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Sample records for high risk neighbourhood

  1. Steps Toward Technology Design to Beat Health Inequality - Participatory Design Walks in a Neighbourhood with High Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Pernille; Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Madsen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores participatory design walks (PD walks) as a first step toward a participatory design of health information technology (HIT) aimed at tackling health inequality in a neighbourhood identified as a high-risk health area. Existing research shows that traditional methods for health promotion, such as campaigns and teaching, have little to no effect in high-risk health areas. Rather, initiatives must be locally anchored - integrated into the local culture, and based on social relationships and group activities. This paper explains how we conducted PD walks with residents and community workers in the neighbourhood and how this participatory approach supported a first step toward HIT design that tackles health inequality. This is important, as people in neighbourhoods with high health risks are not the target audience for the health technology innovation currently taking place despite the fact that this group suffers the most from health inequality and weigh most on the public healthcare services and costs. The study identifies social and cultural aspects that influence everyday health management and presents how a citizen-driven approach like PD walks, can contribute valuable insights for design of HIT. The paper provides concrete methodological recommendations on how to conduct PD walks that are valuable to HIT designers and developers who aim to do PD with neighbourhoods.

  2. Consistent condom use among drug-using youth in a high HIV-risk neighbourhood.

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    Friedman, S R; Flom, P L; Kottiri, B J; Neaigus, A; Sandoval, M; Fuld, J; Curtis, R; Zenilman, J M; Des Jarlais, D C

    2002-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine predictors of consistent condom use in heterosexual relationships of young adults who use hard drugs in a neighbourhood with widespread drug-use-connected HIV. We interviewed 196 18-24 year olds who injected drugs or used heroin, cocaine or crack in the prior year and lived in the Bushwick neighbourhood of New York City. Interviews covered sociodemographics, substance use and sexual networks. The unit of analysis is the relationship; the dependent variable measures consistent condom use over the prior 30 days in a given relationship. Consistent condom use was reported in 26% of 377 non-commercial relationships and in all of 22 commercial relationships. Using multiple logistic regression, consistent condom use in non-commercial relationships was more likely in relationships that are not 'very close'; for men (but not women) with peers whose norms are more favourable to condom use; and for subjects who had concurrent sex partners in the last 12 months. In conclusion, we found that: (1) the lack of relationship between the peer norms of drug-using women and their condom use suggests they may have little control over condom use in their relationships-programmes should attempt to empower young women drug users and to develop ways for their peers to influence the men in their lives; (2) epidemiologically, the positive association of concurrency to consistent condom use suggests that condom use may be restricting HIV spread through the community-the presence of consistent condom use in all of the commercial sexual relationships also may restrict HIV spread; (3) prevention efforts should attempt to change peer cultures as a way to develop self-sustaining risk reduction. These changes should include changes in gender roles and power relations.

  3. Health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algren, Maria Holst; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those who live in non-deprived neighbourhoods and to summarise what kind of operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation that were used in the studies. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. Systematic searches were performed in Pub......Med, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible...... consumption, the results were ambiguous, and no clear differences were found. Numerous different operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation were used in the studies. CONCLUSION: Substantial evidence indicates that future health interventions in deprived neighbourhoods should focus on smoking...

  4. Preliminary development of a scale to measure stigma relating to sexually transmitted infections among women in a high risk neighbourhood

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    Patrick David M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As stigma is a socially constructed concept, it would follow that stigma related to sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections would carry with it many of the gender-based morals that are entrenched in social constructs of sexuality. In many societies, women tend to be judged more harshly with respect to sexual morals, and would therefore have a different experience of stigma related to sexual behaviours as compared to men. While a variety of stigma scales exist for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in general; none incorporate these female-specific aspects. The objective of this study was to develop a scale to measure the unique experience of STI-related stigma among women. Methods A pool of items was identified from qualitative and quantitative literature on sexual behaviour and STIs among women. Women attending a social evening program at a local community health clinic in a low-income neighbourhood with high prevalence of substance use were passively recruited to take part in a cross-sectional structured interview, including questions on sexual behaviour, sexual health and STI-related stigma. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify stigma scales, and descriptive statistics were used to assess the associations of demographics, sexual and drug-related risk behaviours with the emerging scales. Results Three scales emerged from exploratory factor analysis – female-specific moral stigma, social stigma (judgement by others and internal stigma (self-judgement – with alpha co-efficients of 0.737, 0.705 and 0.729, respectively. In this population of women, internal stigma and social stigma carried higher scores than female-specific moral stigma. Aboriginal ethnicity was associated with higher internal and female-specific moral stigma scores, while older age (>30 years was associated with higher female-specific moral stigma scores. Conclusion Descriptive statistics indicated an important influence of

  5. Quantifying neighbourhood socioeconomic effects in clustering of behaviour-related risk factors: a multilevel analysis.

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    Jaana I Halonen

    Full Text Available The extent to which neighbourhood characteristics explain accumulation of health behaviours is poorly understood. We examined whether neighbourhood disadvantage was associated with co-occurrence of behaviour-related risk factors, and how much of the neighbourhood differences in the co-occurrence can be explained by individual and neighbourhood level covariates.The study population consisted of 60 694 Finnish Public Sector Study participants in 2004 and 2008. Neighbourhood disadvantage was determined using small-area level information on household income, education attainment, and unemployment rate, and linked with individual data using Global Positioning System-coordinates. Associations between neighbourhood disadvantage and co-occurrence of three behaviour-related risk factors (smoking, heavy alcohol use, and physical inactivity, and the extent to which individual and neighbourhood level covariates explain neighbourhood differences in co-occurrence of risk factors were determined with multilevel cumulative logistic regression.After adjusting for age, sex, marital status, and population density we found a dose-response relationship between neighbourhood disadvantage and co-occurrence of risk factors within each level of individual socioeconomic status. The cumulative odds ratios for the sum of health risks comparing the most to the least disadvantaged neighbourhoods ranged between 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.03-1.24 and 1.75 (95% CI, 1.54-1.98. Individual socioeconomic characteristics explained 35%, and neighbourhood disadvantage and population density 17% of the neighbourhood differences in the co-occurrence of risk factors.Co-occurrence of poor health behaviours associated with neighbourhood disadvantage over and above individual's own socioeconomic status. Neighbourhood differences cannot be captured using individual socioeconomic factors alone, but neighbourhood level characteristics should also be considered.

  6. Double burden of deprivation and high concentrations of ambient air pollution at the neighbourhood scale in Montreal, Canada.

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    Crouse, Dan L; Ross, Nancy A; Goldberg, Mark S

    2009-09-01

    Some neighbourhoods in urban areas are characterised by concentrations of socially and materially deprived populations. Additionally, levels of ambient air pollution in a city can be variable at the local scale and can create disparities in air quality between neighbourhoods. Socioeconomic and physical characteristics of neighbourhood environments can affect the health and well-being of local residents. In this paper we identify whether neighbourhoods in Montreal, Canada characterised by social and material deprivation have higher levels of ambient air pollution than do others. We collected two-week integrated samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) at 133 sites in Montreal during three seasons between 2005 and 2006. We used these data in a geographic information system, along with data describing characteristics of land use, roads, and traffic, to create a spatial model of predicted mean annual concentrations of NO(2) across Montreal. Next, we collected neighbourhood socioeconomic information for 501 census tracts and overlaid their boundaries on the pollution surface. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between neighbourhood-level indicators of deprivation and levels of ambient NO(2). We found associations between concentrations of NO(2) and neighbourhood-level indicators of material deprivation, including median household income, and with indicators of social deprivation, including proportion of people living alone. We identified specific neighbourhoods that were characterised by a double burden of high levels of deprivation and high concentrations of ambient NO(2). Because of the particular social geography in Montreal, we found that not all deprived neighbourhoods had high levels of pollution and that some affluent neighbourhoods in the downtown core had high levels. Our results underscore the importance of considering social contexts in interpreting general associations between social and environmental risks to

  7. Health-risk behaviour among residents in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those of the general population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; van Lenthe, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This study compares health-risk behaviours (including the co-occurrence of health-risk behaviours) of residents in the deprived neighbourhoods with those of the general population of Denmark. It also examines associations between sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics and health......-risk behaviours in deprived neighbourhoods in Denmark. Even after adjustment for socioeconomic characteristics there were large differences in health-risk behaviours between residents in deprived neighbourhoods and the general population. In the deprived neighbourhoods large sociodemographic and socioeconomic...

  8. Health-Risk Behaviour in Deprived Neighbourhoods Compared with Non-Deprived Neighbourhoods: A Systematic Literature Review of Quantitative Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Holst Algren

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in neighbourhoods' influence on individuals' health-risk behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. The aim of this review was to systematically review recent studies on health-risk behaviour among adults who live in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those who live in non-deprived neighbourhoods and to summarise what kind of operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation that were used in the studies.PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible for inclusion.The inclusion criteria were met by 22 studies. The available literature showed a positive association between smoking and physical inactivity and living in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods. In regard to low fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol consumption, the results were ambiguous, and no clear differences were found. Numerous different operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation were used in the studies.Substantial evidence indicates that future health interventions in deprived neighbourhoods should focus on smoking and physical inactivity. We suggest that alcohol interventions should be population based rather than based on the specific needs of deprived neighbourhoods. More research is needed on fruit and vegetable consumption. In future studies, the lack of a uniform operationalisation of neighbourhood deprivation must be addressed.

  9. Clustering of lifestyle risk behaviours among residents of forty deprived neighbourhoods in London: lessons for targeting public health interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Paul; Buck, David; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Adrian, Renton

    2015-01-01

    Background Clustering of lifestyle risk behaviours is very important in predicting premature mortality. Understanding the extent to which risk behaviours are clustered in deprived communities is vital to most effectively target public health interventions.\\ud Methods We examined co-occurrence and associations between risk behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary time) reported by adults living in deprived London neighbourhoods. Associations...

  10. Implications of supermarket access, neighbourhood walkability and poverty rates for diabetes risk in an employee population.

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    Herrick, Cynthia J; Yount, Byron W; Eyler, Amy A

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes is a growing public health problem, and the environment in which people live and work may affect diabetes risk. The goal of the present study was to examine the association between multiple aspects of environment and diabetes risk in an employee population. This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Home environment variables were derived using employees' zip code. Descriptive statistics were run on all individual- and zip-code-level variables, stratified by diabetes risk and worksite. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was then conducted to determine the strongest associations with diabetes risk. Data were collected from employee health fairs in a Midwestern health system, 2009-2012. The data set contains 25 227 unique individuals across four years of data. From this group, using an individual's first entry into the database, 15 522 individuals had complete data for analysis. The prevalence of high diabetes risk in this population was 2·3 %. There was significant variability in individual- and zip-code-level variables across worksites. From the multivariable analysis, living in a zip code with higher percentage of poverty and higher walk score was positively associated with high diabetes risk, while living in a zip code with higher supermarket density was associated with a reduction in high diabetes risk. Our study underscores the important relationship between poverty, home neighbourhood environment and diabetes risk, even in a relatively healthy employed population, and suggests a role for the employer in promoting health.

  11. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

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    Erbel Raimund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29

  12. The effect of neighbourhood unemployment on health-risk behaviours in elderly differs between Slovak and Dutch cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behanova, Martina; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Iveta; van Ameijden, Erik J. C.; Dijkshoorn, Henriette; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Health-risk behaviours (HRB) increase the risk of disability and chronic diseases at an older age. This study aimed to compare Slovakia and the Netherlands regarding differences in the prevalence of HRB by neighbourhood and individual deprivation and to determine whether area differences

  13. Residential neighbourhood greenspace is associated with reduced risk of incident diabetes in older people: a prospective cohort study

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    Alice M. Dalton

    2016-11-01

    this was non-significant (95% CI 0.88, 1.08; p = 0.603. The incidence of diabetes in the least green neighbourhoods (with 20% greenspace on average would fall by 10.7% (95% CI −2.1%, 25.2%; p = 0.106 if they were as green as the average neighbourhood observed across the whole cohort (59% greenspace on average. There were no significant interactions between rurality or socio-economic status and level of greenspace. Conclusions Greener home neighbourhoods may protect against risk of diabetes in older adults, although this study does not support a mediation role for physical activity. Causal mechanisms underlying the associations require further investigation.

  14. Stellar Streams in the Solar Neighbourhood from High Resolution N-Body Simulations

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    Fux, R.

    A high-resolution N-body simulation suggests that stellar streams in the discs of barred galaxies are common and strongly time-dependent. The velocity distribution of stars in the Solar neighbourhood betray many such streams, including a stream of outward moving stars with low angular momentum. This stream is interpreted as a signature of the Galactic bar, in the sense that its stars have just enough energy (Jacobi's integral) to cross the corotation resonance.

  15. Is the number of fast-food outlets in the neighbourhood related to screen-detected type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors?

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    Bodicoat, Danielle H; Carter, Patrice; Comber, Alexis; Edwardson, Charlotte; Gray, Laura J; Hill, Sian; Webb, David; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-06-01

    We investigated whether a higher number of fast-food outlets in an individual's home neighbourhood is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related risk factors, including obesity. Cross-sectional study. Three UK-based diabetes screening studies (one general population, two high-risk populations) conducted between 2004 and 2011. The primary outcome was screen-detected type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes were risk factors for type 2 diabetes. In total 10 461 participants (mean age 59 years; 53% male; 21% non-White ethnicity). There was a higher number of neighbourhood (500 m radius from home postcode) fast-food outlets among non-White ethnic groups (Pfast-food outlets was associated with significantly increased odds for diabetes (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00, 1.04) and obesity (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00, 1.03). This suggests that for every additional two outlets per neighbourhood, we would expect one additional diabetes case, assuming a causal relationship between the fast-food outlets and diabetes. These results suggest that increased exposure to fast-food outlets is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which has implications for diabetes prevention at a public health level and for those granting planning permission to new fast-food outlets.

  16. Emergent properties of HIV risk among injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia: synthesis of individual and neighbourhood-level factors.

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    Uusküla, A; McMahon, J M; Raag, M; Silm, S; Rüütel, K; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Ahas, R; Des Jarlais, D C

    2010-12-01

    HIV/AIDS risk is embodied within multiple levels including structural and social levels. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of neighbourhood characteristics on HIV prevalence among injection drug users (IDU) residing in the area of Tallinn, Estonia in 2007. A cross-sectional, multilevel design collecting individual-level data--a behaviour survey including data on self-reported residency and HIV antibody testing among 350 IDU and neighbourhood-level data--aggregate measures on socio-demo-economic residential characteristics from the 2000 Estonian census. Geocoding and multilevel modelling analysis was employed. Among the 350 IDU recruited, earlier age at first injection, fentanyl as the main injection drug, receptive syringe sharing, main income source other than legal employment and ever attended a syringe exchange programme remained significantly associated with increased odds of anti-HIV positivity in the multivariable analysis involving individual effects with no predictors at the neighbourhood level. In the multilevel model, individual (earlier at IDU initiation AOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.44; injecting opioids AOR 4.43, 95% CI 2.74 to 7.18; receptive syringe sharing AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.86 to 3.37; main income source other than work AOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.14; ever attended a syringe exchange programme AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.83 to 3.61) and neighbourhood level (higher unemployment rate AOR 5.95, 95% CI 2.47 to 14.31; greater residential change AOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.26) emerged as significant predictors of individual HIV-positive status. Our results indicate that both individual-level and emergent neighbourhood-level factors contribute to HIV risk among IDU and are amenable for preventive interventions.

  17. Earthquake risk communication as dialogue - insights from a workshop in Istanbul's urban renewal neighbourhoods

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    Ickert, Johanna; Stewart, Iain S.

    2016-05-01

    An important paradox of hazard communication is that the more effectively a potential physical threat is made public by the scientist, the more readily the scientific message becomes normalized into the daily discourses of ordinary life. As a result, a heightened risk awareness does not necessarily motivate personal or collective preparedness. If geoscientists are to help at-risk communities adopt meaningful measures to protect themselves, new strategies are needed for public communication and community engagement. This paper outlines an attempt to develop a novel approach to train geoscientists, using doctoral and post-doctoral researchers in an EU integrated training network studying tectonic processes and geohazards in Turkey. An urban field visit to seismically vulnerable neighbourhoods in Istanbul allowed the researchers to meet with local residents facing the seismic threat. Those meetings exposed the complex social, political and cultural concerns among Istanbul's at-risk urban communities. These concerns were used to provoke subsequent focus group discussions among the group of geoscientists about roles, responsibilities and methods of communicating hazard information to the public. Through the direct testimony of local residents and geoscientists, we explore the form that new strategies for public communication and community engagement might take.

  18. Behavioural and socio-demographic characteristics of Dutch neighbourhoods with high prevalence of childhood obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Elske; Schokker, Dieuwke F; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C; Renders, Carry M

    OBJECTIVE: To identify neighbourhoods with increased prevalence of overweight children and to examine whether the association between neighbourhood and overweight can be explained by demographic characteristics and energy-related behaviours. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among

  19. Geographic scale matters in detecting the relationship between neighbourhood food environments and obesity risk: an analysis of driver license records in Salt Lake County, Utah.

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    Fan, Jessie X; Hanson, Heidi A; Zick, Cathleen D; Brown, Barbara B; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Smith, Ken R

    2014-08-19

    Empirical studies of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk have found mixed results. One possible cause of these mixed findings is the variation in neighbourhood geographic scale used. The purpose of this paper was to examine how various neighbourhood geographic scales affected the estimated relationship between food environments and obesity risk. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. Salt Lake County, Utah, USA. 403,305 Salt Lake County adults 25-64 in the Utah driver license database between 1995 and 2008. Utah driver license data were geo-linked to 2000 US Census data and Dun & Bradstreet business data. Food outlets were classified into the categories of large grocery stores, convenience stores, limited-service restaurants and full-service restaurants, and measured at four neighbourhood geographic scales: Census block group, Census tract, ZIP code and a 1 km buffer around the resident's house. These measures were regressed on individual obesity status using multilevel random intercept regressions. Obesity. Food environment was important for obesity but the scale of the relevant neighbourhood differs for different type of outlets: large grocery stores were not significant at all four geographic scales, limited-service restaurants at the medium-to-large scale (Census tract or larger) and convenience stores and full-service restaurants at the smallest scale (Census tract or smaller). The choice of neighbourhood geographic scale can affect the estimated significance of the association between neighbourhood food environments and individual obesity risk. However, variations in geographic scale alone do not explain the mixed findings in the literature. If researchers are constrained to use one geographic scale with multiple categories of food outlets, using Census tract or 1 km buffer as the neighbourhood geographic unit is likely to allow researchers to detect most significant relationships. Published by the BMJ

  20. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

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    Aloia Christopher Robert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood.

  1. Feasibility and utility of mapping disease risk at the neighbourhood level within a Canadian public health unit: an ecological study

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    Wanigaratne Susitha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted spatial analyses to determine the geographic variation of cancer at the neighbourhood level (dissemination areas or DAs within the area of a single Ontario public health unit, Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph, covering a population of 238,326 inhabitants. Cancer incidence data between 1999 and 2003 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry and were geocoded down to the level of DA using the enhanced Postal Code Conversion File. The 2001 Census of Canada provided information on the size and age-sex structure of the population at the DA level, in addition to information about selected census covariates, such as average neighbourhood income. Results Age standardized incidence ratios for cancer and the prevalence of census covariates were calculated for each of 331 dissemination areas in Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for cancer varied dramatically across the dissemination areas. However, application of the Moran's I statistic, a popular index of spatial autocorrelation, suggested significant spatial patterns for only two cancers, lung and prostate, both in males (p Conclusion This paper demonstrates the feasibility and utility of a systematic approach to identifying neighbourhoods, within the area served by a public health unit, that have significantly higher risks of cancer. This exploratory, ecologic study suggests several hypotheses for these spatial patterns that warrant further investigations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Canadian study published in the peer-reviewed literature estimating the risk of relatively rare public health outcomes at a very small areal level, namely dissemination areas.

  2. Impact of environmental stress on cancer risk: a case study of an urban residential neighbourhood in Lagos metropolis.

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    Adebamowo, M A

    2009-06-01

    The study aims at examining an aspect of environmental thermal stress as an important contributing factor to cancer risk in an urban residential neighbourhood using Sogunle Community Ikeja, Lagos as a case study. Several studies have established the link between thermal stress and cancer risk. In this study, thermal stress was assessed using the predicted mean vote (PMV), and subjective thermal response; the thermal sensation vote (TSV). The PMV and TSV were obtained by collecting data from occupants of 64 houses in Sogunle Community. Objective measurements of climatic variables were obtained using electronic instruments while subjective measurements were obtained through structured questionnaire.Our findings showed that majority of the people studied are living in a condition of thermal stress and this may be associated with increased cancer risk. The study concludes by examining the role of architects in eradicating thermal stress thus leading to reduction of cancer risk and to a safe and healthy environment.

  3. NEIGHBOURHOOD POVERTY, PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND CENTRAL ADIPOSITY IN THE USA: INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS IN A REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS.

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    Kwarteng, Jamila L; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Israel, Barbara A; Shanks, Trina R; Perkins, Denise White

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the independent effects of neighbourhood context (i.e. neighbourhood poverty) and exposure to perceived discrimination in shaping risk of obesity over time. Weighted three-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the independent effects of neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination on obesity over time in a sample of 157 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adults in Detroit, USA, in 2002/2003 and 2007/2008. Independent associations were found between neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination with central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods with high concentrations of poverty were more likely to show increases in central adiposity compared with those in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of poverty. In models adjusted for BMI, neighbourhood poverty at baseline was associated with a greater change in central adiposity among participants who lived in neighbourhoods in the second (B=3.79, p=0.025) and third (B=3.73, p=0.024) poverty quartiles, compared with those in the lowest poverty neighbourhoods. The results from models that included both neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination showed that both were associated with increased risk of increased central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods in the second (B=9.58, ppoverty were more likely to show greater increases in central adiposity over time, compared with those in the lowest poverty quartile, with mean discrimination at baseline independently and positively associated with increases in central adiposity over time (B=2.36, p=0.020). The results suggest that neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination are independently associated with a heightened risk of increase in central adiposity over time. Efforts to address persistent disparities in central adiposity in the USA should include strategies to reduce high concentrations of neighbourhood poverty as well as

  4. Exploring the mediating roles of physical activity and television time on the relationship between the neighbourhood environment and childhood obesity.

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    Tu, Andrew W; Mâsse, Louise C; Lear, Scott A; Gotay, Carolyn C; Richardson, Chris G

    2016-08-15

    Understanding the mechanisms by which neighbourhood environments influence childhood obesity is needed to facilitate the development of prevention strategies. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify the distinct types of neighbourhoods in which Canadian children reside and examine the extent to which physical activity and sedentary behaviour mediate the relationship between neighbourhood type and childhood obesity. Baseline data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (1994/1995) were used for this study. Latent class analysis was used to group children (age 0-11; N = 22,831) into neighbourhood types based on perceived and census-derived measures of neighbourhood attributes. A path analysis was used to determine the extent to which levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour mediated the relationship between the resulting neighbourhood types and obesity. Five neighbourhood types were identified. Children living in the high safety-low deprivation neighbourhood type, which had the most supportive attributes with regard to physical activity, were significanlty less likely to be obese than children living in the other neighbourhood types. Relative to the high safety-low deprivation neighbourhood, the relationship between neighbourhood type and obesity was partially mediated by physical activity and sedentary behaviour (7%-12% of total effect) among the other urban neighbourhoods, and no mediating effect was found in the rural neighbourhood. Intervention strategies attempting to address the increased risk of obesity associated with neighbourhood environments should be tailored according to urban and rural setting and should consider taking a comprehensive approach aimed at improving a range of obesity-related behaviours.

  5. Cross-sectional associations between high-deprivation home and neighbourhood environments, and health-related variables among Liverpool children.

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    Noonan, Robert J; Boddy, Lynne M; Knowles, Zoe R; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2016-01-13

    (1) To investigate differences in health-related, home and neighbourhood environmental variables between Liverpool children living in areas of high deprivation (HD) and medium-to-high deprivation (MD) and (2) to assess associations between these perceived home and neighbourhood environments and health-related variables stratified by deprivation group. Cross-sectional study. 10 Liverpool primary schools in 2014. 194 children aged 9-10 years. Health-related variables (self-reported physical activity (PA) (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, PAQ-C), cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI) z-scores, waist circumference), home environment variables: (garden/backyard access, independent mobility, screen-based media restrictions, bedroom media) and neighbourhood walkability (Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth, NEWS-Y). Area deprivation. There were significant differences between HD and MD children's BMI z-scores (pchildren had significantly higher bedroom media availability (pchildren (pchildren had significantly higher residential density and neighbourhood aesthetics scores, and lower crime safety, pedestrian and road traffic safety scores than HD children, all of which indicated higher walkability (pchildren's BMI z-scores (β=-0.29, pchildren's PA was negatively associated with bedroom media (β=-0.24, pchildren's PA was positively associated with independent mobility (β=0.25, pchildren's independent mobility was inversely associated with crime safety (β=-0.28, pChildren living in HD areas had the least favourable health-related variables and were exposed to home and neighbourhood environments that are unconducive to health-promoting behaviours. Less access to bedroom media equipment and greater independent mobility were strongly associated with higher PA in HD and MD children, respectively. Facilitating independent mobility and encouraging outdoor play may act as effective strategies to enhance PA levels and reduce

  6. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Individual-Level and Familial-Level Socio-demographic Factors and Risk of Congenital Heart Disease: A Nationwide Study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD), after accounting for family- and individual-level potential confounders. All children aged 0 to 11 years and living in Sweden (n = 748,951) were followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. During the study period, among a total of 748,951 children, 1499 (0.2%) were hospitalised with CHD. Age-adjusted cumulative hospitalisation rates for CHD increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. In the study population, 1.8 per 1000 and 2.2 per 1000 children in the least and most deprived neighbourhoods, respectively, were hospitalised with CHD. The incidence of hospitalisation for CHD increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR) for hospitalisation for CHD for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.46). In the full model, which took account for age, paternal and maternal individual-level socio-economic characteristics, comorbidities (e.g. maternal type 2 diabetes, OR = 3.03; maternal hypertension, OR = 2.01), and family history of CHD (OR = 3.27), the odds of CHD were slightly attenuated but did not remain significant in the most deprived neighbourhoods (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.99-1.45, p = 0.057). This study is the largest so far on neighbourhood influences on CHD, and the results suggest that deprived neighbourhoods have higher rates of CHD, which represents important clinical knowledge. However, the association does not seem to be independent of individual- and family

  7. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Aloia Christopher Robert; Gasevic Danijela; Yusuf Salim; Teo Koon; Chockalingam Arun; Patro Binod Kumar; Kumar Rajesh; Lear Scott Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. ...

  8. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (pfast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood. PMID:23289746

  9. Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloia, Christopher Robert; Gasevic, Danijela; Yusuf, Salim; Teo, Koon; Chockalingam, Arun; Patro, Binod Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Lear, Scott Alexander

    2013-01-07

    Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (pfast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood.

  10. Neighbourhood typology based on virtual audit of environmental obesogenic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, T; Charreire, H; Roda, C; Ben Rebah, M; Mackenbach, J D; Compernolle, S; Glonti, K; Bárdos, H; Rutter, H; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; McKee, M; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M

    2016-01-01

    Virtual audit (using tools such as Google Street View) can help assess multiple characteristics of the physical environment. This exposure assessment can then be associated with health outcomes such as obesity. Strengths of virtual audit include collection of large amount of data, from various geographical contexts, following standard protocols. Using data from a virtual audit of obesity-related features carried out in five urban European regions, the current study aimed to (i) describe this international virtual audit dataset and (ii) identify neighbourhood patterns that can synthesize the complexity of such data and compare patterns across regions. Data were obtained from 4,486 street segments across urban regions in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK. We used multiple factor analysis and hierarchical clustering on principal components to build a typology of neighbourhoods and to identify similar/dissimilar neighbourhoods, regardless of region. Four neighbourhood clusters emerged, which differed in terms of food environment, recreational facilities and active mobility features, i.e. the three indicators derived from factor analysis. Clusters were unequally distributed across urban regions. Neighbourhoods mostly characterized by a high level of outdoor recreational facilities were predominantly located in Greater London, whereas neighbourhoods characterized by high urban density and large amounts of food outlets were mostly located in Paris. Neighbourhoods in the Randstad conurbation, Ghent and Budapest appeared to be very similar, characterized by relatively lower residential densities, greener areas and a very low percentage of streets offering food and recreational facility items. These results provide multidimensional constructs of obesogenic characteristics that may help target at-risk neighbourhoods more effectively than isolated features. © 2016 World Obesity.

  11. NAVIGATING THE NEIGHBOURHOOD : How youths deal with displacement and life in a deprived neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, K

    2014-01-01

    According to many scholars and policymakers living in a deprived neighbourhood has a negative impact on youths’ social outcomes. Youths in deprived neighbourhoods do worse than their peers in ‘better’ neighbourhoods because of such factors as high levels of crime, negative role models, peer influences, stigmatisation and the lack of institutional resources. The existence of deprived urban neighbourhoods leads many governments to adopt policies of urban restructuring aimed at changing the soci...

  12. NAVIGATING THE NEIGHBOURHOOD : How youths deal with displacement and life in a deprived neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363598898

    2014-01-01

    According to many scholars and policymakers living in a deprived neighbourhood has a negative impact on youths’ social outcomes. Youths in deprived neighbourhoods do worse than their peers in ‘better’ neighbourhoods because of such factors as high levels of crime, negative role models, peer

  13. Do schools differ in suicide risk? the influence of school and neighbourhood on attempted suicide, suicidal ideation and self-harm among secondary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Robert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of suicide and poor mental health are high in environments (neighbourhoods and institutions where individuals have only weak social ties, feel socially disconnected and experience anomie - a mismatch between individual and community norms and values. Young people spend much of their time within the school environment, but the influence of school context (school connectedness, ethos and contextual factors such as school size or denomination on suicide-risk is understudied. Our aim is to explore if school context is associated with rates of attempted suicide and suicide-risk at age 15 and self-harm at age 19, adjusting for confounders. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 1698 young people surveyed when aged 11, (primary school, 15 (secondary school and in early adulthood (age 19. Participants provided data about attempted suicide and suicide-risk at age 15 and deliberate self-harm at 19. In addition, data were collected about mental health at age 11, social background (gender, religion, etc., and at age 15, perception of local area (e.g. neighbourhood cohesion, safety/civility and facilities, school connectedness (school engagement, involvement, etc. and school context (size, denomination, etc.. A dummy variable was created indicating a religious 'mismatch', where pupils held a different faith from their school denomination. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression. Results After adjustment for confounders, pupils attempted suicide, suicide-risk and self-harm were all more likely among pupils with low school engagement (15-18% increase in odds for each SD change in engagement. While holding Catholic religious beliefs was protective, attending a Catholic school was a risk factor for suicidal behaviours. This pattern was explained by religious 'mismatch': pupils of a different religion from their school were approximately 2-4 times more likely to attempt suicide, be a suicide-risk or self

  14. Move the Neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    2017-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly t...... tailored to promote active living among children (10–13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen....

  15. Association between neighbourhood walkability and metabolic risk factors influenced by physical activity: a cross-sectional study of adults in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, C K Jennifer; Greiver, Michelle; Aliarzadeh, Babak; Lewis, Daniel

    2017-04-08

    To determine whether neighbourhood walkability is associated with clinical measures of obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia in an urban adult population. Observational cross-sectional study. Urban primary care patients. 78 023 Toronto residents, aged 18 years and over, who were formally rostered or had at least 2 visits between 2012 and 2014 with a primary care physician participating in the University of Toronto Practice Based Research Network (UTOPIAN), within the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN). Differences in average body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride between residents in the highest versus the lowest quartile of neighbourhood walkability, as estimated using multivariable linear regression models and stratified by age. Outcomes were objectively measured and were retrieved from primary care electronic medical records. Models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, medications, medical comorbidities and indices of neighbourhood safety and marginalisation. Compared with those in the lowest walkability quartile, individuals in the highest quartile had lower mean BMI (-2.64 kg/m2, 95% CI -2.98 to -2.30; pwalkable neighbourhoods and having lower BMI in adults of all ages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Decline in sexual risk behaviours among young people in Zambia (2000-2009: do neighbourhood contextual effects play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkomba Kayeyi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined trends in premarital sex, multiple partnership and condom use among young people (15-24 years in Zambia from 2000 to 2009, and assessed the effects of individual and neighbourhood variables on these sexual behaviour indicators in 2000 and 2009. METHODOLOGY: We analysed data from the Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey, conducted in 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2009. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 385 neighbourhoods, giving a population sample of 6,500 young people. Using linear-by-linear trend test, trends in the three indicators were examined. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the effects of individual and neighbourhood variables on the indicators. RESULTS: Premarital sex among young people decreased significantly from 51 to 42% between 2000 and 2009. Multiple partnerships of men also decreased from 26 to 14% during the same period. The use of condoms by young people remained stable during this period. Full multilevel regression models explained 29 and 34% of the neighbourhood variance of premarital sex in 2000 and 2009. For multiple partnerships and condom use, the explained variance was 29 and 18% in 2000; whereas in 2009 it was extremely low. Urban residence and living in neighbourhood with higher average duration of residence were associated with low premarital sex and higher condom use. Living in a neighbourhood with higher average level of comprehensive knowledge of HIV was associated with less risky sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: Declining trends in premarital sex and multiple partnerships are among the factors that might explain the decrease in HIV incidence in Zambia among young people. However, condom use among young people has remained low and stable over the years. The results also suggest that behaviour change interventions should take stock of the social context when introducing individual-level programmes because neighbourhood factors play a considerable role in influencing sexual

  17. Decline in Sexual Risk Behaviours among Young People in Zambia (2000–2009): Do Neighbourhood Contextual Effects Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayeyi, Nkomba; Fylkesnes, Knut; Wiium, Nora; Sandøy, Ingvild F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined trends in premarital sex, multiple partnership and condom use among young people (15–24 years) in Zambia from 2000 to 2009, and assessed the effects of individual and neighbourhood variables on these sexual behaviour indicators in 2000 and 2009. Methodology We analysed data from the Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey, conducted in 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2009. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 385 neighbourhoods, giving a population sample of 6,500 young people. Using linear-by-linear trend test, trends in the three indicators were examined. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the effects of individual and neighbourhood variables on the indicators. Results Premarital sex among young people decreased significantly from 51 to 42% between 2000 and 2009. Multiple partnerships of men also decreased from 26 to 14% during the same period. The use of condoms by young people remained stable during this period. Full multilevel regression models explained 29 and 34% of the neighbourhood variance of premarital sex in 2000 and 2009. For multiple partnerships and condom use, the explained variance was 29 and 18% in 2000; whereas in 2009 it was extremely low. Urban residence and living in neighbourhood with higher average duration of residence were associated with low premarital sex and higher condom use. Living in a neighbourhood with higher average level of comprehensive knowledge of HIV was associated with less risky sexual behaviour. Conclusion Declining trends in premarital sex and multiple partnerships are among the factors that might explain the decrease in HIV incidence in Zambia among young people. However, condom use among young people has remained low and stable over the years. The results also suggest that behaviour change interventions should take stock of the social context when introducing individual-level programmes because neighbourhood factors play a considerable role in influencing sexual behaviour. PMID

  18. Birmingham Urban Climate Change with Neighbourhood Estimates of Environmental Risk (buccaneer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, R.; Thornes, J.; Cai, X.; Rees, R.

    2011-12-01

    temperature measurements around Birmingham and an on-going project (HiTemp) which aims to establish a high-density urban climate network in Birmingham. Once fully validated, UKCP09 weather generator data will be used to drive the model up to 2100 to assess future changes in Birmingham's climate and UHI. The findings of the research are transferred to Birmingham City Council so as to directly inform policy. In order for this to be achieved, a user-friendly web interface has been created - The BUCCANEER Planning Tool. The tool visually displays the combined impacts of the urban heat island, climate change and vulnerability on different temporal and spatial scales across the city. The vulnerability aspect uses layers developed from a risk mapping project at the University of Birmingham using social, economic and environmental data to create a spatial risk assessment with a particular focus on health and demographics. For example proportion of people with ill health in high density housing that will be exposed to excess heat. Additionally model parameters will be adjusted to allow for adaptation strategies to be assessed, for example the effectiveness of inserting green infrastructure in areas to combat excess heat in the city.

  19. A large neighbourhood metaheuristic for the risk-constrained cash-in-transit vehicle routing problem

    OpenAIRE

    TALARICO, Luca; Sörensen, Kenneth; Springael, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic to solve the Risk constrained Cash-in-Transit Vehicle Routing Problem (rctvrp). The rctvrp is a variant of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem and models the problem of routing vehicles in the cash-in-transit sector. In the rctvrp, the risk associated with a robbery represents a critical aspect that is treated as a limiting factor instead of the vehicle capacity which is typical of capacitated vehicle routing problems. The risk of b...

  20. A large neighbourhood metaheuristic for the risk-constrained cash-in-transit vehicle routing problem

    OpenAIRE

    TALARICO, Luca; Springael, Johan; Sörensen, Kenneth; Talarico, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic to solve the Risk constrained Cash-in-Transit Vehicle Routing Problem (RCTVRP). The RCTVRP is a variant of the well-known capacitated vehicle routing problem and models the problem of routing vehicles in the cash-in-transit sector. In the RCTVRP, the risk associated with a robbery represents a critical aspect that is treated as a limiting factor subject to a maximum risk threshold. A new metaheuristic, called ACO-LNS is developed. It com...

  1. Helping Neighbourhoods Help Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Not long after commentators were predicting the "death of neighbourhoods," they are back in policy vogue. Funding was withdrawn, attention went elsewhere. But neighbourhoods are a yo-yo policy idea, in and out of fashion, and they have bounced back under the coalition. Neighbourhoods are now a key focus for the coalition's localism agenda to…

  2. Selective mobility, segregation and neighbourhood effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Boschman

    2015-11-01

    total neighbourhood share of non-western ethnic minorities on satisfaction disappear. Satisfaction is found to be more dependent on neighbourhood characteristics for owner-occupiers than for renters and more for households with children than for other households. However, while earlier research has found that owner-occupiers and households with children are especially sensitive to the neighbourhood ethnic composition (Ellen, 2000; Goyette et al., 2014; Greif, 2015; Xie and Zhou, 2012, I find that it is not the neighbourhood ethnic composition, but neighbourhood safety that is especially important for these groups.  There are thus differences between ethnic groups, tenure groups and household types in the determinants of residential satisfaction. These differences might lead to selective mobility, segregation and high turnover rates. Policymakers in many countries try to create stable, attractive and mixed neighbourhoods (Bolt et al., 2010; Baum et al., 2009; Cheshire, 2007, also by attracting higher income households to deprived urban restructuring neighbourhoods (see Chapter 5. These insights in which neighbourhood characteristics are important to whom, are very important for effective policy design (Baum et al., 2009; Ellen et al., 2013; Pinkster et al., 2015.  Ethnic differences in realising desires to leave the neighbourhood Residential dissatisfaction leads to mobility desires which could lead to residential mobility (Brown and Moore, 1970; Wolpert, 1965. Whether people realise their desire to move depends on their personal resources and restrictions (Mulder and Hooimeijer, 1999, there are thus individual differences in how successful people are in realising their desires to move. In Chapter 3, I focus on people who expressed a desire to leave their neighbourhood and study who realises this desire within two years and who manages to escape from poverty neighbourhoods or minority concentration neighbourhoods. To do this, I use a unique combination of survey data

  3. Longitudinal analysis of cardiovascular disease risk profile in neighbourhood poverty subgroups: 5-year results from an afterschool fitness programme in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Emily M; Patel, Hersila H; Hansen, Eric; Mathew, M Sunil; Nardi, Maria; Messiah, Sarah E

    2017-11-24

    The WHO calls for affordable population-based prevention strategies for reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on morbidity and mortality; however, effective, sustainable and accessible community-based approaches for CVD prevention in at-risk youth have yet to be identified. We examined the effects of implementing a daily park-based afterschool fitness programme on youth CVD risk profiles over 5 years and across area poverty subgroups. The study included 2264 youth (mean age 9.4 years, 54% male, 50% Hispanic, 47% non-Hispanic black, 70% high/very high area poverty) in Miami, Florida, USA. We used three-level repeated measures mixed models to determine the longitudinal effects of programme participation on modifiable CVD outcomes (2010-2016). Duration of programme participation was significantly associated with CVD risk profile improvements, including body mass index (BMI) z-score, diastolic/systolic blood pressure, skinfold thicknesses, waist-hip ratio, sit-ups, push-ups, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) score, 400 m run time, probability of developing systolic/diastolic hypertension and overweight/obesity in high/very high poverty neighbourhoods (P<0.001). Diastolic blood pressure decreased 3.4 percentile points (95% CI -5.85 to -0.85), 8.1 percentile points (95% CI -11.98 to -4.26), 6.1 percentile points (95% CI -11.49 to -0.66), 7.6 percentile points (95% CI -15.33 to -0.15) and 11.4 percentile points (95% CI -25.32 to 2.61) for 1-5 years, respectively, in high/very high poverty areas. In contrast, significant improvements were found only for PACER score and waist-hip ratio in low/mid poverty areas. This analysis presents compelling evidence demonstrating that park-based afterschool programmes can successfully maintain or improve at-risk youth CVD profiles over multiple years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  4. Structural neighbourhood conditions, social cohesion and psychological distress in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Özcan; Prins, Richard G; Voorham, Toon A J J; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress are well reported, but underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The main purposes of this study were to investigate associations between structural neighbourhood conditions and psychological distress, and to explore the potential mediating role of neighbourhood social cohesion. Cross-sectional questionnaire study on a random sample of 18,173 residents aged ≥ 16 years (response 49%) from the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Structural environmental factors under study were neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES), neighbourhood green, urbanity and home maintenance. Neighbourhood social cohesion was measured by five statements and aggregated to the neighbourhood level by using ecometrics methodology. Multilevel linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations of neighbourhoods characteristics with psychological distress, adjusted for individual level characteristics. High neighbourhood SES and neighbourhood social cohesion were associated with decreased psychological distress. Adjusted for individual level characteristics and neighbourhood SES, only neighbourhood social cohesion remained significantly associated with psychological distress. Neighbourhood social cohesion accounted for 38% of the differences in the association between neighbourhood SES and psychological distress. High neighbourhood social cohesion is significantly associated with decreased psychological distress among residents of the four largest cities in the Netherlands. Reducing neighbourhood inequalities in psychological distress may require increasing social interactions among neighbourhood residents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of neighbourhood unemployment rate with incident Type 2 diabetes mellitus in five German regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, G; Wellmann, J; Hartwig, S; Greiser, K H; Moebus, S; Jöckel, K-H; Schipf, S; Völzke, H; Maier, W; Meisinger, C; Tamayo, T; Rathmann, W; Berger, K

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the association of neighbourhood unemployment with incident self-reported physician-diagnosed Type 2 diabetes in a population aged 45-74 years from five German regions. Study participants were linked via their addresses at baseline to particular neighbourhoods. Individual-level data from five population-based studies were pooled and combined with contextual data on neighbourhood unemployment. Type 2 diabetes was assessed according to a self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes. We estimated proportional hazard models (Weibull distribution) in order to obtain hazard ratios and 95% CIs of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, taking into account interval-censoring and clustering. We included 7250 participants residing in 228 inner city neighbourhoods in five German regions in our analysis. The incidence rate was 12.6 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 11.4-13.8). The risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher in men [hazard ratio 1.79 (95% CI 1.47-2.18)] than in women and higher in people with a low education level [hazard ratio 1.55 (95% CI 1.18-2.02)] than in those with a high education level. Independently of individual-level characteristics, we found a higher risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in neighbourhoods with high levels of unemployment [quintile 5; hazard ratio 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.42)] than in neighbourhoods with low unemployment (quintile 1). Low education level and high neighbourhood unemployment were independently associated with an elevated risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Studies examining the impact of the residential environment on Type 2 diabetes mellitus will provide knowledge that is essential for the identification of high-risk populations. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  6. Effect of neighbourhood deprivation and social cohesion on mental health inequality: a multilevel population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, D; White, J; Farewell, D; Kelly, M; John, G; Lloyd, K; Williams, G; Dunstan, F

    2014-08-01

    The common mental disorders (CMDs) of anxiety and depression are the most common form of poor mental health in the general population. Evidence from the small number of previous cohort studies on the role of neighbourhood factors in mental health is inconclusive. We tested the hypothesis that high levels of neighbourhood social cohesion modify an adverse association between change in individual mental health and neighbourhood deprivation. We carried out a longitudinal multilevel analysis using data from the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Cohort Study with a 7-year follow-up (n = 4426; age range 18-74 years at baseline). Neighbourhood deprivation and neighbourhood social cohesion were assessed at baseline and change in mental health between follow-up and baseline was assessed using the five-item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). Residence in the most deprived neighbourhoods was negatively associated with change in mental health, after adjusting for baseline individual socio-economic risk factors and transitions in life events. This negative effect was significantly reduced in high social cohesion neighbourhoods. The predicted change in mental health score was calculated for the 10th and 90th centiles of the household low-income distribution. The difference between them was -2.8 in the low social cohesion group and 1.1 in the high cohesion group. The difference between the groups was 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-7.6]. The public health burden of poor mental health and mental health inequality could potentially be reduced by strengthening social cohesion in deprived neighbourhoods. This offers a mechanism to address the adverse effect of neighbourhood deprivation on population mental health.

  7. Attitudes and habits towards eating in secondary school pupils and high school students in the Česká Třebová neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    VOSTŘÁK, Vít

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present bachelor's thesis is to identify attitudes and habits towards eating in secondary school pupils and high school students in Česká Třebová neighbourhoods. The first part is a review of theory and it is dedicated to the definition of pubescents and adolescents, their eating attitudes and habits, healthy eating, common eating disorders and obesity. Another fundamental chapter is the one concerned with diets and with the prevalence of dieting in children. High attentio...

  8. Effect of neighbourhood income and maternal education on birth outcomes: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Wilkins, Russell; Kramer, Michael S

    2006-05-09

    Maternal socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of inequity in maternal and fetal health. We sought to determine the extent to which associations between adverse birth outcomes and SES can be identified using individual-level measures (maternal level of education) and community-level measures (neighbourhood income). In Quebec, the birth registration form includes a field for the mother's years of education. Using data from birth registration certificates, we identified all births from 1991 to 2000. Using maternal postal codes that can be linked to census enumeration areas, we determined neighbourhood income levels that reflect SES. Lower levels of both maternal education and neighbourhood income were associated with elevated crude risks of preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth, stillbirth and neonatal and postneonatal death. The effects of maternal education were stronger than, and independent of, those of neighbourhood income. Compared with women in the highest neighbourhood income quintile, women in the lowest quintile were significantly more likely to have a preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.17), SGA birth (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.15-1.21) or stillbirth (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.48); compared with mothers who had completed community college or at least some university, mothers who had not completed high school were significantly more likely to have a preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.44-1.52), SGA birth (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.82-1.91) or stillbirth (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.36-1.74). Individual and, to a lesser extent, neighbourhood-level SES measures are independent indicators for subpopulations at risk of adverse birth outcomes. Women with lower education levels and those living in poorer neighbourhoods are more vulnerable to adverse birth outcomes and may benefit from heightened clinical vigilance and counselling.

  9. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.

    2014-01-01

    Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people's beliefs about a neighbourhood's social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared

  10. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. Aims To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Method Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04–2010. A total of 88 623 respondents aged 18–74 years were nested within 50 587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a ‘case’ of common mental disorder. Results High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1.22). Conclusions The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level. PMID:23470284

  11. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04-2010. A total of 88,623 respondents aged 18-74 years were nested within 50,587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a 'case' of common mental disorder. High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level.

  12. Breast cancer incidence and neighbourhood income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugian, Marilyn J; Spinelli, John J; Abanto, Zenaida; Xu, Chen Lydia; Wilkins, Russell

    2011-06-01

    In developed countries, women of higher socioeconomic status often have higher breast cancer incidence rates, compared with women of lower socioeconomic status. Data were extracted from the Canadian Cancer Registry for the 229,955 cases of adult female invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1992 through 2004. Postal code at diagnosis was used to determine neighbourhood income quintile. Breast cancer incidence was examined by year, region, age and neighbourhood income quintile. Census data for 1991 on children ever born and British Columbia data for 2006 on first-time attendance at mammography screening were analyzed by neighbourhood income quintile. Residence in the lowest as opposed to the highest neighbourhood income quintile was associated with a 15% lower risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Higher income levels were associated with lower parity in 1991 and a higher prevalence of first-time screening mammography in British Columbia in 2006. Canadian data support an association between the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer and neighbourhood income quintile. Parity and mammography screening may account for some differences in incidence.

  13. Obesogenic neighbourhoods: the impact of neighbourhood restaurants and convenience stores on adolescents' food consumption behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer D; Gilliland, Jason; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-12-01

    To examine the relationship between the neighbourhood food environment and dietary intake among adolescents. Cross-sectional design using: (i) a geographic information system to assess characteristics of the neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood socio-economic status; (ii) the modified Healthy Eating Index (HEI) to assess participants' overall diet quality; and (iii) generalized linear models to examine associations between HEI and home and school food environmental correlates. Mid-sized Canadian city in Ontario, Canada. Participants Grade 7 and 8 students (n 810) at twenty-one elementary schools. Students living in neighbourhoods with a lower diversity of land-use types, compared with their higher diversity counterparts, had higher HEI scores (P environments is associated with low HEI scores. Within adolescents' school environments, close proximity to convenience and fast-food outlets and a high density of fast-food outlets are associated with low HEI scores.

