WorldWideScience

Sample records for high resolution near-infrared

  1. High resolution near-infrared electronic spectroscopy of HCBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chen; Sears, Trevor J.

    1996-08-01

    The rotationally resolved spectrum of the HCBr à 1A″(0,2,0)←X˜ 1A'(0,0,0) Ka=0←1 transition between 12760 and 12850 cm-1 was obtained for the first time at Doppler-limited resolution using a transient frequency-modulation absorption technique. Rotational structure of HC 79Br and HC 81Br was identified and analyzed. The analysis shows R″(C-Br)=1.852 Å and R'(C-Br)=1.749 Å. The observed band indicates a linear-bent transition. This yields an upper limit of approximately 1600 cm-1 for the barrier to linearity above the zero-point energy for the à 1A″ state. Perturbations caused by singlet-triplet interactions were also found in the observed spectrum. The analysis of these perturbations indicates a very low-lying ã 3A″ state.

  2. High resolution near-infrared electronic spectroscopy of HCBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, B.; Sears, T.J. [Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The rotationally resolved spectrum of the HCBr {tilde {ital A}}{sup 1}{ital A}{double_prime}(0,2,0){l_arrow}{tilde {ital X}}{sup 1}{ital A}{prime}(0,0,0) {ital K}{sub {ital a}}=0{l_arrow}1 transition between 12760 and 12850 cm{sup {minus}1} was obtained for the first time at Doppler-limited resolution using a transient frequency-modulation absorption technique. Rotational structure of HC{sup 79}Br and HC{sup 81}Br was identified and analyzed. The analysis shows {ital R}{double_prime}(C{endash}Br)=1.85{sub 2} A and {ital R}{prime}(C{endash}Br)=1.74{sub 9} A. The observed band indicates a linear{endash}bent transition. This yields an upper limit of approximately 1600 cm{sup {minus}1} for the barrier to linearity above the zero-point energy for the {tilde {ital A}}{sup 1}{ital A}{double_prime} state. Perturbations caused by singlet{endash}triplet interactions were also found in the observed spectrum. The analysis of these perturbations indicates a very low-lying {tilde {ital a}}{sup 3}{ital A}{double_prime} state. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. High resolution scanning of radial strips cut from increment cores by near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. David Jones; Laurence R. Schimleck; Chi-Leung So; Alexander III Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2007-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy provides a rapid method for the determination of wood properties of radial strips. The spatial resolution of the NIR measurements has generally been limited to sections 10 mm wide and as a consequence the estimation of wood properties of individual rings or within rings has not been possible. Many different NIR instruments can be used...

  4. Calibration of high resolution remote sensing instruments in the visible and near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L.; Fischer, J.; Armbruster, W.; Bartsch, B.

    1997-05-01

    Measurements of the reflected solar radiation with high spectral resolution airborne instruments are usually used to develop new remote sensing techniques. The observed spectral features in the signals provide the possibility to define useful band settings for future satellite instruments. A precise wavelength and radiometric calibration is a prerequisite for such tasks. In this paper, a calibration procedure for the airborne spectrometer OVID is presented. The Optical Visible and near Infrared Detector consists of two similar detector systems, (600 - 1100 nm = VIS and 900 - 1700 nm = NIR). The spectral resolution is ~1.7 nm for the VIS-system and ~6 nm for the IR-system. This instrument is applied for the retrieval of water vapour content, aerosol and cloud properties. Besides the spectral and intensity calibration, also corrections for the dark current signals and for defective pixels have been performed. An indirect verification of the calibration procedure by the comparison of OVID measurements in cloudy and cloud free atmospheres with radiative transfer simulations is discussed in this paper. The used radiation transfer model MOMO is based on the matrix operator method.

  5. Physical Properties of T Dwarfs Inferred from High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; Barman, T. S.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    T dwarfs are ideal laboratories for understanding cool, complex atmospheres and calibrating low-mass evolutionary models in preparation for spectral studies of exoplanetary atmospheres. We present the expanded sample of T dwarfs from the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS). High-resolution near-infrared spectra from the cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer NIRSPEC on Keck II provide an unequaled combination of resolving power and wavelength coverage for detailed study of these intrinsically faint objects. The sample of 14 objects covers spectral types from T0 to T7.5, including two unresolved binaries and two peculiar objects. Physical properties of the T dwarfs are inferred from comparison of the observed spectra with synthetic spectra from PHOENIX "cond" model atmospheres, in which dust opacity is removed. We estimate effective temperature, surface gravity, radial and projected rotational velocity for the targets and compare to previously derived quantities. Furthermore we identify successes and deficiencies in the synthetic spectra, particularly in the reproduction of T0-T4 spectra.

  6. Probing Conditions at Ionized/Molecular Gas Interfaces With High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kyle Franklin

    2017-08-01

    Regions of star formation and star death in our Galaxy trace the cycle of gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). Gas in dense molecular clouds collapses to form stars, and stars at the end of their lives return the gas that made up their outer layers back out into the Galaxy. Hot stars generate copious amounts of ultraviolet photons which interact with the surrounding medium and dominate the energetics, ionization state, and chemistry of the gas. The interface where molecular gas is being dissociated into neutral atomic gas by far-UV photons from a nearby hot source is called a photodissociation or photon-dominated region (PDR). PDRs are found primarily in star forming regions where O and B stars serve as the source of UV photons, and in planetary nebulae where the hot core of the dying star acts as the UV source. The main target of this dissertation is molecular hydrogen (H2), the most abundant molecule in the Universe, made from hydrogen formed during the Big Bang. H2 makes up the overwhelming majority of molecules found in the ISM and in PDRs. Far-UV radiation absorbed by H2 will excite an electron in the molecule. The molecule then either dissociates ( 10% of the time; Field et al. 1966) or decays into excited rotational and vibrational ("rovibrational") levels of the electronic ground state. These excited rovibrational levels then decay via a radiative cascade to the ground rovibrational state (v = 0, J = 0), giving rise to a large number of transitions observable in emission from the mid-IR to the optical (Black & van Dishoeck, 1987). These transitions provide an excellent probe of the excitation and conditions within the gas. These transitions are also observed in warm H2, such as in shocks, where collisions excite H2 to higher rovibrational levels. High resolution near-infrared spectroscopy, with its ability to see through dust, and avoid telluric absorption and emission, serves as an effective tool to detect emission from ions, atoms, and molecules

  7. Near-infrared high-resolution real-time omnidirectional imaging platform for drone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Vladan; Ott, Beat; Wellig, Peter; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2016-10-01

    Recent technological advancements in hardware systems have made higher quality cameras. State of the art panoramic systems use them to produce videos with a resolution of 9000 x 2400 pixels at a rate of 30 frames per second (fps).1 Many modern applications use object tracking to determine the speed and the path taken by each object moving through a scene. The detection requires detailed pixel analysis between two frames. In fields like surveillance systems or crowd analysis, this must be achieved in real time.2 In this paper, we focus on the system-level design of multi-camera sensor acquiring near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and its ability to detect mini-UAVs in a representative rural Swiss environment. The presented results show the UAV detection from the trial that we conducted during a field trial in August 2015.

  8. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Polarimetry of a Circumstellar Disk around UX Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Ryoko; Itoh, Yoichi; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hioki, Tomonori; Oasa, Yumiko; Gupta, Ranjan; Sen, Asoke K.; Wisniewski, John P.; Muto, Takayuki; Grady, Carol A.; Hashimoto, Jun; Fukagawa, Misato; Mayama, Satoshi; Hornbeck, Jeremy; Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, Ray W.; Werren, Chelsea; Curé, Michel; Currie, Thayne; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Okamoto, Yoshiko; Momose, Munetake; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Inutsuka, Shu-ichi; Takeuchi, Taku; Dong, Ruobing; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph; Egner, Sebastian E.; Feldt, Markus; Fukue, Tsubasa; Goto, Miwa; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Matsuo, Taro; McElwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-ichi; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuro; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-12-01

    We present H-band polarimetric imagery of UX Tau A taken with HiCIAO/AO188 on the Subaru Telescope. UX Tau A has been classified as a pre-transitional disk object, with a gap structure separating its inner and outer disks. Our imagery taken with the 0.''15 (21 AU) radius coronagraphic mask has revealed a strongly polarized circumstellar disk surrounding UX Tau A, which extends to 120 AU, at a spatial resolution of 0.''1 (14 AU). It is inclined by 46° ± 2°, since the west side is nearest. Although SED modeling and sub-millimeter imagery have suggested the presence of a gap in the disk, with the inner edge of the outer disk estimated to be located at 25-30 AU, we detect no evidence of a gap at the limit of our inner working angle (23 AU) at the near-infrared wavelength. We attribute the observed strong polarization (up to 66%) to light scattering by dust grains in the disk. However, neither polarization models of the circumstellar disk based on Rayleigh-scattering nor Mie-scattering approximations were consistent with the observed azimuthal profile of the polarization degrees of the disk. Instead, a geometric optics model of the disk with nonspherical grains with radii of 30μm is consistent with the observed profile. We suggest that the dust grains have experienced frequent collisional coagulations, and have grown in the circumstellar disk of UX Tau A.

  9. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Polarimetry of a Circumstellar Disk around UX Tau A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serabyn, G.; Grady, C. A.; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present H-band polarimetric imagery of UX Tau A taken with HiCIAO/AO188 on the Subaru Telescope. UX Tau A has been classified as a pre-transitional disk object, with a gap structure separating its inner and outer disks. Our imagery taken with the 0.15" (21 AU) radius coronagraphic mask has revealed a strongly polarized circumstellar disk surrounding UX Tau A which extends to 120 AU, at a spatial resolution of 0.1" (14 AU). It is inclined by 46 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees as the west side is nearest. Although SED modeling and sub-millimeter imagery suggested the presence of a gap in the disk, with the inner edge of the outer disk estimated to be located at 25 - 30 AU, we detect no evidence of a gap at the limit of our inner working angle (23AU) at the near-infrared wavelength. We attribute the observed strong polarization (up to 66 %) to light scattering by dust grains in the disk. However, neither polarization models of the circumstellar disk based on Rayleigh scattering nor Mie scattering approximations were consistent with the observed azimuthal profile of the polarization degrees of the disk. Instead, a geometric optics model of the disk with nonspherical grains with the radii of 30 micrometers is consistent with the observed profile. We suggest that the dust grains have experienced frequent collisional coagulations and have grown in the circumstellar disk of UX Tau A.

  10. HIGH-RESOLUTION FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROSCOPY OF Nb i IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Er, A.; Güzelçimen, F.; Başar, Gö.; Öztürk, I. K. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Istanbul University, TR-34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Tamanis, M.; Ferber, R. [Laser Centre, The University of Latvia, Rainis Boulevard 19, LV-1586 Riga (Latvia); Kröger, S., E-mail: gbasar@istanbul.edu.tr, E-mail: sophie.kroeger@htw-berlin.de [Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, Wilhelminenhofstrasse 75A, D-12459 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a Fourier Transform spectrum of Niobium (Nb) is investigated in the near-infrared spectral range from 6000 to 12,000 cm{sup −1} (830–1660 nm). The Nb spectrum is produced using a hollow cathode discharge lamp in an argon atmosphere. Both Nb and Ar spectral lines are visible in the spectrum. A total of 110 spectral lines are assigned to the element Nb. Of these lines, 90 could be classified as transitions between known levels of atomic Nb. From these classified Nb i transitions, 27 have not been listed in literature previously. Additionally, 8 lines are classified for the first time.

  11. Astronomy at high angular resolution a compendium of techniques in the visible and near-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Gaitee; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Schmidtobreick, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an essential compendium of astronomical high-resolution techniques. Recent years have seen considerable developments in such techniques, which are critical to advances in many areas of astronomy. As reflected in the book, these techniques can be divided into direct methods, interferometry, and reconstruction methods, and can be applied to a huge variety of astrophysical systems, ranging from planets, single stars and binaries to active galactic nuclei, providing angular resolution in the micro- to tens of milliarcsecond scales. Written by experts in their fields, the chapters cover adaptive optics, aperture masking imaging, spectra disentangling, interferometry, lucky imaging, Roche tomography, imaging with interferometry, interferometry of AGN, AGN reverberation mapping, Doppler- and magnetic imaging of stellar surfaces, Doppler tomography, eclipse mapping, Stokes imaging, and stellar tomography. This book is intended to enable a next generation of astronomers to apply high-resolution techni...

  12. High Spatial Resolution Europa Coverage by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NIMS instrument on the Galileo spacecraft, which is being used to map the mineral and ice properties over the surfaces of the Jovian moons, produces global spectral images at modest spatial resolution and high resolution spectral images for small selected regions on the satellites. This map illustrates the high resolution coverage of Europa obtained by NIMS through the April 1997 G7 orbit.The areas covered are displayed on a Voyager-derived map. A good sampling of the dark trailing-side material (180 to 360 degrees) has been obtained, with less coverage of Europa's leading side.The false-color composites use red, green and blue to represent the infrared brightnesses at 0.7, 1.51 and 1.82 microns respectively. Considerable variations are evident and are related to the composition and sizes of the surface grains.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  13. High-resolution submillimeter and near-infrared studies of the transition disk around Sz 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Hashimoto, Jun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki; Saito, Masao; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Akiyama, Eiji [National Astronomical Observatory Japan (NAOJ), Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kitamura, Yoshimi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai 3-1-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Abe, Lyu [Lboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, 28 avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandt, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Carson, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street M5S 3H4, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Egner, Sebastian E.; Guyon, Olivier [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Goto, Miwa [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Grady, Carol, E-mail: ttsuka@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2014-03-10

    To reveal the structures of a transition disk around a young stellar object in Lupus, Sz 91 , we have performed aperture synthesis 345 GHz continuum and CO(3-2) observations with the Submillimeter Array (∼1''-3'' resolution) and high-resolution imaging of polarized intensity at the K{sub s} -band using the HiCIAO instrument on the Subaru Telescope (0.''25 resolution). Our observations successfully resolved the inner and outer radii of the dust disk to be 65 and 170 AU, respectively, which indicates that Sz 91 is a transition disk source with one of the largest known inner holes. The model fitting analysis of the spectral energy distribution reveals an H{sub 2} mass of 2.4 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} in the cold (T < 30 K) outer part at 65 AU 3 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉}) of hot (T ∼ 180 K) dust possibly remains inside the inner hole of the disk. The structure of the hot component could be interpreted as either an unresolved self-luminous companion body (not directly detected in our observations) or a narrow ring inside the inner hole. Significant CO(3-2) emission with a velocity gradient along the major axis of the dust disk is concentrated on the Sz 91 position, suggesting a rotating gas disk with a radius of 420 AU. The Sz 91 disk is possibly a rare disk in an evolutionary stage immediately after the formation of protoplanets because of the large inner hole and the lower disk mass than other transition disks studied thus far.

  14. Sub-Airy disk angular resolution with high dynamic range in the near-infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richichi A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lunar occultations (LO are a simple and effective high angular resolution method, with minimum requirements in instrumentation and telescope time. They rely on the analysis of the diffraction fringes created by the lunar limb. The diffraction phenomen occurs in space, and as a result LO are highly insensitive to most of the degrading effects that limit the performance of traditional single telescope and long-baseline interferometric techniques used for direct detection of faint, close companions to bright stars. We present very recent results obtained with the technique of lunar occultations in the near-IR, showing the detection of companions with very high dynamic range as close as few milliarcseconds to the primary star. We discuss the potential improvements that could be made, to increase further the current performance. Of course, LO are fixed-time events applicable only to sources which happen to lie on the Moon’s apparent orbit. However, with the continuously increasing numbers of potential exoplanets and brown dwarfs beign discovered, the frequency of such events is not negligible. I will list some of the most favorable potential LO in the near future, to be observed from major observatories.

  15. Facile and high spatial resolution ratio-metric luminescence thermal mapping in microfluidics by near infrared excited upconversion nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Shunbo; Wen, Weijia, E-mail: phwen@ust.hk [Department of Physics, KAUST-HKUST Joint Micro/Nanofluidic Laboratory, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Cao, Wenbin [Nano Science and Technology Program, Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2016-02-01

    A local area temperature monitor is important for precise control of chemical and biological processes in microfluidics. In this work, we developed a facile method to realize micron spatial resolution of temperature mapping in a microfluidic channel quickly and cost effectively. Based on the temperature dependent fluorescence emission of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) under near-infrared irradiation, ratio-metric imaging of UCNPs doped polydimethylsiloxane can map detailed temperature distribution in the channel. Unlike some reported strategies that utilize temperature sensitive organic dye (such as Rhodamine) to achieve thermal sensing, our method is highly chemically inert and physically stable without any performance degradation in long term operation. Moreover, this method can be easily scaled up or down, since the spatial and temperature resolution is determined by an optical imaging system. Our method supplied a simple and efficient solution for temperature mapping on a heterogeneous surface where usage of an infrared thermal camera was limited.

  16. New Measurements of s-Process Enrichments in Planetary Nebulae from High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Karakas, Amanda; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Kaplan, Kyle

    2017-06-01

    We present preliminary results from a high-spectral resolution survey of near-infrared emission lines of neutron-capture elements in planetary nebulae using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer, IGRINS (Park et al. 2014, SPIE. 9147, 1), which spans the H- and K-bands at spectral resolving power R ≈ 45,000. Both the [Kr III] and [Se IV] lines identified by Dinerstein (2001, ApJL, 550, L223) are seen in nearly all of an initial sample of ≈ 15 nebulae, with improved accuracy over earlier studies based on lower-resolution data (Sterling & Dinerstein 2008, ApJS, 174, 158; Sterling, Porter, & Dinerstein 2015, ApJS, 218, 25). Several new detections of the [Rb IV], [Cd IV], and [Ge VI] lines identified by Sterling et al. (2016, ApJL, 819, 9), as well as a [Br V] line, were made. About half the objects in this sample descend from stars with [Fe/H] = -0.7 ± 0.2 dex, while the remainder have -0.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0. We compare the measured enhancements of Se, Kr, Rb, and Cd with predictions of their production by slow-neutron captures (the s-process) during the AGB from theoretical evolutionary models for the corresponding metallicities and various initial masses. New nucleosynthesis calculations were carried out for [Fe/H] = -0.7 for initial masses between 1.1 and 3 M⊙ using the Monash stellar evolution and post-processing codes described in Karakas & Lugaro (2016, ApJ, 825, 26), which provides the nucleosynthesis predictions for the metal-rich end of our sample. The Monash models predict enrichments larger by factors of two or more than those from FRUITY (Cristallo et al. 2015, ApJS, 219, 40) and NuGRID (Pignatari et al. 2016, ApJS, 225, 24) models for the same masses and metallicities. We find that the Monash models are in substantially better agreement than the others with the abundances derived from the IGRINS observations.This work is based on data taken at the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS was developed with support from

  17. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buizer, James M. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian, E-mail: jdebuizer@sofia.usra.edu [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-08-01

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  18. Low-cost very high resolution intertidal vegetation monitoring enabled by near-infrared kite aerial photography

    OpenAIRE

    Pauly, K.; De Clerck, O.

    2011-01-01

    With ecosystem services of intertidal habitats under rising pressure of human disturbance and climate change, monitoring habitat diversity is increasingly required. However, field-based surveys are time and resourceintensive and often do not provide spatially explicit information. While airborne (multi-spectral) photography and LIDA (Laser Imaging Detecting And Ranging) offer an efficient, very high resolution and high-quality solution, the costs for skilled crew and equipment often preclude ...

  19. CRIRES-POP: a library of high resolution spectra in the near-infrared. II. Data reduction and the spectrum of the K giant 10 Leonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, C. P.; Lebzelter, T.; Smette, A.; Wolff, B.; Hartman, H.; Käufl, H.-U.; Przybilla, N.; Ramsay, S.; Uttenthaler, S.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Bagnulo, S.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Nieva, M.-F.; Seemann, U.; Seifahrt, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. High resolution stellar spectral atlases are valuable resources to astronomy. They are rare in the 1-5 μm region for historical reasons, but once available, high resolution atlases in this part of the spectrum will aid the study of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena. Aims: The aim of the CRIRES-POP project is to produce a high resolution near-infrared spectral library of stars across the H-R diagram. The aim of this paper is to present the fully reduced spectrum of the K giant 10 Leo that will form the basis of the first atlas within the CRIRES-POP library, to provide a full description of the data reduction processes involved, and to provide an update on the CRIRES-POP project. Methods: All CRIRES-POP targets were observed with almost 200 different observational settings of CRIRES on the ESO Very Large Telescope, resulting in a basically complete coverage of its spectral range as accessible from the ground. We reduced the spectra of 10 Leo with the CRIRES pipeline, corrected the wavelength solution and removed telluric absorption with Molecfit, then resampled the spectra to a common wavelength scale, shifted them to rest wavelengths, flux normalised, and median combined them into one final data product. Results: We present the fully reduced, high resolution, near-infrared spectrum of 10 Leo. This is also the first complete spectrum from the CRIRES instrument. The spectrum is available online. Conclusions: The first CRIRES-POP spectrum has exceeded our quality expectations and will form the centre of a state-of-the-art stellar atlas. This first CRIRES-POP atlas will soon be available, and further atlases will follow. All CRIRES-POP data products will be freely and publicly available online. The spectrum is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A79

  20. Fourier Transform Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging, High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Microspectroscopy Detection of Single Cancer Cells and Single Viral Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu,I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T

    2004-01-01

    Single Cancer Cells from Human tumors are being detected and imaged by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR)Hyperspectral Imaging and Fluorescence Correlation Microspectroscopy. The first FT-NIR chemical, microscopic images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are here reported. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are also presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos as well as 99% accurate calibrations are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such high-resolution, 400 MHz H-1 NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. >~20%) compared to the average levels in non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monito...

  1. Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging and High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Soybean Seeds, Somatic Embryos and Single Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T; AOCS 94th Meeting, Kansas

    2002-01-01

    Novel methodologies are currently being developed and established for the chemical analysis of soybean seeds, embryos and single cells by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence and High-Resolution NMR (HR-NMR). The first FT-NIR chemical images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are presented here. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such 400 MHz 1H NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. ~20%) compared to non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monitored by FT-NIR with a precision ...

  2. Age Determinations of Early-M Type Pre-Main Sequence Stars Using a High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yuhei; Itoh, Yoichi; Oasa, Yumiko; Sugitani, Koji

    2011-06-01

    We present a method for determining the age of early-M type pre-main sequence (PMS) stars based on estimations of the surface gravity. The surface gravity was measured using high-resolution near-infrared K-band spectroscopy. The age of the PMS stars can be determined from the surface gravity, which correlates with the photospheric contraction. To estimate the surface gravity while avoiding veiling contamination, we developed a surface gravity indicator using equivalent width ratios (EWRs) of nearby absorption lines. We derived a relationship between the ratios of the Sc (22057.8 Å and 22071.3 Å) and Na (22062.4 Å and 22089.7 Å) absorption lines and the surface gravity by observing giants and main-sequence stars. The surface gravities of early-M type stars were determined with an accuracy of 0.1 in logg. The ages of target PMS stars were estimated within a factor of 1.5 by comparing the surface gravity with the evolution model of Baraffe et al. (1998, A&A, 337, 403). The ages of 4 PMS stars were estimated to be older than indicated by previous age determinations made using the photometric method. The EWR method allows estimating the age of PMS stars without contaminating the uncertainty of the distance, extinction, and veiling.

