WorldWideScience

Sample records for high safety level

  1. Safety of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste

    Zaitsu, Tomohisa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    This article introduces current concepts of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste and its safety. High level radioactive waste is physically stabilized by solidifying it in a glass form. Characteristics of deep geologic layer are presented from the viewpoint of geologic disposal. Reconstruction of multi-barrier system receives much attention to secure the safety of geologic disposal. It is important to research performance assessment of multi-barrier system for preventing dissolution or transfer of radionuclides into the ground water. Physical and chemical modeling for the performance assessment is outlined in the following terms: (1) chemical property of deep ground water, (2) geochemical modeling of artificial barrier spatial water, (3) hydrology of deep ground water, (4) hydrology of the inside of artificial barrier, and (5) modeling of radionuclide transfer from artificial barrier. (N.K.)

  2. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.S.; Kindinger, J.P.; Deremer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives results from the first comprehensive level-3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the Hanford tank farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM). At the HTF, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/saltcake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is ∼60 million gal, containing ∼200 million Ci of radioactivity

  3. Confidence improvement of disosal safety bydevelopement of a safety case for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Baik, Min Hoon; Ko, Nak Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Many countries have developed a safety case suitable to their own countries in order to improve the confidence of disposal safety in deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste as well as to develop a disposal program and obtain its license. This study introduces and summarizes the meaning, necessity, and development process of the safety case for radioactive waste disposal. The disposal safety is also discussed in various aspects of the safety case. In addition, the status of safety case development in the foreign countries is briefly introduced for Switzerland, Japan, the United States of America, Sweden, and Finland. The strategy for the safety case development that is being developed by KAERI is also briefly introduced. Based on the safety case, we analyze the efforts necessary to improve confidence in disposal safety for high-level radioactive waste. Considering domestic situations, we propose and discuss some implementing methods for the improvement of disposal safety, such as construction of a reliable information database, understanding of processes related to safety, reduction of uncertainties in safety assessment, communication with stakeholders, and ensuring justice and transparency. This study will contribute to the understanding of the safety case for deep geological disposal and to improving confidence in disposal safety through the development of the safety case in Korea for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

  4. Site safety requirements for high level waste disposal

    Chen Weiming; Wang Ju

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the content, status and trend of site safety requirements of International Atomic Energy Agency, America, France, Sweden, Finland and Japan. Site safety requirements are usually represented as advantageous vis-a-vis disadvantagous conditions, and potential advantage vis-a-vis disadvantage conditions, respectively in aspects of geohydrology, geochemistry, lithology, climate and human intrusion etc. Study framework and steps of site safety requirements for China are discussed under the view of systems science. (authors)

  5. Study on the development of safety regulations for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Wei Fangxin

    2012-01-01

    The development of regulations under Regulations on Safety Management of Radioactive Waste has become necessary as the issuance of it. The regulations related to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste can promote the progress of research and development on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. This paper has present suggestions on development of regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by analyzing development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in foreign countries and problems occurred in China and discussed important issues related to the development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  6. Predisposal management of high level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of HLW. This Safety Guide applies to the predisposal management of HLW. For liquid HLW arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel the recommendations of this Safety Guide apply from when liquid waste from the first extraction process is collected for storage and subsequent processing. Recommendations and guidance on the storage of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor are provided in Refs. For spent fuel declared as waste this Safety Guide applies to all activities subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor and prior to its disposal. Requirements pertaining to the transport of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, and of all forms of HLW are established. This Safety Guide provides recommendations on the safety aspects of managing HLW, including the planning, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of equipment or facilities for the predisposal management of HLW. It addresses the following elements: (a) The characterization and processing (i.e. pretreatment

  7. High system-safety level of nuclear power stations

    Lutz, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    A bluntly worded disquisition contrasting the incidence of death and harm to persons in the chemical industry with the low hazards in nuclear power stations. Quotes conclusions from a U.S. accident study that the risk from 100 large power stations is 100 times smaller than from chlorine manufacture and transport. The enclosure of a reactor in a safety container, the well understood effects of radioactivity on man, and the ease of measuring leakage well below safe limits, are safety features which he considers were not matched in the products and plant of the Seveso factory which suffered disaster. Questions the usefulness of warnings about nuclear dangers when chemical dangers are much greater and road dangers very much greater still. (R.W.S.)

  8. Safety of geological disposal of high-level waste

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    This paper represents an analysis of barrier performance of high-level waste disposal. Advantages of a multi-barrier system in repository are checked through experiments and simulations; thermal restriction, glass-leaching, and nuclide migration in both buffer materials and surrounding rock media. The temperature distribution in a repository is calculated with TRUMP code, then the pit interval is determined according to the temperature criteria of compacted bentonite. The simulation code for glass corrosion, STRAG, is developed on the basis of the experimental findings of the JSS project in which the actual radioactive glass fabricated CEA/Marcoule was used. STRAG is then verified through agreements of the simulated and measured values. Nuclide migration in compacted bentonite is calculated by SWIFT code, and the results show the bentonite capability for retention of nuclides released from waste glass. Migration of cesium isotope in rock is also examined with the small granite core samples, of which results suggest that bulk-granite except for fractures is expected as a porous media. (author)

  9. Criticality safety of high-level tank waste

    Rogers, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing low concentrations of fissile isotopes is stored in underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The goal of criticality safety is to ensure that this waste remains subcritical into the indefinite future without supervision. A large ratio of solids to plutonium provides an effective way of ensuring a low plutonium concentration. Since the first waste discharge, a program of audits and appraisals has ensured that operations are conducted according to limits and controls applied to them. In addition, a program of surveillance and characterization maintains watch over waste after discharge

  10. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories

    Smith, E.D.; Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1985-02-01

    Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

  11. Development of High-Level Safety Requirements for a Pyroprocessing Facility

    Seo, Seok Jun; Jo, Woo Jin; You, Gil Sung; Choung, Won Myung; Lee, Ho Hee; Kim, Hyun Min; Jeon, Hong Rae; Ku, Jeong Hoe; Lee, Hyo Jik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing a pyroproceesing technology to reduce the waste volume and recycle some elements. The pyroprocessing includes several treatment processes which are related with not only radiological and physical but also chemical and electrochemical properties. Thus, it is of importance to establish safety design requirements considering all the aspects of those properties for a reliable pyroprocessing facility. In this study, high-level requirements are presented in terms of not only radiation protection, nuclear criticality, fire protection, and seismic safety but also confinement and chemical safety for the unique characteristics of a pyroprocessing facility. Several high-level safety design requirements such as radiation protection, nuclear criticality, fire protection, seismic, confinement, and chemical processing were presented for a pyroprocessing facility. The requirements must fulfill domestic and international safety technology standards for a nuclear facility. Furthermore, additional requirements should be considered for the unique electrochemical treatments in a pyroprocessing facility.

  12. DOE high-level waste tank safety program Final report, Task 002

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the work on Task 002 was to provide LANL with support to the DOE High-Level Waste Tank Safety program. The objective of the work was to develop safety documentation in support of the unsafe tank mitigation activities at Hanford. The work includes the development of safety assessment and an environmental assessment. All tasks which were assigned under this Task Order were completed. Descriptions of the objectives of each task and effort performed to complete each objective are provided. The two tasks were: Task 2.1--safety assessment for instrumentation insertion; and Task 2.2--environmental assessment

  13. The Structure and Application of High Level Safety Goals. A Review by the MDEP Sub-committee on Safety Goals

    2011-01-01

    One of the aims of MDEP is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are for a specific technology. Therefore MDEP set up a sub-committee to investigate a different approach. This approach was to start with the top level goals and to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier goals that can be seen to be clearly related to the higher level ones. This approach has the potential to greatly assist in the process of harmonisation of regulatory requirements. The paper reviews the high level goals used in MDEP countries and the relevant work of international groups. From these it draws broad conclusions that the form of the framework should be an Hierarchical Structure of Safety Goals, incorporating an extended Defense-in-Depth approach. The basis concept is that the higher level safety goals can then developed, in a coherent and consistent manner, into lower level safety goals and targets that can be applied within the design and operation of reactors, with a clear connection between the different levels. This structured approach is technology-neutral and is sufficiently flexible that it can be

  14. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  15. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Storage Tanks

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions

  16. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of radioactive waste involves preventing the waste from returning from the repository location into the biosphere by means of successively arranged containment measures known as safety barriers. In the present volume NGB 85-04 of the series of reports for Project 'Guarantee' 1985, the safety barrier system for the type C repository for high-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). Safety barriers take the form of both technically constructed containment measures and the siting of the repository in suitable geological formations. The technical safety barrier system in the case of high-level waste comprises: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters, encasement of the waste canisters, encasement of the waste canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of vacant storage space and access routes on repository closure. The natural geological safety barriers - the host rock and overlying formations provide sufficiently long deep groundwater flow times from the repository location to the earth's surface and for additional lengthening of radionuclide migration times by means of various chemical and physical retardation mechanisms. The stability of the geological formations is so great that hydrogeological system is protected for a sufficient length of time from deterioration caused, in particular, by erosion. Observations in the final section of the report indicate that input data for the type C repository safety

  17. Planning exercise for the resolution of high level waste tank safety issues

    Bunting, J.; Saveland, J.

    1992-01-01

    Several conditions have been found to exist within high level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford site which could lead to uncontrolled exothermic reactions and/or to the release of tank contents into the environment. These conditions have led to the establishment of four priority 1 safety issues for the Hanford tanks. Resolution of these safety issues will require the coordinated efforts of professionals in chemical, nuclear, operations, safety, and other technical areas. A coordinated and integrated approach is necessary in order to achieve resolution in the shortest possible time, while ensuring that the steps taken do not complicate the later jobs of vitrification and ultimate disposal. This paper describes the purpose, process, and results of an effort to develop a suggested approach. (author)

  18. Resolution of the ferrocyanide safety issue for the Hanford site high-level waste tanks

    Cash, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue, a process that began in 1990 after heightened concern was expressed by various government agencies about the safety of Hanford site high-level waste tanks. At the time, little was known about ferrocyanide-nitrate/nitrite reactions and the potential for offsite releases of radioactivity from the Hanford Site. Recent studies have shown that the combined effects of temperature, radiation, and pH during more than 38 years of storage have destroyed most of the ferrocyanide originally added to tanks. This has been proven in the laboratory using flowsheet-derived waste simulants and confirmed by waste samples obtained from the ferrocyanide tanks. The resulting tank waste sludges are too dilute to support a sustained exothermic reaction, even if dried out and heated to temperatures of at least 250 C. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been requested to close the ferrocyanide safety issue

  19. High level issues in reliability quantification of safety-critical software

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a consensus method for the reliability assessment of safety-critical digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, several high level issues in reliability assessment of the safety-critical software based on Bayesian belief network modeling and statistical testing are discussed. Related to the Bayesian belief network modeling, the relation between the assessment approach and the sources of evidence, the relation between qualitative evidence and quantitative evidence, how to consider qualitative evidence, and the cause-consequence relation are discussed. Related to the statistical testing, the need of the consideration of context-specific software failure probabilities and the inability to perform a huge number of tests in the real world are discussed. The discussions in this paper are expected to provide a common basis for future discussions on the reliability assessment of safety-critical software. (author)

  20. Safety and radiation protection aspects of the management of radioactive wastes of high level activity

    Candes, P.; Pradel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Appropriate consideration is given in France to safety and protection problems to be solved from the production up to the final disposal of radioactive wastes of high level activity. The first stage of the work consisted in emphasizing the various technical options. Different strategies appear to be possible, taking into account technical, political, and psychological difficulties. This results in evaluating the safety problems to be solved in the framework of those strategies. In this field, the main safety and protection principles do not differ from those which apply to other nuclear facilities. Nevertheless, duration is in most cases a quite different factor (thousands or millions of years). The question is then raised of evaluating the importance to be given to very remote consequences, both at philosophical and scientific levels. As a first result of those considerations, the application of the ''barrier'' concept is recommended. This concept is familiar to safety specialists. Different barriers for which particular problems are listed and evaluated, are defined. Another results with regard to radiation protection principles is to consider that if safety provisions should lead to a containment of radioactive products as efficient as possible, it would not be realistic to consider such a containment as absolute, in particular for disposal durations arising to thousands of years. It is therefore assumed that a limited radioactivity transfer should be taken into account, and its consequences for environment and man be calculated. This is especially true in the study of an appropriate site for final storage, and the study should necessarily include a detailed investigation of the retention characteristics of soil layers, and the implementation of appropriate models giving a sufficiently accurate evaluation of the consequences of transfers, including those related to the effect of various elements after their arrival into the biosphere. The authors review the

  1. Safety and protection aspects of the management of high-level radioactive wastes

    Candes, P.; Pradel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Appropriate consideration is given in France to safety and protection problems to be solved from production up to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The first stage of this work consisted in emphasizing the various technical options. Different strategies appear to be possible, taking into account the technical, political and psychological difficulties. This results in evaluating the safety problems to be solved in the framework of those strategies. In this field the main safety and protection principles do not differ from those applying to other nuclear facilities. Nevertheless, the factor of time is in most cases quite different (thousands or millions of years). The question is then raised of evaluating the importance to be given to very remote consequences, both at philosophical and at scientific levels. As a first result of these considerations, the application of the barrier concept is recommended. This concept is familiar to safety specialists. Different barriers, for which particular problems are listed and evaluated, are defined. Another result with regard to radiation protection principles is to consider that if safety provisions should lead to as efficient a containment of radioactive products as possible, it would not be realistic to consider such a containment as absolute, in particular for disposal lasting anything up to thousands of years. It is therefore assumed that a limited radioactivity transfer should be taken into account, and its consequences for the environment and man calculated. This is especially true in the study of an appropriate site for final storage, and the study should necessarily include a detailed investigation of the retention characteristics of soil layers, and the implementation of appropriate models giving a sufficiently accurate evaluation of the consequences of transfers, including those related to the effect of various elements after their arrival into the biosphere. The authors review the different

  2. Proposal for basic safety requirements regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    1980-04-01

    A working group commissioned to prepare proposals for basic safety requirements for the storage and transport of radioactive waste prepared its report to the Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. The proposals include: radiation protection requirements, requirements concerning the properties of high-level waste units, the geological conditions of the waste disposal location, the supervision of waste disposal areas. The proposed primary requirements for safety evaluation of the disposal of high-level waste in deep geological formations are of a general nature, not being tied to specific assumptions regarding the waste itself, the geological and other conditions at the place of disposal, and the technical methods of disposal. It was impossible to test the proposals for requirements on a working repository. As no country has, to the knowledge of the working group, actually disposed of hifg-level radioactive waste or approved of plans for such disposal. Methods for evaluating the suitability of geological formations for waste disposal, and background material concerning the preparation of these proposals for basic safety requirements relating to radiation, waste handling and geological conditions are reviewed. Appended to the report is a description of the phases of the fuel cycle that are related to the storage of spent fuel and the disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt formation. It should be noted that the proposals of the working group are not limited to the disposal of reprocessed fuel, but also include the direct disposal of spent fuel as well as disposal in geological formations other than salt. (EG)

  3. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. State of knowledge and development for safety assessment

    Sato, Seichi; Muraoka, Susumu; Murano, Toru

    1995-01-01

    In Europe and USA, the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste entered the stage of doing the activities aiming at its execution. Also in Japan, the storage of high level waste began in the spring of 1995. Regarding the utilization of nuclear power, the establishment of the technology for disposing radioactive waste is the subject of fist priority, and the stage that requires its social recognition has set in. There are the features of formation disposal in that the disposal is in the state of confining extremely large amount of radioactivity, and that the assessment of long term safety exceeding tens of thousands years is demanded. The amount of occurrence and the main nuclides of high level radioactive waste, the disposal as seen in the Coady report and in the IAEA standard, the selection of dispersion or confinement and the selection of passive system or long term human participation, the reason why formation disposal is selected, the features of formation disposal and the way of advancing the research, the general techniques of safety assessment, artificial barriers and natural barriers for formation disposal, and the subjects of formation disposal are described. (K.I.) 57 refs

  4. Safety of handling, storing and transportation of spent nuclear fuel and vitrified high-level wastes

    Ericsson, A.M.

    1977-11-01

    The safety of handling and transportation of spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste has been studied. Only the operations which are performed in Sweden are included. That is: - Transportation of spent fuel from the reactors to an independant spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI). - Temporary storage of spent fuel in the ISFSI. - Transportation of the spent fuel from the ISFSI to a foreign reprocessing plant. - Transportation of vitrified high-level waste to an interim storage facility. - Interim storage of vitrified high-level waste. - Handling of the vitrified high-level waste in a repository for ultimate disposal. For each stage in the handling sequence above the following items are given: - A brief technical description. - A description of precautionary measures considered in the design. - An analysis of the discharges of radioactive materials to the environment in normal operation. - An analysis of the discharges of radioactive materials due to postulated accidents. The dose to the public has been roughly and conservatively estimated for both normal and accident conditions. The expected rate of occurence are given for the accidents. The results show that above described handling sequence gives only a minor risk contribution to the public

  5. Levels of safety

    Povyakalo, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    When speaking about danger of catastrophe, it is the first level of danger. Its absence is the first level of safety. When speaking about danger of danger of catastrophe, it is the second level of danger. Its absence is the second level of safety. The paper proposes the way to formalize these ideas and use formal models to construct the states-and-event scale for a given object. The proposed approach can be applied to objects of different nature. The states-and-events scale may be used for transformation of initial objectives state-and-transitions graph to reduce bad classes of states

  6. Progress report on safety research of high-level waste management for the period April, 1981 to March, 1982

    Tashiro, Shingo

    1982-10-01

    Main results obtained on Safety Research of High-Level Waste Management in 1981 were edited. The research tjeme are following. (1) Characterization of vitrified waste. (2) Alternative waste form development. (3) Durability tests for HLW storage facility. (4) Safety evaluation of geologic disposal. (5) Preparation for hot test. (author)

  7. Methodology of safety assessment and sensitivity analysis for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic safety assessment methodology has been developed to evaluate long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and to demonstrate a generic feasibility of geologic disposal. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. A computer code system GSRW thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub-modules for calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, the transport of radionuclides in and through the geosphere, the behavior of radionuclides in the biosphere, and radiation exposures of the public. In order to identify the important parameters of the assessment models, an automated procedure for sensitivity analysis based on the Differential Algebra method has been developed to apply to the GSRW. (author)

  8. A hazard and probabilistic safety analysis of a high-level waste transfer process

    Bott, T.F.; Sasser, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a safety analysis of a transfer process for high-level radioactive and toxic waste. The analysis began with a hazard assessment that used elements of What If, Checklist, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Hazards and Operability Study (HAZOP) techniques to identify and rough-in accident sequences. Based on this preliminary analysis, the most significant accident sequences were developed further using event trees. Quantitative frequency estimates for the accident sequences were based on operational data taken from the historical record of the site where the process is performed. Several modeling challenges were encountered in the course of the study. These included linked initiating and accident progression events, fire propagation modeling, accounting for administrative control violations, and handling mission-phase effects

  9. Implementing Health and Safety Policy Changes at the High School Level From a Leadership Perspective.

    Pagnotta, Kelly D; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Pitney, William A; Burton, Laura J; Casa, Douglas J

    2016-04-01

    Although consensus statements and recommendations from professional organizations aim to reduce the incidence of injury or sudden death in sport, nothing is mandated at the high school level. This allows states the freedom to create and implement individual policies. An example of a recommended policy is heat acclimatization. Despite its efficacy in reducing sudden death related to heat stroke, very few states follow the recommended guidelines. To retroactively examine why and how 3 states were able to facilitate the successful creation and adoption of heat-acclimatization guidelines. Qualitative study. High school athletic associations in Arkansas, Georgia, and New Jersey. Eight men and 3 women (n = 11; 6 athletic trainers; 2 members of high school athletic associations; 2 parents; 1 physician) participated. Participant recruitment ceased when data saturation was reached. All phone interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded-theory approach guided analysis and multiple analysts and peer review were used to establish credibility. Each state had a different catalyst to change (student-athlete death, empirical data, proactivity). Recommendations from national governing bodies guided the policy creation. Once the decision to implement change was made, the states displayed 2 similarities: shared leadership and open communication between medical professionals and members of the high school athletic association helped overcome barriers. The initiating factor that spurred the change varied, yet shared leadership and communication fundamentally allowed for successful adoption of the policy. Our participants were influenced by the recommendations from national governing bodies, which align with the institutional change theory. As more states begin to examine and improve their health and safety policies, this information could serve as a valuable resource for athletic trainers in other states and for future health and safety initiatives.

  10. Implementing Health and Safety Policy Changes at the High School Level From a Leadership Perspective

    Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.; Burton, Laura J.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Although consensus statements and recommendations from professional organizations aim to reduce the incidence of injury or sudden death in sport, nothing is mandated at the high school level. This allows states the freedom to create and implement individual policies. An example of a recommended policy is heat acclimatization. Despite its efficacy in reducing sudden death related to heat stroke, very few states follow the recommended guidelines. Objective:  To retroactively examine why and how 3 states were able to facilitate the successful creation and adoption of heat-acclimatization guidelines. Design:  Qualitative study. Setting:  High school athletic associations in Arkansas, Georgia, and New Jersey. Patients or Other Participants:  Eight men and 3 women (n = 11; 6 athletic trainers; 2 members of high school athletic associations; 2 parents; 1 physician) participated. Participant recruitment ceased when data saturation was reached. Data Collection and Analysis:  All phone interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. A grounded-theory approach guided analysis and multiple analysts and peer review were used to establish credibility. Results:  Each state had a different catalyst to change (student-athlete death, empirical data, proactivity). Recommendations from national governing bodies guided the policy creation. Once the decision to implement change was made, the states displayed 2 similarities: shared leadership and open communication between medical professionals and members of the high school athletic association helped overcome barriers. Conclusions:  The initiating factor that spurred the change varied, yet shared leadership and communication fundamentally allowed for successful adoption of the policy. Our participants were influenced by the recommendations from national governing bodies, which align with the institutional change theory. As more states begin to examine and improve their health and safety policies

  11. A Level 1+ Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the High Flux Australian Reactor. Vol 1

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Industry, Science and Tourism selected PLG, an EQE International Company, to systematically and independently evaluate the safety of the High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR), located at Lucas Heights, New South Wales. PLG performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) to quantify the risks posed by operation of HIFAR . The PSA identified possible accident scenarios, estimated their likelihood of occurrence, and assigned each scenario to a consequence category; i.e., end state. The accident scenarios developed included the possible release of radioactive material from irradiated nuclear fuel and of tritium releases from reactor coolant. The study team developed a recommended set of safety criteria against which the results of the PSA may be judged. HIFAR was found to exceed one of the two primary safety objectives and two of the five secondary safety objectives. Reactor coolant leaks, earthquakes, and coolant pump trips were the accident initiators that contributed most to scenarios that could result in fuel overheating. Scenarios initiated by earthquakes were the reason the frequency criterion for the one primary safety objective was exceeded. Overall, the plant safety status has been shown to be generally good with no evidence of major safety-related problems from its operation. One design deficiency associated with the emergency core cooling system was identified that should be corrected as soon as possible. Additionally, several analytical issues have been identified that should be investigated further. The results from these additional investigations should be used to determine whether additional plant and procedural changes are required, or if further evaluations of postulated severe accidents are warranted. Supporting information can be found in Appendix A for the seismic analysis and in the Appendix B for selected other external events

  12. A Level 1+ Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the High Flux Australian Reactor. Vol 1

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Industry, Science and Tourism selected PLG, an EQE International Company, to systematically and independently evaluate the safety of the High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR), located at Lucas Heights, New South Wales. PLG performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) to quantify the risks posed by operation of HIFAR . The PSA identified possible accident scenarios, estimated their likelihood of occurrence, and assigned each scenario to a consequence category; i.e., end state. The accident scenarios developed included the possible release of radioactive material from irradiated nuclear fuel and of tritium releases from reactor coolant. The study team developed a recommended set of safety criteria against which the results of the PSA may be judged. HIFAR was found to exceed one of the two primary safety objectives and two of the five secondary safety objectives. Reactor coolant leaks, earthquakes, and coolant pump trips were the accident initiators that contributed most to scenarios that could result in fuel overheating. Scenarios initiated by earthquakes were the reason the frequency criterion for the one primary safety objective was exceeded. Overall, the plant safety status has been shown to be generally good with no evidence of major safety-related problems from its operation. One design deficiency associated with the emergency core cooling system was identified that should be corrected as soon as possible. Additionally, several analytical issues have been identified that should be investigated further. The results from these additional investigations should be used to determine whether additional plant and procedural changes are required, or if further evaluations of postulated severe accidents are warranted. Supporting information can be found in Appendix A for the seismic analysis and in the Appendix B for selected other external events refs., 139 tabs., 85 figs. Prepared for Department of Industry, Science and Tourism

  13. Progress report on safety research of high-level waste management for the period April 1986 to March 1987

    Nakamura, Haruto; Tashiro, Shingo

    1987-08-01

    Researches on high-level waste management at the High Level Waste Management Laboratory and the Waste Safety Testing Facility Operation Division of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the fiscal year of 1986 are reviewed in the report. Topics in the three sections are as follows: 1) Non-radioactive research has been continued on Synroc irradiation and modellings of waste form leaching. 2) Research results are described in the section of Safety Evaluation for Geological Disposal on engineered barriers, field tests, safety assessment models, migration, natural analogue, seabed disposal and conceptual design of a repository. 3) Adsorption behaviour of plutonium on leach-containers and migration of leached cesium in a rock column are described in the section of Safety Examination of Vitrified Forms in the Hot Cells of WASTEF. (author)

  14. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  15. Comparison of potential health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative assessment has been performed of the potential long- and short-term health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes. Conservative models and assumptions were used. The assessment suggests that considerations of health and safety will not be significant in choosing among disposal options, primarily because of the need to meet stringent standards in all cases. Rather, the ease and cost of assuring compliance of a particular disposal option with health and safety standards may be a more important factor. 11 references

  16. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: Safety report

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive was involves preventing releases to the biosphere for a long period of time and subsequently limiting the magnitude of releases by means of a series of safety barriers: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of void spacer and access routes on repository closure. The geological barriers are formed by the crystalline bed-rock and the overlying sedimentary layers. In order to perform a safety assessment the behaviour of these technical barriers and of the host rock must be understood and this understanding must be translated into quantitative models which allow calculation of repository performance. For the particular case of a Swiss repository, the main criterion is the individual dose limit of 10 mrem/year, which is given in the safety guidelines of the Swiss authorities. The procedure for the safety analysis involves examination of all scenarios which could give rise to radionuclide release from the repository. Qualitative considerations of both the magnitude of their consequences and their likelihood are used in order to identify a restricted number of scenarios for quantitative analysis

  17. The Competence Promoting by NNSA for Keeping High Level Nuclear Safety: The Corner Stone of the Nuclear Safety Regulation Edifice

    Hu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Facing the fast development of the nuclear power industry and the application of radioactive sources, The MEP(NNSA) is endeavoured to promoting its competency, including: complementing the law system, training and recruiting staff to keep a capable team, constructing the R&D base to keep the basic capability, promoting safety culture both for the industry and the regulator. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, the MEP(NNSA) planned to construct R&D base, in which the Platform Nuclear Safety Monitoring and Emergency Responding, the Platform of Safety Technology of PWR Testing, the Laboratory of Safety Management Technology of Nuclear Waste Verification, the Laboratory of Environmental Radiation Monitoring and the Center of International Cooperation are included. On the other hand, the MEP(NNSA) issued Chinese nuclear safety culture policy declaration in 2014, and carried out a large scale Specialized Action for Nuclear Safety Promotion to promote the nuclear safety culture both for the industry and herself. For the nuclear regulator, It is essential to conduct the competence promoting by both “hardware” and “software”, the former is the material foundation of regulation authority, which will be effectively functioning under the facilitating of the latter. (author)

  18. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  19. Bridging nuclear safety, security and safeguards at geological disposl of high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    Niemeyer, Irmgard; Deissmann, Guido; Bosbach, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Findings and recommendations: • Further R&D needed to identify concepts, methods and technologies that would be best suited for the holistic consideration of safety, security and safeguards provisions of geological disposal. • 3S ‘toolbox’, including concepts, methods and technologies for: ■ material accountancy, ■ measurement techniques for spent fuel verification, ■ containment and surveillance, ■ analysis of open source information, ■ environmental sampling and monitoring, ■ continuity of knowledge, ■ design implications. •: Bridging safety, security and safeguards in research funding and research activities related to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  20. Evaluation of the safety of vitrified high level waste shipments from the UK to continental Europe by sea. Annex 2

    Lange, F.; Fett, H.J.; Hoermann, E.; Roewekamp, M.; Cheshire, R.; Elston, B.; Slawson, G.; Raffestin, D.; Schneider, T.; Armingaud, F.; Laurent, B.

    2001-01-01

    The return of vitrified high level waste arising from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at Sellafield to continental Europe, e.g. Germany, will start around the end of the century. The shipment of the specific flasks will include transportation via the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the North Sea with ships of the Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) classified to the INF 3 standard. The assessment approach is to analyse the severity and the frequency of mechanical impacts, fires and explosions with the potential to affect the package. The results show that there is a high safety margin due to the special safety features of the INF 3 ships compared to conventional ships. The remaining accident probability for a trans-port of vitrified high level waste from UK to the continent is very low. No realistic severe accident scenarios that could seriously affect the flasks and could lead to a radioactivity re-lease have been identified. (author)

  1. Safety principles and technical criteria for the underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to set out an internationally agreed set of principles and criteria for the design of deep underground repositories for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This book is concerned with the post-closure period. Consideration of the operational requirements which must be met when wastes are being handled, stored and emplaced are not therefore included

  2. Progress report on safety research of high-level waste management for the period April 1987 to March 1988

    Nakamura, Haruto; Tashiro, Shingo

    1988-10-01

    Researches on high-level waste management at the High Level Waste Management Laboratory and the Waste Safety Testing Facility Operation Division of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the fiscal year of 1987 are reviewed in the three sections of the report. The topics are as follows: 1) On performance and durability of waste forms and engineered barrier materials, accelerated alpha radiation stability of glass form and Synroc has been investigated and stress corrosion cracking of canister materials was examined under simulated conditions. 2) Sorption of 237 Np on granite samples and behavior of iron during weathering of granites were studied with respect to safety evaluation for geological disposal. 3) Actual waste was transported from the Tokai Reprocessing Plant and hot operation using the actual waste was initiated at WASTEF. (author)

  3. Progress report on safety research of high-level waste management for the period April, 1982 to March, 1983

    Nakamura, Haruto; Tashiro, Shingo

    1983-06-01

    Main results obtained on Safety Research of High-Level waste Management in 1982 were editted. 1) The leaching mechanisms of the vitrified waste were studied to estimate the leach rate in disposal condition. 2) For the safety assessment of storage and disposal of the returning waste resulted from overseas reprocessing, properties of the glass simulating the composition by COGEMA are being measured. 3) In order to assess the integrity of the repository, influence of heat on the characteristics of rock mass and buffer materials was studied in underground drift. And also the retardation mechanism of the leached elements by rock mass was discussed. 4) The construction of Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) was completed, and vitrification test and near-field test using large radiation sources were initiated. (author)

  4. Safety analysis of the transportation of high-level radioactive waste

    Murphy, E.S.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the risk from transportation of solidified high-level waste is being performed at Battelle-Northwest as part of a comprehensive study of the management of high-level waste. The risk analysis study makes use of fault trees to identify failure events and to specify combinations of events which could result in breach of containment and a release of radioactive material to the environment. Contributions to risk analysis methodology which have been made in connection with this study include procedures for identification of dominant failure sequences, methods for quantifying the effects of probabilistic failure events, and computer code development. Preliminary analysis based on evaluation of the rail transportation fault tree indicates that the dominant failure sequences for transportation of solidified high-level waste will be those related to railroad accidents. Detailed evaluation of rail accident failure sequences is proceeding and is making use of the limited frequency-severity data which is available in the literature. (U.S.)

  5. Main technical options of the Jules Horowitz reactor project to achieve high flux performances and high safety level

    Ballagny, A.; Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Bravo, X.; Guigon, B.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it and will offer a quite larger experimental field. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and to maintain a fission research capability in Europe after 2010. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will represent a significant step in terms of performances and experimental capabilities. This paper will present the main design option resulting from the preliminary studies. The choice of the specific power around 600 kW/I for the reference core configuration is a key decision to ensure the required flux level. Consequently many choices have to be made regarding the materials used in the core and the fuel element design. These involve many specific qualifications including codes validation. The main safety options are based on: - A safety approach based upon the defence-in-depth principle. - A strategy of generic approaches to assess experimental risks in the facility. - Internal events analysis taking into account risks linked to reactor and experiments (e.g., radioactive source-term). - Systematic consideration of external hazards (e.g., earthquake, airplane crash) and internal hazards. - Design of containment to manage and mitigate a severe reactor accident (consideration of 'BORAX' accident, according to french safety practice for MTRs, beyond design basis reactivity insertion accident, involving core melting and core destruction phenomena). (authors)

  6. Main technical options of the Jules Horowitz Reactor project to achieve high flux performances and high safety level

    Ballagny, A.; Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Bravo, X.; Guigon, B.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it and will offer a quite larger experimental field. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and to maintain a fission research capability in Europe after 2010. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will represent a significant step in terms of performances and experimental capabilities. This paper will present the main design option resulting from the preliminary studies. The choice of the specific power around 600 KW/l for the reference core configuration is a key decision to ensure the required flux level. Consequently many choices have to be made regarding the materials used in the core and the fuel element design. These involve many specific qualifications including codes validation. The main safety options are based on: 1) A safety approach based upon the defence-in-depth principle. 2) A strategy of generic approaches to assess experimental risks in the facility. 3) Internal events analysis taking into account risks linked to reactor and experiments (eg., radioactive source-term). 4) Systematic consideration of external hazards (eg., earthquake, airplane crash) and internal hazards. 5) Design of containment to manage and mitigate a severe reactor accident (consideration of 'BORAX' accident, according to french safety practice for MTRs, beyond design basis reactivity insertion accident, involving core melting and core destruction phenomena). (author)

  7. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave...... statistics and structure response. The study comprises the influence of interest rate, service lifetime, downtime costs and damage accumulation. Design limit states and safety classes for breakwaters are discussed. The results indicate that optimum safety levels are somewhat higher than the safety levels...

  8. Rethinking high-level radioactive waste disposal: making the safety case

    Parker, F.L.

    1991-01-01

    There is worldwide consensus that geological disposal is best for disposing of high-level radioactive waste; nevertheless, the U.S. program is unlikely to succeed. The program is hampered by its high degree of inflexibility with respect to both schedule and technical specifications that assume the properties and future behavior of a geological repository can be determined and specified with a very high degree of certainty. Geological models, and scientific knowledge generally, have been inappropriately applied. Geophysical analysis can and should have a key role in the assessment of long-term repository isolation; however, geophysial models are being asked to predict the detailed structure and behavior of sites over thousands of years. This is scientifically unsound and will lead to bad engineering practice. The United States has written detailed regulations for repository siting and construction before all of the data are in and is thus bound by requirements that may be impossible to meet. An alternative approach emphasizing flexibility can succeed. It will require time to assess performance, a willingness to respond to problems as they arise, remediation if necessary, and revision of the design and regulations if they are found to impede progress toward the health goal already defined as safe disposal. 6 refs

  9. Probabilistic safety assessment for high-level waste tanks at Hanford

    Sullivan, L.H.; MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM)

  10. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs

  11. Progress report on safety research on high-level waste management for the period April 1989 to March 1990

    Muraoka, Susumu; Senoo, Muneaki; Kobayashi, Yoshii

    1991-02-01

    Research on high-level waste management at the Engineered Barrier Materials Laboratory, Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory and Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research, JAERI in the fiscal year of 1989 are described. The topics are as follows: 1) As for waste forms and engineered barrier material, performance assessment studies on glass and ceramic forms, and corrosion test of carbon steel were continued. 2) In the safety evaluation study for geological disposal, chemical behavior of nuclide in water, nuclide migration and retardation in geosphere were studied. New microspectrometers was developed to analyze the chemical form in rocks. 3) Distribution and migration of uranium in uranium ore were examined as a natural analogue study. (author)

  12. Progress report on safety research on high-level waste management for the period April 1991 to March 1992

    Muraoka, Susumu; Senoo, Muneaki; Kobayashi, Yoshii

    1993-03-01

    Research on high-level waste management at the Engineered Barrier Materials Laboratory, Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory and Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research, JAERI in the fiscal year of 1991 are described. The topics are as follows: 1) As for waste forms and engineered barrier material, performance assessment studies on glass, ceramic and buffer materials were carried out. 2) In the safety evaluation study for geological disposal, behavior of radionuclide in deep underground water, nuclide migration in-situ and natural groundwater flow system were studied. 3) Changes in layer charge of smectite, alteration of uranium mineral and uranium fixation in uranium ore were examined as a natural analogue study. (author)

  13. A Level 1+ Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the High Flux Australian Reactor. Vol 3: Appendices

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The third volume of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment contains supporting information for the PSA as follows: Appendix C (continued) with details of the system analysis and reports for the system/top event models; Appendix D with results of the specific engineering analyses of internal initiating events; Appendix E, containing supporting data for the human performance assessment,; Appendix F with details of the estimation of the frequency of leaks at HIFAR and Appendix G, containing event sequence model and quantification results

  14. Simulation of crash tests for high impact levels of a new bridge safety barrier

    Drozda, Jiří; Rotter, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    The purpose is to show the opportunity of a non-linear dynamic impact simulation and to explain the possibility of using finite element method (FEM) for developing new designs of safety barriers. The main challenge is to determine the means to create and validate the finite element (FE) model. The results of accurate impact simulations can help to reduce necessary costs for developing of a new safety barrier. The introductory part deals with the creation of the FE model, which includes the newly-designed safety barrier and focuses on the application of an experimental modal analysis (EMA). The FE model has been created in ANSYS Workbench and is formed from shell and solid elements. The experimental modal analysis, which was performed on a real pattern, was employed for measuring the modal frequencies and shapes. After performing the EMA, the FE mesh was calibrated after comparing the measured modal frequencies with the calculated ones. The last part describes the process of the numerical non-linear dynamic impact simulation in LS-DYNA. This simulation was validated after comparing the measured ASI index with the calculated ones. The aim of the study is to improve professional public knowledge about dynamic non-linear impact simulations. This should ideally lead to safer, more accurate and profitable designs.