  14. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  15. The Effect of Individual and Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Status on Diabetes Mellitus Survival in Working Age Patients in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsien Yang

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a global pandemic metabolic disorder. In recent years, the amount of medical resources required for the treatment of diabetes has increased as diabetes rates have gradually risen. The combined effects of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic status (SES on DM survival rates are still not clear, especially in patients of working age. In this paper, we aim to analyze the combined effects of neighbourhood and individual SES on DM survival rates in patients of working age in Taiwan.The study of 23,781 people who were diagnosed with DM by using population-based study between 2002 and 2006. Each sample was followed up for 4 years or as a sensor case. We defined Individual SES and neighbourhood SES by each patient's job category and household income which characterized as advantaged or disadvantaged. Then we compared the survival rates by SES group used Cox proportional hazards model for adjust risk factors.The 4-year overall survival rates of diabetic patients were worst for those with low individual SES who living in advantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for patient characteristics, DM patients with high individual SES living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods had the same risk of mortality as those patients with high individual SES living in advantaged neighbourhoods (hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-1.51. The study found that DM patients with low individual SES who live in disadvantaged areas had a greater risk of mortality than those with high SES (odds ratio: 2.57; 95% CI: 2.04-3.24. There were significant differences in survival rates between patients with high individual SES and patients with low individual SES. In contrast, the results did not statistically significant differences in survival rates between advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhood SES groups.DM patients with low individual SES had the worst survival rate, regardless of whether they were living in a high or low SES

  16. Can Neighbourhoods Change the Decisions of Youth on the Margins of University Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    neighbourhood variation within high schools. The paper also tests whether the effects differ by family background and children’s reading skills. Neighbourhoods do not affect university participation among youth drawn from the tails of the socio-economic distribution. Neighbourhoods have the largest effect...... on youth drawn from the middle of the socio-economic distribution who also have above median reading skills....

  17. Being there: a brief visit to a neighbourhood induces the social attitudes of that neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are differences between human groups in social behaviours and the attitudes that underlie them, such as trust. However, the psychological mechanisms that produce and reproduce this variation are not well understood. In particular, it is not clear whether assimilation to the social culture of a group requires lengthy socialization within that group, or can be more rapidly and reversibly evoked by exposure to the group’s environment and the behaviour of its members. Here, we report the results of a two-part study in two neighbourhoods of a British city, one economically deprived with relatively high crime, and the other affluent and lower in crime. In the first part of the study, we surveyed residents and found that the residents of the deprived neighbourhood had lower levels of social trust and higher levels of paranoia than the residents of the affluent neighbourhood. In the second part, we experimentally transported student volunteers who resided in neither neighbourhood to one or the other, and had them walk around delivering questionnaires to houses. We surveyed their trust and paranoia, and found significant differences according to which neighbourhood they had been sent to. The differences in the visitors mirrored the differences seen in the residents, with visitors to the deprived neighbourhood reporting lower social trust and higher paranoia than visitors to the affluent one. The magnitudes of the neighbourhood differences in the visitors, who only spent up to 45 min in the locations, were nearly as great as the magnitudes of those amongst the residents. We discuss the relevance of our findings to differential psychology, neighbourhood effects on social outcomes, and models of cultural evolution.

  18. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareck Martine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded and subjective (resident-perceived measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed

  19. Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking is a major public health problem worldwide. Research has shown that neighbourhood of residence is independently associated with the likelihood of individuals' smoking. However, a fine comprehension of which neighbourhood characteristics are involved and how remains limited. In this study we examine the relative contribution of objective (police-recorded) and subjective (resident-perceived) measures of neighbourhood crime on residents' smoking behaviours. Methods Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort. Results Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed among younger participants

  20. The mediating role of social capital in the association between neighbourhood income inequality and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Lakerveld, Jeroen; van Oostveen, Yavanna; Compernolle, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bárdos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; Glonti, Ketevan; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Brug, Johannes; Nijpels, Giel

    2017-04-01

    Neighbourhood income inequality may contribute to differences in body weight. We explored whether neighbourhood social capital mediated the association of neighbourhood income inequality with individual body mass index (BMI). A total of 4126 adult participants from 48 neighbourhoods in France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK provided information on their levels of income, perceptions of neighbourhood social capital and BMI. Factor analysis of the 13-item social capital scale revealed two social capital constructs: social networks and social cohesion. Neighbourhood income inequality was defined as the ratio of the amount of income earned by the top 20% and the bottom 20% in a given neighbourhood. Two single mediation analyses-using multilevel linear regression analyses-with neighbourhood social networks and neighbourhood social cohesion as possible mediators-were conducted using MacKinnon's product-of-coefficients method, adjusted for age, gender, education and absolute household income. Higher neighbourhood income inequality was associated with elevated levels of BMI and lower levels of neighbourhood social networks and neighbourhood social cohesion. High levels of neighbourhood social networks were associated with lower BMI. Results stratified by country demonstrate that social networks fully explained the association between income inequality and BMI in France and the Netherlands. Social cohesion was only a significant mediating variable for Dutch participants. The results suggest that in some European urban regions, neighbourhood social capital plays a large role in the association between neighbourhood income inequality and individual BMI.

  1. Focus on the neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood; Tom van Dijk

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Aandacht voor de wijk. One of the measures used to improve the quality of life in residential neighbourhoods and make them safer is to demolish existing homes and replace them with new ones. Sometimes the aim is to improve housing quality, but in other situations the explicit

  2. The electronic neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project. The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban...... regeneration project in Copenhagen....

  3. High levels of faecal contamination in drinking groundwater and recreational water due to poor sanitation, in the sub-rural neighbourhoods of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, John M; Thevenon, Florian; Laffite, Amandine; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mubedi, Josué I; Poté, John

    2018-01-10

    compared to the dry season. Physicochemical analysis revealed also very high water electrical conductivity, with values much higher than the recommended limits of the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water. These results highlight the potential human health risk associated with the exposure to water contamination from shallow wells and Kokolo Canal, due to the very high level of human FIB. Rapid, unplanned and uncontrolled population growth in the city of Kinshasa is increasing considerably the water demand, whereas there is a dramatic lack of appropriate sanitation and wastewater facilities, as well as of faecal sludge (and solid waste) management and treatment. The lack of hygiene and the practice of open defecation is leading to the degradation of water quality, consequently the persistence of waterborne diseases in the neighbourhoods of sub-rural municipalities, and there is a growing threat to the sustainability to water resources and water quality. The results of this study should encourage municipality policy and strategy on increasing the access to safely managed sanitation services; in order to better protect surface water and groundwater sources, and limit the proliferation of epidemics touching regularly the city. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effects of a contraceptive counselling intervention in adolescents from deprived neighbourhoods with a high proportion of immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot, Laia; Díez, Elia; Martín, Sílvia; Estruga, Lluïsa; Villalbí, Joan R; Pérez, Glòria; Carrasco, Mireia G; López, María José

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a contraceptive counselling intervention among adolescents by sex and origin. A pre-post study with a 3-month follow-up was conducted in adolescents from three disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Participants received a counselling session at a community centre. Contraception use at last intercourse and knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy before and after the intervention were compared with χ(2) and McNemar tests, stratified by sex and origin (autochthonous or immigrant). A total of 138 (76%) participants completed the follow-up. Fifty-five percent of the participants were girls, 85% were aged 16-19 years and 71% were immigrants. Knowledge and several self-efficacies increased after the intervention. Condom use increased by 5.4% and the proportion not using any method declined by 7.7%. Contraceptive counselling in the community setting increased the use of contraception and improved psychosocial determinants, especially in immigrant adolescents. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Disorder affects judgements about a neighbourhood: police presence does not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many police forces operate a policy of high visibility in disordered neighbourhoods with high crime. However, little is known about whether increased police presence influences people’s beliefs about a neighbourhood’s social environment or their fear of crime. Three experimental studies compared people’s perceptions of social capital and fear of crime in disordered and ordered neighbourhoods, either with a police presence or no police presence. In all studies, neighbourhood disorder lowered perceptions of social capital, resulting in a higher fear of crime. Police presence or absence had no significant effect. The pervasive effects of disorder above other environmental cues are discussed.

  6. [Detecting high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.

  7. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the

  8. The impact of neighbourhood violence and social cohesion on smoking behaviours among a cohort of smokers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Lozano, Paula; Arillo Santillán, Edna; Reynales Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F

    2015-11-01

    Recent increases in violent crime may impact a variety of health outcomes in Mexico. We examined relationships between neighbourhood-level violence and smoking behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers from 2011 to 2012, and whether neighbourhood-level social cohesion modified these relationships. Data were analysed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in waves 5 and 6 of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey. Self-reported neighbourhood violence and social cohesion were asked of wave 6 survey participants (n=2129 current and former smokers, n=150 neighbourhoods). Neighbourhood-level averages for violence and social cohesion (ranges 4-14 and 10-25, respectively) were assigned to individuals. We used generalised estimating equations to determine associations between neighbourhood indicators and individual-level smoking intensity, quit behaviours and relapse. Higher neighbourhood violence was associated with higher smoking intensity (risk ratio (RR)=1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33), and fewer quit attempts (RR=0.72, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.85). Neighbourhood violence was not associated with successful quitting or relapse. Higher neighbourhood social cohesion was associated with more quit attempts and more successful quitting. Neighbourhood social cohesion modified the association between neighbourhood violence and smoking intensity: in neighbourhoods with higher social cohesion, as violence increased, smoking intensity decreased and in neighbourhoods with lower social cohesion, as violence increased, so did smoking intensity. In the context of recent increased violence in Mexico, smokers living in neighbourhoods with more violence may smoke more cigarettes per day and make fewer quit attempts than their counterparts in less violent neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood social cohesion may buffer the impact of violence on smoking intensity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  9. Grassroots projects aimed at the built environment: Association with neighbourhood deprivation, land-use mix and injury risk to road users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Anne Sophie; Beausoleil, Maude; Gosselin, Céline; Beaulme, Ginette; Paquin, Sophie; Pelletier, Anne; Goudreau, Sophie; Poirier, Marie-Hélène; Drouin, Louis; Gauvin, Lise

    2014-07-09

    1) To describe grassroots projects aimed at the built environment and associated with active transportation on the Island of Montreal; and 2) to examine associations between the number of projects and indicators of neighbourhood material and social deprivation and the built environment. We identified funding agencies and community groups conducting projects on built environments throughout the Island of Montreal. Through website consultation and a snowballing procedure, we inventoried projects that aimed at transforming built environments and that were carried out by community organizations between January 1, 2006, and November 1, 2010. We coded and validated information about project activities and created an interactive map using Geoclip software. Correlational analyses quantified associations between number of projects, neighbourhood characteristics and deprivation. A total of 134 community organizations were identified, and 183 grassroots projects were inventoried. A large number of projects were aimed at increasing awareness of/improving active or public transportation (n=95), improving road safety (n=84) and enhancing neighbourhood beautification and greening (n=69). The correlation between the presence of projects and the extent of neighbourhood material deprivation was small (Kendall's t=0.26, p<0.001), but in areas with greater social deprivation there were more projects (Kendall's t=0.38, p<0.001). Larger numbers of projects were also associated with the presence of more extensive land-use mix (Kendall's t=0.23, p<0.001) and a greater proportion of road intersections with injured pedestrians, cyclists and motor vehicle users (Kendall's t=0.43, p<0.001). There is significant community mobilization around built environments and active transportation. Investigations of the implementation processes and impacts are warranted.

  10. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avi

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  11. 'Come and live here and you'll experience it': : Youths talk about their deprived neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Kirsten; Bolt, Gideon; van Kempen, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    This study examined youths' lived experiences of a deprived neighbourhood in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Previous studies assume that deprived neighbourhoods pose serious risks for youths. What is largely missing from these studies, however, are the experiences of young people themselves. Do they

  12. Exoskeletons and economics: indoor arthropod diversity increases in affluent neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Bertone, Matthew A; Bayless, Keith M; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle D

    2016-08-01

    In urban ecosystems, socioeconomics contribute to patterns of biodiversity. The 'luxury effect', in which wealthier neighbourhoods are more biologically diverse, has been observed for plants, birds, bats and lizards. Here, we used data from a survey of indoor arthropod diversity (defined throughout as family-level richness) from 50 urban houses and found that house size, surrounding vegetation, as well as mean neighbourhood income best predict the number of kinds of arthropods found indoors. Our finding, that homes in wealthier neighbourhoods host higher indoor arthropod diversity (consisting of primarily non-pest species), shows that the luxury effect can extend to the indoor environment. The effect of mean neighbourhood income on indoor arthropod diversity was particularly strong for individual houses that lacked high surrounding vegetation ground cover, suggesting that neighbourhood dynamics can compensate for local choices of homeowners. Our work suggests that the management of neighbourhoods and cities can have effects on biodiversity that can extend from trees and birds all the way to the arthropod life in bedrooms and basements. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. [High dynamic risk cystoceles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Casado, Jesús; Méndez Rubio, Santiago; Virseda Chamorro, Miguel; Pelaquim, Humberto; Silmi Moyano, Angel

    2010-06-01

    To assess the bladder compliance in a series of cystoceles referred for urodynamic study. Retrospective study of a series of patients with cystocele undergoing medical history, videurodynamic study, pelvic MRI and lower urinary tract, urological ultrasound and cystoscopy. We Excluded cases with neurogenic dysfunction and urinary infection. The terminology followed the criteria of the ICS, if not specified otherwise. The series includes 3333 cases of cystocele 616 of which are grade III cystocele. There were 3 cases with low bladder compliance; this is 0.0009% of total (1:1000) and 0.5% of grade III cystocele (1:200) All cases of cystocele whith low compliance were associated with feeling of a bulk in the vagina and functional symptoms of lower urinary tract(LUTS). No urinary incontinence was related to cough. These patients also showed urodynamic alterations in the voiding phase, type hypo / acontractile detrusor and postvoid residual. The patients were subjected to various techniques of abdominal and transvaginal cystocele repair (with preventive anti-incontinence surgery), getting a vagina bulk disappearance, improvement of symptoms of lower urinary tract function, normalization of bladder compliance and detrusor contractility, with elimination of the postvoid residual. Although they are not frequent, high-risk cystoceles should be discarded in high-grade cystocele that apart from low bladder accommodation, have a hipo/acontractile detrusor and postvoid residual. Surgical correction of cystocele not only reduces the bulk and LUTS, but normalizes urodynamic alterations.

  14. Perceptions of high risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, D M

    1997-10-01

    High risk sports were rated as to risk, appeal, and likelihood of participation by 282 men and 162 women. Ascending order of perceived risk was skiing, scuba diving, bungee jumping, rock climbing, motorcycle racing, hang gliding, cliff jumping, and skydiving. Profile analysis showed stated likelihood of participation to be directly related to appeal and inversely related to perceived risk.

  15. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity buffers school readiness impact in ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Chassidy; Vu, Lan T H; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2010-01-01

    Contextual factors, as measured by neighbourhood characteristics, shape the experiences children have and affect their "school readiness", i.e., whether they are well or poorly prepared for the transition from home to kindergarten. This study assessed the independent effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on school readiness; specifically, it examined whether and to what degree neighbourhood factors modified children's language ability and thus their school readiness in a population of children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study included all children attending kindergarten in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in Saskatoon. School readiness and child characteristics were measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI measures child development at school commencement in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, cognitive and language development, and communication skills and general knowledge. Data from the 2001 Census were used to characterize Saskatoon's neighbourhoods. Multilevel modeling examined the independent and buffering or exacerbating effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on the relation between English as a Second Language (ESL) status in children and EDI domain scores. ESL children had significantly lower scores on all EDI domains compared with non-ESL children. Certain factors (e.g., younger age, male, Aboriginal status, having special needs) were significantly related to lower readiness in terms of the emotional maturity, and communication skills and general knowledge domains. Importantly, children who lived in neighbourhoods that were highly transient (with a higher proportion of residents who had moved in the previous year) had lower EDI scores on both domains, and those in neighbourhoods with lower rates of employment had lower EDI scores on communication skills and general knowledge. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity mitigated the negative impact of ESL status on school readiness for both

  16. Household sanitation is associated with lower risk of bacterial and protozoal enteric infections, but not viral infections and diarrhoea, in a cohort study in a low-income urban neighbourhood in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David; Leon, Juan; Kirby, Amy; Clennon, Julie; Raj, Suraja; Yakubu, Habib; Robb, Katharine; Kartikeyan, Arun; Hemavathy, Priya; Gunasekaran, Annai; Roy, Sheela; Ghale, Ben Chirag; Kumar, J Senthil; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Moe, Christine

    2017-09-01

    This study examined associations between household sanitation and enteric infection - including diarrhoeal-specific outcomes - in children 0-2 years of age in a low-income, dense urban neighbourhood. As part of the MAL-ED study, 230 children in a low-income, urban, Indian neighbourhood provided stool specimens at 14-17 scheduled time points and during diarrhoeal episodes in the first 2 years of life that were analysed for bacterial, parasitic (protozoa and helminths) and viral pathogens. From interviews with caregivers in 100 households, the relationship between the presence (and discharge) of household sanitation facilities and any, pathogen-specific, and diarrhoea-specific enteric infection was tested through mixed-effects Poisson regression models. Few study households (33%) reported having toilets, most of which (82%) discharged into open drains. Controlling for season and household socio-economic status, the presence of a household toilet was associated with lower risks of enteric infection (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.79-1.06), bacterial infection (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75-1.02) and protozoal infection (RR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.39-1.04), although not statistically significant, but had no association with diarrhoea (RR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.68-1.45) or viral infections (RR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.79-1.60). Models also suggested that the relationship between household toilets discharging to drains and enteric infection risk may vary by season. The presence of a household toilet was associated with lower risk of bacterial and protozoal enteric infections, but not diarrhoea or viral infections, suggesting the health effects of sanitation may be more accurately estimated using outcome measures that account for aetiologic agents. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Wider-community Segregation and the Effect of Neighbourhood Ethnic Diversity on Social Capital: An Investigation into Intra-Neighbourhood Trust in Great Britain and London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, James

    2017-10-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated that neighbourhood ethnic diversity is negatively associated with intra-neighbourhood social capital. This study explores the role of segregation and integration in this relationship. To do so it applies three-level hierarchical linear models to two sets of data from across Great Britain and within London, and examines how segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested impacts trust amongst neighbours. This study replicates the increasingly ubiquitous finding that neighbourhood diversity is negatively associated with neighbour-trust. However, we demonstrate that this relationship is highly dependent on the level of segregation across the wider-community in which a neighbourhood is nested. Increasing neighbourhood diversity only negatively impacts neighbour-trust when nested in more segregated wider-communities. Individuals living in diverse neighbourhoods nested within integrated wider-communities experience no trust-penalty. These findings show that segregation plays a critical role in the neighbourhood diversity/trust relationship, and that its absence from the literature biases our understanding of how ethnic diversity affects social cohesion.

  18. High-Risk Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk? » Related A-Z Topics Diabetes Pregnancy Loss Preeclampsia and Eclampsia NICHD News Spotlights Podcast: NICHD launches PregSource to learn more about pregnancy News Release: NIH Begins Large HIV Treatment Study in Pregnant Women Spotlight: Zika Research after ...

  19. The proportion of excessive fast-food consumption attributable to the neighbourhood food environment among youth living within 1 km of their school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2014-04-01

    The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (≥2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours.

  20. Neighbourhood environment as a predictor of television watching among girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, K E; Gee, G C; Crawford, P; Wang, M C

    2008-04-01

    Television watching, a sedentary activity, has been associated with overweight in children. While the family environment is known to influence television watching, little is known about the influence of the neighbourhood environment. This study is an exploratory examination of the association of socioeconomic characteristics of the neighbourhood environment with television watching among 9-10 year old girls. Data collected by the Berkeley site of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) in 1987-8 from 787 girls who had a complete set of measurements relevant to the analysis were used. These measures included parental education, household income, race and weekly hours spent watching television. Addresses of the girls were geocoded and the median household income for the census tracts in which they lived was used to indicate neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics. Multilevel modelling procedures were used to estimate fixed effect coefficients for individual and neighbourhood level variables. Living in high income areas was associated with less television watching, a finding that held even when controlling for parental education, household income and race. Race and parental education were also associated with television watching. Television watching among girls was associated not only with the socioeconomic characteristics of their households, but also of their neighbourhoods. Future studies should explore the mechanisms that mediate this relation and determine if these results are generalisable to other populations.

  1. Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngmee Tiffany; Lou, Wendy; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was two-week incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age (N = 269014). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. A significant association between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity (OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.62-0.76]) was found. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.6. We found marginal degree of association (OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.77-0.87]) below the threshold, which, beyond the threshold, sharply increased to OR of 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67) at sanitation coverage of 1 (i.e. neighbourhood-wide use of improved household sanitation). Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The association of neighbourhood psychosocial stressors and self-rated health in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Hooijdonk, Carolien; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Lindeman, Ellen; Stronks, Karien; Droomers, Mariël

    2007-12-01

    To investigate associations between neighbourhood-level psychosocial stressors (i.e. experience of crime, nuisance from neighbours, drug misuse, youngsters frequently hanging around, rubbish on the streets, feeling unsafe and dissatisfaction with the quality of green space) and self-rated health in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. A random sample of 2914 subjects aged > or = 18 years from 75 neighbourhoods in the city of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Individual data from the Social State of Amsterdam Survey 2004 were linked to data on neighbourhood-level attributes from the Amsterdam Living and Security Survey 2003. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and neighbourhood-level variance. Fair to poor self-rated health was significantly associated with neighbourhood-level psychosocial stressors: nuisance from neighbours, drug misuse, youngsters frequently hanging around, rubbish on the streets, feeling unsafe and dissatisfaction with green space. In addition, when all the neighbourhood-level psychosocial stressors were combined, individuals from neighbourhoods with a high score of psychosocial stressors were more likely than those from neighbourhoods with a low score to report fair to poor health. These associations remained after adjustments for individual-level factors (i.e. age, sex, educational level, income and ethnicity). The neighbourhood-level variance showed significant differences in self-rated health between neighbourhoods independent of individual-level demographic and socioeconomic factors. Our findings show that neighbourhood-level psychosocial stressors are associated with self-rated health. Strategies that target these factors might prove a promising way to improve public health.

  3. Urban neighbourhood unemployment history and depressive symptoms over time among late middle age and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Richard G; Aneshensel, Carol S; Barrett, Christopher; Ko, Michelle; Chodosh, Joshua; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about how a neighbourhood's unemployment history may set the stage for depressive symptomatology. This study examines the effects of urban neighbourhood unemployment history on current depressive symptoms and subsequent symptom trajectories among residentially stable late middle age and older adults. Contingent effects between neighbourhood unemployment and individual-level employment status (ie, cross-level interactions) are also assessed. Individual-level survey data are from four waves (2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) of the original cohort of the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study. Neighbourhoods are operationalised with US Census tracts for which historical average proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 and change in proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 are used to characterise the neighbourhood's unemployment history. Hierarchical linear regressions estimate three-level (time, individual and neighbourhood) growth models. Symptoms in 2000 are highest among those residing in neighbourhoods characterised by high historical average unemployment beginning in 1990 and increasing unemployment between 1990 and 2000, net of a wide range of socio-demographic controls including individual-level employment status. These neighbourhood unemployment effects are not contingent upon individual-level employment status in 2000. 6-year trajectories of depressive symptoms decrease over time on average but are not significantly influenced by the neighbourhood's unemployment history. Given the current US recession, future studies that do not consider historical employment conditions may underestimate the mental health impact of urban neighbourhood context. The findings suggest that exposure to neighbourhood unemployment earlier in life may be consequential to mental health later in life.

  4. Does rising crime lead to increasing distress? Longitudinal analysis of a natural experiment with dynamic objective neighbourhood measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S; Jalaludin, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Identifying 'neighbourhood effects' to support widespread beliefs that where we live matters for our health remains a major challenge due to the reliance upon observational data. In this study we reassess the issue of local crime rates and psychological distress by applying unobserved ('fixed') effects models to a sample of participants who remain in the same neighbourhoods throughout the study. Baseline data was extracted from the 45 and Up Study between 2006 and 2008 and followed up as part of the Social Economic and Environmental Factors (SEEF) Study between 2009 and 2010. Kessler 10 scores were recorded for 25,545 men and 29,299 women reported valid outcomes. Annual crime rates per 1000 (including non-domestic violence, malicious damage, break and enter, and stealing, theft and robbery) from 2006 to 2010 inclusive were linked to the person-level data. Change in exposure to crime among participants in this study, therefore, occurs as a result of a change in the local crime rate, rather than a process of neighbourhood selection. Gender stratified unobserved effects logistic regression adjusting for sources of time-varying confounding (age, income, employment, couple status and physical functioning) indicated that an increase in the risk of experiencing psychological distress was generally associated with an increase in the level of neighbourhood crime. Effect sizes were particularly high for women, especially for an increase in malicious damage (Odds Ratio Tertile 3 vs Tertile 1 2.40, 95% Confidence Interval 1.88, 3.05), which may indicate that damage to local built environment is an important pathway linking neighbourhood crime with psychological distress. No statistically significant association was detected for an increase in non-domestic violence, although the effect was in the hypothesised direction. In summary, the application of unobserved effects models to analyse data that takes into account the temporally dynamic characteristics of where people live

  5. Introduction to the Peaceable Neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horjus, B.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Peaceable Neighbourhood program (PN) is implemented in Utrecht (the Netherlands). The PN follows the primary school program the Peaceable School (PS), implemented in 60% of the primary-schools in Utrecht. The PS offers an integral method to improve the social climate. The PS creates a

  6. Neighbourhood walkability and incidence of hypertension: Findings from the study of 429,334 UK Biobank participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Webster, Chris; Gallacher, John

    2018-02-02

    With an estimated one billion hypertension cases worldwide, the role of the built environment in its prevention and control is still uncertain. The present study aims to examine the associations between neighbourhood walkability and hypertension in a large and diverse population-based cohort. We examined the association between neighbourhood walkability and blood pressure outcomes for N = 429,334 participants drawn from the UK Biobank and aged 38-73 years. Neighbourhood walkability was objectively modelled from detailed building footprint-level data within multi-scale functional neighbourhoods (1.0-, 1.5- and 2.0-kilometer street catchments of geocoded dwelling). A series of linear and modified Poisson regression models were employed to examine the association between walkability and outcomes of diastolic blood pressure (DBP in mmHg), systolic blood pressure (SBP in mmHg) and prevalent hypertension adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and related physical environmental covariates. We also examined the relationship between walkability and change in blood pressure for a sub-sample of participants with follow-up data and tested for interaction effects of age, sex, employment status, neighbourhood SES, residential density and green exposure. Neighbourhood walkability within one-kilometer street catchment was beneficially associated with all the three blood pressure outcomes, independent of all other factors. Each interquartile increment in walkability was associated with the lower blood pressure outcomes of DBP (β = -0.358, 95% CI: -0.42, -0.29 mmHg), SBP (β = -0.833, 95% CI: -0.95, -0.72 mmHg) as well as reduced hypertension risk (RR = 0.970, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98). The results remained consistent across spatial and temporal scales and were sensitive to sub-groups, with pronounced protective effects among female participants, those aged between 50 and 60 years, in employment, residing in deprived, high density and greener areas. This large

  7. Trajectories of childhood neighbourhood cohesion and adolescent mental health: evidence from a national Canadian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, M; Kirkbride, J B; McMartin, S E; Wickham, M E; Weeks, M; Colman, I

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between trajectories of childhood neighbourhood social cohesion and adolescent mental health and behaviour. This study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, a nationally representative sample of Canadian children. The sample included 5577 children aged 0-3 years in 1994-1995, prospectively followed until age 12-15 years. Parental perceived neighbourhood cohesion was assessed every 2 years. Latent growth class modelling was used to identify trajectories of neighbourhood cohesion. Mental health and behavioural outcomes were self-reported at age 12-15 years. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between neighbourhood cohesion trajectories and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. Five distinct trajectories were identified: 'stable low' (4.2%); 'moderate increasing' (9.1%); 'stable moderate' (68.5%); 'high falling' (8.9%); and 'stable high' (9.3%). Relative to those living in stable moderately cohesive neighbourhoods, those in stable low cohesive neighbourhoods were more likely to experience symptoms of anxiety/depression [odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.90] and engage in indirect aggression (OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.07-2.45). Those with improvements in neighbourhood cohesion had significantly lower odds of hyperactivity (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.46-0.98) and indirect aggression (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96). In contrast, those with a decline in neighbourhood cohesion had increased odds of hyperactivity (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.21-2.29). Those in highly cohesive neighbourhoods in early childhood were more likely to engage in prosocial behaviour ('high falling': OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.38-2.69; 'stable high': OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.35-2.63). These results suggest that neighbourhood cohesion in childhood may have time-sensitive effects on several domains of adolescent mental health and behaviour.

  8. What does my neighbourhood have to do with my weight? : A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammed, Shimels Hussien; Birhanu, Mulugeta Molla; Sissay, Tesfamichael Awoke; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Tegegn, Balewgizie Sileshi; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals living in poor neighbourhoods are at a higher risk of overweight/obesity. There is no systematic review and meta-analysis study on the association of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (NSES) with overweight/obesity. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the

  9. AIDS awareness and attitudes among Yemeni young people living in high-risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Serouri, A W; Anaam, M; Al-Iryani, B; Al Deram, A; Ramaroson, S

    2010-03-01

    Despite te low rate of infection in Yemen, there are concerns about the possible spread of HIV among high-risk and vulnerable groups. A community-based study was made in 2005 of AIDS awareness and attitudes among 601 young people aged 15-24 years from low-income, high-risk neighbourhoods in Aden. Young people lacked proper information about HIV/AIDS. Although 89% had heard of AIDS, fewer (46%) could name 3 ways of transmission or 3 ways to avoid infection (28%). Misconceptions about modes of transmissions were prevalent and many young people believed that they faced little or no risk. There were intolerant attitudes towards AIDS patients. About half the young people knew that prostitution and homosexuality existed in their area.

  10. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:22747880

  11. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, Jan; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-07-02

    Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5-6 years. One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  12. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17% or bully-victims (13%, and less as pure victims (4%. All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  13. Income Increase and Moving to a Better Neighbourhood : Income Increase and Moving to a Better Neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaalavuo, M.; van Ham, M.; Kauppinen, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Concentration to disadvantaged neighbourhoods may hinder immigrants’ opportunities for social integration, so equal chances of translating available economic resources into mobility to less disadvantaged neighbourhoods are important. This paper adds to existing research on exits from poor

  14. Ethnic groups and spatial behaviour in Rotterdam's neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.; Aghabeik, L.

    2015-01-01

    Little knowledge exists on the relationship between urban space and the behaviour pattern of various ethnical groups. For this purpose four different neighbourhoods with a high number of various ethnical groups were investigated in different time periods during a weekday. A difference was made

  15. Measurement of gender inequality in neighbourhoods of Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamambang Lum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few studies have measured gender inequality at levels lower than the country. We sought to develop neighbourhood indicators of gender inequality, and assess their ability to capture variability in gender inequality across Québec, Canada. Methods Aggregate 2001 census data for 11,564 neighbourhoods were obtained for men and women. Twelve indicators of gender inequality representing demographic/household characteristics, education, income, work/leisure, and political participation were selected. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality scores were computed for each indicator, and examined across parts of Québec (metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, rural areas. Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the ability of indicators to capture heterogeneity in gender inequality across neighbourhoods. Results Male-dominant neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present for average employment income, labour force participation, employment rate, and employment in managerial positions. Female-dominant gender inequality tended to be present for divorce, single-headed households, and participation in unpaid housework, child and elderly care. Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to vary across metropolitan areas, mid-sized cities, and rural areas. Gender inequality scores also varied within these geographic areas. For example, there was greater income-related gender inequality in high than low income neighbourhoods. Monte Carlo simulations suggested that the variation in gender inequality across neighbourhoods was greater than expected with chance alone. Conclusion Neighbourhood-level gender inequality tended to be present in Québec, and varied across parts of the province. Greater awareness of and research on neighbourhood-level gender inequality may be warranted to inform gender policies in Québec and other nations.

  16. The common-neighbourhood of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Aytac

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability measures on a connected graph which are mostly used and known are based on the Neighbourhood concept. Neighbour-integrity, edge-integrity and accessibility number are some of these measures. In this work we define and examine the Common-neighbourhood of a connected graph as a new global connectivity measure. It takes account the neighbourhoods of all   pairs of vertices. We show that, for connected graphs G1 and G2 of order n, if the dominating number of G1 is bigger than the dominating number of G2, then the common- neighbourhood of G1 is less than the common-neighbourhood of G2. We prove some theorems on common-neighbourhood of a graph.

  17. Evaluating the effect of neighbourhood weight matrices on smoothing properties of Conditional Autoregressive (CAR models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Conditional Autoregressive (CAR model is widely used in many small-area ecological studies to analyse outcomes measured at an areal level. There has been little evaluation of the influence of different neighbourhood weight matrix structures on the amount of smoothing performed by the CAR model. We examined this issue in detail. Methods We created several neighbourhood weight matrices and applied them to a large dataset of births and birth defects in New South Wales (NSW, Australia within 198 Statistical Local Areas. Between the years 1995–2003, there were 17,595 geocoded birth defects and 770,638 geocoded birth records with available data. Spatio-temporal models were developed with data from 1995–2000 and their fit evaluated within the following time period: 2001–2003. Results We were able to create four adjacency-based weight matrices, seven distance-based weight matrices and one matrix based on similarity in terms of a key covariate (i.e. maternal age. In terms of agreement between observed and predicted relative risks, categorised in epidemiologically relevant groups, generally the distance-based matrices performed better than the adjacency-based neighbourhoods. In terms of recovering the underlying risk structure, the weight-7 model (smoothing by maternal-age 'Covariate model' was able to correctly classify 35/47 high-risk areas (sensitivity 74% with a specificity of 47%, and the 'Gravity' model had sensitivity and specificity values of 74% and 39% respectively. Conclusion We found considerable differences in the smoothing properties of the CAR model, depending on the type of neighbours specified. This in turn had an effect on the models' ability to recover the observed risk in an area. Prior to risk mapping or ecological modelling, an exploratory analysis of the neighbourhood weight matrix to guide the choice of a suitable weight matrix is recommended. Alternatively, the weight matrix can be chosen a priori

  18. [Perception of the environment and physical activity levels in adults from a neighbourhood in Cartagena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herazo-Beltrán, Yaneth; Domínguez-Anaya, Regina

    2010-10-01

    Estimating differences in how the environment is perceived in a particular neighbourhood according to physical activity levels. This was a study of 350 adults aged 18 to 65 who were residing in Ternera (an urban neighbourhood in the city of Cartagena, Colombia). predominant socioeconomic stratum in Ternera is 2 (on a scale of 1-6). Sampling was random, probabilistic and carried out in three stages. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire- short form (IPAQ-sf) was used for measuring physical activity levels. How the neighbourhood's characteristics were perceived was measured with the International Physical Activity Prevalence Study's (IPAS) environmental module. 45.1 % active and 54.9 % inactive people's prevalence was noted. Differences were found regarding active and inactive subjects' perception of their neighbourhood (p<0.05) regarding their perception of bus stops less than 10 to 15 minutes away (OR=2.74; 1.58-4.92 95 %CI), too much traffic in the neighbourhood (OR=1.95; 1.22-3.13 95 %CI) and few places to walk or bicycle near their homes (OR=1.69; 1.04-2.72 95 %CI); all signalled a risk to the subject's physical activity. It was evident that the perception of the neighbourhood's environment was a determinant of exercise regarding active and inactive people in the Ternera neighbourhood's residents.

  19. Intergenerational transmission of neighbourhood poverty : An analysis of neighbourhood histories of individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ham, M.; Hedman, L.; Manley, D.; Coulter, R.; Östh, J.

    2013-01-01

    Marie Curie programme under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) / Career Integration Grant n. PCIG10-GA-2011-303728 (CIG Grant NBHCHOICE, Neighbourhood choice, neighbourhood sorting, and neighbourhood effects). The extent to which socioeconomic (dis)advantage is

  20. Neighbourhood walkability, road density and socio-economic status in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Christine T; Ding, Ding; Rolfe, Margaret I; Mayne, Darren J; Jalaludin, Bin; Bauman, Adrian; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2016-04-27

    Planning and transport agencies play a vital role in influencing the design of townscapes, travel modes and travel behaviors, which in turn impact on the walkability of neighbourhoods and residents' physical activity opportunities. Optimising neighbourhood walkability is desirable in built environments, however, the population health benefits of walkability may be offset by increased exposure to traffic related air pollution. This paper describes the spatial distribution of neighbourhood walkability and weighted road density, a marker for traffic related air pollution, in Sydney, Australia. As exposure to air pollution is related to socio-economic status in some cities, this paper also examines the spatial distribution of weighted road density and walkability by socio-economic status (SES). We calculated walkability, weighted road density (as a measure of traffic related air pollution) and SES, using predefined and validated measures, for 5858 Sydney neighbourhoods, representing 3.6 million population. We overlaid tertiles of walkability and weighted road density to define "sweet-spots" (high walkability-low weighted road density), and "sour- spots" (low walkability-high weighted road density) neighbourhoods. We also examined the distribution of walkability and weighted road density by SES quintiles. Walkability and weighted road density showed a clear east-west gradient across the region. Our study found that only 4 % of Sydney's population lived in sweet-spot" neighbourhoods with high walkability and low weighted road density (desirable), and these tended to be located closer to the city centre. A greater proportion of neighbourhoods had health limiting attributes of high weighted road density or low walkability (about 20 % each), and over 5 % of the population lived in "sour-spot" neighbourhoods with low walkability and high weighted road density (least desirable). These neighbourhoods were more distant from the city centre and scattered more widely. There were

  1. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS......: In this randomised controlled trial, 403 young women (mean age 18.9 years, 70% black) with a recent STD or with STD-related risk factors were enrolled. Participants were recruited from clinics and high-prevalence neighbourhoods and then randomly assigned to receive either a home testing kit or an invitation...... to attend a medical clinic for testing at 6, 12 and 18 months after enrollment. Over 80% of women were followed for 2 years. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT 00177437. RESULTS: Of 197 women in the intervention group, 140 (71%) returned at least one home test and 25 of 249 (10...

  2. The nature of the syllabic neighbourhood effect in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathey, Stéphanie; Zagar, Daniel; Doignon, Nadège; Seigneuric, Alix

    2006-11-01

    We investigated whether and how sublexical units such as phonological syllables mediate access to the lexicon in French visual word recognition. To do so, two lexical decision task (LDT) experiments examined the nature of the syllabic neighbourhood effect. In Experiments 1a and b, the number of higher frequency syllabic neighbours was manipulated while controlling for the first bigram. The results failed to show a pure syllabic neighbourhood effect. In Experiments 2a and b, syllabic neighbourhood and bigram frequency were factorially manipulated. The interaction showed that the syllabic neighbourhood effect was inhibitory when bigram frequency was high, whereas it was facilitatory when bigram frequency was low. Similar patterns of results were found in both the yes/no (Experiments 1a and 2a) and go/no-go LDTs (Experiments 1b and 2b), so varying task requirements of the lexical decision did not influence the effect. These findings are discussed in the context of parallel distributed processing and interactive-activation models, and suggest that orthographic redundancy properties contribute to the influence of phonological syllables.

  3. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR 3D NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Emamgholian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  4. a Novel Approach for 3d Neighbourhood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamgholian, S.; Taleai, M.; Shojaei, D.

    2017-09-01

    Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS) analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  5. The association between leisure time sedentary behaviour among adults and objective neighbourhood characteristics nearby home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Rikke Lynge; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2017-01-01

    is to examine the association between neighbourhood walkability and availability of sports and recreational facilities within 400 and 800 m from home and leisure time sedentary time. METHODS: The study was based on a cross sectional health survey of 49,806 adults aged 16+, conducted in 2010. Self-reported...... was associated with less leisure sedentary time (β -0.06 (0.02); p≤0.05). Respondents living in neighbourhoods of high walkability index reported significantly lower sedentary time (mean 3.52 h/day) than respondent from neighbourhoods of lower walkability index (mean 3.76 h/day). The association between leisure...

  6. Air Pollution, Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Factors, and Neural Tube Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Tager, Ira B; Lurmann, Frederick; Hammond, S Katharine; Shaw, Gary M

    2015-11-01

    Environmental pollutants and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors have been associated with neural tube defects, but the potential impact of interaction between ambient air pollution and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors on the risks of neural tube defects is not well understood. We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to investigate whether associations between air pollutant exposure in early gestation and neural tube defects were modified by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997-2006. There were 5 pollutant exposures, 3 outcomes, and 9 neighbourhood socioeconomic factors included for a total of 135 investigated associations. Estimates were adjusted for maternal race-ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. We present below odds ratios (ORs) that exclude 1 and a chi-square test of homogeneity P-value of neural tube defects in California. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Move the Neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    2017-01-01

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly...

  8. Selective mobility, segregation and neighbourhood effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a large body of research on neighbourhood effects, there are no clear conclusions how much, if any, independent effect the neighbourhood has on its residents. This is largely due to selection effects. It is therefore crucial to gain more insight in selective residential mobility and

  9. Neighbourhood Centres – Organisation, Management and Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    From the late 1990s neighbourhood centres were brought to the fore of public urban regen-eration policy, because they were seen as a means to accelerate the formation of social capital in deprived urban neighbourhoods. A number of such local community centres were established with substantial pub...

  10. Neighbourhood Effects on Firm Success and Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.W.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314117415

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to provide new insights on the relationship between local firms and their neighbourhoods. As a result of economic transitions and several societal developments over the past 50 years, residential neighbourhoods have developed from being places where people

  11. Intersection of neighbourhood structure, parenting and externalizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about parenting practices and how it intersects with neighbourhood structure and externalizing behaviour, in South Africa. This chapter presents the findings of parental reflections on neighbourhood structure and problem behaviours, which is one component of a study, that is situated within a child safety, ...

  12. Daytime Thermal Anisotropy of Urban Neighbourhoods: Morphological Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scott Krayenhoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface temperature is a key variable in boundary-layer meteorology and is typically acquired by remote observation of emitted thermal radiation. However, the three-dimensional structure of cities complicates matters: uneven solar heating of urban facets produces an “effective anisotropy” of surface thermal emission at the neighbourhood scale. Remotely-sensed urban surface temperature varies with sensor view angle as a consequence. The authors combine a microscale urban surface temperature model with a thermal remote sensing model to predict the effective anisotropy of simplified neighbourhood configurations. The former model provides detailed surface temperature distributions for a range of “urban” forms, and the remote sensing model computes aggregate temperatures for multiple view angles. The combined model’s ability to reproduce observed anisotropy is evaluated against measurements from a neighbourhood in Vancouver, Canada. As in previous modeling studies, anisotropy is underestimated. Addition of moderate coverages of small (sub-facet scale structure can account for much of the missing anisotropy. Subsequently, over 1900 sensitivity simulations are performed with the model combination, and the dependence of daytime effective thermal anisotropy on diurnal solar path (i.e., latitude and time of day and blunt neighbourhood form is assessed. The range of effective anisotropy, as well as the maximum difference from nadir-observed brightness temperature, peak for moderate building-height-to-spacing ratios (H/W, and scale with canyon (between-building area; dispersed high-rise urban forms generate maximum anisotropy. Maximum anisotropy increases with solar elevation and scales with shortwave irradiance. Moreover, it depends linearly on H/W for H/W < 1.25, with a slope that depends on maximum off-nadir sensor angle. Decreasing minimum brightness temperature is primarily responsible for this linear growth of maximum anisotropy. These

  13. Assessment of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status as a modifier of air pollution-asthma associations among children in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Lenick, Cassandra R; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Friberg, Mariel D; Chang, Howard H; Kramer, Michael R; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2017-02-01

    A broad literature base provides evidence of association between air pollution and paediatric asthma. Socioeconomic status (SES) may modify these associations; however, previous studies have found inconsistent evidence regarding the role of SES. Effect modification of air pollution-paediatric asthma morbidity by multiple indicators of neighbourhood SES was examined in Atlanta, Georgia. Emergency department (ED) visit data were obtained for 5-18 years old with a diagnosis of asthma in 20-county Atlanta during 2002-2008. Daily ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and elemental carbon were estimated using ambient monitoring data and emissions-based chemical transport model simulations. Pollutant-asthma associations were estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for temporal trends and meteorology. Effect modification by ZCTA-level (neighbourhood) SES was examined via stratification. We observed stronger air pollution-paediatric asthma associations in 'deprivation areas' (eg, ≥20% of the ZCTA population living in poverty) compared with 'non-deprivation areas'. When stratifying analyses by quartiles of neighbourhood SES, ORs indicated stronger associations in the highest and lowest SES quartiles and weaker associations among the middle quartiles. Our results suggest that neighbourhood-level SES is a factor contributing vulnerability to air pollution-related paediatric asthma morbidity in Atlanta. Children living in low SES environments appear to be especially vulnerable given positive ORs and high underlying asthma ED rates. Inconsistent findings of effect modification among previous studies may be partially explained by choice of SES stratification criteria, and the use of multiplicative models combined with differing baseline risk across SES populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Hawes, Armani M; Smith, Jacqui

    2014-11-01

    The main strategy for alleviating heart disease has been to target individuals and encourage them to change their health behaviours. Although important, emphasis on individuals has diverted focus and responsibility away from neighbourhood characteristics, which also strongly influence people's behaviours. Although a growing body of research has repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between neighbourhood characteristics and cardiovascular health, it has typically focused on negative neighbourhood characteristics. Only a few studies have examined the potential health enhancing effects of positive neighbourhood characteristics, such as perceived neighbourhood social cohesion. Using multiple logistic regression models, we tested whether higher perceived neighbourhood social cohesion was associated with lower incidence of myocardial infarction. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study--a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50--were used to analyse 5276 participants with no history of heart disease. Respondents were tracked for 4 years and analyses adjusted for relevant sociodemographic, behavioural, biological and psychosocial factors. In a model that adjusted for age, gender, race, marital status, education and total wealth, each SD increase in perceived neighbourhood social cohesion was associated with a 22% reduced odds of myocardial infarction (OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.94. The association between perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction remained even after adjusting for behavioural, biological and psychosocial covariates. Higher perceived neighbourhood social cohesion may have a protective effect against myocardial infarction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Does neighbourhood walkability moderate the effects of mass media communication strategies to promote regular physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R; Giles-Corti, B; Bauman, A; Rosenberg, M; Bull, F C; Leavy, J E

    2013-02-01

    Mass media campaigns are widely used in Australia and elsewhere to promote physical activity among adults. Neighbourhood walkability is consistently shown to be associated with walking and total activity. Campaigns may have different effects on individuals living in high and low walkable neighbourhoods. The purpose of this study is to compare pre- and post-campaign cognitive and behavioural impacts of the Heart Foundation's Find Thirty every day® campaign, in respondents living in high and lower walkable neighbourhoods. Pre- and post-campaign cross-sectional survey data were linked with objectively measured neighbourhood walkability. Cognitive and behavioural impacts were assessed using logistic regression stratified by walkability. Cognitive impacts were significantly higher post-campaign and consistently higher in respondents in high compared with lower walkable neighbourhoods. Post campaign sufficient activity was significantly higher and transport walking significantly lower, but only in residents of lower walkable areas. Cognitive impacts of mass media physical activity campaigns may be enhanced by living in a more walkable neighbourhood.

  16. Association of neighbourhood residence and preferences with the built environment, work-related travel behaviours, and health implications for employed adults: findings from the URBAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Oliver, Melody; Kearns, Robin A; Mavoa, Suzanne; Witten, Karen; Duncan, Mitch J; Batty, G David

    2012-10-01

    Although the neighbourhoods and health field is well established, the relationships between neighbourhood selection, neighbourhood preference, work-related travel behaviours, and transport infrastructure have not been fully explored. It is likely that understanding these complex relationships more fully will inform urban policy development, and planning for neighbourhoods that support health behaviours. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify associations between these variables in a sample of employed adults. Self-reported demographic, work-related transport behaviours, and neighbourhood preference data were collected from 1616 employed adults recruited from 48 neighbourhoods located across four New Zealand cities. Data were collected between April 2008 and September 2010. Neighbourhood built environment measures were generated using geographical information systems. Findings demonstrated that more people preferred to live in urban (more walkable), rather than suburban (less walkable) settings. Those living in more suburban neighbourhoods had significantly longer work commute distances and lower density of public transport stops available within the neighbourhood when compared with those who lived in more urban neighbourhoods. Those preferring a suburban style neighbourhood commuted approximately 1.5 km further to work when compared with participants preferring urban settings. Respondents who preferred a suburban style neighbourhood were less likely to take public or active transport to/from work when compared with those who preferred an urban style setting, regardless of the neighbourhood type in which they resided. Although it is unlikely that constructing more walkable environments will result in work-related travel behaviour change for all, providing additional highly walkable environments will help satisfy the demand for these settings, reinforce positive health behaviours, and support those amenable to change to engage in higher levels of

  17. Effects of Perceived Neighbourhood Environments on Self-Rated Health among Community-Dwelling Older Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Moses; Yu, Ruby; Woo, Jean

    2017-06-07

    In response to the growing number of older people living in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the concept of "Age-Friendly Cities" (AFC) to guide the way in designing physical and social environments to encourage active ageing. Limited research has studied the effects of neighbourhood age-friendliness on elderly health outcomes. Using the example of a highly urbanized city in Asia, this study examined the effects of perceived age-friendliness of neighbourhood environments on self-rated health (SRH) among community-dwelling older Chinese. A multi-stage sampling method was used to collect views of community-dwelling older people from two local districts of Hong Kong. A structured questionnaire covering the WHO's eight AFC domains was developed to collect information on the perceived neighbourhood environments, SRH and individual characteristics. Age-friendliness of neighbourhood was assessed by mean scores of AFC domains, which was used to predict SRH with adjustment for individual and objective neighbourhood characteristics. Furthermore, 719 respondents aged ≥60 years completed the questionnaire, of which 44.5% reported good SRH. Independent of individual and objective neighbourhood characteristics, multiple logistics regressions showed that higher satisfaction on outdoor spaces and buildings, transportation, housing, social participation, and respect and social inclusion was significantly associated with increased odds of reporting good SRH by more than 20% (p < 0.05). Individuals aged 70-79 years, being female, lower education and residents of public or subsidized housing were less likely to report good SRH, after controlling for individual and neighbourhood characteristics. In addition to age, gender, education and housing type, AFC environments have important contributive influence on SRH, after controlling for individual and objective neighbourhood characteristics.