  3. Sun Glint Correction of High and Low Spatial Resolution Images of Aquatic Scenes: a Review of Methods for Visible and Near-Infrared Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Kay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sun glint, the specular reflection of light from water surfaces, is a serious confounding factor for remote sensing of water column properties and benthos. This paper reviews current techniques to estimate and remove the glint radiance component from imagery. Methods for processing of ocean color images use statistical sea surface models to predict the glint from the sun and sensor positions and wind data. Methods for higher resolution imaging, used in coastal and shallow water mapping, estimate the glint radiance from the near-infrared signal. The effects of some current methods are demonstrated and possibilities for future techniques are briefly addressed.

  4. High-resolution Near-infrared Observations of a Small Cluster Associated with a Bright-rimmed Cloud in W5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rieko; Sugitani, Koji; Miao, Jingqi; Fukuda, Naoya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kusune, Takayoshi; Pickles, Andrew J.

    2017-08-01

    We carried out near-infrared (IR) observations to examine star formation toward the bright-rimmed cloud SFO 12, of which the main exciting star is O7V star in W5-W. We found a small young stellar object (YSO) cluster of six members embedded in the head of SFO 12 facing its exciting star, aligned along the UV radiation incident direction from the exciting star. We carried out high-resolution near-IR observations with the Subaru adaptive optics (AO) system and revealed that three of the cluster members appear to have circumstellar envelopes, one of which shows an arm-like structure in its envelope. Our near-IR and {L}\\prime -band photometry and Spitzer IRAC data suggest that formation of two members at the tip side occurred in advance of other members toward the central part, under our adopted assumptions. Our near-IR data and previous studies imply that more YSOs are distributed in the region just outside the cloud head on the side of the main exciting star, but there is little sign of star formation toward the opposite side. We infer that star formation has been sequentially occurring from the exciting star side to the central part. We examined archival data of far-infrared and CO (J=3-2) which reveals that, unlike in the optical image, SFO 12 has a head-tail structure that is along the UV incident direction. This suggests that SFO 12 is affected by strong UV from the main exciting star. We discuss the formation of this head-tail structure and star formation there by comparing with a radiation-driven implosion (RDI) model.

  5. Near-Infrared Imaging Using a High-Speed Monitoring Near Infrared Hyperspectral Camera (Compovision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Motomura, Asako; Igarashi, Yoko; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2015-04-01

    This review paper reports near-infrared (NIR) imaging studies using a newly-developed NIR camera, Compovision. Compovision can measure a significantly wide area of 150 mmX 250 mm at high speed of between 2 and 5 s. It enables a wide spectral region measurement in the 1,000-2,350 nm range at 6 nm intervals. We investigated the potential of Compovision in the applications to industrial problems such as the evaluation of pharmaceutical tablets and polymers. Our studies have demonstrated that NIR imaging based on Compovision can solve several issues such as long acquisition times and relatively low sensitivity of detection. NIR imaging with Compovision is strongly expected to be applied not only to pharmaceutical tablet monitoring and polymer characterization but also to various applications such as those to food products, biomedical substances and organic and inorganic materials.

  6. Low Efficiency Upconversion Nanoparticles for High-Resolution Coalignment of Near-Infrared and Visible Light Paths on a Light Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramoorthy, Sriramkumar; Garcia Badaracco, Adrian; Hirsch, Sophia M; Park, Jun Hong; Davies, Tim; Dumont, Julien; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi; Kummel, Andrew C; Canman, Julie C

    2017-03-08

    The combination of near-infrared (NIR) and visible wavelengths in light microscopy for biological studies is increasingly common. For example, many fields of biology are developing the use of NIR for optogenetics, in which an NIR laser induces a change in gene expression and/or protein function. One major technical barrier in working with both NIR and visible light on an optical microscope is obtaining their precise coalignment at the imaging plane position. Photon upconverting particles (UCPs) can bridge this gap as they are excited by NIR light but emit in the visible range via an anti-Stokes luminescence mechanism. Here, two different UCPs have been identified, high-efficiency micro540-UCPs and lower efficiency nano545-UCPs, that respond to NIR light and emit visible light with high photostability even at very high NIR power densities (>25 000 Suns). Both of these UCPs can be rapidly and reversibly excited by visible and NIR light and emit light at visible wavelengths detectable with standard emission settings used for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), a commonly used genetically encoded fluorophore. However, the high efficiency micro540-UCPs were suboptimal for NIR and visible light coalignment, due to their larger size and spatial broadening from particle-to-particle energy transfer consistent with a long-lived excited state and saturated power dependence. In contrast, the lower efficiency nano-UCPs were superior for precise coalignment of the NIR beam with the visible light path (∼2 μm versus ∼8 μm beam broadening, respectively) consistent with limited particle-to-particle energy transfer, superlinear power dependence for emission, and much smaller particle size. Furthermore, the nano-UCPs were superior to a traditional two-camera method for NIR and visible light path alignment in an in vivo Infrared-Laser-Evoked Gene Operator (IR-LEGO) optogenetics assay in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In summary, nano-UCPs are powerful new tools for

  7. High spatial resolution burn severity mapping of the New Jersey Pine Barrens with WorldView-3 near-infrared and shortwave infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy A. Warner; Nicholas S. Skowronski; Michael R. Gallagher

    2017-01-01

    The WorldView-3 (WV-3) sensor, launched in 2014, is the first highspatial resolution scanner to acquire imagery in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). A spectral ratio of the SWIR combined with the nearinfrared (NIR) can potentially provide an effective differentiation of wildfire burn severity. Previous high spatial resolution sensors were limited to data fromthe visible...

  8. A polychromator-type near-infrared spectrometer with a high-sensitivity and high-resolution photodiode array detector for pharmaceutical process monitoring on the millisecond time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kodai; Genkawa, Takuma; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    In the fine chemicals industry, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, advanced sensing technologies have recently begun being incorporated into the process line in order to improve safety and quality in accordance with process analytical technology. For estimating the quality of powders without preparation during drug formulation, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been considered the most promising sensing approach. In this study, we have developed a compact polychromator-type NIR spectrometer equipped with a photodiode (PD) array detector. This detector is consisting of 640 InGaAs-PD elements with 20-μm pitch. Some high-specification spectrometers, which use InGaAs-PD with 512 elements, have a wavelength resolution of about 1.56 nm when covering 900-1700 nm range. On the other hand, the newly developed detector, having the PD with one of the world's highest density, enables wavelength resolution of below 1.25 nm. Moreover, thanks to the combination with a highly integrated charge amplifier array circuit, measurement speed of the detector is higher by two orders than that of existing PD array detectors. The developed spectrometer is small (120 mm × 220 mm × 200 mm) and light (6 kg), and it contains various key devices including the high-density and high-sensitivity PD array detector, NIR technology, and spectroscopy technology for a spectroscopic analyzer that has the required detection mechanism and high sensitivity for powder measurement, as well as a high-speed measuring function for blenders. Moreover, we have evaluated the characteristics of the developed NIR spectrometer, and the measurement of powder samples confirmed that it has high functionality.

  9. High-Resolution and Non-destructive Evaluation of the Spatial Distribution of Nitrate and Its Dynamics in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Leaves by Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Yu; Inagaki, Tetsuya; Ma, Te; Tsuchikawa, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Nitrate is an important component of the nitrogen cycle and is therefore present in all plants. However, excessive nitrogen fertilization results in a high nitrate content in vegetables, which is unhealthy for humans. Understanding the spatial distribution of nitrate in leaves is beneficial for improving nitrogen assimilation efficiency and reducing its content in vegetables. In this study, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging was used for the non-destructive and effective evaluation of nitrate content in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves. Leaf samples with different nitrate contents were collected under various fertilization conditions, and reference data were obtained using reflectometer apparatus RQflex 10. Partial least squares regression analysis revealed that there was a high correlation between the reference data and NIR spectra (r2 = 0.74, root mean squared error of cross-validation = 710.16 mg/kg). Furthermore, the nitrate content in spinach leaves was successfully mapped at a high spatial resolution, clearly displaying its distribution in the petiole, vein, and blade. Finally, the mapping results demonstrated dynamic changes in the nitrate content in intact leaf samples under different storage conditions, showing the value of this non-destructive tool for future analyses of the nitrate content in vegetables.

  10. High-Resolution and Non-destructive Evaluation of the Spatial Distribution of Nitrate and Its Dynamics in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Leaves by Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Yu Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate is an important component of the nitrogen cycle and is therefore present in all plants. However, excessive nitrogen fertilization results in a high nitrate content in vegetables, which is unhealthy for humans. Understanding the spatial distribution of nitrate in leaves is beneficial for improving nitrogen assimilation efficiency and reducing its content in vegetables. In this study, near-infrared (NIR hyperspectral imaging was used for the non-destructive and effective evaluation of nitrate content in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. leaves. Leaf samples with different nitrate contents were collected under various fertilization conditions, and reference data were obtained using reflectometer apparatus RQflex 10. Partial least squares regression analysis revealed that there was a high correlation between the reference data and NIR spectra (r2 = 0.74, root mean squared error of cross-validation = 710.16 mg/kg. Furthermore, the nitrate content in spinach leaves was successfully mapped at a high spatial resolution, clearly displaying its distribution in the petiole, vein, and blade. Finally, the mapping results demonstrated dynamic changes in the nitrate content in intact leaf samples under different storage conditions, showing the value of this non-destructive tool for future analyses of the nitrate content in vegetables.

  11. Near infrared absorbing near infrared emitting highly-sensitive luminescent nanothermometer based on Nd(3+) to Yb(3+) energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Ł; Bednarkiewicz, A; Stefanski, M; Tomala, R; Hreniak, D; Strek, W

    2015-10-07

    A new type of near infrared absorbing near infrared emitting (NANE) luminescent nanothermometer is presented, with a physical background that relies on efficient Nd(3+) to Yb(3+) energy transfer under 808 nm photo-excitation. The emission spectra of LiLa0.9-xNd0.1YbxP4O12 (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5) nanocrystals were measured in a wide 100-700 °C temperature range. The ratio between the Nd(3+) ((4)F3/2→(4)I9/2) and Yb(3+) ((2)F5/2→(2)F7/2) luminescence bands, and the thermometer sensitivity were found to be strongly dependent on the Yb(3+) concentration. These phenomenological relations were discussed in terms of the competition between three phenomena, namely (a) Nd(3+)→ Yb(3+) phonon assisted energy transfer, (b) Yb(3+)→ Nd(3+) back energy transfer and (c) energy diffusion between Yb(3+) ions. The highest sensitivity of the temperature measurement was found for x = 0.5 (LiLa0.4Nd0.1Yb0.5P4O12), which was equal to 4 × 10(-3) K(-1) at 330 K. In stark contrast to conventional approaches, the proposed phosphate host matrix allows for a high level of doping, and thus, owing to the negligible concentration quenching, the presented luminophores exhibit a high absorption cross section and bright emission. Moreover, such optical remote thermometers, whose excitation and emission wavelengths are weakly scattered or absorbed and fall into the optical transmission window of the skin, may therefore become a practical solution for biomedical applications, such as remote control of thermotherapy.

  12. Optimized multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging/near-infrared spectroscopy probe for ultrahigh-resolution mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, Lia Maria; Cayetano, Kenroy; Tong, Yunjie; Frederick, Blaise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly important noninvasive method in neuroscience due to its high temporal resolution and ability to independently measure oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. However, the relatively low spatial resolution of fNIRS makes it difficult to relate this signal to underlying anatomy. Simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can complement fNIRS with superior spatial resolution and the ability to image the entire brain, providing additional information to improve fNIRS localization. However, current simultaneous fMRI/fNIRS acquisition methods are not optimal, due to the poor physical compatibility of existing MR coils and fNIRS optodes. Here, we present a technique to manufacture a true multimodal fMRI/fNIRS probe in which both modalities can be used with maximal sensitivity. To achieve this, we designed custom MR coils with integral fNIRS optodes using three-dimensional printing. This multimodal probe can be used to optimize spatial (1.2×1.2×1.8  mm) and temporal resolution (2.5 Hz) of fMRI, and it provides maximal MRI sensitivity, while allowing for high flexibility in the location and density of fNIRS optodes within the area of interest. Phantom and human data are shown to confirm the improvement in sensitivity in both modalities. This probe shows promise for addressing fundamental questions of the relation of fNIRS to physiology. PMID:26668816

  13. Broadband near-infrared metamaterial absorbers utilizing highly lossy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Fei; Dai, Jin; Chen, Yiting

    2016-01-01

    demonstrate thin, broadband, polarization-insensitive and omnidirectional absorbers working in the near-infrared range. We choose titanium (Ti) instead of the commonly used gold (Au) to construct nano-disk arrays on the top of a silicon dioxide (SiO2) coated Au substrate, with the quality (Q) factor......Radiation absorbers have increasingly been attracting attention as crucial components for controllable thermal emission, energy harvesting, modulators, etc. However, it is still challenging to realize thin absorbers which can operate over a wide spectrum range. Here, we propose and experimentally...... materials....

  14. Crossing the Resolution Limit in Near-Infrared Imaging of Silicon Chips: Targeting 10-nm Node Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Agarwal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The best reported resolution in optical failure analysis of silicon chips is 120-nm half pitch demonstrated by Semicaps Private Limited, whereas the current and future industry requirement for 10-nm node technology is 100-nm half pitch. We show the first experimental evidence for resolution of features with 100-nm half pitch buried in silicon (λ/10.6, thus fulfilling the industry requirement. These results are obtained using near-infrared reflection-mode imaging using a solid immersion lens. The key novel feature of our approach is the choice of an appropriately sized collection pinhole. Although it is usually understood that, in general, resolution is improved by using the smallest pinhole consistent with an adequate signal level, it is found that in practice for silicon chips there is an optimum pinhole size, determined by the generation of induced currents in the sample. In failure analysis of silicon chips, nondestructive imaging is important to avoid disturbing the functionality of integrated circuits. High-resolution imaging techniques like SEM or TEM require the transistors to be exposed destructively. Optical microscopy techniques may be used, but silicon is opaque in the visible spectrum, mandating the use of near-infrared light and thus poor resolution in conventional optical microscopy. We expect our result to change the way semiconductor failure analysis is performed.

  15. High-Performance Near-Infrared Luminescent Solar Concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondão, Raquel; Frias, Ana R; Correia, Sandra F H; Fu, Lianshe; de Zea Bermudez, Verónica; André, Paulo S; Ferreira, Rute A S; Carlos, Luís D

    2017-04-12

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) appear as candidates to enhance the performance of photovoltaic (PV) cells and contribute to reduce the size of PV systems, decreasing, therefore, the amount of material needed and thus the cost associated with energy conversion. One way to maximize the device performance is to explore near-infrared (NIR)-emitting centers, resonant with the maximum optical response of the most common Si-based PV cells. Nevertheless, very few examples in the literature demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating LSCs emitting in the NIR region. In this work, NIR-emitting LSCs are reported using silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis(trihexylsilyloxide) (SiNc or NIR775) immobilized in an organic-inorganic tri-ureasil matrix (t-U(5000)). The photophysical properties of the SiNc dye incorporated into the tri-ureasil host closely resembled those of SiNc in tetrahydrofuran solution (an absolute emission quantum yield of ∼0.17 and a fluorescence lifetime of ∼3.6 ns). The LSC coupled to a Si-based PV device revealed an optical conversion efficiency of ∼1.5%, which is among the largest values known in the literature for NIR-emitting LSCs. The LSCs were posteriorly coupled to a Si-based commercial PV cell, and the synergy between the t-U(5000) and SiNc molecules enabled an effective increase in the external quantum efficiency of PV cells, exceeding 20% in the SiNc absorption region.

  16. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kim, Hyosun; Wisenewski, John; Henning, Thomas; Grady, Carol; Kandori, Ryo; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (approx. 0.05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  17. Medium-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of massive young stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomohaci, R.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Mendigutía, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present medium-resolution (R~7000) near-infrared echelle spectroscopic data for 36 MYSOs drawn from the Red MSX Source (RMS) survey. This is the largest sample observed at this resolution at these wavelengths of MYSOs to date. The spectra are characterized mostly by emission from hydrogen recombination lines and accretion diagnostic lines. One MYSO shows photospheric HI absorption, a comparison with spectral standards indicates that the star is an A type star with a low surface gravity, implying that the MYSOs are probably swollen, as also suggested by evolutionary calculations. An investigation of the Br$\\gamma$ line profiles shows that most are in pure emission, while 13$\\pm$5 % display P Cygni profiles, indicative of outflow, while less than 8$\\pm$4 % have inverse P Cygni profiles, indicative of infall. These values are comparable with investigations into the optically bright Herbig Be stars, but not with those of Herbig Ae and T Tauri stars, consistent with the notion that the more massive stars undergo accretion in a different fashion than lower mass objects which are undergoing magnetospheric accretion. Accretion luminosities and rates as derived from the Br$\\gamma$ line luminosities agree with results for lower mass sources, providing tentative evidence for massive star formation theories based on scaling of low-mass scenarios. We present Br$\\gamma$/Br12 line profile ratios exploiting the fact that optical depth effects can be traced as a function of Doppler shift across the lines. These show that the winds of MYSOs in this sample are nearly equally split between constant, accelerating, and decelerating velocity structures. There are no trends between the types of features we see and bolometric luminosities or near-infrared colours.

  18. A near infrared laser frequency comb for high precision Doppler planet surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bally J.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most exciting area of astronomical research today is the study of exoplanets and exoplanetary systems, engaging the imagination not just of the astronomical community, but of the general population. Astronomical instrumentation has matured to the level where it is possible to detect terrestrial planets orbiting distant stars via radial velocity (RV measurements, with the most stable visible light spectrographs reporting RV results the order of 1 m/s. This, however, is an order of magnitude away from the precision needed to detect an Earth analog orbiting a star such as our sun, the Holy Grail of these efforts. By performing these observations in near infrared (NIR there is the potential to simplify the search for distant terrestrial planets by studying cooler, less massive, much more numerous class M stars, with a tighter habitable zone and correspondingly larger RV signal. This NIR advantage is undone by the lack of a suitable high precision, high stability wavelength standard, limiting NIR RV measurements to tens or hundreds of m/s [1, 2]. With the improved spectroscopic precision provided by a laser frequency comb based wavelength reference producing a set of bright, densely and uniformly spaced lines, it will be possible to achieve up to two orders of magnitude improvement in RV precision, limited only by the precision and sensitivity of existing spectrographs, enabling the observation of Earth analogs through RV measurements. We discuss the laser frequency comb as an astronomical wavelength reference, and describe progress towards a near infrared laser frequency comb at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at the University of Colorado where we are operating a laser frequency comb suitable for use with a high resolution H band astronomical spectrograph.

  19. The use of skeletal muscle near infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Daniel S.; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Bezemer, Rick; Montgomery, Hugh E.; Grocott, Mike P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Martin, Daniel, Denny Levett, Rick Bezemer, Hugh Montgomery, and Mike Grocott. The use of skeletal muscle near infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 14:256-262, 2013.-Microcirculatory function, central to tissue regulation of oxygen flux,

  20. low-Cost, High-Performance Alternatives for Target Temperature Monitoring Using the Near-Infrared Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgo, Mathew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A process is being developed for commercial production of the medical isotope Mo-99 through a photo-nuclear reaction on a Mo-100 target using a highpower electron accelerator. This process requires temperature monitoring of the window through which a high-current electron beam is transmitted to the target. For this purpose, we evaluated two near infrared technologies: the OMEGA Engineering iR2 pyrometer and the Ocean Optics Maya2000 spectrometer with infrared-enhanced charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor. Measuring in the near infrared spectrum, in contrast to the long-wavelength infrared spectrum, offers a few immediate advantages: (1) ordinary glass or quartz optical elements can be used; (2) alignment can be performed without heating the target; and (3) emissivity corrections to temperature are typically less than 10%. If spatial resolution is not required, the infrared pyrometer is attractive because of its accuracy, low cost, and simplicity. If spatial resolution is required, we make recommendations for near-infrared imaging based on our data augmented by calculations

  1. Dual-Modality Imaging Probes with High Magnetic Relaxivity and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Based Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Fei-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-modal imaging by combining magnetic resonance (MR and near-infrared (NIR fluorescence can integrate the advantages of high-resolution anatomical imaging with high sensitivity in vivo fluorescent imaging, which is expected to play a significant role in biomedical researches. Here we report a dual-modality imaging probe (NIR/MR-MSNs fabricated by conjugating NIR fluorescent heptamethine dyes (IR-808 and MR contrast agents (Gd-DTPA within highly aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs-NH2. The dual-modality imaging probes NIR/MR-MSNs possess a size of ca. 120 nm. The NIR/MR-MSNs show not only near-infrared fluorescence imaging property with an emission peak at 794 nm, but also highly MR T1 relaxivity of 14.54 mM−1 s−1, which is three times more than Gd-DTPA. In vitro experiment reveals high uptake and retention abilities of the nanoprobes, while cell viability assay demonstrates excellent cytocompatibility of the dual-modality imaging probe. After intratumor injection with the NIR/MR-MSNs, MR imaging shows clear anatomical border of the enhanced tumor region while NIR fluorescence exhibits high sensitive tumor detection ability. These intriguing features suggest that this newly developed dual-modality imaging probes have great potential in biomedical imaging.

  2. High precision radial velocities in the near-infrared domain: Status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzano A.M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the highly successful Doppler technique into the near-infrared (0.9–2.5 μm is highly desirable as it would open the possibility for searches for extra-solar planets around young stars, very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Here we review the current status of this technique and discuss future prospects with particular emphasis on challenging problems for the next decade.

  3. Near-infrared roll-off-free electroluminescence from highly stable diketopyrrolopyrrole light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mauro; Buccheri, Nunzio; Rooney, Myles; Botta, Chiara; Bruni, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Brovelli, Sergio; Beverina, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy.

  4. High gain and low excess noise near infrared single photon avalanche detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga, Krishna; Yevtukhov, Yuriy; Liang, Bing

    2009-05-01

    We present the discrete amplification approach used for development of a very high gain and low excess noise factor in the near infrared wavelength region. The devices have the following performance characteristics: gain > 2X105, excess noise factor researchers in the fields of deep space optical communication, spectroscopy, industrial and scientific instrumentation, Ladar/Lidar, quantum cryptography, night vision and other military, defense and aerospace applications.