  15. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  16. Technical Insight of the High Level Safety Goal for the NPPs Built in China’S Thirteenth Five-Year Period (2016-2020)

    Shi, G.; Zhan, W.; Mei, Q.; Sun, D., E-mail: shi@snerdi.com.cn [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, SNPTC Shanghai (China)

    2014-10-15

    The “Nuclear Safety Planning” has been published in Oct. 2012 in China, which stipulates the safety goals for the NPPs which will be built in the future. As for the NPPs which will be built in China's Thirteenth Five-Year (2016-2020) and later, the high level safety goal is described as “the possibility of the large radioactive release should be practically eliminated by design”. A thorough investigation has been performed at SNERDI to explore the technical insights of this high level safety goal by using MEDP hierarchical safety goal approach. The definition of large release is proposed accordingly, DID requirements and probabilistic requirements are derived from this high level safety goal. (author)

  17. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  18. Safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for high-level radioactive waste

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1994-11-01

    This report describes safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for HLW, using a GSRW code and an automated sensitivity analysis methodology based on the Differential Algebra. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. The results of sensitivity analyses indicate that parameters related to a homogeneous rock surrounding a disposal facility have higher sensitivities to the output analyzed here than those of a fractured zone and engineered barriers. The sensitivity analysis methodology provides technical information which might be bases for the optimization of design of the disposal facility. Safety analyses were performed on the reference disposal system which involve HLW in amounts corresponding to 16,000 MTU of spent fuels. The individual dose equivalent due to the exposure pathway ingesting drinking water was calculated using both the conservative and realistic values of geochemical parameters. In both cases, the committed dose equivalent evaluated here is the order of 10 -7 Sv, and thus geologic disposal of HLW may be feasible if the disposal conditions assumed here remain unchanged throughout the periods assessed here. (author)

  19. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (open-quotes burpsclose quotes) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity

  20. Auditable safety analysis: High Radiation Level Chemical Development Facility (Buildings 4507 and 4556), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-07-01

    The High-Radiation-Level Chemical Development Facility includes Buildings 4507 and 4556. Building 4507, located immediately to the west of Building 4500N and to the south of Building 4505, is a doubly contained three-level structure constructed in 1957. The most recent use of the facility was for recovery of multi-gram quantities of 244 Cm during the early 1970s and for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel studies in the late 1970s. It has remained in safe standby since 1980. Building 4556 is a below-grade filter pit located to the southwest of Building 4507 and was constructed in 1972. Ventilation from the cells in Building 4507 is passed through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration in this building prior to being exhausted to the Building 3039 stack system. This building remains in operation to support ventilation requirements for Building 4507. This Auditable Safety Analysis (ASA) was developed in accordance with the requirements in Energy Systems Program Description FS-103PD, Safety Documentation, Revision 1. This ASA identifies and screens all hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556. The only hazard not screened out and requiring further analysis following the initial screening process is radioactive material in the form of surface contamination. The results of this ASA indicate that the hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556 do not pose a significant threat to workers, the public, or the environment

  1. Human factors, system safety, and systems engineering in the transportation of U.S. high-level waste

    Price, D.L.; Chu, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board is an independent agency charged with evaluating the technical and scientific validity of the U.S. Department of Energy's program to manage the disposal of spent fuel and defense high-level waste. The Board has continued to emphasize the importance of using a true system approach in designing the waste management system. The Board has recommended the application of basic design disciplines such as human factors, system safety, and systems engineering. A top-level system study needs to be undertaken that focuses on minimizing handling. The analysis must be well done, in a timely manner, and without the inclusion in the analysis of arbitrary and artificial constraints. (author)

  2. Biosphere modelling for the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the Japanese H12 assessment

    Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Naito, Morimasa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Takao; Little, Richard H.; Smith, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    JNC has an on-going programme of research and development relating to the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). In the safety assessment of a HLW disposal system, it is often necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate dose, consideration needs to be given to the surface environment (biosphere) into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and to the associated future human behaviour. However, for a deep repository, such releases might not occur for many thousands of years after disposal. Over such timescales, it is not possible to predict with any certainty how the biosphere and human behaviour will evolve. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, the reference biosphere le concept has been developed for use in the safety assessment of HLW disposal. The Reference Biospheres Methodology was originally developed by the BIOMOVS II Reference Biospheres Working Group and subsequently enhanced within Theme 1 of the BIOMASS programme. As the aim of the H12 assessment with a hypothetical HLW disposal system was to demonstrate the technical feasibility and reliability of the Japanese disposal concept for a range of geological and surface environments, some assessment specific reference biospheres were developed for the biosphere modelling in the H12 assessment using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II/BIOMASS approach. They have been used to derive factors to convert the radionuclide flux from a geosphere to a biosphere into a dose. The influx to dose conversion factor also have been derived for a range of different geosphere-biosphere interfaces (well, river and marine) and potential exposure groups (farming, freshwater-fishing and marine-fishing). This paper summarises the approach used for the derivation of the influx to dose conversion factor also for the range of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and

  3. Role of waste packages in the safety of a high level waste repository in a deep geological formation

    Bretheau, F.; Lewi, J.

    1990-06-01

    The safety of a radioactive waste disposal facility lays on the three following barriers placed between the radioactive materials and the biosphere: the waste package; the engineered barriers; the geological barrier. The function assigned to each of these barriers in the performance assessment is an option taken by the organization responsible for waste disposal management (ANDRA in France), which must show that: expected performances of each barrier (confinement ability, life-time, etc.) are at least equal to those required to fulfill the assigned function; radiation protection requirements are met in all situations considered as credible, whether they be the normal situation or random event situations. The French waste management strategy is based upon two types of disposal depending on the nature and activity of waste packages: - surface disposal intended for low and medium level wastes having half-lives of about 30 years or less and alpha activity less than 3.7 MBq/kg (0.1 Ci/t), for individual packages and less than 0.37 MBq/kg (0.01 Ci/t) in the average. Deep geological disposal intended for TRU and high level wastes. The conditions of acceptance of packages in a surface disposal site are subject to the two fundamental safety rules no. I.2 and III.2.e. The present paper is only dealing with deep geological disposal. For deep geological repositories, three stages are involved: stage preceding definitive disposal (intermediate storage, transportation, handling, setting up in the disposal cavities); stage subsequent to definitive sealing of the disposal cavities but prior to the end of operation of the repository; stage subsequent to closure of the repository. The role of the geological barrier has been determined as the essential part of long term radioactivity confinement, by a working group, set up by the French safety authorities. Essential technical criteria relating to the choice of a site so defined by this group, are the following: very low permeability

  4. Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for high-level waste disposal in crystalline rocks. Final report

    Jobmann, M. (ed.) [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-03-31

    In the past, German research and development (R and D) activities regarding the disposal of radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, focused mainly on domal rock salt because rock salt was the preferred host rock formation. In addition, generic R and D work regarding alternative host rocks (crystalline rocks and claystones) had been performed as well for a long time but with lower intensity. Around the year 2000, as a consequence of the moratorium on the Gorleben site, the Federal Government decided to have argillaceous rocks and crystalline rocks investigated in more detail. As Germany does not have any underground research and host rock characterization facilities, international cooperation received a high priority in the German R and D programme for high-level waste (HLW) disposal in order to increase the knowledge regarding alternative host rocks. Major cornerstones of the cooperation are joint projects and experiments conducted especially in underground research laboratories (URL) in crystalline rocks at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland) and the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) Aespoe(Sweden) and in argillaceous rocks at the URL Mont Terri (Switzerland) and Bure (France). In 2001, the topic of radioactive waste disposal was integrated into the agreement between the former Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom, now Rosatom) and the German Ministry of Labor (BMWA), now Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), on cooperation regarding R and D on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power (agreement on ''Wirtschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit'' WTZ). The intention was to have a new and interesting opportunity for international R and D cooperation regarding HLW disposal in crystalline rocks and the unique possibility to perform site-specific work, to test the safety demonstration tools available, and to expand the knowledge to all aspects specific to these host rocks. Another motivation for joining this cooperation was the

  5. On Optimum Safety Levels of Breakwaters

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results from numerical simulations performed with the objective of identifying optimum design safety levels of conventional rubble mound and caisson breakwaters, corresponding to the lowest costs over the service life of the structures. The work is related to the PIANC Working...... Group 47 on "Selection of type of breakwater structures". The paper summaries results given in Burcharth and Sorensen (2005) related to outer rubble mound breakwaters but focus on optimum safety levels for outer caisson breakwaters on low and high rubble foundations placed on sea beds strong enough...... to resist geotechnical slip failures. Optimum safety levels formulated for use both in deterministic and probabilistic design procedures are given. Results obtained so far indicate that the optimum safety levels for caisson breakwaters are much higher than for rubble mound breakwaters....

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment for a generic deep geological repository for high-level waste and long-lived intermediate-level waste in clay

    Resele, G.; Holocher, J.; Mayer, G.; Hubschwerlen, N.; Niemeyer, M.; Beushausen, M.; Wollrath, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the selection procedure for the search of a final site location for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the comparison and evaluation of different potentially suitable repository systems in different types of host rocks will be an essential and crucial step. Since internationally accepted guidelines on how to perform such quantitative comparisons between repository systems with regard to their long-term safety behaviour are still lacking, in 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection launched the project 'VerSi' (Vergleichende Sicherheitsanalysen - Comparing Safety Assessments) that aims at the development of a methodology for the comparison of long-term safety assessments. A vital part of the VerSi project is the performance of long-term safety assessments for the comparison of two repository systems. The comparison focuses on a future repository for heat-generating, i.e. high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Germany. Rock salt is considered as a potential host rock for such a repository, and one repository system in VerSi is defined similarly to the potential site located in the Gorleben salt dome. Another suitable host rock formation may be clay. A generic location within the lower Cretaceous clays in Northern Germany is therefore chosen for the comparison of safety assessments within the VerSi project. The long-term safety assessment of a repository system for heat-generating radioactive waste at the generic clay location comprises different steps, amongst others: - Identifying the relevant processes in the near-field, in the geosphere and in the biosphere which are relevant for the long-term safety behaviour. - Development of a safety concept for the repository system. - Deduction of scenarios of the long-term evolution of the repository system. - Definition of statistic weights, i. e. the likelihood of occurrence of the scenarios. - Performance of a

  7. The Role of Temperature in the Safety Case for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: A Comparison of Design Concepts

    Joachim Heierli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep underground facilities requires a sparing use of spatial resources on the one side and favorable temperature conditions over the project lifetime on the other side. Under heat-sensitive conditions, these goals run in opposite directions and therefore a balance of some kind must be found. Often the elected strategy is to determine the size of the repository by capping the temperatures in the near-field, thus setting an upper limit to the deterioration of barrier materials. Alternatively, the spatial resources available in the siting area can be used to further reduce temperatures as long as supplementary benefits are returned from doing so. Using analytical modeling of the heat flow in the circumambient rock of a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel, this contribution examines possible obstacles in substantiating the safety case, namely the retrievability of waste during the operational lifetime of the facility, the representativeness of pilot disposal areas for monitoring, and the effect of thermal anomalies underground. The results indicate that there are, amongst the visited criteria, several benefits to the temperature-optimizing strategy over the prevailing space-optimizing concepts. The right balance between saving spatial resources and obtaining optimal temperature conditions is yet to be found.

  8. Radiation and environmental safety of spent nuclear fuel management options based on direct disposal or reprocessing and disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Vuori, S.

    1996-05-01

    The report considers the various stages of two nuclear fuel cycle options: direct disposal and reprocessing followed by disposal of vitrified high-level waste. The comparative review is based on the results of previous international studies and concentrates on the radiation and environmental safety aspects of technical solutions based on today's technology. (23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.)

  9. High-level-waste immobilization

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  10. Nuclear power: levels of safety

    Lidsky, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The rise and fall of the nuclear power industry in the United States is a well-documented story with enough socio-technological conflict to fill dozens of scholarly, and not so scholarly, books. Whatever the reasons for the situation we are now in, and no matter how we apportion the blame, the ultimate choice of whether to use nuclear power in this country is made by the utilities and by the public. Their choices are, finally, based on some form of risk-benefit analysis. Such analysis is done in well-documented and apparently logical form by the utilities and in a rather more inchoate but not necessarily less accurate form by the public. Nuclear power has failed in the United States because both the real and perceived risks outweigh the potential benefits. The national decision not to rely upon nuclear power in its present form is not an irrational one. A wide ranging public balancing of risk and benefit requires a classification of risk which is clear and believable for the public to be able to assess the risks associated with given technological structures. The qualitative four-level safety ladder provides such a framework. Nuclear reactors have been designed which fit clearly and demonstrably into each of the possible qualitative safety levels. Surprisingly, it appears that safer may also mean cheaper. The intellectual and technical prerequisites are in hand for an important national decision. Deployment of a qualitatively different second generation of nuclear reactors can have important benefits for the United States. Surprisingly, it may well be the nuclear establishment itself, with enormous investments of money and pride in the existing nuclear systems, that rejects second generation reactors. It may be that we will not have a second generation of reactors until the first generation of nuclear engineers and nuclear power advocates has retired

  11. Architecture Level Safety Analyses for Safety-Critical Systems

    K. S. Kushal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of complex embedded Safety-Critical Systems across Avionics and Aerospace domains on their underlying software and hardware components has gradually increased with progression in time. Such application domain systems are developed based on a complex integrated architecture, which is modular in nature. Engineering practices assured with system safety standards to manage the failure, faulty, and unsafe operational conditions are very much necessary. System safety analyses involve the analysis of complex software architecture of the system, a major aspect in leading to fatal consequences in the behaviour of Safety-Critical Systems, and provide high reliability and dependability factors during their development. In this paper, we propose an architecture fault modeling and the safety analyses approach that will aid in identifying and eliminating the design flaws. The formal foundations of SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL augmented with the Error Model Annex (EMV are discussed. The fault propagation, failure behaviour, and the composite behaviour of the design flaws/failures are considered for architecture safety analysis. The illustration of the proposed approach is validated by implementing the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA system. The Error Model Annex (EMV is guided with the pattern of consideration and inclusion of probable failure scenarios and propagation of fault conditions in the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA. This helps in validating the system architecture with the detection of the error event in the model and its impact in the operational environment. This also provides an insight of the certification impact that these exceptional conditions pose at various criticality levels and design assurance levels and its implications in verifying and validating the designs.

  12. Comments on a paper tilted 'The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues'

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed

  13. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks - 2005 Report

    Eric D. Steffler; Eric D. Steffler; Mark M. Rashid; Frank A. McClintock; Richard L Williamson; Mili Selimotic

    2005-01-01

    Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material-structure combinations that are ductile. This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure. This report summarizes work progress through the fourth quarter of FY-05 (year 1 of a second 3-year funding period)

  14. Bacteria-foraging based-control of high-performance railway level-crossing safety drives fed from photovoltaic array

    Essamudin A. Ebrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, railway level-crossing accidents have noticeably escalated in an indisputably preposterous manner, this devastating snag opened the floodgates for the frustrating death of a numerous number of the third world’s citizens, especially in Egypt. To tackle with this problem, a fully intelligent control system is required, which must be automated without human intervention. So, in this research, a new proposed level-crossing tracking system is designed and introduced. The system comprises a high-performance induction motor (IM fed from photovoltaic (PV array, the boom barrier (gate with its mechanism – as a load – buck–boost converter, inverter, and two smart PI-controllers. The first one is designed to regulate the duty cycle of the converter to its optimum value required to balance between maximum power point tracking (MPPT and keeping dc-link voltage of the inverter at a minimum level needed to maintain the motor internal torque at rated value. The second PI-controller is designed for speed control of indirect field-oriented vector-control (IFO-VC IM. The proposed design problems of MPPT, dc-link voltage and speed controllers are solved as optimization problems by bacteria-foraging optimization (BFO algorithm to search for the optimal PI-parameters. The simulation test results are acquired when using the battery-less PV-array with and without the proposed controllers. Also, results are obtained when applying several prescribed speed trajectories to test the robustness against PV-irradiance fluctuations and motor-dynamic disturbances. From these results, the proposed intelligent controllers are robust compared to classical Ziegler–Nichols (ZN PI-controllers and also when the motor is directly fed from PV generator without converter.

  15. The JAERI program for development of safety assessment models and acquisition of data needed for assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Matsuzuru, H.

    1991-01-01

    The JAERI is conducting R and D program for the development of safety assessment methodologies and the acquisition of data needed for the assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, aiming at the elucidation of feasibility of geologic disposal in Japan. The paper describes current R and D activities to develop interim versions of both a deterministic and a probabilistic methodologies based on a normal evolution scenario, to collect data concerning engineered barriers and geologic media through field and laboratory experiments, and to validate the models used in the methodologies. 2 figs., 2 refs

  16. Evaluation of the safety of vitrified high level waste shipments from UK to continental Europe by sea

    Lange, F.; Fett, H.; Hormann, E.; Rowekamp, M.; Elston, B.; Slawson, G.; Cheshire, R.; Schneider, T.; Raffestin, D.

    1998-10-01

    This document, prepared in the framework of a study for the European Commission in collaboration with the GRS (Germany and BNFL (United Kingdom), relates to the evaluation of the safety associated to the maritime transport of vitrified wastes from the United Kingdom towards Europe. With this intention, a travel of 1000 nautical miles (1852 km) was considered and a detailed analysis of the boat used by BNFL has been realized in order to elaborate a fault tree, for scenarios able to generate mechanical and thermal stresses significant on the transport packages (type B-packages). (A.L.B.)

  17. The IAEA Biomass programme: reference biospheres for long-term safety assessment of high level waste disposal facilities

    Metcalf, Phil; Crossland, Ian; Torres, Carlos; Crossland, Ian J.

    2002-01-01

    Phil Metcalf and Ian Crossland presented the IAEA Biomass project. Phil Metcalf explained that the Biomass project, begun in 1996, by an international forum organised by the IAEA was a very good exercise for exchanging information through technical meetings and documentation such as Biomass newsletters or CD Rom. Ian Crossland continued by giving a presentation of the Biomass theme 1 that concerns the radioactive waste disposal topic. Its objective was mainly to develop the reference biosphere methodology and to demonstrate its usefulness through some exercises related to the development of a practical set of example biospheres such as: 1. drinking water well, 2. agricultural irrigation, with a well source and 3. Set of natural groundwater discharges to natural, semi-natural systems. Input data would always change to accommodate a given repository simulation and location. Thus this project must be seen as a good exercise for the application of a methodology and should be considered as a good source of reference biospheres that might be viewed as a benchmark for comparison with site-specific safety assessments for a selected number of radionuclides. The main conclusion from the Biomass theme 1 project was that there appears to be an international consensus on preparing generic reference biospheres for postclosure safety assessment but waste management organisations should also consider the specific requirements of regulators and other stakeholders

  18. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  19. Probabilistic safety criteria at the safety function/system level

    1989-09-01

    A Technical Committee Meeting was held in Vienna, Austria, from 26-30 January 1987. The objectives of the meeting were: to review the national developments of PSC at the level of safety functions/systems including future trends; to analyse basic principles, assumptions, and objectives; to compare numerical values and the rationale for choosing them; to compile the experience with use of such PSC; to analyse the role of uncertainties in particular regarding procedures for showing compliance. The general objective of establishing PSC at the level of safety functions/systems is to provide a pragmatic tool to evaluate plant safety which is placing emphasis on the prevention principle. Such criteria could thus lead to a better understanding of the importance to safety of the various functions which have to be performed to ensure the safety of the plant, and the engineering means of performing these functions. They would reflect the state-of-the-art in modern PSAs and could contribute to a balance in system design. This report, prepared by the participants of the meeting, reviews the current status and future trends in the field and should assist Member States in developing their national approaches. The draft of this document was also submitted to INSAG to be considered in its work to prepare a document on safety principles for nuclear power plants. Five papers presented at the meeting are also included in this publication. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. High-level verification

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  1. High potassium level

    ... level is very high, or if you have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency ... Seifter JL. Potassium disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  2. Generation of a novel live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety by introducing attenuating mutations in the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein.

    Nakagawa, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Kento; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Mitake, Hiromichi; Okada, Kazuma; Yamaoka, Satoko; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Masatani, Tatsunori; Okadera, Kota; Ito, Naoto; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Makoto

    2017-10-09

    The current live rabies vaccine SAG2 is attenuated by only one mutation (Arg-to-Glu) at position 333 in the glycoprotein (G333). This fact generates a potential risk of the emergence of a pathogenic revertant by a back mutation at this position during viral propagation in the body. To circumvent this risk, it is desirable to generate a live vaccine strain highly and stably attenuated by multiple mutations. However, the information on attenuating mutations other than that at G333 is very limited. We previously reported that amino acids at positions 273 and 394 in the nucleoprotein (N273/394) (Leu and His, respectively) of fixed rabies virus Ni-CE are responsible for the attenuated phenotype by enhancing interferon (IFN)/chemokine gene expressions in infected neural cells. In this study, we found that amino acid substitutions at N273/394 (Phe-to-Leu and Tyr-to-His, respectively) attenuated the pathogenicity of the oral live vaccine ERA, which has a virulent-type Arg at G333. Then we generated ERA-N273/394-G333 attenuated by the combination of the above attenuating mutations at G333 and N273/394, and checked its safety. Similar to the ERA-G333, which is attenuated by only the mutation at G333, ERA-N273/394-G333 did not cause any symptoms in adult mice after intracerebral inoculation, indicating a low level of residual pathogenicity of ERA-N273/394-G333. Further examination revealed that infection with ERA-N273/394-G333 induces IFN-β and CXCL10 mRNA expressions more strongly than ERA-G333 infection in a neuroblastoma cell line. Importantly, we found that the ERA-N273/394-G333 stain has a lower risk for emergence of a pathogenic revertant than does the ERA-G333. These results indicate that ERA-N273/394-G333 has a potential to be a promising candidate for a live rabies vaccine strain with a high level of safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  4. Technical safety requirements control level verification

    STEWART, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) control level verification process was developed for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) TSRs at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA, at the direction of the US. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The objective of the effort was to develop a process to ensure that the TWRS TSR controls are designated and managed at the appropriate levels as Safety Limits (SLs), Limiting Control Settings (LCSs), Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), Administrative Controls (ACs), or Design Features. The TSR control level verification process was developed and implemented by a team of contractor personnel with the participation of Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) integrating contractor, and RL representatives. The team was composed of individuals with the following experience base: nuclear safety analysis; licensing; nuclear industry and DOE-complex TSR preparation/review experience; tank farm operations; FDH policy and compliance; and RL-TWRS oversight. Each TSR control level designation was completed utilizing TSR control logic diagrams and TSR criteria checklists based on DOE Orders, Standards, Contractor TSR policy, and other guidance. The control logic diagrams and criteria checklists were reviewed and modified by team members during team meetings. The TSR control level verification process was used to systematically evaluate 12 LCOs, 22 AC programs, and approximately 100 program key elements identified in the TWRS TSR document. The verification of each TSR control required a team consensus. Based on the results of the process, refinements were identified and the TWRS TSRs were modified as appropriate. A final report documenting key assumptions and the control level designation for each TSR control was prepared and is maintained on file for future reference. The results of the process were used as a reference in the RL review of the final TWRS TSRs and control suite. RL

  5. Technical safety requirements control level verification; TOPICAL

    STEWART, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) control level verification process was developed for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) TSRs at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA, at the direction of the US. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The objective of the effort was to develop a process to ensure that the TWRS TSR controls are designated and managed at the appropriate levels as Safety Limits (SLs), Limiting Control Settings (LCSs), Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), Administrative Controls (ACs), or Design Features. The TSR control level verification process was developed and implemented by a team of contractor personnel with the participation of Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) integrating contractor, and RL representatives. The team was composed of individuals with the following experience base: nuclear safety analysis; licensing; nuclear industry and DOE-complex TSR preparation/review experience; tank farm operations; FDH policy and compliance; and RL-TWRS oversight. Each TSR control level designation was completed utilizing TSR control logic diagrams and TSR criteria checklists based on DOE Orders, Standards, Contractor TSR policy, and other guidance. The control logic diagrams and criteria checklists were reviewed and modified by team members during team meetings. The TSR control level verification process was used to systematically evaluate 12 LCOs, 22 AC programs, and approximately 100 program key elements identified in the TWRS TSR document. The verification of each TSR control required a team consensus. Based on the results of the process, refinements were identified and the TWRS TSRs were modified as appropriate. A final report documenting key assumptions and the control level designation for each TSR control was prepared and is maintained on file for future reference. The results of the process were used as a reference in the RL review of the final TWRS TSRs and control suite. RL

  6. General Algorithm (High level)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. General Algorithm (High level). Iteratively. Use Tightness Property to remove points of P1,..,Pi. Use random sampling to get a Random Sample (of enough points) from the next largest cluster, Pi+1. Use the Random Sampling Procedure to approximate ci+1 using the ...

  7. High level nuclear wastes

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  8. ALICE High Level Trigger

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  9. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  10. Transformational and passive leadership as cross-level moderators of the relationships between safety knowledge, safety motivation, and safety participation.

    Jiang, Lixin; Probst, Tahira M

    2016-06-01

    While safety knowledge and safety motivation are well-established predictors of safety participation, less is known about the impact of leadership styles on these relationships. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the positive relationships between safety knowledge and motivation and safety participation are contingent on transformational and passive forms of safety leadership. Using multilevel modeling with a sample of 171 employees nested in 40 workgroups, we found that transformational safety leadership strengthened the safety knowledge-participation relationship, whereas passive leadership weakened the safety motivation-participation relationship. Under low transformational leadership, safety motivation was not related to safety participation; under high passive leadership, safety knowledge was not related to safety participation. These results are discussed in light of organizational efforts to increase safety-related citizenship behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety of High Speed Ground Transportation Systems : Analytical Methodology for Safety Validation of Computer Controlled Subsystems : Volume 2. Development of a Safety Validation Methodology

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a methodology designed to assure that a sufficiently high level of safety is achieved and maintained in computer-based systems which perform safety cortical functions in high-speed rail or magnetic levitation ...

  12. Optimal safety levels via social indicators

    Lind, N.C.; Nathwani, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    In the management of natural or technological hazards in a society, the objective should be to serve the public interest in a rational manner. Decisions with regard to risk levels for the public - if they are to be defensible and self-consistent - require an integrated system of values that covers the entire range of hazards under public regulation. The process for setting risk levels (or safety goals) should ideally involve a thorough consideration of cost and benefit of all kinds, supported by explicit quantified comparison on a widely acceptable scale. The purpose of the paper is to show how quantitative criteria within the context of an appropriate framework can be used to guide risk management decisions. Social indicators are time series, statistics that reflect some aspect of the quality of life in a society or group of individuals. Development, validation, and use of social indicators is an important current research activity, as exemplified by journals such as Social Indicators Research. The basic objective is to provide quantitative measures for assessing the rationales and effectiveness of public decision-making. The concept is applicable to the nuclear industry

  13. Current high-level waste solidification technology

    Bonner, W.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Technology has been developed in the U.S. and abroad for solidification of high-level waste from nuclear power production. Several processes have been demonstrated with actual radioactive waste and are now being prepared for use in the commercial nuclear industry. Conversion of the waste to a glass form is favored because of its high degree of nondispersibility and safety

  14. Risk Level Based Management System: a control banding model for occupational health and safety risk management in a highly regulated environment

    Zalk, D; Kamerzell, R; Paik, S; Kapp, J; Harrington, D; Swuste, P

    2009-05-27

    The Risk Level Based Management System (RLBMS) is an occupational risk management (ORM) model that focuses occupational safety, hygeiene, and health (OSHH) resources on the highest risk procedures at work. This article demonstrates the model's simplicity through an implementation within a heavily regulated research institution. The model utilizes control banding strategies with a stratification of four risk levels (RLs) for many commonly performed maintenance and support activities, characterizing risk consistently for comparable tasks. RLBMS creates an auditable tracking of activities, maximizes OSHH professional field time, and standardizes documentation and control commensurate to a given task's RL. Validation of RLs and their exposure control effectiveness is collected in a traditional quantitative collection regime for regulatory auditing. However, qualitative risk assessment methods are also used within this validation process. Participatory approaches are used throughout the RLBMS process. Workers are involved in all phases of building, maintaining, and improving this model. This work participation also improves the implementation of established controls.

  15. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  16. Individual employee's perceptions of " Group-level Safety Climate" (supervisor referenced) versus " Organization-level Safety Climate" (top management referenced): Associations with safety outcomes for lone workers.

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lee, Jin; McFadden, Anna C; Rineer, Jennifer; Robertson, Michelle M

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that safety climate is among the strongest predictors of safety behavior and safety outcomes in a variety of settings. Previous studies have established that safety climate is a multi-faceted construct referencing multiple levels of management within a company, most generally: the organization level (employee perceptions of top management's commitment to and prioritization of safety) and group level (employee perceptions of direct supervisor's commitment to and prioritization of safety). Yet, no research to date has examined the potential interaction between employees' organization-level safety climate (OSC) and group-level safety climate (GSC) perceptions. Furthermore, prior research has mainly focused on traditional work environments in which supervisors and workers interact in the same location throughout the day. Little research has been done to examine safety climate with regard to lone workers. The present study aims to address these gaps by examining the relationships between truck drivers' (as an example of lone workers) perceptions of OSC and GSC, both potential linear and non-linear relationships, and how these predict important safety outcomes. Participants were 8095 truck drivers from eight trucking companies in the United States with an average response rate of 44.8%. Results showed that employees' OSC and GSC perceptions are highly correlated (r= 0.78), but notable gaps between the two were observed for some truck drivers. Uniquely, both OSC and GSC scores were found to have curvilinear relationships with safe driving behavior, and both scores were equally predictive of safe driving behavior. Results also showed the two levels of climate significantly interacted with one another to predict safety behavior such that if either the OSC or GSC scores were low, the other's contribution to safety behavior became stronger. These findings suggest that OSC and GSC may function in a compensatory manner and promote safe driving behavior even

  17. High temperature reactor safety and environment

    Brisbois, J.; Charles, J.

    1975-01-01

    High-temperature reactors are endowed with favorable safety and environmental factors resulting from inherent design, main-component safety margins, and conventional safety systems. The combination of such characteristics, along with high yields, prove in addition, that such reactors are plagued with few problems, can be installed near users, and broaden the recourse to specific power, therefore fitting well within a natural environment [fr

  18. Safety analysis of urban arterials at the meso level.

    Li, Jia; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-11-01

    Urban arterials form the main structure of street networks. They typically have multiple lanes, high traffic volume, and high crash frequency. Classical crash prediction models investigate the relationship between arterial characteristics and traffic safety by treating road segments and intersections as isolated units. This micro-level analysis does not work when examining urban arterial crashes because signal spacing is typically short for urban arterials, and there are interactions between intersections and road segments that classical models do not accommodate. Signal spacing also has safety effects on both intersections and road segments that classical models cannot fully account for because they allocate crashes separately to intersections and road segments. In addition, classical models do not consider the impact on arterial safety of the immediately surrounding street network pattern. This study proposes a new modeling methodology that will offer an integrated treatment of intersections and road segments by combining signalized intersections and their adjacent road segments into a single unit based on road geometric design characteristics and operational conditions. These are called meso-level units because they offer an analytical approach between micro and macro. The safety effects of signal spacing and street network pattern were estimated for this study based on 118 meso-level units obtained from 21 urban arterials in Shanghai, and were examined using CAR (conditional auto regressive) models that corrected for spatial correlation among the units within individual arterials. Results showed shorter arterial signal spacing was associated with higher total and PDO (property damage only) crashes, while arterials with a greater number of parallel roads were associated with lower total, PDO, and injury crashes. The findings from this study can be used in the traffic safety planning, design, and management of urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. High blood cholesterol levels

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  20. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue.

    Campbell, H; Macdonald, S; Richardson, P

    1997-03-01

    To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road traffic casualties. Areas of intervention that could be

  1. Safety management systems and their role in achieving high standards of operational safety

    Coulston, D.J.; Baylis, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Achieving high standards of operational safety requires a robust management framework that is visible to all personnel with responsibility for its implementation. The structure of the management framework must ensure that all processes used to manage safety interlink in a logical and coherent manner, that is, they form a management system that leads to continuous improvement in safety performance. This Paper describes BNFL's safety management system (SMS). The SMS has management processes grouped within 5 main elements: 1. Policy, 2. Organisation, 3. Planning and Implementation, 4. Measuring and Reviewing Performance, 5. Audit. These elements reflect the overall process of setting safety objective (from Policy), measuring success and reviewing the performance. Effective implementation of the SMS requires senior managers to demonstrate leadership through their commitment and accountability. However, the SMS as a whole reflects that every employee at every level within BNFL is responsible for safety of operations under their control. The SMS therefore promotes a proactive safety culture and safe operations. The system is formally documented in the Company's Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) Manual. Within in BNFL Group, the Company structures enables the Manual to provide overall SMS guidance and co-ordination to its range of nuclear businesses. Each business develops the SMS to be appropriate at all levels of its organisation, but ensuring that each level is consistent with the higher level. The Paper concludes with a summary of BNFL's safety performance. (author)

  2. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  3. Determination of performance criteria for high-level solidified nuclear waste from the commercial nuclear fuel cycle: a probabilistic safety analysis

    Heckman, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    To minimize the radiological risk from the operation of a waste management system for the safe disposal of high-level waste, performance characteristics of the solidified waste form must be specified. The minimum waste form characteristics that must be specified are the radionuclide volatilization fraction, airborne particulate dispersion fraction, and the aqueous dissolution characteristics. The results indicate that the pre-emplacement environs are more limiting in establishing the waste form performance criteria than the post-emplacement environs. The actual values of expected risk are sensitive to modeling assumptions and data base uncertainties. The transportation step appears to be the most limiting in determining the required performance characteristics

  4. Construction of knowledge base for geological disposal technologies of high-level radioactive waste Report in 2005. Separate volume 3: Development of safety assessment methods

    2005-09-01

    The results of development of safety assessment methods by JNC after the second report are reported. JNC-Thermodynamic and JNC-Sorption Database of nuclides was prepared and used. The mass transfer process model in rock, the water quality model of underwater and pore water and approach to modeling radionuclide transport in biosphere were improved. The phenomenological nuclide transport model and the effect assessment model of colloid, natural organic compounds and microorganism were developed. On scenario of safety assessment method, the behaviors in the disposal system were expressed by FEP (Features, Events, and Processes). The effects of data uncertainty and model uncertainty were improved by the assessment technologies and the sensitivity analysis technology. JGIS (JNC Geological Disposal Information Integration System) was developed. The main performance of JGIS was shown. It consists of six chapters; the first chapter is introduction, the second chapter the nuclides transport database, the third the safety assessment model, the forth improvement of safety assessment methods, the fifth application of safety assessment methods and the sixth results and summary. (S.Y.)

  5. Statement of Robert Bernero, Deputy Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Accompanied by Robert Browning, Director, Division of High-Level Waste Management

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Mr. Chairman, members of the Committee, thank you for this opportunity to present the views of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the Department of Energy's (DOE) program for disposal of civilian high-level wastes. I have with me Mr. Robert Browning, Director of NRC's Division of High-Level Waste Management. As you know, we are in the pre-licensing consultation phase of the repository program. DOE has the responsibility to conduct site characterization activities to acquire data necessary to evaluate the suitability of each candidate site for an application to the Commission for construction authorization. I would like to discuss some of our concerns about site characterization at the three sites recommended to an approved by the President for characterization as candidate sites. It will then discuss our comments on DOE's Draft Mission Plan Amendment dated January, 1987 and, more generally, our interaction with DOE. Finally, I would like to describe our quality assurance activities. I will be happy to respond to any questions from the Committee

  6. Recommended safety, reliability, quality assurance and management aerospace techniques with possible application by the DOE to the high-level radioactive waste repository program

    Bland, W.M. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Aerospace SRQA and management techniques, principally those developed and used by the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center on the manned space flight programs, have been assessed for possible application by the DOE and the DOE-contractors to the high level radioactive waste repository program that results from the implementation of the NWPA of 1982. Those techniques believed to have the greatest potential for usefulness to the DOE and the DOE-contractors have been discussed in detail and are recommended to the DOE for adoption; discussion is provided for the manner in which this transfer of technology can be implemented. Six SRQA techniques and two management techniques are recommended for adoption by the DOE; included with the management techniques is a recommendation for the DOE to include a licensing interface with the NRC in the application of the milestone reviews technique. Three other techniques are recommended for study by the DOE for possible adaptation to the DOE program

  7. Laser safety at high profile laser facilities

    Barat, K.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Laser safety has been an active concern of laser users since the invention of the laser. Formal standards were developed in the early 1970's and still continue to be developed and refined. The goal of these standards is to give users guidance on the use of laser and consistent safety guidance and requirements for laser manufacturers. Laser safety in the typical research setting (government laboratory or university) is the greatest challenge to the laser user and laser safety officer. This is due to two factors. First, the very nature of research can put the user at risk; consider active manipulation of laser optics and beam paths, and user work with energized systems. Second, a laser safety culture that seems to accept laser injuries as part of the graduate student educational process. The fact is, laser safety at research settings, laboratories and universities still has long way to go. Major laser facilities have taken a more rigid and serious view of laser safety, its controls and procedures. Part of the rationale for this is that these facilities draw users from all around the world presenting the facility with a work force of users coming from a wide mix of laser safety cultures. Another factor is funding sources do not like bad publicity which can come from laser accidents and a poor safety record. The fact is that injuries, equipment damage and lost staff time slow down progress. Hence high profile/large laser projects need to adapt a higher safety regimen both from an engineering and administrative point of view. This presentation will discuss all these points and present examples. Acknowledgement. This work has been supported by the University of California, Director, Office of Science.

  8. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes; Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung von bestrahlten Brennelementen und verglastem HAW

    Ellinger, A.; Geupel, S.; Gewehr, K.; Gmal, B.; Hannstein, V.; Hummelsheim, K.; Kilger, R.; Wagner, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schmidt, G.; Spieth-Achtnich, A. [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer angewandte Oekolgie (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available. With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management. The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed. Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing

  9. Levels of safety satisfactory for commercialization of the breeder

    Ferguson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A brief discussion is presented of the Department of Energy's LMFBR safety program and the safety levels which DOE believes would be satisfactory for the commercialization of the breeder are indicated. Some observations are offered on the Three Mile Island accident and some of its implications are discussed for the LMFBR program

  10. A relational leadership perspective on unit-level safety climate.

    Thompson, Debra N; Hoffman, Leslie A; Sereika, Susan M; Lorenz, Holly L; Wolf, Gail A; Burns, Helen K; Minnier, Tamra E; Ramanujam, Rangaraj

    2011-11-01

    This study compared nursing staff perceptions of safety climate in clinical units characterized by high and low ratings of leader-member exchange (LMX) and explored characteristics that might account for differences. Frontline nursing leaders' actions are critical to ensure patient safety. Specific leadership behaviors to achieve this goal are underexamined. The LMX perspective has shown promise in nonhealthcare settings as a means to explain safety climate perceptions. Cross-sectional survey of staff (n = 711) and unit directors from 34 inpatient units in an academic medical center was conducted. Significant differences were found between high and low LMX scoring units on supervisor safety expectations, organizational learning-continuous improvement, total communication, feedback and communication about errors, and nonpunitive response to errors. The LMX perspective can be used to identify differences in perceptions of safety climate among nursing staff. Future studies are needed to identify strategies to improve staff safety attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  11. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) Level 2

    2001-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider the current state of the art in PSA to be sufficiently well developed for results to be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process-referred to as risk informed regulation. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for the regulatory authority to have a high degree of confidence in the PSA. However, at the 1994 IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997, the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce, in cooperation, guidance on Regulatory Review of PSA. This led to the publication of IAEA-TECDOC-1135 on the Regulatory Review of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Level 1, which gives advice for the review of Level 1 PSA for initiating events occurring at power plants. This TECDOC extends the coverage to address the regulatory review of Level 2 PSA.These publications are intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable level of quality so that it can be used as the

  12. Safety analyses for high-temperature reactors

    Mueller, A.

    1978-01-01

    The safety evaluation of HTRs may be based on the three methods presented here: The licensing procedure, the probabilistic risk analysis, and the damage extent analysis. Thereby all safety aspects - from normal operation to the extreme (hypothetical) accidents - of the HTR are covered. The analyses within the licensing procedure of the HTR-1160 have shown that for normal operation and for the design basis accidents the radiation exposures remain clearly below the maximum permissible levels as prescribed by the radiation protection ordinance, so that no real hazard for the population will avise from them. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development

  14. Analysis of high burnup fuel safety issues

    Lee, Chan Bock; Kim, D. H.; Bang, J. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yang, Y. S.; Jung, Y. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Nam, C.; Baik, J. H.; Song, K. W.; Kim, K. S

    2000-12-01

    Safety issues in steady state and transient behavior of high burnup LWR fuel above 50 - 60 MWD/kgU were analyzed. Effects of burnup extension upon fuel performance parameters was reviewed, and validity of both the fuel safety criteria and the performance analysis models which were based upon the lower burnup fuel test results was analyzed. It was found that further tests would be necessary in such areas as fuel failure and dispersion for RIA, and high temperature cladding corrosion and mechanical deformation for LOCA. Since domestic fuels have been irradiated in PWR up to burnup higher than 55 MWD/kgU-rod. avg., it can be said that Korea is in the same situation as the other countries in the high burnup fuel safety issues. Therefore, necessary research areas to be performed in Korea were derived. Considering that post-irradiation examination(PIE) for the domestic fuel of burnup higher than 30 MWD/kgU has not been done so far at all, it is primarily necessary to perform PIE for high burnup fuel, and then simulation tests for RIA and LOCA could be performed by using high burnup fuel specimens. For the areas which can not be performed in Korea, international cooperation will be helpful to obtain the test results. With those data base, safety of high burnup domestic fuels will be confirmed, current fuel safety criteria will be re-evaluated, and finally transient high burnup fuel behavior analysis technology will be developed through the fuel performance analysis code development.

  15. Analysis of high-pressure safety valves

    Beune, A.

    2009-01-01

    In presently used safety valve sizing standards the gas discharge capacity is based on a nozzle flow derived from ideal gas theory. At high pressures or low temperatures real gas effects can no longer be neglected, so the discharge coefficient corrected for flow losses cannot be assumed constant

  16. Nuclear fuels with high burnup: safety requirements

    Phuc Tran Dai

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam authorities foresees to build 3 reactors from Russian design (VVER AES 2006) by 2030. In order to prepare the preliminary report on safety analysis the Vietnamese Agency for Radioprotection and Safety has launched an investigation on the behaviour of nuclear fuels at high burnups (up to 60 GWj/tU) that will be those of the new plants. This study deals mainly with the behaviour of the fuel assemblies in case of loss of coolant (LOCA). It appears that for an average burnup of 50 GWj/tU and for the advanced design of the fuel assembly (cladding and materials) safety requirements are fulfilled. For an average burnup of 60 GWj/tU, a list of issues remains to be assessed, among which the impact of clad bursting or the hydrogen embrittlement of the advanced zirconium alloys. (A.C.)