  18. Effects of Perceived Neighbourhood Environments on Self-Rated Health among Community-Dwelling Older Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Wong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing number of older people living in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO introduced the concept of “Age-Friendly Cities” (AFC to guide the way in designing physical and social environments to encourage active ageing. Limited research has studied the effects of neighbourhood age-friendliness on elderly health outcomes. Using the example of a highly urbanized city in Asia, this study examined the effects of perceived age-friendliness of neighbourhood environments on self-rated health (SRH among community-dwelling older Chinese. A multi-stage sampling method was used to collect views of community-dwelling older people from two local districts of Hong Kong. A structured questionnaire covering the WHO’s eight AFC domains was developed to collect information on the perceived neighbourhood environments, SRH and individual characteristics. Age-friendliness of neighbourhood was assessed by mean scores of AFC domains, which was used to predict SRH with adjustment for individual and objective neighbourhood characteristics. Furthermore, 719 respondents aged ≥60 years completed the questionnaire, of which 44.5% reported good SRH. Independent of individual and objective neighbourhood characteristics, multiple logistics regressions showed that higher satisfaction on outdoor spaces and buildings, transportation, housing, social participation, and respect and social inclusion was significantly associated with increased odds of reporting good SRH by more than 20% (p < 0.05. Individuals aged 70–79 years, being female, lower education and residents of public or subsidized housing were less likely to report good SRH, after controlling for individual and neighbourhood characteristics. In addition to age, gender, education and housing type, AFC environments have important contributive influence on SRH, after controlling for individual and objective neighbourhood characteristics.

  19. Neighbourhood social trust and youth perceptions of safety during daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kalen; Richmond, Therese S; Branas, Charles C; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2017-10-07

    Exposure to adverse neighbourhood conditions can negatively impact adolescent well-being and perceived safety. However, the impact of neighbourhood social trust on perceived safety is largely unknown. We studied 139 adolescent men to investigate how their perceptions of safety varied as a function of social trust levels in the neighbourhoods they traversed; neighbourhoods that were not necessarily their own. Adolescents mapped their minute-by-minute activities over a recent day and rated their perceived safety on a 10-point scale during in-person interviews. Neighbourhood social trust was measured via a citywide random sample survey. Mixed effects regression showed that, compared with their safety perceptions when in areas of low social trust, older adolescents were 73% more likely to feel unsafe when in areas of medium social trust, and 89% more likely to feel unsafe when in areas of high social trust. Inverse relationships between neighbourhood social trust and adolescents' perceived safety highlight the complex interplay between youth, environmental contexts and safety. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Neighbourhood Influences on Children’s Weight-related Behaviours and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle L. Jenkin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neighbourhood contextual factors such as accessibility of food shops and green spaces are associated with adult bodyweight but not necessarily weight-related behaviours. Whether these associations are replicated amongst children is unknown.Aim: To understand which aspects of childrens' neighbourhoods are associated with unhealthy weight and weight-related behaviours.Methods: Individual-level data for children from the 2006/7 New Zealand Health Survey (of Body Mass Index (BMI, dietary indicators and socioeconomic variables were linked with geographic level data on neighbourhood deprivation, rural/urban status, percentage of community engaged in active travel, access to green space, food shops and sports/leisure facilities. Logistic regression models were fitted for measures of BMI and weight-related behaviours; sugar sweetened beverage (SSB consumption; fast-food consumption; and television viewing. Results:Increased Ccommunity engagement in active transport was, counterintuitively, the only neighbourhood contextual factor associated with unhealthy weight amongst children. After adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental variables, greater access to green space appeared to have a protective effect on SSB consumption and neighbourhood deprivation was associated with all three unhealthy weight-related behaviours (SSB and fast-food consumption and television viewing. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, evidence from the current study suggests that a repertoire of health promotion interventions and policies to change unhealthy weight- related behaviours in high deprivation neighbourhoods may be required to address childhood obesity.

  1. Assessing the Consumer Food Environment in Restaurants by Neighbourhood Distress Level across Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-03-01

    To assess the consumer food environment in restaurants in Saskatoon, using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Restaurants (NEMS-R), to examine differences by neighbourhood distress level and to reflect on the need for further refinement of the assessment of restaurant consumer food environments. Neighbourhoods were classified as low, middle, or high distress level based on the socioeconomic indicators (income, employment, and education) in the Material Deprivation Index. Differences in restaurant consumer food environments, indicated by mean NEMS-R total and sub-scores, were examined by various restaurant categories and by varying neighbourhood distress levels. Chain coffee shops and pita and sandwich restaurants had higher NEMS-R totals and "Healthy Entrées" sub-scores; however, burger and chicken restaurants and pizza restaurants had more barriers to healthful eating. Although restaurants in lower distress level neighbourhoods generally rated healthier (higher NEMS-R scores), only a few measures (such as "Facilitators" and "Barriers") significantly differed by neighbourhood distress level. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions to improve restaurant consumer food environments, especially in neighbourhoods with higher distress levels. The results suggest that reliable measures of the consumer food environment could be developed beginning with what can be measured by NEMS-R.

  2. Neighbourhood variations in child accidents and related child and maternal characteristics: does area definition make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Robin; Jones, Andrew P; Reading, Richard; Daras, Konstantinos; Emond, Alan

    2008-12-01

    Accident occurrence and measures of physical activity, total development and conduct difficulties were recorded for 9391 pre-school children recruited to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study in southwest England. Information about their mothers' age at delivery, post-natal depression, life events, social support and smoking status was also included. Multilevel modelling was used to identify variations between alternative sets of subjective and automated zone design neighbourhoods, which incorporated different boundaries and different scales. The risk of accidents to pre-school children, and most of the characteristics of children and mothers associated with accident risk, varied significantly between neighbourhoods. Differences in the strength of area effects between alternative sets of neighbourhoods were small, although slightly stronger effects were observed in areas with populations less than 4000. Neighbourhoods subjectively defined by planners did not produce stronger effects than computer-generated areas.

  3. Assessing Sustainability of Mixed Use Neighbourhoods through Residents’ Travel Behaviour and Perception: The Case of Nagpur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Bahadure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mixed land-use development is the integration of different land-use functions like residential, commercial, recreational, and institutional in an urban sector or a neighbourhood. Integrating transport and land-use mix is one of the goals of planning policies around the world. Prior studies mention the benefits of mixed land-use development towards creating sustainable environment, but do not specify the proportion of the mix of compatible land uses. This study attempts to assess the sustainability of the neighbourhoods with mixed land-use in the context of the Nagpur city, India. Residents’ travel behaviour in twelve neighbourhoods is studied by means of indicators namely trip lengths, mode of travel, vehicle ownership, and travel expenses. To investigate the users’ insight, the study further examines residents’ perception with the help of parameters such as safety, satisfaction, pollution, and mix. The sustainability indices are computed for both residents’ travel behaviour and perception, for each neighbourhood. The study revealed that neighbourhoods with high and moderate land-use mix are sustainable with travel behaviour. Residents’ perception sustainability index indicates neighbourhoods with moderate land-use mix are more sustainable than those with high and low land-use mixed neighbourhoods. This study advocates stakeholders’ insight and the proportion of mix in land-use planning decisions.

  4. Mismatch between perceived and objectively measured environmental obesogenic features in European neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, C; Charreire, H; Feuillet, T; Mackenbach, J D; Compernolle, S; Glonti, K; Ben Rebah, M; Bárdos, H; Rutter, H; McKee, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M

    2016-01-01

    Findings from research on the association between the built environment and obesity remain equivocal but may be partly explained by differences in approaches used to characterize the built environment. Findings obtained using subjective measures may differ substantially from those measured objectively. We investigated the agreement between perceived and objectively measured obesogenic environmental features to assess (1) the extent of agreement between individual perceptions and observable characteristics of the environment and (2) the agreement between aggregated perceptions and observable characteristics, and whether this varied by type of characteristic, region or neighbourhood. Cross-sectional data from the SPOTLIGHT project (n = 6037 participants from 60 neighbourhoods in five European urban regions) were used. Residents' perceptions were self-reported, and objectively measured environmental features were obtained by a virtual audit using Google Street View. Percent agreement and Kappa statistics were calculated. The mismatch was quantified at neighbourhood level by a distance metric derived from a factor map. The extent to which the mismatch metric varied by region and neighbourhood was examined using linear regression models. Overall, agreement was moderate (agreement obesogenic environmental feature, region and neighbourhood. Highest agreement was found for food outlets and outdoor recreational facilities, and lowest agreement was obtained for aesthetics. In general, a better match was observed in high-residential density neighbourhoods characterized by a high density of food outlets and recreational facilities. Future studies should combine perceived and objectively measured built environment qualities to better understand the potential impact of the built environment on health, particularly in low residential density neighbourhoods. © 2016 World Obesity.

  5. The relative importance of child, family, school and neighbourhood correlates of childhood psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tamsin; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2004-06-01

    Many studies have described associations between childhood psychiatric disorder and characteristics of the child, and their family, school and neighbourhood, but few studies have studied them simultaneously. Also, most investigators have failed to allow for the extent to which different exposures are correlated, or for clustering at different levels of observation. Our objective was to establish which correlates were independently associated with psychiatric disorder. Data on DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, as well as child and family characteristics, were obtained on 8772 English 5- to 15-year-olds included in a large British prevalence survey of mental health. These data were supplemented by independent measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage. We entered child and family variables with the measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage into a logistic regression analysis to establish which variables were independently associated with child psychiatric disorder. No variables were associated with all types of disorder. Poor general health and life events were related to emotional disorders, while conduct disorders were most closely associated with family variables, and ADHD was only related to child characteristics. Disadvantaged schools, deprived neighbourhoods, low socioeconomic status, parental unemployment, cohabiting, large family size, and poverty were not independently associated with disorder. Individually assessed child and family factors may be more influential than aggregate measures of school and neighbourhood factors. Different disorders have distinctive correlates. Many of the best known "risk factors" are not independently related to childhood psychiatric disorder, and are, therefore, acting distally in the causal pathway or irrelevant.

  6. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation in Incentive Effects across Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hanly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small monetary incentives increase survey cooperation rates, however evidence suggests that the appeal of incentives may vary across sample subgroups. Fieldwork budgets can be most effectively distributed by targeting those subgroups where incentives will have the strongest appeal. We examine data from a randomised experiment implemented in the pilot phase of the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which randomly assigned households to receive a higher (€25 or lower (€10 incentive amount. Using a random effects logistic regression model, we observe a variable effect of the higher incentive across geographic neighbourhoods. The higher incentive has the largest impact in neighbourhoods where baseline cooperation is low, as predicted by Leverage-Saliency theory. Auxiliary neighbourhood-level variables are linked to the sample frame to explore this variation further, however none of these moderate the incentive effect, suggesting that richer information is needed to identify sample subgroups where incentive budgets should be directed.

  8. Children's Perspectives on Disorder and Violence in Urban Neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Maria Joao Leote

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of 312 children's neighbourhood drawings and narratives, this article discusses children's socialization in six public housing neighbourhoods in Portugal, through children's personal accounts of their lives. It then examines their perspectives on disorder and violence. Most complained about living in their neighbourhoods,…

  9. Globalization and neighbourhood values: a study of akwete ndoki in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The realities of living in a neighbourhood, the tensions that exist and the ethics of being a neighbour are referred to as neighbourhood values. This paper tries to examine the effect of globalization on neighbourhood values of the people of Akwete Ndoki town. A sample of 120 respondents was selected using the multistage ...

  10. Active ageing and quality of life : Community-dwelling older adults in deprived neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielderman, Johanne Henrike

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors may influence health and quality of life. Older adults residing in deprived neighbourhoods are at risk to develop negative health outcomes with adverse consequences for a person’s quality of life. Therefore, it is crucial to determine feasible and effective ways to maintain or

  11. European Neighbourhood Policy. A Polish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcinkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the bing-bang enlargement of the EU in 2004, the Union needed to define a coherent policy towards its new neighbours. The European Neighbourhood Policy was formulated when Poland became a member of the EU. Due to its close ties with the Eastern European countries, Poland tried to shape the EU foreign policy towards its neighbouring countries and became their advocate in Brussels. In 2009 it succeeded in establishing the Eastern Partnership as one of the dimensions of the European Neighbourhood Policy.

  12. Associations between neighbourhood walkability and daily steps in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Ross, Nancy A; Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Bélisle, Patrick; Joseph, Lawrence; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2015-08-11

    Higher street connectivity, land use mix and residential density (collectively referred to as neighbourhood walkability) have been linked to higher levels of walking. The objective of our study was to summarize the current body of knowledge on the association between neighbourhood walkability and biosensor-assessed daily steps in adults. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, SCOPUS, and Embase (Ovid) for articles published prior to May 2014 on the association between walkability (based on Geographic Information Systems-derived street connectivity, land use mix, and/or residential density) and daily steps (pedometer or accelerometer-assessed) in adults. The mean differences in daily steps between adults living in high versus low walkable neighbourhoods were pooled across studies using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The search strategy yielded 8,744 unique abstracts. Thirty of these underwent full article review of which six met the inclusion criteria. Four of these studies were conducted in Europe and two were conducted in Asia. A meta-analysis of four of these six studies indicates that participants living in high compared to low walkable neighbourhoods accumulate 766 more steps per day (95 % credible interval 250, 1271). This accounts for approximately 8 % of recommended daily steps. The results of European and Asian studies support the hypothesis that higher neighbourhood walkability is associated with higher levels of biosensor-assessed walking in adults. More studies on this association are needed in North America.

  13. Early Detection of High Risk Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Arif; Sistiarani, Colti; Hariyadi, Bambang

    2017-01-01

    There are 30.939 pregnant women in Banyumas, with 6.206 cases referred due to high-risk pregnancies. Petahunan village in Pekuncen has the the highest incidence of high-risk pregnancies compared with other villages. The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of early detection of high-risk pregnancies in Petahunan village, Pekuncen. This study used qualitative research methods with case study approach. Research instruments used in-depth interviews and focus group disscussion ...

  14. [Socioeconomic factors in high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas Domínguez, J; Shor Pinsker, V; Mac Gregor, C; Karchmer, S

    1977-05-01

    The study of high risk during pregnancy was undertaken to show the most viable ways for solving those problems affecting maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. The authors are hopeful that in the future, the 2 branches of medicine, perinatology and obstetrics, will no longer differentiate between high risk for mother and fetus or neonate but will direct attention to what is high risk for 1 society in particular. These professionals will undertake an interdisciplinary approach of the problem to benefit society. (author's)

  15. Neighbourhood income level and outcomes of extremely preterm neonates: protection conferred by a universal health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gary; Shah, Prakesh; Kovacs, Lajos; Ojah, Cecil; Riley, Patricia; Lee, Shoo K

    2012-11-07

    To determine the impact of neighbourhood income and maternal residence population density on mortality and various morbidities at discharge or transfer from the NICU among extremely preterm neonates (income level and residential status was derived using a postal code conversion file and census data. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the risk-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of mortality and survival without major morbidities (chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, and retinopathy of prematurity) among 2,752 extremely preterm infants admitted to 25 tertiary level neonatal intensive care units in Canada between 2007 and 2008. There were no significant differences between mothers from different neighbourhood income quintiles (Q1 = low; Q5 = high) and neonatal mortality AOR (95% confidence interval): Q1: 1.10 (0.74-1.62), Q2: 1.00 (0.67-1.49), Q3: 1.39 (0.93-2.07), Q4: 1.01 (0.67-1.52), Q5: 1 (reference); or survival without major morbidity: Q1: 1.01 (0.70-1.44), Q2: 0.84 (0.58-1.23), Q3: 0.85 (0.58-1.24), Q4: 0.92 (0.63-1.35), Q5: 1 (reference). There were no significant differences in mortality (AOR 1.14 [0.83-1.57]) or in survival without major morbidity (AOR 0.92 [0.67-1.26]) between infants of mothers residing in sparsely populated areas compared to densely populated areas. Maternal residence in a low-income neighbourhood or sparsely populated area was not associated with higher odds of mortality or survival free of major morbidities in extremely preterm infants.

  16. Low risk and high risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low risk and high risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and cervical cancer in Zimbabwe: epidemiological evidence. M Chirara, G A Stanczuk, S A Tswana, L Nystrom, S Bergstrom, S R Moyo, M J Nzara. Abstract. No Abstract. Central African Journal of Medicine Vol. 47 (2) 2001: pp. 32-34.

  17. Dealing with living in poor neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, R.; Van der Land, M.; Doff, W.

    2010-01-01

    In this prologue to the special issue, the guest editors place the contributions in the context of current debates on living in concentrated poverty neighbourhoods. These debates concern two broad categories of residents: poor households that are assisted to move from concentrations of poverty to

  18. Neighbourhood Acceptability of Poultry Farms Located in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the environmental effect of poultry farms located among residents of some metropolitan town of Nigeria. Data were collected using structured questionnaires to interview 90 farmers and 270 residents in the neighbourhood of the poultry farms in the ratio 1:3 in each of the selected ...

  19. Second Chance Learning in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollis, Tracey; Starr, Karen; Ryan, Cheryl; Angwin, Jennifer; Harrison, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Neighbourhood Houses in Victoria are significant sites of formal and informal education for adult learners. Intrinsically connected to local communities they play an important role in decreasing social isolation and building social inclusion. The focus of this research is on adult learners and adult learning that engages with "second…

  20. When does neighbourhood matter? Multilevel relationships between neighbourhood social fragmentation and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Vivienne C; Collings, Sunny C; Blakely, Tony; Dew, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    Studies investigating relationships between mental health and residential areas suggest that certain characteristics of neighbourhood environments matter. After developing a conceptual model of neighbourhood social fragmentation and health we examine this relationship (using the New Zealand Index of Neighbourhood Social Fragmentation (NeighFrag)) with self-reported mental health (using SF-36). We used the nationally representative 2002/3 New Zealand Health Survey dataset of urban adults, employing multilevel methods. Results suggest that increasing neighbourhood-level social fragmentation is associated with poorer mental health, when simultaneously accounting for individual-level confounding factors and neighbourhood-level deprivation. The association was modified by sex (stronger association seen for women) and labour force status (unemployed women more sensitive to NeighFrag than those employed or not in labour force). There was limited evidence of any association of fragmentation with non-mental health outcomes, suggesting specificity for mental health. Social fragmentation as a property of neighbourhoods appears to have a specific association with mental health among women, and particularly unemployed women, in our study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  2. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  3. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  4. High risk of permafrost thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.A.G. Schuur; B.W. Abbott; W.B. Bowden; V. Brovkin; P. Camill; J.P. Canadell; F.S. Chapin; T.R. Christensen; J.P. Chanton; P. Ciais; P.M. Crill; B.T. Crosby; C.I. Czimczik; G. Grosse; D.J. Hayes; G. Hugelius; J.D. Jastrow; T. Kleinen; C.D. Koven; G. Krinner; P. Kuhry; D.M. Lawrence; S.M. Natali; C.L. Ping; A. Rinke; W.J. Riley; V.E. Romanovsky; A.B.K. Sannel; C. Schadel; K. Schaefer; Z.M. Subin; C. Tarnocai; M. Turetsky; K. M. Walter-Anthony; C.J. Wilson; S.A. Zimov

    2011-01-01

    Arctic temperatures are rising fast, and permafrost is thawing. Carbon released into the atmosphere from permafrost soils will accelerate climate change, but the magnitude of this effect remains highly uncertain. Our collective estimate is that carbon will be released more quickly than models suggest, and at levels that are cause for serious concern. We calculate that...

  5. Neighbourhood perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, Louise N; Woods, Catherine; Coleman, Rosarie; Perry, Ivan J

    2008-03-28

    Effective promotion of physical activity in low income communities is essential given the high prevalence of inactivity in this sector. This study explored determinants of engaging in physical activity in two Irish city based neighbourhoods using a series of six focus groups and twenty five interviews with adult residents. Data were analysed using constant comparison methods with a grounded theory approach. Study findings centred on the concept of 'community contentment'. Physical activity was related to the degree of contentment/comfort within the 'self' and how the 'self' interacts within the neighbourhood. Contemporary focus on outer bodily appearance and pressure to comply with societal expectations influenced participants' sense of confidence and competence. Social interaction, involvement, and provision of adequate social supports were viewed as positive and motivating. However normative expectations appeared to affect participants' ability to engage in physical activity, which may reflect the 'close knit' culture of the study neighbourhoods. Access to suitable local facilities and amenities such as structured and pleasant walking routes was regarded as essential. Indeed participants considered walking to be their preferred form of physical activity which may relate to the minimal skill requirement, ease of access and low financial costs incurred. In the context of physical activity, health promoters need to be conscious of the difficulties that individuals feel in relation to bodily appearance and the pressure to comply with societal standards. This may be particularly relevant in low income settings where insufficient allocation of resources and social supports means that individuals have less opportunity to attend to physical activity than individuals living in higher income settings.

  6. Neighbourhood perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Rosarie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective promotion of physical activity in low income communities is essential given the high prevalence of inactivity in this sector. Methods This study explored determinants of engaging in physical activity in two Irish city based neighbourhoods using a series of six focus groups and twenty five interviews with adult residents. Data were analysed using constant comparison methods with a grounded theory approach. Results Study findings centred on the concept of 'community contentment'. Physical activity was related to the degree of contentment/comfort within the 'self' and how the 'self' interacts within the neighbourhood. Contemporary focus on outer bodily appearance and pressure to comply with societal expectations influenced participants' sense of confidence and competence. Social interaction, involvement, and provision of adequate social supports were viewed as positive and motivating. However normative expectations appeared to affect participants' ability to engage in physical activity, which may reflect the 'close knit' culture of the study neighbourhoods. Access to suitable local facilities and amenities such as structured and pleasant walking routes was regarded as essential. Indeed participants considered walking to be their preferred form of physical activity which may relate to the minimal skill requirement, ease of access and low financial costs incurred. Conclusion In the context of physical activity, health promoters need to be conscious of the difficulties that individuals feel in relation to bodily appearance and the pressure to comply with societal standards. This may be particularly relevant in low income settings where insufficient allocation of resources and social supports means that individuals have less opportunity to attend to physical activity than individuals living in higher income settings.

  7. Connected or informed?: Local Twitter networking in a London neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bingham-Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper asks whether geographically localised, or ‘hyperlocal’, uses of Twitter succeed in creating peer-to-peer neighbourhood networks or simply act as broadcast media at a reduced scale. Literature drawn from the smart cities discourse and from a UK research project into hyperlocal media, respectively, take on these two opposing interpretations. Evidence gathered in the case study presented here is consistent with the latter, and on this basis we criticise the notion that hyperlocal social media can be seen as a community in itself. We demonstrate this by creating a network map of Twitter followers of a popular hyperlocal blog in Brockley, southeast London. We describe various attributes of this network including its average degree and clustering coefficient to suggest that a small and highly connected cluster of visible local entities such as businesses form a clique at the centre of this network, with individual residents following these but not one another. We then plot the locations of these entities and demonstrate that sub-communities in the network are formed due to close geographical proximity between smaller sets of businesses. These observations are illustrated with qualitative evidence from interviews with users who suggest instead that rather than being connected to one another they benefit from what has been described as ‘neighbourhood storytelling’. Despite the limitations of working with Twitter data, we propose that this multi-modal approach offers a valuable way to investigate the experience of using social media as a communication tool in urban neighbourhoods.

  8. What does my neighbourhood have to do with my weight? A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shimels Hussien; Birhanu, Mulugeta Molla; Sissay, Tesfamichael Awoke; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Tegegn, Balewgizie Sileshi; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2017-09-27

    Individuals living in poor neighbourhoods are at a higher risk of overweight/obesity. There is no systematic review and meta-analysis study on the association of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (NSES) with overweight/obesity. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the existing evidence on the association of NSES with overweight/obesity. Cross-sectional, case-control and cohort studies published in English from inception to 15 May 2017 will be systematically searched using the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Sciences and Google Scholar. Selection, screening, reviewing and data extraction will be done by two reviewers, independently and in duplicate. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) will be used to assess the quality of evidence. Publication bias will be checked by visual inspection of funnel plots and Egger's regression test. Heterogeneity will be checked by Higgins's method (I2 statistics). Meta-analysis will be done to estimate the pooled OR. Narrative synthesis will be performed if meta-analysis is not feasible due to high heterogeneity of studies. Ethical clearance is not required as we will be using data from published articles. Findings will be communicated through a publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentations at professional conferences. CRD42017063889. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Improving antenatal risk assessment in women exposed to high risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Natasha; Newman, Louise K; Hunter, Mick; Dunlop, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal substance use and related psychosocial risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of child protection involvement; less is known about the predictive nature of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in this population. This preliminary study assessed psychosocial and psychological risk factors for a group of substance dependent women exposed to high risks in pregnancy, and their impact on child protection involvement. Pregnant women on opiate substitution treatment (n = 11) and a comparison group (n = 15) were recruited during their third trimester to complete measures of RF (Pregnancy Interview), childhood trauma, mental health and psychosocial assessments. At postnatal follow-up, RF was reassessed (Parent Development Interview - Revised Short Version) and mother-infant dyads were videotaped to assess emotional availability (EA). Child protection services were contacted to determine if any concerns had been raised for infant safety. Significant between-group differences were observed for demographics, psychosocial factors, trauma and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for RF or EA between groups. Eight women in the 'exposed to high risks' group became involved with child protection services. Reflective functioning was not significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors, and therefore did not mediate the outcome of child protection involvement. Women 'exposed to high risks' were equally able to generate a model of their own and their infants' mental states and should not be seen within a deficit perspective. Further research is required to better understand the range of risk factors that predict child protection involvement in high risk groups. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. The high-risk plaque initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Erling; Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The High-Risk Plaque (HRP) Initiative is a research and development effort to advance the understanding, recognition, and management of asymptomatic individuals at risk for a near-term atherothrombotic event such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Clinical studies using the newest technologies...

  11. Creation of synthetic homogeneous neighbourhoods using zone design algorithms to explore relationships between asthma and deprivation in Strasbourg, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, C E; Kihal, W; Bard, D; Weber, C

    2013-08-01

    The concept of 'neighbourhood' as a unit of analysis has received considerable research attention over the last decade. Many of these studies raise the question of the influence of local characteristics on variations in health and more recently, researchers have sought to understand how the neighbourhood can influence individual health through individual behaviour. Relatively few studies discuss the question of the borders and definition of a neighbourhood but we know that the results from health or population datasets are very sensitive to how zones are constructed - part of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). In reality, we know that neighbourhoods are not constrained by artificial statistical boundaries, but rather exist as complex multi-dimensional living communities. This paper tries to better represent the reality on the ground of these communities to better inform studies of health. In this work, we have developed an experimental approach for the automated design of neighbourhoods using a small tessellated cell as a basic building block. Using the software AZTool, we considered population, shape and homogeneity constraints to develop a highly innovative approach to zone construction. The paper reports the challenges and compromises involved in building these new synthetic neighbourhoods. We provide a fully worked example of how our new synthetic homogeneous zones perform using data from Strasbourg, France. We examine data on Asthma reported through calls to the emergency services, and compare these rates with an index of multiple deprivation (NDI) which we have constructed and reported elsewhere. Higher correlations between Asthma and NDI were found using our newly constructed synthetic zones than using the existing French census areas of similar size. The significance of our work is that we show that careful construction of neighbourhoods - which we claim are more realistic than census areas - can greatly aid unpacking our understanding of

  12. High risk of permafrost thaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, E.A.G.; Abbott, B.; Koven, C.D,; Riley, W.J.; Subin, Z.M.; al, et

    2011-11-01

    In the Arctic, temperatures are rising fast, and permafrost is thawing. Carbon released to the atmosphere from permafrost soils could accelerate climate change, but the likely magnitude of this effect is still highly uncertain. A collective estimate made by a group of permafrost experts, including myself, is that carbon could be released more quickly than models currently suggest, and at levels that are cause for serious concern. While our models of carbon emission from permafrost thaw are lacking, experts intimately familiar with these landscapes and processes have accumulated knowledge about what they expect to happen, based on both quantitative data and qualitative understanding of these systems. We (the authors of this piece) attempted to quantify this expertise through a survey developed over several years, starting in 2009. Our survey asked experts what percentage of surface permafrost they thought was likely to thaw, how much carbon would be released, and how much of that would be methane, for three time periods and under four warming scenarios that are part of the new IPCC Fifth Assessment Report.

  13. High risk pregnancy monitored antenatally at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monincx, W. M.; Zondervan, H. A.; Birnie, E.; Ris, M.; Bossuyt, P. M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Is domiciliary antenatal fetal surveillance for selected high risk pregnancies, a feasible alternative for hospital admission? DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial conducted at the Academical Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Between September 1992 and June 1994, 76

  14. Older Adults’ Outdoor Walking: Inequalities in Neighbourhood Safety, Pedestrian Infrastructure and Aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Razieh; Martinez, Javier; Flacke, Johannes; Jones, Phil; van Maarseveen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Older adults living in high-deprivation areas walk less than those living in low-deprivation areas. Previous research has shown that older adults’ outdoor walking levels are related to the neighbourhood built environment. This study examines inequalities in perceived built environment attributes (i.e., safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics) and their possible influences on disparities in older adults’ outdoor walking levels in low- and high-deprivation areas of Birmingham, United Kingdom. It applied a mixed-method approach, included 173 participants (65 years and over), used GPS technology to measure outdoor walking levels, used questionnaires (for all participants) and conducted walking interviews (with a sub-sample) to collect data on perceived neighbourhood built environment attributes. The results show inequalities in perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetics in high- versus low-deprivation areas and demonstrate that they may influence disparities in participants’ outdoor walking levels. Improvements of perceived neighbourhood safety, pedestrian infrastructure and aesthetic in high-deprivation areas are encouraged. PMID:27898023

  15. Perceptions of Quality Life in Hamilton's Neighbourhood Hubs: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Jeanette; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines perceptions of quality of life in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from the perspective of residents and key community stakeholders. A series of eight focus groups were conducted. Six sessions were held with residents of neighbourhood "hubs", areas characterized by high levels of poverty. The following themes were…

  16. Neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; McNeil, Debbie; Yee, Wendy; Siever, Jodie; Rose, Sarah

    2014-09-16

    To evaluate a possible association between neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta births. The study design was a retrospective cohort of all births in Alberta for the years 2001 and 2006. The primary outcome was spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation. Neighbourhood socio-economic status was measured by the Pampalon Material Deprivation Index for each Statistics Canada census dissemination area. Births were linked to dissemination area using maternal postal codes. The analysis comprised 73,585 births, in which the rate of spontaneous preterm delivery at <37 weeks was 5.3%. The rates of spontaneous preterm delivery for each neighbourhood socio-economic category ranged from 4.9% (95% CI 4.5%-5.2%) in the highest category to 6.3% (95% CI 6.0%-6.7%) in the lowest (p<0.001). After controlling for smoking, parity, maternal age and year, we found that women living in the highest socio-economic status neighbourhoods had an adjusted spontaneous preterm birth rate of 5.1% (95% CI 4.7%-5.5%) compared to 6.0% (95% CI 5.6%-6.4%) for women living in the lowest (p=0.003). This study documented a modest increase in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth with low socio-economic status. The possibility of confounding bias cannot be ruled out.

  17. Association between neighbourhood green space and sedentary leisure time in a Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storgaard, Rikke Lynge; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease etc., independently of level of physical activity. Availability of recreational green space is associated with physical activity, but is unknown in relation to sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study is to examine the association between availability of green space and sedentary leisure time in a Danish population. The study was based on a random sample of 49,806 adults aged 16 + who answered a questionnaire in 2010, including sedentary leisure time. Objective measures of density green were calculated for each respondent using Geographical Information System (GIS). A multilevel regression analysis, taking neighbourhood and individual factors into account, was performed. 65% of the respondents were sedentary in leisure time for more than 3h/day. We found that poor availability of forest and recreational facilities in the neighbourhood is associated with more sedentary leisure time; OR: 1.11 (95% CL: 1.04-1.19), after adjusting for individual, and neighbourhood, level characteristics. Among adult inhabitants, sedentary leisure time of more than 3h/day was more frequent in neighbourhoods with less green surroundings. Intervention efforts may benefit from emphasising the importance of having recreations options in residential areas to provide alternatives to sedentary activities.

  18. Neighbourhood deprivation and dental service use: a cross-sectional analysis of older people in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, I A; Gibbs, S J; Steel, N; Melzer, D

    2008-12-01

    Appropriate dental care is an important part of maintaining good oral health. We examined the relationship between socioeconomic status, neighbourhood deprivation levels and older people's dental service use. We used logistic regression analysis to assess the relationship between self-reported dental service use and neighbourhood deprivation, adjusting for individual socioeconomic and health factors, in individuals aged 65+ in the 2005 Health Survey for England (n = 4240). Among dentulous respondents, 69.9% reported attending for regular check-ups, 6.2% occasional check-ups, 18.4% only saw a dentist when in trouble and 5.6% never went to a dentist. In our adjusted model age, sex, region, education level, occupational social class, self-reported health and smoking status, but not degree of urbanization, were associated with use of dental services. Following adjustment for these other factors those living in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods, compared with those in the least deprived, had a relative risk ratio of 2.25 (95% confidence interval 1.59-3.17) of using dental services only when symptomatic, rather than going for regular or occasional check-ups. When alternative outcomes of reporting having recently seen a doctor or been a hospital inpatient were assessed these deprivation-related patterns in service use were not evident. Levels of neighbourhood deprivation are associated with the use of dental services by older people. Action is needed to ensure older people in deprived communities access appropriate and comprehensive dental services.

  19. Management of high-risk pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, L; Giannone, T T; Zarbo, G

    2014-08-01

    Today, 88% of pregnancies has a physiological course during which just basic care, while in 12% of cases there is a high-risk pregnancy that requires additional assistance and specific. The approach that should be used is that of supervision in all pregnant women considering their potential to have a normal pregnancy until there is no clear evidence to the contrary. Pregnancy is considered at risk if there are medical conditions that may affect maternal or fetal health or life of the mother, fetus or both. Among the risk factors for pregnancy there is first the woman's age, in fact the increase in high-risk pregnancies in the last 20 years is attributable to the increase in the average age of women who face pregnancy. In addition, the diet is very important during pregnancy and diabetes or autoimmune diseases often lead to the failure of a pregnancy. Risk factors for pregnancy, also, are the complications that occur during its course as hypertension during pregnancy, and infectious diseases. Fears and anxieties typical of a high-risk pregnancy prevent the couple to live happily in the months of gestation. Effective communication, control and early detection are important tools that doctors must be able to ensure that women in order to plan the best treatment strategies and to minimize the risks of maternal and / or fetal.

  20. Neighbourhood effects on school achievement: the mediating effect of parenting and problematic behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/384122620; Hooimeijer, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073398578; van Dorsselaer, S; Vollebergh, W.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893

    2013-01-01

    Neighbourhood research hitherto has suggested that the neighbourhood in which youth grow up affects their educational achievement. However, the mechanisms though which the neighbourhood reaches these effects are still unclear. Family and individual characteristics seem important in explaining

  1. The neighbourhood environment and use of neighbourhood resources in older adults with and without lower limb osteoarthritis : results from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Erik J; van der Pas, Suzan; Cooper, Cyrus; Schaap, Laura A; Edwards, Mark H; Deeg, Dorly J H; Gale, Catharine R; Dennison, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of perceptions of neighbourhood cohesion and neighbourhood problems and objectively measured neighbourhood deprivation with the use of neighbourhood resources by older adults with and without lower limb osteoarthritis (LLOA), and to assess whether these

  2. Neighbourhood and own social housing and early problem behaviour trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Tzatzaki, Konstantina

    2015-02-01

    To explore the roles of proportion of social rented housing in the neighbourhood ('neighbourhood social housing'), own housing being socially rented, and their interaction in early trajectories of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity symptoms. We tested three pathways of effects: family stress and maternal psychological distress, low quality parenting practices, and peer problems. We used data from 9,850 Millennium Cohort Study families who lived in England when the cohort children were aged 3. Children's emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems were measured at ages 3, 5 and 7. Even after accounting for own social housing, neighbourhood social housing was related to all problems and their trajectories. Its association with conduct problems and hyperactivity was explained by selection. Selection also explained the effect of the interaction between neighbourhood and own social housing on hyperactivity, but not why children of social renter families living in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of social housing followed a rising trajectory of emotional problems. The effects of own social housing, neighbourhood social housing and their interaction on emotional problems were robust. Peer problems explained the association of own social housing with hyperactivity. Neither selection nor the pathways we tested explained the association of own social housing with conduct problems, the association of neighbourhood social housing with their growth, or the association of neighbourhood social housing, own social housing and their interaction with emotional problems. Children of social renter families in neighbourhoods with a low concentration of social renters are particularly vulnerable to emotional problems.

  3. Snow and Rain Modify Neighbourhood Walkability for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Hirsch, Jana A; Melendez, Robert; Winters, Meghan; Sims Gould, Joanie; Ashe, Maureen; Furst, Sarah; McKay, Heather

    2017-06-01

    The literature has documented a positive relationship between walkable built environments and outdoor mobility in older adults. Yet, surprisingly absent is any consideration of how weather conditions modify the impact of neighbourhood walkability. Using archived weather data linked to survey data collected from a sample of older adults in Vancouver, Canada, we found that car-dependent neighbourhoods (featuring longer block lengths, fewer intersections, and greater distance to amenities) became inaccessible in snow. Even older adults who lived in very walkable neighbourhoods walked to 25 per cent fewer destinations in snow. It is crucial to consider the impact of weather in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and older adult mobility.

  4. Associations between the neighbourhood food environment, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, and diet quality: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Maria; Csizmadi, Ilona; Friedenreich, Christine M; Uribe, Francisco Alaniz; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; McLaren, Lindsay; Potestio, Melissa; Sandalack, Beverly; McCormack, Gavin R

    2016-09-15

    The neighbourhood environment may play an important role in diet quality. Most previous research has examined the associations between neighbourhood food environment and diet quality, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and diet quality separately. This study investigated the independent and joint effects of neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood socioeconomic status in relation to diet quality in Canadian adults. We undertook a cross-sectional study with n = 446 adults in Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Individual-level data on diet and socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were captured from two self-report internet-based questionnaires, the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQ II) and the Past Year Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Neighbourhood environment data were derived from dissemination area level Canadian Census data, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) databases. Neighbourhood was defined as a 400 m network-based 'walkshed' around each participant's household. Using GIS we objectively-assessed the density, diversity, and presence of specific food destination types within the participant's walkshed. A seven variable socioeconomic deprivation index was derived from Canadian Census variables and estimated for each walkshed. The Canadian adapted Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI), used to assess diet quality was estimated from food intakes reported on C-DHQ II. Multivariable linear regression was used to test for associations between walkshed food environment variables, walkshed socioeconomic status, and diet quality (C-HEI), adjusting for individual level socio-demographic and health-related covariates. Interaction effects between walkshed socioeconomic status and walkshed food environment variables on diet quality (C-HEI) were also tested. After adjustment for covariates, food destination density was positively associated with the C-HEI (β 0.06, 95 % CI 0.01-0.12, p = 0.04) though the magnitude of the

  5. Associations between the neighbourhood food environment, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, and diet quality: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria McInerney

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The neighbourhood environment may play an important role in diet quality. Most previous research has examined the associations between neighbourhood food environment and diet quality, and neighbourhood socioeconomic status and diet quality separately. This study investigated the independent and joint effects of neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood socioeconomic status in relation to diet quality in Canadian adults. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study with n = 446 adults in Calgary, Alberta (Canada. Individual-level data on diet and socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were captured from two self-report internet-based questionnaires, the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQ II and the Past Year Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ. Neighbourhood environment data were derived from dissemination area level Canadian Census data, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS databases. Neighbourhood was defined as a 400 m network-based ‘walkshed’ around each participant’s household. Using GIS we objectively-assessed the density, diversity, and presence of specific food destination types within the participant’s walkshed. A seven variable socioeconomic deprivation index was derived from Canadian Census variables and estimated for each walkshed. The Canadian adapted Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI, used to assess diet quality was estimated from food intakes reported on C-DHQ II. Multivariable linear regression was used to test for associations between walkshed food environment variables, walkshed socioeconomic status, and diet quality (C-HEI, adjusting for individual level socio-demographic and health-related covariates. Interaction effects between walkshed socioeconomic status and walkshed food environment variables on diet quality (C-HEI were also tested. Results After adjustment for covariates, food destination density was positively associated with the C-HEI (β 0.06, 95 % CI 0

  6. Insomnia and urban neighbourhood contexts--are associations modified by individual social characteristics and change of residence? Results from a population-based study using residential histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Natalie; Fuks, Kateryna; Hoffmann, Barbara; Weyers, Simone; Siegrist, Johannes; Erbel, Raimund; Viehmann, Anja; Stang, Andreas; Scheiner, Joachim; Dragano, Nico

    2012-09-20

    Until now, insomnia has not been much of interest in epidemiological neighbourhood studies, although literature provides evidence enough for insomnia-related mechanisms being potentially dependent on neighbourhood contexts. Besides, studies have shown differences in sleep along individual social characteristics that might render residents more vulnerable to neighbourhood contextual exposures. Given the role of exposure duration and changes in the relationship between neighbourhoods and health, we studied associations of neighbourhood unemployment and months under residential turnover with insomnia by covering ten years of residential history of nearly 3,000 urban residents in the Ruhr Area, Germany. Individual data were retrieved from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based study of randomly chosen participants from adjacent cities, which contains self-rated insomnia symptoms and individual social characteristics. Participants' residential addresses were retrospectively assessed using public registries. We built individually derived exposure measures informing about mean neighbourhood unemployment rates and months under high residential turnover. These measures were major predictors in multivariate logistic regressions modelling the association between social neighbourhood characteristics and insomnia in the whole sample and subgroups defined by low income, low education, social isolation, and change of residence. Traffic-related noise, age, gender, economic activity, and education were considered as covariates. Nearly 12 per cent of the participants complained about insomnia. Associations of neighbourhood unemployment with insomnia were more consistent than those of residential turnover in the whole sample (adjusted OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.03 for neighbourhood unemployment and OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.78-2.25 for residential turnover in the highest exposure categories). In low-income and socially isolated participants, neighbourhood unemployment odds of

  7. Insomnia and urban neighbourhood contexts – are associations modified by individual social characteristics and change of residence? Results from a population-based study using residential histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riedel Natalie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until now, insomnia has not been much of interest in epidemiological neighbourhood studies, although literature provides evidence enough for insomnia-related mechanisms being potentially dependent on neighbourhood contexts. Besides, studies have shown differences in sleep along individual social characteristics that might render residents more vulnerable to neighbourhood contextual exposures. Given the role of exposure duration and changes in the relationship between neighbourhoods and health, we studied associations of neighbourhood unemployment and months under residential turnover with insomnia by covering ten years of residential history of nearly 3,000 urban residents in the Ruhr Area, Germany. Methods Individual data were retrieved from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based study of randomly chosen participants from adjacent cities, which contains self-rated insomnia symptoms and individual social characteristics. Participants’ residential addresses were retrospectively assessed using public registries. We built individually derived exposure measures informing about mean neighbourhood unemployment rates and months under high residential turnover. These measures were major predictors in multivariate logistic regressions modelling the association between social neighbourhood characteristics and insomnia in the whole sample and subgroups defined by low income, low education, social isolation, and change of residence. Traffic-related noise, age, gender, economic activity, and education were considered as covariates. Results Nearly 12 per cent of the participants complained about insomnia. Associations of neighbourhood unemployment with insomnia were more consistent than those of residential turnover in the whole sample (adjusted OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00-2.03 for neighbourhood unemployment and OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.78-2.25 for residential turnover in the highest exposure categories. In low-income and socially isolated

  8. Electroconvulsive therapy during high-risk pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R; Swartz, C M

    1994-09-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of injury associated with mental illness. The varieties of malnutrition, substance abuse, and aggression that may accompany mental illness can injure the unborn child in more severe ways than the patient herself. Dangers associated with illness-related behavior can outweight the risks of pharmacotherapy, but no psychotropic drug is approved for use during pregnancy. Failure to produce a prompt or lasting remission of psychiatric symptoms also is a significant possibility with medication. The morbidity from continued illness and the incompletely described adverse effects of psychotropic drugs increases the attractiveness of ECT for severely depressed pregnant patients, especially with associated high-risk conditions. This paper discusses physiologic changes occurring during pregnancy and ECT and reviews contemporary monitors of maternal and fetal well-being. Guidelines are suggested for ECT during regular and high-risk pregnancies. The authors conclude that using additional precautions with high-risk pregnant patients permits ECT to be given with relative safety; medical and obstetric risk factors need not prevent its use.

  9. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector

    2009-07-01

    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  10. Parents and Peers : Parental Neighbourhood- and School-Level Variation in Individual Neighbourhood Outcomes over Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vuijst, E.; van Ham, M.

    There is a link between the socio-economic outcomes of parents and their children over the life course. Intergenerational transmissions were repeatedly shown for socioeconomic characteristics and (dis)advantage, but recently also for residential neighbourhood status. Previous research from the

  11. Neighbourhood immigration, health care utilization and outcomes in patients with diabetes living in the Montreal metropolitan area (Canada): a population health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, Alain; Courteau, Josiane; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Bergeron, Patrick; Cohen, Alan A; Niyonsenga, Théophile

    2015-04-09

    Understanding health care utilization by neighbourhood is essential for optimal allocation of resources, but links between neighbourhood immigration and health have rarely been explored. Our objective was to understand how immigrant composition of neighbourhoods relates to health outcomes and health care utilization of individuals living with diabetes. This is a secondary analysis of administrative data using a retrospective cohort of 111,556 patients living with diabetes without previous cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and living in the metropolitan region of Montreal (Canada). A score for immigration was calculated at the neighbourhood level using a principal component analysis with six neighbourhood-level variables (% of people with maternal language other than French or English, % of people who do not speak French or English, % of immigrants with different times since immigration (immigration scores, those living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores were less likely to die, to suffer a CVD event, to frequently visit general practitioners, but more likely to visit emergency departments or a specialist and to use an antidiabetic drug. These differences remained after controlling for patient-level variables such as age, sex, and comorbidities, as well as for neighbourhood attributes like material and social deprivation or living in the urban core. In this study, patients with diabetes living in neighbourhoods with high immigration scores had different health outcomes and health care utilizations compared to those living in neighbourhoods with low immigration scores. Although we cannot disentangle the individual versus the area-based effect of immigration, these results may have an important impact for health care planning.

  12. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Individual-Level Familial and Socio-Demographic Factors and Diagnosed Childhood Obesity: A Nationwide Multilevel Study from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and diagnosed childhood obesity, after accounting for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: An open cohort of all children aged 0-14 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighbourhood deprivation. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Results: During the study period, among a total of 948,062 children, 10,799 were diagnosed with childhood obesity. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence for diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. Incidence of diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR for diagnosed childhood obesity for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 2.44 (95% confidence interval (CI = 2.22-2.68. High neighbourhood deprivation remained significantly associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity after adjustment for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.55-1.89. Age, middle level family income, maternal marital status, low level education, living in large cities, advanced paternal and maternal age, family history of obesity, parental history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism and personal history of diabetes were all associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neighbourhood characteristics affect the odds of diagnosed childhood obesity independently of family- and individual-level socio

  13. Velocity of escape from the Galaxy in the solar neighbourhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.B. (Royal Greenwich Observatory, Hailsham (UK))

    1982-11-01

    The expected properties of stars moving with extremely high velocities relative to the centre of the Galaxy are discussed. Although the kinematic behaviour of the fastest known subdwarfs is consistent with unbound orbits, observational upper limits on the numbers of faint giant stars in the general field strongly suggest that these subdwarfs are bound to the Galaxy. If this is the case, only a lower limit to the value of the velocity of escape in the solar neighbourhood can be obtained. After allowance for observational error, this lower limit is about 400 km s/sup -1/. Although all known subdwarfs are probably in bound orbits, there is evidence that the mode of origin of the peculiar velocities of subdwarfs with extremely large galactocentric velocities is different from that of other high-velocity stars.