  5. Anthracene-fused BODIPYs as near-infrared dyes with high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Lintao

    2011-11-18

    An anthracene unit was successfully fused to the zigzag edge of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core by an FeCl 3-mediated oxidative cyclodehydrogenation reaction. Meanwhile, a dimer was also formed by both intramolecular cyclization and intermolecular coupling. The anthracene-fused BODIPY monomer 7a and dimer 7b showed small energy gaps (∼1.4 eV) and near-infrared absorption/emission. Moreover, they exhibited high photostability. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Near-infrared light controlled photocatalytic activity of carbon quantum dots for highly selective oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-03-01

    Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize the transformation from benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high selectivity (100%) and conversion (92%) under NIR light irradiation. HO&z.rad; is the main active oxygen specie in benzyl alcohol selective oxidative reaction confirmed by terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing assay (TA-PL), selecting toluene as the substrate. Such metal-free photocatalytic system also selectively converts other alcohol substrates to their corresponding aldehydes with high conversion, demonstrating a potential application of accessing traditional alcohol oxidation chemistry.Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize

  7. High Gain Submicrometer Optical Amplifier at Near-Infrared Communication Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Yang, Sen; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Qinglin; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Hong; Guo, Pengfei; Liang, Junwu; Huang, Yu; Pan, Anlian; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-07-10

    Nanoscale near-infrared optical amplification is important but remains a challenge to achieve. Here we report a unique design of silicon and erbium silicate core-shell nanowires for high gain submicrometer optical amplification in the near-infrared communication band. The high refraction index silicon core is used to tightly confine the optical field within the submicron structures, and the single crystalline erbium-ytterbium silicates shell is used as the highly efficient gain medium. Both theoretical and experimental results show that, by systematically tuning the core diameter and shell thickness, a large portion of the optical power can be selectively confined to the erbium silicate shell gain medium to enable a low loss waveguide and high gain optical amplifier. Experimental results further demonstrate that an optimized core-shell nanowire can exhibit an excellent net gain up to 31  dB mm(-1), which is more than 20 times larger than the previously reported best results on the micron-scale optical amplifiers.

  8. [Design of high-efficiency double compound parabolic concentrator system in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Lu, Qi-Peng; Peng, Zhong-Qi; Ding, Hai-Quan; Gao, Hong-Zhi

    2013-05-01

    High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of system is necessary to obtain accurate blood components in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis. In order to improve SNR of analytical system, high-efficiency double compound parabolic concentrator (DCPC) system was researched, which was aimed at increasing light utilization efficiency. Firstly, with the request of collection efficiency in near infrared noninvasive biochemical analysis, the characteristic of emergent rays through compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) was analyzed. Then the maximum focusing angle range of the first stage CPC was determined. Secondly, the light utilization efficiency of truncated type was compared with standard DCPC, thus the best structure parameters of DCPC system were optimized. Lastly, combined with optical parameters of skin tissue, calculations were operated when incident wavelength is 1 000 nm. The light utilization efficiency of DCPC system, CPC-focusing mirror system, and non-optical collecting system was calculated. The results show that the light utilization efficiency of the three optical systems is 1.46%, 0.84% and 0.26% respectively. So DCPC system enhances collecting ability for human diffuse reflection light, and helps improve SNR of noninvasive biochemical analysis system and overall analysis accuracy effectively.

  9. Investigating the Near-Infrared Properties of Planetary Nebulae II. Medium Resolution Spectra. 2; Medium Resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Latter, William B.; Deutsch, Lynne K.

    1998-01-01

    We present medium-resolution (R approximately 700) near-infrared (lambda = 1 - 2.5 micrometers) spectra of a sample of planetary nebulae (PNe). A narrow slit was used which sampled discrete locations within the nebulae; observations were obtained at one or more positions in the 41 objects included in the survey. The PN spectra fall into one of four general categories: H1 emission line-dominated PNe, H1 and H2 emission line PNe, H2 emission line-dominated PNe, and continuum-dominated PNe. These categories correlate with morphological type, with the elliptical PNe falling into the first group, and the bipolar PNe primarily in the H2 and continuum emission groups. The categories also correlate with C/O ratio, with the O-rich objects falling into the first group and the C-rich objects in the groups. Other spectral features were observed in all catagories, such as continuum emission from the central star, and warm dust continuum emission towards the long wavelength end of the spectra. H2 was detected in four PNe in this survey for the first time. An analysis was performed using the H2 line ratios in all of the PN spectra in the survey where a sufficient number of lines were observed to determine the ortho-to-para ratio and the rotational and vibrational excitation temperatures of the H-2 in those objects. One unexpected result from this analysis is that the H-2 is excited by absorption of ultraviolet photons in most of the PNe, although there are several PNe in which collisional excitation plays an important role. The correlation between bipolar morphology and H2 emission has been strengthened with the new detections of H2 in this survey.

  10. Combined angiography for high-quality near-infrared autofluorescence images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querques, Giuseppe; Souied, Eric H

    2014-01-01

    To describe an innovative imaging technique to obtain high-quality near-infrared autofluorescence (NIA) images. Simultaneous fluorescein angiography + indocyanine green angiography (FA + ICGA) acquisition mode (without dye injection) of Spectralis HRA + OCT (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), setting maximum level of illuminance, and Automatic Real-time (ART) Module (Heidelberg Engineering) to increase signal-to-noise ratio. The combined confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope technique allows the Spectralis HRA + OCT device to create high-quality NIA ART images. This innovative imaging technique, consisting of simultaneous FA + ICGA acquisition mode, setting maximum level of illuminance, and ART, allows the Spectralis HRA + OCT device to create high-quality NIA ART images, without requiring the need for the HRA2 (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph; Heidelberg Engineering) device.

  11. Photoacoustic contrast imaging of biological tissues with nanodiamonds fabricated for high near-infrared absorbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Su, Long-Jyun; Ren, Shenqiang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, M Laird

    2013-02-01

    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (DNDs) are potentially ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their low toxicity and high optical absorbance. PA imaging contrast agents have been limited to quantum dots and gold particles, since most existing carbon-based nanoparticles, including fluorescent nanodiamonds, do not have sufficient optical absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) range. A new DND by He+ ion beam irradiation with very high NIR absorption was synthesized. These DNDs produced a 71-fold higher PA signal on a molar basis than similarly dimensioned gold nanorods, and 7.1 fmol of DNDs injected into rodents could be clearly imaged 3 mm below the skin surface with PA signal enhancement of 567% using an 820-nm laser wavelength.

  12. Analysis of Archival Low-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra to Measure Pluto's Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason C.; Young, Leslie; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    2017-10-01

    First detected via occultation observations, Pluto's atmosphere has changed since its discovery in the 1980s (Brosch & Mendelson, 1985; Elliot et al., 1989). Between the occultations of 1988 and 2002, the surface pressure doubled (Elliot et al., 2003) as Pluto passed through perihelion in 1989. In the years following the 2002 occultation, only a slight increase in the surface pressure has been noted (Young et al. 2013; Olkin et al. 2015). High-resolution spectroscopy has also been used to determine the composition of Pluto's atmosphere. This was first successfully done in 1992 (Young et al., 1997), but no follow up detection was made until 2008 (Lellouch et al. 2009). With a gap in the occultation and spectroscopic records, we have little information on how and when Pluto's atmosphere changed. In order to fill in this gap, we are examining low spectral resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of Pluto such as Cook et al (2014) presented previously. At this meeting, we will report on additional archive observations from Gemini. These data were taken between 2004 and 2008 using the NIRI+Altair (adaptive optics instrument) and GNIRS instruments. These have resolving powers (λ/Δλ) of ~600 and 6000, respectively. Both data sets cover the K-band spectral range (1.95 to 2.40 μm) where gaseous CH4 has several strong lines, such as the ν3+ν4 Q-branch near 2.317 μm.Funding for this work has been provided by NASA-PATM grant NNX12AK62G.

  13. A Near-Infrared Photon Counting Camera for High Sensitivity Astronomical Observation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Near Infrared Photon-Counting Sensor (NIRPCS), an imaging device with sufficient sensitivity to capture the spectral signatures, in the...

  14. A high quantum yield molecule-protein complex fluorophore for near-infrared II imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Diao, Shuo; Ma, Zhuoran; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Shoujun; Wang, Joy; Lozano, Alexander X.; Fan, Quli; Chew, Leila; Zhu, Mark; Cheng, Kai; Hong, Xuechuan; Dai, Hongjie; Cheng, Zhen

    2017-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) allows visualization of deep anatomical features with an unprecedented degree of clarity. NIR-II fluorophores draw from a broad spectrum of materials spanning semiconducting nanomaterials to organic molecular dyes, yet unfortunately all water-soluble organic molecules with >1,000 nm emission suffer from low quantum yields that have limited temporal resolution and penetration depth. Here, we report tailoring the supramolecular assemblies of protein complexes with a sulfonated NIR-II organic dye (CH-4T) to produce a brilliant 110-fold increase in fluorescence, resulting in the highest quantum yield molecular fluorophore thus far. The bright molecular complex allowed for the fastest video-rate imaging in the second NIR window with ~50-fold reduced exposure times at a fast 50 frames-per-second (FPS) capable of resolving mouse cardiac cycles. In addition, we demonstrate that the NIR-II molecular complexes are superior to clinically approved ICG for lymph node imaging deep within the mouse body.

  15. Near-infrared spectra of high-albedo outer main-belt asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Shirahata, Mai [National Institutes of Natural Science, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata-cho, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan); Okamura, Natsuko [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo Kiban Bldg. 408, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Hasegawa, Sunao, E-mail: toshi.kasuga@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Most outer main-belt asteroids have low albedos because of their carbonaceouslike bodies. However, infrared satellite surveys have revealed that some asteroids have high albedos, which may suggest the presence of unusual surface minerals for those primitive objects. We present new near-infrared (1.1–2.5 μm) spectra of four outer main-belt asteroids with albedos ≥ 0.1. The C-complex asteroids (555) Norma and (2542) Calpurnia are featureless and have (50%–60%) amorphous Mg pyroxenes that might explain the high albedos. Asteroids (701) Oriola (which is a C-complex asteroid) and (2670) Chuvashia (a D/T-type or M-type asteroid) show possible broad absorption bands (1.5–2.1 μm). The feature can be reproduced by either Mg-rich amorphous pyroxene (with 50%–60% and 80%–95% Mg, respectively) or orthopyroxene (crystalline silicate), which might be responsible for the high albedos. No absorption features of water ice (near 1.5 and 2.0 μm) are detected in the objects. We discuss the origin of high albedo components in the outer main-belt asteroids and their physical relations to comets.

  16. Analysis of local warm forming of high strength steel using near infrared ray energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. H.; Lee, K.; Lee, E. H.; Yang, D. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The automotive industry has been pressed to satisfy more rigorous fuel efficiency requirements to promote energy conservation, safety features and cost containment. To satisfy this need, high strength steel has been developed and used for many different vehicle parts. The use of high strength steels, however, requires careful analysis and creativity in order to accommodate its relatively high springback behavior. An innovative method, called local warm forming with near infrared ray, has been developed to help promote the use of high strength steels in sheet metal forming. For this method, local regions of the work piece are heated using infrared ray energy, thereby promoting the reduction of springback behavior. In this research, a V-bend test is conducted with DP980. After springback, the bend angles for specimens without local heating are compared to those with local heating. Numerical analysis has been performed using the commercial program, DEFORM-2D. This analysis is carried out with the purpose of understanding how changes to the local stress distribution will affect the springback during the unloading process. The results between experimental and computational approaches are evaluated to assure the accuracy of the simulation. Subsequent numerical simulation studies are performed to explore best practices with respect to thermal boundary conditions, timing, and applicability to the production environment.

  17. Arabidopsis Seed Content QTL Mapping Using High-Throughput Phenotyping: The Assets of Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Sophie; Lécureuil, Alain; Durandet, Monique; Bernard-Moulin, Patrick; Guerche, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Seed storage compounds are of crucial importance for human diet, feed and industrial uses. In oleo-proteaginous species like rapeseed, seed oil and protein are the qualitative determinants that conferred economic value to the harvested seed. To date, although the biosynthesis pathways of oil and storage protein are rather well-known, the factors that determine how these types of reserves are partitioned in seeds have to be identified. With the aim of implementing a quantitative genetics approach, requiring phenotyping of 100s of plants, our first objective was to establish near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) predictive equations in order to estimate oil, protein, carbon, and nitrogen content in Arabidopsis seed with high-throughput level. Our results demonstrated that NIRS is a powerful non-destructive, high-throughput method to assess the content of these four major components studied in Arabidopsis seed. With this tool in hand, we analyzed Arabidopsis natural variation for these four components and illustrated that they all displayed a wide range of variation. Finally, NIRS was used in order to map QTL for these four traits using seeds from the Arabidopsis thaliana Ct-1 × Col-0 recombinant inbred line population. Some QTL co-localized with QTL previously identified, but others mapped to chromosomal regions never identified so far for such traits. This paper illustrates the usefulness of NIRS predictive equations to perform accurate high-throughput phenotyping of Arabidopsis seed content, opening new perspectives in gene identification following QTL mapping and genome wide association studies.

  18. Arabidopsis seed content QTL mapping using high-throughput phenotyping: the assets of Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Jasinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed storage compounds are of crucial importance for human diet, feed and industrial uses. In oleo-proteaginous species like rapeseed, seed oil and protein are the qualitative determinants that conferred economic value to the harvested seed. To date, although the biosynthesis pathways of oil and storage protein are rather well known, the factors that determine how these types of reserves are partitioned in seeds have to be identified. With the aim of implementing a quantitative genetics approach, requiring phenotyping of hundreds of plants, our first objective was to establish near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS predictive equations in order to estimate oil, protein, carbon and nitrogen content in Arabidopsis seed with high-throughput level. Our results demonstrated that NIRS is a powerful non-destructive, high-throughput method to assess the content of these four major components studied in Arabidopsis seed. With this tool in hand, we analysed Arabidopsis natural variation for these four components and illustrated that they all displayed a wide range of variation. Finally, NIRS was used in order to map QTL for these four traits using seeds from the Arabidopsis thaliana Ct-1 x Col-0 recombinant inbred line population. Some QTL co-localised with QTL previously identified, but others mapped to chromosomal regions never identified so far for such traits. This paper illustrates the usefulness of NIRS predictive equations to perform accurate high-throughput phenotyping of Arabidopsis seed content, opening new perspectives in gene identification following QTL mapping and Genome Wide Association Studies.

  19. Rotational dynamics of confined C60 from near-infrared Raman studies under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Yonggang; Liu, Bingbing; Wang, Liancheng; Liu, Dedi; Yu, Shidan; Wang, Peng; Li, Xianglin; Wang, Tianyi; Yao, Mingguang; Li, Quanjun; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Zou, Guangtian; Wågberg, Thomas; Sundq, Bertil; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2009-12-29

    Peapods present a model system for studying the properties of dimensionally constrained crystal structures, whose dynamical properties are very important. We have recently studied the rotational dynamics of C60 molecules confined inside single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) by analyzing the intermediate frequency mode lattice vibrations using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. The rotation of C60 was tuned to a known state by applying high pressure, at which condition C60 first forms dimers at low pressure and then forms a single-chain, nonrotating, polymer structure at high pressure. In the latter state the molecules form chains with a 2-fold symmetry. We propose that the C60 molecules in SWNT exhibit an unusual type of ratcheted rotation due to the interaction between C60 and SWNT in the “hexagon orientation,” and the characteristic vibrations of ratcheted rotation becomes more obvious with decreasing temperature.

  20. Porous Pt Nanoparticles with High Near-Infrared Photothermal Conversion Efficiencies for Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Wan, Hong-Ye; Jia, Henglei; Liu, Liang; Wang, Jianfang

    2016-12-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures are of potential in acting as a type of optical agents for cancer photothermal therapy. To effectively function as photothermal therapy agents, plasmonic nanostructures are strongly desired to have good biocompatibility and high photothermal conversion efficiencies. In this study, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-coated porous Pt nanoparticles are synthesized for photothermal therapy. The Pt nanoparticles possess broadband near-infrared light absorption in the range from 650 to 1200 nm, therefore allowing for selecting different laser wavelengths for photothermal therapy. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles exhibit remarkable photothermal conversion efficiencies under 809 and 980 nm laser irradiation. In vitro studies indicate that the Pt nanoparticles display good biocompatibility and high cellular uptake efficiencies through an endocytosis pathway. Photothermal heating using 808 nm laser irradiation (>7.0 W cm-2 , 3 min) leads to notable cytotoxic effect, and more than 70% of cells are photothermally ablated after 3 min irradiation at 8.4 W cm-2 . Furthermore, simultaneous application of photothermal therapy synergistically enhances the cytotoxicity of an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin. Therefore, the porous Pt nanoparticles have great potential as an attractive photothermal agent for cancer therapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. INTERMEDIATE RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF 36 LATE M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, R. [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Martin, E. L.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Bouy, H. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Montgomery, M. M. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, P.O. Box 162385, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Rodler, F. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Torre C5-parell-2a planta, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Del Burgo, C. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Phan Bao, N. [Department of Physics, HCMIU, Vietnam National University Administrative Building, Block 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, HCM (Viet Nam); Lyubchik, Y.; Pavlenko, Y. [Main Astronomical Observatory of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Zabolotnoho, 27, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Tata, R., E-mail: rohit@psu.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, c/Via Lactea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Islas Canarias (Spain)

    2012-10-01

    We present observations of 36 late M dwarfs obtained with the Keck II/NIRSPEC in the J band at a resolution of {approx}20,000. We have measured projected rotational velocities, absolute radial velocities, and pseudo-equivalent widths of atomic lines. Twelve of our targets did not have previous measurements in the literature. For the other 24 targets, we confirm previously reported measurements. We find that 13 stars from our sample have v sin i below our measurement threshold (12 km s{sup -1}) whereas four of our targets are fast rotators (v sin i > 30 km s{sup -1}). As fast rotation causes spectral features to be washed out, stars with low projected rotational velocities are sought for radial velocity surveys. At our intermediate spectral resolution, we have confirmed the identification of neutral atomic lines reported in McLean et al. We also calculated pseudo-equivalent widths of 12 atomic lines. Our results confirm that the pseudo-equivalent width of K I lines is strongly dependent on spectral types. We observe that the pseudo-equivalent width of Fe I and Mn I lines remains fairly constant with later spectral type. We suggest that these lines are particularly suitable for deriving metallicities for late M dwarfs.

  2. Enhanced sensitivity to near-infrared with high fill factor in small molecular organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyun-Sub; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Sei-Yong; Jeong, Won-Ik; Kim, Tae-Min; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2012-09-01

    High efficiency near-infrared (NIR) absorbing solar cells based on lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) are reported using copper iodide (CuI) as a templating layer to control the crystal structure of PbPc. Devices with CuI inserted between the ITO and PbPc layers exhibit a two times enhancement of the JSC compared to the case in the absence of the CuI layer. This is due to the increase of crystallinity in the molecules grown on the CuI templating layer, which is investigated via an x-ray diffraction study. Moreover, fill factor is also enhanced to 0.63 from 0.57 due to low series resistance although the additional CuI layer is inserted between the ITO and the PbPc layer. As a result, the corrected power conversion efficiency of 2.5% was obtained, which is the highest one reported up to now among the PbPc based solar cells.

  3. Highly Efficient Near Infrared Photothermal Conversion Properties of Reduced Tungsten Oxide/Polyurethane Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chala, Tolesa Fita; Wu, Chang-Mou; Chou, Min-Hui; Gebeyehu, Molla Bahiru; Cheng, Kuo-Bing

    2017-01-01

    In this work, novel WO3-x/polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared by ball milling followed by stirring using a planetary mixer/de-aerator. The effects of phase transformation (WO3 → WO2.8 → WO2.72) and different weight fractions of tungsten oxide on the optical performance, photothermal conversion, and thermal properties of the prepared nanocomposites were examined. It was found that the nanocomposites exhibited strong photoabsorption in the entire near-infrared (NIR) region of 780–2500 nm and excellent photothermal conversion properties. This is because the particle size of WO3-x was greatly reduced by ball milling and they were well-dispersed in the polyurethane matrix. The higher concentration of oxygen vacancies in WO3-x contribute to the efficient absorption of NIR light and its conversion into thermal energy. In particular, WO2.72/PU nanocomposites showed strong NIR light absorption of ca. 92%, high photothermal conversion, and better thermal conductivity and absorptivity than other WO3/PU nanocomposites. Furthermore, when the nanocomposite with 7 wt % concentration of WO2.72 nanoparticles was irradiated with infrared light, the temperature of the nanocomposite increased rapidly and stabilized at 120 °C after 5 min. This temperature is 52 °C higher than that achieved by pure PU. These nanocomposites are suitable functional materials for solar collectors, smart coatings, and energy-saving applications. PMID:28737689

  4. Reliability of telemetric electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy during high-intensity resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brendan R; Slattery, Katie M; Sculley, Dean V; Lockie, Robert G; Dascombe, Ben J

    2014-10-01

    This study quantified the inter- and intra-test reliability of telemetric surface electromyography (EMG) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during resistance exercise. Twelve well-trained young men performed high-intensity back squat exercise (12 sets at 70-90% 1-repetition maximum) on two occasions, during which EMG and NIRS continuously monitored muscle activation and oxygenation of the thigh muscles. Intra-test reliability for EMG and NIRS variables was generally higher than inter-test reliability. EMG median frequency variables were generally more reliable than amplitude-based variables. The reliability of EMG measures was not related to the intensity or number of repetitions performed during the set. No notable differences were evident in the reliability of EMG between different agonist muscles. NIRS-derived measures of oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin and tissue saturation index were generally more reliable during single-repetition sets than multiple-repetition sets at the same intensity. Tissue saturation index was the most reliable NIRS variable. Although the reliability of the EMG and NIRS measures varied across the exercise protocol, the precise causes of this variability are not yet understood. However, it is likely that biological variation during multi-joint isotonic resistance exercise may account for some of the variation in the observed results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Near-infrared autofluorescence induced by intraplaque hemorrhage and heme degradation as marker for high-risk atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, Nay Min; Chen, Yung Chih; Lim, Bock; Schiller, Tara; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Huang, Alex L; Elgass, Kirstin D; Rivera, Jennifer; Schneider, Hans G; Wood, Bayden R; Stocker, Roland; Peter, Karlheinz

    2017-07-13

    Atherosclerosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, which is mainly driven by complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. These complications are caused by thrombotic arterial occlusion localized at the site of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques, of which early detection and therapeutic stabilization are urgently needed. Here we show that near-infrared autofluorescence is associated with the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage and heme degradation products, particularly bilirubin by using our recently created mouse model, which uniquely reflects plaque instability as seen in humans, and human carotid endarterectomy samples. Fluorescence emission computed tomography detecting near-infrared autofluorescence allows in vivo monitoring of intraplaque hemorrhage, establishing a preclinical technology to assess and monitor plaque instability and thereby test potential plaque-stabilizing drugs. We suggest that near-infrared autofluorescence imaging is a novel technology that allows identification of atherosclerotic plaques with intraplaque hemorrhage and ultimately holds promise for detection of high-risk plaques in patients.Atherosclerosis diagnosis relies primarily on imaging and early detection of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques is important for risk stratification of patients and stabilization therapies. Here Htun et al. demonstrate that vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques generate near-infrared autofluorescence that can be detected via emission computed tomography.

