were analysed on SPSS version 13 and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio in rats supplemented with single antioxidant; however rats supplemented with combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio with a fall in malondialdehyde levels. Conclusions: Synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol resulted in a decline in reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation and rise of testosterone cortisol ratio. (author)

  5. Testosterone and androgen receptor gene polymorphism are associated with confidence and competitiveness in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenegger, Christoph; Kumsta, Robert; Naef, Michael; Gromoll, Jörg; Heinrichs, Markus

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Studies in non-human animals and humans have demonstrated the important role of testosterone in competitive interactions. Here, we investigated whether endogenous testosterone levels predict the decision to compete, in a design excluding spite as a motive underlying competitiveness. In a laboratory experiment with real monetary incentives, 181 men solved arithmetic problems, first under a noncompetitive piece rate, followed by a competition incentive scheme. We also assessed several parameters relevant to competition, such as risk taking, performance, and confidence in one's own performance. Salivary testosterone levels were measured before and 20min after the competition task using mass spectrometry. Participants were also genotyped for the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene, known to influence the efficacy of testosterone signaling in a reciprocal relationship to the number of CAG repeats. We observed a significant positive association between basal testosterone levels and the decision to compete, and that higher testosterone levels were related to greater confidence in one's own performance. Whereas the number of CAG repeats was not associated with the choice to compete, a lower number of CAG repeats was related to greater confidence in those who chose to compete, but this effect was attributable to the polymorphism's effect on actual performance. An increase in testosterone levels was observed following the experiment, and this increase varied with self-reported high-school math grades. We expand upon the latest research by documenting effects of the androgen system in confidence in one's own ability, and conclude that testosterone promotes competitiveness without spite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships among musical aptitude, digit ratio and testosterone in men and women.

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    Jeremy C Borniger

    Full Text Available Circulating adult testosterone levels, digit ratio (length of the second finger relative to the fourth finger, and directional asymmetry in digit ratio are considered sexually dimorphic traits in humans. These have been related to spatial abilities in men and women, and because similar brain structures appear to be involved in both spatial and musical abilities, neuroendocrine function may be related to musical as well as spatial cognition. To evaluate relationships among testosterone and musical ability in men and women, saliva samples were collected, testosterone concentrations assessed, and digit ratios calculated using standardized protocols in a sample of university students (N = 61, including both music and non-music majors. Results of Spearman correlations suggest that digit ratio and testosterone levels are statistically related to musical aptitude and performance only within the female sample: A those females with greater self-reported history of exposure to music (p = 0.016 and instrument proficiency (p = 0.040 scored higher on the Advanced Measures of Music Audiation test, B those females with higher left hand digit ratio (and perhaps lower fetal testosterone levels were more highly ranked (p = 0.007 in the orchestra, C female music students exhibited a trend (p = 0.082 towards higher testosterone levels compared to female non-music students, and D female music students with higher rank in the orchestra/band had higher testosterone levels (p = 0.003 than lower ranked students. None of these relationships were significant in the male sample, although a lack of statistical power may be one cause. The effects of testosterone are likely a small part of a poorly understood system of biological and environmental stimuli that contribute to musical aptitude. Hormones may play some role in modulating the phenotype of musical ability, and this may be the case for females more so than males.

  7. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs do not influence the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone glucuronide ratio

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    Jonas eLundmark

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The UDP Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT enzymes are important in the pharmacokinetics, and conjugation, of a variety of drugs including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as well as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS. Testosterone glucuronidation capacity is strongly associated with a deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene. As the use of high doses of NSAIDs has been observed in athletes there is a risk for a drug-drug interaction that may influence the doping tests for AAS. In-vitro studies show inhibitory potential on UGT2B7, 2B15 and 2B17 enzymes by NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate if concomitant use of NSAIDs and a single dose of testosterone enanthate would affect the excretion rate of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronide (TG and EG as well as the T/E ratio, thereby affecting the outcome of the testosterone doping test.The study was designed as an open, randomized, cross-over study with subjects being their own control. The 23 healthy male volunteers, with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del or del/del of the UGT2B17 gene, received the maximum recommended dose of NSAID (Ibuprofen or Diclofenac for six days. On day three, 500 mg of testosterone enanthate was administered. Spot urine samples were collected for 17 days. After a wash out period of four months the volunteers received 500 mg testosterone enanthate only, with subsequent spot urine collection for 14 days. The glucuronides of testosterone and epitestosterone were quantified. NSAIDs did not affect the excretion of TG or EG before the administration of testosterone. The concomitant use of NSAIDs and testosterone slightly increased the TG excretion while the EG excretion was less suppressed compared to testosterone use only. The effects of the NSAIDs on the TG and EG excretion did not differ between the UGT2B17 genotype groups. In conclusion, the outcome of testosterone doping tests does not seem to be affected by the use of NSAIDs.