  14. 'On the street where you live': Neighbourhood deprivation and quality of life among community-dwelling older people in Edinburgh, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mõttus, René; Gale, Catharine R; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-05-01

    It is well established that neighbourhood quality is related to various aspects of people's health and coping, especially in old age. There have also been a few reports on the links between self-reported neighbourhood quality and quality of life in older age. However, it is not clear which aspects of quality of life in particular are related to neighbourhood quality and whether these associations are independent of the roles of cognitive, socioeconomic or health status, or rating biases. Using a large sample of Scots from the Edinburgh area (N = 1091, of whom 548 were men) aged between 68 and 71 years, this study shows direct associations of objectively and comprehensively determined neighbourhood deprivation with self-perceived quality of life in physical and environmental domains, but not in psychological or social relationship domains. In a path model, these associations were independent of the roles of childhood cognitive ability and change in it to age 70, educational attainment, and occupational social class. The count of adverse health conditions (cardiovascular disease, stroke history, high blood pressure, diabetes, or arthritis) was associated with both quality of life and neighbourhood deprivation, and mediated the indirect links from neighbourhood deprivation to physical, psychological and environmental domains of quality of life. It is concluded that the neighbourhood in which older people live plays a role in one of the most important outcomes-how satisfied they are with various aspects of their life including physical functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of high-risk smoldering myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde, Neha

    2016-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of the plasma cell that causes symptoms of bone pain, renal failure, and anemia. It is usually preceded by a precursor disease state, such as smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and traditional dogma dictates that treatment should be initiated on frank MM symptom development. Emerging evidence suggests that a defined group of "high-risk SMM" may benefit from early treatment, before organ damage and symptoms actually occur. The following article frames the evidence for treatment of high-risk SMM by defining risk categories, reviewing existing therapeutic trial data, and exploring the long-term biologic implications of early treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Not all risks are equal: the risk taking inventory for high-risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Barlow, Matt; Bandura, Comille; Hill, Miles; Kupciw, Dominika; Macgregor, Alexandra

    2013-10-01

    Although high-risk sport participants are typically considered a homogenous risk-taking population, attitudes to risk within the high-risk domain can vary considerably. As no validated measure allows researchers to assess risk taking within this domain, we validated the Risk Taking Inventory (RTI) for high-risk sport across four studies. The RTI comprises seven items across two factors: deliberate risk taking and precautionary behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 341), the inventory was refined and tested via a confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. The subsequent three studies confirmed the RTI's good model-data fit via three further separate confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2 (n = 518) and in Study 3 (n = 290), concurrent validity was also confirmed via associations with other related traits (sensation seeking, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, impulsivity, self-esteem, extraversion, and conscientiousness). In Study 4 (n = 365), predictive validity was confirmed via associations with mean accidents and mean close calls in the high-risk domain. Finally, in Study 4, the self-report version of the inventory was significantly associated with an informant version of the inventory. The measure will allow researchers and practitioners to investigate risk taking as a variable that is conceptually distinct from participation in a high-risk sport.

  17. Does neighbourhood composition modify the association between acculturation and unhealthy dietary behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donglan; van Meijgaard, Jeroen; Shi, Lu; Cole, Brian; Fielding, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Studies have shown that immigrants' acculturation is associated with numerous unhealthy behaviours. Yet, the role of environmental factors in modifying the effect of acculturation on health behaviours has received little attention. This study aims to create a more nuanced understanding of the health effects of acculturation by examining how neighbourhood immigrant composition modifies the association between individuals' eating patterns and acculturation. Cross-sectional Data from Los Angeles County Health Survey 2007 adult sample were linked to data on retail food establishments and US Census 2000 neighbourhood characteristics. Acculturation was measured by language spoken at home and years stayed in the US. Eating fast food more than once per week and eating zero serving of fruit or vegetables during the previous day were used as proxy indicators for unhealthy dietary behaviour. Multilevel logistic regression models were performed in the full sample and in the sample with only Latino adults. Immigrants' lack of acculturation and living in a neighbourhood with a high percentage immigrants were associated with healthier dietary behaviour. We also identified that lack of acculturation conveyed a significantly stronger protective effect on regular fast-food consumption for immigrants living in neighbourhoods with higher percentage immigrants (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.93). Among immigrants in Los Angeles County, living in a neighbourhood with a high density of other immigrants attenuates the negative effects of acculturation on healthy eating behaviours. Healthy eating promotion efforts should build on this protective effect in outreach to acculturating immigrant communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. The Effects of Location and Neighbourhood Attributes on Housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    The Effects of Location and Neighbourhood Attributes on Housing Values in Metropolitan Lagos. Aluko, O. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v4i2.8. Abstract. The aim of this paper is to analyse and determine the relative roles of location and neighbourhood characteristics in the determination of housing values/prices. In order ...

  19. The Effects of Location and Neighbourhood Attributes on Housing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and determine the relative roles of location and neighbourhood characteristics in the determination of housing values/prices. In order to achieve this, attempts were made to evaluate the role of location and neighbourhood factors in the determination of house prices; study how house ...

  20. Economic Satisfaction and Income Rank in Small Neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.; E. Clark, Andrew

    We contribute to the literature on well-being and comparisons by appealing to new Danish data dividing the country up into around 9,000 small neighbourhoods. Administrative data provides us with the income of every person in each of these neighbourhoods. This income information is matched to demo...

  1. Breast MRI in high risk patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I.M. Obdeijn (Inge-Marie)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract In this thesis we address various indications of breast MRI, with the emphasis on the value of MRI in screening of women with high genetic risk for breast cancer, and especially in BRCA1 mutation carriers. We showed that in the era of up-to-date MRI expertise and

  2. Trends in emerging and high risk activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. White; Richard Schreyer; Kent Downing

    1980-01-01

    Newly emerging and high risk activities have increased markedly in the last generation, yet little is known about trends in participation. Factors such as technological innovation and creative experimentation with traditional activities appear to play a major role in the development of new activities. Christy's criteria for mass demand in recreation are used to...

  3. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school : Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.W.; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, J; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, F.C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods

  4. Socio-cultural innovation through and by public libraries in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in Denmark: concepts and practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delica, Kristian Nagel; Elbeshausen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Our paper describes three examples of how public libraries in at-risk-neighbourhoods have worked with social innovations in order to develop and strengthen their services for minority groups. The libraries were chosen because they are frontrunners in the field of cultural diversity ...

  5. Move the Neighbourhood: a novel study design of a participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods......) to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. METHODS: The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design including two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study....... During spring 2017 the interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban...

  6. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Gallacher, John; Palmer, Stephen; Fone, David

    2014-03-19

    The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity physical function living in

  7. Neighbourhood reaction in the evolution of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Weiming; Xiu, Baoxin

    2015-05-07

    Combining evolutionary games with adaptive networks, an entangled model between strategy evolution and structure adaptation is researched in this paper. We consider a large population of cooperators C and defectors D placed in the networks, playing the repeated prisoner׳s dilemma (PD) games. Because of the conflicts between social welfare and personal rationality, both strategy and structure are allowed to change. In this paper, the dynamics of strategy originates form the partner imitation based on social learning and the dynamics of structure is driven by the active linking and neighbourhood reaction. Notably, the neighbourhood reaction is investigated considering the changes of interfaces between cooperators and defectors, where some neighbours may get away from the interface once the focal agent changes to different strategy. A rich landscape is demonstrated by changing various embedding parameters, which sheds light upon that reacting promptly to the shifted neighbour will promote the prevalence of cooperation. Our model encapsulates the dynamics of strategy, reaction and structure into the evolutionary games, which manifests some intriguing principles in the competition between two groups in natural populations, artificial systems and even human societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of neighbourhood formality status and socio-economic position on self-rated health among adult men and women: a multilevel, cross sectional, population study from Aleppo, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence from high income countries that neighbourhoods have an influence on health independent of individual characteristics. However, neighbourhood characteristics are rarely taken into account in the analysis of urban health studies from developing countries. Informal urban neighbourhoods are home to about half of the population in Aleppo, the second largest city in Syria (population>2.5 million). This study aimed to examine the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) and formality status on self-rated health (SRH) of adult men and women residing in formal and informal urban neighbourhoods in Aleppo. Methods The study used data from 2038 survey respondents to the Aleppo Household Survey, 2004 (age 18–65 years, 54.8% women, response rate 86%). Respondents were nested in 45 neighbourhoods. Five individual-level SES measures, namely education, employment, car ownership, item ownership and household density, were aggregated to the level of neighbourhood. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations. Results We did not find evidence of important SRH variation between neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood average of household item ownership was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting excellent SRH in women; odds ratio (OR) for an increase of one item on average was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.4 (versus poor SRH)) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5 (versus normal SRH)), adjusted for individual characteristics and neighbourhood formality. After controlling for individual and neighbourhood SES measures, women living in informal neighbourhoods were less likely to report poor SRH than women living in formal neighbourhoods (OR= 0.4; 95% CI (0.2- 0.8) (versus poor SRH) and OR=0.5; 95%; CI (0.3-0.9) (versus normal SRH). Conclusions Findings support evidence from high income countries that certain characteristic of neighbourhoods affect men and women in different ways. Further research from similar urban settings in

  9. High-risk neighborhoods and high-risk families: the human ecology of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, J; Sherman, D

    1980-03-01

    Based on multiple regression analysis to identify the socioeconomic, demographic, and attitudinal correlates of neighborhood differences in the rate of child abuse and neglect, a pair of neighborhoods matched for socioeconomic level was selected, one high risk, the other low risk. Interviews with expert informants ranging from elementary school principals to mailmen were used to develop neighborhood profiles. Samples of families were drawn from each neighborhood and interviews conducted to identify stresses and supports, with special emphasis on sources of help, social networks, evaluation of the neighborhood, and use of formal family support systems. The results lend support to the concept of neighborhood "risk." Families in the high-risk neighborhood, though socioeconomically similar to families in the low-risk neighborhood, report less positive evaluation of the neighborhood as a context for child and family development. Furthermore, they reveal a general pattern of "social impoverishment" in comparison with families in the low-risk neighborhood.

  10. The effect of neighbourhood mortality shocks on fertility preferences: a spatial econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoo, Nkechi S; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel; Onuoha, Emily

    2015-07-01

    According to the demographic transition theory, fertility rates fall in response to declines in child mortality rates. Although national statistics indicate that child mortality rates have been declining over time, Ghana's fertility rates appear to have stalled. This paper hypothesises that women's fertility behaviours may be more responsive to child mortality experiences at more localised levels. Using all rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (1988-2008) and employing a variety of spatial and empirical estimation techniques, results indicate that in addition to own-child mortality, neighbourhood child mortality shocks are also a determinant of women's fertility in Ghana. Women in neighbourhoods with large child mortality shocks may desire more children as an "insurance" against future losses, as a result of their increased perceptions of own-child mortality risks.

  11. Correspondence between objective and perceived walking times to urban destinations: Influence of physical activity, neighbourhood walkability, and socio-demographics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewulf Bart

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doing regular physical activity has positive effects on health. Several environmental factors are identified as important correlates of physical activity. However, there seems to be a difference between perceived and objective measures of the environment. This study examines the influence of physical activity, neighbourhood walkability, and socio-demographic characteristics on the correspondence between self-reported and objectively measured walking time to urban destinations of adults in the city of Ghent (Belgium. Methods Previously collected survey data was used from 1164 respondents in the city of Ghent who reported walking times to various closest destinations in the neighbourhood of residence. These were compared with corresponding walking times that were objectively measured through geographical information systems. Physical activity was recorded over a 7-day period using accelerometers. Neighbourhood walkability was assessed on the basis of residential density, connectivity, and land-use mix. Results We observed a relatively poor agreement between objective and perceived walking times. Stronger agreements were noted amongst the most physically active group, while low-level walkers tended to overestimate walking time. Surprisingly, however, people residing in a low-walkable neighbourhood underestimated walking times more frequently relative to those in high-walkable neighbourhoods. Conclusions Researchers investigating the influence of environmental attributes on physical activity behavior should thus be cautious when using only self-reported environmental data, since these are a priori influenced by physical activity levels and various socio-demographic factors.

  12. Walkable for whom? Examining the role of the built environment on the neighbourhood-based physical activity of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loptson, Kristjana; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Ridalls, Tracy

    2012-07-26

    To date, only a few studies have attempted to study the processes by which community design and the built and social environments affect individual physical activity, especially in children. Qualitative enquiry is useful for exploring perceptions and decision-making, and to understand the processes involved in how people interact with their environments. This study used qualitative methods to gain insight into the pathways linking the neighbourhood environment with children's activity patterns. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews with 24 child-parent dyads (children aged 10-14 years). Families lived in neighbourhoods ranging from lowest to highest median income and representing the three main design types found in Saskatoon - urban, semi-suburban and suburban. Parents and children underscored the importance of safe environments for children's physical activity: streets or paths they can cycle on without feeling threatened, parks and green spaces free of criminal activity, and neighbourhoods where people know each other and children have friends to play with. Although grid-pattern urban neighbourhoods with a high density of destinations may in principle promote active transportation, the higher levels of crime and traffic danger that tend to exist in these areas may hinder physical activity in children.CONOCLUSION: Understanding what facilitates activity in children is a complex endeavour. It requires understanding the barriers to physical activity present at the neighbourhood level as well as social and perceptual factors that act in interdependent ways to either promote or hinder children's physical activity.

  13. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  14. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status, health and working conditions of school teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Elovainio, Marko; Linna, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the associations of workplace neighbourhood socioeconomic status with health behaviours, health and working conditions among school teachers. The survey responses and employer records of 1862 teachers were linked to census data on school neighbourhood socioeconomic status. In the multilevel analysis, adjustments were made for demographics, work factors and the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area. 226 public schools in Finland. Teachers working in schools from neighbourhoods with the lowest socioeconomic status reported heavy alcohol consumption (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.83) and higher probability of doctor-diagnosed mental disorders (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.12) more often than teachers working in schools located in the wealthiest neighbourhoods. After controlling for the socioeconomic status of the teacher's own residential area, only heavy alcohol consumption remained statistically significant. Teachers working in schools with lower socioeconomic status also reported lower frequency of workplace meetings, lower participation in occupational training, lower teaching efficacy and higher mental workload. School neighbourhood socioeconomic status is associated with working conditions and health of school teachers. The association with health is partially explained by the socioeconomic status of the teachers' own residential neighbourhoods. An independent association was found between low socioeconomic status of school neighbourhoods and heavy alcohol use among teachers.

  15. Resident participation in neighbourhood audit tools - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofland, Aafke C L; Devilee, Jeroen; van Kempen, Elise; den Broeder, Lea

    2018-02-01

    Healthy urban environments require careful planning and a testing of environmental quality that goes beyond statutory requirements. Moreover, it requires the inclusion of resident views, perceptions and experiences that help deepen the understanding of local (public health) problems. To facilitate this, neighbourhoods should be mapped in a way that is relevant to them. One way to do this is participative neighbourhood auditing. This paper provides an insight into availability and characteristics of participatory neighbourhood audit instruments. A scoping review in scientific and grey literature, consisting of the following steps: literature search, identification and selection of relevant audit instruments, data extraction and data charting (including a work meeting to discuss outputs), reporting. In total, 13 participatory instruments were identified. The role of residents in most instruments was as 'data collectors'; only few instruments included residents in other audit activities like problem definition or analysis of data. The instruments identified focus mainly on physical, not social, neighbourhood characteristics. Paper forms containing closed-ended questions or scales were the most often applied registration method. The results show that neighbourhood auditing could be improved by including social aspects in the audit tools. They also show that the role of residents in neighbourhood auditing is limited; however, little is known about how their engagement takes place in practice. Developers of new instruments need to balance not only social and physical aspects, but also resident engagement and scientific robustness. Technologies like mobile applications pose new opportunities for participative approaches in neighbourhood auditing.

  16. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of neighbourhood social environment and smoking behaviour: the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Stephanie L; Auchincloss, Amy H; Moore, Kari A; Michael, Yvonne L; Tabb, Loni Philip; Echeverria, Sandra E; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2017-04-01

    Social features of neighbourhood environments may influence smoking by creating a stressful environment or by buffering stress through social cohesion. However, the association of the overall neighbourhood social environment (NSE) with smoking, and the association of specific neighbourhood social factors with change in smoking behaviour over time, has rarely been examined. This study included 5856 adults aged 45-84 years from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012, average follow-up: 7.8 years). Outcomes included current smoking status and smoking intensity (average number of cigarettes smoked per day among baseline smokers). NSE was assessed as a composite score composed of aesthetic quality, safety and social cohesion scales (derived from neighbourhood surveys). Generalised linear mixed models evaluated the association of baseline NSE (composite score and individual scales) with current smoking (modified Poisson models) and smoking intensity (negative binomial models) cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Each SD increase in baseline NSE composite score was associated with 13% lower prevalence of smoking at baseline (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.87 (95% CI 0.78 to 0.98). Neighbourhood safety and aesthetic quality were similarly associated with lower smoking prevalence (aPR 0.87 (0.78 to 0.97) and aPR 0.87 (0.77 to 0.99), respectively) but the association with social cohesion was weaker or null. No significant associations were observed for smoking intensity among baseline smokers. Baseline NSE was not associated with changes in smoking risk or intensity over time. Results suggest that neighbourhood social context influences whether older adults smoke, but does not promote smoking cessation or reduction over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. What Can Neighbourhood Density Effects Tell Us about Word Learning? Insights from a Connectionist Model of Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takac, Martin; Knott, Alistair; Stokes, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size in a computational model of vocabulary development. A word has a high ND if there are many words phonologically similar to it. High ND words are more easily learned by infants of all abilities (e.g. Storkel, 2009; Stokes, 2014). We present a neural network…

  18. The effect of phonotactic probability and neighbourhood density on pseudoword learning in 6- and 7-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kleij, S.W.; Rispens, J.E.; Scheper, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability (PP) and neighbourhood density (ND) on pseudoword learning in 17 Dutch-speaking typically developing children (mean age 7;2). They were familiarized with 16 one-syllable pseudowords varying in PP (high vs low) and ND (high

  19. Neighbourhood as a Cultural and Social Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Falski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhood as a Cultural and Social Issue The neighbourhood is a broad category, which is present throughout sociological and cultural research. Of course, articles of the latest issue of "Colloquia Humanistica" do not exhaust the problem. However, we present crucial texts that relate to rarely undertaken issues, some of which might even be considered pioneering. We hope that they will be inspiring for researchers who are interested in the humanities and cultural studies, and once again we are pleased that we have been able to create an issue that is not merely declaratively, but truly interdisciplinary, and yet consistent. We try to present an understanding of the neighbourhood that emerges from the presented texts. The connotation they are most concerned with is that of exchange and opening, of contact, which is based on upholding the borders of one’s group – and of oneself, one’s own space, but at the same time, on opening to other people and the need for communication during which communities and people define themselves. The neighbourhood and contact are also the basis for the exchange processes, the thwarting of which can lead to the most dangerous phenomena for the functioning of societies.   Sąsiedztwo jako problem społeczny i kulturowy Sąsiedztwo jest szeroką kategorią, obecną w badaniach socjologicznych i kulturowych. Artykuły najnowszego numeru „Colloquia Hmanistica“ oczywiście nie wyczerpują zagadnienia. Przedstawiamy jednak bardzo istotne teksty, które odnoszą się do zagadnień rzadko podejmowanych i czasem wręcz pionierskich, jak w przypadku artykułów Olimpii Dragouni i Kamila Wieleckiego. Mamy nadzieję, że będą one inspirujące dla badaczy związanych z humanistyką i kulturoznawstwem, i po raz kolejny cieszymy się, że udało nam się stworzyć numer nie tylko deklaratywnie, lecz rzeczywiście interdyscyplinarny, a jednocześnie spójny. Spróbujmy przedstawić rozumienie sąsiedztwa wynikaj

  20. Context or composition: How does neighbourhood deprivation impact upon adolescent smoking behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Tim; Manley, David; Van Ham, Maarten

    2018-01-01

    Neighbourhood effects studies have demonstrated an association between area deprivation and smoking behaviour whereby people living in deprived neighbourhoods are more likely to smoke than those in non-deprived neighbourhoods. This evidence though is based largely upon data that ignores long term exposures to neighbourhood contexts and is confounded by neighbourhood selection bias. In this study, we investigate the temporal ordering of exposure to neighbourhood deprivation throughout childhood and whether associations between neighbourhood deprivation and cigarette smoking are due to compositional or contextual neighbourhood effects. Data come from a UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We use longitudinal measures of neighbourhood deprivation and self-reported smoking behaviour for 2744 children to examine the influence of neighbourhood deprivation on smoking status and smoking heaviness at age 17. Our results demonstrate that children who are born into and grow up in deprived neighbourhoods are up to twice as likely to be smokers at age 17 than those in non-deprived neighbourhoods. These associations are largely due to family socioeconomic position and the intergenerational transmission of smoking behaviour from parents to children; compositional rather than direct contextual 'neighbourhood effects'. Our findings highlight the importance of considering longitudinal exposure to neighbourhood deprivation over cross sectional exposure. In conclusion, we find that it is the family rather than the neighbourhood into which a child is born that determines their smoking behaviour.

  1. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents research into the possibilities for climate adaptation in Dutch urban areas. We want to know how cities can best prepare for extreme rainfall, droughts, and heat waves in future climates. These events are likely to become more frequent and more extreme. The focus is on heat resistance as this has been a neglected concept in Dutch urban planning. The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate-adaptation measures and to stimulate the implementation of such measures in the design of public space. Anticipating on the effects of climate change, the research was guided by the question: Which urban design principles can be applied in specific Dutch neighbourhoods to respond to the effects of climate change, especially in terms of outdoor thermal comfort and water management? The three stages of the project are:  • A literature review of existing knowledge on climate adaptation and knowledge gaps • Research into the specific field of urban climatology • Applied research on the broader field of urban planning The urban climate and adaptation measures In the evaluation of measures for climate robust urban areas it is important to gauge the extent of the effects of such measures. These effects are generally expressed in terms of air temperature. However, the comparison of results of measures from various studies is not a simple matter: there are significant differences in spatial, climatological and methodological variations adopted in these studies. Bringing results together from very specific studies may give an impression of the potential of certain measures. For example, most studies support the idea that greening has the highest effect on thermal comfort as it provides both shade and active cooling due to ‘evapotranspiration’1. Nevertheless, vegetation can also retain heat, as we can feel after sundown. Other measures that were investigated for their effects are water, urban morphology

  2. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents research into the possibilities for climate adaptation in Dutch urban areas. We want to know how cities can best prepare for extreme rainfall, droughts, and heat waves in future climates. These events are likely to become more frequent and more extreme. The focus is on heat resistance as this has been a neglected concept in Dutch urban planning.The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate-adaptation measures and to stimulate the implementation of such measures in the design of public space. Anticipating on the effects of climate change, the research was guided by the question: Which urban design principles can be applied in specific Dutch neighbourhoods to respond to the effects of climate change, especially in terms of outdoor thermal comfort and water management?The three stages of the project are: A literature review of existing knowledge on climate adaptation and knowledge gapsResearch into the specific field of urban climatologyApplied research on the broader field of urban planningThe urban climate and adaptation measuresIn the evaluation of measures for climate robust urban areas it is important to gauge the extent of the effects of such measures. These effects are generally expressed in terms of air temperature. However, the comparison of results of measures from various studies is not a simple matter: there are significant differences in spatial, climatological and methodological variations adopted in these studies. Bringing results together from very specific studies may give an impression of the potential of certain measures. For example, most studies support the idea that greening has the highest effect on thermal comfort as it provides both shade and active cooling due to ‘evapotranspiration’1. Nevertheless, vegetation can also retain heat, as we can feel after sundown. Other measures that were investigated for their effects are water, urban morphology, materials and colour

  3. The impact of urban form on travel behaviour in three Baghdad neighbourhoods affected by terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhyaa Molan Faraj Albayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines: 1 how travel behaviour was influenced by urban form in three terrorism-affected Baghdad districts; and 2 how the responses to terrorism in these neighbourhoods affected travel behaviour. The results suggest that urban form can mediate the impacts of terrorism and counter-terrorism with traditional urban form districts being more resilient than modern high-rise districts.

  4. Defining high risk in endovascular aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Tara M; Greenberg, Roy K; Hernandez, Adrian V; Morales, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    Long-term survival benefit contrasted with rupture risk should determine which patients are suitable for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) intervention. Our aim was to develop a model capable of predicting long-term survival based on preoperative characteristics. A prospective cohort study using Cox regression modeling. We aimed to associate preoperative characteristics with long-term mortality, and create a predictive nomogram, which was then externally validated on an independent cohort (697 patients) who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. We pooled the results of 412 patients undergoing endovascular repair of infrarenal and juxtarenal aneurysm who were high risk (average Glasgow aneurysm scores of 72.8 [SD 10.4]). Despite anatomic differences, there were no statistically significant differences in perioperative or long-term outcomes between infrarenal and juxtarenal aneurysms (log rank test, P = .5). Data from this group (64% infrarenal aneurysms and 36% juxtarenal aneurysms) were randomly and evenly split into a model development and test group. Independent predictors of mortality included in the model are age, aneurysm diameter, history of peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or congestive heart failure, requirement for supplemental home oxygen, and use of salicylates. Internal validation reveals good calibration and discriminative ability (c-statistic 0.68 [95% confidence interval 0.65-0.71]). External validation confirms good calibration. In the context of acceptable perioperative results, long-term mortality risk can be predicted in endovascular AAA repair and must be balanced against risk of rupture to determine which patients should be offered treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Neighbourhood and Individual Social Capital, Neighbourhood Economic Deprivation and Self-Rated Health in South Africa – a Multi-Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chola, Lumbwe; Alaba, Olufunke

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Social capital is said to influence health, mostly in research undertaken in high income countries' settings. Because social capital may differ from one setting to another, it is suggested that its measurement be context specific. We examine the association of individual and neighbourhood level social capital, and neighbourhood deprivation to self-rated health using a multi-level analysis. Methods Data are taken from the 2008 South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey. Health was self-reported on a scale from 1 (excellent) to 5 (poor). Two measures of social capital were used: individual, measured by two variables denoting trust and civic participation; and neighbourhood social capital, denoting support, association, behaviour and safety in a community. Results Compared to males, females were less likely to report good health (Odds Ratio 0.82: Confidence Interval 0.73, 0.91). There were variations in association of individual social capital and self-rated health among the provinces. In Western Cape (1.37: 0.98, 1.91) and North West (1.39: 1.13, 1.71), trust was positively associated with reporting good health, while the reverse was true in Limpopo (0.56: 0.38, 0.84) and Free State (0.70: 0.48, 1.02). In Western Cape (0.60: 0.44, 0.82) and Mpumalanga (0.72: 0.55, 0.94), neighbourhood social capital was negatively associated with reporting good health. In North West (1.59: 1.27, 1.99) and Gauteng (1.90: 1.21, 2.97), increased neighbourhood social capital was positively associated with reporting good health. Conclusion Our study demonstrated the importance of considering contextual factors when analysing the relationship between social capital and health. Analysis by province showed variations in the way in which social capital affected health in different contexts. Further studies should be undertaken to understand the mechanisms through which social capital impacts on health in South Africa. PMID:23976923

  6. Association of neighbourhood and individual social capital, neighbourhood economic deprivation and self-rated health in South Africa--a multi-level analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumbwe Chola

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Social capital is said to influence health, mostly in research undertaken in high income countries' settings. Because social capital may differ from one setting to another, it is suggested that its measurement be context specific. We examine the association of individual and neighbourhood level social capital, and neighbourhood deprivation to self-rated health using a multi-level analysis. METHODS: Data are taken from the 2008 South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey. Health was self-reported on a scale from 1 (excellent to 5 (poor. Two measures of social capital were used: individual, measured by two variables denoting trust and civic participation; and neighbourhood social capital, denoting support, association, behaviour and safety in a community. RESULTS: Compared to males, females were less likely to report good health (Odds Ratio 0.82: Confidence Interval 0.73, 0.91. There were variations in association of individual social capital and self-rated health among the provinces. In Western Cape (1.37: 0.98, 1.91 and North West (1.39: 1.13, 1.71, trust was positively associated with reporting good health, while the reverse was true in Limpopo (0.56: 0.38, 0.84 and Free State (0.70: 0.48, 1.02. In Western Cape (0.60: 0.44, 0.82 and Mpumalanga (0.72: 0.55, 0.94, neighbourhood social capital was negatively associated with reporting good health. In North West (1.59: 1.27, 1.99 and Gauteng (1.90: 1.21, 2.97, increased neighbourhood social capital was positively associated with reporting good health. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the importance of considering contextual factors when analysing the relationship between social capital and health. Analysis by province showed variations in the way in which social capital affected health in different contexts. Further studies should be undertaken to understand the mechanisms through which social capital impacts on health in South Africa.

  7. Stress, social support and psychosomatic symptoms in a deprived neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bancila, Delia; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; Kronborg Bak, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    From a transactional perspective on stress, the study aimed to examine if the relationships of social support with perceived stress and psychosomatic symptoms are equivalent in deprived and wealthier neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional data were randomly collected from 2906 inhabitants in a deprived...... neighbourhood (851) and wealthier communities (2055), in Esbjerg, Denmark. A model that included psychosomatic symptoms as outcome, and daily worries, economic deprivation, perceived stress and social support as predictors was tested with structural equation modelling in two-group analyses. The findings showed...... significant differences (D2 (6)¼16.66, p.¼0.011) between neighbourhoods, and the fit statistics (CFI¼0.930, RMSEA¼0.034, R2¼0.48) showed good fit. Under an increased perceived stress’ effect, the social support’s impact on psychosomatic symptoms decreased in the deprived neighbourhood compared with the other...

  8. Neighbourhood Renewal, Participation and Social Capital in Deprived Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of the concept of social capital in neighbourhood renewal programmes which aim to influence social and health-related processes. Based on a social network analysis of 17 groups comprising 133 members, qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 participants to consi......This paper addresses the use of the concept of social capital in neighbourhood renewal programmes which aim to influence social and health-related processes. Based on a social network analysis of 17 groups comprising 133 members, qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 participants...... to consider the kinds of patterns and connections that build up in a neighbourhood renewal project in a small, deprived neighbourhood of a provincial town in Denmark. Results show that outcomes of community participation depend on the kind of social capital generated and on who is excluded from...

  9. Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalmeir, Michael; Gataullin, Yunir; Indrajit, Agung

    HERMES (Highly Enhanced Risk Management Emergency Satellite) is potential European satellite mission for global flood management, being implemented by Technical University Munich and European Space Agency. With its main instrument - a reliable and precise Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) antenna...... - and its orbit characteristics (covering the whole earth surface in 3 days, low altitude), HERMES will provide stand-alone-data for: flood disaster monitoring, flood forecasting and flood prevention. Data obtained by HERMES can be used for commercial soil type maps (e.g. for optimized land use). As only...... highly effective and orbit proven hardware is used, HERMES is designed to be reliable, precise and of low cost. The project can be extended for use on other space bodies (planets) for rapid observation of the planetary surface....

  10. Neighbourhood characteristics and health outcomes: evaluating the association between socioeconomic status, tobacco store density and health outcomes in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Kineza, Cynthia; Hwang, Seungyoun; Pietri, Juliana; Brigham, Emily; Putcha, Nirupama; Rand, Cynthia S; McCormack, Meredith; Hansel, Nadia N

    2017-11-23

    Several studies suggest that the health of an individual is influenced by the socioeconomic status (SES) of the community in which he or she lives. This analysis seeks to understand the relationship between SES, tobacco store density and health outcomes at the neighbourhood level in a large urban community. Data from the 55 neighbourhoods of Baltimore City were reviewed and parametric tests compared demographics and health outcomes for low-income and high-income neighbourhoods, defined by the 50th percentile in median household income. Summary statistics are expressed as median. Tobacco store density was evaluated as both an outcome and a predictor. Association between tobacco store densities and health outcomes was determined using Moran's I and spatial regression analyses to account for autocorrelation. Compared with higher-income neighbourhoods, lower-income neighbourhoods had higher tobacco store densities (30.5 vs 16.5 stores per 10 000 persons, P=0.01), lower life expectancy (68.5 vs 74.9 years, P<0.001) and higher age-adjusted mortality (130.8 vs 102.1 deaths per 10 000 persons, P<0.001), even when controlling for other store densities, median household income, race, education status and age of residents. In Baltimore City, median household income is inversely associated with tobacco store density, indicating poorer neighbourhoods in Baltimore City have greater accessibility to tobacco. Additionally, tobacco store density was linked to lower life expectancy, which underscores the necessity for interventions to reduce tobacco store densities. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. ONMCGP: Orthogonal Neighbourhood Mutation Cartesian Genetic Programming for Evolvable Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Fuchuan N.; I, Yuanxiang L.; E, Peng K.

    2014-03-01

    Evolvable Hardware is facing the problems of scalability and stalling effect. This paper proposed a novel Orthogonal Neighbourhood Mutation (ONM) operator in Cartesian genetic programming (CGP), to reduce the stalling effect in CGP and improve the efficiency of the algorithms.The method incorporates with Differential Evolution strategy. Demonstrated by experiments on benchmark, the proposed Orthogonal Neighbourhood Search can jump out of Local optima, reduce the stalling effect in CGP and the algorithm convergence faster.

  12. Tipping points? Ethnic composition change in Dutch big city neighbourhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, C

    2014-01-01

    Micro-level studies using individual and household data have shown that residential location choices are influenced by neighbourhood ethnic composition. Using three conurbation samples in the Netherlands - Amsterdam metropolitan area, Rotterdam-The Hague metropolitan area, and the country's largest conurbation, the 'Randstad' metropolitan area - this paper analyses the evolution of neighbourhood ethnic composition as a social interaction outcome of disaggregated household behaviour. The poten...

  13. Actual energy performance of a zero-carbon neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Himpe, Eline; Vaillant Rebollar, Julio; Janssens, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    The evolution towards zero-energy buildings and districts brings along uncertainties about the operational performance, strengths and weaknesses of these technologies, that are often new and unfamiliar to both the designers, owners and users. In Kortrijk, an exemplary zero-carbon neighbourhood is designed, built and evaluated in the framework of a European demonstration project ECO-Life ‘Sustainable zero-carbon ECO-town developments improving quality of life across EU’. The neighbourhood coun...

  14. Young adults' experiences of neighbourhood smoking-related norms and practices: A qualitative study exploring place-based social inequalities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Lapalme, Josée; McCready, Geneviève; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    In this qualitative exploratory study we asked how smoking among young adults relates to the local neighbourhood context to better understand place-based social inequalities in smoking. We used data collected through focus groups with young adults from four economically diverse neighbourhoods in Montreal, Canada. Using the collective lifestyles framework to guide data analysis, we examined within and between neighbourhood social norms, practices, and agency. We found that some smoking-related social norms, practices and agency were particular to neighbourhoods of the same socio-economic status (SES). For example, permissive smoking-related social norms in low-SES neighbourhoods made it difficult to avoid smoking but also reduced local experiences of smoking-related stigma and isolation. In high-SES neighbourhoods, strong anti-smoking norms led to smoking in secret and/or amidst 'acceptable' social settings. Findings may inform future investigations and local-level interventions focused on this age group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neighbourhood crime and adolescent cannabis use in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; Janssen, Ian; Elgar, Frank J; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    Although neighbourhood factors have been proposed as determinants of adolescent behaviour, few studies document their relative etiological importance. We investigated the relationship between neighbourhood crime and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adolescents. Data from the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey (n=9134 14- and 15-year-olds) were combined with area-level data on crime and socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood surrounding the schools (n=218). Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that after individual and contextual differences were held constant, neighbourhood crime related to cannabis use (OR 1.29, CI 1.12-1.47 per 1.0 SD increase in crime). This association was not moderated by parental support nor having cannabis-using friends. The amount of explained variance at the neighbourhood level was 19%. Neighbourhood crime is an important factor to consider when designing interventions aimed at reducing adolescent cannabis use. Interventional research should examine the effectiveness of community-based interventions that target adolescents through parents and peers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical activity and nutrition among youth in rural, suburban and urban neighbourhood types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cindy; Blanchard, Chris; Kirk, Sara; Lyons, Renee; Dummer, Trevor; Pitter, Robert; Rainham, Daniel; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Chris; Sim, Meaghan

    2012-07-26

    Physical activity and nutrition are essential to healthy living and particularly important during youth, when growth and development are key. This study examined rates of physical activity (PA) and diet quality (DQ) among youth in grades 7 to 9 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, during the 2008/09 school year and tested differences among students in rural, urban and suburban neighbourhood types of high and low socio-economic status (SES). Youth in grades 7 through 9 (aged 12-16; 53% male) from six schools (N=380), stratified by neighbourhood type (urban, suburban, rural) and SES, wore accelerometers for up to 7 days (mean=4.14, standard deviation=1.49) and completed a nutritional survey. The findings suggest important differences in PA and DQ across SES and neighbourhood type. Specifically, rates of moderate to vigorous physical activity among youth from schools in lower socio-economic areas were higher in urban than in suburban or rural settings. Furthermore, DQ was better among youth in higher than in lower socio-economic urban settings. Understanding these differences in PA and DQ across rural, urban and suburban environments of high and low SES may highlight subgroups and targeted geographic areas for the design of interventions to improve rates of PA and health nutrition.

  17. The effect of phonotactic probability and neighbourhood density on pseudoword learning in 6- and 7-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, S.W. van der; Rispens, J.E.; Scheper, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability (PP) and neighbourhood density (ND) on pseudoword learning in 17 Dutch-speaking typically developing children (mean age 7; 2). They were familiarized with 16 one-syllable pseudowords varying in PP (high vs low) and ND

  18. [Antiphospholipid antibodies in high-risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowicz, B; Ostanek, L; Ronin-Walknowska, E; Fiedorowicz-Fabrycy, I; Skoczowska, M; Czajkowska, E; Fischer, K

    2000-06-01

    Recently the connection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) presence with pregnancy loss and complications in pregnancy has been observed APLs related obstetric complications include: miscarriages after 10 weeks, IUGR, intrauterine foetal death, preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia. Our objective was to determine the aPLs prevalence in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and/or complicated pregnancy. We examined 154 pregnant women aged 19-42 (average of 29.1) with recurrent pregnancy loss, current pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia and/or IUGR, thrombotic episodes, thrombocytopenia or autoimmune disease. In all the patients anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were determined at least twice using ELISA and their coagulation system was tested including lupus anticoagulant (LA) test. In justified cases immunological examinations detecting connective tissue systemic diseases were conducted. Increased aCL titre was detected in 54 (34.4%) women. Statistically significant risk of increased aCL titre was observed in patients with autoimmunological diseases (RR = 4.3). Increased, but Statistically insignificant, risk of high aCL titre was observed in patients with venous thrombosis (RR = 2.45) as well as in patients with thrombocytopenia (RR = 2.45). LA prevailed significantly more often in patients with venous thrombosis episodes (RR = 6.33) and with autoimmunological diseases (RR = 17.4). Preterm deliveries were significantly more frequent in pregnant women with increased aCL titre and/or LA. Moreover, in this group foetal death and preterm stillbirth more often occurred. The above mentioned risks increased when aCL and LA coexisted. No relation between increased aPLs and miscarriage frequency was observed. 1) Increased aPLs titre prevail in multiparas with bad obstetrical anamnesis and with pathological course in present pregnancy, 2) increased aPLs titre prevail in patients with autoimmunological diseases, 3) increased aPLs titre are

  19. Prenatal screening with evaluated high risk scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiernik, E; Grangé, G

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews data that support the effectiveness of the French approach of using risk scoring for evaluating the risk of preterm delivery. This approach, which was developed in 1969 and spread to obstetricians and midwives throughout France in the early 1970s, includes systematic information about the recognition of uterine contractions, advice about reduction of physical exercise, and the prescription of work-leave for women with heavy or physically demanding work loads. The effectiveness of this prevention strategy is assessed using three different data sets: an evaluation of a preterm prevention program in the Alsace Region of France, five successive French national sample surveys which collected data on pregnant women, and a study of the effectiveness of a prevention program for twins in the district of Haut de Seine near Paris. The authors show that the rate of preterm birth in France declined substantially, but that the decline was concentrated among singleton spontaneous births. Since the 1970s induced preterm births have increased, and, interventions have not reduced the high rates of preterm birth among twins.

  20. High-risk obstetrics, medicolegal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, J

    1997-02-01

    The perinatal period is one of the most dangerous time of life. The responsibilities of the obstetricians are multifold. It is very difficult to draw a line between good and substandard care, therefore in perinatology and especially in high-risk obstetrical cases there are no absolute rules of management. The lay public is convinced through media channels, that modern reproductive research eliminated all the risks and hazards associated with childbirths, therefore only 100% healthy babies are accepted. Pregnancy is regarded as a 'success story' and if the baby is born with neurological defects (cerebral palsy) the parents and their advisors feel, that someone responsible for the defect should be found in the chain of management. This attitude starts a legal battle focusing on the events of labor and delivery. But in most cases it is very difficult to determine if a peripartal neonatal encephalopathy originated from the time period of labor and delivery, or started weeks earlier during pregnancy as an unnoticed event. Perinatal morbidity indicators are best based on neonatal clinical signs, which are predictive of later morbidity of the child. Neonatal seizures within 48 h of delivery of the baby could be a good index of later morbidity.

  1. Suicide risk assessment in high-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Barbara P; Dihigo, Sharolyn K

    2015-09-13

    A significant number of adolescents experience depression and other mental health disorders that may put them at risk for suicide. Mental health assessment is an important component of primary healthcare. Depression and suicide risk screening can assist healthcare providers in preventing suicides.

  2. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    alleles was associated with a 3 % higher BMI (P cancer. In instrumental variable analysis for a 10 kg/m(2) higher genetically determined BMI the odds ratio for any non-skin cancer was 1.16 (0.64-2.09), with a corresponding observational estimate of 0.94 (0.88-1.01). Using......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...... of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...

  3. Safety culture in high-risk industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyka, Joanna; Lebecki, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether adopting safety culture improves hazard prevention in enterprises characterized by high primary risk. To answer this question, sample underground coal mines were examined to investigate the basic elements of the safety culture of employees. This paper presents the results of a diagnosis of the basic elements of the safety culture of supervisors (midlevel managers) and blue-collar workers in 3 underground coal mines. The study used 2 techniques: a Likert-type scale and a questionnaire. The results indicate the need to introduce changes in the safety culture of underground coal mine employees. This study also presents the conditions for improvement. Special attention was paid to (a) the conditions for improving safety culture and (b) a programme for modifying risky behaviours.

  4. The association of neighbourhood psychosocial stressors and self‐rated health in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Hooijdonk, Carolien; Wendel‐Vos, Wanda; Lindeman, Ellen; Stronks, Karien; Droomers, Mariël

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between neighbourhood‐level psychosocial stressors (i.e. experience of crime, nuisance from neighbours, drug misuse, youngsters frequently hanging around, rubbish on the streets, feeling unsafe and dissatisfaction with the quality of green space) and self‐rated health in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants A random sample of 2914 subjects aged ⩾ 18 years from 75 neighbourhoods in the city of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Design Individual data from the Social State of Amsterdam Survey 2004 were linked to data on neighbourhood‐level attributes from the Amsterdam Living and Security Survey 2003. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and neighbourhood‐level variance. Results Fair to poor self‐rated health was significantly associated with neighbourhood‐level psychosocial stressors: nuisance from neighbours, drug misuse, youngsters frequently hanging around, rubbish on the streets, feeling unsafe and dissatisfaction with green space. In addition, when all the neighbourhood‐level psychosocial stressors were combined, individuals from neighbourhoods with a high score of psychosocial stressors were more likely than those from neighbourhoods with a low score to report fair to poor health. These associations remained after adjustments for individual‐level factors (i.e. age, sex, educational level, income and ethnicity). The neighbourhood‐level variance showed significant differences in self‐rated health between neighbourhoods independent of individual‐level demographic and socioeconomic factors. Conclusion Our findings show that neighbourhood‐level psychosocial stressors are associated with self‐rated health. Strategies that target these factors might prove a promising way to improve public health. PMID:18000125

  5. Prescription of the High Risk Narcotics and Trading or Illicit Purchasing of High Risk Narcotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Elena Buzatu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present essay will analyze the offence of prescribing high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics, as it was regulated - together with other offences - by Law no 143 of July 26, 2000 on preventing and fighting against the traffic and illicit consumption of narcotics. The same law defines the meaning of such a phrase “substances which are under national control” by mentioning the fact that they are the narcotics and their precursors listed in Annexes I-IV of the law. The analysis of the offence of prescribing the high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics is following the already known structure mentioned in the doctrine and which consists of: object and subjects of the offence, its constituent content: the objective side with its material element, the immediate consequence and causality connections; the subjective side of the offence, as well as forms and modalities of these offences, and the applicable sanctions, of course.

  6. Neighbourhood, route and school environments and children’s active commuting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Jenna R; Jones, Andrew P; Van Sluijs, Esther M.F.; Griffin, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether objectively-measured characteristics of the neighbourhood, route and school environments are associated with active commuting to school among children. We also explore whether distance acts as a moderator in this association. Methods A cross sectional study of 2012 children (899 boys and 1113 girls) aged 9-10 years attending 92 schools in the county of Norfolk, UK. During the summer of 2007 questionnaires were completed by children and parents. Attributes around the home and route to school were assessed using a Geographical Information System. School environments were assessed using a newly developed school audit and via questionnaires completed by head teachers. Data were analysed in 2008. Results Almost half of the children usually walked or cycled to school. Children who lived in a more deprived area and whose route to school was direct were less likely to walk or cycle to school, whilst those who had a higher density of roads in their neighbourhood were more likely to walk. Furthermore, children whose routes had a high density of streetlights were less likely to cycle to school. Distance did not moderate the observed associations. Discussion Objectively measured neighbourhood and route factors are associated with walking and cycling to school. However, distance did not moderate the associations found here. Creating environments which are safe, through improving urban design may influence children’s commuting behaviour. Intervention studies are needed to confirm the findings from this observational cross-sectional study. PMID:20171528

  7. [Neighbourhood deprivation and type 2 diabetes: results from the Dortmund Health Study (DHS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, G; Berger, K

    2013-12-01

    The association between deprivation in the residential environment and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been evaluated by applying two approaches to measure neighbourhood deprivation. Individual data were extracted from the Dortmund Health Study (n=1 312) and combined with administrative data on 62 neighbourhoods in the city of Dortmund. Deprivation indices were constructed by applying principal component analysis with a set of 8 demographic and socio-economic context variables on the low city level. 2-level cross-sectional logistic regression analyses were conducted, adjusted for age, sex, social class and employment status. The study population had a type 2 diabetes prevalence of 7.2%. The principal component analysis provided a 2-factor solution of which one factor was given in the multivariable analysis. Individuals, residing in neighbourhoods with a very high level of unemployment rate or socio-economic deprivation, showed a higher chance to have type 2 diabetes [OR: 4.44 (95% CI: 1.29-15.33) or, respectively, OR: 2.79 (95% CI: 1.10-7.07)], independent of individual characteristics. Beyond individual characteristics, the residential environment contributes to the chance of type 2 diabetes. The unemployment rate operated as a strong predictor of the chance of type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Lexical stress, frequency, and stress neighbourhood effects in the early stages of Italian reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Colombo, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    We examined the development of stress assignment in reading Italian aloud. We investigated frequency effects as a marker of the use of item-specific lexical knowledge in assigning stress together with stress dominance and stress neighbourhood (the number of words sharing both stress and ending) as markers of distributional information regarding properties of the lexicon extracted from spoken language. We tested second- and fourth-graders in a reading-aloud experiment including high- and low-frequency words and nonwords. Results show that despite the regularity of orthography-phonology mappings in Italian and the predominant use of phonological recoding procedures, item-specific lexical knowledge is also used, even by beginning readers. The frequency effect was significant and did not increase with age, while stress errors on low-frequency words decreased with increasing grade. Stress neighbourhood increasingly affected stress assignment on nonwords with older children. Taken together, our findings show that both item-specific knowledge and general information about stress distribution are relevant in children's reading, suggesting the simultaneous use of both lexical and sublexical information. Moreover, as the reading system develops, and knowledge about the relative distribution of stress neighbourhood increases, larger grain-size units are also exploited.

  9. Challenging Propofol Sedation in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: High Risk Patients and High Risk Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Redondo-Cerezo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedation is increasingly becoming a must for most endoscopic procedures. Non-anesthesiologist administration of propofol is the standard of practice in many European countries. Nevertheless, despite anesthesiology societies concerns about sedation guided by endoscopist, practitioners find some limits to propofol administration, related to high risk patients or high risk and complex procedures, which can be long lasting and technically challenging. The main patient related risk factors for sedation are elderly patients, obesity, ASA≥3 patients, individuals with craniofacial abnormalities or with pharyngolaringeal tumors, patients with an acute gastrointestinal bleeding, under pain medications, sedatives, antidepressants, or who consume significant amounts of alcohol or drugs. Procedure related risk factors have more to do with the duration and complexity of the procedure than with other factors, in which considering a general anesthesia allows the endoscopist to concentrate on a difficult task. Published papers addressing the most challenging sedation groups in endoscopy are exploring and even trespassing previously assumed frontiers, and new scenarios are opening to the endoscopist, increasing his/her autonomy, reducing costs and giving patients levels of comfort previously unknown. In this review we analyse each risk group determining the ones in which a sedation protocol could be widely applied, and other in which the published evidence does not guarantee a safe endoscopist guided propofol sedation.

  10. Modeling HIV Risk in Highly Vulnerable Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, G. J.; Panter, A. T.; Melchior, Lisa A.; Trevithick, Lee; Woods, Elizabeth R.; Wright, Eric; Feudo, Rudy; Tierney, Steven; Schneir, Arlene; Tenner, Adam; Remafedi, Gary; Greenberg, Brian; Sturdevant, Marsha; Goodman, Elizabeth; Hodgins, Antigone; Wallace, Michael; Brady, Russell E.; Singer, Barney; Marconi, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the structure of several HIV risk behaviors in an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of 8,251 clients from 10 innovative demonstration projects intended for adolescents living with, or at risk for, HIV. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified 2 risk factors for men (sexual intercourse with men and a…

  11. Modeling HIV risk in highly vulnerable youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huba, GJ; Panter, AT; Melchior, LA; Trevithick, L; Woods, ER; Wright, E; Feudo, R; Tierney, S; Schneir, A; Tenner, A; Remafedi, G; Greenberg, B; Sturdevant, M; Goodman, E; Hodgins, A; Wallace, M; Brady, RE; Singer, B; Marconi, K

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the structure of several HIV risk behaviors in an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of 8,251 clients from 10 innovative demonstration projects intended for adolescents living with, or at risk for, HIV. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified 2 risk

  12. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania). 3771 adults living in 124 neighbourhoods answered questions on mental health, neighbourhood social environment, and amount and quality of green space. Additionally, audit data on neighbourhood green space were collected. Multilevel regression analyses examined the relation between neighbourhood green space and individual mental health and the influence of neighbourhood social environment. Mental health was only related to green (audit) in Barcelona. The amount and quality of neighbourhood green space (audit and perceived) were related to social cohesion in Doetinchem and Stoke-on-Trent and to neighbourhood attachment in Doetinchem. In all four cities, mental health was associated with social contacts. Neighbourhood green was related to mental health only in Barcelona. Though neighbourhood green was related to social cohesion and attachment, the neighbourhood social environment seems not the underlying mechanism for this relationship.