  6. Topological Crystalline Insulator SnTe/Si Vertical Heterostructure Photodetectors for High-Performance Near-Infrared Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Man, Baoyuan; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-26

    Due to the gapless surface state and narrow bulk band gap, the light absorption of topological crystalline insulators covers a broad spectrum ranging from terahertz to infrared, revealing promising applications in new generation optoelectronic devices. To date, the photodetectors based on topological insulators generally suffer from a large dark current and a weaker photocurrent especially under the near-infrared lights, which severely limits the practical application of devices. Owing to the lower excitation energy of infrared lights, the photodetection application of topological crystalline insulators in the near-infrared region relies critically on understanding the preparation and properties of their heterostructures. Herein, we fabricate the high-quality topological crystalline insulator SnTe film/Si vertical heterostructure by a simple physical vapor deposition process. The resultant heterostructure exhibits an excellent diode characteristic, enabling the construction of high-performance near-infrared photodetectors. The built-in electric field at SnTe/Si interface enhances the absorption efficiency of near-infrared lights and greatly facilitates the separation of photogenerated carriers, making the device capable of operating as a self-driven photodetector. The as-grown SnTe film acts as the hole transport layer in heterostructure photodetectors, promoting the transport of holes to electrode and reducing electron-hole recombination effectively. These merits enable the SnTe/Si heterostructure photodetector to have a high responsivity of 2.36 AW-1, a high detectivity of 1.54 × 1014 Jones, and a large bandwidth of 104 Hz in the near-infrared wavelength, which makes the detector have a promising market in novel device applications.

  7. High pressure near infrared study of the mutated light-harvesting complex LH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The pressure sensitivities of the near infrared spectra of the light-harvesting (LH2 complex and a mutant complex with a simplified BChl-B850 binding pocket were compared. In the mutant an abrupt change in the spectral properties occurred at 250 MPa, which was not observed with the native sample. Increased disorder due to collapse of the chromophore pocket is suggested.

  8. Small monomeric and highly stable near-infrared fluorescent markers derived from the thermophilic phycobiliprotein, ApcF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Long; Miao, Dan; Hou, Ya-Nan; Jiang, Su-Ping; Zhao, Bao-Qin; Zhou, Ming; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Biliproteins have extended the spectral range of fluorescent proteins into the region of maximal transmission of most tissues and are favorable for multiplexing, but their application presents considerable challenges. Their fluorescence derives from open-chain tetrapyrrole chromophores which often require the introduction of dedicated reductases and lyases. In addition, their fluorescence yield generally decreases with increasing wavelengths and depends strongly on the state of the binding protein. We report fluorescent biliproteins, termed BDFPs, that are derived from the phycobilisome core subunit, ApcF2: this subunit is induced in the thermophilic cyanobacterium, Chroococcidiopsis thermalis, by far-red light and binds phycocyanobilin non-covalently. The BDFPs obtained by molecular evolution of ApcF2 bind the more readily accessible biliverdin covalently while retaining the red-shifted fluorescence in the near-infrared spectral region (~710nm). They are small monomers (~15kDa) and not only show excellent photostability, but are also thermostable up to 80°C, tolerate acid down to pH2 and high concentrations of denaturants. The result indicates far-red adapting cyanobacteria as a useful source for designing extremely red-shifted fluorescent markers. In vivo performance of BDFPs as biomarkers in conventional and super-resolution microscopy, alone or fused to target proteins, is exemplified in several mammalian cells, including, human cell lines, in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and, at low pH, in Lactobacillus lactis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of process dynamics through coaxially aligned high speed near-infrared imaging in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jason C.; Lane, Brandon M.; Yeung, Ho

    2017-05-01

    For process stability in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM), control of melt pool dimensions is imperative. In order to control melt pool dimensions in real time, sampling frequencies in excess of 10 kHz may be required, which presents a challenge for many thermal and optical monitoring systems. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is currently developing the Additive Manufacturing Metrology Testbed (AMMT), which replicates a metal based laser powder bed fusion AM process while providing open architecture for control, sensing, and calibration sources. The system is outfitted with a coaxially aligned, near-infrared (NIR) high speed melt pool monitoring (MPM) system. Similar monitoring systems are incorporated into LPBF research testbeds, and appearing on commercial machines, but at lower available frame rates, which may limit observation of higher frequency events such as spatter or size fluctuations. This paper presents an investigation of the coaxial imaging systems of the AMMT to capture the process dynamics, and quantify the effects of dynamic fluctuations on melt pool size measurements. Analysis is carried out on a baseline experiment with no powder material added, melt pool size measurements collected in-situ are compared to ex-situ measurements, and results are discussed in terms of temporal bandwidth. Findings will show that, even at the frame rate and resolution presented, challenges in relating in-situ video signals to the ex-situ measurement analysis remain.

  10. Highly emitting near-infrared lanthanide "encapsulated sandwich" metallacrown complexes with excitation shifted toward lower energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Evan R; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Jankolovits, Joseph; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Petoud, Stéphane; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2014-01-29

    Near-infrared (NIR) luminescent lanthanide complexes hold great promise for practical applications, as their optical properties have several complementary advantages over organic fluorophores and semiconductor nanoparticles. The fundamental challenge for lanthanide luminescence is their sensitization through suitable chromophores. The use of the metallacrown (MC) motif is an innovative strategy to arrange several organic sensitizers at a well-controlled distance from a lanthanide cation. Herein we report a series of lanthanide “encapsulated sandwich” MC complexes of the form Ln3+ [12-MC(Zn(II),quinHA)-4]2[24-MC(Zn(II),quinHA)-8] (Ln3+ [Zn(II)MC(quinHA)]) in which the MC framework is formed by the self-assembly of Zn2+ ions and tetradentate chromophoric ligands based on quinaldichydroxamic acid (quinHA). A first-generation of luminescent MCs was presented previously but was limited due to excitation wavelengths in the UV. We report here that through the design of the chromophore of the MC assembly, we have significantly shifted the absorption wavelength toward lower energy (450 nm). In addition to this near-visible inter- and/or intraligand charge transfer absorption, Ln3+ [Zn(II)MC(quinHA)] exhibits remarkably high quantum yields, long luminescence lifetimes (CD3OD; Yb3+, QLn(L) = 2.88(2)%, τobs = 150.7(2) μs; Nd3+, QLn(L) = 1.35(1)%, τobs = 4.11(3) μs; Er3+, QLn(L) = 3.60(6)·10–2%, τobs = 11.40(3) μs), and excellent photostability. Quantum yields of Nd3+ and Er3+ MCs in the solid state and in deuterated solvents, upon excitation at low energy, are the highest values among NIR-emitting lanthanide complexes containing C–H bonds. The versatility of the MC strategy allows modifications in the excitation wavelength and absorptivity through the appropriate design of the ligand sensitizer, providing a highly efficient platform with tunable properties.

  11. Organic-inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-02

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO 3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  12. Organic–inorganic hybrid optical foils with strong visible reflection, excellent near infrared-shielding ability and high transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yijie; Huang, Aibin; Zhou, Huaijuan; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Research on functional flexible films has recently been attracting widespread attention especially with regards to foils, which can be designed artificially on the basis of the practical requirements. In this work, a foil with high visible reflection and a strong near infrared shielding efficiency was prepared by a simple wet chemical method. In the process of making this kind of optical foil, emulsion polymerization was first introduced to synthesize polymer opals, which were further compressed between two pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil under polymer melting temperature to obtain a photonic crystal film with a strong reflection in the visible region to block blue rays. The following step was to coat a layer of the inorganic nano paint, which was synthesized by dispersing Cs-doped WO3 (CWO) nanoparticles homogenously into organic resin on the surface of the PET to achieve a high near infrared shielding ability. The final composite foil exhibited unique optical properties such as high visible reflectance (23.9%) to block blue rays, and excellent near infrared shielding efficiency (98.0%), meanwhile it still maintained a high transparency meaning that this foil could potentially be applied in energy-saving window films. To sum up, this study provides new insight into devising flexible hybrid films with novel optical properties, which could be further extended to prepare other optical films for potential use in automobile, architectural and other decorative fields.

  13. Quantitative analysis of the hydration of lithium salts in water using multivariate curve resolution of near-infrared spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba, M. Isabel [Group of Research in Applied Thermal Engineering-CREVER, Mechanical Engineering Dept. (Spain); Larrechi, M. Soledad, E-mail: mariasoledad.larrechi@urv.cat [Analytical and Organic Chemistry Dept., Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Coronas, Alberto [Group of Research in Applied Thermal Engineering-CREVER, Mechanical Engineering Dept. (Spain)

    2016-05-05

    The hydration process of lithium iodide, lithium bromide, lithium chloride and lithium nitrate in water was analyzed quantitatively by applying multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to their near infrared spectra recorded between 850 nm and 1100 nm. The experiments were carried out using solutions with a salt mass fraction between 0% and 72% for lithium bromide, between 0% and 67% for lithium nitrate and between 0% and 62% for lithium chloride and lithium iodide at 323.15 K, 333.15 K, 343.15 K and 353.15 K, respectively. Three factors were determined for lithium bromide and lithium iodide and two factors for the lithium chloride and lithium nitrate by singular value decomposition (SVD) of their spectral data matrices. These factors are associated with various chemical environments in which there are aqueous clusters containing the ions of the salts and non-coordinated water molecules. Spectra and concentration profiles of non-coordinated water and cluster aqueous were retrieved by MCR-ALS. The amount of water involved in the process of hydration of the various salts was quantified. The results show that the water absorption capacity increases in the following order LiI < LiBr < LiNO{sub 3} < LiCl. The salt concentration at which there is no free water in the medium was calculated at each one of the temperatures considered. The values ranged between 62.6 and 65.1% for LiBr, 45.5–48.3% for LiCl, 60.4–61.2% for LiI and 60.3–63.7% for LiNO{sub 3}. These values are an initial approach to determining the concentration as from which crystal formation is favored. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of the hydration of lithium salts in water. • The absorption capacity of the electrolytes in function of the salt is evaluated. • The lithium salt concentration is estimated when the crystal formation is favored.

  14. Discrimination of wild Paris based on near infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography combined with multivariate analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhao

    Full Text Available Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times, resolution (4 cm(-1, scanning range (10,000 cm(-1∼4000 cm(-1 and parallel collection (3 times. NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm(-1 and 5973∼4007 cm(-1 were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA. From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R(2X and Q(2Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence.

  15. Discrimination of wild Paris based on near infrared spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography combined with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Ji; Yuan, Tianjun; Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Wang, Yuanzhong; Jin, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times), resolution (4 cm(-1)), scanning range (10,000 cm(-1)∼4000 cm(-1)) and parallel collection (3 times). NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm(-1) and 5973∼4007 cm(-1) were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R(2)X and Q(2)Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Low-resolution near-infrared stellar spectra from CIBER (Kim+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. G.; Lee, H. M.; Arai, T.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Jeong, W.-S.; Kim, S. J.; Korngut, P.; Lanz, A.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, M. G.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U. W.; Onishi, Y.; Shirahata, M.; Smidt, J.; Tsumura, K.; Yamamura, I.; Zemcov, M.

    2017-06-01

    We present flux-calibrated near-infrared spectra of 105 stars from 0.8{library contains spectra for 210 cool stars (F to M type) with wavelength coverage from 0.8 to 2.5μm (Cushing 2005ApJ...623.1115C; Rayner 2009ApJS..185..289R). The Pickles library is a synthetic spectral library that combines spectral data from various observations to achieve wavelength coverage from the UV (0.115μm) to the near-infrared (2.5μm). It contains 131 spectral templates for all star types (i.e., O to M type) with a uniform sampling interval of 5Å. (6 data files).

  17. High-gain and low-excess noise near-infrared single-photon avalanche detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga, Krishna; Yevtukhov, Yuriy; Liang, Bing

    2010-04-01

    We have designed and developed a new family of photodetectors and arrays with Internal Discrete Amplification (IDA) mechanism for the realization of very high gain and low excess noise factor in the visible and near infrared spectral regions. These devices surpass many limitations of the Single Photon Avalanche Photodetectors such as ultra low excess noise factor, very high gain, lower reset time (researchers in the field of spectroscopy, industrial and scientific instrumentation, Ladar, quantum cryptography, night vision and other military, defense and aerospace applications.

  18. Multimodality Intracoronary Imaging With Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Intravascular Ultrasound in Asymptomatic Individuals With High Calcium Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Klungle, David; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Decker, Jeffrey M; Langholz, David; Boyden, Thomas F; Parker, Jessica; Muller, James E

    2017-10-01

    This study sought to determine the frequency of large lipid-rich plaques (LRP) in the coronary arteries of individuals with high coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) and to determine whether the CACS correlates with coronary lipid burden. Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound was performed in 57 vessels in 20 asymptomatic individuals (90% on statins) with no prior history of coronary artery disease who had a screening CACS ≥300 Agatston units. Among 268 10-mm coronary segments, near-infrared spectroscopy images were analyzed for LRP, defined as a bright yellow block on the near-infrared spectroscopy block chemogram. Lipid burden was assessed as the lipid core burden index (LCBI), and large LRP were defined as a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400. Vessel plaque volume was measured by quantitative intravascular ultrasound. Vessel-level CACS significantly correlated with plaque volume by intravascular ultrasound (r=0.69; Pinfrared spectroscopy (r=0.24; P=0.07). Despite a high CACS, no LRP was detected in 8 (40.0%) subjects. Large LRP having a maximum LCBI in 4 mm ≥400 were infrequent, found in only 5 (25.0%) of 20 subjects and in only 5 (1.9%) of 268 10-mm coronary segments analyzed. Among individuals with a CACS ≥300 Agatston units mostly on statins, CACS correlated with total plaque volume but not LCBI. This observation may have implications on coronary risk among individuals with a high CACS considering that it is coronary LRP, rather than calcification, that underlies the majority of acute coronary events. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. SiC absorption of near-infrared laser radiation at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelmann, B.; Hellmann, R.

    2016-07-01

    We report on a theoretical and experimental investigation of the temperature-dependent optical absorption of nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC for a temperature range between room temperature and the decomposition point. The theoretical model is based on free carrier absorption including the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. With respect to laser material processing of silicon carbide, the analysis focusses on a near-infrared wavelength range. At room temperature, the calculated absorption is in excellent agreement to transmission and reflection measurements. For the experimental study of the absorption at higher temperatures induced by intense 1070-nm laser irradiation, a two-color pyrometer is employed with the thermal emission of the laser interaction zone being collected coaxial to the impinging laser. Exemplarily, the simulated temperature-dependent absorption is used to determine the heating of a 0.4-mm-thick 4H-SiC specimen during laser irradiation and compared to the experimentally determined temperature. In an initial time domain of the irradiation with an attained temperature below 1350 K, the simulated and measured temperatures are in good agreement. Above 1350 K, however, the measured temperature reveals a sharp and fast increase up to 2100 K which is not predicted by the model. This discrepancy is attributed to a strong additional absorption mechanism caused by carbonization at the surface which is confirmed by EDX analysis.

  20. Near-Infrared Photon-Counting Camera for High-Sensitivity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkovic, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The dark current of a transferred-electron photocathode with an InGaAs absorber, responsive over the 0.9-to-1.7- micron range, must be reduced to an ultralow level suitable for low signal spectral astrophysical measurements by lowering the temperature of the sensor incorporating the cathode. However, photocathode quantum efficiency (QE) is known to reduce to zero at such low temperatures. Moreover, it has not been demonstrated that the target dark current can be reached at any temperature using existing photocathodes. Changes in the transferred-electron photocathode epistructure (with an In- GaAs absorber lattice-matched to InP and exhibiting responsivity over the 0.9- to-1.7- m range) and fabrication processes were developed and implemented that resulted in a demonstrated >13x reduction in dark current at -40 C while retaining >95% of the approximately equal to 25% saturated room-temperature QE. Further testing at lower temperature is needed to confirm a >25 C predicted reduction in cooling required to achieve an ultralow dark-current target suitable for faint spectral astronomical observations that are not otherwise possible. This reduction in dark current makes it possible to increase the integration time of the imaging sensor, thus enabling a much higher near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity than is possible with current technology. As a result, extremely faint phenomena and NIR signals emitted from distant celestial objects can be now observed and imaged (such as the dynamics of redshifting galaxies, and spectral measurements on extra-solar planets in search of water and bio-markers) that were not previously possible. In addition, the enhanced NIR sensitivity also directly benefits other NIR imaging applications, including drug and bomb detection, stand-off detection of improvised explosive devices (IED's), Raman spectroscopy and microscopy for life/physical science applications, and semiconductor product defect detection.

  1. High-efficiency near-infrared enabled planar perovskite solar cells by embedding upconversion nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Li; Wu, Jiao-Jiao; Zhao, Er-Fei; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Huang, Mei-Lan; Dai, Li-Ming; Tao, Xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2017-11-30

    Integration of the upconversion effect in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is a facile approach towards extending the spectral absorption from the visible to the near infrared (NIR) range and reducing the non-absorption loss of solar photons. However, the big challenge for practical application of UCNCs in planar PSCs is the poor compatibility between UCNCs and the perovskite precursor. Herein, we have subtly overcome the tough compatibility issue using a ligand-exchange strategy. For the first time, β-NaYF4:Yb,Er UCNCs have been embedded in situ into a CH3NH3PbI3 layer to fabricate NIR-enabled planar PSCs. The CH3NH3I-capped UCNCs generated from the ligand-exchange were mixed with the perovskite precursor and served as nucleation sites for the UCNC-mediated heteroepitaxial growth of perovskite; moreover, the in situ embedding of UCNCs into the perovskite layer was realized during a spin-coating process. The resulting UCNC-embedded perovskite layer attained a uniform pinhole-free morphology with enlarged crystal grains and enabled NIR absorption. It also contributed to the energy transfer from the UCNCs to the perovskite and electron transport to the collecting electrode surface. The device fabricated using the UCNC-embedded perovskite film achieved an average power-conversion efficiency of 18.60% (19.70% for the best) under AM 1.5G and 0.37% under 980 nm laser, corresponding to 54% and 740-fold increase as compared to that of its counterpart without UCNCs.

  2. High-power, high repetition rate, tunable, ultrafast vortex beam in the near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadhi, A.; Samanta, G. K.

    2018-01-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of high power, ultrafast, high repetition rate (RR) vortex beam source tunable in the near-IR wavelength range. Based on single-pass optical parametric generation of Yb-fiber laser of vortex order l p = 1 in a 50 mm long MgO doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal, the source produces signal beam in vortex profile of order l s = 1 across 1433–1553 nm. Additionally, the source produces broadband idler radiation tunable across 3379–4132 nm in the Gaussian beam profile. We observed that the vortex profile of the pump beam is always transferred to the signal beam due to the highest overlapping integral among the interacting beams and the idler maintains a Gaussian spatial profile owing to the conservation of orbital angular momentum in optical parametric processes. For a pump power of 4.72 W, the signal and idler beams have a maximum power of 1.7 W at 1509 nm and 0.48 W at 3625 nm respectively. The signal vortex beam has output pulses of width ∼637 fs at a RR of 78 MHz. The signal (idler) has a spectral width of 4.3 nm (129.5 nm) and a passive peak-to-peak power fluctuation better than 3% (1.1%) over 30 min, respectively.

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue ischaemia can be a significant contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. Conventional oxygenation monitoring modalities measure systemic oxygenation, but regional tissue oxygenation is not monitored. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive monitor for measuring regional oxygen saturation which provides real-time information. There has been increased interest in the clinical application of NIRS following numerous studies that show improved outcome in various clinical situations especially cardiac surgery. Its use has shown improved neurological outcome and decreased postoperative stay in cardiac surgery. Its usefulness has been investigated in various high risk surgeries such as carotid endarterectomy, thoracic surgeries, paediatric population and has shown promising results. There is however, limited data supporting its role in neurosurgical population. We strongly feel, it might play a key role in future. It has significant advantages over other neuromonitoring modalities, but more technological advances are needed before it can be used more widely into clinical practice.

  4. High-Wattage Pulsed Irradiation of Linearly Polarized Near-Infrared Light to Stellate Ganglion Area for Burning Mouth Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to apply high-wattage pulsed irradiation of linearly polarized near-infrared light to the stellate ganglion area for burning mouth syndrome (BMS and to assess the efficacy of the stellate ganglion area irradiation (SGR on BMS using differential time-/frequency-domain parameters (D parameters. Three patients with BMS received high-wattage pulsed SGR; the response to SGR was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS representing the intensity of glossalgia and D parameters used in heart rate variability analysis. High-wattage pulsed SGR significantly decreased the mean value of VAS in all cases without any adverse event such as thermal injury. D parameters mostly correlated with clinical condition of BMS. High-wattage pulsed SGR was safe and effective for the treatment of BMS; D parameters are useful for assessing efficacy of SGR on BMS.

  5. Highly uniform and reproducible visible to near-infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers grown by MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hong Q.; Choquette, Kent D.; Hammons, B. E.; Breiland, William G.; Crawford, Mary H.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-04-01

    We present the growth and characterization of vertical- cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) from visible to near-infrared wavelength grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Discussions on the growth issue of VCSEL materials include the control on growth rate and composition using an in situ normal-incidence reflectometer, optimization of ultra-high material uniformity, and comprehensive p- and n- type doping study in AlGaAs by CCl4 and Si2H6 over the entire Al composition range. We also demonstrate our recent achievements of selectively oxidized VCSELs which include the first room-temperature continues-wave demonstration of all-AlGaAs 700-nm red VCSELs, high- performance n-side up 850-nm VCSELs, and low threshold current and low-threshold voltage 1.06 micrometer VCSELs using InGaAs/GaAsP strain-compensated quantum wells.

  6. High Performance Negative Feedback Near Infrared Single Photon Counting Detectors & Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Amplification Technologies Inc ("ATI") proposes to develop the enabling material and device technology for the design of ultra low noise, high gain and high speed...

  7. High Performance Negative Feedback Near Infrared Single Photon Counting Detectors & Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Amplification Technologies Inc ("ATI") proposes to develop the enabling material and device technology for the design of ultra low noise, high gain and...

  8. Very High Gain and Low Noise Near Infrared Single Photon Counting Detectors and Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Amplification Technologies Inc ("ATI") proposes to develop the enabling material and device technology for the design of ultra low noise, high gain and low...

  9. High-efficiency near-infrared emission from Bismuth-doped SiO0.73 thin films fabricated by ion implantation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaobing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Pei; Tan, Dameng; Xu, Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Kunji

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, the possibility of near-infrared light generation and amplification on chip has attracted great interest for future monolithic integrated optical components. In this Letter, we demonstrated a CMOS-compatible method to fabricate amorphous SiO0.73 thin films doped with Bi ions. It exhibited highly improved σ(em)×τ of up to 4.2×10(-23) cm2 s and greatly enhanced near-infrared characteristic emission originated from Bi ions by nearly 60 times via Si nanocrystal size control. We anticipated that this Bi-doped near-infrared light emitter would be a new starting point for future research in the field of optoelectronic integration.