  8. High Serum Pepsinogen I and beta Helicobacter pylori Infection Are Risk Factors for Aspirin-Induced Gastroduodenal Injury.

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    Shan, Jing; Lei, Hongjun; Shi, Wei; Sun, Xiaobin; Tang, Yu; Ren, Chunrong

    2018-01-01

    Whether gastric hyperchlorhydria and Helicobacter pylori infection contribute to aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury still lacks evidence. Because serum pepsinogens (PGs) and gastrin-17 (G17) can reflect gastric acid secretion, this study intended to elucidate whether serum PGs, serum G17, and H. pylori infection are associated with aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury. A total of 60 patients taking low-dose aspirin for more than 1 month were enrolled in this study. Serum PG I, PG II, and G17 were determined using ELISA. A 14C-urea breath test was used for the detection of an H. pylori infection. The modified Lanza score was used to evaluate the degree of gastroduodenal injury under endoscopy. The median serum PG I level was significantly higher in the intensive gastroduodenal injury (IGI) group compared to that in the mild gastroduodenal injury group (155.0 vs. 116.6 ng/mL, p = 0.006). The H. pylori infection rate was significantly higher in the IGI group (73 vs. 40%, p = 0.037). Receiver operator characteristic curves analysis revealed that the cutoff value of PG I was 123 ng/mL, with 80% sensitivity and 61.4% specificity. H. pylori infection combined with PG I at >123 ng/mL had an OR (95% CI) of 15.8 (2.4 ± 104.5) for the prediction of aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury. Key Messages: Serum PG I and H. pylori infection could be used to identify potential high-risk aspirin-induced gastroduodenal injury patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males

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    Lisa Wagels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status–seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration. A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants’ choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se. In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  10. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, Lisa; Votinov, Mikhail; Kellermann, Thilo; Eisert, Albrecht; Beyer, Cordian; Habel, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status-seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration). A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants' choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se . In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  11. Resistance Training and Testosterone Levels in Male Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Dialysis

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    Stig Molsted

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 levels’ associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. Methods. Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres’ size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. Results. The patients’ testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n=20 (19.5 (8.2–52.1 nmol/L versus 17.6 (16.1–18.0, resp. whereas LH levels were higher (13.0 (5.5–82.8 U/L versus 4.3 (3.3–4.6, P<0.001, resp.. IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 levels were higher in the patients compared with reference values (203 (59–590 ng/mL versus 151 (128–276, P=0.014, and 5045 (3370–9370 ng/mL versus 3244 (3020–3983, P<0.001, resp.. All hormone levels and muscle fibre size (n=12 remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P<0.05. Conclusion. Patients’ total testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased LH values, which suggest a compensated primary insufficiency of the testosterone producing Leydig cell. Even though testosterone values were normal, resistance training was not associated with muscle hypertrophy. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72099857.

  12. Endogenous testosterone increases L-type Ca2+ channel expression in porcine coronary smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, D K; Maddali, K K; Ganjam, V K; Rubin, L J; Tharp, D L; Turk, J R; Heaps, C L