  13. What helps children to be more active and less sedentary? Perceptions of mothers living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, J; Hume, C; Salmon, J; Crawford, D; Ball, K

    2013-01-01

      Increasing children's participation in physical activity and decreasing time spent in sedentary behaviours is of great importance to public health. Despite living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, some children manage to engage in health-promoting physical activity and avoid high levels of screen-based activities (i.e. watching TV, computer use and playing electronic games). Understanding how these children manage to do well and whether there are unique features of their home or neighbourhood that explain their success is important for informing strategies targeting less active and more sedentary children. The aim of this qualitative study was to gain in-depth insights from mothers regarding their child's resilience to low physical activity and high screen-time.   Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 38 mothers of children who lived in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in urban and rural areas of Victoria, Australia. The interviews were designed to gain in-depth insights about perceived individual, social and physical environmental factors influencing resilience to low physical activity and high screen-time.   Themes relating to physical activity that emerged from the interviews included: parental encouragement, support and modelling; sports culture in a rural town; the physical home and neighbourhood environment; child's individual personality; and dog ownership. Themes relating to screen-time behaviours encompassed: parental control; and child's individual preferences.   The results offer important insights into potential avenues for developing 'resilience' and increasing physical activity and reducing screen-time among children living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In light of the negative effects of low physical activity and high levels of screen-time on children's health, this evidence is urgently needed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Overweight at four years of age in a Swedish birth cohort: influence of neighbourhood-level purchasing power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefine Roswall

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of child/parental factors have been shown to be significant predictors of childhood overweight, although a better understanding of possible contextual influences of neighbourhood-level characteristics might provide new insights leading to tailored, targeted interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of neighbourhood purchasing power and its relationship with other known risk factors related to childhood overweight in a prospective birth cohort. Methods A prospective, population-based, birth-cohort study was conducted in south-western Sweden, comprising 2,666 infants born in 2007–2008. Childhood overweight was assessed by body mass index (BMI data from follow-up examinations at four years of age (n = 2,026 and overweight defined according to the International Obesity Task Force. Using logistic regression analysis, the influential child/parental predictors were identified from the candidate predictors, viz. child’s gender, as well as birth weight adjusted for gestational age and parental factors at recruitment, including maternal smoking status, maternal BMI (before pregnancy, paternal BMI and parental educational level. The children’s residential parishes at follow-up were stratified by parish-level household purchasing power (<10 %, 10–19.9 %, 20–29.9 % and ≥30 % of all resident families with low purchasing power and the “contextual” influence was analysed. In each such neighbourhood stratum, the adjusted overweight ratio (AOR, i.e. the ratio between the observed number of overweight children and the expected number, taking account of the influential child/parental predictors, was estimated. Results The prevalence of overweight at four years of age was 11.9 %. In the economically strongest neighbourhoods (i.e. <10 % of resident families with low purchasing power, the AOR was 0.60 (95 % confidence interval (CI: 0.34–0.98. The corresponding empirically Bayes-adjusted AOR

  15. What is my walking neighbourhood? A pilot study of English adults' definitions of their local walking neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing measures of perceptions of the environment associated with walking commonly rely on providing a definition of 'neighbourhood', e.g. 1 mile area around the home. We have little understanding of how these examples relate with adults' own geographical definitions of their neighbourhood area. Our pilot study examined the congruence between definitions used in environmental questionnaires and adults' own definitions of neighbourhood. Methods We conducted 58 face-to-face interviews with participants randomly selected from 10 areas of Stoke-on-Trent, England. Participants were shown printed maps showing their local area with road names and places of interest (e.g. shops, services, green space and were asked: (i to recall usual walking destinations (from their home; (ii to draw their 'neighbourhood walking area' on the map. Annotated maps were scanned back into GIS for analysis. Results When asked to draw their 'neighbourhood' boundary, the resulting area drawn by participants on average represented only 16 ± 20% of the commonly used total straight-line buffer of 1 mile (or 1.6 km with a range of 0.3% to 111%. Even when repeated using a network buffer (rather than straight-line the same comparison resulted in a mean of 36% (± 47% and a range of 0.6 to 245%. Conclusions We found that adults' interpretation of their neighbourhood area does not appear to relate accurately to the definitions typically used in research into environmental perceptions and walking. This mis-match warrants further investigation as definitions used in existing measures may be consistently misclassifying perceived local walking neighbourhoods.

  16. Neighbourhood walkability and home neighbourhood-based physical activity: an observational study of adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Kestens, Yan; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Joseph, Lawrence; Thierry, Benoit; Sherman, Mark; Trudeau, Luc; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Meissner, Leslie; Bacon, Simon L; Gauvin, Lise; Ross, Nancy A; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2016-09-09

    Converging international evidence suggests that diabetes incidence is lower among adults living in more walkable neighbourhoods. The association between walkability and physical activity (PA), the presumed mediator of this relationship, has not been carefully examined in adults with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the associations of walkability with total PA occurring within home neighbourhoods and overall PA, irrespective of location. Participants (n = 97; 59.5 ± 10.5 years) were recruited through clinics in Montreal (QC, Canada) and wore a GPS-accelerometer device for 7 days. Total PA was expressed as the total Vector of the Dynamic Body Acceleration. PA location was determined using a Global Positioning System (GPS) device (SIRF IV chip). Walkability (street connectivity, land use mix, population density) was assessed using Geographical Information Systems software. The cross-sectional associations between walkability and location-based PA were estimated using robust linear regressions adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, university education, season, car access, residential self-selection, and wear-time. A one standard deviation (SD) increment in walkability was associated with 10.4 % of a SD increment in neighbourhood-based PA (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 19.7) - equivalent to 165 more steps/day (95 % 19, 312). Car access emerged as an important predictor of neighbourhood-based PA (Not having car access: 38.6 % of a SD increment in neighbourhood-based PA, 95 % CI 17.9, 59.3). Neither walkability nor car access were conclusively associated with overall PA. Higher neighbourhood walkability is associated with higher home neighbourhood-based PA but not with higher overall PA. Other factors will need to be leveraged to facilitate meaningful increases in overall PA among adults with type 2 diabetes.

  17. Neighbourhood walkability and home neighbourhood-based physical activity: an observational study of adults with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Hajna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Converging international evidence suggests that diabetes incidence is lower among adults living in more walkable neighbourhoods. The association between walkability and physical activity (PA, the presumed mediator of this relationship, has not been carefully examined in adults with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the associations of walkability with total PA occurring within home neighbourhoods and overall PA, irrespective of location. Methods Participants (n = 97; 59.5 ± 10.5 years were recruited through clinics in Montreal (QC, Canada and wore a GPS-accelerometer device for 7 days. Total PA was expressed as the total Vector of the Dynamic Body Acceleration. PA location was determined using a Global Positioning System (GPS device (SIRF IV chip. Walkability (street connectivity, land use mix, population density was assessed using Geographical Information Systems software. The cross-sectional associations between walkability and location-based PA were estimated using robust linear regressions adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, university education, season, car access, residential self-selection, and wear-time. Results A one standard deviation (SD increment in walkability was associated with 10.4 % of a SD increment in neighbourhood-based PA (95 % confidence interval (CI 1.2, 19.7 – equivalent to 165 more steps/day (95 % 19, 312. Car access emerged as an important predictor of neighbourhood-based PA (Not having car access: 38.6 % of a SD increment in neighbourhood-based PA, 95 % CI 17.9, 59.3. Neither walkability nor car access were conclusively associated with overall PA. Conclusions Higher neighbourhood walkability is associated with higher home neighbourhood-based PA but not with higher overall PA. Other factors will need to be leveraged to facilitate meaningful increases in overall PA among adults with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Streets Apart: Does Social Capital Vary with Neighbourhood Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While neighbourhood differences in social capital have been mapped, few empirical studies have considered the nexus between specific physical characteristics of communities and social capital. In this study we hypothesised that social capital would be positively associated with a more walkable street network design, but inversely associated with negative experiences and perceptions of neighbourhood environments. Data was gathered through a random cross-sectional telephone survey of adults (n=339 from three suburbs with differing street network design. Although there was some relationship between street network layout and social capital, this was not always as hypothesised by previous studies. Perceived incivilities, lower levels of trust and support were among factors that may have countered some of the positive influences of a walkable street network design on social capital. Overall, our findings suggest that the built environment may influence neighbourhood social capital at both a real and perceived level. While the actual presence and type of facilities, neighbourhood design and walkability may impact on social capital formation and maintenance, so too can perceptions of the physical and social environment. Understanding the complex intertwining of physical neighbourhood features, perceptions and social dynamics is relevant to growing public policy interest in strengthening social capital for enhanced community wellbeing.

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  20. Putting interethnic attitudes in context. The relationship between neighbourhood characteristics, interethnic attitudes and residential behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of growing ethnic residential concentration in European city neighbourhoods, this dissertation closely studies the relationship between the neighbourhood of residence and interethnic attitudes. Building on research in the fields of interethnic relations and urban sociology, I

  1. Promoting physical activity: The role of neighbourhood safety and renewal of deprived areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Even though physical inactivity is known to be detrimental for health, many adults remain inactive. Physical inactivity is particularly prevalent in deprived areas. It remains unclear to what extent physical activity is related to neighbourhood characteristics like neighbourhood safety. Moreover,

  2. Living together apart? Ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts and language practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, M.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314571620

    2011-01-01

    Together with the rise in ethnic residential concentration, attention for the potential negative consequences of ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood for ethnic minorities’ integration has also increased in recent years. And although many neighbourhood interventions have been implemented, there

  3. Counting on Creativity : The Creative Class as Antidote for Neighbourhood Decline: the Case of Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Nijkamp (Jeanette)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAn important assumption often underlying initiatives that stimulate the creative industries in deprived neighbourhoods is that the presence of creative entrepreneurs contributes to the regeneration of these neighbourhoods. Besides contributing to economic development, creative

  4. Neighbourhood-scale urban forest ecosystem classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Duinker, Peter N; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Urban forests are now recognized as essential components of sustainable cities, but there remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. Ecosystem classification is an approach that entails quantifying the social and ecological processes that shape ecosystem conditions into logical and relatively homogeneous management units, making the potential for ecosystem-based decision support available to urban planners. The purpose of this study is to develop and propose a framework for urban forest ecosystem classification (UFEC). The multifactor framework integrates 12 ecosystem components that characterize the biophysical landscape, built environment, and human population. This framework is then applied at the neighbourhood scale in Toronto, Canada, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The analysis used 27 spatially-explicit variables to quantify the ecosystem components in Toronto. Twelve ecosystem classes were identified in this UFEC application. Across the ecosystem classes, tree canopy cover was positively related to economic wealth, especially income. However, education levels and homeownership were occasionally inconsistent with the expected positive relationship with canopy cover. Open green space and stocking had variable relationships with economic wealth and were more closely related to population density, building intensity, and land use. The UFEC can provide ecosystem-based information for greening initiatives, tree planting, and the maintenance of the existing canopy. Moreover, its use has the potential to inform the prioritization of limited municipal resources according to ecological conditions and to concerns of social equity in the access to nature and distribution of ecosystem service supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Neighbourhood Built Environment and Trajectories of Depression Symptom Episodes in Adults: A Latent Class Growth Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Gariepy

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of the neighbourhood built environment on trajectories of depression symptom episodes in adults from the general Canadian population.We used 10 years of data collection (2000/01-2010/11 from the Canadian National Population Health Study (n = 7114. Episodes of depression symptoms were identified using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short-Form. We assessed the presence of local parks, healthy food stores, fast food restaurants, health services and cultural services using geospatial data. We used latent class growth modelling to identify different trajectories of depression symptom episodes in the sample and tested for the effect of neighbourhood variables on the trajectories over time.We uncovered three distinct trajectories of depression symptom episodes: low prevalence (76.2% of the sample, moderate prevalence (19.2% and high prevalence of depression symptom episodes (2.8%. The presence of any neighbourhood service (healthy food store, fast-food restaurant, health service, except for cultural service was significantly associated with a lower probability of a depression symptom episode for those following a trajectory of low prevalence of depression symptom episodes. The presence of a local park was also a significant protective factor in trajectory groups with both low and moderate prevalence of depression symptom episodes. Neighbourhood characteristics did not significantly affect the trajectory of high prevalence of depression symptom episodes.For individuals following a trajectory of low and moderate prevalence of depression symptom episodes, the neighbourhood built environment was associated with a shift in the trajectory of depression symptom episodes. Future intervention studies are recommended to make policy recommendations.

  6. Systematic review on measurement properties of questionnaires assessing the neighbourhood environment in the context of youth physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Anne K; Mess, Filip; Bucksch, Jens; Jekauc, Darko; Woll, Alexander

    2013-05-11

    High-quality measurement instruments for assessing the neighbourhood environment are a prerequisite for identifying associations between the neighbourhood environment and a person's physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to identify reliable and valid questionnaires assessing neighbourhood environmental attributes in the context of physical activity behaviours in children and adolescents. In addition, current gaps and best practice models in instrumentation and their evaluation are discussed. We conducted a systematic literature search using six databases (Web of Science, Medline, TRID, SportDISCUS, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO). Two independent reviewers screened the identified English-language peer-reviewed journal articles. Only studies examining the measurement properties of self- or proxy-report questionnaires on any aspects of the neighbourhood environment in children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the COSMIN checklists. We identified 13 questionnaires on attributes of the neighbourhood environment. Most of these studies were conducted in the United States (n = 7). Eight studies evaluated self-report measures, two studies evaluated parent-report measures and three studies included both administration types. While eight studies had poor methodological quality, we identified three questionnaires with substantial test-retest reliability and two questionnaires with acceptable convergent validity based on sufficient evidential basis. Based on the results of this review, we recommend that cross-culturally adapted questionnaires should be used and that existing questionnaires should be evaluated especially in diverse samples and in countries other than the United States. Further, high-quality studies on measurement properties should be promoted and measurement models (formative vs. reflexive) should be specified to ensure that appropriate methods for psychometric

  7. Situated Adult Learning: The Home Education Neighbourhood Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Leslie SAFRAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many families who home educate turn to a neighbourhood home education group for support, resources and guidance. The purpose of this paper is to first outline briefly the context of home education in the UK and US, to analyse three different types of home education neighbourhood group as communities of practice and then to theorise how these parents learn some of what it is to be home educators through participation in such groups as members. The analysis is based on evidence from long-term home educating parents collected through thirty-four in-depth interviews and the Community of Practice framework (Wenger, 1998. It will be argued that although communities of practice have variable features depending on the type of neighbourhood home education group a parent joins, they all engage in a form of collective situated life learning which helps transform parents to the point where they become home educators.

  8. Situated Adult Learning: The Home Education Neighbourhood Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Leslie Safran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Many families who home educate turn to a neighbourhood home education group for support, resources and guidance. The purpose of this paper is to first outline briefly the context of home education in the UK and US, to analyse three different types of home education neighbourhood group as communities of practice and then to theorise how these parents learn some of what it is to be home educators through participation in such groups as members. The analysis is based on evidence from long-term home educating parents collected through thirty-four in-depth interviews and the Community of Practice framework (Wenger, 1998.It will be argued that although communities of practice have variable features depending on the type of neighbourhood home education group a parent joins, they all engage in a form of collective situated life learning which helps transform parents to the point where they become ‘home educators’.

  9. Communicating about risk: strategies for situations where public concern is high but the risk is low

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Hooker; Adam Capon; Julie Leask

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman’s ‘risk = hazard + outrage’ formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to ‘capture’ the dominant representation of risk issues, the impo...

  10. Voluntary associations and reconstruction of the neighbourhood / Aili Aarelaid-Tart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aarelaid-Tart, Aili, 1947-2014

    1996-01-01

    Sisaldab jooniseid: Network of socio-cultural institutions in the neighbourhood during late-Soviet period in Estonia ; Network of socio-cultural institutions to solve real problems in the neighbourhood during late-Soviet period in Estonia ; Network of socio-cultural institutions to solve problems in the neighbourhood in 1995 (Estonian case)

  11. Neighbourhood safety and leisure-time physical activity among Dutch adults: a multilevel perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, D.; Maas, J.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several neighbourhood elements have been found to be related to leisure-time walking and cycling. However, the association with neighbourhood safety remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the association of neighbourhood-level safety with leisure-time walking and cycling among Dutch

  12. Neighbourhood safety and leisure-time physical activity among Dutch adults: a multilevel perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Maas, Jolanda; Wingen, Marleen; Kunst, Anton E.

    2013-01-01

    Several neighbourhood elements have been found to be related to leisure-time walking and cycling. However, the association with neighbourhood safety remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the association of neighbourhood-level safety with leisure-time walking and cycling among Dutch adults.

  13. Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation and health-related quality of life: A multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Rocha

    Full Text Available To assess the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and health-related quality of life in urban neighbourhoods, using a multilevel approach.Of the population-based cohort EPIPorto, 1154 georeferenced participants completed the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation classes were estimated using latent-class analysis. Multilevel models measured clustering and contextual effects of neighbourhood deprivation on physical and mental HRQoL.Residents from the least deprived neighbourhoods had higher physical HRQoL. Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation together with individual-level variables (age, gender and education and health-related factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentariness and chronic diseases explained 98% of the total between-neighbourhood variance. Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with physical health when comparing least and most deprived neighbourhoods (class 2-beta coefficient: -0.60; 95% confidence interval:-1.76;-0.56; class 3 -beta coefficient: -2.28; 95% confidence interval:-3.96;-0.60, and as neighbourhood deprivation increases, a decrease in all values of physical health dimensions (physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain and general health was also observed. Regarding the mental health dimension, no neighbourhood clustering or contextual effects were found. However, as neighbourhood deprivation increases, the values of vitality and role emotional dimensions significantly decreased.Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with HRQoL, affecting particularly physical health. This study suggests that to improve HRQoL, people and places should be targeted simultaneously.

  14. The Construction of Neighbourhoods and its Relevance for the Measurement of Social and Ethnic Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Schultz-Nielsen, Marie Louise

    . To illustrate the importance of detailed neighbourhood information we compare social and ethnic segregation measured by Isolation and Dissimilation indices on the levels of municipalities and of small neighbourhoods. Our findings demonstrate substantial variation in the residential mix in neighbourhoods within...

  15. Context or composition : How does neighbourhood deprivation impact upon adolescent smoking behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, T.; Manley, D.J.; van Ham, M.

    2018-01-01

    Neighbourhood effects studies have demonstrated an association between area deprivation and smoking behaviour whereby people living in deprived neighbourhoods are more likely to smoke than those in non-deprived neighbourhoods. This evidence though is based largely upon data that ignores long term

  16. Neighbourhood green space, social environment and mental health: an examination in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Mohnen, Sigrid M.; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; Gidlow, Christopher; Gražulevičiene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Maas, Jolanda; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Masterson, Daniel; Ellis, Naomi; van Kempen, Elise; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood green space, the neighbourhood social environment (social cohesion, neighbourhood attachment, social contacts), and mental health in four European cities. The PHENOTYPE study was carried out in 2013 in Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent

  17. Being poorer than the rest of the neighbourhood. Relative deprivation and problem behaviour of youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/384122620; van Ham, M.; Yu, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323047025; Branje, S.J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/192657860; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; Hooimeijer, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073398578

    According to the neighbourhood effects hypothesis, there is a negative relation between neighbourhood wealth and youths' problem behaviour. It is often assumed that there are more problems in deprived neighbourhoods, but there are also reports of higher rates of behavioural problems in more affluent

  18. [Anesthesiological management of the high-risk surgical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, G; Avalle, M

    1980-03-01

    Evaluation of the anaesthesiological risk in surgical patients is described and an account is given of results obtained with an association of ketamin and NLA II in 57 high-risk patients subjected to general surgical management.

  19. Advanced Risk Analysis for High-Performing Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberts, Christopher; Dorofee, Audrey

    2006-01-01

    ...) are not readily identified using traditional risk analysis techniques. High-performing organizations have the basic skills needed to identify and manage these new types of risk, but lack sufficient techniques...

  20. Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd; Strömberg, Ulf; Holmén, Anders; Alm, Bernt; Roswall, Josefine; Bergman, Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna

    2013-11-15

    Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy. A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. purchasing power. The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio). The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months

  1. Systemic immunomodulatory strategies in high-risk corneal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio B Abud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation.

  2. Economic Satisfaction and Income Rank in Small Neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Andrew; Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2009-01-01

    We contribute to the literature on well-being and comparisons by appealing to new Danish data dividing the country up into around 9,000 small neighbourhoods. Administrative data provides us with the income of every person in each of these neighbourhoods. This income information is matched...... to demographic and economic satisfaction variables from eight years of Danish ECHP data. Panel regression analysis shows that, conditional on own household income, respondents report higher satisfaction levels when their neighbours are richer. However, individuals are rank-sensitive: Conditional on one's own...

  3. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain.

  4. Prolonged Isotretinoin in Ultra High-Risk Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas; Alazraki, Adina; Qayed, Muna; Katzenstein, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma remain a therapeutic challenge with significant numbers of patients failing to respond sufficiently to initial therapy. These patients with poor response to induction are considered as ultra high-risk and are in need of novel treatment strategies. Isotretinoin is part of the standard of care treatment for patients with high-risk disease who undergo high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue although some have questioned the optimal administration schedule. Prolonged use of isotretinoin was well tolerated and may have contributed to long-term survival in a group of patients with ultra high-risk neuroblastoma.

  5. Heterogeneity of Psychosis Risk Within Individuals at Clinical High Risk: A Meta-analytical Stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Cappucciati, Marco; Borgwardt, Stefan; Woods, Scott W.; Addington, Jean; Nelson, Barnaby; Nieman, Dorien H.; Stahl, Daniel R.; Rutigliano, Grazia; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Simon, Andor E.; Mizuno, Masafumi; Lee, Tae Young; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lam, May M. L.; Perez, Jesus; Keri, Szabolcs; Amminger, Paul; Metzler, Sibylle; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf; Lee, Jimmy; Labad, Javier; Ziermans, Tim; An, Suk Kyoon; Liu, Chen-Chung; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Braham, Amel; Corcoran, Cheryl; McGorry, Patrick; Yung, Alison R.; McGuire, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals can be classified as being at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis if they meet at least one of the ultra-high-risk (UHR) inclusion criteria (brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms [BLIPS] and/or attenuated psychotic symptoms [APS] and/or genetic risk and deterioration syndrome

  6. Influence of urban neighbourhood environment on physical activity and obesity-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H; Kang, H-M; Ko, Y-J; Kim, H-S; Kim, Y-J; Bae, W K; Park, S; Cho, B

    2015-09-01

    The impact of characteristics of neighbourhood environment on physical activity and obesity-related diseases is still the subject of debate. This study aimed to explore the impact of urban neighbourhood environment on physical activity and obesity-related diseases. Cross-sectional study. Individuals who participated in the 2009 national health-screening programme, submitted all necessary information, and had lived in Community 1 (Haengdang) or Community 2 (Ilsan) for at least 2 years (n = 16,178) were selected for inclusion in this study. Anthropometric measures were taken and physical activity was assessed using a short questionnaire. No significant difference in the trigger factors for walking, including the amount of neighbourhood park space, number of shopping malls, and distance between the community and shopping malls, was found between the two communities. However, Community 2 had a better street environment than Community 1. Participants who lived in Community 2 were more physically active [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.48] and walked more regularly (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17) than participants who lived in Community 1, and were less likely to have abdominal obesity (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.91), hypertension (adjusted OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97) and diabetes (adjusted OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). However, the risk of dyslipidaemia, especially in terms of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, was higher in Community 2. These results suggest that a walkable environment has a positive influence on hypertension and diabetes, and physical activity is the possible mechanism for this association. A walkable environment may function as an important tool for health promotion in urban areas. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  9. Standardizing care for high-risk patients in spine surgery: the Northwestern high-risk spine protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Ryan J; Sugrue, Patrick A; Gould, Robert W; Kallas, Peter G; Schafer, Michael F; Ondra, Stephen L; Koski, Tyler R

    2010-12-01

    Review article of current literature on the preoperative evaluation and postoperative management of patients undergoing high-risk spine operations and a presentation of a multidisciplinary protocol for patients undergoing high-risk spine operation. To provide evidence-based outline of modifiable risk factors and give an example of a multidisciplinary protocol with the goal of improving outcomes. Protocol-based care has been shown to improve outcomes in many areas of medicine. A protocol to evaluate patients undergoing high-risk procedures may ultimately improve patient outcomes. The English language literature to date was reviewed on modifiable risk factors for spine surgery. A multidisciplinary team including hospitalists, critical care physicians, anesthesiologists, and spine surgeons from neurosurgery and orthopedics established an institutional protocol to provide comprehensive care in the pre-, peri-, and postoperative periods for patients undergoing high-risk spine operations. An example of a comprehensive pre-, peri-, and postoperative high-risk spine protocol is provided, with focus on the preoperative assessment of patients undergoing high-risk spine operations and modifiable risk factors. Standardizing preoperative risk assessment may lead to better outcomes after major spine operations. A high-risk spine protocol may help patients by having dedicated physicians in multiple specialties focusing on all aspects of a patients care in the pre-, intra-, and postoperative phases.

  10. To what extent does sociodemographic composition of the neighbourhood explain regional differences in demand of primary out-of-hours care: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Tessa; Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Hek, Karin; de Bakker, Dinny

    2015-05-06

    cooperatives remained unexplained by sociodemographic characteristics, particularly regarding high-urgency contacts. Although part of the variation between GP cooperatives could not be attributed to neighbourhood characteristics, the sociodemographic composition of the neighbourhood is a fair predictor of the demand of primary OOH care. Accordingly, this study provides a useful starting point for an improved planning of the supply of primary OOH care.

  11. Neighbourhood effects and social mobility: a longitudinal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; de Vos, S.; Friedrichs, J.; Galster, G.; Musterd, S.

    2009-01-01

    What impact do neighbourhoods have on social mobility? For years, this question has received widespread international attention in scholarly debates and within society at large. This paper seeks to contribute to this discussion by presenting the results of an investigation into the relationship

  12. Tipping points? Ethnic composition change in Dutch big city neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-level studies using individual and household data have shown that residential location choices are influenced by neighbourhood ethnic composition. Using three conurbation samples in the Netherlands - Amsterdam metropolitan area, Rotterdam-The Hague metropolitan area, and the country's largest

  13. Domestic violence in a semi-urban neighbourhood | Adekeye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are no published studies on impact of neighbourhood on domestic violence in Sango-Ota. This is the first study to examine formal and informal control method and the influence of family structure and socio-economic status on the occurrence of domestic violence in Sango-Ota. A closed-ended questionnaire with two ...

  14. Relationships between Population Density and the Perceived Quality of Neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D.; Murray, S. J.; Thomas, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two overseas survey-based scales measuring perceived quality of neighbourhood were adapted and replicated in a New Zealand context. An Italian study (Bonaiuto, Fornara, and Bonnes. (2003). "Landscape and Urban Planning," 65, 41-52) measuring Perceived Residential Environmental Quality (PREQ) and an American study (Carp and Carp. (1982).…

  15. Subanalytic bundles and tubular neighbourhoods of zero-loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We introduce the natural and fairly general notion of a subanalytic bundle. (with a finite dimensional vector space P of sections) on a subanalytic subset X of a real analytic manifold M, and prove that when M is compact, there is a Baire subset U of sections in P whose zero-loci in X have tubular neighbourhoods, ...

  16. Neighbourhood status development in the Netherlands 1998-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans Knol; with Jeroen Boelhouwer; Vic Veldheer

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Statusontwikkeling van wijken in Nederland 1998-2010 The Netherlands Institute for Social Research | SCP has a long tradition in describing the social status of neighbourhoods. The last time a report was published on this subject was in 1998 (Van hoog naar laag, van laag

  17. Fashion District Arnhem: creative entrepreneurs upgrading a deprived neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.; Lentjes, E.; Ruiten, E.; Marques, L.; Richard, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Arnhem Fashion District, which started in 2005, offers workspaces, shops and places to live for fashion designers. More than fifty fashion designers and other creative entrepreneurs have located their business in this neighbourhood. For a few years most of the fashion chain has been present:

  18. Neighbourhood social and physical environment and general practitioner assessed morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P; Zock, J-P; Spreeuwenberg, P; Helbich, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530349; Hoek, G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Ruijsbroek, A; Strak, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313874085; Verheij, R; Volker, B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141888237; Waverijn, G; Dijst, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070793085

    The aim of our study was to investigate the association between health enhancing and threatening, and social and physical aspects of the neighbourhood environment and general practitioner (GP) assessed morbidity of the people living there, in order to find out whether the effects of environmental

  19. Neighbourhood social and physical environment and general practitioner assessed morbidity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Zock, J.P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Helbich, M.; Hoek, G.; Ruijsbroek, A.; Strak, M.; Verheij, R.; Völker, B.; Waverijn, G.; Dijst, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the association between health enhancing and threatening, and social and physical aspects of the neighbourhood environment and general practitioner (GP) assessed morbidity of the people living there, in order to find out whether the effects of environmental

  20. Mixing Dutch neighbourhoods through the sale of social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Mixing in neighbourhoods is a goal that has been stated by national government for many years. One of the ways to reach the desired mix is by selling homes owned by social landlords or housing associations. Since the new millennium “for dwell” (also known as Clients’ Choice Programme) has gained

  1. Influence of perceived and actual neighbourhood disorder on common mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polling, C; Khondoker, M; Hatch, S L; Hotopf, M

    2014-06-01

    Fear of crime and perceived neighbourhood disorder have been linked to common mental illness (CMI). However, few UK studies have also considered the experience of crime at the individual and neighbourhood level. This study aims to identify individual and local area factors associated with increased perceived neighbourhood disorder and test associations between CMI and individuals' perceptions of disorder in their neighbourhoods, personal experiences of crime and neighbourhood crime rates. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 1,698 adults living in 1,075 households in Lambeth and Southwark, London. CMI was assessed using the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression with neighbourhood defined as lower super output area. Individuals who reported neighbourhood disorder were more likely to suffer CMI (OR 2.12) as were those with individual experience of crime. These effects remained significant when individual characteristics were controlled for. While 14 % of the variance in perceived neighbourhood disorder occurred at the neighbourhood level, there was no significant variance at this level for CMI. Perceived neighbourhood disorder is more common in income-deprived areas and individuals who are unemployed. Worry about one's local area and individual experience of crime are strongly and independently associated with CMI, but neighbourhood crime rates do not appear to impact on mental health.

  2. High-Risk and Low-Risk Human Papillomavirus and the Absolute Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia or Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid-based cer......OBJECTIVE: To determine the absolute risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or cervical cancer (CIN 3 or worse) after detection of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) and after a negative high-risk HPV test. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, consecutive liquid...

  3. Associations between parents' perception of neighbourhood environments and safety with physical activity of primary school children in Klang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, S E H; Ng, X H; Chin, Y S; Mohd Taib, M N

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate parental perception of neighbourhood environments and safety in association with children's physical activity among primary school children in Klang, Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 250 children (9-12 years of age) and their parents participated in this cross-sectional study. Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Neighbourhood Environmental Walkability Scale as well as questions on constrained behaviours (avoidance and defensive behaviours) were used to assess the children's physical activity and parental perception of neighbourhood environment and safety, respectively. More than one-third (36.0%) of the children were physically inactive compared with only a small percentage (4.8%) who were physically active, with boys achieving higher physical activity levels than girls (t = 2.564, P = 0.011). For the environmental scale, parents' perception of land-use mix (access) (r = 0.173, P = 0.006), traffic hazards (r = -0.152, P = 0.016) and defensive behaviour (r = -0.024, P = 0.143) correlated significantly with children's physical activity. In multiple linear regression analysis, child's gender (β = -0.226; P = 0.003), parent's education (β = 0.140; P = 0.001), household income (β = 0.151; P = 0.024), land-use mix (access) (β = 0.134; P = 0.011) and defensive behaviour (β = -0.017; P = 0.038) were significantly associated with physical activity in children (R = 0.349, F = 6.760; P < 0.001), contributing 12.2% of the variances in physical activity of the children. Results highlight the links between parental perception of neighbourhood environments, safety and constrained behaviours with their children's participation in active play. Interventions aimed to increase actual and perceived safety and reduce perceptions of risk by parents in safe neighbourhoods can be targeted to increase children's physical activity in their local

  4. Effects of a counselling intervention to improve contraception in deprived neighbourhoods: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Elia; López, Maria J; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Nebot, Laia; Pérez, Gloria; Villalbi, Joan R; Carreras, Ramon

    2017-04-18

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of a community-based counselling intervention to improve contraception use among immigrant and native residents in deprived neighbourhoods. : Randomized controlled trial. Women aged 14-49 years and men aged 14-39 years from two low-income neighbourhoods with high proportion of immigration in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) who had not undergone irreversible contraception and were not planning a pregnancy were recruited (2011-13). A culturally developed and theoretically based brief counselling intervention was delivered in community settings. The primary outcome was the consistent use of effective contraceptive methods (optimal use). Secondary outcomes were the incorrect use of effective methods and the use of less effective methods stratified by sex and migrant status. Differences within subgroups from baseline to the 3-month follow-up were analysed by intention to treat and per protocol. The effects were assessed with adjusted robust Poisson regressions. : The study enrolled and randomized 746 eligible participants. There were no differences between the intervention and control groups in demographic characteristics. Optimal use significantly increased in men, women, immigrants and natives in the intervention group, with no changes in the control group. In the intervention group, inconsistent use of effective methods decreased by 54.9% and that of less effective methods by 47.2%. The overall adjusted prevalence ratio of optimal use in the intervention group versus the control group was 1.138 (95% CI: 1.010-1.284). : This brief counselling intervention increased the consistent use of effective contraception in low-income neighbourhoods with a high proportion of immigration.

  5. The Emergence and Spread of Ecourban Neighbourhoods around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Holden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern times, efforts to construct sustainable alternative neighbourhood scale developments date to isolated voluntary initiatives in 1970s Europe and the United States. Since about 2006, they have increased rapidly in popularity. They now go by many names: ecodistricts, écoquartiers, eco-cities, zero/low-carbon/carbon-positive cities, ecopolises, ecobarrios, One Planet Communities, and solar cities. They have become frames—sometimes the dominant frame—used to orient the construction of new pieces of a city in a growing number of countries. Despite numerous standardization efforts, the field of ecourban neighbourhood planning and practice lacks a consistent cross-cultural understanding of what constitutes meaningful ecourbanism in specific economic, political, ecological, social, and design-based terms. Ecourban neighbourhood projects also respond to strictly local challenges and opportunities and express themselves in fragmented ways in different contexts. This article presents an original typology of ecourbanism as the integration of seven extreme type principles. We developed this typology through an abductive approach, or the back and forth testing of observed practices with arguments advanced in theories of sustainable development, planning and urban studies. While ecourban neighbourhood developments by definition express integrative goals, this typology permits assessment of the extent to which outcomes are being achieved in terms of each specific principle. We define and present a limiting case for each of these extreme type principles. Rather than attempting to render different standards equivalent across national contexts, this typology-based approach to understand the outcomes of ecourban neighbourhood developments promises a means to facilitate orienting these developments toward higher levels of integration within a common set of principled boundaries, as they are developed around the world.

  6. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  7. Elite High Schools Breed Higher Risk of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166144.html Elite High Schools Breed Higher Risk of Addiction: Study ... from drug addiction, new research suggests. Teens at elite U.S. high schools seem to face a higher ...

  8. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at ...

  9. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...

  10. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4- 60 months. Methods: ...

  11. High Risk Behavior among Adolescent Mothers: The Problem in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissman, Kris

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the particular consequences of high-risk behavior for adolescent women, including unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, school dropout and poverty, developmental disabilities, and poor school performance. Considers the role of male partners in teenage women's high risk behavior. Describes prevention efforts such as…

  12. Elevated level of serum triglyceride among high risk stress bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to estimate lipid profile among high risk stress bank employees' correlated with heart disorders in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 129 patients with high risk stress employees were involved in this study, which were divided into 69 males and 60 females between the age of 25 to 55 years.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and risk factors of Obesity and high blood pressure among healthy adults in a military settlement in Ibagwa, Southern Nigeria. The study also sought ...

  14. Examining Neighbourhood Effects in Regional Inequalities of Hungary: a GIS-Based Approach from Topological Relations to Neighbourhood Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁKOS JAKOBI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing number of popular works, which explain regional inequalities of the economy and the society with spatial location. Techniques like spatial autocorrelation or spatial clustering became basic methods of mainstream examinations. These methods put geographical location, or more precisely the neighbourhood effects, in the focus of the researches. The typical research questions originate from Waldo Tobler’s classical law of geography, namely that “everything is related to everything else, but closer things are more closely related”. According to the research assumptions, the regions that are neighbours in geographical space are usually similar to each other also in socio-economic sense. For the examination of neighbourhood effects, GIS (Geographical Information Systems may serve as a quite useful tool. By the application of GIS programmes, the topological relation of the examined objects can be straightforwardly defined. Additionally results of examinations with different methodological approach can be also easily compared. This paper, on the one hand, introduces both different methods of defining neighbourhood relations and the application of GIS in determining contiguity. On the other hand, it reflects how varied or same consequences can be drawn by the application of these techniques. In the analysis of neighbourhood effects, the most deterministic factors of the Hungarian regional inequalities are examined: the level of personal income and the unemployment rate. The examination points out where stable social and regional clusters were formed in Hungary, in the mirror of the different methodological approaches.

  15. Planning the neighbourhood economy: Land-use plans and the economic potential of urban residential neighbourhoods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Risselada, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between zoning by-laws, as put forward in governmental land-use plans and the viability of urban residential neighbourhood economies. The Dutch planning tradition has long been characterized by strict separation of functions and topdown planning. We

  16. Early Molecular Stratification of High-risk Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Claire; Green, Kile; Jopson, Laura; Millar, Ben; Innes, Barbara; Pagan, Sarah; Tiniakos, Dina; Dyson, Jessica; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Bigley, Venetia; Jones, David E; Brain, John; Walker, Lucy J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), defined by inadequate response at one year to Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is associated with disease progression and liver transplantation. Stratifying high-risk patients early would facilitate improved approaches to care. Using long-term follow-up data to define risk at presentation, 6 high-risk PBC patients and 8 low-risk patients were identified from biopsy, transplant and biochemical archival records. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies taken at presentation were graded (Scheuer and Nakanuma scoring) and gene expression analysed using the NanoString® nCounter PanCancer Immunity 770-gene panel. Principle component analysis (PCA) demonstrated discrete gene expression clustering between controls and high- and low-risk PBC. High-risk PBC was characterised by up-regulation of genes linked to T-cell activation and apoptosis, INF-γ signalling and leukocyte migration and down-regulation of those linked to the complement pathway. CDKN1a, up-regulated in high-risk PBC, correlated with significantly increased expression of its gene product, the senescence marker p21 WAF1/Cip , by biliary epithelial cells. Our findings suggest high- and low-risk PBC are biologically different from disease outset and senescence an early feature in high-risk disease. Identification of a high-risk 'signal' early from standard FFPE tissue sections has clear clinical utility allowing for patient stratification and second-line therapeutic intervention. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High Center Volume Does Not Mitigate Risk Associated with Using High Donor Risk Organs in Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Eliza W; Black, Sylvester M; Mumtaz, Khalid; Hayes, Don; El-Hinnawi, Ashraf; Washburn, Kenneth; Tumin, Dmitry

    2017-09-01

    High-risk donor allografts increase access to liver transplant, but potentially reduce patient and graft survival. It is unclear whether the risk associated with using marginal donor livers is mitigated by increasing center experience. The United Network for Organ Sharing registry was queried for adult first-time liver transplant recipients between 2/2002 and 12/2015. High donor risk was defined as donor risk index >1.9, and 1-year patient and graft survival were compared according to donor risk index in small and large centers. Multivariable Cox regression estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with using high-risk donor organs, according to a continuous measure of annual center volume. The analysis included 51,770 patients. In 67 small and 67 large centers, high donor risk index predicted increased mortality (p = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, high-donor risk index allografts predicted greater mortality hazard at centers performing 20 liver transplants per year (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.22, 1.49; p transplant. Specific strategies to mitigate the risk of liver transplant involving high-risk donors are needed, in addition to accumulation of center expertise.

  18. Analysing urban resilience through alternative stormwater management options: application of the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System model at the neighbourhood scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsells, M; Barroca, B; Amdal, J R; Diab, Y; Becue, V; Serre, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in cities and their environments, caused by rapid urbanisation and climate change, have increased both flood probability and the severity of flooding. Consequently, there is a need for all cities to adapt to climate and socio-economic changes by developing new strategies for flood risk management. Following a risk paradigm shift from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future urban development, one of the main emerging tasks for city managers becomes the development of resilient cities. However, the meaning of the resilience concept and its operability is still not clear. The goal of this research is to study how urban engineering and design disciplines can improve resilience to floods in urban neighbourhoods. This paper presents the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System (DS3) model which we consider a relevant tool to analyse and then implement resilience into neighbourhood design. Using this model, we analyse and discuss alternative stormwater management options at the neighbourhood scale in two specific areas: Rotterdam and New Orleans. The results obtained demonstrate that the DS3 model confirmed in its framework analysis that stormwater management systems can positively contribute to the improved flood resilience of a neighbourhood.

  19. Prognosis of Carotid Endarterectomy in High Risk Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Modaghegh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carotid Endarterectomy (CE can be mentioned as a valuable theraputic method for primary and secondary prevention of stroke, provided it can be performed in vascular surgery centers with a low surgical risk. Thus, the present study aimed to assess prognosis of CE in high risk patients of an Iranian vascular surgery center. Methods: This prospective observational study consisted of 50 high risk CE patients during 2011-14 in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All the high risk CE were performed by a vascular surgeon and a surgical carotid shunt was placed in each CE. Neurologic evaluation was performed before CE and serial neurologic axamination was done after CE by a neurologist. Surgical complications including stroke, death and lower cranial nerve palsy were recorded for 30 days after operation. Results: The study results revealed that 80% of high risk CE patients had symptomatic carotid stenosis on the operation side and 80% had carotid stenosis contralateral to the operation side. Thirteen high risk CE were performed simultaneously with coronary artery by pass graft and 24 patients were demonstrated to have diabetes. Post surgical death and stroke in the high risk CE patients were reported 2% and 4%, respectively. Lower cranial nerve palsy appeared in 2% of patients. Conclusion: The 6% post operative stroke and death rate in the high risk CE patients are comparable to best vascular surgery centers in Europe and North America.

  20. Group Authentication Scheme for Neighbourhood Area Networks (NANs in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Alohali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A Neighbourhood Area Network is a functional component of the Smart Grid that interconnects the end user domain with the Energy Services Provider (ESP domain. It forms the “edge” of the provider network, interconnecting homes instrumented with Smart Meters (SM with the ESP. The SM is a dual interface, wireless communication device through which information is transacted across the user (a home and ESP domains. The security risk to the ESP increases since the components within the home, interconnected to the ESP via the SM, are not managed by the ESP. Secure operation of the SM is a necessary requirement. The SM should be resilient to attacks, which might be targeted either directly or via the network in the home. This paper presents and discusses a security scheme for groups of SMs in a Neighbourhood Area Network that enable entire groups to authenticate themselves, rather than one at a time. The results show that a significant improvement in terms of resilience against node capture attacks, replay attacks, confidentiality, authentication for groups of SMs in a NAN that enable entire groups to authenticate themselves, rather than one at a time.

  1. Using GIS and perceived distance to understand the unequal geographies of healthcare in lower-income urban neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Timothy L; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2012-01-01

    Geographers play important roles in public health research, particularly in understanding healthcare accessibility, utilisation, and individual healthcare experiences. Most accessibility studies have benefited from the increased sophistication of geographic information systems (GIS). Some studies have been enhanced with semi-structured in-depth interviews to understand individual experiences of people as they access healthcare. However, few accessibility studies have explicitly utilised individual in-depth interview data in the construction of new GIS accessibility measures. Using mixed methods including GIS analysis and individual data from semi-structured in-depth interviews, we offer satisfaction-adjusted distance as a new way of conceptualising accessibility in GIS. Based on fieldwork in a predominantly lower-income community in Columbus, Ohio (USA), we find many residents felt neighbourhood healthcare facilities offered low-quality care, which suggested an added perceived distance as they attempt to access high-quality healthcare facilities. The satisfaction-adjusted distance measure accounts for the perceived distance some residents feel as they search for high-quality healthcare in lower-income urban neighbourhoods. In moving beyond conventional GIS and re-conceptualising accessibility in this way, we offer a more realistic portrayal of the issues lower-income urban residents face as they attempt to access high-quality healthcare facilities. The work has theoretical implications for conceptualising healthcare accessibility, advances the mixed-methodologies literature, and argues for a more equitable distribution of high-quality healthcare in urban neighbourhoods.

  2. Carbon dioxide sequestration by urban vegetation at neighbourhood scale in tropical cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S.; Quak, M.; Perrusquia, R.; Molina, L. T.; Norford, L.

    2013-12-01

    Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult to achieve due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the carbon exchange using as reference recent long-term sets of CO2 flux data from two residential neighborhoods in Singapore and Mexico City. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the aboveground biomass flux. In addition, tree surveys were conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations. The annual biomass growth for Singapore's trees was estimated using an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. For Mexico City, growth prediction equations for urban trees from California were used. Palm trees, banana plants, yuccas and turfgrass were also included in the surveys with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. For the case of Singapore, both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that aboveground vegetation sequesters 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. An uptake of 1.4 ton km-2 day-1 (510 ton km-2 yr-1) was estimated from the difference between the daily CO2 uptake by photosynthesis (3.95 ton km-2) and release by plant respiration at night (2.55 ton km-2). However, when soil respiration is added to photosynthesis and nocturnal plant respiration, the biogenic component amounts to 4% of

  3. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  4. Living in 'Birdsville': exploring the impact of neighbourhood stigma on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Warr, Deborah J; Feldman, Peter; Tacticos, Theonie

    2010-03-01

    The stigma of living in a disadvantaged area is a consistent theme in discussions with residents of neighbourhood renewal (NR) areas in Victoria, Australia. Despite this, stigma is rarely examined explicitly in studies of neighbourhood disadvantage and health. This study will address four questions: (1) How do residents of disadvantaged areas describe their experiences of neighbourhood stigma? (2) Do experiences of neighbourhood stigma vary within neighbourhoods? (3) Is neighbourhood stigma related to health? (4) Is the relationship between neighbourhood stigma and health explained by other social factors that may contribute to poorer health? Cross-sectional community interviews comparing people living in NR areas (n = 4029) to people living in other parts of the same local government areas (LGAs) (n = 1857). Recruitment was achieved using community interviewers in NR areas and stratified random sampling in LGAs. A neighbourhood stigma variable, self-reported health, and satisfaction with life. About half (47.7%) of residents living in NR neighbourhoods compared to 9.4% of residents living elsewhere in the same LGAs felt that their neighbourhoods did not have a good reputation in surrounding areas. In NR areas, reported neighbourhood stigma was higher among people born in a non-English speaking country, receiving benefits or pensions, educated above year 10, or who reported having a disability. Reported neighbourhood stigma decreased with age. Stigma was associated with being in fair/poor health status (OR = 1.33, 1.06-1.89) and life satisfaction (OR = 0.66, 0.55-0.8). Neighbourhood stigma may be a useful addition to the portfolio of variables that describe 'place' and its relationship with health. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Talking the talk, walking the walk: examining the effect of neighbourhood walkability and social connectedness on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Glover, Troy D

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have considered the joint effects of social and physical environments on physical activity (PA). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the compounding effects of neighbourhood walkability and social connectedness on PA. Data were collected from adults (n = 380) in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Perceptions of neighbourhood social connectedness and walkability were measured via survey. Minutes of neighbourhood PA for recreation and transportation were captured with a detailed 7-day log booklet. Four groups were created (e.g. high walkability/low social connectedness) and two factorial ANOVAs examined group differences in minutes of recreational and transport-related PA. There were significant differences across the four walkability/social connectedness groups for both recreational (F = 11.36, P walkability and social connectedness displayed the greatest levels of both recreational (130.6 min) and transport-related PA (24.5 min). The high walkability/low social connectedness group had greater transport-related PA than the two low walkability groups, while the high social connectedness/low walkability group had greater recreational PA than the two low social connectedness groups. These findings underscore the relationship between physical and social dimensions of urban form and their association with health behaviours. PA promotion efforts should take into account both physical (e.g. land-use planning) and social (e.g. walking group) environments.