  17. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  18. Probabilistic safety analysis second level of WWER-TOI

    Chekin, A.A.; Bajkova, E.V.; Levin, V.N.; Shishina, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of Level-1 and Level-2 gives a comprehensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the safety of the project. The operation of the unit at rated power is considered. As sources of radioactivity in the development of the second-level PSA, nuclear fuel in the core of the reactor is considered. As initiating events, internal initiating events (including de-energizing) are considered, which may arise due to failures of NPP systems, equipment or components, or due to erroneous actions of personnel. In general, an assessment of the level of project safety shows that the WWER-TOI project complies with the requirements of the TOR, as well as all the requirements of modern Russian and foreign regulatory documents in the field of security [ru

  19. Operating safety requirements for the intermediate level liquid waste system

    1980-07-01

    The operation of the Intermediate Level Liquid Waste (ILW) System, which is described in the Final Safety Analysis, consists of two types of operations, namely: (1) the operation of a tank farm which involves the storage and transportation through pipelines of various radioactive liquids; and (2) concentration of the radioactive liquids by evaporation including rejection of the decontaminated condensate to the Waste Treatment Plant and retention of the concentrate. The following safety requirements in regard to these operations are presented: safety limits and limiting control settings; limiting conditions for operation; and surveillance requirements. Staffing requirements, reporting requirements, and steps to be taken in the event of an abnormal occurrence are also described

  20. USE OF AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TO FORECAST DISSOLUTION EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY IMPACTS, AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESSABILITY FROM OXALIC ACID AIDED SLUDGE REMOVAL IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS 1-15

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2005-01-01

    This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters

  1. FLIGHT SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND EVALUATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY LEVEL OF AN AVIATION ENTERPRISE

    B. V. Zubkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to studying the problem of safety management system (SMS and evaluating safety level of an aviation enterprise.This article discusses the problems of SMS, presented at the 41st meeting of the Russian Aviation Production Commanders Club in June 2014 in St. Petersburg in connection with the verification of the status of the CA of the Russian Federation by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO in the same year, a set of urgent measures to eliminate the deficiencies identified in the current safety management system by participants of this meeting were proposed.In addition, the problems of evaluating flight safety level based on operation data of an aviation enterprise were analyzed. This analysis made it possible to take into account the problems listed in this article as a tool for a comprehensive study of SMS parameters and allows to analyze the quantitative indicators of the flights safety level.The concepts of Acceptable Safety Level (ASL indicators are interpreted differently depending on the available/applicable methods of their evaluation and how to implement them in SMS. However, the indicators for assessing ASL under operational condition at the aviation enterprise should become universal. Currently, defined safety levels and safety indicators are not yet established functionally and often with distorted underrepresented models describing their contextual contents, as well as ways of integrating them into SMS aviation enterprise.The results obtained can be used for better implementation of SMS and solving problems determining the aviation enterprise technical level of flight safety.

  2. Work-related driver safety: A multi-level investigation

    AMANDA ROSE WARMERDAM

    2017-01-01

    This program of research explored the organisational determinants of work-related road traffic injury in light vehicle fleets. The landscape of risk management in workplace road safety in Australia and organisational practices that influence safe driver behaviour were investigated. Key findings included that safe driving is influenced by factors at multiple levels, including senior managers, supervisors and individual fleet drivers and workplace road safety is not well integrated within curre...

  3. High-level Petri Nets

    various journals and collections. As a result, much of this knowledge is not readily available to people who may be interested in using high-level nets. Within the Petri net community this problem has been discussed many times, and as an outcome this book has been compiled. The book contains reprints...... of some of the most important papers on the application and theory of high-level Petri nets. In this way it makes the relevant literature more available. It is our hope that the book will be a useful source of information and that, e.g., it can be used in the organization of Petri net courses. To make......High-level Petri nets are now widely used in both theoretical analysis and practical modelling of concurrent systems. The main reason for the success of this class of net models is that they make it possible to obtain much more succinct and manageable descriptions than can be obtained by means...

  4. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  5. Development and Application of Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for meeting the IAEA safety requirements in performing or managing a level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) project for a nuclear power plant; thus it complements the Safety Guide on level 1 PSA. One of the aims of this Safety Guide is to promote a standard framework, standard terms and a standard set of documents for level 2 PSAs to facilitate regulatory and external peer review of their results. It describes all elements of the level 2 PSA that need to be carried out if the starting point is a fully comprehensive level 1 PSA. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. PSA project management and organization; 3. Identification of design aspects important to severe accidents and acquisition of information; 4. Interface with level 1 PSA: Grouping of sequences; 5. Accident progression and containment analysis; 6. Source terms for severe accidents; 7. Documentation of the analysis: Presentation and interpretation of results; 8. Use and applications of the PSA; Annex I: Example of a typical schedule for a level 2 PSA; Annex II: Computer codes for simulation of severe accidents; Annex III: Sample outline of documentation for a level 2 PSA study.

  6. Temperature and level measurements realized for Nuclear Safety Level Improvement of Slovak NPPs

    Badiar, S.; Slanina, M.; Stanc, S.; Golan, P.; Krupa, J.

    2001-01-01

    Process of continual safety improvement in the individual Slovak nuclear power plants has been in progress since the beginning of nineties with the objective to upgrade the safety level of units in operation up to the European standards. In the framework of these activities, safety instrumentation systems with 1E qualification for the control of WWER reactor coolant systems were built and added. Methods for implementation of safety instrumentation systems for monitoring temperature and level in reactor coolant systems in the particular plants in Slovakia are presented showing the objectives and methods of their implementation. (Authors)

  7. High Burnup Fuel Performance and Safety Research

    Bang, Je Keun; Lee, Chan Bok; Kim, Dae Ho (and others)

    2007-03-15

    The worldwide trend of nuclear fuel development is to develop a high burnup and high performance nuclear fuel with high economies and safety. Because the fuel performance evaluation code, INFRA, has a patent, and the superiority for prediction of fuel performance was proven through the IAEA CRP FUMEX-II program, the INFRA code can be utilized with commercial purpose in the industry. The INFRA code was provided and utilized usefully in the universities and relevant institutes domesticallly and it has been used as a reference code in the industry for the development of the intrinsic fuel rod design code.

  8. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  9. High-level radioactive wastes

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  10. Determining supply chain safety stock level and location

    Bahareh Amirjabbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The lean methodology and its principles have widely been applied in supply chain management in recent decades. Manufacturers are one of the most important contributors in a supply chain and inventory plays a paramount role for them to become lean. Therefore, there should be appropriate management of inventory and all of its drivers in accordance with a lean strategy. Safety stock is one of the main drivers of inventory; it protects against increasing the stretch in the breaking points of the supply chain, which in turn can result in possible reduction of inventory. In this paper an optimization model and a simulation model are developed and applied in a real case to optimize the safety stock level with the objective of logistics cost minimization.Design/methodology/approach: In order to optimize the safety stock level while minimizing logistics costs, a nonlinear cost minimization safety stock model is developed in this paper and then it is applied in a real world manufacturing case company. A safety stock simulation model based on appropriate metrics in the case company’s supply chain performance is also provided.Findings: These models result in not only the optimum levels but also locations of safety stock within the supply chain.Originality/value: In this research, two models of cost minimization and simulation have been developed and also applied in a real case company to result in not only optimized levels but also optimized locations of safety stock across the whole supply chain. In addition, the appropriate supply chain performance measurement metrics have been introduced in this paper and the simulation model is developed based on those.

  11. Radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety

    Sobolev, I.; Barinov, A.; Prozorov, L.

    2000-01-01

    With the purpose to construct a radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety and reliable containment, MosNPO 'Radon' specialists have developed an advanced type repository - large diameter well (LBD) one. A project is started for the development of a technology for LDW repository construction and pilot operation of the new repository for 25-30 years. The 2 LDW repositories constructed at the 'Radon' site and the developed monitoring system are described

  12. Behavioral integrity for safety, priority of safety, psychological safety, and patient safety : a team-level study

    Leroy, H.; Dierynck, B.; Anseel, F.; Simons, T.; Halbesleben, J.R.; McCaughey, D.; Savage, G.T.; Sels, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article clarifies how leader behavioral integrity for safety helps solve follower's double bind between adhering to safety protocols and speaking up about mistakes against protocols. Path modeling of survey data in 54 nursing teams showed that head nurse behavioral integrity for safety

  13. RPython high-level synthesis

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  14. Disentangling the roles of safety climate and safety culture: Multi-level effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance.

    Petitta, Laura; Probst, Tahira M; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Ghezzi, Valerio

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing attention to contextual effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and employee safety compliance, no study has yet explored the conjoint influence exerted simultaneously by organizational safety climate and safety culture. The present study seeks to address this literature shortcoming. We first begin by briefly discussing the theoretical distinctions between safety climate and culture and the rationale for examining these together. Next, using survey data collected from 1342 employees in 32 Italian organizations, we found that employee-level supervisor enforcement, organizational-level safety climate, and autocratic, bureaucratic, and technocratic safety culture dimensions all predicted individual-level safety compliance behaviors. However, the cross-level moderating effect of safety climate was bounded by certain safety culture dimensions, such that safety climate moderated the supervisor enforcement-compliance relationship only under the clan-patronage culture dimension. Additionally, the autocratic and bureaucratic culture dimensions attenuated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and compliance. Finally, when testing the effects of technocratic safety culture and cooperative safety culture, neither safety culture nor climate moderated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance. The results suggest a complex relationship between organizational safety culture and safety climate, indicating that organizations with particular safety cultures may be more likely to develop more (or less) positive safety climates. Moreover, employee safety compliance is a function of supervisor safety leadership, as well as the safety climate and safety culture dimensions prevalent within the organization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) level 1

    2000-02-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from the deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider that the current state of the art in PSA (especially Level 1 PSA) is sufficiently well developed that it can be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process - referred to as 'risk informed regulation'. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for regulatory authorities to have a high degree of confidence in PSA. However, at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process in 1994 and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' Meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997 the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce in co-operation a technical document on the regulatory review of PSA. This publication is intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable standard so that it can be used as the basis for taking risk informed decisions within a regulatory decision making process. The document gives guidance on how to set about reviewing a PSA and on the technical issues that need to be addressed. This publication gives guidance for the review of Level 1 PSA for

  16. FLIGHT SAFETY MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AND EVALUATION OF FLIGHT SAFETY LEVEL OF AN AVIATION ENTERPRISE

    B. V. Zubkov; H. E. Fourar

    2017-01-01

    This article is devoted to studying the problem of safety management system (SMS) and evaluating safety level of an aviation enterprise.This article discusses the problems of SMS, presented at the 41st meeting of the Russian Aviation Production Commanders Club in June 2014 in St. Petersburg in connection with the verification of the status of the CA of the Russian Federation by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in the same year, a set of urgent measures to eliminate the def...

  17. Laser safety at high profile projects

    Barat, K.

    2011-03-01

    Laser Safety at high profile laser facilities tends to be more controlled than in the standard laser lab found at a research institution. The reason for this is the potential consequences for such facilities from incidents. This ranges from construction accidents, to equipment damage to personnel injuries. No laser user wants to sustain a laser eye injury. Unfortunately, many laser users, most commonly experienced researchers and inexperienced graduate students, do receive laser eye injuries during their careers. . More unforgiveable is the general acceptance of this scenario, as part of the research & development experience. How do senior researchers, safety personnel and management stop this trend? The answer lies in a cultural change that involves institutional training, user mentoring, hazard awareness by users and administrative controls. None of these would inhibit research activities. As a matter of fact, proper implementation of these controls would increase research productivity. This presentation will review and explain the steps needed to steer an institution, research division, group or individual lab towards a culture that should nearly eliminate laser accidents. As well as how high profile facilities try to avoid laser injuries. Using the definition of high profile facility as one who's funding in the million to billions of dollars or Euros and derives form government funding.

  18. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig

  19. Relative safety profiles of high dose statin regimens

    Carlos Escobar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Escobar, Rocio Echarri, Vivencio BarriosDepartment of Cardiology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Recent clinical trials recommend achieving a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <100 mg/dl in high-risk and <70 mg/dl in very high risk patients. To attain these goals, however, many patients will need statins at high doses. The most frequent side effects related to the use of statins, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and increased levels of transaminases, are unusual. Although low and moderate doses show a favourable profile, there is concern about the tolerability of higher doses. During recent years, numerous trials to analyze the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of statins have been published. This paper updates the published data on the safety of statins at high doses.Keywords: statins, high doses, tolerability, liver, muscle

  20. Safety supervision on high-pressure gas regulations

    Lee, Won Il

    1991-01-01

    The first part lists the regulation on safety supervision of high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on high-pressure gas safety supervision and enforcement regulations about high-pressure gas safety supervision. The second part indicates safety regulations on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement ordinance of safety on liquefied petroleum gas and business, enforcement regulation of safety supervision over liquefied petroleum gas and business. The third part lists regulation on gas business, enforcement ordinance and enforcement regulations on gas business. Each part has theory and explanation for questions.

  1. Removing high-level contaminants

    Wallace, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Using biomimicry, an Australian cleantech innovation making inroads intoChinas's industrial sector offers multiple benefits to miners and processors in Australia. Stephen Shelley, the executive chairman of Creative Water Technology (CWT), was on hand at a recent trade show to explain how his Melbourne company has developed world-class techniques in zero liquid discharge and fractional crystallization of minerals to apply to a wide range of water treatment and recycling applications. “Most existing technologies operate with high energy distillation, filters or biological processing. CWT's appliance uses a low temperature, thermal distillation process known as adiabatic recovery to desalinate, dewater and/or recycle highly saline and highly contaminated waste water,” said Shelley. The technology has been specifically designed to handle the high levels of contaminant that alternative technologies struggle to process, with proven water quality results for feed water samples with TDS levels over 300,000ppm converted to clean water with less than 20ppm. Comparatively, reverse osmosis struggles to process contaminant levels over 70,000ppm effectively. “CWT is able to reclaim up to 97% clean usable water and up to 100% of the contaminants contained in the feed water,” said Shelley, adding that soluble and insoluble contaminants are separately extracted and dried for sale or re-use. In industrial applications CWT has successfully processed feed water with contaminant levels over 650,000 mg/1- without the use of chemicals. “The technology would be suitable for companies in oil exploration and production, mining, smelting, biofuels, textiles and the agricultural and food production sectors,” said Shelley. When compared to a conventional desalination plant, the CWT system is able to capture the value in the brine that most plants discard, not only from the salt but the additional water it contains. “If you recover those two commodities... then you

  2. High level white noise generator

    Borkowski, C.J.; Blalock, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application

  3. High level white noise generator

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  4. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  5. Safety level assessment in the production environment using Fuzzy logic

    2012-05-01

    Conclusion: The application of the proposed method can reveal which safety items and factors are most important in improving workers safety, and therefore decide where to concentrate resources in order to improve the safety of the work environment.

  6. Demonstration tests for low level radioactive waste packaging safety

    Nagano, I.; Shimura, S.; Miki, T.; Tamamura, T.; Kunitomi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The transport packaging for low level radioactive waste (so-called the LLW packaging) has been developed to be utilized for transportation of LLW in 200 liter-drums from Japanese nuclear power stations to the LLW Disposal Center at Rokkashomura in Aomori Prefecture. Transportation is expected to start from December in 1992. We will explain the brief history of the development, technical features and specifications as well as two kinds of safety demonstration tests, namely one is '1.2 meter free drop test' and the other is 'ISO container standard test'. (J.P.N.)

  7. Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Safety Basis and Approach

    David Petti; Jim Kinsey; Dave Alberstein

    2014-01-01

    Various international efforts are underway to assess the safety of advanced nuclear reactor designs. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency has recently held its first Consultancy Meeting on a new cooperative research program on high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) safety. Furthermore, the Generation IV International Forum Reactor Safety Working Group has recently developed a methodology, called the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology, for use in Generation IV advanced reactor technology development, design, and design review. A risk and safety assessment white paper is under development with respect to the Very High Temperature Reactor to pilot the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology and to demonstrate its validity and feasibility. To support such efforts, this information paper on the modular HTGR safety basis and approach has been prepared. The paper provides a summary level introduction to HTGR history, public safety objectives, inherent and passive safety features, radionuclide release barriers, functional safety approach, and risk-informed safety approach. The information in this paper is intended to further the understanding of the modular HTGR safety approach. The paper gives those involved in the assessment of advanced reactor designs an opportunity to assess an advanced design that has already received extensive review by regulatory authorities and to judge the utility of recently proposed new methods for advanced reactor safety assessment such as the Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology.

  8. Safety Standards Plan for Middlesex County Vocational & Technical High Schools.

    Sommer, Cy

    This vocational education safety standards plan outlines rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Education of Middlesex County Vocational and Technical High Schools. The first of eleven chapters presents demographics and a safety organization table for Middlesex County Vocational and Technical Schools. In chapter 2, six safety program…

  9. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    2012-06-07

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a 2- day forum focused on safety issues related to... the Next Level,'' will be chaired by NTSB Chairman Deborah A. P. Hersman and all five Board Members...

  10. Safety regulation on high-pressure gas and gas business

    Kim, Du Yeoung; An, Dae Jun

    1978-09-01

    This book is divided into two parts. The first part introduces safety regulation on high-pressure gas, enforcement ordinance on safety regulation about high-pressure gas and enforcement regulation on safety regulation about high-pressure gas. The second part indicates regulations on gas business such as general rules, gas business gas supplies, using land, supervision, supple mentary rules and penalty. It has two appendixes on expected questions and questions during last years.

  11. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  12. Comparing performance level estimation of safety functions in three distributed structures

    Hietikko, Marita; Malm, Timo; Saha, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    The capability of a machine control system to perform a safety function is expressed using performance levels (PL). This paper presents the results of a study where PL estimation was carried out for a safety function implemented using three different distributed control system structures. Challenges relating to the process of estimating PLs for safety related distributed machine control functions are highlighted. One of these examines the use of different cabling schemes in the implementation of a safety function and its effect on the PL evaluation. The safety function used as a generic example in PL calculations relates to a mobile work machine. It is a safety stop function where different technologies (electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic) can be utilized. It was detected that by replacing analogue cables with digital communication the system structure becomes simpler with less number of failing components, which can better the PL of the safety function. - Highlights: • Integration in distributed systems enables systems with less components. • It offers high reliability and diagnostic properties. • Analogue signals create uncertainty in signal reliability and difficult diagnostics

  13. The approaches of safety design and safety evaluation at HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor)

    Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saikusa, Akio; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Tochio, Daisuke; Honma, Fumitaka; Tachibana, Yukio; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Kawasaki, Kozo; Baba, Osamu

    2006-06-01

    Gas Cooled Reactor has long history of nuclear development, and High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has been expected that it can be supply high temperature energy to chemical industry and to power generation from the points of view of the safety, the efficiency, the environment and the economy. The HTGR design is tried to installed passive safety equipment. The current licensing review guideline was made for a Low Water Reactor (LWR) on safety evaluation therefore if it would be directly utilized in the HTGR it needs the special consideration for the HTGR. This paper describes that investigation result of the safety design and the safety evaluation traditions for the HTGR, comparison the safety design and safety evaluation feature for the HTGT with it's the LWR, and reflection for next HTGR based on HTTR operational experiment. (author)

  14. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  15. Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system

    Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper

  16. Safety design philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    Katanishi, Shoji; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing design studies of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). The original safety design philosophy has also been discussed and fixed for the GTHTR300. One of the unique feature of the safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is that a depressurization accident is postulated as a design basis accident in order to show the high level of safety characteristics, though its probability of occurrence is much lower than the probability range of design basis accident. Another feature of safety design is to adopt a double confinement that is one of the original concepts for the GTHTR300. By using a double confinement, a feasibility of safety design without containment vessel was clarified even in case of a depressurization accident. This article describes the safety design philosophy and some results of preliminary evaluations which were conducted in order to clarify the feasibility of original safety design of the GTHTR300. (author)

  17. The relationship between patient safety climate and occupational safety climate in healthcare - A multi-level investigation.

    Pousette, Anders; Larsman, Pernilla; Eklöf, Mats; Törner, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Patient safety climate/culture is attracting increasing research interest, but there is little research on its relation with organizational climates regarding other target domains. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient safety climate and occupational safety climate in healthcare. The climates were assessed using two questionnaires: Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and Nordic Occupational Safety Climate Questionnaire. The final sample consisted of 1154 nurses, 886 assistant nurses, and 324 physicians, organized in 150 work units, within hospitals (117units), primary healthcare (5units) and elderly care (28units) in western Sweden, which represented 56% of the original sample contacted. Within each type of safety climate, two global dimensions were confirmed in a higher order factor analysis; one with an external focus relative the own unit, and one with an internal focus. Two methods were used to estimate the covariation between the global climate dimensions, in order to minimize the influence of bias from common method variance. First multilevel analysis was used for partitioning variances and covariances in a within unit part (individual level) and a between unit part (unit level). Second, a split sample technique was used to calculate unit level correlations based on aggregated observations from different respondents. Both methods showed associations similar in strength between the patient safety climate and the occupational safety climate domains. The results indicated that patient safety climate and occupational safety climate are strongly positively related at the unit level, and that the same organizational processes may be important for the development of both types of organizational climate. Safety improvement interventions should not be separated in different organizational processes, but be planned so that both patient safety and staff safety are considered concomitantly. Copyright © 2017 National Safety

  18. Predisposal management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    2003-01-01

    considered in this publication begins with the refining and conversion of uranium concentrates. Recommendations on the management of radioactive waste from the mining and milling of uranium and thorium ores are provided. Some parts of the nuclear fuel cycle generate both high level waste and LLW. The management of high level waste itself generates LLW. The predisposal management of this LLW is included in the scope of this Safety Guide. Recommendations on the predisposal management of high level waste are provided. The recommendations in this Safety Guide primarily concern complex management activities for LLW. The regulatory body should decide which parts of this Safety Guide are relevant and appropriate for particular circumstances, and the extent to which the recommendations and guidance apply. This Safety Guide provides only introductory material on the transport and storage of LLW. Requirements and recommendations are provided in Refs. There may be non-radiological hazards associated with the predisposal management of LLW. Some guidance is given on the safety measures to be taken against non-radiological hazards if they have potential consequences for radiation safety. However, detailed recommendations are beyond the scope of this Safety Guide. The user should seek guidance from the regulatory body in the areas of health and safety and environmental protection

  19. Safety analysis of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    Shimazu, Akira; Morimoto, Toshio

    1975-01-01

    In recent years, in order to satisfy the social requirements of environment and safety and also to cope with the current energy stringency, the installation of safe nuclear power plants is indispensable. Herein, safety analysis and evaluation to confirm quantitatively the safety design of a nuclear power plant become more and more important. The safety analysis and its methods for a high temperature gas-cooled reactor are described, with emphasis placed on the practices by Fuji Electric Manufacturing Co. Fundamental rule of securing plant safety ; safety analysis in normal operation regarding plant dynamic characteristics and radioactivity evaluation ; and safety analysis at the time of accidents regarding plant response to the accidents and radioactivity evaluation are explained. (Mori, K.)

  20. High safety in the mining industry

    1987-08-01

    Presents an interview in question and answer format with the deputy chairman of Gosgortekhnadzor (Committee for Supervision of Industrial Work Safety and Mining Supervision) in which he discusses two recent fatal accidents in the Yasinovskaya-Glubokaya and Chaikino coal mines and identifies areas where safety needs to be improved (more automation, protective devices, ventilation etc.). Discusses the particular problems involved with deep mining (20% of mines are now deeper than 700 m and 27 mines are deeper than 1000 m), such as fires, dust, methane, rock falls, insufficient maintenance and strata control and poor ventilation. Confirms that a large number of accidents is due to poor organization and stresses the fact the coal industry must be subjected to perestroika (restructuring) as much as other areas of society.

  1. Advances in Predictive Toxicology for Discovery Safety through High Content Screening.

    Persson, Mikael; Hornberg, Jorrit J

    2016-12-19

    High content screening enables parallel acquisition of multiple molecular and cellular readouts. In particular the predictive toxicology field has progressed from the advances in high content screening, as more refined end points that report on cellular health can be studied in combination, at the single cell level, and in relatively high throughput. Here, we discuss how high content screening has become an essential tool for Discovery Safety, the discipline that integrates safety and toxicology in the drug discovery process to identify and mitigate safety concerns with the aim to design drug candidates with a superior safety profile. In addition to customized mechanistic assays to evaluate target safety, routine screening assays can be applied to identify risk factors for frequently occurring organ toxicities. We discuss the current state of high content screening assays for hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and genotoxicity, including recent developments and current advances.

  2. The SISIFO project: Seismic Safety at High Schools

    Peruzza, Laura; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Dusi, Alberto; Grimaz, Stefano; Malisan, Petra; Saraò, Angela; Mucciarelli, Marco

    2014-05-01

    For many years, the Italian scientific community has faced the problem of the reduction of earthquake risk using innovative educational techniques. Recent earthquakes in Italy and around the world have clearly demonstrated that seismic codes alone are not able to guarantee an effective mitigation of risk. After the tragic events of San Giuliano di Puglia (2002), where an earthquake killed 26 school children, special attention was paid in Italy to the seismic safety of schools, but mainly with respect to structural aspects. Little attention has been devoted to the possible and even significant damage to non-structural elements (collapse of ceilings, tipping of cabinets and shelving, obstruction of escape routes, etc..). Students and teachers trained on these aspects may lead to a very effective preventive vigilance. Since 2002, the project EDURISK (www.edurisk.it) proposed educational tools and training programs for schools, at primary and middle levels. More recently, a nationwide campaign aimed to adults (www.iononrischio.it) was launched with the extensive support of civil protection volounteers. There was a gap for high schools, and Project SISIFO was designed to fill this void and in particular for those schools with technical/scientific curricula. SISIFO (https://sites.google.com/site/ogssisifo/) is a multidisciplinary initiative, aimed at the diffusion of scientific culture for achieving seismic safety in schools, replicable and can be structured in training the next several years. The students, helped by their teachers and by experts from scientific institutions, followed a course on specialized training on earthquake safety. The trial began in North-East Italy, with a combination of hands-on activities for the measurement of earthquakes with low-cost instruments and lectures with experts in various disciplines, accompanied by specifically designed teaching materials, both on paper and digital format. We intend to raise teachers and students knowledge of the

  3. Safety design philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    Katanishi, Shoji; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing design studies of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). The original safety design philosophy has also been discussed and fixed for the GTHTR300 based on the experience of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of JAERI which is the first High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan. One of the unique feature of the safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is that a depressurization accident induced by a large pipe break is postulated as a design basis accident in order to show the high level of safety characteristics, though its probability of occurrence is lower than the probability range of design basis accident. Another feature of safety design is to adopt a double confinement that is one of the original concepts for the GTHTR300. By using a double confinement, a feasibility of safety design without containment vessel was clarified even in case of the depressurization accident. The safety design philosophies for passive cooling system, reactor shutdown system, and so on were determined. The methodology for the safety evaluation, such as safety criteria and selection of events to be evaluated by using estimation of probability of occurrence, were also discussed and determined. This article describes the safety design philosophy and some results of preliminary evaluations which were conducted in order to clarify the feasibility of original safety design of the GTHTR300. The present study is entrusted from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  4. High-level radioactive waste management

    Schneider, K.J.; Liikala, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the U.S. will be converted to an encapsulated solid and shipped to a Federal repository for retrievable storage for extended periods. Meanwhile the development of concepts for ultimate disposal of the waste which the Federal Government would manage is being actively pursued. A number of promising concepts have been proposed, for which there is high confidence that one or more will be suitable for long-term, ultimate disposal. Initial evaluations of technical (or theoretical) feasibility for the various waste disposal concepts show that in the broad category, (i.e., geologic, seabed, ice sheet, extraterrestrial, and transmutation) all meet the criteria for judging feasibility, though a few alternatives within these categories do not. Preliminary cost estimates show that, although many millions of dollars may be required, the cost for even the most exotic concepts is small relative to the total cost of electric power generation. For example, the cost estimates for terrestrial disposal concepts are less than 1 percent of the total generating costs. The cost for actinide transmutation is estimated at around 1 percent of generation costs, while actinide element disposal in space is less than 5 percent of generating costs. Thus neither technical feasibility nor cost seems to be a no-go factor in selecting a waste management system. The seabed, ice sheet, and space disposal concepts face international policy constraints. The information being developed currently in safety, environmental concern, and public response will be important factors in determining which concepts appear most promising for further development

  5. Partial Safety Factors and Target Reliability Level in Danish Structural Codes

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hansen, J. O.; Nielsen, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    The partial safety factors in the newly revised Danish structural codes have been derived using a reliability-based calibration. The calibrated partial safety factors result in the same average reliability level as in the previous codes, but a much more uniform reliability level has been obtained....... The paper describes the code format, the stochastic models and the resulting optimised partial safety factors....

  6. Regulatory requirements for demonstration of the achieved safety level at the Mochovce NPP before commissioning

    Lipar, M.

    1997-01-01

    A review of regulatory requirements for demonstration of the achieved safety level at the Mochovce NPP before commissioning is given. It contains licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning; Status and methodology of Mochovce safety analysis report; Mochovce NPP safety enhancement program; Regulatory body policy towards Mochovce NPP safety enhancement; Recent development in Mochovce pre-operational safety enhancement program review and assessment process; Licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning

  7. Treatment of High-Level Waste Arising from Pyrochemical Processes

    Lizin, A.A.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Osipenko, A.G.; Tomilin, S.V.; Lavrinovich, Yu.G.

    2013-01-01

    JSC “SSC RIAR” has been performing research and development activities in support of closed fuel cycle of fast reactor since the middle of 1960s. Fuel cycle involves fabrication and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) using pyrochemical methods of reprocessing in molten alkali metal chlorides. At present pyrochemical methods of SNF reprocessing in molten chlorides has reached such a level in their development that makes it possible to compare their competitiveness with classic aqueous methods. Their comparative advantage lies in high safety, compactness, high protectability as to nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and reduction of high level waste volume

  8. The IAEA's high level radioactive waste management programme

    Saire, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the different activities that are performed under the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) high level radioactive waste management programme. The Agency's programme is composed of five main activities (information exchange, international safety standards, R ampersand D activities, advisory services and special projects) which are described in the paper. Special emphasis is placed on the RADioactive WAste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme which was implemented in 1991 to document international consensus that exists on the safe management of radioactive waste. The paper also raises the question about the need for regional repositories to serve certain countries that do not have the resources or infrastructure to construct a national repository

  9. High-heat tank safety issue resolution program plan

    Wang, O.S.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to provide a guide for selecting corrective actions that will mitigate and/or remediate the high-heat waste tank safety issue for single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This program plan also outlines the logic for selecting approaches and tasks to mitigate and resolve the high-heat safety issue. The identified safety issue for high-heat tank 241-C-106 involves the potential release of nuclear waste to the environment as the result of heat-induced structural damage to the tank's concrete, if forced cooling is interrupted for extended periods. Currently, forced ventilation with added water to promote thermal conductivity and evaporation cooling is used to cool the waste. At this time, the only viable solution identified to resolve this safety issue is the removal of heat generating waste in the tank. This solution is being aggressively pursued as the permanent solution to this safety issue and also to support the present waste retrieval plan. Tank 241-C-106 has been selected as the first SST for retrieval. The program plan has three parts. The first part establishes program objectives and defines safety issues, drivers, and resolution criteria and strategy. The second part evaluates the high-heat safety issue and its mitigation and remediation methods and alternatives according to resolution logic. The third part identifies major tasks and alternatives for mitigation and resolution of the safety issue. Selected tasks and best-estimate schedules are also summarized in the program plan

  10. Radiation safety aspects of high energy particle accelerators

    Subbaiah, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy accelerators are widely used for various applications in industry, medicine and research. These accelerators are capable of accelerating both ions and electrons over a wide range of energy and subsequently are made to impinge on the target materials. Apart from generating intended reactions in the target, these projectiles can also generate highly penetrating radiations such as gamma rays and neutrons. Over exposure to these radiations will cause deleterious effects on the living beings. Various steps taken to protect workers and general public from these harmful radiations is called radiation safety. The primary objective in establishing permissible values for occupational workers is to keep the radiation worker well below a level at which adverse effects are likely to be observed during one's life time. Another objective is to minimize the incidence of genetic effects for the population as a whole. Today's presentation on radiation safety of accelerators will touch up on the following sub-topics: Types of particle accelerators and their applications; AERB directives on dose limits; Radiation Source term of accelerators; Shielding Design-Use of Transmission curves and Tenth Value layers; Challenges for accelerator health physicists

  11. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    Ebert, W.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M andO 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  12. Measuring patient safety culture: an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, van der G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  13. Measuring patient safety culture : an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level

    Smits, M.; Wagner, C.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wal, G. van der; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient

  14. High-level language computer architecture

    Chu, Yaohan

    1975-01-01

    High-Level Language Computer Architecture offers a tutorial on high-level language computer architecture, including von Neumann architecture and syntax-oriented architecture as well as direct and indirect execution architecture. Design concepts of Japanese-language data processing systems are discussed, along with the architecture of stack machines and the SYMBOL computer system. The conceptual design of a direct high-level language processor is also described.Comprised of seven chapters, this book first presents a classification of high-level language computer architecture according to the pr

  15. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    1983-01-01

    This report deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important wastes, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned (immobilized and packaged) high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and, although much of the material presented here is based on information concerning high-level waste from reprocessing LWR fuel, the principles, as well as many of the details involved, are applicable to all fuel types. The report provides illustrative background material on the arising and characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The report introduces the principles important in conditioned high-level waste storage and describes the types of equipment and facilities, used or studied, for handling and storage of such waste. Finally, it discusses the safety and economic aspects that are considered in the design and operation of handling and storage facilities

  16. Handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes

    Heafield, W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with certain aspects of the management of one of the most important radioactive wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. the handling and storage of conditioned high-level wastes. The paper is based on an IAEA report of the same title published during 1983 in the Technical Reports Series. The paper provides illustrative background material on the characteristics of high-level wastes and, qualitatively, their requirements for conditioning. The principles important in the storage of high-level wastes are reviewed in conjunction with the radiological and socio-political considerations involved. Four fundamentally different storage concepts are described with reference to published information and the safety aspects of particular storage concepts are discussed. Finally, overall conclusions are presented which confirm the availability of technology for constructing and operating conditioned high-level waste storage facilities for periods of at least several decades. (author)

  17. Dynamic probability evaluation of safety levels of earth-rockfill dams using Bayesian approach

    Zi-wu Fan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately predict and control the aging process of dams, new information should be collected continuously to renew the quantitative evaluation of dam safety levels. Owing to the complex structural characteristics of dams, it is quite difficult to predict the time-varying factors affecting their safety levels. It is not feasible to employ dynamic reliability indices to evaluate the actual safety levels of dams. Based on the relevant regulations for dam safety classification in China, a dynamic probability description of dam safety levels was developed. Using the Bayesian approach and effective information mining, as well as real-time information, this study achieved more rational evaluation and prediction of dam safety levels. With the Bayesian expression of discrete stochastic variables, the a priori probabilities of the dam safety levels determined by experts were combined with the likelihood probability of the real-time check information, and the probability information for the evaluation of dam safety levels was renewed. The probability index was then applied to dam rehabilitation decision-making. This method helps reduce the difficulty and uncertainty of the evaluation of dam safety levels and complies with the current safe decision-making regulations for dams in China. It also enhances the application of current risk analysis methods for dam safety levels.

  18. The importance of mobile fission products for long-term safety in the case of disposal of vitrified high-level waste and spent fuel in a clay formation

    Marivoet, J.; Weetjens, E.

    2009-01-01

    In Belgium, the possibility to dispose of high-level radioactive waste in clay formations is studied since 1976. In the PAGIS report, which was the first performance assessment of the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in a clay formation and which was published in 1988, the most important contributors to the total dose via a water well pathway were 237 Np, 135 Cs and 99 Tc. Since 1988, several elements that strongly influence the calculated doses have evolved:?the inventory of long-lived mobile fission and activation products in vitrified high-level waste has been improved; the half-life of 79 Se has been re-estimated; substantial progress has been made in the determination of migration parameters of the main fission and activation products and actinides. In recent performance assessments, the actinides and 135 Cs do not significantly contribute to the total dose, as they remain confined in the host clay formation during several millions of years due to sorption on clay minerals. Consequently, the total dose resulting from the disposal of vitrified high-level waste or spent fuel is essentially due to releases of mobile fission and activation products. On the basis of recent waste inventory data and parameter values, the most important contributors to the total dose via a water well are: in the case of disposal of spent fuel: 79 Se, 129 I, 126 Sn, 36 Cl, and 99 Tc; in the case of disposal of vitrified HLW: 79 Se, 126 Sn, 36 Cl, 129 I, and 99 Tc. Important remaining uncertainties are the transfer factors of volatile fission and activation products into the vitrified waste during reprocessing and migration parameters of Se. (author)

  19. Derivation methods for clearance levels and safety assessments for very low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Okoshi, Minoru

    2001-01-01

    The clearance level was evaluated by the dose of concrete and metal when they would be recycled and reused from shallow land burial of radioactive facilities. The state of waste after clearance is not specified, so that we studied large scale of exposure pathways. The parameter values used for safety assessment were determined as the average values under the consideration of natural and social environment in Japan. Propriety of these values was confirmed by a probability analysis. On the safety assessment of very low-level waste disposal facility, the disposer pathway and parameters were determined under the consideration of special site conditions (natural and social environment) and properties of waste. However, the same exposure pathway of them used the same model for external (exposure by sky shine' s ray) and internal exposure. The calculation results of estimated pathway showed 1.2x10 -5 mSv/y the largest dose for the external exposure pathway by sky shine's ray. (S.Y.)

  20. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  1. Other-than-high-level waste

    Bray, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The main emphasis of the work in the area of partitioning transuranic elements from waste has been in the area of high-level liquid waste. But there are ''other-than-high-level wastes'' generated by the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that are both large in volume and contaminated with significant quantities of transuranic elements. The combined volume of these other wastes is approximately 50 times that of the solidified high-level waste. These other wastes also contain up to 75% of the transuranic elements associated with waste generated by the back end of the fuel cycle. Therefore, any detailed evaluation of partitioning as a viable waste management option must address both high-level wastes and ''other-than-high-level wastes.''

  2. Computer codes for level 1 probabilistic safety assessment

    1990-06-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) entails several laborious tasks suitable for computer codes assistance. This guide identifies these tasks, presents guidelines for selecting and utilizing computer codes in the conduct of the PSA tasks and for the use of PSA results in safety management and provides information on available codes suggested or applied in performing PSA in nuclear power plants. The guidance is intended for use by nuclear power plant system engineers, safety and operating personnel, and regulators. Large efforts are made today to provide PC-based software systems and PSA processed information in a way to enable their use as a safety management tool by the nuclear power plant overall management. Guidelines on the characteristics of software needed for management to prepare a software that meets their specific needs are also provided. Most of these computer codes are also applicable for PSA of other industrial facilities. The scope of this document is limited to computer codes used for the treatment of internal events. It does not address other codes available mainly for the analysis of external events (e.g. seismic analysis) flood and fire analysis. Codes discussed in the document are those used for probabilistic rather than for phenomenological modelling. It should be also appreciated that these guidelines are not intended to lead the user to selection of one specific code. They provide simply criteria for the selection. Refs and tabs

  3. Macro-level safety analysis of pedestrian crashes in Shanghai, China.

    Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Junguang; Lee, Chris; Ji, Zhuoran; You, Shikai

    2016-11-01

    Pedestrian safety has become one of the most important issues in the field of traffic safety. This study aims at investigating the association between pedestrian crash frequency and various predictor variables including roadway, socio-economic, and land-use features. The relationships were modeled using the data from 263 Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZs) within the urban area of Shanghai - the largest city in China. Since spatial correlation exists among the zonal-level data, Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models with seven different spatial weight features (i.e. (a) 0-1 first order, adjacency-based, (b) common boundary-length-based, (c) geometric centroid-distance-based, (d) crash-weighted centroid-distance-based, (e) land use type, adjacency-based, (f) land use intensity, adjacency-based, and (g) geometric centroid-distance-order) were developed to characterize the spatial correlations among TAZs. Model results indicated that the geometric centroid-distance-order spatial weight feature, which was introduced in macro-level safety analysis for the first time, outperformed all the other spatial weight features. Population was used as the surrogate for pedestrian exposure, and had a positive effect on pedestrian crashes. Other significant factors included length of major arterials, length of minor arterials, road density, average intersection spacing, percentage of 3-legged intersections, and area of TAZ. Pedestrian crashes were higher in TAZs with medium land use intensity than in TAZs with low and high land use intensity. Thus, higher priority should be given to TAZs with medium land use intensity to improve pedestrian safety. Overall, these findings can help transportation planners and managers understand the characteristics of pedestrian crashes and improve pedestrian safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High Speed Railway Environment Safety Evaluation Based on Measurement Attribute Recognition Model

    Qizhou Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety.