    2004-11-01

    Evidence indicates that gender and sex hormonal status influence cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. We recently demonstrated increased L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ current (ICa,L) in coronary arterial smooth muscle (CASM) of male compared with female swine. The promoter region of the L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) (Cav1.2) gene contains a hormone response element that is activated by testosterone. Thus the purpose of the present study was to determine whether endogenous testosterone regulates CASM ICa,L through regulation of VGCC expression and activity. Sexually mature male and female Yucatan swine (7-8 mo; 35-45 kg) were obtained from the breeder. Males were left intact (IM, n=8), castrated (CM, n=8), or castrated with testosterone replacement (CMT, n=8; 10 mg/day Androgel). Females remained gonad intact (n=8). In right coronary arteries, both Cav1.2 mRNA and protein were greater in IM compared with intact females. Cav1.2 mRNA and protein were reduced in CM compared with IM and restored in CMT. In isolated CASM, both peak and steady-state ICa were reduced in CM compared with IM and restored in CMT. In males, a linear relationship was found between serum testosterone levels and ICa. In vitro, both testosterone and the nonaromatizable androgen, dihydrotestosterone, increased Cav1.2 expression. Furthermore, this effect was blocked by the androgen receptor antagonist cyproterone. We conclude that endogenous testosterone is a primary regulator of Cav1.2 expression and activity in coronary arteries of males.

  13. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verslycke, Tim; Poelmans, Sofie; De Wasch, Katia; Vercauteren, Jordy; Devos, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Patrick; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2003-09-01

    Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.

  14. Highly sensitive detection of bovine serum albumin based on the aggregation of triangular silver nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Ma, Fang Fang; Kuang, Yang Fang; Cheng, Shu; Long, Yun Fei; Xiao, Qiu Guo

    2016-02-01

    A simple, fast and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been developed based on the interactions between triangular silver nanoplates (TAgNPs) and BSA in the presence of Britton-Robison buffer solution (BR). Particularly, the wavelength of absorption maximum (λmax) of TAgNPs is red shifted in the presence of BSA together with Britton-Robinson buffer solution (BR, pH = 2.56), and the color of the solution changed from blue to light blue. This may be due to the interactions between BSA molecules on the surface of TAgNPs through electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic effects and van der Waals forces at pH 2.56, which leads to the aggregation of TAgNPs. The determination of BSA was achieved by measuring the change of λmax corresponding to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from UV-visible spectrophotometry. It was found that the shift value in the wavelength of absorption maximum (Δλ, the difference in absorption maxima of the TAgNPs/BSA/BR mixture and the TAgNPs/BR mixture) was proportionate to the concentration of BSA in the range of 1.0 ng mL- 1 to 100.0 ng mL- 1 with the correlation coefficient of r = 0.9969. The detection limit (3 σ/k) for BSA was found to be as low as 0.5 ng mL- 1.

  15. Mangiferin binding to serum albumin is non-saturable and induces conformational changes at high concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, P.G.; Barbosa, A.F. [Biochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Unifal-MG, R. Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, 37130-000 Alfenas, MG (Brazil); Saraiva, L.A. [Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Camps, I. [Physics Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Silveira, N.J.F. da [Bioinformatics Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Veloso, M.P. [Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Santos, M.H., E-mail: poliany.santos@gmail.com [Phytochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Unifal-MG (Brazil); Schneedorf, J.M., E-mail: zemasfs@gmail.com [Biochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Exact Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Unifal-MG, R. Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 700, 37130-000 Alfenas, MG (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The binding interaction between mangiferin (MGF), which a natural xanthone isolated from mangoes, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied with absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling. The data were analyzed to assess the binding mechanism, effect of pH and ionic strength, conformational changes in the protein and electrical charge transfer involved. The MGF-BSA complex exhibited positive cooperativity with a 1:1 stoichiometry (K{sub d}=0.38 mmol L{sup -1}) for the first binding site and a non-saturable binding at high ligand concentrations. Furthermore, the data also suggest an increase in drug bioavailability in the acidic region and relatively low ionic strength values, which are close to physiological levels. The data suggest a specific electrostatic interaction together with hydrophobic effects and H-bonding displayed in MGF binding to the BSA IIA subdomain. Synchronous fluorescence spectra indicate that there are conformational changes in the polypeptide backbone upon ligand binding. Cyclic voltammetry indicates that there is an irreversible charge transfer between MGF and BSA that is modulated by diffusion on the electrode surface, where two electrons are transferred. These results can help the knowledge of the pharmacokinetic activities of natural or chemical xanthone-based drugs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MGF-BSA complex exhibited positive cooperativity beyond 1:1 stoichiometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction of MGF with BSA is non-saturable at higher ligand concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The binding was accomplished by H-bonding, hydrophobic and electrostatic forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apparent binding constant for MGF-BSA was 0.38 mmol L{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MGF binds electrostatically to BSA, different from a hydrophobic interaction to HSA.