  10. A High Performance Photodetector Suitable for Visible Light and Near Infrared Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kuang-Sheng; Huang, Ji-Chen; Hsu, Klaus Y.-J.

    2008-04-01

    In this work, the high performance phototransistor photodetector (PTPD) in commercial 0.35 µm SiGe bipolar junction transistor complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) process without altering any process step is demonstrated and analyzed. The device combines a surface photodetector (SPD) and a conventional SiGe heterojunction transistor (HBT). It is shown that the SPD enhances light absorption, especially for the blue light. With the proper bias configuration, the PTPD shows acceptable dark current and a bias voltage that can be as low as 0.3 V. The Emitter and SPD areas can be respectively designed to meet electrical and optical requirements without increasing the device capacitance. Besides, high responsivities of 5.69/9.47/7.11 A/W for 450/670/780 nm lights were achieved in the PTPD, which makes the device suitable for many applications.

  11. Near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes for biosensing with high operating stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takahiko; Nakanotani, Hajime; Hara, Shigeo; Hirohata, Toru; Adachi, Chihaya

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate highly stable NIR organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on a system using excitonic energy transfer from thermally activated delay fluorescence molecules to NIR fluorophores. The NIR OLEDs showed an electroluminescence peak at 780 nm and robust operational stability with 2% loss of the initial radiant flux after 1000 h under a constant current density of 10 mA/cm2. The variation of hemoglobin oxygen saturation can be detected using the NIR OLEDs as a light source.

  12. Near-Infrared Follow-up of High Redshift X-ray Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhouse, Wayne; Green, Paul; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Kim, Dong-Woo

    2005-08-01

    Clusters of galaxies provide an intimate view of galaxy evolution over a wide range in cosmic look-back time and environment. From a large Chandra/NOAO serendipitous survey, we have culled a high- confidence list of high redshift cluster candidates to facilitate the investigation of galaxy cluster evolution and provide strong constraints on cosmological parameters. We propose to use FLAMINGOS on the KPNO 4-m telescope to obtain deep near-IR imaging in the J- and K_s-band of 6 extended X-ray sources discovered serendipitously in Chandra images, but undetected in deep 4m/MOSAIC imaging. Our FLAMINGOS observations will measure cluster redshifts (out to z~ 1.5) using the location of the cluster red-sequence in the color-magnitude plane. Cluster attributes, such as the luminosity function, richness, color-magnitude relation, and correlations between near-IR and X-ray properties, will be measured and contrasted with our more local serendipitous sample. These observations promise to substantially increase the number of known high redshift galaxy clusters.

  13. Frontal hemodynamic responses to high frequency yoga breathing in schizophrenia: A functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant eBhargav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Frontal hemodynamic responses to high frequency yoga breathing technique - Kapalabhati (KB was compared between patients of schizophrenia (n =18; 14 males, 4 females and age-gender and education matched healthy subjects (n=18; 14 males, 4 females using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS.The diagnosis was confirmed by a psychiatrist using DSM IV. All patients except one received atypical anti-psychotics (one was on typical. They had obtained a stabilized state as evidenced by a steady unchanged medication from their psychiatrist for past 3 months or longer. They learned KB, among other yoga procedures, in the yoga retreat. KB was practiced at the rate of 120 times per minute for 1minute (min. Healthy subjects who were freshly learning yoga too were taught KB. Both the groups had no previous exposure to KB practice and the training was achieved over 2 weeks. A chest pressure transducer was used to monitor the frequency and intensity of the practice objectively. The frontal hemodynamic response in terms of the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb, deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb and total hemoglobin or blood volume (totalHb concentration was tapped for 5 min before, 1min during and for 5 min after KB.This was obtained in quiet room using a 16 channel functional near-infrared system (FNIR100-ACK-W, BIOPAC Systems, Inc, USA. Average of the eight channels for each side (right and left frontals was obtained for the three sessions. The changes in the levels of oxyHb, deoxyHb and blood volume for the three sessions were compared between the two groups using Independent samples t test.Within group comparison showed that increase in bilateral oxyHb and totalHb from the baseline was highly significant in healthy controls during KB (right oxyHb, p = 0.00; left oxyHb, p= 0.00 and right totalHb, p = 0.01; left totalHb, p = 0.00, whereas schizophrenia patients did not show any significant changes in the same on both the sides. On the other hand

  14. Radiometric characterization of a high temperature blackbody in the visible and near infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taubert, R. D.; Hollandt, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-11

    At the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt the radiance temperature in the range from 962 °C to 3000 °C is disseminated by applying a high temperature blackbody (HTBB) with a directly heated pyrolytic graphite cavity. The thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB was measured in the temperature range from 1000 °C to 3000 °C by applying almost simultaneously absolutely calibrated silicon photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 476 nm, 676 nm, 800 nm, 900 nm and 1000 nm and InGaAs photodiode based filter radiometers with centre wavelengths at 1300 nm, 1550 nm and 1595 nm. The results demonstrate that, expressed in terms of irradiance, within an uncertainty of 0.1 % (k=1) in a broad wavelength range the thermodynamic radiance temperature of the HTBB is wavelength independent in the investigated temperature interval.

  15. Near Infrared Emission of Highly Electronically Excited CO: A Sensitive Probe to Study the Interstellar Medium??

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2002-01-01

    Among the various spectroscopic features of the second most abundant molecule in the space, CO, "the triplet - triplet transitions involving the lowest triplet state a(sup 3)II and the higher-lying a(sup 1)3 SIGMA (sup +), d(sup 3) (DELTA), e (sup 3) SIGMA (sup -) states spanning near-UV to mid-IR spectral range" have so far not been explored in astrophysical observations. The energies of these transitions are highly sensitive to the surroundings in which CO exists, i.e. gas-phase, polar or non-polar condensed phase. It is proposed here that these triplet-triplet emission/absorption bands can be used as a sensitive probe to investigate the local environments of CO, whether in the planetary atmosphere, stellar atmosphere or interstellar medium.

  16. Highly Stable Near-Infrared Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles with a Large Stokes Shift for Noninvasive Long-Term Cellular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Chen, Rui; Zhu, Zelin; Adachi, Chihaya; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-12-02

    Fluorescent organic nanoparticles based on small molecules have been regarded as promising candidates for bioimaging in recent years. In this study, we report a highly stable near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent organic nanoprobes based on nanoparticles of an anthraquinone derivate with strong aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics and a large Stokes shift (>175 nm). These endow the nanoprobe with high fluorescent brightness and high signal-to-noise ratio. On the other hand, the nanoprobe also shows low cytotoxicity, good stability over a wide pH range, superior resistance against photodegradation and photobleaching comparing to typical commercial fluorescent organic dyes such as fluorescein sodium. Endowed with such merits in term of optical performance, biocompatibility, and stability, the nanoprobe is demonstrated to be an ideal fluorescent probe for noninvasive long-term cellular tracing and imaging applications. As an example, it is shown that strong red fluorescence from the nanoprobe can still be clearly observed in A549 human lung cancer cells after incubation for six generations over 15 days.

  17. High-Quality Growth of GaInNAs for Application to Near-Infrared Laser Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Kondow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available GaInNAs was proposed and created in 1995. It can be grown pseudomorphically on a GaAs substrate and is a light-emitting material with a bandgap energy that corresponds to near infrared. By combining GaInNAs with GaAs, an ideal band lineup for laser-diode application is achieved. This paper presents the reproducible growth of high-quality GaInNAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Examining the effect of nitrogen introduction and its correlation with impurity incorporation, we find that Al is unintentionally incorporated into the epitaxial layer even though the Al cell shutter is closed, followed by the concomitant incorporation of O and C. A gas-phase-scattering model can explain this phenomenon, suggesting that a large amount of N2 gas causes the scattering of residual Al atoms with occasional collisions resulting in the atoms being directed toward the substrate. Hence, the reduction of the sublimated Al beam during the growth period can suppress the incorporation of unintentional impurities, resulting in a highly pure epitaxial layer.

  18. Large Area Divertor Temperature Measurements Using A High-speed Camera With Near-infrared FiIters in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, B C; Zweben, S J; Gray, T K; Hosea, J; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; Maqueda, R J; McLean, A G; Roquemore, A L; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2011-04-05

    Fast cameras already installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have be equipped with near-infrared (NIR) filters in order to measure the surface temperature in the lower divertor region. Such a system provides a unique combination of high speed (> 50 kHz) and wide fi eld-of-view (> 50% of the divertor). Benchtop calibrations demonstrated the system's ability to measure thermal emission down to 330 oC. There is also, however, signi cant plasma light background in NSTX. Without improvements in background reduction, the current system is incapable of measuring signals below the background equivalent temperature (600 - 700 oC). Thermal signatures have been detected in cases of extreme divertor heating. It is observed that the divertor can reach temperatures around 800 oC when high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating is used. These temperature profiles were fi t using a simple heat diffusion code, providing a measurement of the heat flux to the divertor. Comparisons to other infrared thermography systems on NSTX are made.

  19. Highly Efficient, Near-Infrared and Visible Light Modulated Electrochromic Devices Based on Polyoxometalates and W18O49 Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongxi; Guo, Chongshen; Zhang, Shouhao; Bi, Lihua; Li, Tianchan; Sun, Tiedong; Liu, Shaoqin

    2018-01-23

    Over the past years the performance of electrochromic smart windows with the promising potential for significant energy savings has been progressively improved; however, the electrochromic windows have not yet to come into use at scale mainly because the electrochromic materials suffer from some significant drawbacks such as low coloration efficiency, slow switching time, bad durability and poor functionality. Herein, we fabricate the optically modulated electrochromic smart devices through sequential deposition of the crown-type polyoxometalates, K28Li5H7P8W48O184·92H2O (P8W48), and W18O49 nanowires. Unlike most reported electrochromic smart devices, the resulting P8W48 and W18O49 nanocomposites allow active and selective manipulation of the transmittance of near-infrared (750-1360 nm) and visible light (400-750 nm) by varying the applied potential. Furthermore, thanks to the stable nature of both P8W48 and W18O49 and precise structural control over the nanocomposites, the prepared electrochromic smart devices exhibit high efficiency, quick response and excellent stability.

  20. High quantum yield Ag2S quantum dot@polypeptide-engineered hybrid nanogels for targeted second near-infrared fluorescence/photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Hui; Yang, Jie; Xia, Rui-Xue; Yao, Ming-Hao; Jin, Rui-Mei; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Liu, Bo

    2018-01-11

    A high quantum yield (4.3%) hybrid nanogel system based on engineered polypeptides and Ag2S quantum dots has been developed as a multifunctional diagnostic and therapeutic agent for targeted second near-infrared fluorescence, photoacoustic imaging, and photothermal therapy.

  1. Highly efficient near-infrared light-emitting diodes by using type-II CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots as a phosphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huaibin; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Hongzhe; Xu, Weiwei; Qian, Lei; Yang, Yixing; Titov, Alexandre; Hyvonen, Jake; Li, Lin Song

    2013-11-29

    In this paper, we present an innovative method for the synthesis of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure quantum dots (QDs) using 'greener' chemicals. The PL of CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell structure QDs ranges from 600 to 820 nm, and the as-synthesized core/shell structures show narrow size distributions and stable and high quantum yields (50–75%). Highly efficient near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been demonstrated by employing the CdTe/CdSe type-II core/shell QDs as emitters. The devices fabricated based on these type-II core/shell QDs show color-saturated near-infrared emission from the QD layers, a low turn-on voltage of 1.55 V, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.59%, and a current density and maximum radiant emittance of 2.1 × 10(3) mA cm−2 and 17.7 mW cm−2 at 8 V; it is the first report to use type-II core/shell QDs as near-infrared emitters and these results may offer a practicable platform for the realization of near-infrared QD-based light-emitting diodes, night-vision-readable displays, and friend/foe identification system.

  2. High-Speed Scanning for the Quantitative Evaluation of Glycogen Concentration in Bioethanol Feedstock Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 Using a Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging System with a New Near-Infrared Spectral Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Mika; Nakanishi, Akihito; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko; Morishima, Tetsu; Okuno, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, the high-speed quantitative evaluation of glycogen concentration accumulated in bioethanol feedstock Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 was performed using a near-infrared (NIR) imaging system with a hyperspectral NIR spectral camera named Compovision. The NIR imaging system has a feature for high-speed and wide area monitoring and the two-dimensional scanning speed is almost 100 times faster than the general NIR imaging systems for the same pixel size. For the quantitative analysis of glycogen concentration, partial least squares regression (PLSR) and moving window PLSR (MWPLSR) were performed with the information of glycogen concentration measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the calibration curves for the concentration within the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cell were constructed. The results had high accuracy for the quantitative estimation of glycogen concentration as the best squared correlation coefficient R2 was bigger than 0.99 and a root mean square error (RMSE) was less than 2.9%. The present results proved not only the potential for the applicability of NIR spectroscopy to the high-speed quantitative evaluation of glycogen concentration in the bioethanol feedstock but also the expansivity of the NIR imaging instrument to in-line or on-line product evaluation on a factory production line of bioethanol in the future.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Highly Fluorescent, Glutathione-coated Near Infrared Quantum Dots for in Vivo Fluorescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshichika Yoshioka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent probes that emit in the near-infrared (NIR, 700-1,300 nm region are suitable as optical contrast agents for in vivo fluorescence imaging because of low scattering and absorption of the NIR light in tissues. Recently, NIR quantum dots (QDs have become a new class of fluorescent materials that can be used for in vivo imaging. Compared with traditional organic fluorescent dyes, QDs have several unique advantages such as size- and composition-tunable emission, high brightness, narrow emission bands, large Stokes shifts, and high resistance to photobleaching. In this paper, we report a facile method for the preparation of highly fluorescent, water-soluble glutathione (GSH-coated NIR QDs for in vivo imaging. GSH-coated NIR QDs (GSH-QDs were prepared by surface modification of hydrophobic CdSeTe/CdS (core/shell QDs. The hydrophobic surface of the CdSeTe/CdS QDs was exchanged with GSH in tetrahydrofuran-water. The resulting GSH-QDs were monodisperse particles and stable in PBS (phosphate buffered saline, pH = 7.4. The GSH-QDs (800 nm emission were highly fluorescent in aqueous solutions (quantum yield = 22% in PBS buffer, and their hydrodynamic diameter was less than 10 nm, which is comparable to the size of proteins. The cellular uptake and viability for the GSH-QDs were examined using HeLa and HEK 293 cells. When the cells were incubated with aqueous solutions of the GSH-QDs (10 nM, the QDs were taken into the cells and distributed in the perinuclear region of both cells. After 12 hrs incubation of 4 nM of GSH-QDs, the viabilities of HeLa and HEK 293 cells were ca. 80 and 50%, respectively. As a biomedical utility of the GSH-QDs, in vivo NIRfluorescence imaging of a lymph node in a mouse is presented.

  4. High-Performance Near-Infrared Phototransistor Based on n-Type Small-Molecular Organic Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feng

    2016-12-13

    A solution-processed near-infrared (NIR) organic phototransistor (OPT) based on n-type organic small molecular material BODIPY-BF2 has been successfully fabricated. Its unprecedented performance, as well as its easy fabrication and good stability, mark this BODIPY-BF2 based OPT device as a very promising candidate for optoelectronic applications in the NIR regime.

  5. High-efficiency electroluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission from a thermally activated delayed fluorescent near-infrared emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeon; D'Aléo, Anthony; Chen, Xian-Kai; Sandanayaka, Atula D. S.; Yao, Dandan; Zhao, Li; Komino, Takeshi; Zaborova, Elena; Canard, Gabriel; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Choi, Eunyoung; Wu, Jeong Weon; Fages, Frédéric; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2018-02-01

    Near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers could benefit a variety of applications including night-vision displays, sensors and information-secured displays. Organic dyes can generate electroluminescence efficiently at visible wavelengths, but organic light-emitting diodes are still underperforming in the near-infrared region. Here, we report thermally activated delayed fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes that operate at near-infrared wavelengths with a maximum external quantum efficiency of nearly 10% using a boron difluoride curcuminoid derivative. As well as an effective upconversion from triplet to singlet excited states due to the non-adiabatic coupling effect, this donor-acceptor-donor compound also exhibits efficient amplified spontaneous emission. By controlling the polarity of the active medium, the maximum emission wavelength of the electroluminescence spectrum can be tuned from 700 to 780 nm. This study represents an important advance in near-infrared organic light-emitting diodes and the design of alternative molecular architectures for photonic applications based on thermally activated delayed fluorescence.

  6. Frontal hemodynamic responses to high frequency yoga breathing in schizophrenia: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; Nagendra, H R; Gangadhar, B N; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2014-01-01

    Frontal hemodynamic responses to high frequency yoga breathing technique, Kapalabhati (KB), were compared between patients of schizophrenia (n = 18; 14 males, 4 females) and age, gender, and education matched healthy subjects (n = 18; 14 males, 4 females) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The diagnosis was confirmed by a psychiatrist using DSM-IV. All patients except one received atypical antipsychotics (one was on typical). They had obtained a stabilized state as evidenced by a steady unchanged medication from their psychiatrist for the past 3 months or longer. They learned KB, among other yoga procedures, in a yoga retreat. KB was practiced at the rate of 120 times/min for 1 min. Healthy subjects who were freshly learning yoga too were taught KB. Both the groups had no previous exposure to KB practice and the training was carried out over 2 weeks. A chest pressure transducer was used to monitor the frequency and intensity of the practice objectively. The frontal hemodynamic response in terms of the oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb), deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb), and total hemoglobin (totalHb) or blood volume concentration was tapped for 5 min before, 1 min during, and for 5 min after KB. This was obtained in a quiet room using a 16-channel functional near-infrared system (FNIR100-ACK-W, BIOPAC Systems, Inc., USA). The average of the eight channels for each side (right and left frontals) was obtained for the three sessions. The changes in the levels of oxyHb, deoxyHb, and blood volume for the three sessions were compared between the two groups using independent samples t-test. Within group comparison showed that the increase in bilateral oxyHb and totalHb from the baseline was highly significant in healthy controls during KB (right oxyHb, p = 0.00; left oxyHb, p = 0.00 and right totalHb, p = 0.01; left totalHb, p = 0.00), whereas schizophrenia patients did not show any significant changes in the same on both the

  7. Near-infrared and optical studies of the highly obscured nova V1831 Aquilae (Nova Aquilae 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D. P. K.; Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ashok, N. M.; Munari, U.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Righetti, G. L.; Maitan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) and optical photometry and spectroscopy are presented for the nova V1831 Aquilae, covering the early decline and dust-forming phases during the first ∼90 d after its discovery. The nova is highly reddened due to interstellar extinction. Based solely on the nature of the NIR spectrum, we are able to classify the nova to be of the Fe II class. The distance and extinction to the nova are estimated to be 6.1 ± 0.5 kpc and Av ∼ 9.02, respectively. Lower limits of the electron density, emission measure and ionized ejecta mass are made from a Case B analysis of the NIR Brackett lines, while the neutral gas mass is estimated from the optical [O I] lines. We discuss the cause of the rapid strengthening of the He I 1.0830-μm line during the early stages. V1831 Aql formed a modest amount of dust fairly early (∼19.2 d after discovery); the dust shell is not seen to be optically thick. Estimates of the dust temperature, dust mass and grain size are made. Dust formation commences around day 19.2 at a condensation temperature of 1461 ± 15 K, suggestive of a carbon composition, following which the temperature is seen to decrease gradually to 950 K. The dust mass shows a rapid initial increase, which we interpret as being due to an increase in the number of grains, followed by a period of constancy, suggesting the absence of grain destruction processes during this latter time. A discussion of the evolution of these parameters is made, including certain peculiarities seen in the grain radius evolution.

  8. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-01

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (F...

  9. Effects of high-frequency near-infrared diode laser irradiation on the proliferation and migration of mouse calvarial osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Ryo; Gunji, Hidemi; Tsuka, Yuji; Yoshimi, Yuki; Awada, Tetsuya; Sumi, Keisuke; Nakajima, Kengo; Kimura, Aya; Hiraki, Tomoka; Abe, Takaharu; Naoto, Hirose; Yanoshita, Makoto; Tanimoto, Kotaro

    2018-01-04

    Laser irradiation activates a range of cellular processes and can promote tissue repair. Here, we examined the effects of high-frequency near-infrared (NIR) diode laser irradiation on the proliferation and migration of mouse calvarial osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1). MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured and exposed to high-frequency (30 kHz) 910-nm diode laser irradiation at a dose of 0, 1.42, 2.85, 5.7, or 17.1 J/cm2. Cell proliferation was evaluated with BrdU and ATP concentration assays. Cell migration was analyzed by quantitative assessment of wound healing using the Incucyt® ZOOM system. In addition, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-amino-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2) after laser irradiation was examined with western blotting. Compared to the control, cell proliferation was significantly increased by laser irradiation at a dose of 2.85, 5.7, or 17.1 J/cm2. Laser irradiation at a dose of 2.85 J/cm2 induced MC3T3-E1 cells to migrate more rapidly than non-irradiated control cells. Irradiation with the high-frequency 910-nm diode laser at a dose of 2.85 J/cm2 induced phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 15 and 30 min later. However, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK was not changed by NIR diode laser irradiation at a dose of 2.85 J/cm2. Irradiation with a high-frequency NIR diode laser increased cell division and migration of MT3T3-E1 cells, possibly via MAPK/ERK signaling. These observations may be important for enhancing proliferation and migration of osteoblasts to improve regeneration of bone tissues.