  6. Kinematic structures of the solar neighbourhood revealed by Gaia DR1/TGAS and RAVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, I.; Schirmer, T.; Bensby, T.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The velocity distribution of stars in the solar neighbourhood is inhomogeneous and rich with stellar streams and kinematic structures. These may retain important clues regarding the formation and dynamical history of the Milky Way. However, the nature and origin of many of the streams and structures is unclear, hindering our understanding of how the Milky Way formed and evolved. Aims: We aim to study the velocity distribution of stars of the solar neighbourhood and investigate the properties of individual kinematic structures in order to improve our understanding of their origins. Methods: Using the astrometric data provided by Gaia DR1/TGAS and radial velocities from RAVE DR5 we perform a wavelet analysis with the à trous algorithm of 55 831 stars that have U and V velocity uncertainties less than 4 km s-1. An auto-convolution histogram method is used to filter the output data, and we then run Monte Carlo simulations to verify that the detected structures are real and are not caused by noise due to velocity uncertainties. Additionally we analysed our stellar sample by splitting all stars into a nearby sample (300 pc), and two chemically defined samples that to a first degree represent the thin and the thick disks. Results: We detect 19 kinematic structures in the solar neighbourhood in the range of scales 3-16 km s-1 at the 3σ confidence level. Among them we identified well-known groups (such as Hercules, Sirius, Coma Berenices, Pleiades, and Wolf 630), confirmed recently detected groups (such as Antoja12 and Bobylev16), and detected a new structure at (U,V) ≈ (37,8) km s-1. Another three new groups are tentatively detected, but require further confirmation. Some of the detected groups show clear dependence on distance in the sense that they are only present in the nearby sample (solar neighbourhood contains more structures than previously known. A new feature is discovered and three recently detected groups are confirmed at high confidence level

  7. Do family and neighbourhood matter in secondary school completion? A multilevel study of determinants and their interactions in a life-course perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnhild Myhr

    Full Text Available Completion of secondary education is important for individuals' future health and health behaviour. The fundamental purpose of this study is to investigate the variation and clustering of school completion in families and neighbourhoods. Secondly, we aim to examine the impact of individuals' family structure and neighbourhood of residence and examine to what extent parental education level moderates these associations.Longitudinal register data for 30% of the entire Norwegian population aged 21-27 years in 2010 (N = 107,003 was extracted from Statistic Norway´s event database. Three-level logistic regression models, which incorporated individual, family, and neighbourhood contextual factors, were applied to estimate the family and neighbourhood general contextual effects and detect possible educational differences in the impact of family structure and urban place of residence in school completion.Completion rates were significantly higher within families with higher education level (79% in tertiary educated families vs. 61% and 48% in secondary and primary educated families respectively and were strongly correlated within families (ICC = 39.6 and neighbourhoods (ICC = 5.7. Several structural factors at the family level negatively associated with school completion (e.g., family disruption, large family size, and young maternal age were more prevalent and displayed more negative impact among primary educated individuals. Urban residence was associated with school completion, but only among the tertiary educated.Investment in the resources in the individuals' immediate surroundings, including family and neighbourhood, may address a substantial portion of the social inequalities in the completion of upper secondary education. The high intra-familial correlation in school completion suggests that public health policies and future research should acknowledge family environments in order to improve secondary education completion rates among young

  8. Do family and neighbourhood matter in secondary school completion? A multilevel study of determinants and their interactions in a life-course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhr, Arnhild; Lillefjell, Monica; Espnes, Geir Arild; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Completion of secondary education is important for individuals' future health and health behaviour. The fundamental purpose of this study is to investigate the variation and clustering of school completion in families and neighbourhoods. Secondly, we aim to examine the impact of individuals' family structure and neighbourhood of residence and examine to what extent parental education level moderates these associations. Longitudinal register data for 30% of the entire Norwegian population aged 21-27 years in 2010 (N = 107,003) was extracted from Statistic Norway´s event database. Three-level logistic regression models, which incorporated individual, family, and neighbourhood contextual factors, were applied to estimate the family and neighbourhood general contextual effects and detect possible educational differences in the impact of family structure and urban place of residence in school completion. Completion rates were significantly higher within families with higher education level (79% in tertiary educated families vs. 61% and 48% in secondary and primary educated families respectively) and were strongly correlated within families (ICC = 39.6) and neighbourhoods (ICC = 5.7). Several structural factors at the family level negatively associated with school completion (e.g., family disruption, large family size, and young maternal age) were more prevalent and displayed more negative impact among primary educated individuals. Urban residence was associated with school completion, but only among the tertiary educated. Investment in the resources in the individuals' immediate surroundings, including family and neighbourhood, may address a substantial portion of the social inequalities in the completion of upper secondary education. The high intra-familial correlation in school completion suggests that public health policies and future research should acknowledge family environments in order to improve secondary education completion rates among young people within

  9. 'High-risk' pregnancy after perinatal loss: understanding the label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Heather A; Goldberg, Lisa S

    2011-08-01

    to explore women's experience of living with a 'high-risk' pregnancy following a perinatal loss. a feminist phenomenological methodology provided the framework for the research study. the experience of 'high-risk' pregnancy following perinatal loss of seven women receiving care at a tertiary health centre in Atlantic Canada was explored by way of conversational interviews and reflective journaling. four themes emerged through thematic analysis and researcher interpretation: (1) understanding the meaning in the label of 'high-risk' pregnancy, (2) relational engagement with the unborn infant, (3) insight and acceptance of the influence of previous loss, and (4) essentiality of information. Taken together, these four themes represent the storied text embedded in the research study. The focus of attention in this article is based solely on the first theme, understanding the meaning in the label of 'high-risk' pregnancy, in so far as this fosters an ability to attend to the interpretive text in the methodological manner appropriate to phenomenological inquiry. although previous research indicates that the label of 'high-risk' in pregnancy is often associated with increased anxiety and fear, findings from this study suggest that a 'high-risk' pregnancy following perinatal loss results in women embracing the 'high-risk' label. By recognising the possibility that women experiencing 'high-risk' pregnancy following perinatal loss may perceive the label of 'high-risk' pregnancy in a positive way, nurses, midwives and other health-care providers may begin to alter their practices when caring for these women in current health-care environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders C. Erickson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Methods Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291. Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5 and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES, proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. Results A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased

  11. Air pollution, neighbourhood and maternal-level factors modify the effect of smoking on birth weight: a multilevel analysis in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Anders C; Ostry, Aleck; Chan, Hing Man; Arbour, Laura

    2016-07-16

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy negatively impacts fetal growth, but the effect is not homogenous across the population. We sought to determine how the relationship between cigarette use and fetal growth is modified by the social and physical environment. Birth records with covariates were obtained from the BC Perinatal Database Registry (N = 232,291). Maternal smoking status was self-reported as the number of cigarettes smoked per day usually at the first prenatal care visit. Census dissemination areas (DAs) were used as neighbourhood-level units and linked to individual births using residential postal codes to assign exposure to particulate air pollution (PM2.5) and neighbourhood-level attributes such as socioeconomic status (SES), proportion of post-secondary education, immigrant density and living in a rural place. Random coefficient models were used with cigarettes/day modeled with a random slope to estimate its between-DA variability and test cross-level interactions with the neighbourhood-level variables on continuous birth weight. A significant negative and non-linear association was found between maternal smoking and birth weight. There was significant between-DA intercept variability in birth weight as well as between-DA slope variability of maternal smoking on birth weight of which 68 and 30 % respectively was explained with the inclusion of DA-level variables and their cross-level interactions. High DA-level SES had a strong positive association with birth weight but the effect was moderated with increased cigarettes/day. Conversely, heavy smokers showed the largest increases in birth weight with rising neighbourhood education levels. Increased levels of PM2.5 and immigrant density were negatively associated with birth weight, but showed positive interactions with increased levels of smoking. Older maternal age and suspected drug or alcohol use both had negative interactions with increased levels of maternal smoking. Maternal smoking had a

  12. Neighbourhood vitality and physical activity among the elderly: The role of walkable environments on active ageing in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Oriol; Miralles-Guasch, Carme

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether neighbourhood vitality and walkability were associated with active ageing of the elderly. Immobility, activity engagement and physical activity were explored in relation with age, gender and walkability of the built environment. Number of trips per day and minutes spent on walking by the elderly were extracted from a broad travel survey with more than 12,000 CATI interviews and were compared across vital and non-vital urban environments. Results highlight the importance of vital environments for elderly active mobility as subpopulations residing in highly walkable neighbourhoods undertook more trips and spent more minutes walking than their counterparts. The results also suggest that the built environment has different effects in terms of gender, as elderly men were more susceptible to urban vitality than elderly women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Creation of synthetic homogeneous neighbourhoods using zone design algorithms to explore relationships between asthma and deprivation in Strasbourg, France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, Clive E; Kihal, W.; Bard, D.

    2013-01-01

    , and compare these rates with an index of multiple deprivation (NDI) which we have constructed and reported elsewhere. Higher correlations between Asthma and NDI were found using our newly constructed synthetic zones than using the existing French census areas of similar size. The significance of our work....... In this work, we have developed an experimental approach for the automated design of neighbourhoods using a small tessellated cell as a basic building block. Using the software AZTool, we considered population, shape and homogeneity constraints to develop a highly innovative approach to zone construction....... The paper reports the challenges and compromises involved in building these new synthetic neighbourhoods. We provide a fully worked example of how our new synthetic homogeneous zones perform using data from Strasbourg, France. We examine data on Asthma reported through calls to the emergency services...

  14. Radical prostatectomy in clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The optimal therapeutic strategy for high-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa) is controversial. Supported by randomized trials, the combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and endocrine therapy (ET) is advocated by many, while radical prostatectomy (RP......) is regarded as primary therapy by others. This study examined the outcome for high-risk localized PCa patients treated with RP. Material and methods. Of 1300 patients who underwent RP, 231 were identified as high-risk. Patients were followed for biochemical recurrence (BCR) (defined as prostate...

  15. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  16. Awareness and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among high-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MetS) in high-risk individuals attending 30 internal medicine clinics in Amman, Jordan, and also to evaluate the various factors associated with increased risk of MetS among them. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out ...

  17. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    -historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...... neighbourhood policy. It is argued that the innovative nature of the ENP for coherence lies beyond the narrowly defined legal sphere, but stems mostly from its hybrid composition of hard legal, soft legal and non-legal policy instruments. It is concluded that from a purely EU-internal and institutional...... perspective, this approach was reasonably successful in involving different actors towards common objectives in the neighbourhood. However, coherence should be more than rhetorical gloss, and agreeing that a wide range of initiatives should be included in soft legal instruments is no guarantee for coherence...

  18. Brachytherapy boost and cancer-specific mortality in favorable high-risk versus other high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Muralidhar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA 20 ng/ml. Material and methods: We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results : EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258, and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270. Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022. Conclusions : Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease.

  19. RATIONAL CHOICE INSTITUTIONALISM AND THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Cristian Balasan; Andreea Maha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the main aspects regarding the rational choice theory in neo-institutionalism, and the role the EU Neighbourhood Policy has nowadays. The protagonist of the rational choice theory in the new institutionalism remains homo-economicus. The theory of rational choice institutionalism challenges the perfect rationality of the individual, rather than the principle of rational choice itself. ENP is a framework for consolidating the Union's relations with neighbou...

  20. Resolving Neighbourhood Relations in a Parallel Fluid Dynamic Solver

    KAUST Repository

    Frisch, Jerome

    2012-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations require an enormous computational effort if a physically reasonable accuracy should be reached. Therefore, a parallel implementation is inevitable. This paper describes the basics of our implemented fluid solver with a special aspect on the hierarchical data structure, unique cell and grid identification, and the neighbourhood relations in-between grids on different processes. A special server concept keeps track of every grid over all processes while minimising data transfer between the nodes. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. WALKABILITY: THE CASE OF THE CENTRAL JANNAT ABAD NEIGHBOURHOOD, TEHRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hadianpour, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, urban scholars and town planners have become interested in the concept of ‘neighbourhood walkability’ and have tried to operationalize and measure it and make cities more walkable. Interest in walkability, and seeing it as a positive urban quality has not yet blossomed among Iranian scholars and town planners the way it has internationally. Iranian urban scholars have scarcely investigated the meaning of walkability in the Iranian urban context, while town planners have faile...

  2. Evaluation of Neighbourhood Characteristics and Active Transport Mode Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebeh Saghapour; Sara Moridpour; Russell George Thompson

    2017-01-01

    One of the common aims of transport policy makers is to switch people’s travel to active transport. For this purpose, a variety of transport goals and investments should be programmed to increase the propensity towards active transport mode choice. This paper aims to investigate whether built environment features in neighbourhoods could enhance the odds of active transportation. The present study introduces an index measuring public transport accessibility (PTAI), and a walkability index alon...

  3. Associations between neighbourhood walkability and cycling in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has established four environmental attributes that contribute to neighbourhood „walkability‟: street connectivity, land use mix, residential density, and retail floor area ratio. There is emerging evidence that these attributes influence not only walking behaviour...... zone by combining z-scores for street connectivity, land use mix, residential density, and retail floor area ratio. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the associations between walkability and the mean walking, cycling, and passive transportation practices for each zone. Results...

  4. Physical activity barriers and motivators among high-risk employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paguntalan, John C; Gregoski, Mathew

    2016-11-22

    Worksite wellness programs offer an ideal setting to target high-risk sedentary workers to improve health status. Lack of physical activity is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and mortality. Despite the risks, the number of sedentary workers is increasing. This study examined the perceived barriers and motivators for physical activity among employees at high-risk for coronary heart disease. A purposive sample of 24 high-risk workers participating in a wellness program in rural South Carolina were enrolled in the study. Qualitative data was obtained through semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyze qualitative data, and identify overarching themes. Physical limitations due to pain and weakness, lack of motivation, and lack of time emerged as the main barriers to physical activity. Family relationships were reported as the strongest motivator along with social support and potential health benefits. Findings highlight the unique experience of high-risk workers with physical activity. The findingsunderscore the need to design and implement effective interventions specifically designed to meet the needs of high-risk employees.

  5. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  6. Suicide Risk Especially High for U.S. Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166800.html Suicide Risk Especially High for U.S. Farmers Other occupations ... Two decades after the U.S. farm crisis, the suicide rate among American farmers remains much higher than ...

  7. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guszkowska, M; Bołdak, A

    2010-01-01

    ...) of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable...

  8. High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Durban South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Durban South African Indians: The Phoenix Lifestyle Project. ... All participants had demographic, anthropometric and biochemical measurements using the modified World Health Organization (WHO) STEPwise survey methods. Hypertension, obesity, lipid abnormalities and ...

  9. Psychological characteristics in high-risk MSM in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Guanzhi; Li, Yang; Zhang, Beichuan; Yu, Zengzhao; Li, Xiufang; Wang, Lixin; Yu, Ziming

    2012-01-01

    .... To date, little is known regarding the behavioral, social and psychological characteristics in Chinese MSM, which makes the implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies for this high-risk...

  10. Treating Patients with High-Risk Smoldering Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III clinical trial, patients with smoldering myeloma classified as high risk for progression will be randomly assigned to undergo standard observation or six 4-week courses of treatment with the drug lenalidomide.

  11. Inequalities in Tooth Decay in Australian Children by Neighbourhood Characteristics and Indigenous Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, Ratilal; Jamieson, Lisa M; Ha, Diep; Luzzi, Liana

    2016-02-01

    Tooth decay is related to poverty, measured at individual and neighbourhood levels. It is however uncertain if living in an advantaged neighbourhood reduces tooth decay similarly in Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. This study describes tooth decay by neighbourhood characteristics and Indigenous status, and examines inequalities by Indigenous status. In deciduous dentition the percentage of children with tooth decay and untreated decay decreased on average 26% and 20% respectively in the non-Indigenous sample from poor to affluent neighbourhoods. In Indigenous children tooth decay and untreated decay decreased on average 6% and 8%, respectively, from poor to affluent neighbourhoods. While all children from affluent areas had less tooth decay, the gap between non-Indigenous and Indigenous children remained significant across neighbourhood characteristics. This suggests that both universal and targeted prevention programs should be considered for all Indigenous children irrespective of where they live.

  12. Revisiting the Role of Neighbourhood Change in Social Exclusion and Inclusion of Older People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Victoria F.; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Damaris

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore how older people who are “aging in place” are affected when the urban neighbourhoods in which they are aging are themselves undergoing socioeconomic and demographic change. Methods. A qualitative case study was conducted in two contrasting neighbourhoods in Montréal (Québec, Canada), the analysis drawing on concepts of social exclusion and attachment. Results. Participants express variable levels of attachment to neighbourhood. Gentrification triggered processes of social exclusion among older adults: loss of social spaces dedicated to older people led to social disconnectedness, invisibility, and loss of political influence on neighbourhood planning. Conversely, certain changes in a disadvantaged neighbourhood fostered their social inclusion. Conclusion. This study thus highlights the importance of examining the impacts of neighbourhood change when exploring the dynamics of aging in place and when considering interventions to maintain quality of life of those concerned. PMID:22013528

  13. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    .2-2.5) for 1 allergic disease, 3.9 (95% CI, 3.5-4.4) for 2 allergic diseases, and 7.5 (95% CI, 6.2-9.0) for 3 allergic diseases. High alcohol consumption was associated with high IgE levels but not with high risk of allergic disease. The odds ratio for high versus low IgE levels per 1 alcoholic drink per week......BACKGROUND: High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels...... for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic...

  14. Vaginal micronized progesterone and risk of preterm delivery in high-risk twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, K; Rode, L; Nicolaides, K H

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Progesterone treatment reduces the risk of preterm delivery in high-risk singleton pregnancies. Our aim was to evaluate the preventive effect of vaginal progesterone in high-risk twins. METHODS: This was a subanalysis of a Danish-Austrian, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized...... trial (PREDICT study), in which women with twin pregnancies were randomized to daily treatment with progesterone or placebo pessaries from 20-24 weeks until 34 weeks' gestation. This subpopulation consisted of high-risk pregnancies, defined by the finding of cervical length ≤ 10th centile at 20-24 weeks...... (10.6%) of the 677 women participating in the PREDICT study, the pregnancy was considered to be high-risk, including 47 with cervical length ≤ 10th centile, 28 with a history of preterm delivery or late miscarriage and three fulfilling both criteria. Baseline characteristics for progesterone...

  15. Does neighbourhood deprivation affect the genetic influence on body mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Gwilym; Jones, Kelvyn; Harris, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Most research into the role of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of obesity has taken environment to mean behaviours such as exercise and diet. While interesting, this is somewhat at odds with research into the social determinants of obesity, in which the focus has shifted away from individuals and behaviours to the types of wider obesogenic environments in which individuals live, which influence and produce these behaviours. This study combines these two strands of research by investigating how the genetic influence on body mass index (BMI), used as a proxy for obesity, changes across different neighbourhood environments measured by levels of deprivation. Genetics are incorporated using a classical twin design with data from Twins UK, a longitudinal study of UK twins running since 1992. A multilevel modelling approach is taken to decompose variation between individuals into genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental components. Neighbourhood deprivation is found to be a statistically significant predictor of BMI after conditioning on individual characteristics, and a heritability of 0.75 is estimated for the entire sample. This heritability estimate is shown, however, to be higher in more deprived neighbourhoods and lower in less deprived ones, and this relationship is statistically significant. While this research cannot say anything directly about the mechanisms behind the relationship, it does highlight how the relative importance of genetic factors can vary across different social environments, and therefore the value of considering both genetic and social determinants of health simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  17. Neighbourhood alcohol availability and gonorrhea rates: impact of social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Theall

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Social capital and income inequality have been proposed as important mediators of the relation between the material environment and health outcomes. We determined whether indicators of social capital are (i associated with neighbourhood gonorrhea rates, and (ii mediate the relation between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. Longitudinal analyses of age- and sex-adjusted gonorrhea cases reported from 1990 to 1996 in the 445 census tracts affected by the 1992 civil unrest in Los Angeles, California was conducted. The role of alcohol outlets was assessed both as tracts with surrendered off-sale outlets due to the civil unrest and annual off-sale alcohol outlet density rates. Tract level voting rates were used as one indicator of social capital, while neighbourhood structure conducive to social organization was used as another. Neighbourhoods with greater voting over time and greater endogenous social organization experienced 1.9 and 67.2 fewer gonorrhea cases per 100,000. Results also reveal a partial mediating role of social capital on the relationship between alcohol outlet density and gonorrhea rate. The alcohol environment may have a direct or partially mediated role in infectious disease outcomes such as gonorrhea. Our findings support the importance of continuing controls and limits on off-premise alcohol outlet density, as a potential means of reducing gonorrhea rates and increasing social capital.

  18. Extra-Pair Mating and Evolution of Cooperative Neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, Sigrunn; Jørgensen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans. PMID:24987839

  19. Extra-pair mating and evolution of cooperative neighbourhoods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrunn Eliassen

    Full Text Available A striking but unexplained pattern in biology is the promiscuous mating behaviour in socially monogamous species. Although females commonly solicit extra-pair copulations, the adaptive reason has remained elusive. We use evolutionary modelling of breeding ecology to show that females benefit because extra-pair paternity incentivizes males to shift focus from a single brood towards the entire neighbourhood, as they are likely to have offspring there. Male-male cooperation towards public goods and dear enemy effects of reduced territorial aggression evolve from selfish interests, and lead to safer and more productive neighbourhoods. The mechanism provides adaptive explanations for the common empirical observations that females engage in extra-pair copulations, that neighbours dominate as extra-pair sires, and that extra-pair mating correlates with predation mortality and breeding density. The models predict cooperative behaviours at breeding sites where males cooperate more towards public goods than females. Where maternity certainty makes females care for offspring at home, paternity uncertainty and a potential for offspring in several broods make males invest in communal benefits and public goods. The models further predict that benefits of extra-pair mating affect whole nests or neighbourhoods, and that cuckolding males are often cuckolded themselves. Derived from ecological mechanisms, these new perspectives point towards the evolution of sociality in birds, with relevance also for mammals and primates including humans.

  20. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  1. High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Targets Crossroads in Immune Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Bart Tummers; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infections with a high-risk type human papillomavirus (hrHPV) can progress to cancer. High-risk HPVs infect keratinocytes (KCs) and successfully suppress host immunity for up to two years despite the fact that KCs are well equipped to detect and initiate immune responses to invading pathogens. Viral persistence is achieved by active interference with KCs innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. To this end hrHPV utilizes proteins encoded by its viral genome, as well as exploits cellu...

  2. Outcomes of parental investment in high-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Corpuz, Randy; Samec, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    This study assesses the combined effects of children's early medical risk (e.g., preterm status) and parental investment levels (time spent in provision of care to target children as opposed to other family members) on children's response to novel, potentially distressing stimuli. While engaged in play activities, children were exposed to stimuli that were either neutral (a speaker on television with a calm voice) or threatening (a speaker with an angry voice). A significant interaction between children's risk status and parental investment was found only for threatening stimuli. High-risk children with high-investing parents showed high visual engagement with potentially threatening responses, whereas high-risk children with low-investing parents were more likely to show visual avoidance. No comparable effects were found for low-risk children. Findings were interpreted as showing that high-risk children with a history of high parental investment are more likely to attend to potentially threatening events, an adaptive response in the presence of reliable support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. You have to be there to enjoy it? Neighbourhood social capital and health.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohnen, S.M.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.; Subramanian, S.V.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown the positive effect of neighbourhood social capital on health. Existing research, however, has hitherto not studied whether the duration and intensity of exposure to neighbourhood social capital conditions and its effect on health. The aim of this study was to examine whether neighbourhood social capital affects individual’s health immediately and equally. Methods: We used two waves of the Dutch cross-sectional ‘Housing and Living Survey’. One (from 2009...

  4. Neighbourhood effects on school achievement: the mediating effect of parenting and problematic behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap Nieuwenhuis; Pieter Hooimeijer; Saskia van Dorsselaer; Wilma Vollebergh

    2013-01-01

    Neighbourhood research hitherto has suggested that the neighbourhood in which youth grow up affects their educational achievement. However, the mechanisms though which the neighbourhood reaches these effects are still unclear. Family and individual characteristics seem important in explaining educational outcomes. We therefore propose two related mediating factors: parenting strategies and problematic behaviour. We test this mediation using the 2009 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children da...

  5. Neighbourhood effects on youth’s achievements : the moderating role of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuis, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to investigate how neighbourhood effects on social mobility might be affected by parenting, problem behaviour, personality, and educational commitments. This aim came about when we considered the great variety in research findings from the neighbourhood effects literature, ranging from weak to strong neighbourhood effects, as well as insignificant effects and effects with reversed signs. We set out to study four factors that might mediate or moderate the neighb...

  6. High-risk smoldering myeloma: Perspective on watchful monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Siyang; Lentzsch, Suzanne

    2016-12-01

    In a 2008 paper, Dispenzieri and colleagues at the Mayo Clinic proposed a risk stratification system for patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) based on the presence of three risk factors: serum M-protein ≥3 g/dL, bone marrow plasma cell percentage ≥10%, and a free light chain (FLC) ratio (κ to λ) of either ≤0.125 or ≥8. The patient in this vignette has all three risk factors, classifying him as high-risk, with an associated median time to progression (TTP) of 1.9 years. This is significantly worse than a patient with intermediate-risk (median TTP 5.1 years) or low-risk (10 years) disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of orthographic and emotional neighbourhood in a colour categorization task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camblats, Anna-Malika; Mathey, Stéphanie

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated whether and how the strength of reading interference in a colour categorization task can be influenced by lexical competition and the emotional characteristics of words not directly presented. Previous findings showed inhibitory effects of high-frequency orthographic and emotional neighbourhood in the lexical decision task. Here, we examined the effect of orthographic neighbour frequency according to the emotional valence of the higher-frequency neighbour in an emotional orthographic Stroop paradigm. Stimuli were coloured neutral words that had either (1) no orthographic neighbour (e.g. PISTIL [pistil]), (2) one neutral higher-frequency neighbour (e.g. tirade [tirade]/TIRAGE [draw]) or (3) one negative higher-frequency neighbour (e.g. idiome [idiom]/IDIOTE [idiotic]). The results showed that colour categorization times were longer for words with no orthographic neighbour than for words with one neutral neighbour of higher frequency and even longer when the higher-frequency neighbour was neutral rather than negative. Thus, it appears not only that the orthographic neighbourhood of the coloured stimulus words intervenes in a colour categorization task, but also that the emotional content of the neighbour contributes to response times. These findings are discussed in terms of lexical competition between the stimulus word and non-presented orthographic neighbours, which in turn would modify the strength of reading interference on colour categorization times.

  8. Predicting reattendance at a high-risk breast cancer clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormseth, Sarah R; Wellisch, David K; Aréchiga, Adam E; Draper, Taylor L

    2015-10-01

    The research about follow-up patterns of women attending high-risk breast-cancer clinics is sparse. This study sought to profile daughters of breast-cancer patients who are likely to return versus those unlikely to return for follow-up care in a high-risk clinic. Our investigation included 131 patients attending the UCLA Revlon Breast Center High Risk Clinic. Predictor variables included age, computed breast-cancer risk, participants' perceived personal risk, clinically significant depressive symptomatology (CES-D score ≥ 16), current level of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and survival status of participants' mothers (survived or passed away from breast cancer). A greater likelihood of reattendance was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.07, p = 0.004), computed breast-cancer risk (AOR = 1.10, p = 0.017), absence of depressive symptomatology (AOR = 0.25, p = 0.009), past psychiatric diagnosis (AOR = 3.14, p = 0.029), and maternal loss to breast cancer (AOR = 2.59, p = 0.034). Also, an interaction was found between mother's survival and perceived risk (p = 0.019), such that reattendance was associated with higher perceived risk among participants whose mothers survived (AOR = 1.04, p = 0.002), but not those whose mothers died (AOR = 0.99, p = 0.685). Furthermore, a nonlinear inverted "U" relationship was observed between state anxiety and reattendance (p = 0.037); participants with moderate anxiety were more likely to reattend than those with low or high anxiety levels. Demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors were found to be independently associated with reattendance to a high-risk breast-cancer clinic. Explication of the profiles of women who may or may not reattend may serve to inform the development and implementation of interventions to increase the likelihood of follow-up care.

  9. Communicating about risk: strategies for situations where public concern is high but the risk is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Claire; Capon, Adam; Leask, Julie

    2017-01-15

    In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman's 'risk = hazard + outrage' formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to 'capture' the dominant representation of risk issues, the importance of communicating uncertainty, and the usefulness of engaging with communities. We argue that, when facing trade-offs in probable outcomes from communication, it is always best to choose strategies that maintain or build trust, even at the cost of initial overreactions. We discuss these features of successful risk communication in relation to a range of specific examples, particularly opposition to community water fluoridation, Ebola, and routine childhood immunisation.

  10. Communicating about risk: strategies for situations where public concern is high but the risk is low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hooker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman’s ‘risk = hazard + outrage’ formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to ‘capture’ the dominant representation of risk issues, the importance of communicating uncertainty, and the usefulness of engaging with communities. We argue that, when facing trade-offs in probable outcomes from communication, it is always best to choose strategies that maintain or build trust, even at the cost of initial overreactions. We discuss these features of successful risk communication in relation to a range of specific examples, particularly opposition to community water fluoridation, Ebola, and routine childhood immunisation.

  11. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Lyseen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals’ exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people’s complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person’s perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure.

  12. Neighbourhood social fragmentation and the mental health of children in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Joshi, Heather; Sullivan, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 7,776 Millennium Cohort Study children in England, we examined the role of neighbourhood social fragmentation in trajectories of emotional/behavioural problems at ages three, five and seven, and in moderating the association of children's emotional/behavioural problems with neighbourhood poverty, family poverty and adverse family events. Allowing for key background characteristics, social fragmentation generally added little to explain child outcomes, but there were fewer conduct problems among children in poor neighbourhoods with less fragmentation. Surprisingly, in less fragmented neighbourhoods poor families tended to feel less safe and more distressed, which was associated with children's conduct problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neighbourhood-socioeconomic variation in women's diet: the role of nutrition environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thornton, L E; Crawford, D A; Ball, K

    2010-01-01

    ... disadvantage, and if so, whether features of the neighbourhoodnutrition environment explain these associations. Subjects/Methods: A survey was completed by 1399 women from 45 neighbourhoods of varyi...

  14. Defining Neighbourhoods as a Measure of Exposure to the Food Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyseen, Anders K; Hansen, Henning S; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Anders S; Mikkelsen, Bent E

    2015-07-21

    Neighbourhoods are frequently used as a measure for individuals' exposure to the food environment. However, the definitions of neighbourhoods fluctuate and have not been applied consistently in previous studies. Neighbourhoods defined from a single fixed location fail to capture people's complete exposure in multiple locations, but measuring behaviour using traditional methods can be challenging. This study compares the traditional methods of measuring exposure to the food environment to methods that use data from GPS tracking. For each of the 187 participants, 11 different neighbourhoods were created in which the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets were measured. ANOVA, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test and t-tests were performed to compare the neighbourhoods. Significant differences were found between area sizes and the exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets for different neighbourhood types. Second, significant differences in exposure to food outlets were found between the urban and rural neighbourhoods. Neighbourhoods are clearly a diffused and blurred concept that varies in meaning depending on each person's perception and the conducted study. Complexity and heterogeneity of human mobility no longer appear to correspond to the use of residential neighbourhoods but rather emphasise the need for methods, concepts and measures of individual activity and exposure.

  15. Genomic analysis of high-risk smoldering multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Corral, Lucía; Mateos, María Victoria; Corchete, Luis A; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; de la Rubia, Javier; de Arriba, Felipe; Lahuerta, Juan-José; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F; Gutiérrez, Norma C

    2012-09-01

    Smoldering myeloma is an asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasia with a heterogeneous propensity to progress to active myeloma. In order to investigate the biology of smoldering myeloma patients with high risk of progression, we analyzed the genomic characteristics by FISH, SNP-arrays and gene expression profile of a group of patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma included in a multicenter randomized trial. Chromosomal abnormalities detected by FISH and SNP-arrays at diagnosis were not associated to risk of progression to symptomatic myeloma. However, the overexpression of four SNORD genes (SNORD25, SNORD27, SNORD30 and SNORD31) was correlated with shorter time to progression (Psmoldering patients who progressed to symptomatic myeloma were sequentially analyzed, newly acquired lesions together with an increase in the proportion of plasma cells carrying a given abnormality were observed. These findings suggest that gene expression profiling is a valuable technique to identify smoldering myeloma patients with high risk of progression. (Clinical Trials NCT00443235).

  16. High alcohol consumption causes high IgE levels but not high risk of allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomholt, Frederikke K; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-11-01

    High alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels in observational studies; however, whether high alcohol consumption leads to high IgE levels and allergic disease is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that high alcohol consumption is associated with high IgE levels and allergic disease both observationally and genetically using a Mendelian randomization design free of reverse causation and largely free of confounding. Among 111,408 subjects aged 20 to 100 years from the general population, 50,019 had plasma IgE measurements, and 102,270 were genotyped for the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH-1B; rs1229984) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH-1C; rs698). Observationally, we investigated associations between IgE levels and allergic disease (allergic asthma, rhinitis, and eczema) and between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. Genetically, we explored potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and IgE levels and allergic disease. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio for IgE levels greater than versus less than 150 kU/L and compared with subjects without allergic disease was 2.3 (95% CI, 2.2-2.5) for 1 allergic disease, 3.9 (95% CI, 3.5-4.4) for 2 allergic diseases, and 7.5 (95% CI, 6.2-9.0) for 3 allergic diseases. High alcohol consumption was associated with high IgE levels but not with high risk of allergic disease. The odds ratio for high versus low IgE levels per 1 alcoholic drink per week higher consumption was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.02-1.23) genetically and 1.01 (95% CI, 1.01-1.02) observationally; for allergic disease, the corresponding odds ratios were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00) genetically and 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00-1.00) observationally. High alcohol consumption is associated observationally and genetically with high IgE levels but not with high risk of allergic disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived Adverse Health Effects of Heat and Their Determinants in Deprived Neighbourhoods: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Nine Cities in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Bélanger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies several characteristics of individuals who report their physical and/or mental health as being adversely affected by summertime heat and humidity, within the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods of the nine largest cities of Québec (Canada. The study is cross-sectional by stratified representative sample; 3485 people were interviewed in their residence. The prevalence of reported impacts was 46%, mostly physical health. Female gender and long-term medical leave are two impact risk indicators in people <65 years of age. Low income and air conditioning at home are risk indicators at all ages. Results for having ≥2 diagnoses of chronic diseases, particularly for people self-describing as in poor health (odds ratio, OR<65 = 5.6; OR≥65 = 4.2, and perceiving daily stress, are independent of age. The prevalence of reported heat-related health impacts is thus very high in those inner cities, with notable differences according to age, stress levels and long-term medical leave, previously unmentioned in the literature. Finally, the total number of pre-existing medical conditions seems to be a preponderant risk factor. This study complements the epidemiologic studies based on mortality or severe morbidity and shows that the heat-related burden of disease appears very important in those communities, affecting several subgroups differentially.

  18. Association between neighbourhood green space and sedentary leisure time in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Rikke Lynge; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease etc., independently of level of physical activity. Availability of recreational green space is associated with physical activity, but is unknown in relation to sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study is to examine...... the association between availability of green space and sedentary leisure time in a Danish population. Methods: The study was based on a random sample of ~50,000 adults who answered a questionnaire in 2010, including sedentary leisure time. Objective measures of density green were calculated for each respondent...... using Geographical Information System (GIS). A multilevel regression analysis, taking neighbourhood and individual factors into account, was performed. Results: 65 % of the respondents were sedentary for more than 3h/day in leisure time. We found that good availability of forest and recreational...

  19. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  20. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Skau Pawlowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10–13-years-old and seniors (>60-years-old in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. Methods The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1 a children study and 2 a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. Discussion The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  1. The risk ogf high-risk jobs : psychological health consequences in forensic physicians and ambulance workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, E. van der

    2003-01-01

    The risk of high-risk jobs: Psychological health consequences in forensic doctors and ambulance workers This thesis has shown that forensic physicians and ambulance personnel frequently suffer from psychological complaints as a result of dramatic events and sources of chronic work stress. A

  2. Risk factors for congenital anomalies in high risk pregnant women: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tella Sunitha

    2016-05-14

    May 14, 2016 ... Abstract Background: High Risk Pregnancy (HRP) is a condition where mother or developing fetus or both are at increased risk of complications during or after pregnancy and birth. There are no studies so far which have characterized congenital anomalies (CAs) in HRP women with dif- ferent previous ...

  3. Risk factors for congenital anomalies in high risk pregnant women: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tella Sunitha

    2016-05-14

    May 14, 2016 ... Rubella;. CMV and HSV. Abstract Background: High Risk Pregnancy (HRP) is a condition where mother or developing fetus or both are at increased risk of complications during or after pregnancy and birth. There are no studies so far which have characterized congenital anomalies (CAs) in HRP women ...

  4. On risk, leverage and banks: do highly leveraged banks take on excessive risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, M.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the relation between excessive risk taking and capital structure in banks. Examining a quarterly dataset of U.S. banks between 1993 and 2010, we find that equity is valued higher when more risky portfolios are chosen when leverage is high, and that more risk taking has a

  5. Clinical risk factors for gestational hypertensive disorders in pregnant women at high risk for developing preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Tsz Y.; Groen, Henk; Faas, Marijke M.; van Pampus, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate clinical risk factors for the development of gestational hypertensive disorders in a group of pregnant women at high risk for developing preeclampsia. Secondly we evaluated the incidence and recurrence rate of preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Study design: A

  6. Who Takes Risks in High-Risk Sports? A Typological Personality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the risk-taking behaviors of 302 men involved in high-risk sports (downhill skiing, mountaineering, rock climbing, paragliding, or skydiving). The sportsmen were classified using a typological approach to personality based on eight personality types, which were constructed from combinations of neuroticism, extraversion, and…

  7. Risk behaviors for the health of adolescents from High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Ramos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the risk behaviors (smoking addiction, alcoholism, drug use and sexual risk behavior of adolescents from High School. Methods: It was an analytical and cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 720 scholars (252 boys and 468 girls from the age group of 16 to 17 years-old, from three public schools in Florianopolis/SC. The data was collected through two types of self administrated questionnaires; one for the parents and another one for the students, from March to December, 2005. The studied variables were legal and illegal drug use and sexual risk behavior. The descriptive statistics and the chi- squared test were used to carry out the data analysis Results: The beginning of risk behaviors occurred between 14 and 15 years old, for both genders. It was observed that 26 (3.6% scholars drank alcohol regularly; 38 (5.3% smoked daily; 66 (9.2 % were drug users or had used drugs several times and 14 (2% were drug dependents. Concerning to sexual risk behavior, 318 (44.5% scholars had sexual risk behavior and from those, 97 (13.6% did not always use condom. From the studied sample, 545 (76.5% scholars did not present any risk behavior. Among risk behaviors, sexual risk prevailed (42.5%. Conclusion: The number of adolescents with risk behavior was not high. Nevertheless, there is a small proportion of adolescents that smoke, drink and do drugs and have sexual risk behavior. This points out to the need of a bigger supervision and guidance for these students.

  8. Early Parental Adaptation, Prenatal Distress, and High-Risk Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollberg, Daphna G; Rozenfeld, Tamir; Kupfermincz, Michael

    2016-09-01

    To examine the examined the effects of high risk pregnancy and prenatal distress on parental postnatal adaptation. A sample of 111 expecting parents, consisting of 32 high risk pregnancy (HRP) mothers and 21 spouses and 36 matched low risk pregnancy (LRP) mothers and 22 spouses completed reports of depression symptoms (BDI) and pregnancy related concerns prenatally. At three months postpartum, parent-infant direct observations and reports of parenting alliance (PAI), stress (PSI-SF), satisfaction and efficacy (PSOC) were gathered. Data was analyzed with GLM multivariate analyses and the actor-partner interdependence model. Parents' prenatal BDI predicted postnatal parental stress. BDI and concerns predicted postnatal satisfaction, but only for mothers. Mother's concerns predicted low maternal and high paternal parenting alliance. Partner effect was found so that high concerns predicted high reports of parenting alliance by spouse. Mean-group differences were found between HRP and LRP during parent-infant observations, so that HRP parents displayed lower sensitivity and reciprocity. Prenatal distress, and to some degree high risk pregnancy, are risk factors that may interfere with the early formation of parent-infant relationship. Clinical implications of these findings are presented. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The risk of hydrogen explosion in a submarine p. IV The implementation of high risk projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Ryszard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This series of articles on high risk projects looks at the example of the modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article describes problems connected with the management of such a project.

  10. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  11. An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A total of 300 randomly selected migrant oil workers were assessed using structured questionnaires to evaluate key highrisk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism. Sampling period was two months with ...

  12. A good place to raise your children? The diversity of parents’ neighbourhood perceptions and parenting practices in a low-income, multi-ethnic neighbourhood : A case study in Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, K.; Bolt, G.S.; van Kempen, R.

    A considerable number of researchers have now recognised the importance of parental strategies in mediating or moderating neighbourhood effects on children. Their studies, however, provide little insight into the diversity of the neighbourhood perceptions, the role of the involvement or

  13. High risk drinking and college students' self-perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Gabriel C; Wong, Eugene H

    2005-12-01

    The present study examined the relationship between high risk drinking and college students' self-perceptions. High risk drinking was defined as the consumption of four or more drinks in a row for women and five or more drinks in a row for men during a single sitting (within the last year). Historical trends regarding college-age drinking indicate that 44% of college students fit the criteria for high risk drinking at least once over the past year. A survey was administered to 210 college students (52 men and 158 women) between 18 and 22 years of age (M = 20.9, SD = 1.3) to assess their use of alcohol and their self-perceptions. Students' self-perceptions were measured with four subscales from the Neemann-Harter Self-perception Profile for College Students. Students either volunteered to participate in this study outside of class or were solicited during class. It was predicted that students' self-perceptions would differ significantly depending upon their alcohol consumption, i.e., 17.1% were Abstainers, 25.2% were Nonproblem Drinkers, and 57.6% were High Risk Drinkers. Analysis gave significant difference on Global Self-worth between students who abstained and those who were High Risk Drinkers. However, students' perceptions of Scholastic Competence, Intellectual Ability, and Social Acceptance did not differ significantly for the alcohol consumption groups. In addition to high risk drinking, a number of other variables were associated with self-perceptions, such as high school alcohol use, low high school GPA, and students' reported academic involvement. These relations are discussed.

  14. Psychological characteristics in high-risk MSM in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanzhi; Li, Yang; Zhang, Beichuan; Yu, Zengzhao; Li, Xiufang; Wang, Lixin; Yu, Ziming

    2012-01-20

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have become a high-risk group of HIV infection in China. To date, little is known regarding the behavioral, social and psychological characteristics in Chinese MSM, which makes the implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies for this high-risk subpopulation of people extremely difficult. A total of 714 questionnaires were retrieved from the database of a Chinese government-sponsored National Key Research Project titled "Risk Analysis and Strategic Prevention of HIV Transmission from MSM to the General Population in China". The respondents were categorized into a high-risk group and a control group. Their behavioral, social and psychological characteristics were comparatively analyzed. Of the 714 MSM analyzed, 59 (8.26%) had high-risk homosexual behaviors. This sub-group of MSM had a higher in-marriage rate, a higher monthly income, heavier alcohol consumption and more serious problems with sexual abuse in childhood, intentional suicide attempts and mistaken assumption on condom's role in protecting HIV infection, as compared with the control group (P discrimination (P > 0.05). A vast majority of the individuals in both behavior categories expressed support of legally protected gay clubs as well as gay marriage legislation in China. There was a strong correlation between high-risk behaviors and sexual abuse in childhood, alcohol drinking, income level and a mistaken belief in perfect HIV protection through the use of condoms. MSM with and without high-risk homosexual behaviors have different social and psychological characteristics, which should be taken into account when implementing behavioral and therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing HIV/AIDS transmission among MSM as well as from MSM to the general population in China.

  15. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.

  16. Psychological characteristics in high-risk MSM in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guanzhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM have become a high-risk group of HIV infection in China. To date, little is known regarding the behavioral, social and psychological characteristics in Chinese MSM, which makes the implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies for this high-risk subpopulation of people extremely difficult. Methods A total of 714 questionnaires were retrieved from the database of a Chinese government-sponsored National Key Research Project titled "Risk Analysis and Strategic Prevention of HIV Transmission from MSM to the General Population in China". The respondents were categorized into a high-risk group and a control group. Their behavioral, social and psychological characteristics were comparatively analyzed. Results Of the 714 MSM analyzed, 59 (8.26% had high-risk homosexual behaviors. This sub-group of MSM had a higher in-marriage rate, a higher monthly income, heavier alcohol consumption and more serious problems with sexual abuse in childhood, intentional suicide attempts and mistaken assumption on condom's role in protecting HIV infection, as compared with the control group (P P > 0.05. A vast majority of the individuals in both behavior categories expressed support of legally protected gay clubs as well as gay marriage legislation in China. There was a strong correlation between high-risk behaviors and sexual abuse in childhood, alcohol drinking, income level and a mistaken belief in perfect HIV protection through the use of condoms. Conclusions MSM with and without high-risk homosexual behaviors have different social and psychological characteristics, which should be taken into account when implementing behavioral and therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing HIV/AIDS transmission among MSM as well as from MSM to the general population in China.

  17. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  18. HIFU therapy for patients with high risk prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovov, V. A.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.; Matysh, Y. S.

    2017-03-01

    Objectives. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or ADT alone. The widely accepted definition of high-risk prostate was first proposed by D'Amico based on a pretreatment Gleason score of ≥8, clinical stage T3, PSA level ≥20 ng/mL. There is no trial that compares traditional methods of treatment of such patients with HIFU therapy. Here we explored the effectiveness of the HIFU in multimodal treatment for patients with high risk prostate cancer. Materials & Methods. 701 patients with high risk prostate cancer were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2013. Gleason score were 8-10, stage T3N0M0, age 69 (58-86) years, mean PSA before treatment 43.3 (22.1-92.9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume - 59.3 (38-123) cc. 248 patients were treated by HIFU. We compare this group of patients with patients who undertook EBRT: number 196, and ADT: number 257. Mean follow-up time 58 months (6-72). Results. The 5-year overall survival rates in patients after HIFU were 73.8 %, after EBRT - 63.0 % and after ADT - 18.1%. Conclusions. Our experience showed that HIFU therapy in combined treatment were successful for high risk prostate cancer.

  19. Detection of high risk campylobacteriosis clusters at three geographic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Weisent

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and many other developed countries. Understanding the spatial distribution of this disease and identifying high-risk areas is vital to focus resources for prevention and control measures. In addition, determining the appropriate scale for geographical analysis of surveillance data is an area of concern to epidemiologists and public health officials. The purpose of this study was to (i compare standardized risk estimates for campylobacteriosis in Tennessee over three distinct geographical scales (census tract, zip code and county subdivision, and (ii identify and investigate high-risk spatial clustering of campylobacteriosis at the three geographical scales to determine if clustering is scale dependent. Significant high risk clusters (P <0.05 were detected at all three spatial scales. There were overlaps in regions of high-risk and clusters at all three geographic levels. At the census tract level, spatial analysis identified smaller clusters of finer resolution and detected more clusters than the other two levels. However, data aggregation at zip code or county subdivision yielded similar findings. The importance of this line of research is to create a framework whereby economically efficient disease control strategies become more attainable through improved geographical precision and risk detection. Accurate identification of disease clusters for campylobacteriosis can enable public health personnel to focus scarce resources towards prevention and control programmes on the most at-risk populations. Consistent results at multiple spatial levels highlight the robustness of the geospatial techniques utilized in this study. Furthermore, analyses at the zip code and county subdivision levels can be useful when address level information (finer resolution data are not available. These procedures may also be used to help identify regionally specific risk factors for

  20. Personality and sensation seeking in high-risk sports

    OpenAIRE

    Polona Klinar; Stojan Burnik; Tanja Kajtna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personality represents a relatively consistent and unique sum of psychological, cognitive and physical characteristics of an individual. Sensation seeking is defined as an action, characterized by the search for different, new, complex and intensive emotions and experiences and preparedness to take physical, social, legal and financial risks in order to achieve these experiences.Objective: We were looking for differences in personality and sensation seeking between high-risk sport...

  1. Correlates of hopelessness in the high suicide risk police occupation

    OpenAIRE

    Violanti, John M.; Andrew, Michael E.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Hartley, Tara A.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Police officers are chronically exposed to work stress. We examined specific stressors that may be associated with hopelessness, a possible risk factor for suicide in this high suicide risk population. The study included 378 officers (276 men and 102 women) with complete data. Analysis of variance was used to estimate mean levels of hopelessness scores as associated with stress, adjusted for age, gender, and race/ ethnicity. Posttraumatic symptoms were tested as a modifier of the association ...

  2. The impact of regional and neighbourhood deprivation on physical health in Germany: a multilevel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razum Oliver

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that individual health is at least partly determined by neighbourhood and regional factors. Mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood, and evidence from Germany is scant. This study explores whether regional as well as neighbourhood deprivation are associated with physical health and to what extent this association can be explained by specific neighbourhood exposures. Methods Using 2004 data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP merged with regional and neighbourhood characteristics, we fitted multilevel linear regression models with subjective physical health, as measured by the SF-12, as the dependent variable. The models include regional and neighbourhood proxies of deprivation (i.e. regional unemployment quota, average purchasing power of the street section as well as specific neighbourhood exposures (i.e. perceived air pollution. Individual characteristics including socioeconomic status and health behaviour have been controlled for. Results This study finds a significant association between area deprivation and physical health which is independent of compositional factors and consistent across different spatial scales. Furthermore the association between neighbourhood deprivation and physical health can be partly explained by specific features of the neighbourhood environment. Among these perceived air pollution shows the strongest association with physical health (-2.4 points for very strong and -1.5 points for strong disturbance by air pollution, standard error (SE = 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. Beta coefficients for perceived air pollution, perceived noise and the perceived distance to recreational resources do not diminish when including individual health behaviour in the models. Conclusions This study highlights the difference regional and in particular neighbourhood deprivation make to the physical health of individuals in Germany. The results support the argument that

  3. The contribution of housing and neighbourhood conditions to educational inequalities in non-communicable diseases in Europe: findings from the European Social Survey (2014) special module on the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Courtney L; Balaj, Mirza; Thomson, Katie H; Eikemo, Terje A; Bambra, Clare

    2017-02-01

    Social gradients have been found across European populations, where less affluent groups are more often affected by poor housing and neighbourhood conditions. While poor housing and neighbourhood quality have been associated with a range of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), these conditions have rarely been applied to the examination of socioeconomic differences in NCDs. This study therefore asks ‘to what extent does adjusting for poor housing and neighbourhood conditions reduce inequalities in NCDs among men and women in Europe’? Our analysis used pooled-data from 20 European countries for women (n= 12 794) and men (n= 11 974), aged 25–75, from round 7 of the European Social Survey. Fourteen NCDs were investigated: heart/circulatory problems, high blood pressure, back pain, arm/hand pain, foot/leg pain, allergies, breathing problems, stomach/digestion problems, skin conditions, diabetes, severe headaches, cancer, obesity and depression. We used binary logistic regression models, stratified by gender, and adjusted rate ratios to examine whether educational inequalities in NCDs were reduced after controlling for poor housing and neighbourhood quality. Overall, we find that adjusting for poor housing and neighbourhood quality reduces inequalities in NCDs. While reductions were relatively small for some NCDs–for high blood pressure, reductions were found in the range of 0–4.27% among women—for other conditions reductions were more considerable. Controlling for both housing and neighbourhood conditions for example, reduced inequalities by 16–24% for severe headaches and 14–30% for breathing problems. Social gradients in poor housing and neighbourhood quality could be an important contributor to educational inequalities in some NCDs.