  16. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  17. Testosterone replacement therapy and the heart: friend, foe or bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Canfield, Steven; Wang, Run

    2016-12-01

    The role of testosterone therapy (TTh) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is still controversial, and it seems will remain inconclusive for the moment. An extensive body of literature has investigated the association of endogenous testosterone and use of TTh with CVD events including several meta-analyses. In some instances, a number of studies reported beneficial effects of TTh on CVD events and in other instances the body of literature reported detrimental effects or no effects at all. Yet, no review article has scrutinized this body of literature using the magnitude of associations and statistical significance reported from this relationship. We critically reviewed the previous and emerging body of literature that investigated the association of endogenous testosterone and use of TTh with CVD events (only fatal and nonfatal). These studies were divided into three groups, "beneficial (friendly use)", "detrimental (foe)" and "no effects at all (bystander)", based on their magnitude of associations and statistical significance from original research studies and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies and of randomized controlled trials (RCT's). In this review article, the studies reporting a significant association of high levels of testosterone with a reduced risk of CVD events in original prospective studies and meta-analyses of cross-sectional and prospective studies seems to be more consistent. However, the number of meta-analyses of RCT's does not provide a clear picture after we divided it into the beneficial, detrimental or no effects all groups using their magnitudes of association and statistical significance. From this review, we suggest that we need a study or number of studies that have the adequate power, epidemiological, and clinical data to provide a definitive conclusion on whether the effect of TTh on the natural history of CVD is real or not.

  18. High YKL-40 serum concentration is correlated with prognosis of Chinese patients with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association between serum YKL-40 and prognosis of breast cancer in a Chinese population. Expression of YKL-40 of 120 Chinese patients with breast cancer and 30 controls (benign breast lesions was measured in tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry and in serum by ELISA. Differences in YKL-40 positivity grouped by specific patients' characteristics were compared using Pearson Chi-square test for rates of intratumoral staining, one-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post-hoc comparison, or two-sample t-test for mean YKL-40 serum concentrations. Factors associated with overall survival were identified by univariate and multivariate cox-regression analyses. YKL-40 was elevated in approximately 75% of Chinese patients with breast cancer. A significantly higher percentage of patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had larger tumor size, higher TNM stage, and/or lymph node metastasis. Significantly higher mean YKL-40 serum concentrations were observed in patient subgroups with invasive lobular carcinoma (P<0.0167, higher TNM stage (P<0.001, and positive lymph node metastasis (P<0.001. The estimated mean survival time of patients with YKL-40 positive tumors was significantly shorter than for patients with YKL-40 negative tumors (55.13 months vs 65.78 months, P = 0.017. Multivariable Cox-regression analysis identified a significant association of overall survival time with YKL-40 serum concentration. Patients with YKL-40 positive tumors had significantly shorter disease free survival times than those with YKL-40 negative tumors. We propose that the potential utility of YKL-40 intratumoral staining or serum concentration as a biomarker for breast cancer is greatest within 5 years of diagnosis.

  19. Characterization of the serum metabolome following radiation treatment in patients with high-grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mörén, Lina; Wibom, Carl; Bergström, Per; Johansson, Mikael; Antti, Henrik; Bergenheim, A. Tommy