  5. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  6. Recovering method for high level radioactive material

    Fukui, Toshiki

    1998-01-01

    Offgas filters such as of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and waste control facilities are burnt, and the burnt ash is melted by heating, and then the molten ashes are brought into contact with a molten metal having a low boiling point to transfer the high level radioactive materials in the molten ash to the molten metal. Then, only the molten metal is evaporated and solidified by drying, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered. According to this method, the high level radioactive materials in the molten ashes are transferred to the molten metal and separated by the difference of the distribution rate of the molten ash and the molten metal. Subsequently, the molten metal to which the high level radioactive materials are transferred is heated to a temperature higher than the boiling point so that only the molten metal is evaporated and dried to be removed, and residual high level radioactive materials are recovered easily. On the other hand, the molten ash from which the high level radioactive material is removed can be discarded as ordinary industrial wastes as they are. (T.M.)

  7. Production and properties of solidified high-level waste

    Brodersen, K.

    1980-08-01

    Available information on production and properties of solidified high-level waste are presented. The review includes literature up to the end of 1979. The feasibility of production of various types of solidified high-level wast is investigated. The main emphasis is on borosilicate glass but other options are also mentioned. The expected long-term behaviour of the materials are discussed on the basis of available results from laboratory experiments. Examples of the use of the information in safety analysis of disposal in salt formations are given. The work has been made on behalf of the Danish utilities investigation of the possibilities of disposal of high-level waste in salt domes in Jutland. (author)

  8. The safety of high activity long life nuclear waste

    Devillers, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    The article concerns the deep geological storage for managing high activity long life nuclear waste. He puts forward a context giving a structure to the discussions of those involved concerning an assessment of the safety of a deep geological deposit project. Three main aspects are put forward. The risks for future generations and the time scales to be considered: briefly, the deposit needs to satisfy two functions for protecting man and the environment, namely firstly isolating high activity radionuclides from the biosphere during the time required for their radioactive decay (about ten thousands years), and secondly delay and dilute long life radionuclides without any a priori time limit so as to reduce their effects in the biosphere to extremely low levels. The risks are linked to possible failures of the containment barriers whose causes need to be analysed and be provided against by suitable provisions concerning their design. The definition of these design provisions requires an in depth examination of uncertain elements. The main causes of uncertainty are listed according to the scale of time in question, that is O-10,000 years, 10,000-100,000 years and beyond 100,000 years, stressing the importance of selecting a stable geological site and more generally a solid concept that is not very sensitive in uncertainties. Beyond 100,000 years the extent of uncertainties no longer makes it possible to make realistic predictions. It is thus necessary to consider the alternative scenarios concerning geological and climatic changes and the corresponding increasing risks of radionuclides. The risks in question may be relativized by realizing that on this time scale, the residual activities of soluble and insoluble alpha and beta emitters are comparable to those of a storage centre located on the surface at the end of the monitoring period. Finally, the article considers the approach put forward concerning the safety of a deep geological storage advocated by the French

  9. Disposal of high level and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    Flowers, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The waste products from the nuclear industry are relatively small in volume. Apart from a few minor gaseous and liquid waste streams, containing readily dispersible elements of low radiotoxicity, all these products are processed into stable solid packages for disposal in underground repositories. Because the volumes are small, and because radioactive wastes are latecomers on the industrial scene, a whole new industry with a world-wide technological infrastructure has grown up alongside the nuclear power industry to carry out the waste processing and disposal to very high standards. Some of the technical approaches used, and the Regulatory controls which have been developed, will undoubtedly find application in the future to the management of non-radioactive toxic wastes. The repository site outlined would contain even high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels being contained without significant radiation dose rates to the public. Water pathway dose rates are likely to be lowest for vitrified high-level wastes with spent PWR fuel and intermediate level wastes being somewhat higher. (author)

  10. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  11. French nuclear safety authorities: for a harmonization of nuclear safety at the European level

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is working on 2 directives concerning nuclear energy: the first one is dedicated to nuclear safety and the second to the management of radioactive wastes and spent fuels. In the context of the widening of the European Union and of the inter-connection of the different electric power grids throughout Europe, the harmonization of the rules in the nuclear safety field is seen by manufacturers as a mean to achieve a fair competition between nuclear equipment supplying companies and by the French nuclear safety authorities (FNSA) as a mean to keep on improving nuclear safety and to be sure that competitiveness does not drive safety standards down. According to FNSA the 2 European directives could give a legal framework to the harmonization and should contain principles that reinforce the responsibility of each state. FNSA considers that the EPR (European pressurized water reactor) may be an efficient tool for the harmonization because of existing industrial cooperation programs between France and Germany and between France and Finland. (A.C.)

  12. Study on a quantitative evaluation method of equipment maintenance level and plant safety level for giant complex plant system

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a quantitative method on maintenance level which is determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability by maintenance crew is discussed. And also a quantitative evaluation method on safety level for giant complex plant system is discussed. As a result of consideration, the following results were obtained. (1) It was considered that equipment condition after maintenance work was determined by the two factors, maintenance plan and field work implementation ability possessed by maintenance crew. The equipment condition determined by the two factors was named as 'equipment maintenance level' and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (2) It was considered that CDF in a nuclear power plant, evaluated by using a failure rate counting the above maintenance level was quite different from CDF evaluated by using existing failure rates including a safety margin. Then, the former CDF was named as 'plant safety level' of plant system and its quantitative evaluation method was clarified. (3) Enhancing equipment maintenance level means an improvement of maintenance quality. That results in the enhancement of plant safety level. Therefore, plant safety level should be always watched as a plant performance indicator. (author)

  13. THE CONDITION AND THE DYNAMICS OF CHANGES OF REGIONAL ENERGETIC SAFETY LEVEL

    A.L. Myzin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of indicative analysis method use, the dynamic processes of changes of energetic safety condition of federal districts and subjects of Russian Federation for last 5 years are investigated. The results of diagnosing safety levels for separate indicators, their blocks and the results of situation evaluation as a whole are discussed. The comparison of regions’ energetic safety condition is given, the causes of crisis situations appearance are discovered, and on this basis the suggestions for regions’ safety levels increasing are formulated.

  14. Emergency concepts for the safety level four; Notfallkonzepte der Sicherheitsebene Vier

    Richner, Martin [Axpo Power AG, Doettingen (Switzerland). Kernkraftwerk Beznau

    2016-04-15

    According to the IAEA Guidelines and the Swiss Safety Guidelines the defence-in depth safety concept for a nuclear power plant consists of four safety levels. Emergency measures for the limitation of beyond design basis accidents are of safety level four. They are referred to as incident management. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, in Switzerland the former regulatory body HSK (today ENSI) requested several retrofit measures in the field of accident management. The importance of accident management was visible again in Fukushima and demands for preventive measures grew.

  15. АSSESSMENT AND FORECASTING OF FLIGHT SAFETY LEVEL OF AIRLINE

    E. S. Prozorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents methods based on probability theory and mathematical statistics for solving a number of basic problems: formation and evaluation of the current flight safety level; forecasting the level of flight safety; ranking the objects (planes, pilots in terms of flight safety; evaluation of the presence (or absence of control actions arising in the context of the organization of corporate safety management system. At the same time as the main source of information are considered forward-looking events received from flight data.

  16. In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell

  17. EAP high-level product architecture

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2013-01-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety...... of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture...... the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach...

  18. Improving the safety of Ukrainian NPP to reach an internationally accepted level

    Bozhko, S.; Helske, J.; Janke, R.; Mayoral, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the safety status and the modernization progress of Ukrainian NPPs towards an internationally accepted level of safety. After a brief discussion of the concept of what is called an 'international accepted level' for new and operating NPPs, the status of Russian type WWER and in particular the Ukrainian NPPs is presented. Then, the performed investigations of the gaps between international accepted level and the original status of Ukrainian NPPs are presented. The safety objectives of the modernization programs, some examples of defence in depth improvements, and an overall view of the modernization programs of Ukrainian NPPs are produced. Then, few important safety improvements implemented at the oldest Ukrainian WWER-1000 South Ukraine-1 are given in more detail. Finally, a conclusion presents the current status on the way to fulfill the national safety targets and to reach an internationally accepted level for all the Ukrainian NPPs. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  19. Safety philosophy of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    Shoji Katanishi; Kazuhiko Kunitomi; Shusaku Shiozawa

    2002-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has undertaken the study of an original design concept of gas turbine high temperature reactor, the GTHTR300. The general concept of this study is development of a greatly simplified design that leads to substantially reduced technical and cost requirements. Newly proposed design features enable the GTHTR300 to be an efficient and economically competitive reactor in 2010's. Also, the GTHTR300 fully takes advantage of its inherent safety characteristics. The safety philosophy of the GTHTR300 is developed based on the HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) of JAERI which is the first HTGR in Japan. Major features of the newly proposed safety philosophy for the GTHTR300 are described in this article. (authors)

  20. On personal safety culture

    Chen Zigen

    1996-01-01

    The paper mainly expounds the personal safety culture, including the following aspects: the attitude to exploration, strict methods and the habit of exchange etc. It points out that straightening the education of safety culture and heightening the level of personal safety culture can get not only high-level safety but also high-level quality

  1. Predisposal Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste. Safety Guide

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established for the predisposal management of low and intermediate level waste. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety considerations; 5. Safety features for the predisposal management of LILW; 6. Record keeping and reporting; 7. Safety assessment; 8. Quality assurance; Annex I: Nature and sources of LILW from nuclear facilities; Annex II: Development of specifications for waste packages; Annex III: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external natural phenomena); Annex IV: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex V: Postulated initiating events for consideration in a safety assessment (internal phenomena).

  2. Radiation safety program in a high dose rate brachytherapy facility

    Rodriguez, L.V.; Hermoso, T.M.; Solis, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    The use of remote afterloading equipment has been developed to improve radiation safety in the delivery of treatment in brachytherapy. Several accidents, however, have been reported involving high dose-rate brachytherapy system. These events, together with the desire to address the concerns of radiation workers, and the anticipated adoption of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation (IAEA, 1996), led to the development of the radiation safety program at the Department of Radiotherapy, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center and at the Division of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's Medical Center. The radiation safety program covers five major aspects: quality control/quality assurance, radiation monitoring, preventive maintenance, administrative measures and quality audit. Measures for evaluation of effectiveness of the program include decreased unnecessary exposures of patients and staff, improved accuracy in treatment delivery and increased department efficiency due to the development of staff vigilance and decreased anxiety. The success in the implementation required the participation and cooperation of all the personnel involved in the procedures and strong management support. This paper will discuss the radiation safety program for a high dose rate brachytherapy facility developed at these two institutes which may serve as a guideline for other hospitals intending to install a similar facility. (author)

  3. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    Anthony, J.A. III.

    1995-01-01

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope

  4. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  5. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  6. Rural Teacher's Perceptions of Safety on Texas High School Campuses

    Wright, Ronald J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to explore the perceptions of safety of rural Texas high school teachers as it related to a campus intruder or active shooter. The investigator utilized Creswell's (2012) six steps in analyzing and interpreting the qualitative data. The results of the study showed that…

  7. The condition and the dynamics of changes of regional energetic safety level

    Anatoliy Myzin; Aleksey Kalina; Andrey Kozitsyn; Pavel Pykhov

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of indicative analysis method use, the dynamic processes of changes of energetic safety condition of federal districts and subjects of Russian Federation for last 5 years are investigated. The results of diagnosing safety levels for separate indicators, their blocks and the results of situation evaluation as a whole are discussed. The comparison of regions’ energetic safety condition is given, the causes of crisis situations appearance are discovered, and on this basis the sugg...

  8. The precautionary principle and high-level nuclear waste policy

    Frishman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The 'Precautionary Principle' has grown from the broadening observation that there is compelling evidence that damage to humans and the world-wide environment is of such a magnitude and seriousness that new principles for conducting human activities are necessary. One of the various statements of the Precautionary Principle is: when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically. The use of a precautionary principle was a significant recommendation emerging from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and it is gaining acceptance in discussions ranging from global warming to activities that affect the marine environment, and far beyond. In the US high-level nuclear waste policy, there is a growing trend on the part of geologic repository proponents and regulators to shift the required safety evaluation from a deterministic analysis of natural and engineered barriers and their interactions to risk assessments and total system waste containment and isolation performance assessment. This is largely a result of the realisation that scientific 'proof' of safety cannot be demonstrated to the level repository proponents have led the American public to expect. Therefore, they are now developing other methods in an attempt to effectively lower the repository safety expectations of the public. Implicit in this shift in demonstration of 'proof' is that levels of uncertainty far larger than those generally taken as scientifically acceptable must be accepted in repository safety, simply because greater certainty is either too costly, in time and money, or impossible to achieve at the potential Yucca Mountain repository site. In the context of the Precautionary Principle, the repository proponent must bear the burden of providing 'Acceptable' proof, established by an open

  9. Potential safety features and safety analysis aspects for high performance light water reactor (HPLWR)

    Aksan, N.; Schulenberg, T.; Squarer, D.

    2003-01-01

    Research Activities are ongoing worldwide to develop advanced nuclear power plants with high thermal efficiency for the purpose to improve their economical competitiveness. Within the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, a project has been launched with the main objective to assess the technical and economical feasibility of a high efficiency LWR operating at super critical pressure conditions. Several European research institutions, industrial partners and the University of Tokyo participated and worked in this common research project. Within the aims of the development of the HPLWR is to use both passive and active safety systems for performing safety related functions in the event of transients or accidents. Consequently substantial effort has been invested in order to define the safety features of the plant in a European environment, as well as to incorporate passive safety features into the design. Throughout this process, the European Utility Requirements (EUR) and requirements known from Generation IV initiative were considered as a guideline in general terms in order to include further advanced ideas. The HPLWR general features were compared to both requirements, indicating a potential to meet these. Since, the supercritical HPLWR represents a challenge for best-estimate safety codes like RELAP5, CATHARE and TRAB due to the fact that these codes were developed for two-phase or single-phase coolant at pressures far below critical point, work on the preliminary assessment of the appropriateness of these codes have been performed for selected relevant phenomena, and application of the codes to the selected transients on the basis of defined 'reference design'. An overview on their successful upgrade to supercritical pressures and application to some plant safety analysis are provided in the paper. Further elaborations in relation to future needs are also discussed. (author)

  10. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  11. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  12. Materials for high-level waste containment

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  13. Do we need an integrative approach to food safety at the country level?

    Ristic, G E-mail:risticg@eunet yu [Department of Nutrition, Medical Faculty, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2002-05-01

    Scientific data show increasing evidence of relationship between food safety and food standards on one hand and public health concern on the other hand. In FR Yugoslavia in 1989 the system of reporting on food safety issues on federal and republic level was established. The system provides data on laboratory analysis of 22 food items (bread, milk, meat and meat products, vegetables, processed vegetables etc). Those items were and still are tested on food quality and safety parameters such as microbiological, chemical and radio nuclides. Seldom all required testing on chemical and radio nuclides are performed, so we lack exact risk assessment for those contaminants. Further, during war conflict in FR Yugoslavia and also due to industrial hazards in neighbouring countries (Rumania, Hungary) high quantities of PCBs, dioxins, heavy metals, arsenic compounds and other toxic compounds contaminated the environment. In the soil and in some food products (animal fats predominantly) radionuclides originating from Chernobyl hazard can still be detected. In order to identify the level of exposure to chemical and radio nuclide contaminants in the food chain it is essential to test intensively and systematically food from animal and from plant origin. In order to prevent entering the contaminants to the food chain new recommendations from WHO, FAO and EU suggest implementation of integrative approach to food safety and control over the whole chain of food production from 'farm to table'. This approach provides control of the contaminants in soil, water, air, control over primary food production (covering animal feed too), intensive control over processing with implementation of HACCP system, but also, over transportation, retail trade, street food and home made food too. In our country creation of the map of the polluted areas, and actions in order to treat the pollution should accompany implementation of this new food safety system. The need for assessment of the level of

  14. Do we need an integrative approach to food safety at the country level?

    Ristic, G.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific data show increasing evidence of relationship between food safety and food standards on one hand and public health concern on the other hand. In FR Yugoslavia in 1989 the system of reporting on food safety issues on federal and republic level was established. The system provides data on laboratory analysis of 22 food items (bread, milk, meat and meat products, vegetables, processed vegetables etc). Those items were and still are tested on food quality and safety parameters such as microbiological, chemical and radio nuclides. Seldom all required testing on chemical and radio nuclides are performed, so we lack exact risk assessment for those contaminants. Further, during war conflict in FR Yugoslavia and also due to industrial hazards in neighbouring countries (Rumania, Hungary) high quantities of PCBs, dioxins, heavy metals, arsenic compounds and other toxic compounds contaminated the environment. In the soil and in some food products (animal fats predominantly) radionuclides originating from Chernobyl hazard can still be detected. In order to identify the level of exposure to chemical and radio nuclide contaminants in the food chain it is essential to test intensively and systematically food from animal and from plant origin. In order to prevent entering the contaminants to the food chain new recommendations from WHO, FAO and EU suggest implementation of integrative approach to food safety and control over the whole chain of food production from 'farm to table'. This approach provides control of the contaminants in soil, water, air, control over primary food production (covering animal feed too), intensive control over processing with implementation of HACCP system, but also, over transportation, retail trade, street food and home made food too. In our country creation of the map of the polluted areas, and actions in order to treat the pollution should accompany implementation of this new food safety system. The need for assessment of the level of

  15. High spin levels in 151Ho

    Gizon, J.; Gizon, A.; Andre, S.; Genevey, J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Moszinski, M.; Preibisz, Z.

    1981-02-01

    We report here on the first study of the level structure of 151 Ho. High spin levels in 151 Ho have been populated in the 141 Pr + 16 O and 144 Sm + 12 C reactions. The level structure has been established up to 6.6 MeV energy and the spins and particles determined up to 49/2 - . Most of the proposed level configurations can be explained by the coupling of hsub(11/2) protons to fsub(7/2) and/or hsub(9/2) neutrons. An isomer with 14 +- 3 ns half-life and a delayed gamma multiplicity equal to 17 +- 2 has been found. Its spin is larger than 57/2 h units

  16. Impact of ITER liquid metal design options on safety level and licensing - Sweden

    Harfors, C.; Devell, L.; Johansson, Kjell; Lundell, B.; Rolandsson, S.

    1993-01-01

    The safety level and licensability of five design options for ITER coolant, breeding material and structural material are assessed, with emphasis on some specified accident scenarios. The safety level is assessed in terms of barrier requirements and the feasibility to construct and qualify such a barrier. The licensability in Sweden of each design option is assessed based on the indicated safety level and on a judgement of the technical feasibility to construct and qualify the ITER tokamak itself, based on the selected design option. 20 refs

  17. Safe disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Ringwood, A E [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences

    1980-10-01

    Current strategies in most countries favour the immobilisation of high-level radioactive wastes in borosilicate glasses, and their burial in large, centralised, mined repositories. Strong public opposition has been encountered because of concerns over safety and socio-political issues. The author develops a new disposal strategy, based on immobilisation of wastes in an extremely resistant ceramic, SYNROC, combined with burial in an array of widely dispersed, very deep drill holes. It is demonstrated that the difficulties encountered by conventional disposal strategies can be overcome by this new approach.

  18. Safety aspects in high-field magnetic resonance imaging

    Muehlenweg, M.; Trattnig, S.; Schaefers, G.

    2008-01-01

    With more and more 3 Tesla high-field magnetic resonance (MR) scanners entering clinical routine, the safety notion in MR imaging has also reached a new dimension. The first part of this paper deals with the three most important sources of physical interaction (static magnetic field, gradient and HF fields). The paper discusses the differences compared with the traditional clinical 1.5 T standard scanners, the impact on human beings, the interactions with metallic objects and the relevant safety standards. The second part of the paper examines the issue of MR safety as seen in clinical practice and tries to demonstrate optimization potentials. This includes structural optimization in information distribution and hospital organization as well as test standards and labeling guidelines. (orig.) [de

  19. Central repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (ALMA) conceptual design, siting and safety study

    Kjellbert, N.; Haeggblom, H.; Cederstroem, M.; Lundgren, T.

    1980-07-01

    A generic design, siting and safety study of a proposed repository for low- and intermediate-level waste has been made. Special emphasis has been placed on safety characterostics. The conceptual design and the generic site, on which the study is based, are realistically chosen in accordance with present construction techniques and the existing geohydrological conditions in Sweden. (Auth.)

  20. Radiation cancer, safety standards and current levels of exposure

    Mole, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Cancer can be induced by radiation in any tissue where cancer occurs naturally. The observation that antenatal diagnostic radiography causes a small but definite increase in childhood cancer is as good evidence as could be expected in support of the scientific expectation that there would be no threshold of dose for carcinogenesis. A linear relation between radiation dose and frequency of induced cancer is a necessary assumption for a system of radiological protection but is not necessarily a reasonable basis for realistic assessments of cancer risk. Indeed there are radiobiological and epidemiological reasons to the contrary. If the linear hypothesis is accepted then at the present time in the UK the routine practice of medicine is of about 2 orders of magnitude more important in causing cancer than environmental pollution by discharge of radio-activity. The acceptability of radiation safety standards for occupational exposure may be justified by comparison of radiation cancer risks with risks from fatal accidents in the safer industries. The acceptability of the corresponding standards for members of the public seems to require more public discussion of the concept of negligible risk. Emotional reactions to uncontrolled releases of radio-activity are based at least in part on a failure to appreciate the hypothesis of linearity

  1. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  2. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  3. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  4. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  5. High-level waste processing and disposal

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  6. Strain-Level Metagenomic Analysis of the Fermented Dairy Beverage Nunu Highlights Potential Food Safety Risks.

    Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; Daari, Kareem; O'Sullivan, Orla; Martin, Jennifer C; Arthur, Cornelius T; Claesson, Marcus J; Scott, Karen P; Cotter, Paul D

    2017-08-15

    The rapid detection of pathogenic strains in food products is essential for the prevention of disease outbreaks. It has already been demonstrated that whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing can be used to detect pathogens in food but, until recently, strain-level detection of pathogens has relied on whole-metagenome assembly, which is a computationally demanding process. Here we demonstrated that three short-read-alignment-based methods, i.e., MetaMLST, PanPhlAn, and StrainPhlAn, could accurately and rapidly identify pathogenic strains in spinach metagenomes that had been intentionally spiked with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in a previous study. Subsequently, we employed the methods, in combination with other metagenomics approaches, to assess the safety of nunu, a traditional Ghanaian fermented milk product that is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of raw cow milk. We showed that nunu samples were frequently contaminated with bacteria associated with the bovine gut and, worryingly, we detected putatively pathogenic E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in a subset of nunu samples. Ultimately, our work establishes that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics approaches are suitable food safety tools, and we describe a real-life example of their utilization. IMPORTANCE Foodborne pathogens are responsible for millions of illnesses each year. Here we demonstrate that short-read-alignment-based bioinformatics tools can accurately and rapidly detect pathogenic strains in food products by using shotgun metagenomics data. The methods used here are considerably faster than both traditional culturing methods and alternative bioinformatics approaches that rely on metagenome assembly; therefore, they can potentially be used for more high-throughput food safety testing. Overall, our results suggest that whole-metagenome sequencing can be used as a practical food safety tool to prevent diseases or to link outbreaks to specific food products. Copyright

  7. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  8. Pilot-benchmarking of the WENRA safety reference levels for the spent fuel intermediate storage facility Ahaus

    Lorenz, Bernd; Roeder, Markus; Brandt, Klaus-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Western European Nuclear Regulator's Association (WENRA) has 2007 issued the draft of the 'Waste and Spent Fuel Storage Safety Reference Levels'. The objective of WENRA is to strive for a harmonized safety level of nuclear facilities within the European Community and these Reference Levels are a benchmark method to demonstrate the achieved level for the regulatory system and the implementation as well. Safety Reference Levels exist at the moment for Reactor Safety, Waste Storage and Decommissioning in different stages of development. ENISS, the European Nuclear Installations Safety Standards Initiative, a FORATOM based special organisation of nuclear operators, has discussed these Safety Reference Levels very intensively with WENRA and the agreement was to make a implementation benchmark-exercise for the storage facilities before the authorities finally agree on the Reference Levels. This benchmark was scheduled for the year 2008. Because of the special situation in Germany where a large number of storage facilities is in operation the German authorities felt that it would be useful to initiate a Pilot-Benchmark to get first results on the feasibility of the Reference Levels and the burden imposed to authorities and operators by these benchmark-exercises. GNS, a subsidiary company of the utilities, agreed to step into this process on a voluntary basis with its storage facility for spent fuel in Ahaus. The exercise was done in a very efficient way and in good co-operation between the authorities, local and federal, and the operator. The results in terms of safety assessments have been very satisfactory showing the high degree of safety. Although the facility was for the first time licensed already in 1987 the compliance with nearly all Reference Levels from 2007 could be demonstrated. It became also clear that newer facilities would fulfil the desired safety standard too. Nevertheless, in spite of the good results the exercise revealed some weak

  9. Annual plan of research on safety techniques against low level radioactive wastes, FY1994-FY1999

    1994-01-01

    The safety research on the disposal of low level radioactive waste has been promoted based on the annual plan decided by the committee on radiative waste safety regulation of the Nuclear Safety Commission. Hereafter, the disposal of low level radioactive waste in ocean is never selected. As to the subjects of the safety research which should be carried out for five years from 1994, the necessity, the contents of research, the organs that carry out the research and so on were deliberated, and the results are made into the annual plan, therefore, it is reported. The way of thinking on the safety research, the contents for which efforts should be exerted as the safety research, and the matters to which attention should be paid are shown. As for the annual plan of safety research, the necessity and the outline of the safety research on the disposal in strata, the concrete subjects and their contents, and the necessity and the outline of the safety research on the reuse, the concrete subjects and their contents are reported. The radioactive waste is those produced by the operation of nuclear reactor facilities, those containing TRU nuclides and RI waste. (K.I.)

  10. Cermets for high level waste containment

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  11. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  12. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  13. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  14. Decommissioning high-level waste surface facilities

    1978-04-01

    The protective storage, entombment and dismantlement options of decommissioning a High-Level Waste Surface Facility (HLWSF) was investigated. A reference conceptual design for the facility was developed based on the designs of similar facilities. State-of-the-art decommissioning technologies were identified. Program plans and cost estimates for decommissioning the reference conceptual designs were developed. Good engineering design concepts were on the basis of this work identified

  15. Estimation of average hazardous-event-frequency for allocation of safety-integrity levels

    Misumi, Y.; Sato, Y.

    1999-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts of the draft international standard, IEC 61508, is target failure measures to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems, i.e. Safety Integrity Levels. The Safety Integrity Levels consist of four discrete probabilistic levels for specifying the safety integrity requirements or the safety functions to be allocated to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems. In order to select the Safety Integrity Levels the draft standard classifies Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems into two modes of operation using demand frequencies only. It is not clear which modes of operation should be applied to Electric/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems taking into account the demand-state probability and the spurious demand frequency. It is essential for the allocation of Safety Integrity Levels that generic algorithms be derived by involving possible parameters, which make it possible to model the actuality of real systems. The present paper addresses this issue. First of all, the overall system including Electric/Electronic/programmable Electronic Safety-Related Systems is described using a simplified fault-tree. Then, the relationships among demands, demand-states and proof-tests are studied. Overall systems are classified into two groups: a non-demand-state-at-proof-test system which includes both repairable and non-repairable demand states and a constant-demand-frequency system. The new ideas such as a demand-state, spurious demand-state, mean time between detections, rates of d-failure and h-failure, and an h/d ratio are introduced in order to make the Safety Integrity Levels and modes of operation generic and comprehensive. Finally, the overall system is simplified and modeled by fault-trees using Priority-AND gates. At the same time the assumptions for modeling are described. Generic algorithms to estimate hazardous

  16. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  17. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic Type Berm Breakwater

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2007-01-01

    Guidance on selection of breakwater types and related design safety levels for breakwaters are almost non-existent, which is the reason that PIANC has initiated working group 47 on this subject. This paper presents ongoing work particulary on the Icelandic type berm breakwater within the PIANC...... working group. It will concentrate on design guidance and on the optimum safety levels for this type of structure....

  18. Construction Safety And Health Factors At The Industry Level: The Case Of Singapore

    Charles Y.J. Cheah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries due to the unique nature of its products and the processes involved. Recent occurrences of highly publicized construction site accidents in Singapore have highlighted the immediate needs for the local industry to address safety and attention at the industry level. The objective of this paper is to examine issues and critical factors affecting S&H standards in Singapore. Clearly, collective efforts should be pursued at the industry level as the country moves towards the ultimate safety management strategy of self-regulation. The findings also indicate that the challenge of making worksites safe should not be placed solely on the contractors but should be shared by all parties affecting the value chain of construction, including the developers, the consultants and the government. The factors identified through factor analysis may inform legislators and industry practitioners in terms of the sources of problems and help develop effective strategies for improvement. Some of the experiences mentioned in the paper could also be relevant to other countries facing similar circumstances.

  19. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  20. Experience in the development and practical use of working control levels for radiation safety

    Epishin, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The experience of development and practical use of working control levels (WCL) of radiation safety in the Gorky region, is discussed. WCL are introduced by ''Radiation Safety Guides'' (RSG-76) and have great practical importance. Regional control levels of radiation safety are determined for certain types of operations implying radioactive hazard and differentiated according to the types of sources applied and types of operation. Dose rates, radioactive contamination of operating surfaces, skin, air and waste water are subject to normalization. Limits of individual radiation doses specified according to operation categories are included. 10 tables of regional WCL indices are developed [ru

  1. The high level vibration test program

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the US and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. A modified earthquake excitation was applied and the excitation level was increased carefully to minimize the cumulative fatigue damage due to the intermediate level excitations. Since the piping was pressurized, and the high level earthquake excitation was repeated several times, it was possible to investigate the effects of ratchetting and fatigue as well. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. Crack growth was carefully monitored during the next two additional maximum excitation runs. The final test resulted in a maximum crack depth of approximately 94% of the wall thickness. The HLVT (high level vibration test) program has enhanced understanding of the behavior of piping systems under severe earthquake loading. As in other tests to failure of piping components, it has demonstrated significant seismic margin in nuclear power plant piping

  2. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  3. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein

  4. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  5. Research on Safety Factor of Dam Slope of High Embankment Dam under Seismic Condition

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant development of construction technology of embankment dam, the constructed embankment dam becomes higher and higher, and the embankment dam with its height over 200m will always adopt the current design criteria of embankment dam only suitable for the construction of embankment dam lower than 200m in height. So the design criteria of high embankment dam shall be improved. We shall calculate the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam under different dam height, slope ratio and different seismic intensity based on ratio of safety margin, and clarify the change rules of stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m. We calculate the ratio of safety margin of traditional and reliable method by taking the stable, allowable and reliability index 4.2 of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m as the standard value, and conduct linear regression for both. As a result, the conditions, where 1.3 is considered as the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m under seismic condition and 4.2 as the allowable and reliability index, are under the same risk control level.

  6. New reactor safety circuit for low-power-level operation

    McDowell, W.P.; Keefe, D.J.; Rusch, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    In the operation of nuclear reactors at low-power levels, one of the primary instrumentation problems is that the statistical fluctuations of reactor neutron population are accentuated by conventional log-count-rate and differentiating circuits and can cause frequent spurious scrams unless long time constants are incorporated in the circuit. Excessive time constants may introduce undesirable delay in the circuit response to legitimate scram signals. The paper develops the concept of a count doubling-time monitor which generates a scram signal if the number of counts from a pulse type neutron detector doubles in a given period of time. The paper demonstrates the theoretical relation between count doubling time and asymptomatic periods. A practical circuit to implement the function is described

  7. A multilevel model of patient safety culture: cross-level relationship between organizational culture and patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals.

    Chen, I-Chi; Ng, Hui-Fuang; Li, Hung-Hui

    2012-01-01

    As health-care organizations endeavor to improve their quality of care, there is a growing recognition of the importance of establishing a culture of patient safety. The main objective of this study was to investigate the cross-level influences of organizational culture on patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals. The authors measured organizational culture (bureaucratic, supportive and innovative culture), patient safety culture and behavior from 788 hospital workers among 42 hospitals in Taiwan. Multilevel analysis was applied to explore the relationship between organizational culture (group level) and patient safety behavior (individual level). Patient safety culture had positive impact on patient safety behavior in Taiwan's hospitals. The results also indicated that bureaucratic, innovative and supportive organizational cultures all had direct influence on patient safety behavior. However, only supportive culture demonstrated significant moderation effect on the relationship between patient safety culture and patient safety behavior. Furthermore, organizational culture strength was shown correlated negatively with patient safety culture variability. Overall, organizational culture plays an important role in patient safety activities. Safety behaviors of hospital staff are partly influenced by the prevailing cultural norms in their organizations and work groups. For management implications, constructed patient priority from management commitment to leadership is necessary. For academic implications, research on patient safety should consider leadership, group dynamics and organizational learning. These factors are important for understanding the barriers and the possibilities embedded in patient safety. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  9. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  10. Management of high level radioactive waste

    Redon, A.; Mamelle, J.; Chambon, M.

    1977-01-01

    The world wide needs in reprocessing will reach the value of 10.000 t/y of irradiated fuels, in the mid of the 80's. Several countries will have planned, in their nuclear programme, the construction of reprocessing plants with a 1500 t/y capacity, corresponding to 50.000 MWe installed. At such a level, the solidification of the radioactive waste will become imperative. For this reason, all efforts, in France, have been directed towards the realization of industrial plants able of solidifying the fission products as a glassy material. The advantages of this decision, and the reasons for it are presented. The continuing development work, and the conditions and methods of storing the high-level wastes prior to solidification, and of the interim storage (for thermal decay) and the ultimate disposal after solidification are described [fr

  11. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  12. The CMS High Level Trigger System

    Afaq, A; Bauer, G; Biery, K; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Cheung, H; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; Dagenhart, W; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Gulmini, M; Gutiérrez-Mlot, E; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Kowalkowski, J; Lipeles, E; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Rácz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2007-01-01

    The CMS Data Acquisition (DAQ) System relies on a purely software driven High Level Trigger (HLT) to reduce the full Level-1 accept rate of 100 kHz to approximately 100 Hz for archiving and later offline analysis. The HLT operates on the full information of events assembled by an event builder collecting detector data from the CMS front-end systems. The HLT software consists of a sequence of reconstruction and filtering modules executed on a farm of O(1000) CPUs built from commodity hardware. This paper presents the architecture of the CMS HLT, which integrates the CMS reconstruction framework in the online environment. The mechanisms to configure, control, and monitor the Filter Farm and the procedures to validate the filtering code within the DAQ environment are described.

  13. High level waste fixation in cermet form

    Kobisk, E.H.; Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Ramey, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial and defense high level waste fixation in cermet form is being studied by personnel of the Isotopes Research Materials Laboratory, Solid State Division (ORNL). As a corollary to earlier research and development in forming high density ceramic and cermet rods, disks, and other shapes using separated isotopes, similar chemical and physical processing methods have been applied to synthetic and real waste fixation. Generally, experimental products resulting from this approach have shown physical and chemical characteristics which are deemed suitable for long-term storage, shipping, corrosive environments, high temperature environments, high waste loading, decay heat dissipation, and radiation damage. Although leach tests are not conclusive, what little comparative data are available show cermet to withstand hydrothermal conditions in water and brine solutions. The Soxhlet leach test, using radioactive cesium as a tracer, showed that leaching of cermet was about X100 less than that of 78 to 68 glass. Using essentially uncooled, untreated waste, cermet fixation was found to accommodate up to 75% waste loading and yet, because of its high thermal conductivity, a monolith of 0.6 m diameter and 3.3 m-length would have only a maximum centerline temperature of 29 K above the ambient value

  14. Low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    McClure, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described

  15. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs

  16. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    Chu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  17. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36 Cl and 93 Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  18. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  19. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  20. Radiological safety for the public during nuclear emergencies: application of intervention levels and derived intervention levels

    Thomas, G.; Kumar, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    public from a practice is relatively small, the intervention level based on averted dose may have to be high, as significant reduction in exposure is required to justify the intervention. For intervention after a major nuclear / radiological accident, the non-radiological risk could be much larger, particularly if it is necessary to evacuate a large number of people. The variation between intervention levels for different nuclear/ radiological emergency situation could also differ quite significantly. In case of intervention, the doses received before the countermeasures are implemented should not be counted for balancing the detriment and benefit as these doses will be received whether or not the intervention is carried out. At the same time, applying the concept of averted dose involves lot of uncertainty in predicting and advising the time of intervention. The initial planning for various emergencies should include a choice of intervention levels, as discussed in this paper, in terms of averted doses, that will be justified and reasonably well optimized. Each protective action should therefore be considered on its own merits and the doses that would be incurred via all relevant pathways of exposure should also be assessed. (authors)

  1. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    Rasheed, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm 3 . This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group

  2. Primary break with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    Cordelle, F.; Champ, M.; Pochard, R.

    1988-10-01

    The probabilitic safety assessment of a 900 MW plant has displayed the potential importance, with regard to the risk, of intermediate primary breaks with failure of the high pressure safety injection system. The probability of such sequence is about 10 -6 /plant X year. Therefore, it is necessary to establish: - if this sequence can lead to core melt down, - if clad ruptures can occur. This event must be taken into account to determine the repair time of contaminated systems. For these studies, a three inch equivalent diameter break is considerd, as this is the most sensitive in its category with regard to these phenomena. In addition to the above objectives, the purpose of these studies is to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the following parameters: - the time limit at which the operator starts cooling down the plant via the steam generators. Two calculations have been made with the RELAP code (1 and 2) and two with the CATHARE code (3 and 4) - the pump trip time. Four calculations have been made with the CATHARE code (5, 6, 7 and 8). In the case of failure of only one high pressure safety injection file, 6 calculations have been made with the CATHARE code, concerning the influence of pump trip time (9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14)

  3. Safety and quality management at the high flux reactor Petten

    Zurita, A.; Ahlf, J.

    1995-01-01

    The High Flux Reactor (HFR) is one high power multi-purpose materials testing research reactor of the tank-in-pool type, cooled and moderated by light-water. It is operated at 45 MW at a prescribed schedule of 11 cycles per year, each comprising 25 operation days and three shut-down days. Since the licence for the operation of HFR was granted in 1962, a total of 14 amendments to the original licence have been made following different modifications in the installations. In the meantime, international nuclear standards were developed, especially in the framework of the NUSS programme of the IAEA, which were adopted by the Dutch Licensing Authorities. In order to implement the new standards, the situation at the HFR was comprehensively reviewed in the course of an audit performed by the Dutch Licensing Authorities in 1988. This also resulted in formulating the task of setting-up an 'HFR - Integral Quality Assurance Handbook' (HFR-IQAD) involving both organizations JRCIAM and ECN, which had the unique framework and basic guideline to assure the safe and efficient operation and exploitation of the HFR and to promote safety and quality in all aspects of HFR related activities. The assurance of safe and efficient operation and exploitation of the HFR is condensed together under the concepts of safety and quality of services and is achieved through the safety and quality management. (orig.)