  4. A novel risk classification paradigm for patients with impaired glucose tolerance and high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, M Angelyn; Chacra, Antonio R; Deedwania, Prakash; Fulcher, Gregory R; Holman, Rury R; Jenssen, Trond; Kahn, Steven E; Levitt, Naomi S; McMurray, John J V; Califf, Robert M; Raptis, Sotirios A; Thomas, Laine; Sun, Jie-Lena; Haffner, Steven M

    2013-07-15

    We used baseline data from the NAVIGATOR trial to (1) identify risk factors for diabetes progression in those with impaired glucose tolerance and high cardiovascular risk, (2) create models predicting 5-year incident diabetes, and (3) provide risk classification tools to guide clinical interventions. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models estimated 5-year incident diabetes risk and simplified models examined the relative importance of measures of glycemia in assessing diabetes risk. The C-statistic was used to compare models; reclassification analyses compare the models' ability to identify risk groups defined by potential therapies (routine or intensive lifestyle advice or pharmacologic therapy). Diabetes developed in 3,254 (35%) participants over 5 years median follow-up. The full prediction model included fasting and 2-hour glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values but demonstrated only moderate discrimination for diabetes (C = 0.70). Simplified models with only fasting glucose (C = 0.67) or oral glucose tolerance test values (C = 0.68) had higher C statistics than models with HbA1c alone (C = 0.63). The models were unlikely to inappropriately reclassify participants to risk groups that might receive pharmacologic therapy. Our results confirm that in a population with dysglycemia and high cardiovascular risk, traditional risk factors are appropriate predictors and glucose values are better predictors than HbA1c, but discrimination is moderate at best, illustrating the challenges of predicting diabetes in a high-risk population. In conclusion, our novel risk classification paradigm based on potential treatment could be used to guide clinical practice based on cost and availability of screening tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neighbourhood food environment and dietary intakes in adolescents: sex and perceived family affluence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Bonny Yee-Man; Lo, Wing-Sze; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Thomas, G Neil; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-10-01

    To examine the effects of perceived availability of fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores on adolescent dietary intakes. Survey data from 34 369 students in 42 Hong Kong secondary schools were collected in 2006-7. Respondents reported the availability of fast-food shops, restaurants and convenience stores in the neighbourhood, and their intakes of fruit, vegetables, high-fat foods and junk food/soft drinks. For intakes of high-fat foods and junk food/ soft drinks, ≤ once a week was defined as low consumption and the rest moderate/high consumption. At least three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruit daily were defined as sufficient consumption. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (OR) for each dietary intake in relation to the reported food shops. Potential effect modifications by socio-demographic factors were also examined. Perceived availability of fast-food shops and convenience stores were positively associated with moderate/high consumptions of high-fat foods (OR(fast) =1.10 and OR(con) =1.15) and junk food/soft drinks (OR(fast)=1.10 and OR(con) =1.10). Significant negative associations of the perceived availability of restaurants with intakes of vegetables and fruit were observed (OR(veg) =0.87 and OR(fruit) =0.83). The positive relationship between reporting fast-food shops with intake of junk food/soft drinks were observed only in boys and those with low perceived family affluence. The negative association of reporting restaurants with fruit consumption was found in those with low and middle perceived family affluence only. Perceived availability of neighbourhood fast-food shops, restaurants, and convenience stores may have a negative impact on adolescent dietary intakes particularly for those from poorer families.

  6. High-Risk Stress Fractures: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Kelly C; Ramey, Lindsay N

    2016-03-01

    Stress fractures are common overuse injuries in athletes. They occur during periods of increased training without adequate rest, disrupting normal bone reparative mechanisms. There are a host of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including biochemical and biomechanical, that put athletes at risk. In most stress fractures, the diagnosis is primarily clinical, with imaging indicated at times, and management focused on symptom-free relative rest with advancement of activity as tolerated. Overall, stress fractures in athletes have an excellent prognosis for return to sport, with little risk of complication. There is a subset of injuries that have a greater risk of fracture progression, delayed healing, and nonunion and are generally more challenging to treat with nonoperative care. Specific locations of high-risk stress fracture include the femoral neck (tension side), patella, anterior tibia, medial malleolus, talus, tarsal navicular, proximal fifth metatarsal, and great toe sesamoids. These sites share a characteristic region of high tensile load and low blood flow. High-risk stress fractures require a more aggressive approach to evaluation, with imaging often necessary, to confirm early and accurate diagnosis and initiate immediate treatment. Treatment consists of nonweight-bearing immobilization, often with a prolonged period away from sport, and a more methodic and careful reintroduction to athletic activity. These stress fractures may require surgical intervention. A high index of suspicion is essential to avoid delayed diagnosis and optimize outcomes in this subset of stress fractures. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Primitive Reflexes in High-risk Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Min; Ahn, Youngmee; Lee, Sangmi

    2011-12-01

    Assessment of primitive reflexes is one of the earliest, simplest, and most frequently used assessment tools among health care providers for newborns and young infants. However, very few data exist for high-risk infants in this topic. Among the various primitive reflexes, this study was undertaken particularly to describe the sucking, Babinski and Moro reflexes in high-risk newborns and to explore their relationships with clinical variables. This study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Sixty seven high-risk newborns including full-term infants required intensive care as well as premature infants were recruited in a neonatal intensive care unit using convenient sampling method. The sucking, Babinski and Moro reflexes were assessed and classified by normal, abnormal and absence. To explore their relationships with clinical variables, birth-related variables, brain sonogram results, and behavioral state (the Anderson Behavioral State Scale, ABSS) and mental status (the Infant Coma Scale, ICS) were assessed. The sucking reflex presented a normal response most frequently (63.5%), followed by Babinski reflex (58.7%) and Moro reflex (42.9%). Newborns who presented normal sucking and Babinski reflex responses were more likely to have older gestational age, heavier birth and current weight, higher Apgar scores, shorter length of hospitalization, better respiratory conditions, and better mental status assessed by ICS, but not with Moro reflex. High risk newborns presented more frequent abnormal and absence responses of primitive reflex and the proportions of the responses varied by reflex. Further researches are necessary in exploring diverse aspects of primitive reflexes and revealing their clinical implication in the high-risk newborns that are unique and different to normal healthy newborns. Primitive reflex; High risk infants; Korean; Moro reflex; Sucking reflex; Babinski reflex; The Anderson Behavioral State Scale; Infant Coma Scale.

  8. Quantifying the risk of respiratory infection in healthcare workers performing high-risk procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, C R; Seale, H; Yang, P; Zhang, Y; Shi, W; Almatroudi, A; Moa, A; Wang, X; Li, X; Pang, X; Wang, Q

    2014-09-01

    This study determined the risk of respiratory infection associated with high-risk procedures (HRPs) performed by healthcare workers (HCWs) in high-risk settings. We prospectively studied 481 hospital HCWs in China, documented risk factors for infection, including performing HRPs, measured new infections, and analysed whether HRPs predicted infection. Infection outcomes were clinical respiratory infection (CRI), laboratory-confirmed viral or bacterial infection, and an influenza infection. About 12% (56/481) of the study participants performed at least one HRP, the most common being airway suctioning (7·7%, 37/481). HCWs who performed a HRP were at significantly higher risk of developing CRI and laboratory-confirmed infection [adjusted relative risk 2·9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·42-5·87 and 2·9, 95% CI 1·37-6·22, respectively]. Performing a HRP resulted in a threefold increase in the risk of respiratory infections. This is the first time the risk has been prospectively quantified in HCWs, providing data to inform occupational health and safety policies.

  9. Humanized birth in high risk pregnancy: barriers and facilitating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Leduc, Nicole; Misago, Chizuru

    2010-02-01

    The medical model of childbearing assumes that a pregnancy always has the potential to turn into a risky procedure. In order to advocate humanized birth in high risk pregnancy, an important step involves the enlightenment of the professional's preconceptions on humanized birth in such a situation. The goal of this paper is to identify the professionals' perception of the potential obstacles and facilitating factors for the implementation of humanized care in high risk pregnancies. Twenty-one midwives, obstetricians, and health administrator professionals from the clinical and academic fields were interviewed in nine different sites in Japan from June through August 2008. The interviews were audio taped, and transcribed with the participants' consent. Data was subsequently analyzed using content analysis qualitative methods. Professionals concurred with the concept that humanized birth is a changing and promising process, and can often bring normality to the midst of a high obstetric risk situation. No practice guidelines can be theoretically defined for humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy, as there is no conflict between humanized birth and medical intervention in such a situation. Barriers encountered in providing humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy include factors such as: the pressure of being responsible for the safety of the mother and the fetus, lack of the women's active involvement in the decision making process and the heavy burden of responsibility on the physician's shoulders, potential legal issues, and finally, the lack of midwifery authority in providing care at high risk pregnancy. The factors that facilitate humanized birth in a high risk include: the sharing of decision making and other various responsibilities between the physicians and the women; being caring; stress management, and the fact that the evolution of a better relationship and communication between the health professional and the patient will lead to a stress

  10. Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities in incidence of acute myocardial infarction: a cohort study quantifying age- and gender-specific differences in relative and absolute terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status has a profound effect on the risk of having a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Information on socioeconomic inequalities in AMI incidence across age- gender-groups is lacking. Our objective was to examine socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of AMI considering both relative and absolute measures of risk differences, with a particular focus on age and gender. Methods We identified all patients with a first AMI from 1997 to 2007 through linked hospital discharge and death records covering the Dutch population. Relative risks (RR) of AMI incidence were estimated by mean equivalent household income at neighbourhood-level for strata of age and gender using Poisson regression models. Socioeconomic inequalities were also shown within the stratified age-gender groups by calculating the total number of events attributable to socioeconomic disadvantage. Results Between 1997 and 2007, 317,564 people had a first AMI. When comparing the most deprived socioeconomic quintile with the most affluent quintile, the overall RR for AMI was 1.34 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.32 – 1.36) in men and 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.42 – 1.47) in women. The socioeconomic gradient decreased with age. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were most apparent in men under 35 years and in women under 65 years. The largest number of events attributable to socioeconomic inequalities was found in men aged 45–74 years and in women aged 65–84 years. The total proportion of AMIs that was attributable to socioeconomic inequalities in the Dutch population of 1997 to 2007 was 14 % in men and 18 % in women. Conclusions Neighbourhood socioeconomic inequalities were observed in AMI incidence in the Netherlands, but the magnitude across age-gender groups depended on whether inequality was expressed in relative or absolute terms. Relative socioeconomic inequalities were high in young persons and women, where the absolute burden of AMI was low. Absolute

  11. The orbital eccentricity distribution of solar-neighbourhood halo stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, K.; Yoshii, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We present theoretical calculations for the differential distribution of stellar orbital eccentricity for a sample of solar-neighbourhood halo stars. Two types of static, spherical gravitational potentials are adopted to define the eccentricity e for given energy E and angular momentum L, such as an isochrone potential and a Navarro-Frenk-White potential that can serve as two extreme ends covering in between any realistic potential of the Milky Way halo. The solar-neighbourhood eccentricity distribution ΔN(e) is then formulated, based on a static distribution function of the form f(E, L) in which the velocity anisotropy parameter β monotonically increases in the radial direction away from the galaxy centre, such that β is below unity (near-isotropic velocity dispersion) in the central region and asymptotically approaches ˜1 (radially anisotropic velocity dispersion) in the far distant region of the halo. We find that ΔN(e) sensitively depends upon the radial profile of β, and this sensitivity is used to constrain such a profile in comparison with some observational properties of ΔNobs(e) recently reported by Carollo et al. In particular, the linear e-distribution and the fraction of higher e stars for their sample of solar-neighbourhood inner-halo stars rule out a constant profile of β, contrary to the opposite claim by Bond et al. Our constraint of β≲ 0.5 at the galaxy centre indicates that the violent relaxation that has acted on the inner halo is effective within a scale radius of ˜10 kpc from the galaxy centre. We argue that our result would help to understand the formation and evolution of the Milky Way halo.

  12. Governance as glue: Urban governance and social cohesion in post-WWII neighbourhoods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    At the time when the post-WWII neighbourhoods were built, they were much wanted housing environments. Today, however, they face many problems with safety, concentrations of poverty, and liveability. Much good is expected of social cohesion to restore the situation in these neighbourhoods.

  13. Neighbourhood safety and leisure-time physical activity among Dutch adults: a multilevel perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniëlle; Maas, Jolanda; Wingen, Marleen; Kunst, Anton E

    2013-01-28

    Several neighbourhood elements have been found to be related to leisure-time walking and cycling. However, the association with neighbourhood safety remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the association of neighbourhood-level safety with leisure-time walking and cycling among Dutch adults. Data were derived from the national health survey (POLS) 2006-2009, with valid data on 20046 respondents residing in 2127 neighbourhoods. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine the association between neighbourhood-level safety (general safety and specific safety components: physical disorder, social disorder, crime-related fear, traffic safety) and residents' engagement in outdoor leisure-time walking and cycling for at least 30 minutes per week. An increase in neighbourhood safety (both general safety and each of the safety components) was significantly associated with an increase in leisure-time cycling participation. Associations were strongest for general safety and among older women. In the general population, neighbourhood safety was not significantly associated with leisure-time walking. However, among younger and older adult men and lower educated individuals, an increase in general safety was associated with a decrease in leisure-time walking participation. In the Netherlands, neighbourhood safety appears to be related to leisure-time cycling but not to walking. Leisure-time cycling may best be encouraged by improving different safety components at once, rather than focusing on one safety aspect such as traffic safety. Special attention is needed for older women.

  14. Neighbourhood immigrant concentration effects on migrant and native youth's educational commitments, an enquiry into personality differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Hooimeijer, Pieter; van Ham, Maarten; Meeus, Wim

    2017-08-01

    In the literature examining neighbourhood effects on educational outcomes, the socialisation mechanism is usually investigated by looking at the association between neighbourhood characteristics and educational attainment. The step in between, that adolescents actually internalise educational norms held by residents, is often assumed. We attempt to fill this gap by looking at how the internalisation of educational norms (commitments) is influenced by neighbourhoods' immigrant concentration. We investigate this process for both migrant and native youth, as both groups might be influenced differently by immigrant concentrations. To test our hypothesis we used longitudinal panel data with five waves (N = 4255), combined with between-within models which control for a large portion of potential selection bias. These models have an advantage over naïve OLS models in that they predict the effect of change in neighbourhood characteristics on change in educational commitment, and therefore offer a more dynamic approach to modelling neighbourhood effects. Our results show that living in neighbourhoods with higher proportions of immigrants increases the educational commitments of migrant youth compared to living in neighbourhoods with lower proportions. Besides, we find that adolescents with a resilient personality experience less influence of the neighbourhood context on educational commitments than do adolescents with non-resilient personalities.

  15. Multilingualism, Urban Change and Gentrification in the Landscape of a Brussels Neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Mieke

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on how different historical stages of socio-economic development in Brussels are played out on the ground over time in one particular inner-city neighbourhood, the Quartier Dansaert. In particular, I document the history of this neighbourhood and how urban change and gentrification have impacted the outlook of multilingualism…

  16. Bipartite theory on Neighbourhood dominating and global dominating sets of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanamandram Balasubramanian Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipartite theory of graphs was formulated by Stephen Hedetniemi and Renu Laskar in which concepts in Graph theory have equivalent formulations as concepts for bipartite graphs.  We give the bipartite version of Neighbourhood sets, Line neighbourhood set and Global dominating set.

  17. Could strength of exposure to the residential neighbourhood modify associations between walkability and physical activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivory, V.C.; Blakely, T.; Pearce, J.; Witten, K.; Bagheri, N.; Badland, H.; Schofield, G.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of neighbourhoods for health and wellbeing may vary according to an individual's reliance on their local resources, but this assertion is rarely tested. We investigate whether greater neighbourhood 'exposure' through reliance on or engagement with the residential setting magnifies

  18. Revitalizing the European ‘Neighbourhood Economic Community’: the case for legally binding sectoral multilateralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; van Vooren, B.

    2012-01-01

    The revolutionary upheaval in the southern Mediterranean and the slow reforms in most of the eastern neighbourhood have pushed the European Union to revise its approach to the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). In May 2011, the Commission presented a full review of the ENP, introducing an enhanced

  19. Types of spatial mobility and the ethnic context of destination neighbourhoods in Estonia (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magi, K.A.D.I.; Leetmaa, K.; Tammaru, T.; Van Ham, M.

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of the ethnic composition of destination neighbourhoods after residential moves do not take into account the types of moves people have made. However, from an individual perspective, different types of moves may result in neighbourhood environments that differ in terms of their ethnic

  20. Types of spatial mobility and the ethnic context of destination neighbourhoods in Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mägi, K.; Leetmaa, K; Tammaru, T.; van Ham, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies of the ethnic composition of destination neighbourhoods after residential moves do not take into account the types of moves people have made. However, from an individual perspective, different types of moves may result in neighbourhood environments which differ in terms of

  1. Fighting a losing battle? Neighbourhood-based social mobility in times of retrenching social interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, R.J.; Veldboer, A.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social mobility is a key concept in neighbourhood-based policies in Europe and the US. The Dutch neighbourhood approach often implies physical restructuring combined with a range of economic and social mobility strategies such as counselling, citizenship courses, debt relief, work training /

  2. Privatising public space in post-apartheid South African cities through neighbourhood enclosures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available for public services to the community within the enclosed neighbourhoods. In this way public urban space is privatised, whether formally or informally. I will explore the distribution of enclosed neighbourhoods in South Africa on a national scale and within...

  3. Neighbourhood effects on youth’s achievements : the moderating role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to investigate how neighbourhood effects on social mobility might be affected by parenting, problem behaviour, personality, and educational commitments. This aim came about when we considered the great variety in research findings from the neighbourhood effects

  4. Space, Politics and Past-Present Diversities in a Copenhagen Neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2016-01-01

    of the cities and neighbourhoods in which migrants settle and how migrants affect these neighbourhoods, it is important to ask whether the diversity of today is significantly different from the diversity a hundred years ago. To provide the missing perspectives, I offer a situated historical analysis...

  5. Air Quality in Hamilton: Who Is Concerned? Perceptions from Three Neighbourhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Dylan; Eyles, John; Newbold, K. Bruce; Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the factors influencing perceptions of air quality in the industrial city of Hamilton, Canada. The research employs data collected via a telephone survey of 1,002 adult residents in three neighbourhoods. Perceptions in the neighbourhoods were examined by individual socio-demographic factors (age, gender, marital and…

  6. Narratives of neighbourhood change and loss of belonging in an urban garden village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    In studies on the ties between residents and their residential surroundings, it is generally assumed that, over time, residents become more attached to their neighbourhood. However, as neighbourhoods change due to economic, political and social processes at higher spatial scales, so may residents’

  7. Structural and Exchange Components in Processes of Neighbourhood Change : A Social Mobility Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modai Snir, T.; van Ham, M.

    2018-01-01

    Neighbourhood socioeconomic change is a complex phenomenon which is driven by multiple processes. Most research has focused on the role of urban-level processes, which lead to an exchange of relative positions among neighbourhoods of a single metropolitan area. Consequently, the effects of

  8. City and/or neighbourhood determinants? studying contextual effects on youth delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijters, G.G.M.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Gerris, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has not yet integrated determinants of youth delinquency at the city, neighbourhood and individual levels simultaneously. In this study we derived hypotheses from social disorganization theory at the city level as well as at the neighbourhood level. We use individual-level data

  9. RATIONAL CHOICE INSTITUTIONALISM AND THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Maha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to highlight the main aspects regarding the rational choice theory in neo-institutionalism, and the role the EU Neighbourhood Policy has nowadays. The protagonist of the rational choice theory in the new institutionalism remains homo-economicus. The theory of rational choice institutionalism challenges the perfect rationality of the individual, rather than the principle of rational choice itself. ENP is a framework for consolidating the Union's relations with neighbouring countries and aims therefore intensifying cooperation with them in order to establish a zone of prosperity, good neighbourliness, stability and security.

  10. Empirically derived neighbourhood rules for urban land-use modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    interaction between neighbouring land uses is an important component in urban cellular automata. Nevertheless, this component is often calibrated through trial-and-error estimation. The aim of this project has been to develop an empirically derived landscape metric supporting cellular-automata-based land......-use modelling. Through access to very detailed urban land-use data it has been possible to derive neighbourhood rules empirically, and test their sensitivity to the land-use classification applied, the regional variability of the rules, and their time variance. The developed methodology can be implemented...

  11. Neighbourhood walkability, daily steps and utilitarian walking in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Ross, Nancy A; Joseph, Lawrence; Harper, Sam; Dasgupta, Kaberi

    2015-11-24

    To estimate the associations of neighbourhood walkability (based on Geographic Information System (GIS)-derived measures of street connectivity, land use mix, and population density and the Walk Score) with self-reported utilitarian walking and accelerometer-assessed daily steps in Canadian adults. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). Home neighbourhoods (500 m polygonal street network buffers around the centroid of the participant's postal code) located in Atlantic Canada, Québec, Ontario, the Prairies and British Columbia. 5605 individuals participated in the survey. 3727 adults (≥18 years) completed a computer-assisted interview and attended a mobile clinic assessment. Analyses were based on those who had complete exposure, outcome and covariate data (n=2949). GIS-derived walkability (based on land use mix, street connectivity and population density); Walk Score. Self-reported utilitarian walking; accelerometer-assessed daily steps. No important relationship was observed between neighbourhood walkability and daily steps. Participants who reported more utilitarian walking, however, accumulated more steps (walkability and odds of walking ≥1 h/week for utilitarian purposes (eg, Q4 vs Q1 of GIS-derived walkability: OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.11; Q3 vs Q1: OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.76; Q2 vs Q1: OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.39) independent of age, sex, body mass index, married/common law status, annual household income, having children in the household, immigrant status, mood disorder, perceived health, ever smoker and season. Contrary to expectations, living in more walkable Canadian neighbourhoods was not associated with more total walking. Utilitarian walking and daily steps were, however, correlated and walkability demonstrated a positive graded relationship with utilitarian walking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  12. Personality and sensation seeking in high-risk sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Klinar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality represents a relatively consistent and unique sum of psychological, cognitive and physical characteristics of an individual. Sensation seeking is defined as an action, characterized by the search for different, new, complex and intensive emotions and experiences and preparedness to take physical, social, legal and financial risks in order to achieve these experiences.Objective: We were looking for differences in personality and sensation seeking between high-risk sports athletes and recreational athletes and the correlation between one's purpose to participate in high-risk sports and actual participation.Method: The data was acquired using three different questionnaires: Sensation Seeking Scale (forms SSS - V and SSS - VI and the Big Five Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 76 high-risk sports athletes and 51 recreational athletes. Data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical program.Results: The results were unexpected because we noticed differences between the two groups in which recreational athletes received higher results, especially in openness. Mostly results from such research show the converse - athletes of high-risk sports are more open. We did not find any difference between the two groups in sensation seeking. We found some correlations between personality traits and factors of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS - V and SSS - VI. Openness and the Thrill and adventure seeking factor correlated in both versions of SSS.Conclusions: We conclude that high-risk sports athletes differ from recreational athletes, especially in openness. Also, we can confirm that both used versions of SSS are equally effective for analyzing sensation seeking.

  13. Multiple causes of high extinction risk in large mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Marcel; Mace, Georgina M; Jones, Kate E; Bielby, Jon; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Sechrest, Wes; Orme, C David L; Purvis, Andy

    2005-08-19

    Many large animal species have a high risk of extinction. This is usually thought to result simply from the way that species traits associated with vulnerability, such as low reproductive rates, scale with body size. In a broad-scale analysis of extinction risk in mammals, we find two additional patterns in the size selectivity of extinction risk. First, impacts of both intrinsic and environmental factors increase sharply above a threshold body mass around 3 kilograms. Second, whereas extinction risk in smaller species is driven by environmental factors, in larger species it is driven by a combination of environmental factors and intrinsic traits. Thus, the disadvantages of large size are greater than generally recognized, and future loss of large mammal biodiversity could be far more rapid than expected.

  14. Identification of high risk metropolitan intersection sites in Perth, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobday, Michelle; Chow, Kyle; Meuleners, Lynn; Argus, Fritha

    2017-09-01

    As convergence points for road users approaching from multiple directions, intersections have more opportunities for conflicts, thus higher crash risk than other parts of the road network. Given the limited resources available for road safety, it is important to identify high risk intersections so that they can be prioritised for infrastructure improvement. This study used a three-stage approach to identify intersections in Perth, Western Australia: using Road Trauma Risk Analysis, then Comparative Safety Performance Analysis and finally ranking the intersections by the KSI (Killed and Serious Injury) metric. These methodologies were developed by Main Roads Western Australia. Crash data from 2011 to 2015 were used in the analyses. The results identify the top high risk intersections for each intersection type (by speed environment and control type). Recommendations are made for extensions to this process to improve identification of high risk intersections, and the use of a taxonomy to identify candidate treatments. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new approach to spatially explicit modelling of forest dynamics: spacing, ageing and neighbourhood competition of mangrove trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, U.; Hildenbrandt, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to spatially explicit modelling that enables the influence of neighbourhood effects on the dynamics of forests and plant communities to be analysed. We refer to this approach as 'field of neighbourhood' (FON). It combines the 'neighbourhood philosophy' of

  16. Social Mixing as a Cure for Negative Neighbourhood Effects : Evidence Based Policy or Urban Myth? (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manley, D.; Van Ham, M.; Doherty, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the evidence base for social mixing in neighbourhoods, which is used as a strategy to tackle assumed negative neighbourhood effects. We discuss in detail the theoretical links between neighbourhood characteristics, and outcomes of individuals living in concentrations of

  17. Recording of risk-factors and lifestyle counselling in patients at high risk for cardiovascular diseases in European primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludt, S.; Petek, D.; Laux, G.; Lieshout, J. van; Campbell, S.M.; Kunzi, B.; Glehr, M.; Wensing, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Detection and registration of high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by assessing individual's absolute cardiovascular risk is recommended in clinical guidelines. Effective interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk are available, but not optimally implemented. The aim of this

  18. Quantifying the link between art and property prices in urban neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka; Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2016-04-01

    Is there an association between art and changes in the economic conditions of urban neighbourhoods? While the popular media and policymakers commonly believe this to be the case, quantitative evidence remains lacking. Here, we use metadata of geotagged photographs uploaded to the popular image-sharing platform Flickr to quantify the presence of art in London neighbourhoods. We estimate the presence of art in neighbourhoods by determining the proportion of Flickr photographs which have the word 'art' attached. We compare this with the relative gain in residential property prices for each Inner London neighbourhood. We find that neighbourhoods which have a higher proportion of 'art' photographs also have greater relative gains in property prices. Our findings demonstrate how online data can be used to quantify aspects of the visual environment at scale and reveal new connections between the visual environment and crucial socio-economic measurements.

  19. High wall shear stress and high-risk plaque: an emerging concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshtehardi, Parham; Brown, Adam J; Bhargava, Ankit; Costopoulos, Charis; Hung, Olivia Y; Corban, Michel T; Hosseini, Hossein; Gogas, Bill D; Giddens, Don P; Samady, Habib

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant effort to identify high-risk plaques in vivo prior to acute events. While number of imaging modalities have been developed to identify morphologic characteristics of high-risk plaques, prospective natural-history observational studies suggest that vulnerability is not solely dependent on plaque morphology and likely involves additional contributing mechanisms. High wall shear stress (WSS) has recently been proposed as one possible causative factor, promoting the development of high-risk plaques. High WSS has been shown to induce specific changes in endothelial cell behavior, exacerbating inflammation and stimulating progression of the atherosclerotic lipid core. In line with experimental and autopsy studies, several human studies have shown associations between high WSS and known morphological features of high-risk plaques. However, despite increasing evidence, there is still no longitudinal data linking high WSS to clinical events. As the interplay between atherosclerotic plaque, artery, and WSS is highly dynamic, large natural history studies of atherosclerosis that include WSS measurements are now warranted. This review will summarize the available clinical evidence on high WSS as a possible etiological mechanism underlying high-risk plaque development.

  20. Characterization of patients at high risk of melanoma in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C; Wendt, J; Rauscher, S; Burgstaller-Muehlbacher, S; Sunder-Plassmann, R; Scheurecker, C; Richtig, E; Fae, I; Fischer, G; Pehamberger, H; Okamoto, I

    2016-06-01

    Risk of melanoma is determined by genetic and exogenous factors. Only a few studies have included both characteristics in a comprehensive multivariable analysis. To find determinants of patients at high risk of melanoma in Austria, including phenotype, genotype and lifestyle characteristics in comprehensive analyses. In total, 1668 patients with melanoma from the M3 case-control study were studied. Overall, 567 participants were sequenced for CDKN2A, 232 for CDK4, 123 for MITF encoding the variant E318K and 964 for MC1R. Patients with melanoma with a positive family history (n = 190, 11·6%), multiple primary melanomas (n = 261, 15·7%) and younger age (risk. All other patients with melanoma were defined as the reference group. We found significant differences between those two groups and between the high-risk subgroups (positive family history, multiple primary melanomas and younger age). Pigmentation phenotype was associated with the high-risk group in general (childhood freckling, odds ratio 1·46, P = 0·007; blond/reddish hair colour, odds ratio 1·43, P = 0·011). Patients with a positive family history and patients with early-onset disease were similar regarding both their phenotypic characteristics and external factors. Established high-risk mutations in CDKN2A were found in cases with a positive family history (n = 12) or multiple melanomas (n = 2). Moreover, we found three patients carrying the MITF p.E318K variant, two with a CDK4 variant and seven with nonsynonymous MC1R variants with undescribed biological significance, of which four were predicted as damaging. Austrian patients could represent a reservoir for novel genetic variants. Further investigation of populations in Central and Eastern Europe might reveal more novel and disease-relevant variants. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Risk factors for the occurrence and spread of Highly Pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 occurred previously for three consecutive years, 2006, 2007 and 2008 in Kano State, Nigeria, causing heavy economic losses to farmers and the government. It was against this background that risk factors for the occurrence and spread of HPAI H5N1 ...

  2. Health risk behaviours of high school learners and their perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learners reported a high prevalence of health risk behaviours: 65% for alcohol use, 57% for sexual activity, 39% for tobacco use and 15% for drug use. 2. The predominant pattern of substance use ..... are predominantly from the lower and middle socio-economic groups. Learners generally do not know the family income.

  3. an assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and hiv transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We did not also encounter any lesbian sexual orientation in this study. The distribution of. HRSB amongst the migrant oil wOrkers showed that the commonest variety was bisexuality (closet homosexuality) with 10(43.5%) followed by high-risk sexual behaviour 7(30.4%), while the least common was multiplicity of sexual ...

  4. High risk bladder cancer : current management and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld-Kors, Anna; Bastiaannet, Esther; Doornweerd, Benjamin H J; Schaapveld, Michael; de Jong, Igle J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the pattern of care in patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in the Comprehensive Cancer Center North-Netherlands (CCCN) and to assess factors associated with the choice of treatment, recurrence and progression free survival rates. Materials and

  5. Cyberbullying and Its Risk Factors among Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zongkui; Tang, Hanying; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Hua; Zhang, Fengjuan; Morrison, Chelsey M.

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China.…

  6. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Guszkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.

  7. Chorangioma of Placenta with High Risk Pregnancy: A Case Series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chorangioma of Placenta with High Risk Pregnancy: A Case Series. Uma S Andola, Shabnam Karangadan1, Sainath K Andola1, Rajashekhar Jewargikar1. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1Resident, Professor and Head of Department, Professor, Department of Pathology, Mahadevappa. Rampure Medical ...

  8. Monitoring paneer for Listeria monocytogenes - A high risk food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed and applied to spiked and natural paneer samples to detect Listeria monocytogenes, a high risk food pathogen. The sensitivity of the assay on L. monocytogenes spiked paneer samples was 104 cells prior to enrichment, was improved to 103 cells after 4 h ...

  9. anaesthetic challenges in a high risk parturient with myasthenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10 October 2013. ANAESTHETIC CHALLENGES IN A HIGH RISK PARTURIENT WITH MYASTHENIA GRAVIS UNDERGOING ... to highlight some of the challenges, the management and the lessons learnt during the management of this patient. .... be more appropriate if there is bulbar involvement, or severe respiratory ...

  10. High Risk Drinking among Non-Affiliated College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret; Finneran, John; Droppa, Marj

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the high risk drinking practices of unaffiliated college students who are not involved in formal athletics, fraternities, or sororities. Using a qualitative research design, the investigators interviewed students at a northeast public college in fall 2010 to learn about unaffiliated students' drinking experiences and their…

  11. Hypertensive patients and diabetes : A high-risk population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilo, HJG; Gans, ROB

    1998-01-01

    Rising worldwide rates of diabetes mellitus heighten the need to maintain adequate metabolic control in diabetic patients and to control for other cardiovascular risk factors, such as lipid profile disturbances, high blood pressure, and smoking habits. This is especially the case in diabetic

  12. Risk management practices of high school principals regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to identify what the key safety concerns at schools in PE are, and to establish what the risk management practices implemented by principals at high schools in selected provinces are. This paper follows the approach that school principals are staff with the highest authority and legal liability for the ...

  13. Risk management practices of high school sport coaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the key safety dimensions of school sport, and to assess the risk management practices implemented by coaches and administrators at high schools. The aim was also to highlight the chief problems associated with safety in sport and to develop strategies to protect learners.

  14. Drug response prediction in high-risk multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A J; Helm-Petersen, S; Cowland, J B

    2018-01-01

    A Drug Response Prediction (DRP) score was developed based on gene expression profiling (GEP) from cell lines and tumor samples. Twenty percent of high-risk patients by GEP70 treated in Total Therapy 2 and 3A have a progression-free survival (PFS) of more than 10years. We used available GEP data ...

  15. Detection of Patients at High Risk of Medication Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sædder, Eva Aggerholm; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    Medication errors (MEs) are preventable and can result in patient harm and increased expenses in the healthcare system in terms of hospitalization, prolonged hospitalizations and even death. We aimed to develop a screening tool to detect acutely admitted patients at low or high risk of MEs...

  16. Identifying patients at high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with significant health consequences. A significant proportion of hospitalized patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnoea were never identified and referred for polysomnography for diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with high ...

  17. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Understanding Risk, Protection, and Substance Use among High-Risk Youth. Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…

  18. Antiplatelet therapy in populations at high risk of atherothrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxon, David P; Nesto, Richard W

    2006-05-01

    Atherothrombosis is the most common cause of an acute ischemic event. Antiplatelet agents form the cornerstone of atherothrombosis prevention. The purpose of this article is to review the use of antiplatelet agents in patients that are at particularly high risk of atherothrombotic events. To undertake this review, we searched the literature to identify key studies on the use of antiplatelet agents in this group of patients. Antiplatelet agents, such as aspirin and clopidogrel, play a fundamental role in the treatment and management of secondary thrombotic events. The routine use of aspirin is recommended, as it has been shown to reduce the risk of thrombotic events by approximately 25%. Additional benefit has been demonstrated with clopidogrel, both as a monotherapy and in combination with aspirin. In the CAPRIE trial, 19,185 patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease were randomized to receive clopidogrel (75 mg/day) or aspirin (325 mg/day) for a mean duration of follow-up of 1.91 years. Clopidogrel provided an additional 8.7% relative risk reduction in the primary composite endpoint of ischemic stroke, myocardial infraction or vascular death compared with aspirin. In the CURE trial, the addition of clopidogrel to background aspirin was associated with a 20% relative risk reduction in a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke compared with aspirin alone. In patients undergoing PCI as part of the PCI-CURE substudy, clopidogrel was associated with a 30% relative reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular events in the first 30 days after intervention compared with aspirin. The benefits of antiplatelet therapy continue to be investigated. Whether dual antiplatelet therapy is superior to aspirin monotherapy for high-risk primary prevention is unknown. The ongoing CHARISMA trial aims to determine the relative efficacies of aspirin monotherapy and aspirin/clopidogrel combination therapy in a broad range of high-risk

  19. Neighbourhood social capital as a moderator between individual cognitions and sports behaviour among Dutch adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, R G; Beenackers, M A; Boog, M C; Van Lenthe, F J; Brug, J; Oenema, A

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to explore whether individual cognitions and neighbourhood social capital strengthen each other in their relation with engaging in sports at least three times per week. Cross-sectional analyses on data from the last wave of the YouRAction trial (2009-2010, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; baseline response: 98%) were conducted. In total 1129 had data on the last wave questionnaire (93%) and 832 of them had complete data on a self-administered questionnaire on frequency of sports participation, perceived neighbourhood social capital, cognitions (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and intention toward sport participation) and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived neighbourhood social capital to the neighbourhood level. Multilevel logistic regression analyses (neighbourhood and individual as levels) were conducted to examine associations of cognitions, neighbourhood social capital and the social capital by individual cognition interaction with fit norm compliance. If the interaction was significant, simple slopes analyses were conducted to decompose interaction effects. It was found that neighbourhood social capital was significantly associated with fit norm compliance (OR: 5.40; 95% CI: 1.13-25.74). Moreover, neighbourhood social capital moderated the association of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention with fit norm compliance. The simple slope analyses visualized that the associations of cognitions with fit norm compliance were stronger in case of more neighbourhood social capital. Hence, higher levels of neighbourhood social capital strengthen the associations of attitude, perceived behavioural control and intention in their association with fit norm compliance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neighbourhood deprivation monitoring in Rotterdam and London: exploring barriers to evidence-based policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanneke de la Rie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhood deprivation monitoring in Rotterdam and London: exploring barriers to evidence-based policy and practice There is ample evidence that area-based approaches to tackling health inequalities, as part of a wider policy of community regeneration, are effective. Nevertheless, embedding this evidence in the routine practice of health professionals has not followed automatically. One of the barriers to the uptake of research is the process by which evidence is generated and its usability, or “stickiness”. This paper draws on the concept of stickiness to explore the role of deprivation monitoring data in creating an evidence base for neighbourhood health policies and intervention. The study was undertaken as part of a Knowledge Exchange Programme aimed at sharing learning to improve the participation and health of disadvantaged people in deprived neighbourhoods in Rotterdam and London. The two cities are similar in that they both have highly diverse populations and government health and social policies that employ area-based approaches to tackle deprivation. Documentary analysis and in-depth interviews with health professionals and policymakers in the two cities have explored the construction of health policy, the congruence between data on deprivation and the contextual experience of practitioners, and the factors that influenced the usability of the data. Monitoren van achterstand op wijkniveau in Rotterdam en Londen: een verkenning van obstakels binnen “evidence-based” beleid en praktijk Een gebiedsgerichte aanpak om achterstandswijken te vernieuwen is effectief gebleken om ongelijkheid op het gebied van gezondheid aan te pakken. Toch wordt het bewijs voor de werkzaamheid van deze aanpak niet automatisch ingebed in de dagelijkse werkpraktijk van professionals in de gezondheidssector. Een van de factoren waardoor kennis uit onderzoek niet wordt opgenomen ligt besloten in het proces van kennisverwerving en de bruikbaarheid van de

  1. BRIEF OVERVIEW ON THE CONDITIONALITY IN THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mocanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP has become a top issue on the EU agenda after the EU enlargement wave of 2004, completed in 2007. The question of efficiently managing the new borders of EU, by facing the new-fangled challenges related to security, combating trafficking, ensuring economic prosperity and environment protection has driven new and restructured EU mechanisms in order to manage the relations with its new neighbourhood - rather diverse in terms of economic and social welfare. Conditionality from the part of EU towards the ENP partner states has been an intricate issue even from the start. How committed can these countries be on the path of rough economic, political and social reforms, in the absence of a perspective of EU accession? If conditionality, as we know it from the pre-accession process of the former candidate states for example, is going to be a success or a failure in the case of the ENP states is still a matter of perception. This paper attempts to give an overview of different opinions upon the potential effect of the conditionality mechanism within the ENP. The victory or breakdown of conditionality within the ENP depends both on the commitment of the ENP partner states to the goals, values, concrete projects promoted through this policy and its consolidated initiatives (Eastern Partnership, Union for Mediterranean, but most of all on the capacity of the European Union to replace the traditional incentive of accession with a proper alternative, mostly in economic, financial, social and security terms.

  2. Integrating The Islamic Worldview Into The Planning Of Neighbourhoods

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    Spahic Omer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the importance of integrating the Islamic worldview into the aspects of planning in general and into the planning of neighbourhoods in particular. In this paper I shall examine, firstly, the pertinence of the Islamic worldview to the notion of planning neighbourhoods. There we will see that such an enterprise was an integral part of Islamic urbanism from the era of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh till the waning of Islamic civilization. Next, the following principles will be discussed: (i the Islamic idea of the settlement, (ii Islam on creating building, (iii peaceful co-existence with the environment and (iv Islam on human dignity and fraternity among its members. Discussion on each of the mentioned principles will be followed by briefly analyzing their planning appear relevant and appealing to the Muslims of today will also be presented. While writing the paper, I have tried as much as possible to draw on the most relevant sources that deal with the theme at hand, the most important of which, certainly, are the Holy Quran and the authentic compilations of the Prophet Muhammad’s words and actions.

  3. Evaluation of aerosol processes between roadside and neighbourhood scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Pirjola, Liisa; Keuken, Menno P.

    2015-04-01

    Particle emissions from road transport include vehicle exhaust emissions, tire/brake wear and re-suspension of road dust. Vehicle exhaust emissions usually constitute the most significant source of ultrafine particles (UFP), i.e. particles with diameters air pollution legislation. UFP emitted from road traffic are subject to complex dilution and transformation processes in the urban environment. This model study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on PN concentration on the spatial and temporal range between the roadside, typically represented by measurements at a traffic monitoring site, and the neighbourhood scale, extending from several hundred meters to several kilometres. Several dispersion scenarios for the cities Oslo, Helsinki and Rotterdam were simulated using the multicomponent aerosol dynamics process model MAFOR, approximating dilution by a power-law function. Aerosol processes considered in this study were condensation/evaporation of n-alkanes, coagulation and the dry deposition of particles. Under typical dispersion conditions dilution clearly dominated the change of total PN on the neighbourhood scale. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamical processes controlling the removal of particles from emitted from vehicular exhaust on urban time scales. The effect of condensation/evaporation of organic vapours emitted by vehicles on particle numbers and on particle size distributions was examined. A simplified parameterization for the implementation of coagulation and dry deposition of particles in urban air quality models is presented. Further work is needed to validate size segregated PN concentration distributions modelled by the urban models.

  4. Increased Cardiometabolic Risk and Worsening Hypoxemia at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Schwartz, Alan R; Gilman, Robert H; Pham, Luu; Wise, Robert A; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Jun, Jonathan C; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Miranda, J Jaime; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-06-01

    Miele, Catherine H., Alan R. Schwartz, Robert H. Gilman, Luu Pham, Robert A. Wise, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Jonathan C. Jun, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, J. Jaime Miranda, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and William Checkley. Increased cardiometabolic risk and worsening hypoxemia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:93-100, 2016.-Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While excessive erythrocytosis is associated with cardiovascular complications, it is unclear how worsening hypoxemia of any degree affects cardiometabolic risk factors in high-altitude populations. We studied the relationship between daytime resting oxyhemoglobin saturation and cardiometabolic risk factors in adult participants living in Puno, Peru (3825 m above sea level). We used multivariable logistic regression models to study the relationship between having a lower oxyhemoglobin saturation and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Nine hundred and fifty-four participants (mean age 55 years, 52% male) had information available on pulse oximetry and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Average oxyhemoglobin saturation was 90% (interquartile range 88%-92%) and 43 (4.5%) had excessive erythrocytosis. Older age, decreased height-adjusted lung function, and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with having an oxyhemoglobin saturation ≤85%. When adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, having excessive erythrocytosis, and site, we found that each 5% decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation was associated with a higher adjusted odds of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.72, p 2 mass units (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00-1.67, p < 0.05), hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.51, p < 0.04), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥3 mg/L (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.96, p < 0.01). In high-altitude populations in Puno, Peru, a higher BMI and lower pulmonary function were

  5. Home and neighbourhood correlates of BMI among children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crawford, D.A.; Ball, K.; Cleland, V.J.; Campbell, K.J.; Timperio, A.F.; Abbott, G.; Brug, J.; Baur, L.A.; Salmon, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the underlying drivers of obesity-risk behaviours is needed to inform prevention initiatives, particularly for individuals of low socioeconomic position who are at increased risk of unhealthy weight gain. However, few studies have concurrently considered factors in the

  6. Beyond sensation seeking: affect regulation as a framework for predicting risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

    2010-10-01

    Sensation seeking has been widely studied when investigating individual differences in the propensity for taking risks. However, risk taking can serve many different goals beyond the simple management of physiological arousal. The present study is an investigation of affect self-regulation as a predictor of risk-taking behaviors in high-risk sport. Risk-taking behaviors, negative affectivity, escape self-awareness strategy, and sensation seeking data were obtained from 265 high-risk sportsmen. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis revealed significant main and interaction effects of negative affectivity and escape self-awareness strategy in predicting risk-taking behaviors: high-risk sportsmen's negative affectivity leads them to adopt risk-taking behaviors only if they also use escape self-awareness strategy. Furthermore, the affective model remained significant when controlling for sensation seeking. The present study contributes to an in-depth understanding of risk taking in high-risk sport.

  7. Influence of neighbourhood information on 'Local Climate Zone' mapping in heterogeneous cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Marie-Leen; Okujeni, Akpona; van der Linden, Sebastian; Demuzere, Matthias; De Wulf, Robert; Van Coillie, Frieke

    2017-10-01

    Local climate zone (LCZ) mapping is an emerging field in urban climate research. LCZs potentially provide an objective framework to assess urban form and function worldwide. The scheme is currently being used to globally map LCZs as a part of the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools (WUDAPT) initiative. So far, most of the LCZ maps lack proper quantitative assessment, challenging the generic character of the WUDAPT workflow. Using the standard method introduced by the WUDAPT community difficulties arose concerning the built zones due to high levels of heterogeneity. To overcome this problem a contextual classifier is adopted in the mapping process. This paper quantitatively assesses the influence of neighbourhood information on the LCZ mapping result of three cities in Belgium: Antwerp, Brussels and Ghent. Overall accuracies for the maps were respectively 85.7 ± 0.5, 79.6 ± 0.9, 90.2 ± 0.4%. The approach presented here results in overall accuracies of 93.6 ± 0.2, 92.6 ± 0.3 and 95.6 ± 0.3% for Antwerp, Brussels and Ghent. The results thus indicate a positive influence of neighbourhood information for all study areas with an increase in overall accuracies of 7.9, 13.0 and 5.4%. This paper reaches two main conclusions. Firstly, evidence was introduced on the relevance of a quantitative accuracy assessment in LCZ mapping, showing that the accuracies reported in previous papers are not easily achieved. Secondly, the method presented in this paper proves to be highly effective in Belgian cities, and given its open character shows promise for application in other heterogeneous cities worldwide.

  8. LES case study on pedestrian level ventilation in two neighbourhoods in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Oliver Letzel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong is one of the most densely built-up and populated cities in the world. An adequate air ventilation at pedestrian level would ease the thermal stress in its humid subtropical climate, but the high-density city severely reduces the natural ventilation. This case study investigates pedestrian level ventilation in two neighbourhoods in Kowloon, downtown Hong Kong using the parallelized large-eddy-simulation (LES model PALM. The LES technique is chosen here for a city quarter scale pedestrian comfort study despite of its high computational cost. The aims of the paper are a to get a comprehensive overview of pedestrian level ventilation and a better understanding of the ventilation processes in downtown Hong Kong, b to test the LES technique on this urban scale compared to the wind tunnel and c to investigate how numerical/physical parameters influence ventilation. This case study is restricted to neutral stratification in order to allow a direct comparison with the wind tunnel. A sensitivity study quantifies the dependence of site-averaged ventilation on numerical and physical parameters and determines an appropriate urban LES set-up for two 1 km2 neighbourhoods in Kowloon (Tsim Sha Tsui, Mong Kok that are investigated for prevailing E and SW wind. The results reveal the critical dependence of ventilation on the urban morphology. Air paths, street orientations, ground coverage, sites fronting the water, inter connectivity of spaces, building podium size and building heights can all affect the pedestrian wind environment. Isolated tall buildings may have a pronounced impact on ventilation both locally and downstream.

  9. Wandering spleen: 'presentation in adolescent with high thrombotic risk'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchidjou, Hyppolite K; Castelluzzo, Maria A; Messia, Virginia; Luciani, Matteo; Monti, Lidia; Grimaldi, Chiara; Bernardi, Stefania; D'Argenio, Patrizia

    2014-07-01

    The term 'wandering spleen' refers to an abnormal hypermobility of the spleen, which may be congenital or acquired. The absence or abnormal laxity of splenic ligaments combined with an abnormally long and mobile vascular pedicle predispose to complications such as torsion of the splenic pedicle, infarction and splenic vein thrombosis. The clinical presentation of such disease is highly variable. In this case, we describe an asymptomatic case of wandering spleen in high thrombotic risk patients with cavernoma of splenic vein and infarction of the spleen. Physical examination was normal except the enlarged and no tender consistency spleen palpable at left iliac fossa. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged spleniform mass below its normal position suggesting vascular impairment and subsequently has been confirmed by colour Doppler ultrasound and computed tomography. The family history was positive for ischemic thrombotic vascular diseases and the screening for thrombotic risk has revealed hyperhomocysteinemia, thrombophilic homozygous gene mutations for factor V (H1299R) and MTHFR (C677T). For high thrombotic risk, prophylaxis postsplenectomy was suggested according to the international recommendations with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin, associated with a preventive treatment with acetyl salicylic acid and folic acid along with B-vitamin. This case report may be helpful for clinicians involved in the care of splenectomized patients, because it has shown the importance of an appropriate pre and postoperative antithrombotic management to reduce as soon as possible the risk of thrombotic events in such patients after splenectomy.