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas progress rapidly making response evaluation using MRI insufficient since treatment effects are not detectable until months after initiation of treatment. Thus, there is a strong need for supplementary biomarkers that could provide reliable and early assessment of treatment efficacy. Analysis of alterations in the metabolome may be a source for identification of new biomarker patterns harboring predictive information. Ideally, the biomarkers should be found within an easily accessible compartment such as the blood. Using gas-chromatographic- time-of-flight-mass spectroscopy we have analyzed serum samples from 11 patients with glioblastoma during the initial phase of radiotherapy. Fasting serum samples were collected at admittance, on the same day as, but before first treatment and in the morning after the second and fifth dose of radiation. The acquired data was analyzed and evaluated by chemometrics based bioinformatics methods. Our findings were compared and discussed in relation to previous data from microdialysis in tumor tissue, i.e. the extracellular compartment, from the same patients. We found a significant change in metabolite pattern in serum comparing samples taken before radiotherapy to samples taken during early radiotherapy. In all, 68 metabolites were lowered in concentration following treatment while 16 metabolites were elevated in concentration. All detected and identified amino acids and fatty acids together with myo-inositol, creatinine, and urea were among the metabolites that decreased in concentration during treatment, while citric acid was among the metabolites that increased in concentration. Furthermore, when comparing results from the serum analysis with findings in tumor extracellular fluid we found a common change in metabolite patterns in both compartments on an individual patient level. On an individual metabolite level similar changes in ornithine, tyrosine and urea were detected. However, in serum, glutamine and

  20. Correlation between Serum High Sensitivity CRP Level and Inhospital Cardiac Events in the Patients with Unstable Angina

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    H. Kazerani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Several studies have been performed to evaluate correlation of serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP level with the prognosis of the patients with diagnosis of unstable angina, and by now different results were reported. The aim of this study was to assess correlation between serum hs-CRP level and inhospital prognosis and cardiac events in the patients with unstable angina. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytic study was performed from Sep 2004 till Feb 2006 in Shahid Beheshti hospital. Kermanshah, Iran. Sera were collected from 250 patients for hs-CRP measurement. Exclusion criteria were: acute ST elevation MI, non ST elevation MI, patients with history of recent infection, patients with recent trauma and patients with serum high sensitive CRP level more than 10 mg/lit. Patients were divided into two groups, first group whose serum hs-CRP level was less than 3 mg/lit and second group whose serum hs-CRP level was between 3 and 10 mg/lit. They were followed for recurrent chest pain, arrhythmias, pulmonary edema, acute myocardial infarction and in hospital death. Results were analyzed using x² and t-test. Results: Mean age were 57±7.8 and 58±11.5 years in first group and second group respectively. There was statistically significant difference in some cardiac complications such as dyspnea, duration of hospitalization, recurrent chest pain, CCU admission (p<0.001 and in hospital myocardial infarction (p=0.03, between two groups. Some complications did not have significant difference such as pulmonary edema, cardiogenic shock, arrhythmia, S3, S4 and pulmonary rates .There was no mortality in both groups. Conclusion: According to the results, we can use serum hs-CRP level for risk stratification in the patients with diagnosis of unstable angina. Obviously the patients with high serum hs-CRP level need more attention whether early invasive management help these patients, may be the matter of later studies.

  1. Testosterone and acute stress are associated with fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in African men: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Nicolaas T; von Känel, Roland; Schutte, Alta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Smith, Wayne; Mels, Carina M; Kruger, Ruan; Meiring, Muriel; van Rooyen, Johannes M; Malan, Leoné

    2013-10-12

    Low testosterone, acute and chronic stress and hypercoagulation are all associated with hypertension and hypertension-related diseases. The interaction between these factors and future risk for coronary artery disease in Africans has not been fully elucidated. In this study, associations of testosterone, acute cardiovascular and coagulation stress responses with fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in African and Caucasian men in a South African cohort were investigated. Cardiovascular variables were studied by means of beat-to-beat and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Fasting serum-, salivary testosterone and citrate coagulation markers were obtained from venous blood samples. Acute mental stress responses were evoked with the Stroop test. The African group demonstrated a higher cardiovascular risk compared to Caucasian men with elevated blood pressure, low-grade inflammation, chronic hyperglycemia (HbA1c), lower testosterone levels, and elevated von Willebrand factor (VWF) and fibrinogen levels. Blunted testosterone acute mental stress responses were demonstrated in African males. In multiple regression analyses, higher circulating levels of fibrinogen and VWF in Africans were associated with a low T environment (R(2) 0.24-0.28; p≤0.01), but only circulating fibrinogen in Caucasians. Regarding endothelial function, a low testosterone environment and a profile of augmented α-adrenergic acute mental stress responses (diastolic BP, D-dimer and testosterone) were associated with circulating VWF levels in Africans (Adj R(2) 0.24; pstress, salivary testosterone, D-dimer and vascular responses existed in African males in their association with circulating VWF but no interdependence of the independent variables occurred with fibrinogen levels. © 2013.