  4. TU-EF-BRD-01: Topics in Quality and Safety Research and Level of Evidence

    Pawlicki, T. [UCSD Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Research related to quality and safety has been a staple of medical physics academic activities for a long time. From very early on, medical physicists have developed new radiation measurement equipment and analysis techniques, created ever increasingly accurate dose calculation models, and have vastly improved imaging, planning, and delivery techniques. These and other areas of interest have improved the quality and safety of radiotherapy for our patients. With the advent of TG-100, quality and safety is an area that will garner even more research interest in the future. As medical physicists pursue quality and safety research in greater numbers, it is worthwhile to consider what actually constitutes research on quality and safety. For example, should the development of algorithms for real-time EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry be defined as “quality and safety” research? How about the clinical implementation of such as system? Surely the application of failure modes and effects analysis to a clinical process would be considered quality and safety research, but is this type of research that should be included in the medical physics peer-reviewed literature? The answers to such questions are of critical importance to set researchers in a direction that will provide the greatest benefit to our field and the patients we serve. The purpose of this symposium is to consider what constitutes research in the arena of quality and safety and differentiate it from other research directions. The key distinction here is developing the tool itself (e.g. algorithms for EPID dosimetry) vs. studying the impact of the tool with some quantitative metric. Only the latter would I call quality and safety research. Issues of ‘basic’ versus ‘applied’ quality and safety research will be covered as well as how the research results should be structured to provide increasing levels of support that a quality and safety intervention is effective and sustainable. Examples from existing

  5. Trending of low level events and near misses to enhance safety performance in nuclear power plants

    2005-11-01

    The IAEA Safety Fundamentals publication, Safety of Nuclear Installations, Safety Series No. 110, states the need for operating organizations to establish a programme for the collection and analysis of operating experience in nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, and lessons learned are disseminated to the staff of the organization and to relevant national and international organizations. As a result of the effort to enhance safety in operating organizations, incidents are progressively decreasing in number and significance. This means that in accordance with international reporting requirements the amount of collected data becomes less sufficient to draw meaningful statistical conclusions. This is where the collection and trend analysis of low level events and near misses can prove to be very useful. These trends can show which of the safety barriers are weak or failing more frequently. Evaluation and trending of low level events and near misses will help to prevent major incidents because latent weaknesses have been identified and corrective actions taken to prevent recurrence. This leads to improved safety and production. Low level events and near misses, which may reach several thousand per reactor operating year, need to be treated by the organizations as learning opportunities. A system for capturing these low level events and near misses truly needs to be an organization-wide system in which all levels of the organization, including contractors, participate. It is desirable that the overall operational experience feedback (OEF) process should integrate the lessons learned and the associated data from significant events with those of lower level events and near misses. To be able to effectively implement a process dealing with low level events and near misses, it is necessary that the organization have a well established OEF process for significant events

  6. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-01-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry

  7. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  8. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  9. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  10. Safety handling manual for high dose rate remote afterloading system

    1999-01-01

    This manual is mainly for safety handling of 192 Ir-RALS (remote afterloading system) of high dose rate and followings were presented: Procedure and document format for the RALS therapy and for handling of its radiation source with the purpose of prevention of human errors and unexpected accidents, Procedure for preventing errors occurring in the treatment schedule and operation, and Procedure and format necessary for newly introducing the system into a facility. Consistency was intended in the description with the quality assurance guideline for therapy with small sealed radiation sources made by JASTRO (Japan Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology). Use of the old type 60 Co-RALS was pointed out to be a serious problem remained and its safety handling procedure was also presented. (K.H.)

  11. Safety

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  12. Monitoring road safety development at regional level: A case study in the ASEAN region.

    Chen, Faan; Wang, Jianjun; Wu, Jiaorong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zegras, P Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Persistent monitoring of progress, evaluating the results of interventions and recalibrating to achieve continuous improvement over time is widely recognized as being crucial towards the successful development of road safety. In the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) region there is a lack of well-resourced teams that contain multidisciplinary safety professionals, and specialists in individual countries, who are able to carry out this work effectively. In this context, not only must the monitoring framework be effective, it must also be easy to use and adapt. This paper provides a case study that can be easily reproduced; based on an updated and refined Road Safety Development Index (RSDI), by means of the RSR (Rank-sum ratio)-based model, for monitoring/reporting road safety development at regional level. The case study was focused on the road safety achievements in eleven Southeast Asian countries; identifying the areas of poor performance, potential problems and delays. These countries are finally grouped into several classes based on an overview of their progress and achievements regarding to road safety. The results allow the policymakers to better understand their own road safety progress toward their desired impact; more importantly, these results enable necessary interventions to be made in a quick and timely manner. Keeping action plans on schedule if things are not progressing as desired. This would avoid 'reinventing the wheel' and trial and error approaches to road safety, making the implementation of action plans more effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Statement of Hugh L. Thompson, Jr. Director, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, accompanied by Robert E. Browning, Director, Division of High Level Waste Management; and Richard E. Cunningham, Director, Division of Fuel Cycle, Medical, Academic, and Commercial Use Safety

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The author would like to thank you this morning, Mr. Chairman, for the opportunity to provide the NRC staff views on several matters related to the Department of Energy's civilian high level radioactive waste program that are of interest to you and other members of the committee. As requested in your letter in invitation, I will first discuss NRC staff comments on DOE's final environmental assessments. The NRC comments on DOE's environmental assessments were also the subject of your letter of March 10th, 1987, to the Commission; and the Commission's April 13th, 1987 reply. With your permission, Mr. Chairman, I would like to introduce these letters into the record

  14. Thoughts of the nuclear safety culture and 'star-level' management

    Wang Sen

    2004-01-01

    From the point of view that enterprise management has come into the stage of cultural management, this article divides the contents of nuclear safety culture into target management, safety management, quality management, site management, cost management, authority management, teamwork, information communication and continuous improvement. Each aspect win be classified by five 'star- level's according to the appearance, and the present situation of the company should be assessed with those star-level indices so as to find out the disadvantages. Improvement will follow with the promotion of company management level. (author)

  15. Beam size measurement at high radiation levels

    Decker, F.J.

    1991-05-01

    At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 μm (σ) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called ''radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 μm over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs

  16. Preliminary safety concept for disposal of the very low level radioactive waste in Romania.

    Niculae, O; Andrei, V; Ionita, G; Duliu, O G

    2009-05-01

    In Romania, there are certain nuclear installations in operation or under decommissioning, all of them representing an important source of very low level waste (VLLW). This paper presents an overview on the approach of the VLLW management in Romania, focused on those resulted from the nuclear power plants decommissioning. At the same time, the basic elements of safety concept, together with some safety evaluations concerning VLLW repository are presented and discussed too.

  17. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    Gelin, R.

    1984-05-01

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  18. Basic concept on safety regulation for land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes

    1985-01-01

    As to the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes, to which the countermeasures have become the urgent problem at present, it is considered to be a realistic method to finally store the solid wastes concentratedly outside the sites of nuclear power stations and others, and effort has been exerted by those concerned to realize it. Besides, as for extremely low level radioactive solid wastes, the measures of disposing them corresponding to the radioactivity level are necessary, and the concrete method has been examined. The Committee on Safety Regulation for Radioactive Wastes has discussed the safety regulation for those since April, 1984, and the basic concept on the safety regulation was worked up. It is expected that the safety of the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes can be ensured when the safety regulation is carried out in conformity with this basic concept. The present status of the countermeasures to the land disposal of low level radioactive solid wastes is shown. As the concrete method, the disposal in shallow strate has been generally adopted. At present, the plan for the final storage in Aomori Prefecture is considered, and it will be started with the first stage of four-stage control. (Kako, I.)

  19. Patient safety in maternal healthcare at secondary and tertiary level facilities in Delhi, India

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is insufficient information on causes of unsafe care at facility levels in India. This study was conducted to understand the challenges in government hospitals in ensuring patient safety and to propose solutions to improve patient care. Materials and Methods: Desk review, in-depth interviews, and focused group discussions were conducted between January and March 2014. Healthcare providers and nodal persons for patient safety in Gynecology and Obstetrics Departments of government health facilities from Delhi state of India were included. Data were analyzed using qualitative research methods and presented adopting the "health system approach." Results: The patient safety was a major concern among healthcare providers. The key challenges identified were scarcity of resources, overcrowding at health facilities, poor communications, patient handovers, delay in referrals, and the limited continuity of care. Systematic attention on the training of care providers involved in service delivery, prescription audits, peer reviews, facility level capacity building plan, additional financial resources, leadership by institutional heads and policy makers were suggested as possible solutions. Conclusions: There is increasing awareness and understanding about challenges in patient safety. The available local information could be used for selection, designing, and implementation of measures to improve patient safety at facility levels. A systematic and sustained approach with attention on all functions of health systems could be beneficial. Patient safety could be used as an entry point to improve the quality of health care services in India.

  20. CAMAC and high-level-languages

    Degenhardt, K.H.

    1976-05-01

    A proposal for easy programming of CAMAC systems with high-level-languages (FORTRAN, RTL/2, etc.) and interpreters (BASIC, MUMTI, etc.) using a few subroutines and a LAM driver is presented. The subroutines and the LAM driver are implemented for PDP11/RSX-11M and for the CAMAC controllers DEC CA11A (branch controller), BORER type 1533A (single crate controller) and DEC CA11F (single crate controller). Mixed parallel/serial CAMAC systems employing KINETIC SYSTEMS serial driver mod. 3992 and serial crate controllers mod. 3950 are implemented for all mentioned parallel controllers, too. DMA transfers from or to CAMAC modules using non-processor-request controllers (BORER type 1542, DEC CA11FN) are available. (orig.) [de

  1. National high-level waste systems analysis

    Kristofferson, K.; O'Holleran, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Previously, no mechanism existed that provided a systematic, interrelated view or national perspective of all high-level waste treatment and storage systems that the US Department of Energy manages. The impacts of budgetary constraints and repository availability on storage and treatment must be assessed against existing and pending negotiated milestones for their impact on the overall HLW system. This assessment can give DOE a complex-wide view of the availability of waste treatment and help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. Facilities, throughputs, schedules, and milestones were modeled to ascertain the treatment and storage systems resource requirements at the Hanford Site, Savannah River Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley Demonstration Project. The impacts of various treatment system availabilities on schedule and throughput were compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources. To assess the various impacts, the model was exercised against a number of plausible scenarios as discussed in this paper

  2. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  3. Engineering safety features for high power experimental reactors

    Doval, A.; Villarino, E.; Vertullo, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the present analysis we will focus our attention in the way engineering safety features are designed in order to prevent fuel damage in case of abnormal or accidental situations. To prevent fuel damage two main facts must be considered, the shutdown of the reactor and the adequate core cooling capacity, it means that both, neutronic and thermohydraulic aspects must be analysed. Some neutronic safety features are common to all power ranges like negative feedback reactivity coefficients and the required number of control rods containing the proper absorber material to shutdown the reactor. From the thermohydraulic point of view common features are siphon-breaker devices and flap valves for those powers requiring cooling in the forced convection regime. For the high power reactor group, the engineering safety features specially designed for a generic reactor of 20 MW, will be presented here. From the neutronic point of view besides the common features, and to comply with our National Regulatory Authority, a Second Shutdown System was designed as a redundant shutdown system in case the control plates fail. Concerning thermohydraulic aspects besides the pump flywheels and the flap valves providing the natural convection loop, a metallic Chimney and a Chimney Water Injection System were supplied. (author)

  4. High-level waste processing and disposal

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-11-01

    Without reprocessing, spent LWR fuel itself is generally considered an acceptable waste form. With reprocessing, borosilicate glass canisters, have now gained general acceptance for waste immobilization. The current first choice for disposal is emplacement in an engineered structure in a mined cavern at a depth of 500-1000 meters. A variety of rock types are being investigated including basalt, clay, granite, salt, shale, and volcanic tuff. This paper gives specific coverage to the national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United States. The French nuclear program assumes prompt reprocessing of its spent fuels, and France has already constructed the AVM. Two larger borosilicate glass plants are planned for a new French reprocessing plant at La Hague. France plans to hold the glass canisters in near-surface storage for a forty to sixty year cooling period and then to place them into a mined repository. The FRG and Japan also plan reprocessing for their LWR fuels. Both are currently having some fuel reprocessed by France, but both are also planning reprocessing plants which will include waste vitrification facilities. West Germany is now constructing the PAMELA Plant at Mol, Belgium to vitrify high level reprocessing wastes at the shutdown Eurochemic Plant. Japan is now operating a vitrification mockup test facility and plans a pilot plant facility at the Tokai reprocessing plant by 1990. Both countries have active geologic repository programs. The United State program assumes little LWR fuel reprocessing and is thus primarily aimed at direct disposal of spent fuel into mined repositories. However, the US have two borosilicate glass plants under construction to vitrify existing reprocessing wastes

  5. Burnout, Perceived Stress, and Job Satisfaction Among Trauma Nurses at a Level I Safety-Net Trauma Center.

    Munnangi, Swapna; Dupiton, Lynore; Boutin, Anthony; Angus, L D George

    Nurses are at the forefront of our health care delivery system and have been reported to exhibit a high level of burnout. Burnout and stress in trauma nurses at a safety-net hospital can negatively impact patient care. Safety-net hospitals are confronted with unique social, financial, as well as resource problems that can potentially make the work environment frustrating. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of burnout, stress, and job satisfaction in nurses providing care to trauma patients at a Level I safety-net trauma center. A cross-sectional survey design was used to investigate principal factors including personal and professional demographics, burnout, perceived stress, and job satisfaction. Trauma nurses working at a Level I safety-net trauma center are stressed and exhibited moderate degree of burnout. The extent of emotional exhaustion experienced by the nurses varied with work location and was highest in surgical intensive care unit nurses. The level of job satisfaction in terms of opportunities for promotion differed significantly by race and the health status of the nurses. Satisfaction with coworkers was lowest in those nurses between the ages of 60-69 years. Female nurses were more satisfied with their coworkers than male nurses. In addition, the study revealed that significant relationships exist among perceived stress, burnout, and job satisfaction. Work environment significantly impacts burnout, job satisfaction, and perceived stress experienced by trauma nurses in a safety-net hospital. Nursing administration can make an effort to understand the levels of burnout and strategically improve work environment for trauma nurses in order to minimize stressors leading to attrition and enhance job satisfaction.

  6. Modeling approach for safety of high activity waste disposal

    Serres, Christophe; Besnus, Francois

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents two examples of numerical modeling studies performed by IRSN for assessing geochemical interactions and the role of engineered barriers for the confinement of radionuclides. These examples illustrate the ability of numerical calculations to contribute to the long-term safety assessment approach. In the first example, disturbances and interactions between cementitious materials, bentonite and clayey host rock are tackled by numerical calculations at process level that enable addressing main issues of interest for performance assessment, e.g. extension and intensity of mineralogical transformations and alkaline plume spreading in the vicinity of the disposal tunnels. Once main disturbances and their effects on confinement properties of repository barriers have been identified and quantified, one may assess the role of each barrier on the overall safety of the repository for various scenarios of evolution. This assessment is tackled by integrated level calculations allowing quantifying radionuclide confinement performance of the whole repository for different stages of alteration of its components. The second example highlights the role played by bentonite engineered barriers, plugs and seals as hydraulic and migration barrier in presence of an excavation damaged zone around the vaults, drifts and shafts for different hydrogeological settings. (author)

  7. Knowledge management for assuring high standards in nuclear safety

    Hahn, L.

    2004-01-01

    The primary incentives for introducing knowledge management in organisations active in the nuclear field are the impending loss of knowledge due to an ageing workforce and the necessity to transfer knowledge to the next generation. However, knowledge management may reach much further, and it is shown that ultimately, the goals of knowledge management are congruent with establishing, maintaining and further developing high standards of safety. Knowledge-based activities to reach these goals are discussed, and examples given for producing, utilising and sharing knowledge in organisations and in national and international networks. (author)

  8. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  9. Industrial high pressure applications. Processes, equipment and safety

    Eggers, Rudolf (ed.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.

  10. Criteria for high-level waste disposal

    Sousselier, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes is storage without the intention of retrieval. But in such storage, it may be useful and in some cases necessary to have the possibility of retrieval at least for a certain period of time. In order to propose some criteria for HLW disposal, one has to examine how this basic concept is to be applied. HLW is waste separated as a raffinate in the first cycle of solvent extraction in reprocessing. Such waste contains the bulk of fission products which have long half lives, therefore the safety of a disposal site, at least after a certain period of time, must be intrinsic, i.e. not based on human intervention. There is a consensus that such a disposal is feasible in a suitable geological formation in which the integrity of the container will be reinforced by several additional barriers. Criteria for disposal can be proposed for all aspects of the question. The author discusses the aims of the safety analysis, particularly the length of time for this analysis, and the acceptable dose commitments resulting from the release of radionuclides, the number and role of each barrier, and a holistic analysis of safety external factors. (Auth.)

  11. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers.

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal

    Roxburgh, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of geological disposal is set out by describing the major rock types in terms of their ability to isolate high-level nuclear waste. The advantages and problems posed by particular rock formations are explored and the design and construction of geological repositories is considered, along with the methods used to estimate their safety. It gives special consideration to the use of sea-covered rock and sediment as well as the on-land situation. Throughout the book the various principles and problems inherent in geological disposal are explained and illustrated by reference to a multitude of European and North American case studies, backed up by a large number of tables, figures and an extensive bibliography

  13. Risk assessment methodology for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    Bott, T.F.; Mac Farlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.; Kindinger, J.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for applying Probabilistic Safety Assessment techniques to quantification of the health risks posed by the high-level waste (HLW) underground tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford reservation. This methodology includes hazard screening development of a list of potential accident initiators, systems fault trees development and quantification, definition of source terms for various release categories, and estimation of health consequences from the releases. Both airborne and liquid pathway releases to the environment, arising from aerosol and spill/leak releases from the tanks, are included in the release categories. The proposed methodology is intended to be applied to a representative subset of the total of 177 tanks, thereby providing a baseline risk profile for the HLW tank farm that can be used for setting clean-up/remediation priorities. Some preliminary results are presented for Tank 101-SY

  14. Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors at Level Rail-Road Crossings

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.

  15. Environmental safety evaluation in test sea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    1979-01-01

    The study results on the environmental safety in the test sea disposal of low-level wastes by Subcommittee on Radioactive Waste Safety Technology in Nuclear Safety Commission are given in connection with the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea reported by the Nuclear Safety Bureau. The Subcommittee concludes that the effect of the test disposal of radioactive wastes into sea on the environment is extremely small. The contents are as follows. The full text of the report; attached data, (1) prediction of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in sea, (2) calculation of the concentrations of radioactive nuclides in marine life with biological paths, and (3) estimation of exposure dose in general people; references (1) radiation exposure of the personnel engaged in sea disposal, (2) the effect of a sea disaster during ocean transport. (J.P.N.)

  16. Human-rated Safety Certification of a High Voltage Robonaut Lithium-ion Battery

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Yayathi, S.; Johnson, M.; Waligora, T.; Verdeyen, W.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's rigorous certification process is being followed for the R2 high voltage battery program for use of R2 on International Space Station (ISS). Rigorous development testing at appropriate levels to credible off-nominal conditions and review of test data led to design improvements for safety at the virtual cell, cartridge and battery levels. Tests were carried out at all levels to confirm that both hardware and software controls work. Stringent flight acceptance testing of the flight battery will be completed before launch for mission use on ISS.

  17. High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: meeting of September 10, 2010

    2010-01-01

    After the approval of its rules of procedure and the designation of the High committee office, the members of the committee discuss the following topics: the High committee communication rules, various issues regarding radioactive wastes (activity of the low level waste work group, recent decisions made by the government on the process of selection of a low level waste storage site, perspectives and modalities of a public hearing organised by the committee according to the mission defined in the waste bill). Then, they discuss the environmental monitoring issue: organisation and strategy of radioactivity control in France by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) and by the French institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), assessment of the radio-ecological status at the vicinity of basic nuclear installations

  18. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  19. Monograph on safety in high power and high energy advanced technologies and medical applications of lasers

    2016-01-01

    This monograph is intended for creating awareness amongst the safety and health professionals of nuclear and radiation facilities on hazards involved in high power and high energy advanced technologies as well as on how development of advanced technologies can benefit the common people

  20. High-level Waste Long-term management technology development

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long-term management system(A-KRS) which deals with spent fuels from domestic nuclear power stations, HLW from advanced fuel cycle and other wastes that are not admitted to LILW disposal site. Also, this project demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the key technologies applied in the A-KRS by evaluating them under in-situ condition such as underground research laboratory and provide important information to establish the safety assessment and long-term management plan. To develop the technologies for the high level radioactive wastes disposal, demonstrate their reliability under in-situ condition and establish safety assessment of disposal system, The major objects of this project are the following: Ο An advanced disposal system including waste containers for HLW from advanced fuel cycle and pyroprocess has been developed. Ο Quantitative assessment tools for long-term safety and performance assessment of a radwaste disposal system has been developed. Ο Hydrological and geochemical investigation and interpretation methods has been developed to evaluate deep geological environments. Ο The THMC characteristics of the engineered barrier system and near-field has been evaluated by in-situ experiments. Ο The migration and retardation of radionuclides and colloid materials in a deep geological environment has been investigated. The results from this project will provide important information to show HLW disposal plan safe and reliable. The knowledge from this project can also contribute to environmental conservation by applying them to the field of oil and gas industries to store their wastes safe

  1. Proceedings of the High Consequence Operations Safety Symposium

    1994-12-01

    Many organizations face high consequence safety situations where unwanted stimuli due to accidents, catastrophes, or inadvertent human actions can cause disasters. In order to improve interaction among such organizations and to build on each others` experience, preventive approaches, and assessment techniques, the High Consequence Operations Safety Symposium was held July 12--14, 1994 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The symposium was conceived by Dick Schwoebel, Director of the SNL Surety Assessment Center. Stan Spray, Manager of the SNL System Studies Department, planned strategy and made many of the decisions necessary to bring the concept to fruition on a short time scale. Angela Campos and about 60 people worked on the nearly limitless implementation and administrative details. The initial symposium (future symposia are planned) was structured around 21 plenary presentations in five methodology-oriented sessions, along with a welcome address, a keynote address, and a banquet address. Poster papers addressing the individual session themes were available before and after the plenary sessions and during breaks.

  2. SAFETY

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  3. Prediction of the safety level in a tritium processing facility through predictive maintenance

    Anghel, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The safety level of a nuclear facility for personnel and environment depends generally on the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and particularly on several technical, technological, economic, and human factors. The role of maintenance is fundamental because it is determined by all the technical, economic and human elements as parts of an integrated system dominated by an important feedback from upstream activities which eventually define the life cycle of the nuclear facility considered. In the maintenance activity as in case of any dynamic area, new elements may appear which, sometimes, require new methods of approach. For considered installation which is a Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) operating as a division of the National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICSI, Rm.Valcea, in order to ensure a safety level in operation as high as possible through predictive maintenance, the fuzzy theory and software LabVIEW were applied. The final aim is to achieve the best practices in maintenance of the tritium processing plant. The safety in operation of the NDP equipment and installations is directly related with the maintenance achieved by improving the reliability through methods and advanced techniques. The maintainability is the capacity of an industrial product, in given utilization conditions, to be maintained and re-established up to achieve specified functions. In general the reliability on some interval is a probability conditioned by good operation at the beginning of the interval, representing thus the probability as the element which operated at t = t 0 to operate in the interval (t 0 , t 1 ). The failure is a fundamental event in the reliability theory. Breakdown (failure) is understood as the stop process of the function required from a given product, the failure representing the effect upon that process. The operation of a product on a certain duration can be a 'success' or a

  4. NOx AND HETEROGENEITY EFFECTS IN HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Meisel, Dan; Camaioni, Donald M.; Orlando, Thom

    2000-01-01

    We summarize contributions from our EMSP supported research to several field operations of the Office of Environmental Management (EM). In particular we emphasize its impact on safety programs at the Hanford and other EM sites where storage, maintenance and handling of HLW is a major mission. In recent years we were engaged in coordinated efforts to understand the chemistry initiated by radiation in HLW. Three projects of the EMSP (''The NOx System in Nuclear Waste,'' ''Mechanisms and Kinetics of Organic Aging in High Level Nuclear Wastes, D. Camaioni--PI'' and ''Interfacial Radiolysis Effects in Tanks Waste, T. Orlando--PI'') were involved in that effort, which included a team at Argonne, later moved to the University of Notre Dame, and two teams at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Much effort was invested in integrating the results of the scientific studies into the engineering operations via coordination meetings and participation in various stages of the resolution of some of the outstanding safety issues at the sites. However, in this Abstract we summarize the effort at Notre Dame

  5. Vitrification of high-level liquid wastes

    Varani, J.L.; Petraitis, E.J.; Vazquez, Antonio.

    1987-01-01

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced in the fuel elements reprocessing require, for their disposal, a preliminary treatment by which, through a series of engineering barriers, the dispersion into the biosphere is delayed by 10 000 years. Four groups of compounds are distinguished among a great variety of final products and methods of elaboration. From these, the borosilicate glasses were chosen. Vitrification experiences were made at a laboratory scale with simulated radioactive wastes, employing different compositions of borosilicate glass. The installations are described. A series of tests were carried out on four basic formulae using always the same methodology, consisting of a dry mixture of the vitreous matrix's products and a dry simulated mixture. Several quality tests of the glasses were made 1: Behaviour in leaching following the DIN 12 111 standard; 2: Mechanical resistance; parameters related with the facility of the different glasses for increasing their surface were studied; 3: Degree of devitrification: it is shown that devitrification turns the glasses containing radioactive wastes easily leachable. From all the glasses tested, the composition SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O, CaO shows the best retention characteristics. (M.E.L.) [es

  6. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  7. Vitrification of high level wastes in France

    Sombret, C.

    1984-02-01

    A brief historical background of the research and development work conducted in France over 25 years is first presented. Then, the papers deals with the vitrification at (1) the UP1 reprocessing plant (Marcoule) and (2) the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants (La Hague). 1) The properties of glass required for high-level radioactive waste vitrification are recalled. The vitrification process and facility of Marcoule are presented. (2) The average characteristics (chemical composition, activity) of LWR fission product solution are given. The glass formulations developed to solidify LWR waste solution must meet the same requirements as those used in the UP1 facility at Marcoule. Three important aspects must be considered with respect to the glass fabrication process: corrosiveness of the molten glass with regard to metals, viscosity of the molten glass, and, volatization during glass fabrication. The glass properties required in view of interim storage and long-term disposal are then largely developed. Two identical vitrification facilities are planned for the site: T7, to process the UP2 throughput, and T7 for the UP3 plant. A prototype unit was built and operated at Marcoule

  8. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  9. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces

  10. Management of health and safety in the organization of worktime at the local level.

    Jeppesen, H J; Bøggild, H

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the consideration of health and safety issues in the local process of organizing worktime within the framework of regulations. The study encompassed all 7 hospitals in one region of Denmark. Twenty-three semi-structured interviews were carried out with 2 representatives from the different parties involved (management, cooperation committees, health and safety committees from each hospital, and 2 local unions). Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to all 114 wards with day and night duty. The response rate was 84%. Data were collected on alterations in worktime schedules, responsibilities, reasons for the present design of schedules, and use of inspection reports. The organization of worktime takes place in single wards without external interference and without guidelines other than the minimum standards set in regulations. At the ward level, management and employees were united in a mutual desire for flexibility, despite the fact that regulations were not always followed. No interaction was found in the management of health and safety factors between the parties concerned at different levels. The demands for flexibility in combination with the absence of guidelines and the missing dynamics between the parties involved imply that the handling of health and safety issues in the organization of worktime may be accidental and unsystematic. In order to consider the health and safety of night and shift workers within the framework of regulations, a clarification of responsibilities, operational levels, and cooperation is required between the parties concerned.

  11. Safety of High Speed Magnetic Levitation Transportation Systems: Preliminary Safety Review of the Transrapid Maglev System

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible : implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad : Administration. This report, one in a series of planned reports on maglev safety, ...

  12. Common basis of establishing safety standards and other safety decision-making levels for different sources of health risk

    Demin, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    Current approaches in establishing safety standards and other decision-making levels for different sources of health risk are critically analysed. To have a common basis for this decision-making a specific risk index R is recommended. In the common sense R is quantitatively defined as LLE caused by the annual exposure to the risk source considered: R = annual exposure, damage (LLE) from the exposure unit. This common definition is also rewritten in specific forms for a set of different risk sources (ionising radiation, chemical pollutants, etc): for different risk sources the exposure can be measured with different quantities (the probability of death, the exposure dose, etc.). R is relative LLE: LLE in years referred to 1 year under the risk. The dimension of this value is [year/year]. In the statistical sense R is conditionally the share of the year, which is lost due to exposure to a risk source during this year. In this sense R can be called as the relative damage. Really lifetime years are lost after the exposure. R can be in some conditional sense considered as a dimensionless quantity. General safety standards R n for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index: R n = 0.0007 and 0.01 accordingly. Secondary safety standards are derived for a number of risk sources (ionising radiation, environmental chemical pollutants, etc). Values of R n are chosen in such a way that to have the secondary radiation BSS being equivalent to the current one's. Other general and derived levels for safety decision-making are also proposed including the de-minimus levels. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data (HDD) is considered. Such issues as the ways of the integration and averaging of risk indices considered through the national or regional HDD for different risk sources and the use of non-threshold linear exposure - response relationships for ionising radiation and chemical pollutants are analysed

  13. Very high temperature measurements: Applications to nuclear reactor safety tests

    Parga, Clemente-Jose

    2013-01-01

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100 deg. C to 2480 deg. C), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: - The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (±0.001 deg. C) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (±3-5 deg. C). - The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300 deg. C) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000 deg. C)

  14. SAFETY

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  15. ENTRIA 2014. Memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Walther, Clemens; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals covers the following issues: description of the problem: a ''wicked problem'', risks and NIMBY, the site selection law, international boundary conditions; disposal strategy and types of facilities: safety and reversibility, long-term surface storage, deep storage; risk and safety; procedural justice and the site selection process; social innovations and the requirement of long-term institutions; conclusion - central stress fields.

  16. Final repositories for high-level radioactive waste; Endlagerung hochradioaktiver Abfaelle

    NONE

    2015-10-15

    The brochure on final repositories for high-level radioactive waste covers the following issues: What is the origin of radioactive wastes? How large are the waste amounts? What is going to happen with the wastes? What is the solution for the Waste disposal? A new site search is started. Safety requirements for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Comparison of host rocks. Who is responsible and who will pay? Final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes worldwide. Short summary: History of the search for a final repository for high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  17. Using level-I PRA for enhanced safety of the advanced neutron source reactor

    Ramsey, C.T.; Linn, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The phase-1, level-I probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor has been completed as part of the conceptual design phase of this proposed research facility. Since project inception, PRA and reliability concepts have been an integral part of the design evolutions contributing to many of the safety features in the current design. The level-I PRA has been used to evaluate the internal events core damage frequency against project goals and to identify systems important to safety and availability, and it will continue to guide and provide support to accident analysis, both severe and nonsevere. The results also reflect the risk value of defense-in-depth safety features in reducing the likelihood of core damage

  18. Main factors determining the KNP units 5 and 6 safety level according to the PSA level 1 result

    Manchev, B.; Marinova, B.; Nenkova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) is a powerful tool for ascertainment of the safety level reached at nuclear power plants operation. The results of PSA determine very clearly the functions, systems, equipment or operator actions that have to be improved in order to increase the plant safety level as a whole. The present report presents the main results of the last upgraded revision of PSA level 1 of units 5 and 6 of KNPP. The objective of the report is to lay emphasis on the factors determining the result obtained, i.e. to demonstrate the scopes whose improvement leads to an increase of the safety level reached at the units power operation. In the frame of the study presented the following categories of initiating events are included: Internal initiating events; Initiating events result of internal fires; Initiating events result of seismic action; Floods. Only the reactor core is considered as a source of radioactive contamination. Only initiating events related to the reactor work on power are analyzed. Unit 5 of KNPP is accepted as a basic unit for the study. All modifications and design changes implemented up to year 2000 are taken into account. The results of PSA level 1 for units 5 and 6 of KNPP covering the risk of internal initiators are presented. The assessment of the core damage due to internal initiators is based on the analysis of 18 groups of initiating events. 932 consequences and two groups of initial events are identified, leading to core damage. As a result of the quantitative calculation, over 15000 minimal cuts for the core damage are obtained. The first 80 cuts bear over 75% of the frequency obtained, and the first 700 cuts bear over 90%. Distribution of the core damage frequency by different groups of initiators is presented in tables and diagrams. A comparison of the result obtained for the reactor core damage of KNPP units 5 and 6 with assessment obtained for similar power plants is presented. The data for different NPPs are taken

  19. Suggestions on R and D work of high-level radioactive waste disposal in China

    Xu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    The difference between repository and generic underground facilities is described. Some differences and similarities of site selection between the low and medium radioactive waste disposal, nuclear power station and high-level radioactive waste repository are also discussed here. We trend to extremely emphasize the safety of high-level radioactive waste disposal because of high toxicity, long half-life and long safety disposal period of this kind of radioactive wastes; because radioactive waste in the repository is of high specific activities and buried in depth, it would be difficult to meddle with its safety. In case of repository system being destroyed, the author considers that in the stages of regional and area site selection, the first task is to investigate regional tectonic stability. Some problems about disposal options and others are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  20. Computer-aided safety systems of industrial high energy objects

    Topolsky, N.G.; Gordeev, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Modern objects of fuel and energy, chemical industries are characterized by high power consumption; by presence of large quantities of combustible and explosive substances used in technological processes; by advanced communications of submission systems of initial liquid and gasiform reagents, lubricants and coolants, the products of processing, and wastes of production; by advanced ventilation and pneumatic transport; and by complex control systems of energy, material and information flows. Such objects have advanced infrastructures, including a significant quantity of engineering buildings intended for storage, transportation, and processing of combustible liquids, gasiform fuels and materials, and firm materials. Examples of similar objects are nuclear and thermal power stations, chemical plants, machine-building factories, iron and steel industry enterprises, etc. Many tasks and functions characterizing the problem of fire safety of these objects can be accomplished only upon the development of special Computer-Aided Fire Safety Systems (CAFSS). The CAFSS for these objects are intended to reduce the hazard of disastrous accidents both causing fires and caused by them. The tasks of fire prevention and rescue work of large-scale industrial objects are analyzed within the bounds of the recommended conception. A functional structure of CAFSS with a list of the main subsystems forming a part of its composition has been proposed

  1. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic-Type Berm Breakwater

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    strategies and possible failure with corresponding downtime have been taken into account, as well as actual market prices (in Iceland and Norway) for rack material and construction. Calculations show that low stability numbers for the largest rock armour layer give the optimal safety level....

  2. High level waste management in Asia: R and D perspectives

    Deokattey, Sangeeta; Bhanumurthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to provide an overview, about the status of R and D and current trends in high level radioactive waste management, particularly in Asian countries. The INIS database (for the period 1976 to 2010) was selected for this purpose, as this is the most authoritative global source of information, in the area of Nuclear Science and Technology. Appropriate query formulations on the database, resulted in the retrieval of 4322 unique bibliographic records. Using the content analysis method (which is both a qualitative as well as a quantitative research method), all the records were analyzed. Part One of the analysis details Scientometric R and D indicators, such as the countries and the institutions involved in R and D, the types of publications, and programmes and projects related to High Level Waste management. Part Two is a subject-based analysis, grouped under the following broad categories: I. Waste Processing 1. Partitioning and transmutation (including ADS) II. Waste Immobilization 1. Glass waste forms and 2. Crystalline ceramics and other waste forms III. Waste Disposal 1. Performance assessment and safety evaluation studies 2. Geohydrological studies a. Site selection and characterization, b. In situ underground experiments, c. Rock mechanical characterization 3. Deep geological repositories a. Sorption, migration and groundwater chemistry b. Engineered barrier systems and IV. Waste Packaging Materials. The results of this analysis are summarized in the study. (author)

  3. 78 FR 27033 - Safety Zone; High Water Conditions; Illinois River

    2013-05-09

    ... Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and would not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that might... the Captain of the Port Lake Michigan. The safety zone has been effective and enforced since April 18...

  4. Screening-Level Safety Assessment of Personal Care Product Constituents Using Publicly Available Data

    Ernest S. Fung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations recommend evaluating individual ingredients when assessing the safety of personal care or cosmetic products. The goal of this study was to present a screening-level safety assessment methodology to evaluate the safety of a product by identifying individual ingredients, determining their frequency of use in on-market products, and examining published safe-level-of-use information for each ingredient. As a case study, we evaluated WEN by Chaz Dean (WCD cleansing conditioners since there have been claims of adverse health effects associated with product use. We evaluated 30 ingredients in three on-market WCD cleansing conditioners. We then analyzed the National Library of Medicine’s Household Products Database and the Environmental Working Group’s (EWG Skin Deep Cosmetic Database, two of the largest publicly available databases, for other on-market personal care and cosmetic products that contained these ingredients. Safe-level-of-use information for each ingredient was obtained by reviewing peer-reviewed literature, the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA generally recognized as safe (GRAS database, available Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR publications, and available product safety publications. The results of this analysis showed that more than 20,000 personal care and cosmetic products contained one or more of the evaluated ingredients used in WCD cleaning conditioners. Published safety information was available for 21 of the 30 evaluated ingredients: seven identified ingredients were designated as GRAS by the FDA and 16 ingredients had safe-level-of-use information available from the CIR. This study presents a screening-level safety assessment methodology that can serve as an initial screening tool to evaluate the safety of an ingredient intended for use in personal care and cosmetic products before a product is launched onto the market. This study provides evidence that the evaluated WCD cleansing conditioner ingredients

  5. The effect of safety training involving non-destructive testing among students at specialized vocational high schools

    Lim Young Khi; Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok

    2017-01-01

    By examining the safety issues involved in on-site training sessions conducted at specialized vocational high schools, and by analyzing the effects of non-destructive testing (NDT) safety training, this study aims to contribute to ensuring the general safety of high school students. Students who expressed an interest in participation were surveyed regarding current NDT training practices, as well as NDT safety training. A total of 361 students from 4 schools participated in this study; 37.7% (136 students) were from the Seoul metropolitan area and 62.3% (225 students) were from other areas. Of the respondents, 2.2% (8 students) reported having engaged in NDT. As a result of safety training, statistically significant improvements were observed in most areas, except for individuals with previous NDT experience. The areas of improvement included safety awareness, acquisition of knowledge, subjective knowledge levels, objective knowledge levels, and adjustments to existing personal attitudes. Even at absolutely necessary observation-only training sessions, it is crucial that sufficient safety training and additional safety measures be adequately provided

  6. The effect of safety training involving non-destructive testing among students at specialized vocational high schools

    Lim Young Khi [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Ok; Choi, Yoon Seok [Dept. of Education amd Research, Korea Academy of Nuclear Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    By examining the safety issues involved in on-site training sessions conducted at specialized vocational high schools, and by analyzing the effects of non-destructive testing (NDT) safety training, this study aims to contribute to ensuring the general safety of high school students. Students who expressed an interest in participation were surveyed regarding current NDT training practices, as well as NDT safety training. A total of 361 students from 4 schools participated in this study; 37.7% (136 students) were from the Seoul metropolitan area and 62.3% (225 students) were from other areas. Of the respondents, 2.2% (8 students) reported having engaged in NDT. As a result of safety training, statistically significant improvements were observed in most areas, except for individuals with previous NDT experience. The areas of improvement included safety awareness, acquisition of knowledge, subjective knowledge levels, objective knowledge levels, and adjustments to existing personal attitudes. Even at absolutely necessary observation-only training sessions, it is crucial that sufficient safety training and additional safety measures be adequately provided.

  7. Representing the Fuzzy improved risk graph for determination of optimized safety integrity level in industrial setting

    Z. Qorbali

    2013-12-01

    .Conclusion: as a result of establishing the presented method, identical levels in conventional risk graph table are replaced with different sublevels that not only increases the accuracy in determining the SIL, but also elucidates the effective factor in improving the safety level and consequently saves time and cost significantly. The proposed technique has been employed to develop the SIL of Tehran Refinery ISOMAX Center. IRG and FIRG results have been compared to clarify the efficacy and importance of the proposed method

  8. Bacterial quality and safety of packaged fresh leafy vegetables at the retail level in Finland.

    Nousiainen, L-L; Joutsen, S; Lunden, J; Hänninen, M-L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-09-02

    Consumption of packaged fresh leafy vegetables, which are convenient ready-to-eat products, has increased during the last decade. The number of foodborne outbreaks associated with these products has concurrently increased. In our study, (1) label information, (2) O2/CO2 composition, (3) bacterial quality and (4) safety of 100 fresh leafy vegetables at the retail level were studied in Finland during 2013. Bacterial quality was studied using aerobic bacteria (AB) and coliform bacteria (CB) counts, and searching for the presence of Escherichia coli, Listeria and Yersinia. The safety was studied by the presence of Salmonella, ail-positive Yersinia, stx-positive E. coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes using PCR and culturing. Important label information was unavailable on several packages originating from different companies. The packaging date was missing on all packages and the date of durability on 83% of the packages. Storage temperature was declared on 62% of the packages and 73% of the packages contained information about prewashing. The batch/lot number was missing on 29% of the packages. Very low oxygen (O2) (vegetable samples varying between 6.2 and 10.6 and 4.2-8.3logcfu/g, respectively. In most of the samples, the AB and CB counts exceeded 10(8) and 10(6)cfu/g, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between the AB and CB counts. E. coli was isolated from 15% of the samples and Yersinia from 33%. L. monocytogenes was isolated from two samples and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in one. Using PCR, STEC was detected in seven samples, and Salmonella and ail-positive Y. enterocolitica in two samples each. The AB and CB mean values of products originating from different companies varied widely. High AB and CB counts and pathogenic bacteria were detected in ready-to-eat products not needing washing before use. Our study shows that the bacterial quality and safety of packaged fresh leafy vegetables is poor and label information on the packages is

  9. Nova performance at ultra high fluence levels

    Hunt, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    Nova is a ten beam high power Nd:glass laser used for interial confinement fusion research. It was operated in the high power high energy regime following the completion of construction in December 1984. During this period several interesting nonlinear optical phenomena were observed. These phenomena are discussed in the text. 11 refs., 5 figs

  10. Methodology of safety evaluation about land disposal of low level radioactive wastes

    Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1986-01-01

    Accompanying the progress of the construction project of low level radioactive waste storage facilities in Aomori Prefecture, the full scale land disposal of low level radioactive wastes shows its symptom also in Japan. In this report, the scientific methodology to explain the safety about the land disposal of low level radioactive wastes is discussed. The land disposal of general wastes by shallow burying has already had sufficient results. In the case of low level radioactive wastes, also the land disposal by shallow burying is considered. Low level radioactive wastes can be regarded as one form of industrial wastes, as there are many common parts in the scientific and theoretical base of the safety. Attention is paid most to the contamination of ground water. Low level radioactive wastes are solid wastes, accordingly the degree of contamination should be less. The space in which ground water existes, the phenomena of ground water movement, the phenomena of ground water dispersion and Fick's law, the adsorption effect of strata, and the evaluation of source term are explained. These are the method to analyze the degree of contamination from safety evaluation viewpoint. (Kako, I.)