  10. Monitoring of multiple solid-state transformations at tablet surfaces using multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Khorasani, Milad R; Amigo, José M; Rantanen, Jukka; Poppi, Ronei J

    2015-06-01

    The assessment of the solid-state stability of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and/or excipients in solid dosage forms during manufacturing and storage is mandatory for safeguarding quality of the final products. In this work, the solid-state transformations in tablets prepared as blends of piroxicam monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and the lactose forms monohydrate or anhydrate were studied when the tablets were exposed to the 23-120 °C range. Multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral images were obtained from the surface of each sample for unveiling the local evolution of the solid-state transformations. The preprocessed spectra from the images (dataset) were arranged in augmented matrices, according to the composition of the tablets, and the profile of the overlapped compounds (relative concentration) along the solid-state transformations in the pixels was resolved by using multivariate curve resolution--alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Therefore, the dehydration of piroxicam and lactose monohydrates could be mapped separately in the samples (explained variances by the models >96%) even when both compounds were being transformed simultaneously (80-120 °C). The images reproduced the same trends obtained from thermogravimetric analysis of the tablets, with the advantage that the pixel-to-pixel heterogeneity of each compound at the surface of the tablets was highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Highly Emitting Near-Infrared Lanthanide “Encapsulated Sandwich” Metallacrown Complexes with Excitation Shifted Toward Lower Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) luminescent lanthanide complexes hold great promise for practical applications, as their optical properties have several complementary advantages over organic fluorophores and semiconductor nanoparticles. The fundamental challenge for lanthanide luminescence is their sensitization through suitable chromophores. The use of the metallacrown (MC) motif is an innovative strategy to arrange several organic sensitizers at a well-controlled distance from a lanthanide cation. Herein we report a series of lanthanide “encapsulated sandwich” MC complexes of the form Ln3+[12-MCZn(II),quinHA-4]2[24-MCZn(II),quinHA-8] (Ln3+[Zn(II)MCquinHA]) in which the MC framework is formed by the self-assembly of Zn2+ ions and tetradentate chromophoric ligands based on quinaldichydroxamic acid (quinHA). A first-generation of luminescent MCs was presented previously but was limited due to excitation wavelengths in the UV. We report here that through the design of the chromophore of the MC assembly, we have significantly shifted the absorption wavelength toward lower energy (450 nm). In addition to this near-visible inter- and/or intraligand charge transfer absorption, Ln3+[Zn(II)MCquinHA] exhibits remarkably high quantum yields, long luminescence lifetimes (CD3OD; Yb3+, QLnL = 2.88(2)%, τobs = 150.7(2) μs; Nd3+, QLnL = 1.35(1)%, τobs = 4.11(3) μs; Er3+, QLnL = 3.60(6)·10–2%, τobs = 11.40(3) μs), and excellent photostability. Quantum yields of Nd3+ and Er3+ MCs in the solid state and in deuterated solvents, upon excitation at low energy, are the highest values among NIR-emitting lanthanide complexes containing C–H bonds. The versatility of the MC strategy allows modifications in the excitation wavelength and absorptivity through the appropriate design of the ligand sensitizer, providing a highly efficient platform with tunable properties. PMID:24432702

  12. Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source

    OpenAIRE

    Gioux, Sylvain; Lomnes, Stephen J.; Choi, Hak Soo; Frangioni, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLi) could potentially improve exogenous near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging, because it offers the capability of discriminating a signal of interest from background, provides real-time monitoring of a chemical environment, and permits the use of several different fluorescent dyes having the same emission wavelength. We present a high-power, LED-based, NIR light source for the clinical translation of wide-field (larger than 5 cm in diameter) FLi at frequenc...

  13. A New Method for Blood NT-proBNP Determination Based on a Near-infrared Point of Care Testing Device with High Sensitivity and Wide Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Guang; Shu, Yao Gen; Gao, Ju; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Li Peng; Wang, Meng; Cao, Yu Xi; Zeng, Yi

    2017-06-01

    To develop a rapid, highly sensitive, and quantitative method for the detection of NT-proBNP levels based on a near-infrared point-of-care diagnostic (POCT) device with wide scope. The lateral flow assay (LFA) strip of NT-proBNP was first prepared to achieve rapid detection. Then, the antibody pairs for NT-proBNP were screened and labeled with the near-infrared fluorescent dye Dylight-800. The capture antibody was fixed on a nitrocellulose membrane by a scribing device. Serial dilutions of serum samples were prepared using NT-proBNP-free serum series. The prepared test strips, combined with a near-infrared POCT device, were validated by known concentrations of clinical samples. The POCT device gave the output of the ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence signal of the detection line to that of the quality control line. The relationship between the ratio value and the concentration of the specimen was plotted as a work curve. The results of 62 clinical specimens obtained from our method were compared in parallel with those obtained from the Roche E411 kit. Based on the log-log plot, the new method demonstrated that there was a good linear relationship between the ratio value and NT-proBNP concentrations ranging from 20 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL. The results of the 62 clinical specimens measured by our method showed a good linear correlation with those measured by the Roche E411 kit. The new LFA detection method of NT-proBNP levels based on the near-infrared POCT device was rapid and highly sensitive with wide scope and was thus suitable for rapid and early clinical diagnosis of cardiac impairment. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Near-Infrared Imaging for High-Throughput Screening of Moisture-Induced Changes in Freeze-Dried Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Palou, Anna; Panouillot, Pierre Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    drying was observed within the samples after 3 days of storage. Further investigations with X-ray powder diffraction confirmed this local drying to be related to crystallization of sucrose. The combination of fast analysis of water content and spatial solid-state information makes NIR imaging a powerful......Evaluation of freeze-dried biopharmaceutical formulations requires careful analysis of multiple quality attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of near-infrared (NIR) imaging for fast analysis of water content and related physical properties in freeze-dried formulations. Model...... formulations were freeze-dried in well plates. Samples were imaged with a NIR hyperspectral camera after freeze-drying and upon storage. On the basis of Karl Fischer titration reference values, a univariate quantification model was constructed and used to visualize the distribution of water within freeze...

  15. Feasibility of using near infrared spectroscopy to detect and quantify an adulterant in high quality sandalwood oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Saji; Joe, I. Hubert

    2013-11-01

    Determination of the authenticity of essential oils has become more significant, in recent years, following some illegal adulteration and contamination scandals. The present investigative study focuses on the application of near infrared spectroscopy to detect sample authenticity and quantify economic adulteration of sandalwood oils. Several data pre-treatments are investigated for calibration and prediction using partial least square regression (PLSR). The quantitative data analysis is done using a new spectral approach - full spectrum or sequential spectrum. The optimum number of PLS components is obtained according to the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC = 0.00009% v/v). The lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP = 0.00016% v/v) in the test set and the highest coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.99989) are used as the evaluation tools for the best model. A nonlinear method, locally weighted regression (LWR), is added to extract nonlinear information and to compare with the linear PLSR model.

  16. Topological Insulator Bi2Se3/Si-Nanowire-Based p-n Junction Diode for High-Performance Near-Infrared Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswajit; Das, Nirmalya S; Sarkar, Samrat; Chatterjee, Biplab K; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K

    2017-07-12

    Chemically derived topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoflake/Si nanowire (SiNWs) heterojunctions were fabricated employing all eco-friendly cost-effective chemical route for the first time. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed proper phase formation of Bi2Se3 nanoflakes. The morphological features of the individual components and time-evolved hybrid structures were studied using field emission scanning electron microscope. High resolution transmission electron microscopic studies were performed to investigate the actual nature of junction whereas elemental distributions at junction, along with overall stoichiometry of the samples were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray studies. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics and variation of barrier height and ideality factor was studied between 50 and 300 K. An increase in barrier height and decrease in the ideality factor were observed with increasing temperature for the sample. The rectification ratio (I+/I-) for SiNWs substrate over pristine Si substrate under dark and near-infrared (NIR) irradiation of 890 nm was found to be 3.63 and 10.44, respectively. Furthermore, opto-electrical characterizations were performed for different light power intensities and highest photo responsivity and detectivity were determined to be 934.1 A/W and 2.30 × 1013 Jones, respectively. Those values are appreciably higher than previous reports for topological insulator based devices. Thus, this work establishes a hybrid system based on topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoflake and Si nanowire as the newest efficient candidate for advanced optoelectronic materials.

  17. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF POST-AGB STARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAIJER, RD; WATERS, LBFM; VANDERVEEN, WECJ; GEBALLE, TR

    The results of a medium resolution near-infrared spectral survey of 18 post-AGB candidate stars are presented. Most of the stars have near-infrared hydrogen lines in absorption, which is normal for their spectral types. Three stars, HD 101584, HD 179821 and HD 170756 have the CO first overtone bands

  18. High Redshift Intergalactic C IV Abundance Measurements from the Near-Infrared Spectra of Two z~6 QSOs

    OpenAIRE

    Simcoe, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    New measurements of the z~6 intergalactic CIV abundance are presented, using moderate resolution IR spectra of two QSOs taken with GNIRS on Gemini South. These data were systematically searched for high redshift CIV absorption lines, using objective selection criteria. Comprehensive tests were performed to quantify sample incompleteness, as well as the rate of false positive CIV identifications. The trend of constant $\\Omega_{CIV}(z)$ observed at z~2-5 appears to continue to z~6, the highest ...

  19. Kiwifruit-like Persistent Luminescent Nanoparticles with High-Performance and in Situ Activable Near-Infrared Persistent Luminescence for Long-Term in Vivo Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xia-Hui; Song, Liang; Chen, Shan; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Jing-Jing; Li, Jingying; Huang, Guoming; Yang, Huang-Hao

    2017-11-29

    Persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) have great potential for bioimaging because they can eliminate the tissue autofluorescence and improve the signal-to-noise ratio significantly. High-temperature calcination is a necessary process for the PLNPs to achieve high luminescence intensity and long afterglow time. However, high-temperature calcination usually results in uncontrollable morphology and poor homogeneity of PLNPs, which greatly limit their applications. Therefore, there is still a high demand to find a suitable method for synthesizing PLNPs with high luminescence intensity and long afterglow time while maintaining their monodispersed morphology. Herein, we report a facile silica template method to synthesize PLNPs with a kiwifruit-like structure that can tolerate high-temperature calcination. The as-prepared kiwifruit-like SiO2@ZnGa2O4:Cr3+@SiO2 PLNPs have enhanced near-infrared persistent luminescence, uniform morphology and size, and good biocompatibility. Moreover, the SiO2@ZnGa2O4:Cr3+@SiO2 PLNPs can be repeatedly activated by soft X-rays in situ and emit near-infrared persistent luminescence with long decay time, holding great potential for deep-tissue and long-term in vivo bioimaging. We believe that this study will open new perspectives for synthesizing high-performance PLNPs for optical imaging and diversified applications.

  20. Highly transparent conductive AZO/Zr50Cu50/AZO films in wide range of visible and near infrared wavelength grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyun Cheng

    Full Text Available Novel AZO/Zr50Cu50/AZO tri-layer transparent conductive films with excellent transmittance in both visible and near infrared region were successfully prepared by pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates. The electrical and optical properties were investigated at various Zr50Cu50 thicknesses. As the AZO thickness was fixed at 50 nm and Zr50Cu50 thickness was varied between 1 and 18 nm, it was found that AZO (50 nm/Zr50Cu50/AZO (50 nm tri-layer films exhibited good conductivity and high transmittance in both visible and near infrared wavelength. Additionally, both the electrical and optical properties of AZO (50 nm/Zr50Cu50 (2 nm/AZO (50 nm tri-layer films were found to be sensitive to the growth temperature. In this work, the lowest sheet resistance (43 Ω/□ and relatively high transmittance (∼80% in the range of 400–2000 nm were achieved while the growth temperature was 350 °C. Furthermore, the AZO (50 nm/Zr50Cu50 (2 nm/AZO (50 nm thin film deposited at 350 °C exhibits the highest figure of merit of 1.42 × 10−3 Ω−1, indicating that the multilayer is promising for coated glasses and thin film solar cells. Keywords: Transparent conductive oxide, AZO, Zr50Cu50, Electrical and optical properties, Visible and near infrared transmittance

  1. LUMINOUS AND HIGH STELLAR MASS CANDIDATE GALAXIES AT z Almost-Equal-To 8 DISCOVERED IN THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Haojing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Huang, Kuang-Han [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Somerville, Rachel S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Dave, Romeel [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Faber, S. M. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Reddy, Naveen; Siana, Brian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Cooray, Asantha R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2012-12-20

    One key goal of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to track galaxy evolution back to z Almost-Equal-To 8. Its two-tiered ''wide and deep'' strategy bridges significant gaps in existing near-infrared surveys. Here we report on z Almost-Equal-To 8 galaxy candidates selected as F105W-band dropouts in one of its deep fields, which covers 50.1 arcmin{sup 2} to 4 ks depth in each of three near-infrared bands in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field. Two of our candidates have J < 26.2 mag, and are >1 mag brighter than any previously known F105W-dropouts. We derive constraints on the bright end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 8, and show that the number density of such very bright objects is higher than expected from the previous Schechter luminosity function estimates at this redshift. Another two candidates are securely detected in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera images, which are the first such individual detections at z Almost-Equal-To 8. Their derived stellar masses are on the order of a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, from which we obtain the first measurement of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function at z Almost-Equal-To 8. The high number density of very luminous and very massive galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 8, if real, could imply a large stellar-to-halo mass ratio and an efficient conversion of baryons to stars at such an early time.

  2. Development of a neurofeedback protocol targeting the frontal pole using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Akihide; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Homae, Fumitaka; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Koike, Shinsuke; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-11-01

    Neurofeedback has been studied with the aim of controlling cerebral activity. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used for measuring hemoglobin concentration changes in cortical surface areas with high temporal resolution. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful for neurofeedback, which requires real-time feedback of repeated brain activation measurements. However, no study has specifically targeted neurofeedback, using near-infrared spectroscopy, in the frontal pole cortex. We developed an original near-infrared spectroscopy neurofeedback system targeting the frontal pole cortex. Over a single day of testing, each healthy participant (n = 24) received either correct or incorrect (Sham) feedback from near-infrared spectroscopy signals, based on a crossover design. Under correct feedback conditions, significant activation was observed in the frontal pole cortex (P = 0.000073). Additionally, self-evaluation of control and metacognitive beliefs were associated with near-infrared spectroscopy signals (P = 0.006). The neurofeedback system developed in this study might be useful for developing control of frontal pole cortex activation. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. All-photonic drying and sintering process via flash white light combined with deep-UV and near-infrared irradiation for highly conductive copper nano-ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun-Jun; Oh, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-01-25

    We developed an ultra-high speed photonic sintering method involving flash white light (FWL) combined with near infrared (NIR) and deep UV light irradiation to produce highly conductive copper nano-ink film. Flash white light irradiation energy and the power of NIR/deep UV were optimized to obtain high conductivity Cu films. Several microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize the Cu nano-films. Optimally sintered Cu nano-ink films produced using a deep UV-assisted flash white light sintering technique had the lowest resistivity (7.62 μΩ·cm), which was only 4.5-fold higher than that of bulk Cu film (1.68 μΩ•cm).

  4. Dye-free near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for bioimaging and high-performance photothermal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiming; Ye, Binggang; Jin, Mei; Chen, Haolin; Zhong, Huiqing; Wang, Xinpeng; Guo, Zhouyi

    2015-04-21

    Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR SERS) imaging is now a promising molecular imaging technology due to its narrow spectral bandwidth, low background interference and deep imaging depth. In this work, we report a novel strategy for fabrication of NIR SERS nanoprobes without using any expensive and highly toxic organic dyes. Multifunctional conducting polymer (CP) materials, serving as both biocompatible surface coatings and NIR-active reporters, are directly fabricated on the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs) via facile oxidative polymerization. The dye-free NIR SERS nanoprobes (GNR-CPs) exhibit good structural stability, good biocompatibility and intriguing NIR SERS activity. GNR-CPs also show an extraordinary NIR photothermal transduction efficiency, indicating the potential for cancer therapy. The applications of GNR-CPs as new types of theranostic agents for NIR SERS imaging and high-performance photothermal therapy are accomplished in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Very high-gain and low-excess noise near-infrared single-photon avalanche detector: an NIR solid state photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga, Krishna; Yevtukhov, Yuriy; Liang, Bing

    2009-05-01

    A new family of photodetectors with a Discrete Amplification (DA) mechanism allows the realization of very high gain and low excess noise factor in the visible and near infrared spectral regions and offers an alternative to conventional photomultiplier tubes and Geiger mode avalanche photodetectors. These photodetectors can operate in linear detection mode with gain-bandwidth product in excess of 4X1014 and in photon counting mode with count rates up to 108 counts/sec. Potential benefits of this technology over conventional avalanche photodetectors include ultra low excess noise factor, very high gain, and lower reset time ( 2X105, excess noise factor researchers in the field of deep space optical communication, spectroscopy, industrial and scientific instrumentation, Ladar/Lidar, quantum cryptography, night vision and other military, defence and aerospace applications.

  6. Compressive Acquisition of Color and Near-Infrared Images

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghipoor Kermani, Zahra; Lu, Yue; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    We propose using a single silicon sensor and a modified Bayer CFA for joint acquisition of color and near-infrared (NIR) images. Silicon sensors, which are placed in most color cameras, are inherently sensitive to NIR. Hence, our proposed design is very similar to consumer color cameras in terms of hardware. The main contribution of this work is an algorithm that estimates full-resolution color and NIR images from subsampled and mixed sensor measurements. Our method results in high-quality RG...

  7. High-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg

    2014-03-15

    An ultracompact high-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscope with a femtosecond near infrared fiber laser has been utilized to study the cellular autofluorescence during freezing and thawing of cells. Cooling resulted in an increase of the intracellular fluorescence intensity followed by morphological modifications at temperatures below -10 °C, depending on the application of the cryoprotectant DMSO and the cooling rate. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging revealed an increase of the mean lifetime with a decrease in temperature. Non-destructive, label-free optical biopsies of biomaterial in ice can be obtained with sub-20 mW mean powers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictive evaluation of pharmaceutical properties of direct compression tablets containing theophylline anhydrate during storage at high humidity by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuta; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Hideji; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Theophylline anhydrate (TA) in tablet formulation is transformed into monohydrate (TH) at high humidity and the phase transformation affected dissolution behavior. Near-infrared spectroscopic (NIR) method is applied to predict the change of pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets during storage at high humidity. The tablet formulation containing TA, lactose, crystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate was compressed at 4.8 kN. Pharmaceutical properties of TA tables were measured by NIR, X-ray diffraction analysis, dissolution test and tablet hardness. TA tablet was almost 100% transformed into TH after 24 hours at RH 96%. The pharmaceutical properties of TA tablets, such as tablet hardness, 20 min dissolution amount (D20) and increase of tablet weight (TW), changed with the degree of hydration. Calibration models for TW, tablet hardness and D20 to predict the pharmaceutical properties at high-humidity conditions were developed on the basis of the NIR spectra by partial least squares regression analysis. The relationships between predicted and actual measured values for TW, tablet hardness and D20 had straight lines, respectively. From the results of NIR-chemometrics, it was confirmed that these predicted models had high accuracy to monitor the tablet properties during storage at high humidity.

  9. Fundus near infrared fluorescence correlates with fundus near infrared reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andreas W A; Lappas, Alexandra; Kirschkamp, Thomas; Mazinani, Babac A E; Huth, Julia K; Mohammadi, Babak; Walter, Peter

    2006-07-01

    To analyze the occurrence of near infrared (NIR) fluorescence in relation to NIR reflectance, blue-light-excited autofluorescence, angiograms, and funduscopy. Observational consecutive case series in patients with macular diseases. Imaging was performed with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope for NIR reflectance, blue-light-excited autofluorescence, NIR fluorescence, and fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) angiograms. In cases in which NIR fluorescence was observed, five to nine images were averaged. The leakage of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope was analyzed. In the 291 eyes analyzed, NIR fluorescence was observed in 51 and was graded weak in 27 with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD, 10 cases), dry AMD with pigment clumping (n=7), chronic central serous choroidopathy (CSC; n=5), choroidal nevi (n=2), subretinal hemorrhages (n=2), and chloroquine maculopathy (n=1). Strong NIR fluorescence was found in 24 eyes, with wet AMD (n=14), subretinal hemorrhages (n=8), and choroidal nevi (n=2). Except for four eyes, we observed a strong correlation of NIR fluorescence and increased NIR reflectance at identical fundus location (92.2%). NIR fluorescence corresponded with increased blue-light-excited autofluorescence in 21 of 31 patients with AMD and in 4 of 5 patients with chronic CSC, but in none of the 4 patients with nevi. Funduscopy showed that structures with NIR fluorescence were pigmented or consisted of degraded blood. Barrier filter leakage of the imaging system was 6.2x10(-6). The high correlation of NIR fluorescence and reflectance indicated that part of the observed NIR fluorescence is pseudofluorescence, whereas gray-scale analysis indicated that both NIR autofluorescence and pseudofluorescence contribute to the NIR fluorescence images. Quantification of leakage of the imaging system indicated a significant part of the observed NIR fluorescence is NIR autofluorescence. As NIR fluorescence derives from pigmented lesions, melanin is a possible

  10. High-Speed Near Infrared Optical Receivers Based on Ge Waveguide Photodetectors Integrated in a CMOS Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianlorenzo Masini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss our approach to monolithic intergration of Ge photodectors with CMOS electronics for high-speed optical transceivers. Receivers based on Ge waveguide photodetectors achieve a sensitivity of −14.2 dBm (10−12 bit error rate (BER at 10 Gbps and 1550 nm.

  11. Advances in near-infrared measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Patonay, Gabor

    1991-01-01

    Advances in Near-Infrared Measurements, Volume 1 provides an overview of near-infrared spectroscopy. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of near-infrared measurement. Chapter 1 discusses remote monitoring techniques in near-infrared spectroscopy with an emphasis on fiber optics. Chapter 2 covers the applications of fibers using Raman techniques, and Chapter 3 tackles the difficulties associated with near-infrared data analysis. The subsequent chapters present examples of the capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy from various research groups. The text wi

  12. Near-infrared InN quantum dots on high-In composition InGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Rodriguez, Paul E. D.; Gomez, Victor J.; Kumar, Praveen; Calleja, Enrique; Noetzel, Richard [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia (ISOM), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-01

    We report the growth of InN quantum dots (QDs) on thick InGaN layers with high In composition (>50%) by molecular beam epitaxy. Optimized growth conditions are identified for the InGaN layers at reduced growth temperature and increased active N flux resulting in minimized phase separation and defect generation. The InN QDs grown on top of the optimized InGaN layer exhibit small size, high density, and photoluminescence up to room temperature. The InN/InGaN QDs reveal excellent potential for intermediate band solar cells with the InGaN and InN QD bandgap energies tuned to the best match of absorption to the solar spectrum.

  13. A near-infrared fluorescent probe based on BODIPY derivative with high quantum yield for selective detection of exogenous and endogenous cysteine in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Jiao; Fu, Ya-Jun; Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Yong-Fei; Yi, Lan-Hua; Ou-Yang, Juan

    2017-11-22

    Cysteine (Cys) is involved in cellular growth and Cys deficiency is related with many diseases. So far, a number of fluorescent probes have been constructed for the detection of Cys successfully. However, the probes are difficult to discriminate Cys from Hcy and the emission wavelength of the probes is in ultraviolet or visible range. Herein, a NIR fluorescent probe named NIR-BODIPY-Ac is synthesized and used to detect Cys. The emission wavelength of the probe is at 708 nm that belongs to near-infrared (NIR) region by attaching indolium to BODIPY core, which is suitable for bioimaging in vivo. Moreover, the probe exhibits high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.51) after the addition of Cys and high sensitivity toward Cys with 81-fold fluorescence enhancement. The linear range of the probe for Cys covers from 0.2 to 30 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM. Furthermore, the probe shows high selectivity towards Cys owing to the fact that there is more fast reaction rate between the probe and Cys than that of Hcy. In particular, the NIR fluorescent probe is applied for the detection of exogenous and endogenous Cys in biological samples such as cell, tissue and mouse with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Semiconducting tin and lead iodide perovskites with organic cations: phase transitions, high mobilities, and near-infrared photoluminescent properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Malliakas, Christos D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2013-08-05

    -type samples can be obtained through solid state reactions exposed in air in a controllable manner. In the case of Sn compounds, there is a facile tendency toward oxidation which causes the materials to be doped with Sn(4+) and thus behave as p-type semiconductors displaying metal-like conductivity. The compounds appear to possess very high estimated electron and hole mobilities that exceed 2000 cm(2)/(V s) and 300 cm(2)/(V s), respectively, as shown in the case of CH3NH3SnI3 (1). We also compare the properties of the title hybrid materials with those of the "all-inorganic" CsSnI3 and CsPbI3 prepared using identical synthetic methods.