  2. Clinical practice patterns in the assessment and management of low testosterone in men: an international survey of endocrinologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis; Anawalt, Bradley D; Wu, Frederick C W

    2015-02-01

    To document current practices in the approach to low testosterone in older men. Given that recommendations are based on low-level evidence, we hypothesized that there would be a wide variability in clinical practice patterns. Members of all major endocrine and andrological societies were invited to participate in a Web-based survey of the diagnostic work-up and management of a hypothetical index case of a 61-year old overweight man presenting with symptoms suggestive of androgen deficiency, without evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPT) axis disease. Nine hundred and forty-three respondents (91·2% adult endocrinologists) from Northern America (63·7%), Europe (12·7%), Oceania (8·2%), Latin America and Caribbean (7·6%), and the Middle East, Asia, or Africa (7·8%) completed the survey. Response rates among participating societies ranged from 4·1-20·0%. There was a wide variability in clinical practice patterns, especially regarding biochemical diagnosis of androgen deficiency, exclusion of HPT axis pathology, and monitoring for prostate cancer. In a man with suggestive symptoms, 42·4% of participants would offer testosterone treatment below a serum total testosterone of 10·4 nmol/l (300 ng/dl). A total of 46·0% of participants were, over the last five years, 'less inclined' to prescribe testosterone to men with nonspecific symptoms and borderline testosterone levels, compared to 'no change' (29·3%) or 'more inclined' (24·7%), P management of lowered testosterone in older men, with deviations from current clinical practice guidelines, and a temporal trend towards increasing reluctance to prescribe testosterone to men without classical hypogonadism. These findings highlight the need for better evidence to guide clinicians regarding testosterone therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. High Plasma TIMP-1 and Serum CEA Levels during Combination Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Are Significantly Associated with Poor Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldulaymi, Bahir; Byström, Per; Berglund, Ake

    2010-01-01

    . The first response evaluation was performed after 8 weeks of chemotherapy. Results: Median plasma TIMP-1 and serum CEA levels did not change significantly during 6 weeks of treatment. High plasma TIMP-1 and high serum CEA levels before treatment and at weeks 2, 4 and 6 were related to poor objective...... associated with poor overall survival; p

  4. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

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    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  5. Testosterone administration reduces lying in men.

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    Matthias Wibral

    Full Text Available Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone testosterone, which has been shown to play an important role in social behavior. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 91 healthy men (24.32±2.73 years received a transdermal administration of 50 mg of testosterone (n=46 or a placebo (n=45. Subsequently, subjects participated in a simple task, in which their payoff depended on the self-reported outcome of a die-roll. Subjects could increase their payoff by lying without fear of being caught. Our results show that testosterone administration substantially decreases lying in men. Self-serving lying occurred in both groups, however, reported payoffs were significantly lower in the testosterone group (p<0.01. Our results contribute to the recent debate on the effect of testosterone on prosocial behavior and its underlying channels.

  6. High serum levels of YKL-40 in patients with systemic sclerosis are associated with pulmonary involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenbaek, C; Johansen, J S; Halberg, P

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: YKL-40, a growth factor of connective tissue cells, is elevated in sera from patients with diseases characterized by inflammation, tissue remodelling, or fibrosis. The aim of the study was to determine serum YKL-40 levels in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to explore any po...

  7. The effects of competition and implicit power motive on men's testosterone, emotion recognition, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongas, John G; Al Hajj, Raghid