  11. Intensive care unit nurses' perceptions of safety after a highly specific safety intervention.

    Elder, N C; Brungs, S M; Nagy, M; Kudel, I; Render, M L

    2008-02-01

    It is unknown if successful changes in specific safety practices in the intensive care unit (ICU) generalize to broader concepts of patient safety by staff nurses. To explore perceptions of patient safety among nursing staff in ICUs following participation in a safety project that decreased hospital acquired infections. After implementation of practices that reduced catheter-related bloodstream infections in ICUs at four community hospitals, ICU nurses participated in focus groups to discuss patient safety. Audiotapes from the focus groups were transcribed, and two independent reviewers categorised the data which were triangulated with responses from selected questions of safety climate surveys and with the safety checklists used by management leadership on walk rounds. Thirty-three nurses attended eight focus groups; 92 nurses and managers completed safety climate surveys, and three separate leadership checklists were reviewed. In focus groups, nurses predominantly related patient safety to dangers in the physical environment (eg, bed rails, alarms, restraints, equipment, etc.) and to medication administration. These areas also represented 47% of checklist items from leadership walk rounds. Nurses most frequently mentioned self-initiated "double checking" as their main safety task. Focus-group participants and survey responses both noted inconsistency between management's verbal and written commitment compared with their day-to-day support of patient safety issues. ICU nurses who participated in a project to decrease hospital acquired infections did not generalize their experience to other aspects of patient safety or relate it to management's interest in patient safety. These findings are consistent with many adult learning theories, where self-initiated tasks, combined with immediate, but temporary problem-solving, are stronger learning forces than management-led activities with delayed feedback.

  12. Material chemistry challenges in vitrification of high level radioactive waste

    Kaushik, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear technology with an affective environmental management plan and focused attention on safety measures is a much cleaner source of electricity generation as compared to other sources. With this perspective, India has undertaken nuclear energy program to share substantial part of future need of power. Safe containment and isolation of nuclear waste from human environment is an indispensable part of this programme. Majority of radioactivity in the entire nuclear fuel cycle is high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW), which is getting generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. A three stage strategy for management of HLW has been adopted in India. This involves (i) immobilization of waste oxides in stable and inert solid matrices, (ii) interim retrievable storage of the conditioned waste product under continuous cooling and (iii) disposal in deep geological formation. Borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted in India for immobilization of HLW. Material issue are very important during the entire process of waste immobilization. Performance of the materials used in nuclear waste management determines its safety/hazards. Material chemistry therefore has a significant bearing on immobilization science and its technological development for management of HLW. The choice of suitable waste form to deploy for nuclear waste immobilization is difficult decision and the durability of the conditioned product is not the sole criterion. In any immobilization process, where radioactive materials are involved, the process and operational conditions play an important role in final selection of a suitable glass formulation. In remotely operated vitrification process, study of chemistry of materials like glass, melter, materials of construction of other equipment under high temperature and hostile corrosive condition assume significance for safe and un-interrupted vitrification of radioactive to ensure its isolation waste from human environment. The present

  13. Department of Energy pretreatment of high-level and low-level wastes

    McGinnis, C.P.; Hunt, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of the 1 x 10 8 gal of highly radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is one of DOE's greatest challenges. Therefore, the DOE Office of Environmental Management has created the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage an integrated technology development program that results in the safe and efficient remediation of UST waste. The TFA has divided its efforts into five areas, which are safety, characterization, retrieval/closure, pretreatment, and immobilization. All DOE pretreatment activities are integrated by the Pretreatment Technical Integration Manager of the TFA. For FY 1996, the 14 pretreatment tasks are divided into 3 systems: supernate separations, sludge treatment, and solid/liquid separation. The plans and recent results of these TFA tasks, which include two 25,000-gal demonstrations and two former TFA tasks on Cs removal, are presented. The pretreatment goals are to minimize the volume of high-level waste and the radioactivity in low-level waste

  14. Safety and licensing of MHTGR [Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    Silady, F.A.; Millunzi, A.C.; Kelley, A.P. Jr.; Cunliffe, J.

    1987-07-01

    The Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design meets stringent top-level regulatory and user safety requirements that require that the normal and off-normal operation of the plant not disturb the public's day-to-day activities. Quantitative, top-level regulatory criteria have been specified from US NRC and EPA sources to guide the design. The user/utility group has further specified that these criteria be met at the plant boundary. The focus of the safety approach has then been centered on retaining the radionuclide inventory within the fuel by removing core heat, controlling chemical attack, and by controlling heat generation. The MHTGR is shown to passively meet the stringent requirements with margin. No operator action is required and the plant is insensitive to operator error

  15. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  16. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2008-04-01

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out

  17. SAFETY

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  18. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Vision in high-level football officials.

    Baptista, António Manuel Gonçalves; Serra, Pedro M; McAlinden, Colm; Barrett, Brendan T

    2017-01-01

    Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R) and assistant referees (AR) participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9%) and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4%) were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS) and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV) questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis) were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62%) of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR) and level (international/national) of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of pfootball officials were similar to published normative values for young, adult populations and similar between R and AR. Clinically-measured vision did not differ according to officiating level. Visual acuity measured with and without a pinhole disc indicated that around one quarter of participants may be capable of better vision when officiating, as evidenced by better acuity (≥1 line of letters) using the pinhole. Amongst the clinical visual tests we used, we did not find evidence for above-average performance in elite-level football officials. Although the impact of uncorrected mild to moderate refractive error upon officiating performance is unknown, with a greater uptake of eye examinations, visual

  20. 33 CFR 165.121 - Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: High... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION... Guard District § 165.121 Safety and Security Zones: High Interest Vessels, Narragansett Bay, Rhode...

  1. The safety case in support of the license application of the surface repository of low-level waste in Dessel, Belgium

    Wacquier, William; Cool, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The modern concept of the safety case, developed by the OECD/NEA for geological repositories of high- and medium-level waste has been successfully applied by ONDRAF/ NIRAS for a surface repository for Category A waste (i.e. low-level waste) in Belgium in the current project phase 2006-2012. This resulted in the submission on 31 January 2013 by ONDRAF/NIRAS of an application for a 'construction and operation license' to the safety authorities. The benefits of using the notion of the safety case have been that: i) safety has been incorporated in an integrated manner within all assessment basis, design and safety assessment activities; ii) the process of development of the license application has gained in clarity and traceability; iii) the documentation of the license application contains multiple lines of argumentation for safety rather than argumentation based only on quantitative radiological impact calculations. To offer a comprehensive view on the safety argumentation and its development, it has been found useful to develop the argumentation not only along a safety statements structure but also along the safety report structure. (authors)

  2. Vision in high-level football officials.

    António Manuel Gonçalves Baptista

    Full Text Available Officiating in football depends, at least to some extent, upon adequate visual function. However, there is no vision standard for football officiating and the nature of the relationship between officiating performance and level of vision is unknown. As a first step in characterising this relationship, we report on the clinically-measured vision and on the perceived level of vision in elite-level, Portuguese football officials. Seventy-one referees (R and assistant referees (AR participated in the study, representing 92% of the total population of elite level football officials in Portugal in the 2013/2014 season. Nine of the 22 Rs (40.9% and ten of the 49 ARs (20.4% were international-level. Information about visual history was also gathered. Perceived vision was assessed using the preference-values-assigned-to-global-visual-status (PVVS and the Quality-of-Vision (QoV questionnaire. Standard clinical vision measures (including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis were gathered in a subset (n = 44, 62% of the participants. Data were analysed according to the type (R/AR and level (international/national of official, and Bonferroni corrections were applied to reduce the risk of type I errors. Adopting criterion for statistical significance of p<0.01, PVVS scores did not differ between R and AR (p = 0.88, or between national- and international-level officials (p = 0.66. Similarly, QoV scores did not differ between R and AR in frequency (p = 0.50, severity (p = 0.71 or bothersomeness (p = 0.81 of symptoms, or between international-level vs national-level officials for frequency (p = 0.03 or bothersomeness (p = 0.07 of symptoms. However, international-level officials reported less severe symptoms than their national-level counterparts (p<0.01. Overall, 18.3% of officials had either never had an eye examination or if they had, it was more than 3 years previously. Regarding refractive correction, 4.2% had undergone refractive surgery and

  3. Decision Document for Heat Removal from High-Level Waste Tanks

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document establishes the combination of design and operational configurations that will be used to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. The chosen method--to use the primary and annulus ventilation systems to remove heat from the high-level waste tanks--is documented herein

  4. Evaluation of strategies for end storage of high-level reactor fuel

    2001-01-01

    This report evaluates a national strategy for end-storage of used high-level reactor fuel from the research reactors at Kjeller and in Halden. This strategy presupposes that all the important phases in handling the high-level material, including temporary storage and deposition, are covered. The quantity of spent fuel from Norwegian reactors is quite small. In addition to the technological issues, ethical, environmental, safety and economical requirements are emphasized

  5. Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental and Safety Assessment Activities in Slovenia

    Marc, D.; Loose, A.; Urbanc, J.

    1998-01-01

    The protection of the environment is one of the main concerns in the management of radioactive waste, especially in repository planning. In different stages of repository lifetime the environmental assessment has different functions: it can be used as a decision making process and as a planning, communication and management tool. Safety assessment as a procedure for evaluating the performance of a disposal system, and its potential radiological impact on human health and environment, is also required. Following the international recommendations and Slovene legislation, a presentation is given of the role and importance of the environmental and safety assessment activities in the early stages following concept development and site selection for a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository in Slovenia. As a case study, a short overview is also given of the preliminary safety assessment that has been carried out in the analysis of possibilities for long-lived LILW disposal in Slovenia. (author)

  6. Statistics of high-level scene context.

    Greene, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT IS CRITICAL FOR RECOGNIZING ENVIRONMENTS AND FOR SEARCHING FOR OBJECTS WITHIN THEM: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed "things" in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics

  7. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Safety report

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Storage of radioactive waste must delay the return of radionuclides to the biosphere for a long period of time and must maintain the release rates at a sufficiently low level for all time. This is achieved with the aid of a series of safety barriers which consist, on the one hand, of technical barriers in the repository and, on the other hand , of natural geological barriers as they occur at the repository location. In order to assess the efficiency of the barriers, the working methods of the technical barriers and the host rock must be understood. This understanding is transferred into quantitative models in order to calculate the safety of the repository. The individual barriers and the methods used to modelling their functions were described in volume NGB 85-07 of the Project Guarantee 1985 report series and the data necessary for modelling were given. The models and data are used in the safety analysis, the results of which are contained in the present report. Safety considerations show that models are available in Switzerland which allow, in principle, an assessment of the long-term behaviour of a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. The evaluation of earlier studies and experimental work, suitable laboratory measurements and results from field research enable compilation of a representative data-set so that the requirements for quantitative statements on safety of final disposal are met from this side also. The safety calculations show that the radiation doses calculated for a base case scenario with realistic/conservative parameter values are negligibly low. Also, radiation doses which are clearly under the protection standard of 10 mrem per year result for conservative values and the cumulation of several conservative assumptions. Even assuming exposure of the repository by erosion, a radiotoxicity of the soil formed results which is under natural values

  8. EUMENES, a computer software for managing the radiation safety program information at an institutional level

    Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro; Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Valdes Ramos, Maryzury; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Niurka; Vergara Gil, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The correct application of national and international regulations in the field of Radiological Safety requires the implementation of Radiation Safety Programs appropriate to the developed practice. These Programs demand the preparation and keeping of an important number of records and data, the compliance with working schedules, systematic quality controls, audits, delivery of information to the Regulatory Authority, the execution of radiological assessments, etc. Therefore, it is unquestionable the necessity and importance of having a computer tool to support the management of the information related to the Radiation Safety Program in any institution. The present work describes a computer program that allows the efficient management of these data. Its design was based on the IAEA International Basic Safety Standards recommendations and on the requirements of the Cuban national standards, with the objective of being flexible enough to be applied in most of the institutions using ionizing radiations. The most important records of Radiation Safety Programs were incorporated and reports can be generated by the users. An additional tools-module allows the user to access to a radionuclide data library, and to carry out different calculations of interest in radiological protection. The program has been developed in Borland Delphi and manages Microsoft Access databases. It is a user friendly code that aims to support the optimization of Radiation Safety Programs. The program contributes to save resources and time, as the generated information is electronically kept and transmitted. The code has different security access levels according to the user responsibility at the institution and also provides for the analysis of the introduced data, in a quick and efficient way, as well as to notice deadlines, the exceeding of reference levels and situations that require attention. (author)

  9. Progress in the High Level Trigger Integration

    Cristobal Padilla

    2007-01-01

    During the week from March 19th to March 23rd, the DAQ/HLT group performed another of its technical runs. On this occasion the focus was on integrating the Level 2 and Event Filter triggers, with a much fuller integration of HLT components than had been done previously. For the first time this included complete trigger slices, with a menu to run the selection algorithms for muons, electrons, jets and taus at the Level-2 and Event Filter levels. This Technical run again used the "Pre-Series" system (a vertical slice prototype of the DAQ/HLT system, see the ATLAS e-news January issue for details). Simulated events, provided by our colleagues working in the streaming tests, were pre-loaded into the ROS (Read Out System) nodes. These are the PC's where the data from the detector is stored after coming out of the front-end electronics, the "first part of the TDAQ system" and the interface to the detectors. These events used a realistic beam interaction mixture and had been subjected to a Level-1 selection. The...

  10. Evaluation of Vaginal Drug Levels and Safety of a Locally Administered Glycerol Monolaurate Cream in Rhesus Macaques.

    Kirtane, Ameya R; Rothenberger, Meghan K; Frieberg, Abby; Nephew, Karla; Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Schmidt, Thomas; Reimann, Thomas; Haase, Ashley T; Panyam, Jayanth

    2017-07-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus epidemic affects millions of people worldwide. As women are more vulnerable to infection, female-controlled interventions can help control the spread of the disease significantly. Glycerol monolaurate (GML), an inexpensive and safe compound, has been shown to protect against simian immunodeficiency virus infection when applied vaginally. However, on account of its low aqueous solubility, fabrication of high-dose formulations of GML has proven difficult. We describe the development of a vaginal cream that could be loaded with up to 35% GML. Vaginal drug levels and safety of 3 formulations containing increasing concentrations of GML (5%w/w, 15%w/w, and 35%w/w) were tested in rhesus macaques after vaginal administration. GML concentration in the vaginal tissue increased as the drug concentration in the cream increased, with 35% GML cream resulting in tissue concentration of ∼0.5 mg/g, albeit with high interindividual variability. Compared with the vehicle control, none of the GML creams had any significant effect on the vaginal flora and cytokine (macrophage inflammatory protein 3α and interleukin 8) levels, suggesting that high-dose GML formulations do not induce local adverse effects. In summary, we describe the development of a highly loaded vaginal cream of GML, and vaginal drug levels and safety after local administration in macaques. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Canadian high-level radioactive waste management system issues

    Allan, C.J.; Gray, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    In Canada responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes rests with the producer of those wastes. This fundamental principle applies to such diverse wastes as uranium mine and mill tailings, low-level wastes from universities and hospitals, wastes produced at nuclear research establishments, and wastes produced at nuclear generating stations. The federal government has accepted responsibility for historical wastes for which the original producer can no longer be held accountable. Management of radioactive wastes is subject to the regulatory control of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the federal agency responsible for regulating the nuclear industry. In this paper the authors summarize the current situation concerning the management of high level (used nuclear fuel) wastes. In 1981 the two governments also announced that selection of a disposal site would not proceed, and responsibility for site selection and operation would not be assigned until the Concept for used fuel disposal had been reviewed and assessed. Thus the concept assessment is generic rather than site specific. The Concept that has been developed has been designed to conform with safety and performance criteria established by the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is based on burial deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield, using a multi-barrier approach with a series of engineered and natural barriers: these include the waste form, container, buffer and backfill, and the host rock

  12. Automated generation of partial Markov chain from high level descriptions

    Brameret, P.-A.; Rauzy, A.; Roussel, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to generate partial Markov chains from high level implicit descriptions, namely AltaRica models. This algorithm relies on two components. First, a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to compute shortest paths in a graph. Second, the definition of a notion of distance to select which states must be kept and which can be safely discarded. The proposed method solves two problems at once. First, it avoids a manual construction of Markov chains, which is both tedious and error prone. Second, up the price of acceptable approximations, it makes it possible to push back dramatically the exponential blow-up of the size of the resulting chains. We report experimental results that show the efficiency of the proposed approach. - Highlights: • We generate Markov chains from a higher level safety modeling language (AltaRica). • We use a variation on Dijkstra's algorithm to generate partial Markov chains. • Hence we solve two problems: the first problem is the tedious manual construction of Markov chains. • The second problem is the blow-up of the size of the chains, at the cost of decent approximations. • The experimental results highlight the efficiency of the method

  13. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-20

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a dose consequence analysis of high-level waste (HLW) consisting of plutonium immobilized in vitrified HLW to be handled at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain for a beyond design basis event (BDBE) under expected conditions using best estimate values for each calculation parameter. In addition to the dose calculation, a plutonium respirable particle size for dose calculation use is derived. The current concept for this waste form is plutonium disks enclosed in cans immobilized in canisters of vitrified HLW (i.e., glass). The plutonium inventory at risk used for this calculation is selected from Plutonium Immobilization Project Input for Yucca Mountain Total Systems Performance Assessment (Shaw 1999). The BDBE examined in this calculation is a nonmechanistic initiating event and the sequence of events that follow to cause a radiological release. This analysis will provide the radiological releases and dose consequences for a postulated BDBE. Results may be considered in other analyses to determine or modify the safety classification and quality assurance level of repository structures, systems, and components. This calculation uses best available technical information because the BDBE frequency is very low (i.e., less than 1.0E-6 events/year) and is not required for License Application for the Monitored Geologic Repository. The results of this calculation will not be used as part of a licensing or design basis.

  14. Applications of High and Ultra High Pressure Homogenization for Food Safety

    Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the shelf-life and safety of foods have been achieved by thermal processing. Low temperature long time (LTLT) and high temperature short time (HTST) treatments are the most commonly used hurdles for the pasteurization of fluid foods and raw materials. However, the thermal treatments can reduce the product quality and freshness. Consequently, some non-thermal pasteurization process have been proposed during the last decades, including high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed ele...

  15. Assessment of studies and researches on warehousing - High-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes - December 2012

    2013-01-01

    This large report first presents the approach adopted for the study and research on the warehousing of high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes. It outlines how reversible storage and warehousing are complementary, discusses the lessons learned from researches performed by the CEA on long duration warehousing, presents the framework of studies and researches performed since 2006, and presents the scientific and technical content of studies and researches (warehousing need analysis, search for technical options providing complementarity with storage, extension or creation of warehousing installations). The second part addresses high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive waste parcels, indicates their origins and quantities. The third part proposes an analysis of warehousing capacities: existing capacities, French industrial experience in waste parcel warehousing, foreign experience in waste warehousing. The fourth part addresses reversible storage in deep geological formation: storage safety functions, storage reversibility, storage parcels, storage architecture, chronicle draft. The fifth part proposes an inventory of warehousing needs in terms of additional capacities for the both types of wastes (high-level, and intermediate-level-long-lived), and discusses warehousing functionalities and safety objectives. The sixth and seventh parts propose a detailed overview of design options for warehousing installations, respectively for high-level and for intermediate-level-long-lived waste parcels: main technical issues, feasibility studies of different concepts or architecture shapes, results of previous studies and introduction to studies performed since 2011, possible evolutions of the HA1, HA2 and MAVL concepts. The eighth chapter reports a phenomenological analysis of warehousing and the optimisation of material selection and construction arrangements. The last part discusses the application of researches to the extension of the

  16. Safety

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  17. Development of System Model for Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment of TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor

    Tom, P.P; Mazleha Maskin; Ahmad Hassan Sallehudin Mohd Sarif; Faizal Mohamed; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Shaharum Ramli; Muhamad Puad Abu

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear safety is a very big issue in the world. As a consequence of the accident at Fukushima, Japan, most of the reactors in the world have been reviewed their safety of the reactors including also research reactors. To develop Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP), three organizations are involved; Nuclear Malaysia, AELB and UKM. PSA methodology is a logical, deductive technique which specifies an undesired top event and uses fault trees and event trees to model the various parallel and sequential combinations of failures that might lead to an undesired event. Fault Trees (FT) methodology is use in developing of system models. At the lowest level, the Basic Events (BE) of the fault trees (components failure and human errors) are assigned probability distributions. In this study, Risk Spectrum software used to construct the fault trees and analyze the system models. The results of system models analysis such as core damage frequency (CDF), minimum cut set (MCS) and common cause failure (CCF) uses to support decision making for upgrading or modification of the RTP?s safety system. (author)

  18. Annual plan of research on safety techniques against low level radioactive wastes, 1984-1988

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of the countermeasures for treating and disposing radioactive wastes has become an important subject for promoting the utilization of atomic energy. Especially as to low level radioactive wastes, the cumulative quantity has reached about 460,000 in terms of 200 l drums as of the end of March, 1983, and accompanying the development of the utilization of atomic energy, its rapid increase is expected. So far, as for the disposal of low level radioactive wastes, the research and development and the preparation of safety criteria and safety evaluation techniques have been carried out, following the basic policy of the Atomic Energy Commission to execute land disposal and ocean disposal in combination, first to make the test disposal after preliminary safety evaluation, and to shift to the full scale disposal based on the results. The annual plan was decided on July 22, 1983, and the first revision was carried out this time, therefore, it is reported here. The basic policy of establishing this annual plan, and the annual plan for safety technique research are described. (Kako, I.)

  19. Period analysis at high noise level

    Kovacs, G.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the variances of some types of the periodograms due to normal-distributed noise present in the data. The equivalence of the Jurkevich and the Warner and Robinson methods is proved. The optimum phase cell number of the Warner and Robinson method is given; this number depends on the data length, signal form and noise level. The results are illustrated by numerical examples. (orig.)

  20. Measuring school climate in high schools: a focus on safety, engagement, and the environment.

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Debnam, Katrina J; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2014-09-01

    School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model. Drawing upon 2 consecutive waves of data from over 25,000 high school students (46% minority), a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses examined the fit of the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Climate Survey with the USDOE model. The results indicated adequate model fit with the theorized 3-factor model of school climate, which included 13 subdomains: safety (perceived safety, bullying and aggression, and drug use); engagement (connection to teachers, student connectedness, academic engagement, school connectedness, equity, and parent engagement); environment (rules and consequences, physical comfort, and support, disorder). We also found consistent measurement invariance with regard to student sex, grade level, and ethnicity. School-level interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.04 to .10 for the scales. Findings supported the USDOE 3-factor model of school climate and suggest measurement invariance and high internal consistency of the 3 scales and 13 subdomains. These results suggest the 56-item measure may be a potentially efficient, yet comprehensive measure of school climate. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  1. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  2. Safety Culture: A Requirement for New Business Models — Lessons Learned from Other High Risk Industries

    Kecklund, L.

    2016-01-01

    Technical development and changes on global markets affects all high risk industries creating opportunities as well as risks related to the achievement of safety and business goals. Changes in legal and regulatory frameworks as well as in market demands create a need for major changes. Several high risk industries are facing a situation where they have to develop new business models. Within the transportation domain, e.g., aviation and railways, there is a growing concern related to how the new business models may affects safety issues. New business models in aviation and railways include extensive use of outsourcing and subcontractors to reduce costs resulting in, e.g., negative changes in working conditions, work hours, employment conditions and high turnover rates. The energy sector also faces pressures to create new business models for transition to renewable energy production to comply with new legal and regulatory requirements and to make best use of new reactor designs. In addition, large scale phase out and decommissioning of nuclear facilities have to be managed by the nuclear industry. Some negative effects of new business models have already arisen within the transportation domain, e.g., the negative effects of extensive outsourcing and subcontractor use. In the railway domain the infrastructure manager is required by European and national regulations to assure that all subcontractors are working according to the requirements in the infrastructure managers SMS (Safety Management System). More than ten levels of subcontracts can be working in a major infrastructure project making the system highly complex and thus difficult to control. In the aviation domain, tightly coupled interacting computer networks supplying airport services, as well as air traffic control, are managed and maintained by several different companies creating numerous interfaces which must be managed by the SMS. There are examples where a business model with several low

  3. High-lying 0+ and 3- levels in 12C

    Hanna, S.S.; Feldman, W.; Suffert, M.; Kurath, D.

    1982-01-01

    The γ decays of the levels at 17.77 and 18.36 MeV in 12 C are studied by proton capture and the assignments of (0 + ,1) and (3 - ,1), respectively, are confirmed. The very great strength of the decay of the (0 + ,1) level to the lower (1 + ,0) level at 12.71 MeV is consistent with a spin- and isospin-flip deuteronlike transition. The strong decay of the (3 - ,1) level to the lower (3 - 0,) level at 9.64 MeV is fairly typical of an analog to antianalog transition. The γ-decay widths of these levels are compared with shell-model calculations

  4. Handling and storage of high-level radioactive liquid wastes requiring cooling

    1979-01-01

    The technology of high-level liquid wastes storage and experience in this field gained over the past 25 years are reviewed in this report. It considers the design requirements for storage facilities, describes the systems currently in use, together with essential accessories such as the transfer and off-gas cleaning systems, and examines the safety and environmental factors

  5. Considerations on Applying the Method for Assessing the Level of Safety at Work

    Costica Bejinariu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of the method for assessing the level of safety at work starts with a document that contains the cover page, the description of the company (name, location, core business, organizational chart etc., description of the work system, a detailed list of its components, and a brief description of the assessment method. It continues with a Microsoft Excel document, which represents the actual application of the method and, finally, there is another document presenting conclusions, proposals, and prioritizations, which leads to the execution of the Prevention and Protection Plan. The present paper approaches the issue of developing the Microsoft Excel document, an essential part of the method for assessing the level of safety at work. The document is divided into a variable number of worksheets, showing the risk categories of general, specific, and management.

  6. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methodology in a level-I PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents a methodology for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, applicable to a probabilistic safety assessment level I. The work contents are: correct association of distributions to parameters, importance and qualification of expert opinions, generations of samples according to sample sizes, and study of the relationships among system variables and system response. A series of statistical-mathematical techniques are recommended along the development of the analysis methodology, as well different graphical visualization for the control of the study. (author) [es

  7. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in a Probabilistic Safety Analysis level-1

    Nunez Mc Leod, Jorge E.; Rivera, Selva S.

    1996-01-01

    A methodology for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, applicable to a Probabilistic Safety Assessment Level I has been presented. The work contents are: correct association of distributions to parameters, importance and qualification of expert opinions, generations of samples according to sample sizes, and study of the relationships among system variables and systems response. A series of statistical-mathematical techniques are recommended along the development of the analysis methodology, as well as different graphical visualization for the control of the study. (author)

  8. Comparison of the N Reactor and Ignalina Unit No. 2 Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessments

    Coles, G.A.; McKay, S.L.

    1995-06-01

    A multilateral team recently completed a full-scope Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) on the Ignalina Unit No. 2 reactor plant in Lithuania. This allows comparison of results to those of the PSA for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) N Reactor. The N Reactor, although unique as a Western design, has similarities to Eastern European and Soviet graphite block reactors

  9. Safety Assessment of the New Very Low-Level Waste Disposal Installation at El Cabril, Spain

    Lopez, I.; Navarro, M.; Zuloaga, P.

    2009-01-01

    The sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish government in 2006, foresees important volumes of wastes with a very low content of radioactivity mainly coming from the dismantling of nuclear power plants, along with the occurrence of some radiological industrial incidents in the past. This fact has boosted the construction of a new disposal installation, specifically designed for this category of waste. This new installation is part of the existing low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility at El Cabril, and includes four cells with a total capacity of around 130,000 m 3 . The design of the cells is consistent with the European Directive for the disposal of hazardous waste and fulfils the same basic safety criteria as the present facility for LILW. The safety assessment methodology applied for the very low level waste (VLLW) installation is fully coherent with the approach adopted for the existing disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste (concrete vaults disposal system) and takes into account the potential impact of the new installation during both the operational and long-term periods. The license for the VLLW installation was granted by the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce (MITYC) in July 2008, following technical approval by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), and the first disposal operation occurred in October 2008. (authors)

  10. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia

  11. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Mazleha Maskin; Phongsakorn, P.T.; Tonny, A.L.; Fedrick, C.M.B.; Faizal Mohamed; Mohamad Fauzi Saad; Ahmad Razali Ismail; Mohamad Puad Haji Abu

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  12. High level radiation dosimetry in biomedical research

    Inada, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    The physical and biological dosimetries relating to cancer therapy with radiation were taken up at the first place in the late intercomparison on high LET radiation therapy in Japan-US cancer research cooperative study. The biological dosimetry, the large dose in biomedical research, the high dose rate in biomedical research and the practical dosimeters for pulsed neutrons or protons are outlined with the main development history and the characteristics which were obtained in the relating experiments. The clinical neutron facilities in the US and Japan involved in the intercomparison are presented. Concerning the experimental results of dosimeters, the relation between the R.B.E. compared with Chiba (Cyclotron in National Institute of Radiological Sciences) and the energy of deuterons or protons used for neutron production, the survival curves of three cultured cell lines derived from human cancers, after the irradiation of 250 keV X-ray, cyclotron neutrons of about 13 MeV and Van de Graaff neutrons of about 2 MeV, the hatchability of dry Artemia eggs at the several depths in an absorber stack irradiated by 60 MeV proton beam of 40, 120 and 200 krad, the peak skin reaction of mouse legs observed at various sets of average and instantaneous dose rates, and the peak skin reaction versus three instantaneous dose rates at fixed average dose rate of 7,300 rad/min are shown. These actual data were evaluated numerically and in relation to the physical meaning from the viewpoint of the fundamental aspect of cancer therapy, comparing the Japanese measured values to the US data. The discussion record on the high dose rate effect of low LET particles on biological substances and others is added. (Nakai, Y.)

  13. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  14. Energy levels of highly ionized atoms

    Martin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Most of the data reviewed here were derived from spectra photographed in the wavelength range from 600 A down to about 20 A (approx. 20 to 600 eV). Measurements with uncertainties less than 0.001 A relative to appropriate standard wavelengths can be made with high-resolution diffraction-grating spectroscopy over most of the vacuum-ultraviolet region. Although this uncertainty corresponds to relative errors of 1 part per million (ppM) at 1000 A and 20 ppM at 50 A, measurements with uncertainties smaller than 0.001 A would generally require more effort at the shorter wavelengths, mainly because of the sparsity of accurate standards. Even where sufficiently numerous and accurate standards are available, the accuracy of measurements of the spectra of very high temperature plasmas is limited by Doppler broadening and, in some cases, other plasma effects. Several sources of error combine to give total estimated errors ranging from 10 to 1000 ppM for the experimental wavelengths of interest here. It will be seen, however, that with the possible exception of a few fine-structure splittings the experimental errors are small compared to the errors of the relevant theoretical calculations

  15. Use of standard reliability levels in design and safety assessment of in-pile loops

    Bogani, G.; Verre, A.; Balestreri, S.; Colombo, A.G.; Luisi, T.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a logic-probabilistic analysis technique for a critical design review and safety assessment of in-pile loops. The examples in this paper refer to the analysis performed for the experimental loops already constructed or under construction in the ESSOR reactor of the Joint Research Centre of Ispra, as irradiation facilities for fuel element research and development tests. The proposed technique is based on the classification into categories of components and protective device malfunctions. Such subdivision into categories was agreed upon by the Italian Safety Authority and Euratom JRC, and adopted for the safety assessment of the ESSOR reactor in-pile loops. For each category, the method makes a link with a corresponding malfunction probability range (probability level). This probability level is defined taking into account design, construction, inspection and maintenance criteria as well as periodic controls; therefore the quality level and consequently the reliability level are thus also defined. The analysis is developed in the following stages: (1) definition of the analysis object (top event) and drawing of the relative fault-tree; (2) loop design analysis and preliminary optimization based on logic criteria; (3) classification into categories of the fault-tree primary events; (4) final loop design analysis and optimization based on defined component quality requirements. Stages 2 and 4 are quite different since stage 2 mainly consists of a redundance optimization, while stage 4 acts on the component quality level in such a way that each minimum cut-set leading to the top has an acceptable probability level. During analysis development, use is made of computer codes which, among other things enable the verification of fault-tree logic makeup, the listing of the minimum cut-sets with and without event categorization, and the evaluation of each cut-set order. (author)

  16. The High Level Vibration Test Program

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the PWR primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis. 4 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  17. The High Level Vibration Test program

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Curreri, J.R.; Park, Y.J.; Kato, W.Y.; Kawakami, S.

    1990-01-01

    As part of cooperative agreements between the United States and Japan, tests have been performed on the seismic vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC) in Japan. The objective of the test program was to use the NUPEC vibration table to drive large diameter nuclear power piping to substantial plastic strain with an earthquake excitation and to compare the results with state-of-the-art analysis of the problem. The test model was designed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of the pressurized water reactor primary coolant loop. Elastic and inelastic seismic response behavior of the test model was measured in a number of test runs with an increasing excitation input level up to the limit of the vibration table. In the maximum input condition, large dynamic plastic strains were obtained in the piping. Crack initiation was detected following the second maximum excitation run. The test model was subjected to a maximum acceleration well beyond what nuclear power plants are designed to withstand. This paper describes the overall plan, input motion development, test procedure, test results and comparisons with pre-test analysis

  18. The Influence of Errors in Visualization Systems on the Level of Safety Threat in Air Traffic

    Paweł Ferduła

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic management is carried out by air traffic controllers assisted by complex technical systems that provide them with visualization of the traffic situation. In practice, visualization systems errors sometimes occur. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of errors of different types on the safety of the air traffic. The assessment of the threat level is influenced by subjective factors and cannot be expressed precisely. Therefore, the fuzzy reasoning theory has been used. The developed fuzzy model has been used to obtain a tool for simulation of the impact of various factors on traffic safety assessment. The results obtained indicate that the most important determinants of safety are the time when the air traffic controller remains unaware of the breakdown and the total time he/she does not have full knowledge of the traffic situation. It has been found that the key role for the proper operation of the air traffic visualization system and the restoration of full situational awareness is played by self-diagnostic systems that can restore the system’s correct functioning without even the controller being aware of the error occurrence. Their role in ensuring safety might be even greater than redundancy which is commonly used.

  19. Heat transfer in high-level waste management

    Dickey, B.R.; Hogg, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer in the storage of high-level liquid wastes, calcining of radioactive wastes, and storage of solidified wastes are discussed. Processing and storage experience at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are summarized for defense high-level wastes; heat transfer in power reactor high-level waste processing and storage is also discussed

  20. Managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    1983-01-01

    The article is a summary of issues raised during US Congress deliberations on nuclear waste policy legislation. It is suggested that, if history is not to repeat itself, and the current stalemate on nuclear waste is not to continue, a comprehensive policy is needed that addresses the near-term problems of interim storage as part of an explicit and credible program for dealing with the longer term problem of developing a final isolation system. Such a policy must: 1) adequately address the concerns and win the support of all the major interested parties, and 2) adopt a conservative technical and institutional approach - one that places high priority on avoiding the problems that have repeatedly beset the program in the past. It is concluded that a broadly supported comprehensive policy would contain three major elements, each designed to address one of the key questions concerning Federal credibility: commitment in law to the goals of a comprehensive policy; credible institutional mechanisms for meeting goals; and credible measures for addressing the specific concerns of the states and the various publics. Such a policy is described in detail. (Auth.)

  1. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  2. Options for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Mitchell, N.T.; Laughton, A.S.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste within the fuel cycle, especially the high-level wastes from reprocessing of nuclear fuel, is currently a matter of particular concern. In the short term (meaning a timescale of tens of years) management by engineered storage is considered to provide a satisfactory solution. Beyond this, however, the two main alternative options which are considered in the paper are: (a) disposal by burial into geologic formations on land; and (b) disposal by emplacement into or onto the seabed. Status of our present knowledge on the land and seabed disposal options is reviewed together with an assessment of the extent to which their reliability and safety can be judged on presently available information. Further information is needed on the environmental behaviour of radioactivity in the form of solidified waste in both situations in order to provide a more complete, scientific assessment. Work done so far has clarified the areas where further research is most needed - for instance modelling of the environmental transfer processes associated with the seabed option. This is discussed together with an indication of the research programmes which are now being pursued

  3. High-Speed Maglev Trains; German Safety Requirements

    1991-12-31

    This document is a translation of technology-specific safety requirements developed : for the German Transrapid Maglev technology. These requirements were developed by a : working group composed of representatives of German Federal Railways (DB), Tes...

  4. Study on high reliability safety valve for railway vehicle

    Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ruikun; Zhang, Shixi; Xu, BuDu

    2017-09-01

    Now, the realization of most of the functions of the railway vehicles rely on compressed air, so the demand for compressed air is growing higher and higher. This safety valve is a protection device for pressure limitation and pressure relief in an air supply system of railway vehicles. I am going to introduce the structure, operating principle, research and development process of the safety valve designed by our company in this document.

  5. Steps to Ensure a Successful Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Interventions at an Organizational Level

    Isabel M. Herrera-Sánchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing meta-analytic evidence that addresses the positive impact of evidence-based occupational health and safety interventions on employee health and well-being. However, such evidence is less clear when interventions are approached at an organizational level and are aimed at changing organizational policies and processes. Given that occupational health and safety interventions are usually tailored to specific organizational contexts, generalizing and transferring such interventions to other organizations is a complex endeavor. In response, several authors have argued that an evaluation of the implementation process is crucial for assessing the intervention’s effectiveness and for understanding how and why the intervention has been (unsuccessful. Thus, this paper focuses on the implementation process and attempts to move this field forward by identifying the main factors that contribute toward ensuring a greater success of occupational health and safety interventions conducted at the organizational level. In doing so, we propose some steps that can guide a successful implementation. These implementation steps are illustrated using examples of evidence-based best practices reported in the literature that have described and systematically evaluated the implementation process behind their interventions during the last decade.

  6. Steps to Ensure a Successful Implementation of Occupational Health and Safety Interventions at an Organizational Level

    Herrera-Sánchez, Isabel M.; León-Pérez, José M.; León-Rubio, José M.

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing meta-analytic evidence that addresses the positive impact of evidence-based occupational health and safety interventions on employee health and well-being. However, such evidence is less clear when interventions are approached at an organizational level and are aimed at changing organizational policies and processes. Given that occupational health and safety interventions are usually tailored to specific organizational contexts, generalizing and transferring such interventions to other organizations is a complex endeavor. In response, several authors have argued that an evaluation of the implementation process is crucial for assessing the intervention’s effectiveness and for understanding how and why the intervention has been (un)successful. Thus, this paper focuses on the implementation process and attempts to move this field forward by identifying the main factors that contribute toward ensuring a greater success of occupational health and safety interventions conducted at the organizational level. In doing so, we propose some steps that can guide a successful implementation. These implementation steps are illustrated using examples of evidence-based best practices reported in the literature that have described and systematically evaluated the implementation process behind their interventions during the last decade. PMID:29375413

  7. Improvement of the safety level of installations with the generalization of procedures

    Cornille, Y.; Dupraz, B.; Schektman, N.