  15. Glycerol-regulated facile synthesis and targeted cell imaging of highly luminescent Ag2Te quantum dots with tunable near-infrared emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Gui, Rijun; Sun, Jie; Wang, Yanfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this work, highly luminescent and emission tunable Ag2Te quantum dots (QDs) were facilely prepared by using water-dispersed glycerol as viscous solvent and CH3COOAg/Na2TeO3 as Ag/Te precursors. Viscous glycerol was utilized to slow the nucleation and growth of QDs at 200°C, and enabled the isolation of QDs with different emission wavelengths. Experimental results revealed that the as-prepared Ag2Te QDs exhibited tunable near-infrared emission from 930 to 1084nm, high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields (QYs, more than 20%), good photostability and low cytotoxicity. After surface coating of a thin silica shell (∼1.4nm), the resulting NH2 terminated Ag2Te@SiO2-NH2 displayed enhanced PL QYs, higher photostability and biocompatibility when compared with the original Ag2Te QDs. Through a facile carboxy-amine coupling, folic acid (FA) was grafted with Ag2Te@SiO2-NH2 to form Ag2Te@SiO2-FA nanocomposites, which were used for targeted PL imaging of folate receptor over-expressed tumor cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. CsSnI3: Semiconductor or metal? High electrical conductivity and strong near-infrared photoluminescence from a single material. High hole mobility and phase-transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Im, Jino; Androulakis, John; Malliakas, Christos D; Li, Hao; Freeman, Arthur J; Kenney, John T; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-05-23

    CsSnI(3) is an unusual perovskite that undergoes complex displacive and reconstructive phase transitions and exhibits near-infrared emission at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical studies of CsSnI(3) have been limited by the lack of detailed crystal structure characterization and chemical instability. Here we describe the synthesis of pure polymorphic crystals, the preparation of large crack-/bubble-free ingots, the refined single-crystal structures, and temperature-dependent charge transport and optical properties of CsSnI(3), coupled with ab initio first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In situ temperature-dependent single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the origin of polymorphous phase transitions of CsSnI(3). The black orthorhombic form of CsSnI(3) demonstrates one of the largest volumetric thermal expansion coefficients for inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on it show p-type metallic behavior with low carrier density, despite the optical band gap of 1.3 eV. Hall effect measurements of the black orthorhombic perovskite phase of CsSnI(3) indicate that it is a p-type direct band gap semiconductor with carrier concentration at room temperature of ∼ 10(17) cm(-3) and a hole mobility of ∼585 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The hole mobility is one of the highest observed among p-type semiconductors with comparable band gaps. Its powders exhibit a strong room-temperature near-IR emission spectrum at 950 nm. Remarkably, the values of the electrical conductivity and photoluminescence intensity increase with heat treatment. The DFT calculations show that the screened-exchange local density approximation-derived band gap agrees well with the experimentally measured band gap. Calculations of the formation energy of defects strongly suggest that the electrical and light emission properties possibly result from Sn defects in the crystal structure, which arise

  17. Qualitative and quantitative detection of honey adulterated with high-fructose corn syrup and maltose syrup by using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuifang; Zhang, Xin; Shan, Yang; Su, Donglin; Ma, Qiang; Wen, Ruizhi; Li, Jiaojuan

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used for qualitative and quantitative detection of honey adulterated with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or maltose syrup (MS). Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was employed to select key variables. Partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was adopted to classify the adulterated honey samples. The CARS-PLS-LDA models showed an accuracy of 86.3% (honey vs. adulterated honey with HFCS) and 96.1% (honey vs. adulterated honey with MS), respectively. PLS regression (PLSR) was used to predict the extent of adulteration in the honeys. The results showed that NIR combined with PLSR could not be used to quantify adulteration with HFCS, but could be used to quantify adulteration with MS: coefficient (R p 2 ) and root mean square of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.901 and 4.041 for MS-adulterated samples from different floral origins, and 0.981 and 1.786 for MS-adulterated samples from the same floral origin (Brassica spp.), respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays and stretching on muscle tone in patients with cerebrovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Takezako, Nobuhiro; Shimonishi, Yuko; Usuda, Shigeru

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays (HI-LPNR) and stretching on hypertonia in cerebrovascular disease patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 cerebrovascular disease patients with hypertonia of the ankle joint plantar flexor muscle. The subjects were randomly allocated to groups undergoing treatment with HI-LPNR irradiation (HI-LPNR group), stretching (stretching group), HI-LPNR irradiation followed by stretching (combination group), and control group (10 subjects each). In all groups, the passive range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the specified intervention. [Results] The changes in passive range of motion, significant increase in the stretching and combination groups compared with that in the control group. The changes in passive resistive joint torque, significant decrease in HI-LPNR, stretching, and combination groups compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has effect of decrease muscle tone. However, combination of HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has no multiplier effect.

  19. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF HIGHLY REDDENED Type Ia SUPERNOVA 2014J: PECULIAR PROPERTIES OF DUST IN M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, K. S.; Akitaya, H.; Itoh, R.; Moritani, Y. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Maeda, K.; Nogami, D. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ui, T.; Kawabata, M.; Mori, K.; Takaki, K.; Ueno, I.; Chiyonobu, S.; Harao, T.; Matsui, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Nagae, O. [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nomoto, K.; Suzuki, N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Tanaka, M., E-mail: kawabtkj@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present optical and near-infrared multi-band linear polarimetry of the highly reddened Type Ia supernova (SN) 2014J that appeared in M82. SN 2014J exhibits large polarization at shorter wavelengths, e.g., 4.8% in the B band, which decreases rapidly at longer wavelengths, while the position angle of the polarization remains at approximately 40° over the observed wavelength range. These polarimetric properties suggest that the observed polarization is likely predominantly caused by the interstellar dust within M82. Further analysis shows that the polarization peaks at a wavelengths much shorter than those obtained for the Galactic dust. The wavelength dependence of the polarization can be better described by an inverse power law rather than by the Serkowski law for Galactic interstellar polarization. These points suggest that the nature of the dust in M82 may be different from that in our Galaxy, with polarizing dust grains having a mean radius of <0.1 μm.

  20. (α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 Core/Shell Nanoparticles with Efficient Near-Infrared to Near-Infrared Upconversion for High-Contrast Deep Tissue Bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Shen, Jie; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Patel, Nayan J.; Kutikov, Artem; Li, Zhipeng; Song, Jie; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Ågren, Hans; Prasad, Paras N.; Han, Gang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of novel and biocompatible core/shell (α-NaYbF4:Tm3+)/CaF2 nanoparticles which exhibit highly efficient NIRin-NIRout upconversion (UC) for high contrast and deep bioimaging. When excited at ~980 nm, these nanoparticles emit photoluminescence (PL) peaked at ~800 nm. The quantum yield of this UC PL under low power density excitation (~0.3 W/cm2) is 0.6±0.1%. This high UC PL efficiency is realized by suppressing surface quenching effects via hetero-epitaxial growth of a biocompatible CaF2 shell which results in a 35-fold increase in the intensity of UC PL from the core. Small animal whole-body UC PL imaging with exceptional contrast (signal-to-background ratio of 310) is shown using BALB/c mice intravenously injected with aqueously dispersed nanoparticles (700 pmol/kg). High-contrast UC PL imaging of deep tissues is also demonstrated, using a nanoparticle-loaded synthetic fibrous mesh wrapped around rat femoral bone, and a cuvette with nanoparticle aqueous dispersion - covered with a 3.2-cm thick animal tissue (pork). PMID:22928629

  1. A novel sample selection strategy by near-infrared spectroscopy-based high throughput tablet tester for content uniformity in early-phase pharmaceutical product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenqi; Hermiller, James G; Gunter, Thomas Z; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Reed, Dave E

    2012-07-01

    This article proposes a new sample selection strategy to simplify the traditional content uniformity (CU) test in early research and development (R&D) with improved statistical confidence. This strategy originated from the prescreening of a large amount of tablets by a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based high-volume tablet tester to the selection of extreme tablets with highest, medium, and lowest content of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) for further high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) test. The NIRS-based high-volume tablet tester was equipped with an internally developed and integrated automated bagging and labeling system, allowing the traceability of every individual tablet by its measured physical and chemical signatures. A qualitative NIR model was used to translate spectral information to a concentration-related metric, that is scores, which allowed the selection of those extreme tablets. This sample selection strategy of extreme tablets was shown to provide equivalent representation of CU in the process compared with the traditional CU test using a large number of random samples. Because it only requires reference tests on three extreme samples per stratified location, the time- and labor-saving nature of this strategy is advantageous for CU test in early R&D. The extreme sampling approach is also shown to outperform random sampling with respect to statistical confidence for representing the process variation. In addition, a chemometric approach, which utilizes only pure component raw materials to develop an NIRS model sensitive to API concentration, is discussed with the advantage that it does not require tablets at multiple API levels. Prospective applications of this sample selection strategy are also addressed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The use of near infrared transmittance kernel sorting technology to salvage high quality grain from grain downgraded due to Fusarium damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Kautzman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxins associated with specific Fusarium fungal infections of grains are a threat to global food and feed security. These fungal infestations are referred to as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB and lead to Fusarium Damaged Kernels (FDK. Incidence of FDK >0.25% will lower the grade, with a tolerance of 5% FDK for export feed grain. During infestation, the fungi can produce a variety of mycotoxins, the most common being deoxynivalenol (DON. Fusarium Damaged Kernels have been associated with reduced crude protein (CP, lowering nutritional, functional and grade value. New technology has been developed using Near Infrared Transmittance (NIT spectra that estimate CP of individual kernels of wheat, barley and durum. Our objective is to evaluate the technology's capability to reduce FDK and DON of downgraded wheat and ability to salvage high quality safe kernels. In five FDK downgraded sources of wheat, the lowest 20% CP kernels had significantly increased FDK and DON with the high CP fractions having decreased FDK and DON, thousand kernel weights (TKW and bushel weight (Bu. Strong positive correlations were observed between FDK and DON (r = 0.90; FDK and grade (r = 0.62 and DON and grade (r = 0.62. Negative correlations were observed between FDK and DON with CP (r = −0.27 and −0.32; TKW (r = −0.45 and −0.54 and Bu (r = −0.79 and −0.74. Results show improved quality and value of Fusarium downgraded grain using this technology.

  3. Assessing the Driver’s Current Level of Working Memory Load with High Density Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy: A Realistic Driving Simulator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Anirudh; Ihme, Klas; Jipp, Meike; Rieger, Jochem W.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver’s cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous ‘n’ speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator. We measured brain activation using multichannel whole head, high density functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and predicted working memory load level from the fNIRS data by combining multivariate lasso regression and cross-validation. This allowed us to predict variations in working memory load in a continuous time-resolved manner with mean Pearson correlations between induced and predicted working memory load over 15 participants of 0.61 [standard error (SE) 0.04] and a maximum of 0.8. Restricting the analysis to prefrontal sensors placed over the forehead reduced the mean correlation to 0.38 (SE 0.04), indicating additional information gained through whole head coverage. Moreover, working memory load predictions derived from peripheral heart rate parameters achieved much lower correlations (mean 0.21, SE 0.1). Importantly, whole head fNIRS sampling revealed increasing brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal and bilateral temporo-occipital brain areas with increasing working memory load levels suggesting that these areas are specifically involved in workload-related processing. PMID

  4. Assessing the Driver's Current Level of Working Memory Load with High Density Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy: A Realistic Driving Simulator Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Anirudh; Ihme, Klas; Jipp, Meike; Rieger, Jochem W

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver's cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back) forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous 'n' speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator. We measured brain activation using multichannel whole head, high density functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and predicted working memory load level from the fNIRS data by combining multivariate lasso regression and cross-validation. This allowed us to predict variations in working memory load in a continuous time-resolved manner with mean Pearson correlations between induced and predicted working memory load over 15 participants of 0.61 [standard error (SE) 0.04] and a maximum of 0.8. Restricting the analysis to prefrontal sensors placed over the forehead reduced the mean correlation to 0.38 (SE 0.04), indicating additional information gained through whole head coverage. Moreover, working memory load predictions derived from peripheral heart rate parameters achieved much lower correlations (mean 0.21, SE 0.1). Importantly, whole head fNIRS sampling revealed increasing brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal and bilateral temporo-occipital brain areas with increasing working memory load levels suggesting that these areas are specifically involved in workload-related processing.

  5. Assessing the Driver’s Current Level of Working Memory Load with High Density Functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy: A Realistic Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Unni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive overload or underload results in a decrease in human performance which may result in fatal incidents while driving. We envision that driver assistive systems which adapt their functionality to the driver’s cognitive state could be a promising approach to reduce road accidents due to human errors. This research attempts to predict variations of cognitive working memory load levels in a natural driving scenario with multiple parallel tasks and to reveal predictive brain areas. We used a modified version of the n-back task to induce five different working memory load levels (from 0-back up to 4-back forcing the participants to continuously update, memorize, and recall the previous ‘n’ speed sequences and adjust their speed accordingly while they drove for approximately 60 min on a highway with concurrent traffic in a virtual reality driving simulator. We measured brain activation using multichannel whole head, high density functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and predicted working memory load level from the fNIRS data by combining multivariate lasso regression and cross-validation. This allowed us to predict variations in working memory load in a continuous time-resolved manner with mean Pearson correlations between induced and predicted working memory load over 15 participants of 0.61 [standard error (SE 0.04] and a maximum of 0.8. Restricting the analysis to prefrontal sensors placed over the forehead reduced the mean correlation to 0.38 (SE 0.04, indicating additional information gained through whole head coverage. Moreover, working memory load predictions derived from peripheral heart rate parameters achieved much lower correlations (mean 0.21, SE 0.1. Importantly, whole head fNIRS sampling revealed increasing brain activation in bilateral inferior frontal and bilateral temporo-occipital brain areas with increasing working memory load levels suggesting that these areas are specifically involved in workload

  6. High-sensitivity detection of breast tumors in vivo by use of a pH-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathejczyk, Julia Eva; Pauli, Jutta; Dullin, Christian; Resch-Genger, Ute; Alves, Frauke; Napp, Joanna

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the potential of the pH-sensitive dye, CypHer5E, conjugated to Herceptin (pH-Her) for the sensitive detection of breast tumors in mice using noninvasive time-domain near-infrared fluorescence imaging and different methods of data analysis. First, the fluorescence properties of pH-Her were analyzed as function of pH and/or dye-to-protein ratio, and binding specificity was confirmed in cell-based assays. Subsequently, the performance of pH-Her in nude mice bearing orthotopic HER2-positive (KPL-4) and HER2-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast carcinoma xenografts was compared to that of an always-on fluorescent conjugate Alexa Fluor 647-Herceptin (Alexa-Her). Subtraction of autofluorescence and lifetime (LT)-gated image analyses were performed for background fluorescence suppression. In mice bearing HER2-positive tumors, autofluorescence subtraction together with the selective fluorescence enhancement of pH-Her solely in the tumor's acidic environment provided high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). This led to an improved sensitivity of tumor detection compared to Alexa-Her. In contrast, LT-gated imaging using LTs determined in model systems did not improve tumor-detection sensitivity in vivo for either probe. In conclusion, pH-Her is suitable for sensitive in vivo monitoring of HER2-expressing breast tumors with imaging in the intensity domain and represents a promising tool for detection of weak fluorescent signals deriving from small tumors or metastases.

  7. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Frontal Lobe Neurofeedback Integrated in Virtual Reality Modulates Brain and Behavior in Highly Impulsive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Justin; Blume, Friederike; Dresler, Thomas; Haeussinger, Florian B; Renner, Tobias J; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Gawrilow, Caterina; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2017-01-01

    Based on neurofeedback (NF) training as a neurocognitive treatment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we designed a randomized, controlled functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) NF intervention embedded in an immersive virtual reality classroom in which participants learned to control overhead lighting with their dorsolateral prefrontal brain activation. We tested the efficacy of the intervention on healthy adults displaying high impulsivity as a sub-clinical population sharing common features with ADHD. Twenty participants, 10 in an experimental and 10 in a shoulder muscle-based electromyography control group, underwent eight training sessions across 2 weeks. Training was bookended by a pre- and post-test including go/no-go, n-back, and stop-signal tasks (SST). Results indicated a significant reduction in commission errors on the no-go task with a simultaneous increase in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration for the experimental group, but not for the control group. Furthermore, the ability of the subjects to gain control over the feedback parameter correlated strongly with the reduction in commission errors for the experimental, but not for the control group, indicating the potential importance of learning feedback control in moderating behavioral outcomes. In addition, participants of the fNIRS group showed a reduction in reaction time variability on the SST. Results indicate a clear effect of our NF intervention in reducing impulsive behavior possibly via a strengthening of frontal lobe functioning. Virtual reality additions to conventional NF may be one way to improve the ecological validity and symptom-relevance of the training situation, hence positively affecting transfer of acquired skills to real life.

  8. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy-Based Frontal Lobe Neurofeedback Integrated in Virtual Reality Modulates Brain and Behavior in Highly Impulsive Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Hudak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on neurofeedback (NF training as a neurocognitive treatment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, we designed a randomized, controlled functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS NF intervention embedded in an immersive virtual reality classroom in which participants learned to control overhead lighting with their dorsolateral prefrontal brain activation. We tested the efficacy of the intervention on healthy adults displaying high impulsivity as a sub-clinical population sharing common features with ADHD. Twenty participants, 10 in an experimental and 10 in a shoulder muscle-based electromyography control group, underwent eight training sessions across 2 weeks. Training was bookended by a pre- and post-test including go/no-go, n-back, and stop-signal tasks (SST. Results indicated a significant reduction in commission errors on the no-go task with a simultaneous increase in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration for the experimental group, but not for the control group. Furthermore, the ability of the subjects to gain control over the feedback parameter correlated strongly with the reduction in commission errors for the experimental, but not for the control group, indicating the potential importance of learning feedback control in moderating behavioral outcomes. In addition, participants of the fNIRS group showed a reduction in reaction time variability on the SST. Results indicate a clear effect of our NF intervention in reducing impulsive behavior possibly via a strengthening of frontal lobe functioning. Virtual reality additions to conventional NF may be one way to improve the ecological validity and symptom-relevance of the training situation, hence positively affecting transfer of acquired skills to real life.

  9. THE HIGH A{sub V} Quasar Survey: Reddened Quasi-Stellar Objects selected from optical/near-infrared photometry. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Vestergaard, M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Geier, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Venemans, B. P. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ledoux, C. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Møller, P. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschildstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Noterdaeme, P. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS-UPMC, UMR7095, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Kangas, T.; Pursimo, T.; Smirnova, O. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain); Saturni, F. G. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, 21500 Piikkiö (Finland)

    2015-03-15

    Quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) whose spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are reddened by dust either in their host galaxies or in intervening absorber galaxies are to a large degree missed by optical color selection criteria like the ones used by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To overcome this bias against red QSOs, we employ a combined optical and near-infrared (near-IR) color selection. In this paper, we present a spectroscopic follow-up campaign of a sample of red candidate QSOs which were selected from the SDSS and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). The spectroscopic data and SDSS/UKIDSS photometry are supplemented by mid-infrared photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. In our sample of 159 candidates, 154 (97%) are confirmed to be QSOs. We use a statistical algorithm to identify sightlines with plausible intervening absorption systems and identify nine such cases assuming dust in the absorber similar to Large Magellanic Cloud sightlines. We find absorption systems toward 30 QSOs, 2 of which are consistent with the best-fit absorber redshift from the statistical modeling. Furthermore, we observe a broad range in SED properties of the QSOs as probed by the rest-frame 2 μm flux. We find QSOs with a strong excess as well as QSOs with a large deficit at rest-frame 2 μm relative to a QSO template. Potential solutions to these discrepancies are discussed. Overall, our study demonstrates the high efficiency of the optical/near-IR selection of red QSOs.

  10. Low-frequency wide-field fluorescence lifetime imaging using a high-power near-infrared light-emitting diode light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioux, Sylvain; Lomnes, Stephen J; Choi, Hak Soo; Frangioni, John V

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLi) could potentially improve exogenous near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging, because it offers the capability of discriminating a signal of interest from background, provides real-time monitoring of a chemical environment, and permits the use of several different fluorescent dyes having the same emission wavelength. We present a high-power, LED-based, NIR light source for the clinical translation of wide-field (larger than 5 cm in diameter) FLi at frequencies up to 35 MHz. Lifetime imaging of indocyanine green (ICG), IRDye 800-CW, and 3,3(')-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide (DTTCI) was performed over a large field of view (10 cm by 7.5 cm) using the LED light source. For comparison, a laser diode light source was employed as a gold standard. Experiments were performed both on the bench by diluting the fluorescent dyes in various chemical environments in Eppendorf tubes, and in vivo by injecting the fluorescent dyes mixed in Matrigel subcutaneously into CD-1 mice. Last, measured fluorescence lifetimes obtained using the LED and the laser diode sources were compared with those obtained using a state-of-the-art time-domain imaging system and with those previously described in the literature. On average, lifetime values obtained using the LED and the laser diode light sources were consistent, exhibiting a mean difference of 3% from the expected values and a coefficient of variation of 12%. Taken together, our study offers an alternative to laser diodes for clinical translation of FLi and explores the use of relatively low frequency modulation for in vivo imaging.

  11. Near infrared frequency comb vernier spectrometer for broadband trace gas detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Bounds, James; Bicer, Aysenur; Strohaber, James; Kolomenskii, Alexandre A; Gohle, Christoph; Amani, Mahmood; Schuessler, Hans A

    2014-09-22

    We present a femtosecond frequency comb vernier spectrometer in the near infrared with a femtosecond Er doped fiber laser, a scanning high-finesse cavity and an InGaAs camera. By utilizing the properties of a frequency comb and a scanning high-finesse cavity such a spectrometer provides broad spectral bandwidth, high spectral resolution, and high detection sensitivity on a short time scale. We achieved an absorption sensitivity of ~8 × 10(-8) cm(-1)Hz(-1/2), corresponding to a detection limit of ~70 ppbv for acetylene, with a resolution of ~1.1 GHz in single images taken in 0.5 seconds and covering a frequency range of ~5 THz. Such measurements have broad applications for sensing greenhouse gases in this fingerprint near infrared region with a simple apparatus.