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. We investigated the effects of competition on men's testosterone levels and assessed whether androgen reactivity was associated with subsequent emotion recognition and reactive and proactive aggression. We also explored whether personalized power (p Power) moderated these relationships. In Study 1, 84 males competed on a number tracing task and interpreted emotions from facial expressions. In Study 2, 72 males competed on the same task and were assessed on proactive and reactive aggression. In both studies, contrary to the biosocial model of status (Mazur, 1985), winners' testosterone levels decreased significantly while losers' levels increased, albeit not significantly. Personalized power moderated the effect of competition outcome on testosterone change in both studies. Using the aggregate sample, we found that the effect of decreased testosterone levels among winners (compared to losers) was significant for individuals low in p Power but not for those with medium or high p Power. Testosterone change was positively related to emotion recognition, but unrelated to either aggression subtype. The testosterone-mediated relationship between winning and losing and emotion recognition was moderated by p Power. In addition, p Power moderated the direct (i.e., non-testosterone mediated) path between competition outcome and emotion recognition and both types of aggression: high p-Power winners were more accurate at deciphering others' emotions than high p-Power losers. Finally, among high p-Power men, winners aggressed more proactively than losers, whereas losers aggressed more reactively than winners. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of implicit power motivation in modulating hormonal, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes arising from human competition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly Specific Detection of Myostatin Prodomain by an Immunoradiometric Sandwich Assay in Serum of Healthy Individuals and Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Christian; Gottlieb, Jens; Vogel, Arndt; Schmidt, Sebastian; Brandes, Gudrun; Heuft, Hans-Gert; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C.; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Background Myostatin is a muscle derived factor that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Induction of myostatin expression was observed in rodent models of muscle wasting and in cachectic patients with cancer or pulmonary disease. Therefore, there is an increasing interest to use serum myostatin as a biomarker. Methods We established an immunoradiometric sandwich assay (IRMA), which uses a commercially available chicken polyclonal, affinity purified antibody directed against human myostatin prodomain. We determined the serum concentrations of myostatin prodomain in 249 healthy individuals as well as 169 patients with heart failure, 53 patients with cancer and 44 patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Results The IRMA had a detection limit of 0.7ng/ml, an intraassay imprecision of ≤14.1% and an interassay imprecision of ≤ 18.9%. The specificity of our assay was demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography, detection of myostatin by Western-blotting and a SMAD-dependent transcriptional-reporter assay in the signal-rich serum fractions, as well as lack of interference by unspecific substances like albumin, hemoglobin or lipids. Myostatin prodomain was stable at room temperature and resistant to freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy individuals over the age of 55 had a median myostatin prodomain serum concentration of 3.9ng/ml (25th-75th percentiles, 2-7ng/ml) and we could not detect increased levels in patients with stable chronic heart failure or cancer related weight loss. In contrast, we found strongly elevated concentrations of myostatin prodomain (median 26.9ng/ml, 25th-75th percentiles, 7-100ng/ml) in the serum of underweight patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Conclusions We established a highly specific IRMA for the quantification of myostatin prodomain concentration in human serum. Our assay could be useful to study myostatin as a biomarker for example in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, as we detected highly

  9. Consequences of elevating plasma testosterone in females of a socially monogamous songbird: evidence of constraints on male evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Neal, Dawn M; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M; Casto, Joseph M; Parker-Renga, Ian M; Snajdr, Eric A; Duffy, Deborah L; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2004-08-01

    To explore whether selection for testosterone-mediated traits in males might be constrained by costs of higher testosterone to females, we examined the effects of experimental elevation of plasma testosterone on physiological, reproductive, and behavioral parameters in a female songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We used subcutaneous implants to elevate testosterone (T) in captive and free-living female juncos. In captive birds, we measured the effects of high T on body mass, feather molt, and brood patch formation. In the field, we monitored its effects on the timing of egg laying, clutch size, egg size, egg steroid levels, incubation, and nest-defense behavior. Females implanted with testosterone (T-females) had significantly higher circulating levels of testosterone than did control females (C-females). Captive T-females had lower body mass, were less likely to develop brood patches, and delayed feather molt relative to C-females. Among free-living females, the interval between nest completion and appearance of the first egg was longer for T-females than for C-females and egg yolk concentrations of testosterone were higher, but there were no significant differences in estradiol levels, clutch size, or egg size. Incubation and nest defense behavior were also similar between T- and C-females. Our results suggest that selection on males for higher testosterone might initially lead to a correlated response in females producing changes in body mass and feather molt, both of which could be detrimental. Other possible female responses would be delayed onset of reproduction, which might reduce reproductive success, and higher yolk testosterone, which might have either positive or negative effects on offspring development. We found no reason to expect reduced parental behavior by females as a negative fitness consequence of selection for higher testosterone in males.