    1986-06-01

    The generalization of control procedures to the largest possible spectra of accidental situations which is being developed on pressurized water reactor units will allow to increase the safety level of these installations. This improvement has been quantified for some situations pointing out an appreciable mitigation of meltdown risk which could result. A new improvement is aimed with the definition and the utilization of new procedures ''by states'' which will allow an optimized treatment of situations resulting from multiple failures, now treated in the procedures SPI - SPU - U1. The needs related to these procedures and their development led to joint research and development programs between Electricite de France and the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety [fr

  8. Safety and tolerability of high doses of glucocorticoides

    Rakić Branislava D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia includes the use of high doses of glucocorticoides (prednisone and dexamethasone, which significantly increase the success of therapy due to lymphocytolitic effect. The aim: The aim of the study was to determine tolerability of high doses of prednisone and dexamethasone in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the structure and the intensity of adverse effects, occurred after application of these medicines. Subjects and methods: In a prospective study, we analyzed adverse effects of high doses of glucocorticoides in children suffering acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated in the Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina, since December 2010. until October 2014, were analyzed. This study included 18 patients, aged from 2 to 15 years. Results: Hyperglycemia appeared in 89% of patients treated with prednisone and in 61% of patients treated with dexamethasone. In order to control the high blood glucose level (above 10 mmol /L, in 11% of patients insulin was used. Hypertension appeared in 28% patients treated with prednisone and dexamethasone. Antihypertensives were needed for regulation in 17% patients. Hypopotassemia and hypocalcaemia were significantly more expressed after the use of prednisone in comparison to dexamethasone. In 11% of patients, the treatment with dexamethasone caused depressive behavior, followed by agitation. Conclusion: Adverse effects of dexamethasone and prednisone, administered in high doses in children with ALL were known, expected and reversible. Adverse reactions usually disappeared spontaneously or after short-term symptomatic therapy.

  9. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  10. Solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. Final report

    1979-06-01

    A panel on waste solidification was formed at the request of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to study the scientific and technological problems associated with the conversion of liquid and semiliquid high-level radioactive wastes into a stable form suitable for transportation and disposition. Conclusions reached and recommendations made are as follows. Many solid forms described in this report could meet standards as stringent as those currently applied to the handling, storage, and transportation of spent fuel assemblies. Solid waste forms should be selected only in the context of the total radioactive waste management system. Many solid forms are likely to be satisfactory for use in an appropriately designed system, The current United States policy of deferring the reprocessing of commercial reactor fuel provides additional time for R and D solidification technology for this class of wastes. Defense wastes which are relatively low in radioactivity and thermal power density can best be solidified by low-temperature processes. For solidification of fresh commercial wastes that are high in specific activity and thermal power density, the Panel recommends that, in addition to glass, the use of fully-crystalline ceramics and metal-matrix forms be actively considered. Preliminary analysis of the characteristics of spent fuel pins indicates that they may be eligible for consideration as a waste form. Because the differences in potential health hazards to the public resulting from the use of various solid form and disposal options are likely to be small, the Panel concludes that cost, reliability, and health hazards to operating personnel will be major considerations in choosing among the options that can meet safety requiremens. The Panel recommends that responsibility for all radioactive waste management operations (including solidification R and D) should be centralized

  11. Management of the high-level nuclear power facilities

    Preda, Marin

    2003-05-01

    This thesis approaches current issues in the management of the high power nuclear facilities and as such it appears to be important particularly for nuclear power plant operation topics. Of special interest are the failure events entailing possible catastrophic situations. The contents is structured onto ten chapters. The first chapter describes the operation regimes of the nuclear high power facilities. Highlighted here are the thesis scope and the original features of the work. The second chapter deals with operational policies developed in order to ensure the preventive maintenance of the nuclear installations. Also managing structures are described devoted to practical warranting the equipment safety function of non-classical power stations. In the third chapter cases of nuclear accidents are analyzed especially stressing the probabilistic risk and the operation regimes having in view the elimination of catastrophic events. In the fourth and fifth chapters the control of nuclear radiation emission is treated focusing the quality issue of nuclear installations required to avoid hazardous effects at level of nuclear reactor operation stage. At the same time set of operational measures is given here for preventing risks, catastrophes and chaotic situations. The chapter five presents both theoretical and practical approaches of the nuclear reactor core management concerning particularly the fuel testing, the water primary system and the quality of the involved equipment. In the sixth and seventh chapters issues of risk-quality correlations are approached as well as the structure of expert systems for monitoring the operational regimes of nuclear facilities. The efficiency of the power systems with nuclear injection is discussed and some original ideas developed in this work are evidenced in the eighth and ninth chapters. Presented are here both the operational principles and models of raising the efficiency of the interconnected nuclear stations and prices' policy

  12. The status of safety in the public high school chemistry laboratories in Mississippi

    Lacy, Sarah Louise Trotman

    Since laboratory-based science courses have become an essential element of any science curriculum and are required by the Mississippi Department of Education for graduation, the chemistry laboratories in the public high schools in Mississippi must be safe. The purpose of this study was to determine: the safety characteristics of a high school chemistry laboratory; the perceived safety characteristics of the chemistry laboratories in public high schools in Mississippi; the basic safety knowledge of chemistry teachers in public high schools in Mississippi, where chemistry teachers in Mississippi gain knowledge about laboratory safety and instruction; if public high school chemistry laboratories in Mississippi adhere to recommended class size, laboratory floor space per student, safety education, safety equipment, and chemical storage; and the relationship between teacher knowledge of chemistry laboratory safety and the safety status of the laboratory in which they teach. The survey instrument was composed of three parts. Part I Teacher Knowledge consisted of 23 questions concerning high school chemistry laboratory safety. Part II Chemistry Laboratory Safety Information consisted of 40 items divided into four areas of interest concerning safety in high school chemistry laboratories. Part III Demographics consisted of 11 questions relating to teacher certification, experience, education, and safety training. The survey was mailed to a designated chemistry teacher in every public high school in Mississippi. The responses to Part I of the survey indicated that the majority of the teachers have a good understanding of knowledge about chemistry laboratory safety but need more instruction on the requirements for a safe high school chemistry laboratory. Less than 50% of the responding teachers thought they had received adequate preparation from their college classes to conduct a safe chemistry laboratory. According to the responses of the teachers, most of their high school

  13. Nuclear safety. Living up to high expectations today, tomorrow

    Jennekens, J.H.

    1986-10-01

    How safe is safe enough? In the nuclear energy field, whenever government, the nuclear industry, or independent researchers have presented the public with an answer to this question it has been met with a demand for more safety-related controls on the industry. It is doubtful whether doubling the $25 million budget of the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) would result in twice as much nuclear safety. It is disturbing that people feel there is not enough information; the much of the information the AECB makes available has been ignored. In the long term it is important that the public become confident in nuclear safety. It may be that some day all toxic waste will have to be managed as safely as nuclear waste

  14. A High-Voltage Level Tolerant Transistor Circuit

    Annema, Anne J.; Geelen, Godefridus Johannes Gertrudis Maria

    2001-01-01

    A high-voltage level tolerant transistor circuit, comprising a plurality of cascoded transistors, including a first transistor (T1) operatively connected to a high-voltage level node (3) and a second transistor (T2) operatively connected to a low-voltage level node (2). The first transistor (T1)

  15. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste from...

  16. Selection of important initiating events for Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment study at Puspati TRIGA Reactor

    Maskin, M.; Charlie, F.; Hassan, A.; Prak Tom, P.; Ramli, Z.; Mohamed, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Identifying possible important initiating events (IEs) for Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment performed on research nuclear reactor. • Methods in screening and grouping IEs are addressed. • Focusing only on internal IEs due to random failures of components. - Abstract: This paper attempts to present the results in identifying possible important initiating events (IEs) as comprehensive as possible to be applied in the development of Level-1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) study. This involves the approaches in listing and the methods in screening and grouping IEs, by focusing only on the internal IEs due to random failures of components and human errors with full power operational conditions and reactor core as the radioactivity source. Five approaches were applied in listing the IEs and each step of the methodology was described and commented. The criteria in screening and grouping the IEs were also presented. The results provided the information on how the Malaysian PSA team applied the approaches in selecting the most probable IEs as complete as possible in order to ensure the set of IEs was identified systematically and as representative as possible, hence providing confidence to the completeness of the PSA study. This study is perhaps one of the first to address classic comprehensive steps in identifying important IEs to be used in a Level-1 PSA study.

  17. Patient safety climate profiles across time: Strength and level of safety climate associated with a quality improvement program in Switzerland—A cross-sectional survey study

    Mascherek, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Safety Climate has been acknowledged as an unspecific factor influencing patient safety. However, studies rarely provide in-depth analysis of climate data. As a helpful approach, the concept of “climate strength” has been proposed. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that even if safety climate remains stable on mean-level across time, differences might be evident in strength or shape. The data of two hospitals participating in a large national quality improvement program were analysed for differences in climate profiles at two measurement occasions. We analysed differences on mean-level, differences in percent problematic response, agreement within groups, and frequency histograms in two large hospitals in Switzerland at two measurement occasions (2013 and 2015) applying the Safety Climate Survey. In total, survey responses of 1193 individuals were included in the analyses. Overall, small but significant differences on mean-level of safety climate emerged for some subgroups. Also, although agreement was strong at both time-points within groups, tendencies of divergence or consensus were present in both hospitals. Depending on subgroup and analyses chosen, differences were more or less pronounced. The present study illustrated that taking several measures into account and describing safety climate from different perspectives is necessary in order to fully understand differences and trends within groups and to develop interventions addressing the needs of different groups more precisely. PMID:28753633

  18. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    None

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  19. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  20. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  1. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  2. Measuring organisational-level Aboriginal cultural climate to tailor cultural safety strategies.

    Gladman, Justin; Ryder, Courtney; Walters, Lucie K

    2015-01-01

    Australian medical schools have taken on a social accountability mandate to provide culturally safe contexts in order to encourage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to engage in medical education and to ensure that present and future clinicians provide health services that contribute to improving the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Many programs have sought to improve cultural safety through training at an individual level; however, it is well recognised that learners tend to internalise the patterns of behaviour to which they are commonly exposed. This project aimed to measure and reflect on the cultural climate of an Australian rural clinical school (RCS) as a whole and the collective attitudes of three different professional groups: clinicians, clinical academics and professional staff. The project then drew on Mezirow's Transformative Learning theory to design strategies to build on the cultural safety of the organisation. Clinicians, academic and professional staff at an Australian RCS were invited to participate in an online survey expressing their views on Aboriginal health using part of a previously validated tool. Survey response rate was 63%. All three groups saw Aboriginal health as a social priority. All groups recognised the fundamental role of community control in Aboriginal health; however, clinical academics were considerably more likely to disagree that the Western medical model suited the health needs of Aboriginal people. Clinicians were more likely to perceive that they treated Aboriginal patients the same as other patients. There was only weak evidence of future commitments to Aboriginal health. Importantly, clinicians, academics and professional staff demonstrated differences in their cultural safety profile which indicated the need for a tailored approach to cultural safety learning in the future. Through tailored approaches to cross-cultural training opportunities we are likely to ensure

  3. Level of Evidence Associated with FDA Safety Communications with Drug Labeling Changes: 2010-2014

    Benjamin Hixon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Approximately 800,000 safety reports are submitted to the FDA annually, however, only significant issues generate drug safety communications (DSC. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of clinical evidence used to warrant a change in drug labeling for drugs with DSC between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. Methods: Selected data was obtained from the FDA website. The primary endpoint of the study was the frequency of the types of clinical evidence used in FDA communications, as reported through the FDA DSC. Results were evaluated via descriptive statistics, and chi-squared for nominal data. Results: A total of 2521 drug safety labeling changes were identified and 99 (3.9% of safety communications met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the labeling changes were associated with single agents (83.8%. The three most frequently reported labeling changes were warnings (68.7%, precautions (58.6%, and patient package insert/medication guide (23.2%. Case reports resulted in the greatest number of documented literature types (n = 791, followed by randomized controlled trials (n = 76, and case control/cohort studies (n = 74. Significantly more evidence for DSCs were classified as Level of Evidence B (LOE B, 68.6%, compared to LOE A (17.1%, and LOE C (14.1% (p = 0.007. Conclusions: The majority of drug labeling change initiators was associated with LOE equivalent to B. Practitioners should evaluate data associated with labeling changes to determine how to interpret the information for their patients. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Original Research

  4. System principles, mathematical models and methods to ensure high reliability of safety systems

    Zaslavskyi, V.

    2017-04-01

    Modern safety and security systems are composed of a large number of various components designed for detection, localization, tracking, collecting, and processing of information from the systems of monitoring, telemetry, control, etc. They are required to be highly reliable in a view to correctly perform data aggregation, processing and analysis for subsequent decision making support. On design and construction phases of the manufacturing of such systems a various types of components (elements, devices, and subsystems) are considered and used to ensure high reliability of signals detection, noise isolation, and erroneous commands reduction. When generating design solutions for highly reliable systems a number of restrictions and conditions such as types of components and various constrains on resources should be considered. Various types of components perform identical functions; however, they are implemented using diverse principles, approaches and have distinct technical and economic indicators such as cost or power consumption. The systematic use of different component types increases the probability of tasks performing and eliminates the common cause failure. We consider type-variety principle as an engineering principle of system analysis, mathematical models based on this principle, and algorithms for solving optimization problems of highly reliable safety and security systems design. Mathematical models are formalized in a class of two-level discrete optimization problems of large dimension. The proposed approach, mathematical models, algorithms can be used for problem solving of optimal redundancy on the basis of a variety of methods and control devices for fault and defects detection in technical systems, telecommunication networks, and energy systems.

  5. Focus State Roadway Departure Safety Plans and High Friction Surface Treatments Peer Exchange : an RPSCB Peer Exchange

    2014-08-01

    This report summarizes the Focus State Roadway Departure Safety Plans and High Friction Surface Treatments Peer Exchange, held in Birmingham, Alabama, sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professi...

  6. Radiation Safety Issues in High Altitude Commercial Aircraft

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1995-01-01

    The development of a global economy makes the outlook for high speed commercial intercontinental flight feasible, and the development of various configurations operating from 20 to 30 km have been proposed. In addition to the still unresolved issues relating to current commercial operations (12-16 km), the higher dose rates associated with the higher operating altitudes makes il imperative that the uncertainties in the atmospheric radiation environment and the associated health risks be re-examined. Atmospheric radiation associated with the galactic cosmic rays forms a background level which may, under some circumstances, exceed newly recommended allowable exposure limits proposed on the basis of recent evaluations of the A -bomb survivor data (due to increased risk coefficients). These larger risk coefficients, within the context of the methodology for estimating exposure limits, are resulting in exceedingly low estimated allowable exposure limits which may impact even present day flight operations and was the reason for the CEC workshop in Luxembourg (1990). At higher operating altitudes, solar particles events can produce exposures many orders of magnitude above background levels and pose significant health risks to the most sensitive individuals (such as during pregnancy). In this case the appropriate quality factors are undefined, and some evidence exists which indicates that the quality factor for stochastic effects is a substantial underestimate.

  7. Psychological safety: The key to high performance in high stress, potentially traumatic environments

    James Saveland

    2011-01-01

    Safety is typically talked about in a context of the absence of injury. The field of resilience engineering has been advocating that we think about safety differently, by taking a systems view and begin to see how people create safety in unsafe systems by managing risk. There is growing recognition that safety is an emergent behavior of our complex system of human...

  8. Decree no. 2001-1199 of the 10 december 2001 publishing the resolution MSC. 88 (71) notifying adoption of the international compilation of safety rules for the spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport in casks on ships (compilation INF) (annexes), adopted at London the 27 may 1999; Decret no. 2001-1199 du 10 decembre 2001 portant publication de la resolution MSC.88 (71) portant adoption du recueil international de regles de securite pour le transport de combustible nucleaire irradie, de plutonium et de dechets hautement radioactifs en colis a bord de navires (recueil INF) (ensemble une annexe), adoptee a Londres le 27 mai 1999

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This legislative text concerns the safety rules of spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport, in casks on ships. Rules, fire prevention, temperature control of casks, electric supply, radioprotection, management and emergency plans are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Evaluation of radionuclide concentrations in high-level radioactive wastes

    Fehringer, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes a possible approach for development of a numerical definition of the term ''high-level radioactive waste.'' Five wastes are identified which are recognized as being high-level wastes under current, non-numerical definitions. The constituents of these wastes are examined and the most hazardous component radionuclides are identified. This report suggests that other wastes with similar concentrations of these radionuclides could also be defined as high-level wastes. 15 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Procedure for conducting probabilistic safety assessment: level 1 full power internal event analysis

    Jung, Won Dae; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J. [and others

    2003-07-01

    This report provides guidance on conducting a Level I PSA for internal events in NPPs, which is based on the method and procedure that was used in the PSA for the design of Korea Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs). Level I PSA is to delineate the accident sequences leading to core damage and to estimate their frequencies. It has been directly used for assessing and modifying the system safety and reliability as a key and base part of PSA. Also, Level I PSA provides insights into design weakness and into ways of preventing core damage, which in most cases is the precursor to accidents leading to major accidents. So Level I PSA has been used as the essential technical bases for risk-informed application in NPPs. The report consists six major procedural steps for Level I PSA; familiarization of plant, initiating event analysis, event tree analysis, system fault tree analysis, reliability data analysis, and accident sequence quantification. The report is intended to assist technical persons performing Level I PSA for NPPs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs. On the other hand, this report would be useful for the managers or regulatory persons related to risk-informed regulation, and also for conducting PSA for other industries.

  11. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  12. Characteristics of unit-level patient safety culture in hospitals in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-10-22

    Patient safety culture (PSC) has an important role in determining safety and quality in healthcare. Currently, little is known about the status of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. To develop appropriate strategies, characteristics of unit-level PSC should be investigated. Work units may be classified according to the characteristics of PSC, and common problems and appropriate strategies may be identified for each work unit category. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of unit-level PSC in hospitals in Japan. In 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted at 18 hospitals in Japan. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire, developed by the United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was distributed to all healthcare workers (n =12,076). Percent positive scores for 12 PSC sub-dimensions were calculated for each unit, and cluster analysis was used to categorise the units according to the percent positive scores. A generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) was used to analyse the results of the cluster analysis, and odds ratios (ORs) for categorisation as high-PSC units were calculated for each unit type. A total of 9,124 respondents (75.6%) completed the questionnaire, and valid data from 8,700 respondents (72.0%) were analysed. There were 440 units in the 18 hospitals. According to the percent positive scores for the 12 sub-dimensions, the 440 units were classified into 2 clusters: high-PSC units (n =184) and low-PSC units (n =256). Percent positive scores for all PSC sub-dimensions for high-PSC units were significantly higher than those for low-PSC units. The GLMM revealed that the combined unit type of 'Obstetrics and gynaecology ward, perinatal ward or neonatal intensive care unit' was significantly more likely to be categorised as high-PSC units (OR =9.7), and 'Long-term care ward' (OR =0.2), 'Rehabilitation unit' (OR =0.2) and 'Administration unit' (OR =0.3) were significantly less likely to be categorised as high

  13. Low level radiation: how does the linear without threshold model provide the safety of Canadian

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The linear without threshold model is a model of risk used worldwide by the most of health organisms of nuclear regulation in order to establish dose limits for workers and public. It is in the heart of the approach adopted by the Canadian commission of nuclear safety (C.C.S.N.) in matter of radiation protection. The linear without threshold model presumes reasonably it exists a direct link between radiation exposure and cancer rate. It does not exist scientific evidence that chronicle exposure to radiation doses under 100 milli sievert (mSv) leads harmful effects on health. Several scientific reports highlighted scientific evidences that seem indicate a low level of radiation is less harmful than the linear without threshold predicts. As the linear without threshold model presumes that any radiation exposure brings risks, the ALARA principle obliges the licensees to get the radiation exposure at the lowest reasonably achievable level, social and economical factors taken into account. ALARA principle constitutes a basic principle in the C.C.S.N. approach in matter of radiation protection; On the radiation protection plan, C.C.S.N. gets a careful approach that allows to provide health and safety of Canadian people and the protection of their environment. (N.C.)

  14. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  15. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  16. High committee for nuclear safety transparency and information. November 20, 2009 meeting of the High Committee

    2009-11-01

    The high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN) is an information, consultation and debate authority devoted to the assessment of the risks linked with nuclear activities and to the analysis of their impact on public health, on the environment and on nuclear safety. Each year, the HCTISN organizes several ordinary meetings in order to analyze some specific topics of the moment, and, depending on the events, some extraordinary meetings. This document is the proceedings of an extraordinary meeting about the information and transparency in relation with the management of nuclear materials and wastes at all stages of the fuel cycle. The reason of this meeting is a request from the French Minister of ecology, energy, sustainable development and sea (MEEDDM) after the broadcast of a TV documentary entitled 'wastes: the nuclear industry nightmare' and the publication of a press article affirming that 'our nuclear wastes are hidden in Siberia'. The Minister expressed his wish to have the question of the international trade of nuclear materials examined by the HCTISN. The document is organized as follows: a first part presents the hearings of the general direction of energy and climate (DGEC), of the nuclear safety authority (ASN), of EdF, of Areva, of the CEA, of the senior official for the defense and security of the MEEDDM, of Rosatom company and of Greenpeace organisation. A second part examines the incident which took place in October 2009 at the plutonium technology workshop (ATPu) of Cadarache, where about 22 to 39 kg of plutonium powder were discovered in the gloveboxes of this facility, decommissioned in 2005 and undergoing dismantlement today. This part presents the hearings of the CEA, of AREVA, of the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN), of the ASN, of the hygiene, safety and labour conditions committee (CHSCT) of Areva and CEA, and of the local information commission (CLI) of Cadarache, in relation with

  17. Study on real working performance and overload safety factor of high arch dam

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that high arch dams have problems such as complicated stress,high cost,and hazards after being damaged,this paper intends to study the effects of load,material strength,and safety analysis method on dam safety and working performance of arch dams.In this article,the effects of temperature,self weight exaction way and water loading on structure response are first discussed,and a more reasonable way of considering is then put forward.By taking into consideration the mechanical property of materials and comparing the effects of different yield criteria on overloading safety of high arch dams,this paper concludes that brittle characteristics of concrete should be fully considered when conducting safety assessment for high arch dams to avoid overestimating the bearing capacity of the dams.By comparing several typical projects,this paper works out a safety assessment system of multiple safety and relevant engineering analogical analysis methods,which is closer to the actual situation,and thus is able to assess the response of high arch dam structure in a more comprehensive way,elicit the safety coefficients in different situations,and provide a new way of considering the safety assessment of high arch dams.

  18. Improving patient safety: patient-focused, high-reliability team training.

    McKeon, Leslie M; Cunningham, Patricia D; Oswaks, Jill S Detty

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare systems are recognizing "human factor" flaws that result in adverse outcomes. Nurses work around system failures, although increasing healthcare complexity makes this harder to do without risk of error. Aviation and military organizations achieve ultrasafe outcomes through high-reliability practice. We describe how reliability principles were used to teach nurses to improve patient safety at the front line of care. Outcomes include safety-oriented, teamwork communication competency; reflections on safety culture and clinical leadership are discussed.

  19. The scope and nature of the problem of high level nuclear waste disposal

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-09-01

    The disposal of high level nuclear waste poses a challenge to the Canadian technical and scientific communities, but a much greater challenge to government and industry leaders who must convince the public that the so-called 'problem' can be resolved by a pragmatic approach utilizing existing skills and knowledge. This paper outlines the objectives of radioactive waste management, the quantities of high level waste expected to be produced by the Canadian nuclear power program, the regulatory process which will apply and the government initiatives which have been and will be taken to ensure that the health, safety, security, and environmental interests of the public will be protected. (author)

  20. Key scientific challenges in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    Wang Ju

    2007-01-01

    The geological disposal of high radioactive waste is a challenging task facing the scientific and technical world. This paper introduces the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the world, and discusses the following key scientific challenges: (1) precise prediction of the evolution of a repository site; (2) characteristics of deep geological environment; (3) behaviour of deep rock mass, groundwater and engineering material under coupled con-ditions (intermediate to high temperature, geostress, hydraulic, chemical, biological and radiation process, etc); (4) geo-chemical behaviour of transuranic radionuclides with low concentration and its migration with groundwater; and (5) safety assessment of disposal system. Several large-scale research projects and several hot topics related with high-level waste disposal are also introduced. (authors)

  1. Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal

    Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. Performance assessment of the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in a clay layer

    Mallants, Dirk; Marivoet, Jan; Sillen, Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Deep disposal is considered a safe solution to the management of high-level radioactive waste. The safety is usually demonstrated by means of a performance assessment. This paper discusses the methodological aspects and some of the results obtained for the performance assessment of the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in a clay layer in Belgium. The calculations consider radionuclide migration through the following multi-barrier components, all of which contribute to the overall safety: (1) engineered barriers and the host clay layer, (2) overlying aquifer, and (3) biosphere. The interfaces between aquifers and biosphere are limited to the well and river pathway. Results of the performance assessment calculations are given in terms of the time evolution of the dose rates of the most important fission and activation products and actinides. The role of the glass matrix in the overall performance of the repository is also discussed

  3. Discovery of high-level tasks in the operating room

    Bouarfa, L.; Jonker, P.P.; Dankelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing and understanding surgical high-level tasks from sensor readings is important for surgical workflow analysis. Surgical high-level task recognition is also a challenging task in ubiquitous computing because of the inherent uncertainty of sensor data and the complexity of the operating

  4. Characteristics of solidified high-level waste products

    1979-01-01

    The object of the report is to contribute to the establishment of a data bank for future preparation of codes of practice and standards for the management of high-level wastes. The work currently in progress on measuring the properties of solidified high-level wastes is being studied

  5. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  6. The Influence of Decreased Levels of High Density Lipoprotein ...

    Background: Changes in lipoproteins levels in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients are well.known, but the physiological ramifications of the low levels observed have not been entirely resolved. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL.c) on ...

  7. Geographically weighted negative binomial regression applied to zonal level safety performance models.

    Gomes, Marcos José Timbó Lima; Cunto, Flávio; da Silva, Alan Ricardo

    2017-09-01

    Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with negative binomial distribution for errors, have been widely used to estimate safety at the level of transportation planning. The limited ability of this technique to take spatial effects into account can be overcome through the use of local models from spatial regression techniques, such as Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR). Although GWPR is a system that deals with spatial dependency and heterogeneity and has already been used in some road safety studies at the planning level, it fails to account for the possible overdispersion that can be found in the observations on road-traffic crashes. Two approaches were adopted for the Geographically Weighted Negative Binomial Regression (GWNBR) model to allow discrete data to be modeled in a non-stationary form and to take note of the overdispersion of the data: the first examines the constant overdispersion for all the traffic zones and the second includes the variable for each spatial unit. This research conducts a comparative analysis between non-spatial global crash prediction models and spatial local GWPR and GWNBR at the level of traffic zones in Fortaleza/Brazil. A geographic database of 126 traffic zones was compiled from the available data on exposure, network characteristics, socioeconomic factors and land use. The models were calibrated by using the frequency of injury crashes as a dependent variable and the results showed that GWPR and GWNBR achieved a better performance than GLM for the average residuals and likelihood as well as reducing the spatial autocorrelation of the residuals, and the GWNBR model was more able to capture the spatial heterogeneity of the crash frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Granite disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Lee, Joon H.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Francis D.; Price, Ronald H.; Lord, Anna Snider

    2011-08-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of disposing U.S. high-level radioactive waste in granite several hundred meters below the surface of the earth. The U.S. has many granite formations with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar crystalline formations have been extensively studied by international programs, two of which, in Sweden and Finland, are the host rocks of submitted or imminent repository license applications. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in granite media. In this report we develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified by international investigators, to support generic conclusions regarding post-closure safety. Unlike the safety analyses for disposal in salt, shale/clay, or deep boreholes, the safety analysis for a mined granite repository depends largely on waste package preservation. In crystalline rock, waste packages are preserved by the high mechanical stability of the excavations, the diffusive barrier of the buffer, and favorable chemical conditions. The buffer is preserved by low groundwater fluxes, favorable chemical conditions, backfill, and the rigid confines of the host rock. An added advantage of a mined granite repository is that waste packages would be fairly easy to retrieve, should retrievability be an important objective. The results of the safety analyses performed in this study are consistent with the results of comprehensive safety assessments performed for sites in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. They indicate that a granite repository would satisfy established safety criteria and suggest that a small number of FEPs would largely control the release and transport of radionuclides. In the event the U.S. decides to pursue a potential repository in granite, a detailed evaluation of these FEPs would be needed to inform site

  9. ACHIEVEMENT OF THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK AND THE SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Snezana Urosevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety and health at work involves the exercise of such working conditions that take certain measures and activities in order to protect the life and health of employees. The interest of society, of all stakeholders and every individual is to achieve the highest level of safety and health at work, to unwanted consequences such as injuries, occupational diseases and diseases related to work are reduced to a minimum, and to create the conditions work in which employees have a sense of satisfaction in the performance of their professional duties. Textile industry is a sector with higher risk, because the plants of textile industry prevailing unfavorable microclimate conditions: high air temperature and high humidity, and often insufficient illumination of rooms and increased noise. The whole line of production in the textile industry, there is a risk of injury, the most common with mechanical force, or gaining burns from heat or chemicals. All of these factors are present in the process of production and processing of textiles and the same may affect the incidence of occupational diseases of workers, absenteeism, reduction of their working capacity and productivity. With the progress of the textile industry production increases in the number of hazardous and harmful substances that may pose a potential danger to the employee in this branch of the economy as well as the harmful impact on the environment. Therefore, it is important to give special attention to these problems.

  10. The ATLAS High-Level Calorimeter Trigger in Run-2

    Wiglesworth, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment uses a two-level triggering system to identify and record collision events containing a wide variety of physics signatures. It reduces the event rate from the bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of 1 kHz, whilst maintaining high efficiency for interesting collision events. It is composed of an initial hardware-based level-1 trigger followed by a software-based high-level trigger. A central component of the high-level trigger is the calorimeter trigger. This is responsible for processing data from the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in order to identify electrons, photons, taus, jets and missing transverse energy. In this talk I will present the performance of the high-level calorimeter trigger in Run-2, noting the improvements that have been made in response to the challenges of operating at high luminosity.

  11. PSA Level 2 as element of an integral safety assessment before plant commissioning

    Loeffler, H.; Mildenberger, O.; Sonnenkalb, M.; Steinroetter, T.

    2012-01-01

    In Argentina the Central Nuclear Atucha II is near to completion. This is a pressurized heavy water reactor. PSA (Probability Safety Assessment) level 1, level 2 and level 3 have to be performed in order to show compliance with the Argentinean dose limit. Such studies have been done first by the former KWU in the 1980's to get the construction license (FABIAN 1985). Nowadays the plant owner NA-SA performs PSA level 1 and provides information about the core damage states to GRS, who does the subsequent PSA level 2 part. GRS delivers source terms to the environment and the associated frequencies to the Argentinean research institute CNEA, which performs level 3 together with NA-SA. Since GRS is situated in the middle of the chain, interface definition with both ends has been a significant task of the GRS activities. Experience gained during this process will be highlighted in the presentation. The analysis of PSA level 2 proper follows a traditional approach: -) deterministic accident simulation with integral code MELCOR; -) analyses of specific issues which are not covered by MELCOR; and -) probabilistic accident progression analysis with EVNTRE event tree methodology. It appears that MELCOR and EVNTRE and PSA guidelines in general are flexible enough to analyse new or uncommon reactor designs. It also appears that the plant specific design features may require analyses beyond present code capabilities, calling for expert judgment and they can largely determine PSA results. The behaviour of iodine is not yet covered satisfactorily by state-of-the-art models in MELCOR

  12. Business trends report 2006. High oil prices ensure high activity level; What are the challenges?

    2006-01-01

    The first in a series of annual business trends reports which The Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) has decided to publish. The report highlights features in the development of the global economy and the energy markets, and presents an analysis of the level of activity on the Norwegian Shelf through to 2010. It also gives a status report and outlines the challenges that lie within three important areas for the oil industry: the relationship with the external environment, health, safety and working environment, and personnel and competence requirements within the industry. The main message contained in the report is summarised as follows: 'While prospects for the immediate future look good, we foresee a lack of new, important and technically challenging projects in the longer term. Discoveries made on the Norwegian Shelf during recent years have been small. Exploration activity must be intensified and its results must be improved. The most important and effective stimulus in this connection is new prospective exploration acreage. The Comprehensive Management Plan for Lofoten and the Barents Sea will be revised in 2010. By that time the knowledge gaps in the plan have to be filled so that the decision-making basis is as good as possible. Even though the level of activity looks as if it will continue to be high in the medium term, we have no time to lose.' Environmental status and challenges are briefly reviewed, as well as the industry's future recruitment challenges (author) (ml)

  13. The application of the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) and Food Safety Objective (FSO) concepts in food safety management, using Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats as a case study

    Gkogka, E.; Reij, M.W.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    To establish a link between governmental food safety control and operational food safety management, the concepts of the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) and the Food Safety Objective (FSO) have been suggested by international bodies as a means of making food safety control transparent and

  14. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Improvement of level 1 PSA computer code package-

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Kim, Kil Yoo; Han, Sang Hoon; Jung, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Chul; Yang, Joon Un; Choi, Yung; Sung, Tae Yong; Son, Yung Suk; Park, Won Suk; Jung, Kwang Sub; Kang Dae Il; Park, Jin Heui; Hwang, Mi Jung; Hah, Jae Joo

    1995-07-01

    This year is the third year of the Government-sponsored mid- and long-term nuclear power technology development project. The scope of this sub project titled on 'The improvement of level-1 PSA computer codes' is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the underdeveloped fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and low power situations, (2) Computer code package development for level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in this area of shutdown risk assessment technology development, plant outage experiences of domestic plants are reviewed and plant operating states (POS) are decided. A sample core damage frequency is estimated for over draining event in RCS low water inventory i.e. mid-loop operation. Human reliability analysis and thermal hydraulic support analysis are identified to be needed to reduce uncertainty. Two design improvement alternatives are evaluated using PSA technique for mid-loop operation situation: one is use of containment spray system as backup of shutdown cooling system and the other is installation of two independent level indication system. Procedure change is identified more preferable option to hardware modification in the core damage frequency point of view. Next, level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutest generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. 48 figs, 15 tabs, 59 refs. (Author)

  15. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Improvement of level 1 PSA computer code package-

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Kim, Kil Yoo; Han, Sang Hoon; Jung, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Chul; Yang, Joon Un; Choi, Yung; Sung, Tae Yong; Son, Yung Suk; Park, Won Suk; Jung, Kwang Sub; Kang Dae Il; Park, Jin Heui; Hwang, Mi Jung; Hah, Jae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This year is the third year of the Government-sponsored mid- and long-term nuclear power technology development project. The scope of this sub project titled on `The improvement of level-1 PSA computer codes` is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the underdeveloped fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and low power situations, (2) Computer code package development for level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in this area of shutdown risk assessment technology development, plant outage experiences of domestic plants are reviewed and plant operating states (POS) are decided. A sample core damage frequency is estimated for over draining event in RCS low water inventory i.e. mid-loop operation. Human reliability analysis and thermal hydraulic support analysis are identified to be needed to reduce uncertainty. Two design improvement alternatives are evaluated using PSA technique for mid-loop operation situation: one is use of containment spray system as backup of shutdown cooling system and the other is installation of two independent level indication system. Procedure change is identified more preferable option to hardware modification in the core damage frequency point of view. Next, level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutest generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. 48 figs, 15 tabs, 59 refs. (Author).

  16. Level of knowledge among the population of radiation safety basic issues

    S. A. Zelencova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research was to determine the level of knowledge among the population on issues like sources of ionising radiation, methods of ionising radiation measurement, measures of self-protection in case of threating or actual radioactive pollution in the district, and to study self-estimation by the population of their knowledge of radiation safety issues. Research was carried out using the method of questioning of population groups in three regions close to the places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions (Arkhangelsk, Murmansk and Tyumen regions, and in five Far East regions of the Russian Federation (Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorsky, Magadan and South-Sakhalin regions after radiation accident in Japan at "Fukushima-1" NPP. This research included processing of 243 questionnaires from the regions close to places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions and 216 questionnaires from the Far East regions.The analysis of obtained questioning results enabled to make the following conclusions: the level of knowledge among the population about the basic concepts of radiation safety appeared to be generally low among respondents of all eight territories. Considerable number of respondents in seven groups correctly mentioned the x-ray device as a source of ionising radiation (from 71 to 88 % of answers. In Murmansk region – only 52 % of the answers. Respondents of the same seven groups often correctly answered the question on how to detect ionising radiation (only with devices – from 68 to 98 % in different groups. The smallest number of correct answers to this question (42 % is also noted among respondents from the Murmansk region.Level of knowledge on self-protection measures at threating or actual radioactive pollution of the places of residence appeared a little higher among the Far East region population, who had actual concerns regarding the threat of radioactive pollution at the present time. However, in all eight investigated groups

  17. Disposal of flow-level radioactive waste in Belgium: A safety analysis for inorganic chemotoxic elements

    Mallants, D.; Volckaert, G.; Marivoet, J.; Neerdael, B.

    2000-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste often contains large quantities of inorganic chemical substances. Due attention should therefore be given to the safety implications of both the radiological and chemical substances in the waste. Our study develops the safety assessment methodology for surface disposal with emphasis on the potential effects of inorganic nonradiological elements on human health. Contamination of groundwater was considered as the major exposure pathway. The applied methodology first screens all elements on the basis of five criteria. Conservative screening calculations were used to screen out the elements that do not pose danger to humans, and to select those that could have a negative impact and thus require further analysis. The latter was done by first calculating the elemental mass fluxes out of the repository and into the aquifer followed by the calculation of groundwater concentrations. The results showed that on the basis of the screening calculations, 75% of all elements could be classified as non-hazardous. The detailed calculations showed that the majority of the remaining elements had groundwater concentrations below the drinking water or groundwater standards. The results further showed that for a few elements the maximum groundwater concentration was above the standard, but below the background concentrations. (author)

  18. Safety analysis and inventory control of transuranic and low-level waste in common storage

    Porten, D.R.; Bonner, A.L.; Joyce, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology developed For the inventory control of low-level waste (LLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, when both are stored in the same location, and both contribute to an inventory constrained by safety considerations. Development of the method arose from the necessity to make safety analysis calculations for the addition of LLW, in quantities greater than existing inventory limits would allow when stored with TRU waste, in the Hanford Central Waste Complex (CWC)-Ensuring that the dose consequences of credible releases are maintained at low-hazard limits or less, was used to allow greater than Type A quantities of LLW into the CWC. Basically, what happens is the original limited amount of TRU allowed is reduced by some equivalent amount of LLW introduced. The total quantity of TRU, and LLW in excess of Type A quantities, must be administratively maintained via curie equivalency Factors to ensure operation as a low-hazard Facility. The ''equivalency'' between TRU and LLW proposed here is specific only to the CWC, but the methodology can be used for other specific applications, such as TRU and LLW storage or handling facilities where inventory limits must be enforced or where a simplified inventory system is required

  19. Promoting individual learning for trainees with perceived high helplessness: experiences of a safety training program.

    Kiani, Fariba; Khodabakhsh, Mohamad Reza

    2014-01-01

    The article arises from a research project investigating the effectiveness of safety training on changing attitudes toward safety issues. Followed by the training intervention was observed that employees' helplessness decreased. The researchers have come to the idea of investigating how safety training can reduce perceived helplessness. Thus, this research examined the effectiveness of safety training on reducing employees' helplessness with attention to the mediating role of attitude toward safety issues. The current study was an experimental study with the control group. A total of 204 (101 experimental group and 103 control group) completed safety attitude questionnaire and perceived helplessness before a safety training course including four 90-min sessions over 4 consecutive days in Esfahan Steel Company in 2012 between October and December. Only members of the experimental group participated in this course. These questionnaires, approximately 30 days later, again were run on members of both groups. Data were analyzed using descriptive indexes, t-, and F-test. RESULTS by comparing the two groups showed that safety training was effective only on individuals with perceived low helplessness (p = 0.02). In individuals with perceived high helplessness, safety training only with changing safety attitudes can reduce the perceived helplessness.