  10. Case Management Reduces Drinking During Pregnancy among High Risk Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Hendricks, Natalie; Roux, Sumien; Blom, Annalien; Steenekamp, Jeanetta; Alexander, Theresa; Andreas, Romena; Human, Suzanne; Snell, Cudore; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles C; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Blankenship, Jason

    2013-05-01

    Estimate the efficacy of Case Management (CM) for women at high risk for bearing a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Women were recruited from antenatal clinics and engaged in 18 months of CM. A South African community with a subculture of heavy, regular, weekend, recreational drinking and high documented rates of FASD. Forty-one women who were high risk for bearing a child with FASD. Statistical analysis of trends in drinking and other risk factors. At intake 87.8% were pregnant, most had previous alcohol-exposed pregnancies, most/all of their friends drink alcohol (67.5%), and 50.0% had stressful lives. CM was particularly valuable for pregnant women, as statistically significant reductions in alcohol risk were obtained for them in multiple variables: total drinks on weekends after six months of CM (p = .026) and estimated peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at six (p managers reduced maternal drinking at critical times, and therefore, alcohol exposure levels to the fetus.

  11. Youth risk behavior surveillance. National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Kinchen, S A; Ross, J G; Gowda, V R; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-01-01

    Alternative high schools serve approximately 280,000 students nationwide who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems. Such settings provide important opportunities for delivering health promotion education and services to these youth and young adults. However, before this survey, the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among students attending alternative high schools nationwide was unknown. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors the following six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The national Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the YRBSS; it was conducted in 1998 to measure priority health-risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. The 1998 ALT-YRBS used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12 in the United States who attend alternative high schools. The school response rate was 81.0%, and the student response rate was 81.9%, resulting in an overall response rate of 66.3%. This report summarizes results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS. The reporting period is February-May 1998. In the United States, 73.6% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10-24 years results from only four causes--motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS demonstrate that many students at alternative high schools engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes

  12. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Kinchen, S A; Ross, J G; Gowda, V R; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    1999-10-29

    Alternative high schools serve approximately 280,000 students nationwide who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems. Such settings provide important opportunities for delivering health promotion education and services to these youth and young adults. However, before this survey, the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among students attending alternative high schools nationwide was unknown. February-May 1998. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors the following six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The national Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the YRBSS; it was conducted in 1998 to measure priority health-risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. The 1998 ALT-YRBS used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12 in the United States who attend alternative high schools. The school response rate was 81.0%, and the student response rate was 81.9%, resulting in an overall response rate of 66.3%. This report summarizes results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS. In the United States, 73.6% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10-24 years results from only four causes--motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS demonstrate that many students at alternative high schools engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes. During the 30 days

  13. ASPHYXIA AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN HIGH RISK INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia is a risk factor that is very often related to neuro-developmental issues in high risk infants and equally affects preterm and term infants, however its outcome on the developed brain differs from the outcome on the preterm brain.In preterm infants, asphyxia usually exerts a hemorrhagic or ischaemic event and periventricular leukomalacia.In term infants, asphyxia leads to cerebral edema and atrophy of the brain, which may later lead to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE.The number of term infants with HIE who have survived is lower than those of preterm infants, while the percentage of term infants with HIE who have neuro-developmental issues is higher. Preemies face more problems in their motor development as a result of the brain damage, while term infants suffer from encephalopathy and their cognitive abilities are more affected.We have conducted a study about the effects that asphyxia has on the developmental outcomes in high risk infants. In our study, we did a longitudinal developmental follow-up of 30 high risk infants and an evaluation of their developmental outcome using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, from the 4th month of life until the end of the 36th month. First, we found that high risk infants had a much lower developmental outcome than the control group during the trial. Finally, we found that asphyxia makes a difference in the developmental outcome of preterm infants without asphyxia who have a very low birth weight, the preterm infants with asphyxia, and the term infants with HIE-II.

  14. Validation of the High-Risk Pregnancy Stress Scale in a sample of hospitalized Greek high-risk pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Karpathiotaki, Natassa; Karapanou, Vassiliki; Antzaklis, Panos; Daskalakis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the authors in this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Greek adaptation of the High-Risk Pregnancy Stress Scale (HRPSS) in a sample of high-risk hospitalized pregnant women. The sample consisted of 133 high-risk pregnant women with gestational age from 9 to 37 weeks. Data were collected between February and June of 2014. HRPSS was "forward-backward" translated from English to Greek. Principal axis factoring with promax rotation was used to test the factor structure of the HRPSS. Measures of state anxiety (STAI) and depressive symptoms (EPDS) were used to assess the convergent validity of the HRPSS. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three factors: concerns of pregnancy, movement restriction, and isolation and restriction of external activities. Construct validity was confirmed by computing correlations between the HRPSS and constructions of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (α = 0.813). The original factor structure of the HRPSS was only partly replicated. The results of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor solution instead of a two-factor solution would be the most adequate. The HRPSS is an appropriate measure for assessing the levels of concerns regarding pregnancy outcome, movement restriction, isolation, and external activity restrictions in Greek high-risk pregnant women.

  15. Neighbourhood demolition, relocation and health. A qualitative longitudinal study of housing-led urban regeneration in Glasgow, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Matt; Lawson, Louise; Kearns, Ade; Conway, Ellie; Neary, Joanne

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a qualitative longitudinal study to explore how adult residents of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods (Glasgow, UK) experienced neighbourhood demolition and relocation. Data from 23 households was collected in 2011 and 2012. Some participants described moves to new or improved homes in different neighbourhoods as beneficial to their and their families' wellbeing. Others suggested that longstanding illnesses and problems with the new home and/or neighbourhood led to more negative experiences. Individual-level contextual differences, home and neighbourhood-level factors and variations in intervention implementation influence the experiences of residents involved in relocation programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antenatal Care Utilisation and Content between Low-Risk and High-Risk Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Ping Ling; Hornetz, Klaus; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups. Methods A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines. Results Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation

  17. Who takes risks in high-risk sport?: the role of alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Matthew; Woodman, Tim; Chapman, Caradog; Milton, Matthew; Stone, Daniel; Dodds, Tom; Allen, Ben

    2015-02-01

    People who have difficulty identifying and describing their emotions are more likely to seek out the experience of emotions in the high-risk domain. This is because the high-risk domain provides the experience of more easily identifiable emotions (e.g., fear). However, the continued search for intense emotion may lead such individuals to take further risks within this domain, which, in turn, would lead to a greater likelihood of experiencing accidents. Across three studies, we provide the first evidence in support of this view. In Study 1 (n = 762), alexithymia was associated with greater risk taking and a greater propensity to experience accidents and close calls. In Study 2 (n = 332) and Study 3 (n = 356), additional bootstrapped mediation models confirmed these relationships. The predictive role of alexithymia remained significant when controlling for sensation seeking (Study 1) and anhedonia (Study 2 and Study 3). We discuss the practical implications of the present model as they pertain to minimizing accidents and close calls in the high-risk domain.

  18. Chronic kidney disease and bleeding risk in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, G; Rookmaaker, M B; Algra, A; de Borst, G J; Doevendans, P A; Kappelle, L J; Verhaar, M C; Visseren, F L

    2018-01-01

    Essentials The association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding is unknown. We followed 10 347 subjects at high cardiovascular risk for bleeding events. Chronic kidney disease was associated with a 1.5-fold increased bleeding risk. Especially albuminuria rather than decreased kidney function was associated with bleeding events. Background There are indications that patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased bleeding risk. Objectives To investigate the association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 10 347 subjects referred to the University Medical Center Utrecht (the Netherlands) from September 1996 to February 2015 for an outpatient visit with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease (Second Manifestation of Arterial disease [SMART] cohort). Patients were staged according to the KDIGO guidelines, on the basis of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria, and were followed for the occurrence of major hemorrhagic events until March 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for bleeding were calculated with Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results The incidence rate for bleeding in subjects with chronic kidney disease was 8.0 per 1000 person-years and that for subjects without chronic kidney disease was 3.5 per 1000 person-years. Patients with chronic kidney disease (n = 2443) had a 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.2-1.9) increased risk of bleeding as compared with subjects without chronic kidney disease (n = 7904) after adjustment. Subjects with an eGFR of Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for bleeding in patients with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease, especially in the presence of albuminuria. © 2017 University Medical Center Utrecht. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. Gang masculinity and high-risk sexual behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Quinn, Katherine; Broaddus, Michelle; Pacella, Maria

    2017-02-01

    High-risk sexual behaviours include practices such as relationship violence and substance use, which often cluster together among young people in high-risk settings. Youth gang members often show high rates of such behaviours, substance use and relationship violence. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews with male and female gang members from six different gangs to explore the role of powerful socialising peer groups that set gender, sexual and relationship roles and expectations for their male and female members. High-risk sexual behaviours among gang members included sex with multiple partners and group sex. Gang norms included the belief that male members were sexually insatiable with multiple sexual partners and that female gang members should be sexually available to male members. Alcohol and drugs were seen to have a large influence on sexual desire and the inability to use condoms. Much sexual behaviour with gangs, such as group sex, was viewed with ambivalence and seen as somewhat coercive. Finally, gendered sexual expectations (boys as sexually insatiable and girls as sexually available) made forming long-term romantic relationships problematic for gang members. The influence of gang norms such as these must be addressed in future programmes and interventions with gang members.

  20. THE EAP: A FAILURE OF THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY OR SHARING A POWER BALANCE IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona TATIASHVILI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses achievements and challenges of the EaP in the prism of EU-Russia asymmetric energy interdependence, as the major factor affecting the successful implementation of the Eastern partnership. To identify whether energy interdependence is the main sphere of interest in the EaP neighbourhood, where EU-Russia common interests intersect in one point or is it a sharing a power balance in “common neighbourhood”?. The research paper reviews major policy documents of the ENP/EaP, in order to analyze to what extent is policy coherent/incoherent towards partner countries. Moreover, the paper evaluates the European neighbourhood external policy instruments (the ENP/EaP from the perspective of three prioritised countries of the Eastern partnership: Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine, including the analysis of the effectiveness of proposed incentives under the ENP/EaP, as sufficient instruments for successful implementation of the Eastern partnership, in the presence of unpredictable external veto player.

  1. Environmental risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis among cattle in high-risk areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, B; Mathews, F

    2015-11-01

    Our research shows that environmental features are important predictors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle herds in high-prevalence regions. Data from 503 case and 808 control farms included in the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT) were analysed. bTB risk increased in larger herds and on farms with greater areas of maize, deciduous woodland and marsh, whereas a higher percentage of boundaries composed of hedgerows decreased the risk. The model was tested on another case-control study outside RBCT areas, and here it had a much smaller predictive power. This suggests that different infection dynamics operate outside high-risk areas, although it is possible that unknown confounding factors may also have played a role. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Venous Thromboembolism Risk and Adequacy of Prophylaxis in High Risk Pregnancy in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayegh, Faisal; Al-Jassar, Waleed; Wani, Salima; Tahlak, Muna; Albahar, Awatef; Al Kharusi, Lamya; Al-Tamimi, Halima; El-Taher, Faten; Mahmood, Naeema; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy and the proportion of pregnancies at risk of VTE that received the recommended prophylaxis according to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) 2012 published guidelines in antenatal clinics in the Arabian Gulf. The evaluation of venous thromboembolism (EVE)-Risk project was a non-interventional, cross-sectional, multi-centre, multi-national study of all eligible pregnant women (≥17 years) screened during antenatal clinics from 7 centres in the Arabian Gulf countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman). Pregnant women were recruited during a 3-month period between September and December 2012. Of 4,131 screened pregnant women, 32% (n=1,337) had ≥1 risk factors for VTE. Common VTE risk factors included obesity (76%), multiparity (33%), recurrent miscarriages (9.1%), varicose veins (6.9%), thrombophilia (2.6%), immobilization (2.0%), sickle cell disease (2.8%) and previous VTE (1.6%). Only 8.3% (n=111) of the high risk patients were on the recommended VTE prophylaxis. Enoxaparin was used in 80% (n=89) of the cases followed by tinzaparin (4%; n=4). Antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 11% (n=149) of pregnant women. Of those on anticoagulants (n=111), 59% (n=66) were also co-prescribed antiplatelet agents. Side effects (mainly local bruising at the injection site) were reported in 12% (n=13) of the cases. A large proportion of pregnant women in the Arabian Gulf countries have ≥1 VTE risk factor with even a smaller fraction on prophylaxis. VTE risk assessment must be adopted to identify those at risk who would need VTE prophylaxis.

  3. Interactions between Neighbourhood Urban Form and Socioeconomic Status and Their Associations with Anthropometric Measurements in Canadian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. McCormack

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic composition and built context are correlates of weight-related behaviours. We investigated the relations between objective measures of neighbourhood design and socioeconomic status (SES and their interaction, in relation to self-reported waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI in a sample of Canadian adults (n=851 from 12 Calgary neighbourhoods. WC and BMI were higher among residents of disadvantaged neighbourhoods, independent of neighbourhood design (grid, warped grid, and curvilinear street patterns and individual-level characteristics (sex, age, education, income, dog ownership, marital status, number of dependents, motor vehicle access, smoking, sleep, mental health, physical health, and past attempts to modify bodyweight. The association between neighbourhood-level SES and WC was modified by neighbourhood design; WC was higher in disadvantaged-curvilinear neighbourhoods and lower in advantaged-grid neighbourhoods. Policies making less obesogenic neighbourhoods affordable to low socioeconomic households and that improve the supportiveness for behaviours leading to healthy weight in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods are necessary.

  4. Multislice computed tomography in an asymptomatic high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Francesco; Leo, Roberto; Clementi, Fabrizio; Razzini, Cinzia; Borzi, Mauro; Martuscelli, Eugenio; Pizzuto, Francesco; Chiricolo, Gaetano; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2007-02-01

    Approximately 50% of all acute coronary syndromes occur in previously asymptomatic patients. This study evaluated the value of multislice computed tomography for early detection of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in high-risk asymptomatic subjects. One hundred sixty-eight asymptomatic subjects with >or=1 major risk factor (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, family history, or smoking) and an inconclusive or unfeasible noninvasive stress test result (stress electrocardiography, echocardiography, or nuclear scintigraphy) were evaluated in an outpatient setting. After clinical examination and laboratory risk analysis, all patients underwent multislice computed tomographic (MSCT) coronary angiography within 1 week. In all subjects, conventional coronary angiography was also carried out. Multislice computed tomography displayed single-vessel CAD in 16% of patients, 2-vessel CAD in 7%, and 3-vessel CAD in 4%. Selective coronary angiography confirmed the results of multislice computed tomography in 99% of all patients. Sensitivity and specificity of MSCT coronary angiography were 100% and 98%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 95% and a negative predictive value of 100%. In conclusion, MSCT coronary angiography is an excellent noninvasive technique for early identification of significant CAD in high-risk asymptomatic patients with inconclusive or unfeasible noninvasive stress test results.

  5. Atopic dermatitis in a high-risk cohort: natural history, associated allergic outcomes, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Chris; Dimich-Ward, Helen; Ferguson, Alexander; Watson, Wade; Rousseau, Roxanne; Dybuncio, Anne; Becker, Allan; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly associated with asthma and other atopic disorders in childhood. To evaluate the natural history of AD and its association with other allergic outcomes in a high-risk cohort through the age of 7 years. A total of 373 high-risk infants, who had undergone a randomized controlled trial with intervention measures for primary prevention of asthma applied during the first year of life, were assessed for asthma, AD, and allergic sensitization at 1, 2, and 7 years. The multifaceted intervention program did not reduce AD despite reducing the prevalence of asthma significantly. Sixty-two children (16.6%) had AD during the first 2 years (early-onset AD); of these, 26 continue to have AD at the age of 7 years (persistent), whereas 36 no longer had the disease (nonpersistent) at the age of 7 years. Twenty-three children (6.2%) developed AD only after the age of 2 years (late-onset AD). Early-onset AD, persistent or nonpersistent, was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization to food allergens within the first 2 years of life and asthma diagnosis at year 7. However, only persistent AD was associated with an increased risk of other atopic diseases and allergic sensitization to food and aeroallergens at year 7. Late-onset AD was not associated with atopic diseases or allergic sensitization at year 7 with the exception of Alternaria alternans. In this cohort of infants at high risk of asthma, early-onset persistent AD, which was highly associated with atopic sensitization, increased the risk of atopic diseases in later childhood and thus appears to be part of the atopic march. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Are neighbourhood social capital and availability of sports facilities related to sports participation among Dutch adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to explore whether availability of sports facilities, parks, and neighbourhood social capital (NSC) and their interaction are associated with leisure time sports participation among Dutch adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on complete data from the last wave of the YouRAction evaluation trial. Adolescents (n = 852) completed a questionnaire asking for sports participation, perceived NSC and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived NSC to zip code level. Availability of sports facilities and parks was assessed by means of geographic information systems within the zip-code area and within a 1600 meter buffer. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, with neighborhood and individual as levels, were conducted to examine associations between physical and social environmental factors and leisure time sports participation. Simple slopes analysis was conducted to decompose interaction effects. Results NSC was significantly associated with sports participation (OR: 3.51 (95%CI: 1.18;10.41)) after adjustment for potential confounders. Availability of sports facilities and availability of parks were not associated with sports participation. A significant interaction between NSC and density of parks within the neighbourhood area (OR: 1.22 (90%CI: 1.01;1.34)) was found. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that adolescents were most likely to engage in leisure time sports when both availability of parks and NSC were highest. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that leisure time sports participation is associated with levels of NSC, but not with availability of parks or sports facilities. In addition, NSC and availability of parks in the zip code area interacted in such a way that leisure time sports participation is most likely among adolescents living in zip code areas with higher levels of NSC, and higher availability of parks. Hence, availability of parks appears only

  7. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S. H.; Quak, M.; Nabarro, S. D. A.; Norford, L.

    2013-10-01

    Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighbourhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the flux associated with the aboveground vegetation. In addition, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. Palm trees, banana plants and turfgrass were also included in the survey with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. Both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that vegetation sequesters 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. An uptake of 1.4 ton km-2 day-1 (510 ton km-2 yr-1) was estimated as the difference between assimilation by photosynthesis minus the aboveground biomass respiration during daytime (4.0 ton km-2 day-1) and release by plant respiration at night (2.6 ton km-2 day-1). However, when soil respiration is added to the daily aboveground flux, the biogenic component becomes a net source amounting to 4% of the total CO2 flux and represents the total contribution of urban vegetation to the carbon flux to the atmosphere.

  8. Are neighbourhood social capital and availability of sports facilities related to sports participation among Dutch adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Richard G; Mohnen, Sigrid M; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke

    2012-07-31

    The aim of this study is to explore whether availability of sports facilities, parks, and neighbourhood social capital (NSC) and their interaction are associated with leisure time sports participation among Dutch adolescents. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on complete data from the last wave of the YouRAction evaluation trial. Adolescents (n = 852) completed a questionnaire asking for sports participation, perceived NSC and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived NSC to zip code level. Availability of sports facilities and parks was assessed by means of geographic information systems within the zip-code area and within a 1600 meter buffer. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, with neighborhood and individual as levels, were conducted to examine associations between physical and social environmental factors and leisure time sports participation. Simple slopes analysis was conducted to decompose interaction effects. NSC was significantly associated with sports participation (OR: 3.51 (95%CI: 1.18;10.41)) after adjustment for potential confounders. Availability of sports facilities and availability of parks were not associated with sports participation. A significant interaction between NSC and density of parks within the neighbourhood area (OR: 1.22 (90%CI: 1.01;1.34)) was found. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that adolescents were most likely to engage in leisure time sports when both availability of parks and NSC were highest. The results of this study indicate that leisure time sports participation is associated with levels of NSC, but not with availability of parks or sports facilities. In addition, NSC and availability of parks in the zip code area interacted in such a way that leisure time sports participation is most likely among adolescents living in zip code areas with higher levels of NSC, and higher availability of parks. Hence, availability of parks appears only to be important for leisure time

  9. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Velasco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighbourhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the flux associated with the aboveground vegetation. In addition, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. Palm trees, banana plants and turfgrass were also included in the survey with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. Both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that vegetation sequesters 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. An uptake of 1.4 ton km−2 day−1 (510 ton km−2 yr−1 was estimated as the difference between assimilation by photosynthesis minus the aboveground biomass respiration during daytime (4.0 ton km−2 day−1 and release by plant respiration at night (2.6 ton km−2 day−1. However, when soil respiration is added to the daily aboveground flux, the biogenic component becomes a net source amounting to 4% of the total CO2 flux and represents the total contribution of urban vegetation to the carbon flux to the atmosphere.

  10. Plaque At RISK (PARISK): prospective multicenter study to improve diagnosis of high-risk carotid plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truijman, M.T.; Kooi, M.E.; Dijk, A.; de Rotte, A.A.J.; van der Kolk, A.G.; Liem, M.; Schreuder, F.H.; Boersma, M.; Mess, W.H.; van Oostenbrugge, R.J.; Koudstaal, P.J.; Kappelle, L.J.; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Nederveen, A.J.; Hendrikse, J.; van der Steen, A.F.; Daemen, M.J.; van der Lugt, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis are at high risk for recurrent stroke. To date, the decision to perform carotid endarterectomy in patients with a recent cerebrovascular event is mainly based on degree of stenosis of the ipsilateral carotid artery. However, additional

  11. Risk factors for congenital anomalies in high risk pregnant women: A large study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tella Sunitha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: High prevalence of CAs was found in HRP women compared to general population. Low parental age contributed toward CAs in primi gravida women while consanguinity was found to be a predisposing factor for CAs in HRP with previous BOH. Toxoplasmosis conferred risk for CAs in HRP women with previous normal pregnancies.

  12. Built Environment Influences of Children’s Physical Activity: Examining Differences by Neighbourhood Size and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhoods can facilitate or constrain moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA among children by providing or restricting opportunities for MVPA. However, there is no consensus on how to define a child’s neighbourhood. This study examines the influence of the neighbourhood built environment on objectively measured MVPA among 435 children (aged 9–14 years in London (ON, Canada. As there is no consensus on how to delineate a child’s neighbourhood, a geographic information system was used to generate measures of the neighbourhood built environment at two buffer sizes (500 m and 800 m around each child’s home. Linear regression models with robust standard errors (cluster were used to analyze the relationship between built environment characteristics and average daily MVPA during non-school hours on weekdays. Sex-stratified models assessed sex-specific relationships. When accounting for individual and neighbourhood socio-demographic variables, park space and multi-use path space were found to influence children’s MVPA. Sex-stratified models found significant associations between MVPA and park space, with the 800 m buffer best explaining boys’ MVPA and the 500 m buffer best explaining girls’ MVPA. Findings emphasize that, when designing built environments, programs, and policies to facilitate physical activity, it is important to consider that the size of the neighbourhood influencing a child’s physical activity may differ according to sex.

  13. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: the significance of high risk features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Nori L; Wiseman, Sam M

    2017-02-16

    Papillary carcinomas that measure 1.0cm or less are diagnosed as papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMs). The clinical significance and recommendations for management of these PTMs is still evolving. The objective of the study was to compare the characteristics of small (PTM. We performed a retrospective analysis of these cases using Fisher's Exact Test. The statistical significance was set at p PTM and high risk features was observed only for extra-thyroidal cancer extension (ETE). Six of 57 large PTM (11%) but none of the 75 small PTM had ETE (p PTM (5/9 cases) and large PTM (4/9 cases). A distant metastases was diagnosed in association with a small PTM. For PTM, neither small cancer size, nor the absence of high-risk features, excluded the possibility of synchronous lymph node metastases.

  14. The Violence Risk Scale: Predictive Validity and Linking Changes in Risk with Violent Recidivism in a Sample of High-Risk Offenders with Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kathy; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2013-01-01

    The Violence Risk Scale (VRS) uses ratings of static and dynamic risk predictors to assess violence risk, identify targets for treatment, and assess changes in risk following treatment. The VRS was rated pre- and posttreatment on a sample of 150 males, mostly high-risk violent offenders many with psychopathic personality traits. These individuals…

  15. High risk bladder cancer: current management and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Leliveld

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the pattern of care in patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC in the Comprehensive Cancer Center North-Netherlands (CCCN and to assess factors associated with the choice of treatment, recurrence and progression free survival rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 412 patients with newly diagnosed high risk NMIBC. Clinical, demographic and follow-up data were obtained from the CCCN Cancer Registry and a detailed medical record review. Uni and multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors related to choice of treatment and 5 year recurrence and progression free survival. RESULTS: 74/412 (18% patients with high risk NMIBC underwent a transurethral resection (TUR as single treatment. Adjuvant treatment after TUR was performed in 90.7% of the patients treated in teaching hospitals versus 71.8 % in non-teaching hospitals (p 80 years OR 0.1 p = 0.001 and treatment in non-teaching hospitals (OR 0.25; p < 0.001 were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. Tumor recurrence occurred in 191/392 (49% and progression in 84 /392 (21.4% patients. The mean 5-years progression free survival was 71.6% (95% CI 65.5-76.8. CONCLUSION: In this pattern of care study in high risk NMIBC, 18% of the patients were treated with TUR as single treatment. Age and treatment in non-teaching hospitals were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. None of the variables sex, age, comorbidity, hospital type, stage and year of treatment was associated with 5 year recurrence or progression rates.

  16. Cryosurgical ablation of the prostate: high risk patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepelica, Kristofer L; Okeke, Zephaniah; Murphy, Alana; Katz, Aaron E

    2005-04-15

    The authors report their experience with cryosurgical ablation of the prostate in men with high-risk features for prostate carcinoma who were unwilling to undergo radical surgery or radiation therapy. Between January 1998 and April 2002, 65 men underwent primary cryosurgery for prostate carcinoma with high-risk features. All patients had biopsy-proven prostate carcinoma without evidence for metastatic disease on magnetic resonance images, computed tomography scans, or radionuclide images of bones. High-risk parameters were defined as either a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level >/= 10 ng/mL, or a Gleason sum score >/= 8, or both. Patients who had undergone prior surgery, radiation therapy, or cryoablation for prostate carcinoma were excluded from the study. Patients were monitored with physical examination and PSA screening every 3 months and with radiologic imaging when indicated. The median patient age was 72 years (range, 41-86 years), and t he median follow-up was 35 months (range, 4-77 months). There were 2 patients (3.1%) with rectal pain and incontinence. Durable PSA biochemical disease-free survival was noted in 83.3% of patients according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) criteria. A 6-year Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed an 81.7% ASTRO survival probability as well as PSA nadir < 4.0 ng/mL and PSA nadir < 1.0 ng/mL projections of 50% and 35%, respectively. One of 8 postcryosurgery biopsies (12.5%) were positive. No patient had progressed at last follow-up, and the overall survival rate was 100%. Cryoablation was a feasible treatment option in patients with organ-confined prostate carcinoma who had high-risk features. Longer follow-up will be necessary to determine the effectiveness of this approach. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

  17. Comprehensive brain MRI segmentation in high risk preterm newborns.

    OpenAIRE

    Xintian Yu; Yanjie Zhang; Robert E Lasky; Sushmita Datta; Nehal A Parikh; Ponnada A Narayana

    2010-01-01

    Most extremely preterm newborns exhibit cerebral atrophy/growth disturbances and white matter signal abnormalities on MRI at term-equivalent age. MRI brain volumes could serve as biomarkers for evaluating the effects of neonatal intensive care and predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes. This requires detailed, accurate, and reliable brain MRI segmentation methods. We describe our efforts to develop such methods in high risk newborns using a combination of manual and automated segmentation too...

  18. Rosuvastatin: Role in Cardiovascular High-risk Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Feliciano-Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are the lipid-lowering drug family of first choice in situations of hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia with predominant increase in cholesterol. The evidence shows conclusively that each one of the commercially available statins have proven benefits on outcomes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, rosuvastatin has certain pharmacokinetic efficacy and cost-effectiveness characteristics that make it an attractive molecule to be the statin of choice in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  19. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy in high risk locally advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sang Hyuk; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Kyu Bo; Lee, Hyuk Joon; Yang, Han Kwang; Han, Sae Won; Oh, Do Youn; Im, Seok Ah; Bang, Yung Jue; Ha, Sung W. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To evaluate treatment outcome of patients with high risk locally advanced gastric cancer after postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Between May 2003 and May 2012, thirteen patients who underwent postoperative chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer with resection margin involvement or adjacent structure invasion were retrospectively analyzed. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered in 10 patients. Median dose of radiation was 50.4 Gy (range, 45 to 55.8 Gy). The median follow-up duration for surviving patients was 48 months (range, 5 to 108 months). The 5-year overall survival rate was 42% and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 28%. Major pattern of failure was peritoneal seeding with 46%. Loco-regional recurrence was reported in only one patient. Grade 2 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in 54% of the patients. However, there was only one patient with higher than grade 3 toxicity. Despite reported suggested role of adjuvant radiotherapy with combination chemotherapy in gastric cancer, only very small portion of the patients underwent the treatment. Results from this study show that postoperative chemoradiotherapy provided excellent locoregional control with acceptable and manageable treatment related toxicity in patients with high risk locally advanced gastric cancer. Thus, postoperative chemoradiotherapy may improve treatment result in terms of locoregional control in these high risk patients. However, as these findings are based on small series, validation with larger cohort is suggested.

  20. TOB-G: Tobacco Cessation Guidelines for High risk Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Behrakis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The TOB-G project is funded under the EU 3rd Health Programme which is the main instrument that the Commission uses to implement the EU Health Strategy. The project started in June 2014 and will be completed in September 2017. The project consortium consists of 5 partners from 4 European countries (Belgium, Greece, Ireland and Romania. The TOB-G project aims to develop and implement an innovative and cost effective approach to prevent chronic diseases related to tobacco dependence by focusing on creating specialized tobacco cessation guidelines for populations of high risk including adolescents, pregnant women, adults with COPD, Cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The specialized guidelines for high risks groups will be developed according to ENSP’s evidence based and good practices in tobacco cessation. The smoking cessation guidelines contain strategies and recommendations designed to assist clinicians/ doctors in delivering and supporting effective treatments for tobacco use and dependence and will also be available within the context of an e-learning platform for European clinicians. Overall, the TOB-G project will enhance the overall European capacity in the treatment of tobacco dependence, through offering smoking cessation tools, appropriately assessed and fitted to the specific needs of high risk groups.

  1. Development of Financial Support Program for High Risk Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ihnsook; Kim, Jiyun; Im, Sook Bin

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a financial support program for high-risk pregnant women based on opinions obtained using a questionnaire survey. The program development involved two steps: (1) developing a questionnaire through reviewing previous financial support programs for maternal care and then validating it via professional consultation; and (2) drafting a financial support program. Sixty professionals, 26 high-risk pregnant women, and 100 program implementers completed the questionnaire between August 2014 and October 2014. Based on the obtained professional consultation and survey investigation, the framework of the financial support program was constructed. The suggested recipients were mothers with early labor pains, mothers who have been hospitalized for > 3 weeks, and mothers who used uterine stimulant Pitocin during hospitalization. All hospitalization, medication, and examination costs needed to be supported considering the income level of the recipient. A basic policy for financially supporting high-risk pregnant women has been developed. The efficacy and feasibility of the policy needs to be carefully examined in future studies.

  2. Learning rate and temperament in a high predation risk environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, C.; Wagner, Tyler; Archard, G.A.; Ferguson, B.; Braithwaite, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration—collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.

  3. Learning rate and temperament in a high predation risk environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, C; Wagner, T; Archard, G A; Ferguson, B; Braithwaite, V A

    2014-11-01

    Living in challenging environments can influence the behavior of animals in a number of ways. For instance, populations of prey fish that experience frequent, nonlethal interactions with predators have a high proportion of individuals that express greater reaction to risk and increased activity and exploration-collectively known as temperament traits. Temperament traits are often correlated, such that individuals that are risk-prone also tend to be active and explore more. Spatial learning, which requires the integration of many sensory cues, has also been shown to vary in fish exposed to different levels of predation threat. Fish from areas of low predation risk learn to solve spatial tasks faster than fish from high predation areas. However, it is not yet known whether simpler forms of learning, such as learning associations between two events, are similarly influenced. Simple forms of associative learning are likely to be affected by temperament because a willingness to approach and explore novel situations could provide animals with a learning advantage. However, it is possible that routine-forming and inflexible traits associated with risk-prone and increased exploratory behavior may act in the opposite way and make risk-prone individuals poorer at learning associations. To investigate this, we measured temperament in Panamanian bishop fish (Brachyrhaphis episcopi) sampled from a site known to contain many predators. The B. episcopi were then tested with an associative learning task. Within this population, fish that explored more were faster at learning a cue that predicted access to food, indicating a link between temperament and basic learning abilities.

  4. The role of local government in redressing neighbourhood disadvantage: A case study from Penrith City Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Prior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of disadvantage in specific neighbourhoods is a widespread characteristic of many Australian cities. A broad range of policies and programs which utilize integrated forms of governance have been designed and implemented to redress this. Within the state of New South Wales, Australia, local governments have been identified as being amongst the most effective drivers for these integrated governance approaches. Utilizing a case study of the Penrith Neighbourhood Renewal Program, this paper explores recent attempts by Penrith City Council to develop a framework to redress neighbourhood disadvantage, firstly by establishing an integrated governance framework for the program, and secondly by transforming the council’s operational structure.

  5. Networks and Fault Lines: Understanding the role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration: a network governance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van Bortel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The changing role of housing associations in neighbourhood regenerationThis study aims to increase our understanding of the role of social housing organisations in neighbourhood regeneration governance networks, in order to enhance the performance and outcomes of these networks. Our understanding of how governance networks work is still limited, especially concerning the role of non-state actors like housing associations. Hierarchical government steering is increasingly mixed with market mechanisms and networked forms of decision-making. These shifts in governance often result in more complex decision-making that can easily lead to deadlocks, low-quality outcomes and ambiguous anchorage of democratic principles.Neighbourhood regeneration takes place in rather exceptional governance networks. The organisations involved, and the problems at hand, are place-based. Actors, like housing associations, local authorities and community organisations, are more or less ‘locked’ into the regeneration network and need to collaborate in order to solve the problems. The complexity of neighbourhood renewal processes is often very high, due to the large number of actors involved, and the combination of insufficient housing quality, lack of affordability and supply, along with social and economic problems that need to be addressed.Housing associations focus on the delivery of affordable decent quality housing; but, in many countries—like the Netherlands and England—these organisations also have an important role in neighbourhood regeneration. Housing associations are non-profit organisations that provide housing for low and moderate-income households. They operate largely autonomously from the government, although they are often strongly regulated and dependent on government subsidies. Housing associations in England and the Netherlands share many organisational characteristics and hybrid third-sector values emerging from the need to balance social and

  6. Networks and Fault Lines: Understanding the role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration: a network governance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard van Bortel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The changing role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration This study aims to increase our understanding of the role of social housing organisations in neighbourhood regeneration governance networks, in order to enhance the performance and outcomes of these networks. Our understanding of how governance networks work is still limited, especially concerning the role of non-state actors like housing associations. Hierarchical government steering is increasingly mixed with market mechanisms and networked forms of decision-making. These shifts in governance often result in more complex decision-making that can easily lead to deadlocks, low-quality outcomes and ambiguous anchorage of democratic principles. Neighbourhood regeneration takes place in rather exceptional governance networks. The organisations involved, and the problems at hand, are place-based. Actors, like housing associations, local authorities and community organisations, are more or less ‘locked’ into the regeneration network and need to collaborate in order to solve the problems. The complexity of neighbourhood renewal processes is often very high, due to the large number of actors involved, and the combination of insufficient housing quality, lack of affordability and supply, along with social and economic problems that need to be addressed. Housing associations focus on the delivery of affordable decent quality housing; but, in many countries—like the Netherlands and England—these organisations also have an important role in neighbourhood regeneration. Housing associations are non-profit organisations that provide housing for low and moderate-income households. They operate largely autonomously from the government, although they are often strongly regulated and dependent on government subsidies. Housing associations in England and the Netherlands share many organisational characteristics and hybrid third-sector values emerging from the need to balance social and

  7. High-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue for high-risk breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis, S; Bontenbal, M; Beex, LVAM; Wagstaff, J; Richel, DJ; Nooij, MA; Voest, EE; Hupperets, P; van Tinteren, H; Peterse, HL; TenVergert, EM; de Vries, EGE

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of high-dose adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk primary breast cancer is controversial. We studied its efficacy in patients with 4 to 9 or 10 or more tumor-positive axillary lymph nodes. METHODS: Patients younger than 56 years of age who had undergone surgery for breast cancer

  8. Efficacy of smartphone applications in high-risk pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoo, Alexander; Finnane, Anna; McMeniman, Erin; Tan, Jean-Marie; Janda, Monika; Soyer, H Peter

    2017-02-27

    Melanoma apps are smartphone applications that assess risk of pigmented lesions using a smartphone camera and underlying algorithm. We aimed to assess the capability of melanoma smartphone applications (apps) in making clinical decisions about risk, compared with lesion assessment by specialist trained dermatologists. A prospective study of 3 melanoma apps was conducted between 2015 and 2016, recruiting 30 patients with 57 pigmented lesions. Risk categories assigned by the apps were compared with the clinical decisions of two consultant dermatologists classifying lesions as 'suspicious' or 'benign'. Of the 42 lesions deemed clinically suspicious to a dermatologist, from 9 to 26 were classified as suspicious by the apps; of the 15 clinically benign lesions 3 to 15 were correctly classified as benign by the apps. The apps' sensitivity and specificity ranged from 21 to 72% and 27 to 100.0%, respectively, when compared with the specialists' decisions. Two apps were unable to analyse 14 and 18% of lesions submitted, respectively. Interrater agreement between dermatologists and apps was poor (κ = -0.01 SE = 0.16; P = 0.97) to slight (κ = 0.16 SE = 0.09; P = 0.12). None of the melanoma apps tested had high enough agreement with the dermatologist's clinical opinion to be considered to provide additional benefit to patients in assessing their skin for high-risk pigmented lesions. The low sensitivity in detecting lesions that are suspicious to a trained specialist may mean false reassurance is being given to patients. Development of highly sensitive and specific melanoma apps remains a work in progress. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Preterm birth risk at high altitude in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lisa D; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma L; Gasco, Manuel; Sammel, Mary D; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Ludmir, Jack

    2015-02-01

    High altitude has been implicated in a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia and stillbirth. Smaller studies show conflicting data on the association between high altitude and preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this study was to assess the association between altitude and PTB. A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from the Perinatal Information System, which includes deliveries from 43 hospitals in Peru from 2000 through 2010. Altitude was classified into the following categories: low (0-1999 m), moderate (2000-2900 m), and high (3000-4340 m). The primary outcome was PTB (delivery <37 weeks). Secondary outcomes were cesarean delivery and small for gestational age (SGA). Deliveries less than 23 weeks are not included in the database. χ(2) analyses were performed to compare categorical variables, and a logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios and control for confounders. Clustering by hospital was accounted for using generalized estimating equations. A total of 550,166 women were included (68% low, 15% moderate, 17% high altitude). The overall PTB rate was 5.9%, with no difference in the PTB rate among the 3 altitudes (5.6%, 6.2%, 6.8%, P = .13). There was a significant difference in cesarean rates (28.0%, 26.6%, 20.6%, P < .001) with a 34% decreased risk at high vs low altitude adjusted for confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.85). There was a difference in SGA (3.3%, 3.6%, 5.0%, P = .02) with a 51% increased risk at high vs low altitude adjusted for confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.93). High altitude is not associated with PTB. At high altitude, the cesarean rate was reduced and the SGA rate was increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. INSTRUMENTS OF HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human's life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of "risky sexual behavior assessment", "sexual risk assessment", "high risk sexual behavior", "sexual risk taking". By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended.

  11. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  12. Associations between neighbourhood walkability and cycling in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper Jan; Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has established four environmental attributes that contribute to neighbourhood „walkability‟: street connectivity, land use mix, residential density, and retail floor area ratio. There is emerging evidence that these attributes influence not only walking behaviour...... but also cycle use. Given the significant health benefits associated with regular commuter cycling, an understanding of the environmental correlates of cycling is essential. The aim of this study was to examine the link between walkability and transportation choices across three Danish cities where cycling...... culture differs and bicycle share is much higher than in most other countries. Methods: Geospatial and transportation data representing 123 geographic zones were extracted from the Danish National Transportation Survey. A geographic information system was used to calculate a walkability index for each...

  13. Specificity of gated neighbourhoods in the Bielany district (Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Górczyńska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the phenomenon of gated and guarded neighbourhoods in the Bielany district (Warsaw after the demise of the socialist regime in 1989 in Poland. The number of secured housing estates grows respectively among newly built neighbourhoods and older housing stock, the latter often being fenced and therefore also detached from the surrounding. Large offerings of gated estates (from luxurious apartments to rather standard blocks of flats have made living in guarded neighbourhoods a standard in Bielany. In spite of the diversity of the organisational structures and security modes of gated neighbourhoods, they rarely offer additional functions to their inhabitants. Thus, the security functions seem to be the most basic feature of gated estates in Bielany. However, at the same time, a sense of insecurity triggers the motivation for living within gated estates but does not fully explain this phenomenon. Further research is planned in order to assess supply driven forces and the impact of increased offerings of gated estates on the housing choices of inhabitants in Warsaw.Cet article s’interroge sur le phénomène des communautés fermées et protégées dans le quartier de Bielany (Varsovie à partir de la chute du régime socialiste en 1989 en Pologne. Le nombre de communautés fermées s’accroît aussi bien dans les nouveaux que dans les anciens parcs de logements par la mise en place de clôtures. L’importante offre de logements accordée à ces communautés (du logement de luxe au logement standard a eu pour conséquence de promouvoir les cités protégées comme standard de vie à Bielany. Bien que les communautés fermées se distiguent les unes des autres par leurs structures d’organisation spatiale et leurs modes de sécurités, elles offrent rarement des fonctions supplémentaires à leurs habitants. Ainsi, la sécurité semble être la caractéristique de base de ces communautés. Néanmoins, même si le sentiment

  14. Neighbourhood Renewal Fund Phase Two Create Project Evaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Southern, Rebekah; Beer, Julian; Henderson, Holly E.

    2006-01-01

    The  Social  Research  &  Regeneration  Unit  at  the  University  of  Plymouth  was  commissioned  by  Plymouth  2020  Partnership  to  evaluate  the  Community  Renewal  Education  And  Training  Enterprise  (CREATE)  project  as  part  of  Plymouth’s  overall Neighbourhood Renewal Fund (NRF) Phase Two Evaluation.  The CREATE evaluation was conducted between the autumn of 2005 and January 2006.  This report summarises  the main research findings....

  15. Novel metaphor comprehension: Semantic neighbourhood density interacts with concreteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azary, Hamad; Buchanan, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Previous research suggests that metaphor comprehension is affected both by the concreteness of the topic and vehicle and their semantic neighbours (Kintsch, 2000; Xu, 2010). However, studies have yet to manipulate these 2 variables simultaneously. To that end, we composed novel metaphors manipulated on topic concreteness and semantic neighbourhood density (SND) of topic and vehicle. In Experiment 1, participants rated the metaphors on the suitability (e.g. sensibility) of their topic-vehicle pairings. Topic concreteness interacted with SND such that participants rated metaphors from sparse semantic spaces to be more sensible than those from dense semantic spaces and preferred abstract topics over concrete topics only for metaphors from dense semantic spaces. In Experiments 2 and 3, we used presentation deadlines and found that topic concreteness and SND affect the online processing stages associated with metaphor comprehension. We discuss how the results are aligned with established psycholinguistic models of metaphor comprehension.

  16. The health status and well-being of low-resource, housing-unstable, single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Tach, Laura; Guerra, Terry; Wiebe, Douglas J; Richmond, Therese S

    2017-03-01

    The health and well-being of single-parent families living in violent neighbourhoods in US cities who participate in housing programmes is not well described. This two-phase, mixed-methods study explores the health status of families who were participants in a housing-plus programme in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania between 2011 and 2013 and the relationship between the characteristics of the neighbourhoods in which they lived and their perceptions of well-being and safety. In phase 1, data collected with standardised health status instruments were analysed using descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests to describe the health of single parents and one randomly selected child from each parent's household in comparison to population norms. In a subset of survey respondents, focus groups were conducted to generate an in-depth understanding of the daily lives and stressors of these families. Focus group data were analysed using content analysis to identify key descriptive themes. In phase 2, daily activity path mapping, surveys and interviews of parent-child dyads were collected to assess how these families perceive their health, neighbourhood and the influence of neighbourhood characteristics on the families' day-to-day experience. Narratives and activity maps were combined with crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department to analyse the relationship between crime and perceptions of fear and safety. Phase 1 data demonstrated that parent participants met or exceeded the national average for self-reported physical health but fell below the national average across all mental health domains. Over 40% reported moderate to severe symptoms of depression. Parents described high levels of stress resulting from competing priorities, financial instability, and concern for their children's well-being and safety. Analysis of phase 2 data demonstrated that neighbourhood characteristics exert influence over parents' perceptions of their environment and how they permit

  17. Psychosocial differences in high risk versus low risk acute low-back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, C B; Gatchel, R J; Gardea, M A

    2001-03-01

    The current study built upon previous research that predicted with 90.7% accuracy which patients presenting with acute low-back pain go on to develop chronic disability problems. Fifty-seven patients were classified as high risk (HR) or low risk (LR) according to a predictive algorithm, and were evaluated with a variety of psychosocial measures. Overall, HR patients had more Axis I pathology than LR patients, and used poorer coping styles. Logistic regression analyses identified variables that differentiated, with 80% accuracy, between the HR and LR patients. The results highlight the importance of identifying patients who are at risk for developing chronic pain following acute injury so that prophylactic intervention can be offered before chronic pain disability status becomes entrenched.

  18. Splashpads, swings, and shade: parents' preferences for neighbourhood parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patricia; Gilliland, Jason; Irwin, Jennifer D

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity is a modifiable behaviour that can help curtail the increasing worldwide problem of childhood obesity. Appropriate recreational opportunities, including neighbourhood parks, are particularly important for promoting physical activity among children. Because children's use of parks is mainly under the influence of their parents, understanding parents' preferences is essential for creating the most inviting and usable park space to facilitate children's physical activity. Eighty-two intercept interviews were conducted with a heterogeneous sample of parents/guardians watching their children at neighbourhood parks in London, Ontario. Parents/guardians were asked questions about how often they frequent the park, whether it is the closest to their residence, and their likes/dislikes for the park. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of the data were employed. Interviewees attended their park of choice between 1-7 times per week with the average being 2.5 times per week. Only 49% of respondents frequented the park closest to their starting destination (home or daycare facility), and the majority travelled more than 4 km to get to the park. For those who chose to travel a significant distance to attend their park of choice, park location was not as important as the amenities they desired. Parents' main reasons for choosing parks were: water attractions, shade, swings, and cleanliness. The current study provides useful insights on park use with potentially important implications for increasing physical activity among children. Incorporating parents' preferences into strategies for creating or modifying city parks will help to ensure that limited public resources are being targeted most effectively in support of children's physical activity.

  19. The Influence of Neighbourhoods and the Social Environment on Sedentary Behaviour in Older Adults in Three Prospective Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Richard J.; Čukić, Iva; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Dall, Philippa M.; Dontje, Manon L.; Skelton, Dawn A.; Macdonald, Laura; Der, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour is an emerging risk factor for poor health. This study aimed to identify ecological determinants of sedentary behaviour, for which evidence is currently scarce. The study participants were community dwelling adults from, respectively, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 271, mean age 79) and the 1930s (n = 119, mean age 83) and 1950s (n = 310, mean age 64) cohorts of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. The outcome measure, percentage of waking time spent sedentary (sedentary time), was measured using an activPAL activity monitor worn continuously for seven days. Potential determinants included objective and subjective neighbourhood measures such as natural space, crime, social cohesion and fear of crime. Other determinants included measures of social participation such as social support, social group membership and providing care. Results from multivariable regression analyses indicated that providing care was associated with reduced sedentary time in retired participants in all cohorts. Fear of crime and perceived absence of services were associated with increased sedentary time for retired 1950s cohort members. Higher crime rates were associated with increased sedentary time in all cohorts but this was not significant after adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics. Most other neighbourhood and social participation measures showed no association with sedentary time. PMID:28538672

  20. Brief report: Social and neighbourhood correlates of adolescent drunkenness: a pilot study in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H; Morojele, Neo K; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J

    2004-06-01

    To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. A cross-sectional, community study. A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender. Randomly selected adolescents from each household were interviewed by trained interviewers. A questionnaire that included questions on substance use behaviour, peers, neighbourhood factors and recreational activities. A third of the sample indicated having been drunk at least once in their lifetime. Older adolescents and adolescents whose friends drink were significantly more likely to have been drunk. The risk of having been drunk was also associated with being white and with being exposed to public drunkenness on a daily or at least weekly basis. Gender was not associated with reporting of lifetime drunkenness. Attendance at religious services (at least weekly) was found to be a significant protective factor against drunkenness. The study highlights a number of environmental factors that should be considered in tackling adolescent drunkenness.