  10. High serum bicarbonate level within the normal range prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in elderly chronic kidney disease patients

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    Kanda Eiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic acidosis leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD progression. The guidelines recommend a lower limit of serum bicarbonate level, but no upper limit. For serum bicarbonate level to be clinically useful as a therapeutic target marker, it is necessary to investigate the target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range to prevent CKD progression. Methods One hundred and thirteen elderly CKD patients, whose serum bicarbonate level was controlled within the normal range, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study in Ibaraki, Japan. Outcome was defined as a decrease of 25% or more in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or starting dialysis. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients’ characteristics to examine the association between serum bicarbonate level and the outcome. Results Female patients were 36.3%: average age (SD, 70.4 (6.6 years; eGFR, 25.7 (13.6 ml/min/1.73 m2; serum bicarbonate level, 27.4 (3.2 mEq/l. Patients with the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate levels [23.4 (1.8 mEq/l] showed a high risk of CKD progression compared with patients with high serum bicarbonate levels [28.8 (2.3 mEq/l]: adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 3.511 (95% CI, 1.342-9.186. A 1 mEq/l increase in serum bicarbonate level was associated with a low risk of CKD progression: adjusted HR, 0.791 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.684-0.914]. Conclusions In elderly CKD patients, our findings suggest that serum bicarbonate level is independently associated with CKD progression, and that a high serum bicarbonate level is associated with a low risk of CKD progression. A high target serum bicarbonate level within the normal range may be effective for preventing CKD progression.

  11. Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease Reverses Hypogonadism Without Promoting Priapism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Delayed puberty secondary to hypogonadism is commonly seen in sickle cell disease (SCD, affecting normal growth and development. The condition is rarely treated in SCD for fear of inducing priapism episodes. We present a case report of an Afro-Jamaican adolescent male at 16 years of age who presented with symptoms of delayed puberty as well as frequent stuttering priapism episodes. Endocrinological assessment revealed low serum total testosterone levels. Treatment was commenced monthly with testosterone enanthate which resulted in improved symptoms of delayed puberty, improvement in anthropometric parameters while apparently ameliorating priapism episodes.

  12. Association between free testosterone levels and anal human papillomavirus types 16/18 infections in a cohort of men who have sex with men.

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    Hilary K Hsu

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV types 16 and 18 cause invasive cervical cancer and most invasive anal cancers (IACs. Overall, IAC rates are highest among men who have sex with men (MSM, especially MSM with HIV infection. Testosterone is prescribed for men showing hypogonadism and HIV-related wasting. While there are direct and indirect physiological effects of testosterone in males, its role in anal HPV16/18 infections in men is unknown.Free testosterone (FT was measured in serum from 340 Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS participants who were tested for anal HPV16/18-DNA approximately 36 months later. The effect of log10-transformed current FT level on anal HPV16/18 prevalence was modeled using Poisson regression with robust error variance. Multivariate models controlled for other HPV types, cumulative years of exogenous testosterone use, race, age, lifetime number of receptive anal intercourse partnerships, body mass index, tobacco smoking, HIV-infection and CD4+ T-cell counts among HIV-infected, and blood draw timing.Participants were, on average, 60 (+5.4 years of age, White (86%, and HIV-uninfected (56%; Twenty-four percent tested positive for anal HPV16 and/or 18-DNA (HPV16 prevalence=17.1%, HPV18=9.1%. In adjusted analysis, each half-log10 increase of FT was associated with a 1.9-fold (95% Confidence Interval: 1.11, 3.24 higher HPV16/18 prevalence. Additionally, other Group 1 high-risk HPVs were associated with a 1.56-fold (1.03, 2.37 higher HPV16/18 prevalence. Traditional risk factors for HPV16/18 infection (age, tobacco smoking; lifetime number of sexual partners, including the number of receptive anal intercourse partnerships within 24 months preceding HPV testing were poorly correlated with one another and not statistically significantly associated with higher prevalence of HPV16/18 infection in unadjusted and adjusted analyses.Higher free testosterone was associated with increased HPV16/18 prevalence measured approximately three years

  13. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, sh