  20. Safety management of a high energy accelerator used in the production of tritium

    Stark, R.M.; Brown, N.W.; Allen C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in a high energy accelerator for producing tritium raises considerations regarding facility Safety Management. Accelerator facility hazards require safety analysis to consider factors such as: safe management of a large flux of very high energy neutrons, sustained operation in a very high energy proton and neutron field, neutron irradiation of a variety of materials, and handling and processing of significant quantities of tritium. Safety considerations of support systems and potential effects of magnetic fields must also be included. Existing Safety Management techniques, safety standards, and criteria for operation of high energy accelerators provide considerable guidance. These must, however, be reviewed to determine their appropriate use for safe operation of a very large, tritium-producing accelerator. New or revised safety standards may be required to establish and maintain the safe operating-envelope. The goal will be to develop a set of tailored standards and criteria that provide a reasonable operational envelope and assure adequate public, worker, and environmental safety. The generation of an appropriate set of safety standards and criteria will include several activities. One activity will involve evaluation of proposed facility designs to determine possible hazards. Another activity will involve a detailed review of existing accelerator safety management systems. A third activity will involve the review of operating histories of existing facilities. Facilities approximating the characteristics of the anticipated tritium production facility will be considered. Following completion of these activities a proposed Safety Management System and criteria for application to these facilities will be drafted. The need for new analytical methods and for additional safety standards will be identified. The draft document will then be reviewed and revised to establish the standards and criteria within the appropriate Department of Energy framework

  1. The storage of liquid high level waste at BNFL, Sellafield. Addendum to February 2000 report

    2001-08-01

    On 18 February 2000 the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published a report on the work of its Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NIl) in regulating the storage of liquid high level waste at the BNFL Sellafield site. Within the report NIl gave two undertakings. One was to publish an addendum around 1 year later covering its assessment of the new safety case for the storage plant and the second was to publish a further addendum when progress had been made with options studies for reducing the stocks of liquid high level waste (HLW), also referred to as highly active liquor (HAL), to a buffer level. A progress report was published in February 2001 which included a summary of the assessment of the new safety case and NIl's regulatory action to enforce liquid HLW stock reductions. This addendum provides a more detailed update on the position reached based on consideration of BNFL's responses to the recommendations from the February 2000 HLW report since its publication. It embodies the two addenda referred to above integrated into a single document for publication

  2. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  3. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  4. Applications of high and ultra high pressure homogenization for food safety

    Francesca Patrignani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the shelf-life and safety of foods have been achieved by thermal processing. Low temperature long time (LTLT and high temperature short time (HTST treatments are the most commonly used hurdles for the pasteurization of fluid foods and raw materials. However, the thermal treatments can reduce the product quality and freshness. Consequently, some non-thermal pasteurization process have been proposed during the last decades, including high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, pulsed electric field (PEF, ultrasound (US and high pressure homogenization (HPH. This last technique has been demonstrated to have a great potential to provide fresh-like products with prolonged shelf-life. Moreover, the recent developments in high-pressure-homogenization technology and the design of new homogenization valves able to withstand pressures up to 350-400 MPa have opened new opportunities to homogenization processing in the food industries and, consequently, permitted the development of new products differentiated from traditional ones by sensory and structural characteristics or functional properties. For this, this review deals with the principal mechanisms of action of high pressure homogenization against microorganisms of food concern in relation to the adopted homogenizer and process parameters. In addition, the effects of homogenization on foodborne pathogenic species inactivation in relation to the food matrix and food chemico-physical and process variables will be reviewed. Also the combined use of this alternative technology with other non-thermal technologies will be considered

  5. A new system to reduce formaldehyde levels improves safety conditions during gross veterinary anatomy learning.

    Nacher, Víctor; Llombart, Cristina; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Ysern, Pere; Calero, Sebastián; Fígols, Enric; Ruberte, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Dissection is a very useful method of learning veterinary anatomy. However, formaldehyde, which is widely used to preserve cadavers, is an irritant, and it has recently been classified as a carcinogen. In 1997, the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo [National Institute of Workplace Security and Hygiene] found that the levels of formaldehyde in our dissection room were above the threshold limit values. Unfortunately, no optimal substitute for formaldehyde is currently available. Therefore, we designed a new ventilation system that combines slow propulsion of fresh air from above the dissection table and rapid aspiration of polluted air from the perimeter. Formaldehyde measurements performed in 2004, after the introduction of this new system into our dissection laboratory, showed a dramatic reduction (about tenfold, or 0.03 ppm). A suitable propelling/aspirating air system successfully reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the dissection room, significantly improving safety conditions for students, instructors, and technical staff during gross anatomy learning.

  6. Procedures for conducting probabilistic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (Level 1)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides guidance for conducting a Level 1 of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), that is a PSA concerned with events leading to core damage. The scope of this report is confined to internal initiating events (excluding internal fires and floods). A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs so as to facilitate external review of the results of such studies. The report is divided into the following major sections: management and organization; identification of sources of radioactive releases and accident initiators; accident sequence modelling; data assessment and parameter estimation; accident sequence quantification; documentation of the analysis: display and interpretation of result. 45 refs, 7 figs, 23 tabs

  7. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Fearnley, I. G.

    1997-01-01

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this 'national' resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  9. Between demarcation and discretion: The medical-administrative boundary as a locus of safety in high-volume organisational routines.

    Grant, Suzanne; Guthrie, Bruce

    2018-04-01

    Patient safety is an increasing concern for health systems internationally. The majority of administrative work in UK general practice takes place in the context of organisational routines such as repeat prescribing and test results handling, where high workloads and increased clinician dependency on administrative staff have been identified as an emerging safety issue. Despite this trend, most research to date has focused on the redistribution of the clinical workload between doctors, nurses and allied health professionals within individual care settings. Drawing on Strauss's negotiated order perspective, we examine ethnographically the achievement of safety across the medical-administrative boundary in key high-volume routines in UK general practice. We focus on two main issues. First, GPs engaged in strategies of demarcation by defining receptionist work as routine, unspecialised and dependent upon GP clinical knowledge and oversight as the safety net to deal with complexity and risk. Receptionists consented to this 'social closure' when describing their role, thus reinforcing the underlying inter-occupational relationship of medical domination. Second, in everyday practice, GPs and receptionists engaged in informal boundary-blurring to safely accommodate the complexity of everyday high-volume routine work. This comprised additional informal discretionary spaces for receptionist decision-making and action that went beyond the routine safety work formally assigned to them. New restratified intra-occupational hierarchies were also being created between receptionists based on the complexity of the safety work that they were authorised to do at practice level, with specialised roles constituting a new form of administrative 'professional project'. The article advances negotiated order theory by providing an in-depth examination of the ways in which medical-administrative boundary-making and boundary-blurring constitute distinct modes of safety in high

  10. Improvement of Level-1 PSA computer code package -A study for nuclear safety improvement-

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Jae Joo; Han, Sang Hoon; Cho, Yeong Kyun; Jeong, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Cheol; Choi, Young; Seong, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Hwang, Mi Jeong; Choi, Seon Yeong; An, Kwang Il

    1994-07-01

    This year is the second year of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-Term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on 'The Improvement of Level-1 PSA Computer Codes' is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the under-developed fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and external events, (2) Computer code package development for Level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in the area of PSA methodology development, foreign PSA reports on shutdown and external events have been reviewed and various PSA methodologies have been compared. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP and CCF analysis code COCOA are converted from KOS to Windows. Human reliability database has been also established in this year. In the area of new technology applications, fuzzy set theory and entropy theory are used to estimate component life and to develop a new measure of uncertainty importance. Finally, in the field of application study of PSA technique to reactor regulation, a strategic study to develop a dynamic risk management tool PEPSI and the determination of inspection and test priority of motor operated valves based on risk importance worths have been studied. (Author)

  11. Probabilistic safety criteria on high burnup HWR fuels

    Marino, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    BACO is a code for the simulation of the thermo-mechanical and fission gas behaviour of a cylindrical fuel rod under operation conditions. Their input parameters and, therefore, output ones may include statistical dispersion. In this paper, experimental CANDU fuel rods irradiated at the NRX reactor together with experimental MOX fuel rods and the IAEA-CRP FUMEX cases are used in order to determine the sensitivity of BACO code predictions. The techniques for sensitivity analysis defined in BACO are: the 'extreme case analysis', the 'parametric analysis' and the 'probabilistic (or statistics) analysis'. We analyse the CARA and CAREM fuel rods relation between predicted performance and statistical dispersion in order of enhanced their original designs taking account probabilistic safety criteria and using the BACO's sensitivity analysis. (author)

  12. Applications of High and Ultra High Pressure Homogenization for Food Safety.

    Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the shelf-life and safety of foods have been achieved by thermal processing. Low temperature long time and high temperature short time treatments are the most commonly used hurdles for the pasteurization of fluid foods and raw materials. However, the thermal treatments can reduce the product quality and freshness. Consequently, some non-thermal pasteurization process have been proposed during the last decades, including high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, ultrasound (US), and high pressure homogenization (HPH). This last technique has been demonstrated to have a great potential to provide "fresh-like" products with prolonged shelf-life. Moreover, the recent developments in high-pressure-homogenization technology and the design of new homogenization valves able to withstand pressures up to 350-400 MPa have opened new opportunities to homogenization processing in the food industries and, consequently, permitted the development of new products differentiated from traditional ones by sensory and structural characteristics or functional properties. For this, this review deals with the principal mechanisms of action of HPH against microorganisms of food concern in relation to the adopted homogenizer and process parameters. In addition, the effects of homogenization on foodborne pathogenic species inactivation in relation to the food matrix and food chemico-physical and process variables will be reviewed. Also the combined use of this alternative technology with other non-thermal technologies will be considered.

  13. Safety

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  14. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    Qiang Jiaxi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle, are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS, the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  15. A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  16. High-level waste immobilization program: an overview

    Bonner, W.R.

    1979-09-01

    The High-Level Waste Immobilization Program is providing technology to allow safe, affordable immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste. Waste forms and processes are being developed on a schedule consistent with national needs for immobilization of high-level wastes stored at Savannah River, Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and West Valley, New York. This technology is directly applicable to high-level wastes from potential reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The program is removing one more obstacle previously seen as a potential restriction on the use and further development of nuclear power, and is thus meeting a critical technological need within the national objective of energy independence

  17. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy.

  18. National high-level waste systems analysis report

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents the assessment of budgetary impacts, constraints, and repository availability on the storage and treatment of high-level waste and on both existing and pending negotiated milestones. The impacts of the availabilities of various treatment systems on schedule and throughput at four Department of Energy sites are compared to repository readiness in order to determine the prudent application of resources. The information modeled for each of these sites is integrated with a single national model. The report suggests a high-level-waste model that offers a national perspective on all high-level waste treatment and storage systems managed by the Department of Energy

  19. Actinides and fission products partitioning from high level liquid waste

    Yamaura, Mitiko

    1999-01-01

    The presence of small amount of mixed actinides and long-lived heat generators fission products as 137 Cs and 90 Sr are the major problems for safety handling and disposal of high level nuclear wastes. In this work, actinides and fission products partitioning process, as an alternative process for waste treatment is proposed. First of all, ammonium phosphotungstate (PWA), a selective inorganic exchanger for cesium separation was chosen and a new procedure for synthesizing PWA into the organic resin was developed. An strong anionic resin loaded with tungstate or phosphotungstate anion enables the precipitation of PWA directly in the resinous structure by adding the ammonium nitrate in acid medium (R-PWA). Parameters as W/P ratio, pH, reactants, temperature and aging were studied. The R-PWA obtained by using phosphotungstate solution prepared with W/P=9.6, 9 hours digestion time at 94-106 deg C and 4 to 5 months aging time showed the best capacity for cesium retention. On the other hand, Sr separation was performed by technique of extraction chromatography, using DH18C6 impregnated on XAD7 resin as stationary phase. Sr is selectively extracted from acid solution and >99% was recovered from loaded column using distilled water as eluent. Concerning to actinides separations, two extraction chromatographic columns were used. In the first one, TBP(XAD7) column, U and Pu were extracted and its separations were carried-out using HNO 3 and hydroxylamine nitrate + HNO 3 as eluent. In the second one, CMP0-TBP(XAD7) column, the actinides were retained on the column and the separations were done by using (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 , DTPA, HNO 3 and HCl as eluent. The behavior of some fission products were also verified in both columns. Based on the obtained data, actinides and fission products Cs and Sr partitioning process, using TBP(XAD7) and CMP0-TBP(XAD7) columns for actinides separation, R-PWA column for cesium retention and DH18C6(XAD7) column for Sr isolation was performed

  20. ENTRIA 2014. Memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals; ENTRIA 2014. Memorandum zur Entsorgung hochradioaktiver Reststoffe

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Walther, Clemens; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Niedersaechsische Technische Hochschule, Braunschweig, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Hannover (Germany); and others

    2014-04-30

    The memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals covers the following issues: description of the problem: a ''wicked problem'', risks and NIMBY, the site selection law, international boundary conditions; disposal strategy and types of facilities: safety and reversibility, long-term surface storage, deep storage; risk and safety; procedural justice and the site selection process; social innovations and the requirement of long-term institutions; conclusion - central stress fields.

  1. Optimizing Safety Stock Levels in Modular Production Systems Using Component Commonality and Group Technology Philosophy: A Study Based on Simulation

    Kenneth Edgar Hernandez-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular production and component commonality are two widely used strategies in the manufacturing industry to meet customers growing needs for customized products. Using these strategies, companies can enhance their performance to achieve optimal safety stock levels. Despite the importance of safety stocks in business competition, little attention has been paid to the way to reduce them without affecting the customer service levels. This paper develops a mathematical model to reduce safety stock levels in organizations that employ modular production. To construct the model, we take advantage of the benefits of aggregate inventories, standardization of components, component commonality, and Group Technology philosophy in regard to stock levels. The model is tested through the simulation of three years of operation of two modular product systems. For each system, we calculated and compared the safety stock levels for two cases: (1 under the only presence of component commonality and (2 under the presence of both component commonality and Group Technology philosophy. The results show a reduction in safety stock levels when we linked the component commonality with the Group Technology philosophy. The paper presents a discussion of the implications of each case, features of the model, and suggestions for future research.

  2. The ATLAS high level trigger region of interest builder

    Blair, R.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Pope, B.; Aboline, M.; High Energy Physics; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design, testing and production of the ATLAS Region of Interest Builder (RoIB). This device acts as an interface between the Level 1 trigger and the high level trigger (HLT) farm for the ATLAS LHC detector. It distributes all of the Level 1 data for a subset of events to a small number of (16 or less) individual commodity processors. These processors in turn provide this information to the HLT. This allows the HLT to use the Level 1 information to narrow data requests to areas of the detector where Level 1 has identified interesting objects

  3. Microbiological quality and safety assessment in the production of moderate and high humidity cheeses

    Denise da Fontoura Prates

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Moderate and high humidity cheeses are described as important vehicles of pathogens in many foodborne diseases outbreaks. Microbial contamination can occur in raw material or in the different steps of the product processing due to inadequate hygiene practices. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety in the production of moderate and high humidity cheese. Samples from raw milk, handlers’ hands surface, final product were collected in three cheese manufacturing plants located in southern Brazil, with different levels of sanitary control. Effectiveness of milk pasteurization was also evaluated. Thermotolerant coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated. Raw milk samples showed the highest contamination levels, with enumeration of 1.1x105 most probable number (MPN mL-1 for thermotolerant coliforms, 4x105 colony-forming units (CFU mL-1 for CPS and presence of Salmonella spp. CPS were also reported in one sample of handler’s hands surface. However, only one sample of the final product was out of Brazilian regulatory standards, exceeding the limit allowed for CPS. Milk pasteurization process used in cheese preparation was effective, regardless the level of sanitary control of the industries. Results highlighted the need for better hygiene practices, in obtaining the raw milk and in the handling during the cheese manufacturing steps.

  4. Scientific Approach for Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories

    Böcker, Michael; Vogy, Joachim; Nolle-Gösser, Tanja

    2008-09-01

    The ESO coordinated study “Optimising Performance, Health and Safety in High-Altitude Observatories” is based on a psychological approach using a questionnaire for data collection and assessment of high-altitude effects. During 2007 and 2008, data from 28 staff and visitors involved in APEX and ALMA were collected and analysed and the first results of the study are summarised. While there is a lot of information about biomedical changes at high altitude, relatively few studies have focussed on psychological changes, for example with respect to performance of mental tasks, safety consciousness and emotions. Both, biomedical and psychological changes are relevant factors in occupational safety and health. The results of the questionnaire on safety, health and performance issues demonstrate that the working conditions at high altitude are less detrimental than expected.

  5. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The safety barrier system for the type B repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). In the case of low- and intermediate-level waste the technical safety barrier system comprises: waste solidification matrix (cement, bitumen and resin), immobilisation of the waste packages in containers using liquid cement, concrete repository containers, backfilling of remaining vacant storage space with special concrete, concrete lining of the repository caverns, sealing of access tunnels on final closure of the repository. Natural geological safety barriers - host rock and overlying formations - have the following important functions. Because of its stability, the host rock in the repository zone protects the technical safety barrier system from destruction caused by climatic effects and erosion for a sufficient length of time. It also provides for low water flow and favourable chemistry (reducing conditions)

  6. Long-term high-level waste technology. Composite quarterly technical report, January-March 1981

    Cornman, W.R.

    1981-08-01

    This composite quarterly technical report summarizes work performed at participating sites to immobilize high-level radioactive wastes. The report is structured along the lines of the Work Breakdown Structure adopted for use in the High-Level Waste Management Technology program. These are: (1) program management and support with subtasks of management and budget, environmental and safety assessments, and other support; (2) waste preparation with subtasks of in-situ storage or disposal, waste retrieval, and separation and concentration; (3) waste fixation with subtasks of waste form development and characterization, and process and equipment development; and (4) final handling with subtasks of canister development and characterization and onsite storage or disposal. Some of the highlights are: preliminary event trees defining possible accidents were completed in the safety assessment of continued in-tank storage of high-level waste at Hanford; two low-cost waste forms (tailored concrete and bitumen) were investigated as candidate immobilization forms at the Hanford in-situ disposal studies of high-level waste; in comparative impact tests at the same impact energy per specimen volume, the same mass of respirable sizes was observed at ANL for SRL Frit 131 glass, SYNROC B ceramic, and SYNROC D ceramic; leaching tests were conducted on alkoxide glasses; glass-ceramic, concrete, and SYNROC D; a process design description was written for the tailored ceramic process

  7. NOS CO-OPS Water Level Data, Verified, High Low

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has verified (quality-controlled), daily, high low water level (tide) data from NOAA NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services...

  8. Artificial Heads for High-Level Impulse Sound Measurement

    Buck, K

    1999-01-01

    If the Insertion Loss (IL) of hearing protectors has to be determined with very high impulse or continuous noise levels, the acoustic insulation of the Artificial Test Fixture has to exceed at least the Insertion Loss (IL...

  9. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    1993-01-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  10. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  11. Glasses used for the high level radioactive wastes storage

    Sombret, C.

    1983-06-01

    High level radioactive wastes generated by the reprocessing of spent fuels is an important concern in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the status of the knowledge about glasses used for the treatment of these liquids [fr

  12. CCF analysis of high redundancy systems safety/relief valve data analysis and reference BWR application

    Mankamo, T.; Bjoere, S.; Olsson, Lena

    1992-12-01

    Dependent failure analysis and modeling were developed for high redundancy systems. The study included a comprehensive data analysis of safety and relief valves at the Finnish and Swedish BWR plants, resulting in improved understanding of Common Cause Failure mechanisms in these components. The reference application on the Forsmark 1/2 reactor relief system, constituting of twelve safety/relief lines and two regulating relief lines, covered different safety criteria cases of reactor depressurization and overpressure protection function, and failure to re close sequences. For the quantification of dependencies, the Alpha Factor Model, the Binomial Probability Model and the Common Load Model were compared for applicability in high redundancy systems

  13. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    Jahagirdar, P.B.; Wattal, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  14. Properties and characteristics of high-level waste glass

    Ross, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper has briefly reviewed many of the characteristics and properties of high-level waste glasses. From this review, it can be noted that glass has many desirable properties for solidification of high-level wastes. The most important of these include: (1) its low leach rate; (2) the ability to tolerate large changes in waste composition; (3) the tolerance of anticipated storage temperatures; (4) its low surface area even after thermal shock or impact

  15. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  16. High level waste canister emplacement and retrieval concepts study

    1975-09-01

    Several concepts are described for the interim (20 to 30 years) storage of canisters containing high level waste, cladding waste, and intermediate level-TRU wastes. It includes requirements, ground rules and assumptions for the entire storage pilot plant. Concepts are generally evaluated and the most promising are selected for additional work. Follow-on recommendations are made

  17. Evaluation of safety issues on newly regulated nuclear power plant by tsunami-level 1 PRA

    Tsuji, Yutaro; Miwa, Shuichiro; Mori, Michitsugu

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake triggered severe accidents involving the units 1 to 4 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). In order to re-operate existing nuclear power plants it should be necessary to reduce the core damage frequency on risk by tsunami. In this work, effects of the off-site power supply installation on resuming operation of nuclear power plants were investigated by utilizing the Tsunami-Level 1 Probability Risk Assessment (PRA). Unit 2 of the Onagawa nuclear power station, which resembled units 2 and 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi, was selected for PRA. First, event-tree was created for the units of the Onagawa nuclear power station with the safety systems such as Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), investigating the plant situation at the time of the earthquake and tsunami occurrences. It was assumed that the magnitude of the tsunami was equivalent to the Great East Japan Earthquake. The accident-analytical progression-time was 36 hours, determined from the core-damage occurrence of the unit 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Failure probabilities were calculated by the fault tree, which was created from the elements listed in the event tree. For the calculation, failure rates reported by the NUCIA (NUClear Information Archives) were primarily utilized. Then, obtained failure probabilities were embedded to the event tree. Core damage probabilities were evaluated by calculating success and failure rates for each accidental progression and scenarios. Restoration of the failed equipment and machineries was not considered in the analysis. Installation of the power supply vehicles at the nuclear power plant site reduced the core damage probability from 2.58×10 -6 to 8.56×10 -7 . However, continued addition of the power supply vehicles could not lower the core damage probability further more. In the case of Unit 2 of Onagawa nuclear power station, there could be a limit to lower the core damage

  18. Results of the Safety probabilistic analysis of Level 2 of the CNSNS

    Lopez M, R.; Godinez S, V.

    2004-01-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) it has concluded the one develop of their Probabilistic Analysis of Safety (APS) of Level 2. The reach of the study it considers internal events to full power and it was developed on the base of the methodology of the NUREG-1150, for what you it was built an Event Tree of the Progression of the Accident (APET) to analyze the 25 States of Damage to the Plant (PDS) obtained of the APS Nl of the CNSNS. In the APET are considered the phenomenology of severe accidents, the performance of mitigation systems and actions of the operator that could modify the evolution of a severe accident in the CNLV, as well as the diverse modes of failure of the primary container and it identifies the trajectories of liberation of radioactive material to the exterior. The conditional probabilities of failure of the primary container were obtained and it was characterized the time so much to which happens the liberation of radioactive material as the quantity of the term liberated source. Also, to establish the times and parameters of the evolution of accidents were selected representative accident sequences of the diverse accident types and their conditions were simulated by means of the MELCOR computer code. Also it was developed a code of parametric compute type XSOR, specific for Laguna Verde, with which it was carried out the estimate of the term source in each one of the release trajectories. In this work the main characteristic ones are presented and results of the APS N2 developed in the CNSNS and they are compared against the model and results of the EIP of the CNLV. (Author)

  19. Microbiological Quality and Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables at Retail Levels in Korea.

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Wei, Shuai; Khan, Imran; Hussain, Mohammad Shakhawat; Kounkeu, Paul-François Ngnitcho; Park, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Se-Hun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of fresh produce at retail level in Korea in order to periodically update information and establish available risks associated with consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. The samples from different markets located in 3 provinces of South Korea were collected. The protocol in the Korean Food Standards Codex was applied and generic Escherichia coli, coliforms, aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), and yeast and mold (YM) in 360 packaged and unpackaged fresh fruits and vegetables were analyzed. Presence of pathogens was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) after enrichment of samples. For all, the microbial counts ranged from 1.7 to 10.6 log cfu/g for AMB, 2.2 to 7.9 log cfu/g for coliforms, and 5.5 to 7.9 log cfu/g for YM. Three lettuce samples were contaminated by E. coli with a bacterial load ranging from 2 to 4 log cfu/g. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any fresh produce. Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus were found in 1 (0.6%), 3 (0.8%), and 5 (1.4%) fresh produce samples, respectively. Bacillus cereus (50.3%) and Clostridium perfringens (13.3%) had the highest prevalence. These results indicate the need for employing strict control measures and developing preventive strategies to improve the quality and safety of fresh produce in Korea. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Seismic test for safety evaluation of low level radioactive wastes containers

    Ohoka, Makoto; Horikiri, Morito

    1998-08-01

    Seismic safety of three-piled container system used in Tokai reprocessing center was confirmed by seismic test and computational analysis. Two types of container were evaluated, for low level noninflammable radioactive solid wastes, and for used filters wrapped by large plastic bags. Seismic integrity of three-piled containers was confirmed by evaluating response characteristics such as acceleration and displacement under the design earthquake condition S1, which is the maximum earthquake expected at the stored site during the storage time. Computational dynamic analysis was also performed, and several conclusions described below were made. (1) Response characteristics of the bottom board and the side board were different. The number of pile did not affect the response characteristics of the bottom board of each container. They behaved as a rigid body. (2) The response of the side board was larger than that of the bottom board. (3) The response depended on the direction in each board, either side or bottom. The response acceleration became larger to the seismic wave perpendicular to the plane which has the entrance for fork lift and the radioactive warning mark. (4) The maximum horizontal response displacement under the S1 seismic wave was approximately 10 mm. It is so small that it does not affect the seismic safety. (5) The stoppers to prevent fall down had no influence to the response acceleration. (6) There was no fall down to the S1 seismic wave and 2 times of S1 seismic wave, which was the maximum input condition of the test. (7) The response of the bottom board of the containers, which are main elements of fall down, had good agreements both in the test and in the computational analysis. (author)

  1. Level-1 probability safety assessment of the Iranian heavy water reactor using SAPHIRE software

    Faghihi, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51153 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Safety Research Center, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Ramezani, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51153 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefpour, F. [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirvakili, S.M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51153 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The main goal of this review paper is to analyze the total frequency of the core damage of the Iranian Heavy Water Research Reactor (IHWRR) compared with standard criteria and to determine the strengths and the weaknesses of the reactor safety systems towards improving its design and operation. The PSA has been considered for full-power state of the reactor and this article represents a level-1 PSA analysis using System Analysis Programs for Hands-On Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) software. It is specifically designed to permit a listing of the potential accident sequences, compute their frequencies of occurrence and assign each sequence to a consequence. The method used for modeling the systems and accident sequences, is Large Fault Tree/Small Event Tree method. This PSA level-1 for IHWRR indicates that, based on conservative assumptions, the total frequency of accidents that would lead to core damage from internal initiating events is 4.44E-05 per year of reactor operation.

  2. Level-1 probability safety assessment of the Iranian heavy water reactor using SAPHIRE software

    Faghihi, F.; Ramezani, E.; Yousefpour, F.; Mirvakili, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this review paper is to analyze the total frequency of the core damage of the Iranian Heavy Water Research Reactor (IHWRR) compared with standard criteria and to determine the strengths and the weaknesses of the reactor safety systems towards improving its design and operation. The PSA has been considered for full-power state of the reactor and this article represents a level-1 PSA analysis using System Analysis Programs for Hands-On Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) software. It is specifically designed to permit a listing of the potential accident sequences, compute their frequencies of occurrence and assign each sequence to a consequence. The method used for modeling the systems and accident sequences, is Large Fault Tree/Small Event Tree method. This PSA level-1 for IHWRR indicates that, based on conservative assumptions, the total frequency of accidents that would lead to core damage from internal initiating events is 4.44E-05 per year of reactor operation

  3. Retrievability of high level waste and spent nuclear fuel. Proceedings of an international seminar

    2000-12-01

    The possibility of retrieving spent nuclear fuel or reprocessing high-level radioactive wastes placed in geological repositories is an issue that has attracted increased attention during the past few years, not only among technical experts but also among politicians at different levels, environmental organisations and other interested representatives of the public. This publication contains the presented invited papers, an edited record of the discussions and some concluding remarks. The seminar addressed a wide range of aspects of retrievability including technical options; public acceptance; ethical aspects; long term monitoring and cost considerations; safety and regulatory aspects. Each of the presented papers was indexed separately

  4. Retrievability of high level waste and spent nuclear fuel. Proceedings of an international seminar

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The possibility of retrieving spent nuclear fuel or reprocessing high-level radioactive wastes placed in geological repositories is an issue that has attracted increased attention during the past few years, not only among technical experts but also among politicians at different levels, environmental organisations and other interested representatives of the public. This publication contains the presented invited papers, an edited record of the discussions and some concluding remarks. The seminar addressed a wide range of aspects of retrievability including technical options; public acceptance; ethical aspects; long term monitoring and cost considerations; safety and regulatory aspects. Each of the presented papers was indexed separately.

  5. Disposal of high level nuclear wastes: Thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics

    RANA Mukhtar Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of soil, water or air, due to a failure of containment or disposal of high level nuclear wastes, can potentially cause serious hazards to the environment or human health. Essential elements of the environment and radioactivity dangers to it are illustrated. Issues of high level nuclear waste disposal are discussed with a focus on thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics. Major aspects of the issues are analyzed and described briefly to build a perception of risks involved and ethical implications. Nuclear waste containment repository should be as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium. A clear demonstration about safety aspects of nuclear waste management is required in gaining public and political confidence in any possible scheme of permanent disposal. Disposal of high level nuclear waste offers a spectrum of environment connected challenges and a long term future of nuclear power depends on the environment friendly solution of the problem of nuclear wastes.

  6. An instrumentation and control philosophy for high-level nuclear waste processing facilities

    Weigle, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an instrumentation and control philosophy which may be applied to high-level nuclear waste processing facilities. This philosophy describes the recommended criteria for automatic/manual control, remote/local control, remote/local display, diagnostic instrumentation, interlocks, alarm levels, and redundancy. Due to the hazardous nature of the process constituents of a high-level nuclear waste processing facility, it is imperative that safety and control features required for accident-free operation and maintenance be incorporated. A well-instrumented and controlled process, while initially more expensive in capital and design costs, is generally safer and less expensive to operate. When the long term cost savings of a well designed process is coupled with the high savings enjoyed by accident avoidance, the benefits far outweigh the initial capital and design costs

  7. Argentine project for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Palacios, E.; Ciallella, N.R.; Petraitis, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    From 1980 Argentina is carrying out a research program on the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The quantity of wastes produced will be significant in next century. However, it was decided to start with the studies well in advance in order to demonstrate that the high level wastes could be disposed in a safety way. The option of the direct disposal of irradiated fuel elements was discarded, not only by the energetic value of the plutonium, but also for ecological reasons. In fact, the presence of a total inventory of actinides in the non-processed fuel would imply a more important radiological impact than that caused if the plutonium is recycled to produce energy. The decision to solve the technological aspects connected with the elimination of high-level radioactive wastes well in advance, was made to avoid transfering the problem to future generations. This decision is based not only on technical evaluations but also on ethic premises. (Author)

  8. Disposal of high level nuclear wastes: thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics

    Rana, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of soil, water or air, due to a failure of containment or disposal of high level nuclear wastes, can potentially cause serious hazards to the environment or human health. Essential elements of the environment and radioactivity dangers to it are illustrated. Issues of high level nuclear waste disposal are discussed with a focus on thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics. Major aspects of the issues are analyzed and described briefly to build a perception of risks involved and ethical implications. Nuclear waste containment repository should be as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium. A clear demonstration about safety aspects of nuclear waste management is required in gaining public and political confidence in any possible scheme of permanent disposal. Disposal of high level nuclear waste offers a spectrum of environment connected challenges and a long term future of nuclear power depends on the environment friendly solution of the problem of nuclear wastes. (authors)

  9. Elevated level of polysaccharides in a high level UV-B tolerant cell ...

    Jane

    2011-04-26

    Apr 26, 2011 ... A cell line of Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd with high level ... mechanisms to repair UV-induced damages via repairing ... for treatment or prevention of solar radiation. ..... working as both UV-B absorbing compounds and.

  10. One safety critical indicators model for regulatory actions on nuclear power plants based on a level 1 PSA

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    2006-03-01

    This study presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This methodology can be used for identifying situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can also identify eventual room for improvements by generating suggestions and recommendations, as a complement for regulatory actions and inspections, focusing resources on eventual existing weaknesses, in order to increase or maintain a high pattern of operational safety. (author)

  11. Safety analysis of high pressure gasous fuel container punctures

    Swain, M.R. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The following report is divided into two sections. The first section describes the results of ignitability tests of high pressure hydrogen and natural gas leaks. The volume of ignitable gases formed by leaking hydrogen or natural gas were measured. Leaking high pressure hydrogen produced a cone of ignitable gases with 28{degrees} included angle. Leaking high pressure methane produced a cone of ignitable gases with 20{degrees} included angle. Ignition of hydrogen produced larger overpressures than did natural gas. The largest overpressures produced by hydrogen were the same as overpressures produced by inflating a 11 inch child`s balloon until it burst.

  12. The case of the high-risk safety product.

    Chew, W B; Blodgett, T B; Wallin, W R; Meyers, G C; Holden, B; Johnson, E W; Smith, N C; Ducker, W

    1992-01-01

    After several days of meetings, J.F. Winchester, president of MDC Industries, felt no closer to a decision. MDC, a manufacturer of wall and ceiling panels, was considering whether to exercise an option to buy a new and safer wallboard technology. The product was being touted as revolutionary, but, Winchester wondered, could MDC afford to carry the flag? According to its inventor, Robert Goerner, Smoke-Safe would be a vast improvement over standard safety-rated wallboard. With almost the same flame-retardant properties, Smoke-Safe had the advantage of giving off almost no fumes or smoke in fire tests. And, Winchester knew, most fire-related deaths are from smoke, not flames. Indeed, the numbers were grimly persuasive: 82% of fire-related injuries involving standard panels were caused by smoke inhalation. What's more, Smoke-Safe would cost about the same to manufacture as MDC's current wallboard. But MDC had several other good options for spending the $5 million Goerner was asking; building plastics was only one of its profit centers. And the prospect of launching a campaign to change building codes in order to market Smoke-Safe, which could spark a fight with competitors, was daunting. Since its current wallboard gave MDC only 18% of the wallboard market, many industry insiders speculated whether MDC had the market clout to influence major cities to revise their codes. Six experts in marketing, law, and ethics advise MDC Industries on how it can balance ethical and business imperatives in making its decision.

  13. High level of CA 125 due to large endometrioma.

    Phupong, Vorapong; Chen, Orawan; Ultchaswadi, Pornthip

    2004-09-01

    CA 125 is a tumor-associated antigen. Its high levels are usually associated with ovarian malignancies, whereas smaller increases in the levels were associated with benign gynecologic conditions. The authors report a high level of CA 125 in a case of large ovarian endometrioma. A 45-year-old nulliparous Thai woman, presented with an increase of her abdominal girth for 7 months. Transabdominal ultrasonogram demonstrated a large ovarian cyst and multiple small leiomyoma uteri, and serum CA 125 level was 1,006 U/ml. The preoperative diagnosis was ovarian cancer with leiomyoma uteri. Exploratory laparotomy was performed. There were a large right ovarian endometrioma, small left ovarian endometrioma and multiple small leiomyoma. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of endometrioma and leiomyoma. The serum CA 125 level declined to non-detectable at the 4th week. She was well at discharge and throughout her 4th week follow-up period Although a very high level of CA 125 is associated with a malignant process, it can also be found in benign conditions such as a large endometrioma. The case emphasizes the association of high levels of CA 125 with benign gynecologic conditions.

  14. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements

  15. Efficacy and safety of once daily low molecular weight heparin (tinzaparin sodium) in high risk pregnancy.

    Ní Ainle, Fionnuala

    2008-10-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is widely regarded as the anticoagulant treatment of choice for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. However, previous studies have demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic profiles of LMWH vary significantly with increasing gestation. Consequently, it remains unclear whether LMWH regimens recommended for use in nonpregnant individuals can be safely extrapolated to pregnant women. The aims of this study were to assess the safety and the efficacy of tinzaparin sodium (Innohep) administered only once daily during pregnancy. A systematic retrospective review identified a cohort of 37 high-risk pregnancies which had been managed using tinzaparin 175 IU\\/kg once daily. In 26 cases, the index pregnancy had been complicated by development of an acute venous thromboembolism (17 deep vein thrombosis and nine pulmonary embolism). For each individual, case notes were examined and data extracted using a predetermined questionnaire. No episodes of recurrent venous thromboembolism were identified amongst this cohort of pregnancies managed using once daily LMWH administration. However, two unusual thrombotic complications were observed, including a parietal infarct in one patient, and a postpartum cerebral venous thrombosis in another. Once daily tinzaparin was well tolerated, with no cases of heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia, symptomatic osteoporosis, or foetal malformations. Tinzaparin dose modification based upon peak anti-Xa levels occurred in 45% of the cases examined. The present study is the largest study to have examined the clinical efficacy of once daily LMWH for use in pregnant women at high risk of venous thromboembolism. Our data support the safety and efficacy of antenatal tinzaparin at a dose of 175 IU\\/kg. In order to determine whether this once daily regimen provides equivalent (or indeed greater) thromboprophylaxis to twice daily LMWH regimens during pregnancy will require highly powered

  16. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    Bramm, R; Lien, J A; Lindenstruth, V; Loizides, C; Röhrich, D; Skaali, B; Steinbeck, T M; Stock, Reinhard; Ullaland, K; Vestbø, A S; Wiebalck, A

    2003-01-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/event at an event rate less than approximately equals 200 Hz resulting in a data rate of similar to 15 GB/s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off- the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  17. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

    Weggelaar Anne-Marie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims. Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that

  18. Working Towards Unified Safety Design Criteria for Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Designs

    Reitsma, Frederik; Silady, Fred; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Development Section of the IAEA recently received approval for a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to investigate and make proposals on modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) Safety design criteria. It is expected that these criteria would consider past experience and existing safety standards in the light of modular HTGR material and design characteristics to propose safety design criteria. It will consider the deterministic and risk-informed safety design standards that apply to the wide spectrum of Off- normal events under development worldwide for existing and planned HTGRs. The CRP would also take into account lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, clarifying the safety approach and safety evaluation criteria for design and beyond design basis events, including those events that can affect multiple reactor modules and/or are dependent on the application proximate to the plant site. (e. g., industrial process steam/heat). The logical flow of criteria is from the fundamental inherent safety characteristics of modular HTGRs and associated expected performance characteristics, to the safety functions required to ensure those characteristics during the wide spectrum of Off-normal events, and finally to specific criteria related to those functions. This is detailed in the paper with specific examples included of how it may be applied. The results of the CRP will be made available to the member states and HTGR community. (author)

  19. Evaluation of strategies for end storage of high-level reactor fuel; Vurdering av strategier for sluttlagring av hoeyaktivt reaktorbrensel

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report evaluates a national strategy for end-storage of used high-level reactor fuel from the research reactors at Kjeller and in Halden. This strategy presupposes that all the important phases in handling the high-level material, including temporary storage and deposition, are covered. The quantity of spent fuel from Norwegian reactors is quite small. In addition to the technological issues, ethical, environmental, safety and economical requirements are emphasized.

  20. High-heat tank safety issue resolution program plan. Revision 2

    Wang, O.S.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to provide a guide for selecting corrective actions that will mitigate and/or remediate the high-heat waste tank safety issue for single-shell tank 241-C-106. The heat source of approximately 110,000 Btu/hr is the radioactive decay of the stored waste material (primarily 90 Sr) inadvertently transferred into the tank in the later 1960s. Currently, forced ventilation, with added water to promote thermal conductivity and evaporation cooling, is used for heat removal. The method is very effective and economical. At this time, the only viable solution identified to permanently resolve this safety issue is the removal of heat-generating waste in the tank. This solution is being aggressively pursued as the only remediation method to this safety issue, and tank 241-C-106 has been selected as the first single-shell tank for retrieval. The current cooling method and other alternatives are addressed in this program as means to mitigate this safety issue before retrieval. This program plan has three parts. The first part establishes program objectives and defines safety issue, drivers, and resolution criteria and strategy. The second part evaluates the high-heat safety issue and its mitigation and remediation methods and other alternatives according to resolution logic. The third part identifies major tasks and alternatives for mitigation and resolution of the safety issue. A table of best-estimate schedules for the key tasks is also included in this program plan