  12. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Astha; Homayoun, Aida; Bannister, Christopher W; Yum, Kyungsuk

    2015-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes that emit photostable near-infrared fluorescence have emerged as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine. Since the discovery of their near-infrared fluorescence, researchers have engineered single-walled carbon nanotubes to function as an optical biosensor that selectively modulates its fluorescence upon binding of target molecules. Here we review the recent advances in the single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical sensing technology for life sciences and biomedicine. We discuss the structure and optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the mechanisms for molecular recognition and signal transduction in single-walled carbon nanotube complexes, and the recent development of various single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical biosensors. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges to translate this emerging technology into biomedical research and clinical use, including the biological safety of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The advances in single-walled carbon nanotube-based near-infrared optical sensing technology open up a new avenue for in vitro and in vivo biosensing with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution, beneficial for many areas of life sciences and biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. [Design of flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xian-Yi; Wen, Zhi-Yu

    2008-07-01

    Near-infrared spectrum analysis can be used to determine the nature or test quantitatively some chemical compositions by detecting molecular double frequency and multiple frequency absorption. It has been used in agriculture, biology, petrifaction, foodstuff, medicament, spinning and other fields. Near-infrared spectrophotometer is the main apparatus for near-infrared spectrum analysis, and the grating is the most important part of the apparatus. Based on holographic concave grating theory and optic design software CODE V, a flat field holographic concave grating for near-infrared spectrophotometer was designed from primary structure, which relied on global optimization of the software. The contradiction between wide spectrum bound and limited spectrum extension was resolved, aberrations were reduced successfully, spectrum information was utilized fully, and the optic structure of spectrometer was highly efficient. Using CODE V software, complex high-order aberration equations need not be solved, the result can be evaluated quickly, flat field and resolving power can be kept in balance, and the work efficiency is also enhanced. A paradigm of flat field holographic concave grating is given, it works between 900 nm to 1 700 nm, the diameter of the concave grating is 25 mm, and F/ # is 1. 5. The design result was analyzed and evaluated. It was showed that if the slit source, whose width is 50 microm, is used to reconstruction, the theoretic resolution capacity is better than 6.3 nm.

  14. Monitoring of multiple solid-state transformations at tablet surfaces using multi-series near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Khorasani, Milad Rouhi; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    -state transformations. The preprocessed spectra from the images (dataset) were arranged in augmented matrices, according to the composition of the tablets, and the profile of the overlapped compounds (relative concentration) along the solid-state transformations in the pixels was resolved by using multivariate curve...... resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). Therefore, the dehydration of piroxicam and lactose monohydrates could be mapped separately in the samples (explained variances by the models >96%) even when both compounds were being transformed simultaneously (80-120°C). The images reproduced the same...... trends obtained from thermogravimetric analysis of the tablets, with the advantage that the pixel-to-pixel heterogeneity of each compound at the surface of the tablets was highlighted....

  15. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  16. Near infrared autofluorescence imaging of retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skondra, Dimitra; Papakostas, Thanos D; Hunter, Rebecca; Vavvas, Demetrios G

    2012-01-01

    Near infrared autofluorescence (excitation 787 nm, emission >800 nm) is a non-invasive imaging technology that provides information on the distribution of melanin within the retinal pigment epithelial cell/choroid complex. This review contains an introduction to near infrared autofluorescence imaging methods. Characteristics of near infrared imaging in a variety of retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, choroidal nevus, retinal degenerations, retinal dystrophies, central serous chorioretinopathy, pseudoxanthoma elasticum and chloroquine retinopathy, are summarized.

  17. Jupiter in blue, ultraviolet and near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These three images of Jupiter, taken through the narrow angle camera of NASA's Cassini spacecraft from a distance of 77.6 million kilometers (48.2 million miles) on October 8, reveal more than is apparent to the naked eye through a telescope.The image on the left was taken through the blue filter. The one in the middle was taken in the ultraviolet. The one on the right was taken in the near infrared.The blue-light filter is within the part of the electromagnetic spectrum detectable by the human eye. The appearance of Jupiter in this image is, consequently, very familiar. The Great Red Spot (below and to the right of center) and the planet's well-known banded cloud lanes are obvious. The brighter bands of clouds are called zones and are probably composed of ammonia ice particles. The darker bands are called belts and are made dark by particles of unknown composition intermixed with the ammonia ice.Jupiter's appearance changes dramatically in the ultraviolet and near infrared images. These images are near negatives of each other and illustrate the way in which observations in different wavelength regions can reveal different physical regimes on the planet.All gases scatter sunlight efficiently at short wavelengths; this is why the sky appears blue on Earth. The effect is even more pronounced in the ultraviolet. The gases in Jupiter's atmosphere, above the clouds, are no different. They scatter strongly in the ultraviolet, making the deep banded cloud layers invisible in the middle image. Only the very high altitude haze appears dark against the bright background. The contrast is reversed in the near infrared, where methane gas, abundant on Jupiter but not on Earth, is strongly absorbing and therefore appears dark. Again the deep clouds are invisible, but now the high altitude haze appears relatively bright against the dark background. High altitude haze is seen over the poles and the equator.The Great Red Spot, prominent in all images, is obviously a feature whose

  18. Facile synthesis of CuSe nanoparticles and high-quality single-crystal two-dimensional hexagonal nanoplatelets with tunable near-infrared optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yimin [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Korolkov, Ilia [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Qiao, Xvsheng [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Xianghua [Laboratory of Glasses and Ceramics, Institute of Chemistry, CNRS-Université de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Wan, Jun; Fan, Xianping [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A rapid injection approach is used to synthesize the copper selenide nanoparticles and two-dimensional single crystal nanoplates. This technique excludes the use of toxic or expensive materials, increasing the availability of two-dimensional binary chalcogenide semiconductors. The structure of the nanocrystals has been studied and the possible formation mechanism of the nanoplates has been proposed. The optical absorption showed that the nanoplates demonstrated wide and tuneable absorption band in the visible and near infrared region. These nanoplates could be interesting for converting solar energy and for nanophotonic devices operating in the near infrared. - Graphical abstract: TEM images of the copper selenides nanoparticles and nanoplates synthesized at 180 °C for 0 min, 10 min, 60 min. And the growth mechanism of the copper selenide nanoplates via the “oriented attachment”. Display Omitted - Highlights: • CuSe nanoparticles and nanoplates are synthesized by a rapid injection approach. • CuSe band gap can be widely tuned simply by modifying the synthesized time. • Al{sup 3+} ions have a significant impact on the growth rate of the nanoplates. • Growth mechanism of the CuSe nanoplates is based on the “oriented attachment”.

  19. Tissue blood flow and oxygen consumption measured with near-infrared frequency-domain spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Lelia Adelina

    2001-12-01

    For decades, researchers have contributed with new ways of applying physics' principles to medicine. Moreover, researchers were involved in developing new, non-invasive instrumentation for medical applications. Recently, application of optical techniques in biology and medicine became an important field. Researchers found a non- invasive approach of using visible and near-infrared light as a probe for tissue investigation. Optical methods can contribute to medicine by offering the possibility of rapid, low-resolution, functional images and real-time devices. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a useful technique for the investigation of biological tissues because of the relatively low absorption of water and high absorption of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin in the near- infrared region of 750-900 nm. Due to these properties, the near-infrared light can penetrate biological tissues in the range of 0.5-2 cm, offering investigation possibility of deep tissues and differentiate among healthy and diseased tissues. This work represents the initial steps towards understanding and improving of the promising near- infrared frequency-domain technique. This instrument has a very important advantage: it can be used non-invasively to investigate many parts of the human body, including the brain. My research consists primarily of in vivo measurements of optical parameters such as absorption and reduced scattering coefficients and consequently, blood parameters such as oxy, deoxy, and total hemoglobin concentrations, tissue oxygen saturation, blood flow and oxygen consumption of skeletal muscle of healthy and diseased subjects. This research gives a solid background towards a ready- to-use instrument that can continuously, in real-time, measure blood parameters and especially blood oxygenation. This is a very important information in emergency medicine, for persons under intensive care, or undergoing surgery, organ transplant or other interventions.

  20. Near infrared spectroscopy and exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Caroline

    2002-07-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method for the continuous monitoring of changes in tissue oxygenation and blood volume during aerobic exercise. During incremental exercise in adult subjects there was a positive correlation between lactate threshold (measured by blood sampling) and changes in the rate of muscle deoxygenation (measured by NIRS). However, the 7% failure rate for the NIRS test mitigated against the general use of this method. NIRS did not provide a valid method for LT determination in an adolescent population. NIRS was then used to examine whether haemodynamic changes could be a contributing factor to the mechanism underlying the cross-transfer effect. During a one-legged incremental aerobic exercise test the muscle was more deoxygenated in the exercising leg than in the non-exercising leg, consistent with oxygen consumption outstripping blood flow to the exercising limb. However, muscle blood volume increased equally in both legs. This suggests that blood flow may be raised to similar levels in both the legs; although local factors may signal an increase in blood volume, this effect is expressed in both legs. Muscle blood flow and changes in muscle blood volume were then measured directly by NIRS during an incremental one-arm aerobic exercise test. There was no significant difference in either blood volume or blood flow in the two arms at the end of the test. In the non-exercising arm changes in blood flow and blood volume were measured throughout the protocol. At higher exercise intensities, blood volume continued to rise as muscle blood flow plateaued, indicating that blood volume changes become independent of changes in blood flow. Finally, the effect of different training regimes on changes in muscle blood volume was examined. Subjects were assigned to a training group; two-arm training, one-arm training or a control group. Training did not affect blood volume changes during two-arm exercise. However, during one

  1. Interferometric near-infrared spectroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Dawid; Kholiqov, Oybek; Chong, Shau Poh; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce and implement interferometric near-infrared spectroscopy (iNIRS), which simultaneously extracts the optical and dynamic properties of turbid media from the analysis of the spectral interference fringe pattern. The spectral interference fringe pattern is measured using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a frequency swept narrow bandwidth light source such that the temporal intensity autocorrelations can be determined for all photon path lengths. This approach enables time-of-flight (TOF) resolved measurement of scatterer motion, which is a feature inaccessible in well-established diffuse correlation spectroscopy techniques. We prove this by analyzing intensity correlations of the light transmitted through diffusive fluid phantoms with photon random walks of up to 55 (approximately 110 scattering events) using laser sweep rates on the order of 100kHz. Thus, the results we present here advance diffuse optical methods by enabling simultaneous determination of depth-resolved optical properties and dynamics in highly scattering samples.

  2. Effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Early caries detection is essential for minimal intervention dentistry, since it could give the opportunity to reverse the process and eliminate or at least postpone the surgical treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared transillumination in early caries diagnosis for both occlusal and proximal lesions. Thirty-eight adult patients were included in the study. The results from the visual, radiological and near-infrared transillumination examination for proximal caries lesions were compared. The diagnostic abilities of these methods for occlusal lesions were assayed on 60 teeth. The three methods showed a very high level of correlation when there were caries lesions involving the enamel and dentin. Concerning proximal caries involving only the enamel, the visual--tactile diagnosis proved to be insufficiently sensitive even with the use of magnification. Radiographic examination and near-infrared transillumination correlated significantly, but the latter was more sensitive. Radiographic examination proved to be insufficiently sensitive for occlusal lesions. The results obtained with the near-infrared fluorescence correlated most with the visual–tactile examination. These results suggest that near-infrared transillumination is an effective method for diagnosis of lesions both involving only the enamel and involving the enamel and dentin. It could be used for both occlusal and proximal caries lesions and it could eventually substitute radiographic bitewings, especially in children and pregnant women, due to its efficiency as a diagnostic tool and the absence of radiation.

  3. Near-infrared angiography for critical limb ischemia in a diabetic murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Missael; Zayed, Mohamed A.; Park, Kyoung-mi; Gruev, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a highly prevalent disease process that afflicts more than 20% of individuals with diabetes. Progression of PAD in the setting of diabetes can lead to critical limb ischemia (CLI), which is associated with increased risk of wounds, gangrene, and limb loss. Prompt noninvasive evaluation of limbs affected by PAD progression and CLI is currently limited. Here, we evaluate the utility of a custom-designed multispectral imaging system for fluorescence-based near-infrared angiography and compare it to the existing gold standard of laser-scanning Doppler perfusion assessments. Due to its higher resolution and fluorescence sensitivity, near-infrared angiography demonstrates a greater capacity to characterize altered dynamic arterial perfusion in a clinically relevant diabetic murine model for CLI. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our imaging system can accurately track arterial perfusion recovery over time following induced ischemia, and reveal unique phenotypic differences in the setting of diabetes.

  4. Near-infrared transillumination photography of intraocular tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Jørgen; Ulltang, Erlend; Kjersem, Bård

    2013-10-01

    To present a technique for near-infrared transillumination imaging of intraocular tumours based on the modifications of a conventional digital slit lamp camera system. The Haag-Streit Photo-Slit Lamp BX 900 (Haag-Streit AG) was used for transillumination photography by gently pressing the tip of the background illumination cable against the surface of the patient's eye. Thus the light from the flash unit was transmitted into the eye, leading to improved illumination and image resolution. The modification for near-infrared photography was done by replacing the original camera with a Canon EOS 30D (Canon Inc) converted by Advanced Camera Services Ltd. In this camera, the infrared blocking filter was exchanged for a 720 nm long-pass filter, so that the near-infrared part of the spectrum was recorded by the sensor. The technique was applied in eight patients: three with anterior choroidal melanoma, three with ciliary body melanoma and two with ocular pigment alterations. The good diagnostic quality of the photographs made it possible to evaluate the exact location and extent of the lesions in relation to pigmented intraocular landmarks such as the ora serrata and ciliary body. The photographic procedure did not lead to any complications. We recommend near-infrared transillumination photography as a supplementary diagnostic tool for the evaluation and documentation of anteriorly located intraocular tumours.

  5. Highly enhanced optical properties of indocyanine green/perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions for efficient lymph node mapping using near-infrared and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Pan Kee; Jung, Juyeon; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2014-03-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence probe has better tissue penetration and lower autofluorescence. Indocyanine green (ICG) is an NIR organic dye for extensive biological application, and it has been clinically approved for human medical imaging and diagnosis. However, application of this dye is limited by its numerous disadvantageous properties in aqueous solution, including its concentration-dependent aggregation, poor aqueous stability in vitro, and low quantum yield. Its use in molecular imaging probes is limited because it loses fluorescence after binding to nonspecific plasma proteins, leading to rapid elimination from the body with a half-life of 2 - 4 min. In this study, the multifunctional perfluorocarbon (PFC)/ICG nanoemulsions were investigated with the aim of overcoming these limitations. The PFC/ICG nanoemulsions as a new type of delivery vehicle for contrast agents have both NIR optical imaging and 19 F-MR imaging moieties. These nanoemulsions exhibited less aggregation, increased fluorescence intensity, long-term stability, and physicochemical stability against external light and temperature compared to free aqueous ICG. Also, the PFC/ICG bimodal nanoemulsions allow excellent detection of lymph nodes in vivo through NIR optical imaging and 19 F-MR imaging. This result showed the suitability of the proposed nanoemulsions for non-invasive lymph node mapping as they enable long-time detection of lymph nodes.

  6. Near infrared lasers in flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, William G

    2015-07-01

    Technology development in flow cytometry has closely tracked laser technology, the light source that flow cytometers almost exclusively use to excite fluorescent probes. The original flow cytometers from the 1970s and 1980s used large water-cooled lasers to produce only one or two laser lines at a time. Modern cytometers can take advantage of the revolution in solid state laser technology to use almost any laser wavelength ranging from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. Commercial cytometers can now be equipped with many small solid state lasers, providing almost any wavelength needed for cellular analysis. Flow cytometers are now equipped to analyze 20 or more fluorescent probes simultaneously, requiring multiple laser wavelengths. Instrument developers are now trying to increase this number by designing fluorescent probes that can be excited by laser wavelength at the "edges" of the visible light range, in the near ultraviolet and near-infrared region. A variety of fluorescent probes have been developed that excite with violet and long wavelength ultraviolet light; however, the near-infrared range (660-800 nm) has yet seen only exploitation in flow cytometry. Fortunately, near-infrared laser diodes and other solid state laser technologies appropriate for flow cytometry have been in existence for some time, and can be readily incorporated into flow cytometers to accelerate fluorescent probe development. The near infrared region represents one of the last "frontiers" to maximize the number of fluorescent probes that can be analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, near infrared fluorescent probes used in biomedical tracking and imaging could also be employed for flow cytometry with the correct laser wavelengths. This review describes the available technology, including lasers, fluorescent probes and detector technology optimal for near infrared signal detection. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyawattanametha, Wibool; Ra, Hyejun; Qiu, Zhen; Friedland, Shai; Liu, Jonathan T C; Loewke, Kevin; Kino, Gordon S; Solgaard, Olav; Wang, Thomas D; Mandella, Michael J; Contag, Christopher H

    2012-02-01

    Near-infrared confocal microendoscopy is a promising technique for deep in vivo imaging of tissues and can generate high-resolution cross-sectional images at the micron-scale. We demonstrate the use of a dual-axis confocal (DAC) near-infrared fluorescence microendoscope with a 5.5-mm outer diameter for obtaining clinical images of human colorectal mucosa. High-speed two-dimensional en face scanning was achieved through a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner while a micromotor was used for adjusting the axial focus. In vivo images of human patients are collected at 5 frames/sec with a field of view of 362×212 μm(2) and a maximum imaging depth of 140 μm. During routine endoscopy, indocyanine green (ICG) was topically applied a nonspecific optical contrasting agent to regions of the human colon. The DAC microendoscope was then used to obtain microanatomic images of the mucosa by detecting near-infrared fluorescence from ICG. These results suggest that DAC microendoscopy may have utility for visualizing the anatomical and, perhaps, functional changes associated with colorectal pathology for the early detection of colorectal cancer.

  8. A route to brightly fluorescent carbon nanotubes for near-infrared imaging in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsher, Kevin; Liu, Zhuang; Sherlock, Sarah P.; Robinson, Joshua Tucker; Chen, Zhuo; Daranciang, Dan; Dai, Hongjie

    2009-11-01

    The near-infrared photoluminescence intrinsic to semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes is ideal for biological imaging owing to the low autofluorescence and deep tissue penetration in the near-infrared region beyond 1 µm. However, biocompatible single-walled carbon nanotubes with high quantum yield have been elusive. Here, we show that sonicating single-walled carbon nanotubes with sodium cholate, followed by surfactant exchange to form phospholipid-polyethylene glycol coated nanotubes, produces in vivo imaging agents that are both bright and biocompatible. The exchange procedure is better than directly sonicating the tubes with the phospholipid-polyethylene glycol, because it results in less damage to the nanotubes and improves the quantum yield. We show whole-animal in vivo imaging using an InGaAs camera in the 1-1.7 µm spectral range by detecting the intrinsic near-infrared photoluminescence of the `exchange' single-walled carbon nanotubes at a low dose (17 mg l-1 injected dose). The deep tissue penetration and low autofluorescence background allowed high-resolution intravital microscopy imaging of tumour vessels beneath thick skin.

  9. REDDY VESTA ROTATIONALLY RESOLVED NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution near-infrared (~0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of main belt asteroid (4) Vesta observed with the SpeX instrument on NASA Infrared...

  10. Biocompatible and highly luminescent near-infrared CuInS₂/ZnS quantum dots embedded silica beads for cancer cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mohamed F; Huang, Liang; Shao, Feng; Han, He-You

    2014-02-12

    Bright and stable CuInS2/ZnS@SiO2 nanoparticles with near-infrared (NIR) emission were competently prepared by incorporating the as-prepared hydrophobic CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) directly into lipophilic silane micelles and subsequently an exterior silica shell was formed. The obtained CuInS2/ZnS@SiO2 nanoparticles homogeneously comprised both single-core and multicore remarkable CuInS2/ZnS QDs, while the silica shell thickness could be controlled to within 5-10 nm and their overall size was 17-25 nm. Also, the functionalized CuInS2/ZnS QDs encapsulated in the silica spheres, expedited their bioconjugation with holo-Transferrin (Tf) for further cancer cell imaging. The CuInS2/ZnS@SiO2 nanoparticles not only showed a dominant NIR band-edge luminescence at 650-720 nm with a quantum yield (QY) between 30 and 50%, without a recognized photoluminescence (PL) red shift, but also exhibited excellent PL and colloidal stability in aqueous media. Impressively, the cytotoxicity studies revealed minor suppression on cell viability under both CuInS2/ZnS@SiO2 and CuInS2/ZnS@SiO2@Tf concentrations up to 1 mg/mL. The application in live-cell imaging revealed that the potential of CuInS2/ZnS QDs as biocompatible, robust, cadmium-free, and brilliant NIR emitters is considered promising for fluorescent labels.

  11. Data processing pipeline of the Near-Infrared Imaging Spectropolarimeter at the NST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwangsu; Cao, Wenda

    2017-08-01

    The Near-Infrared Imaging Spectropolarimeter (NIRIS) is made for imaging magnetic field structures on the Sun. The data acquired undergoes extensive post-processing to ensure high resolution, high signal to noise ratio, and high accuracy. We would like to introduce how the data are processed by demonstrating data processing pipeline. In this manner, the capabilities and the limits in data analysis would be evaluated. The NIRIS is dedicated to Fe I 15648 band observation for now, while it has potential for expanding their choice of bands as well as improving data quality. Such upgrade plans should be discussed and prioritized.

  12. A RESOLVED NEAR-INFRARED IMAGE OF THE INNER CAVITY IN THE GM Aur TRANSITIONAL DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Daehyeon; Yang, Yi [Department of Astronomical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko [Astrobiology Center of NINS 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Carson, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston 66 George Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Janson, Markus [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Kwon, Jungmi; Nakagawa, Takao [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Uyama, Taichi [Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Kudo, Tomoyuki; Currie, Thayne [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Abe, Lyu [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Coted’azur 28 avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Akiyama, Eiji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Köonigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandt, Timothy D.; Feldt, Markus [Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study Princeton, NJ (United States); Goto, Miwa [Universitats-Sternwarte Munchen, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munchen (Germany); Grady, Carol A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    We present high-contrast H -band polarized intensity (PI) images of the transitional disk around the young solar-like star GM Aur. The near-infrared direct imaging of the disk was derived by polarimetric differential imaging using the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope and HiCIAO. An angular resolution and an inner working angle of 0.″07 and r ∼ 0.″05, respectively, were obtained. We clearly resolved a large inner cavity, with a measured radius of 18 ± 2 au, which is smaller than that of a submillimeter interferometric image (28 au). This discrepancy in the cavity radii at near-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths may be caused by a 3–4 M {sub Jup} planet about 20 au away from the star, near the edge of the cavity. The presence of a near-infrared inner cavity is a strong constraint on hypotheses for inner cavity formation in a transitional disk. A dust filtration mechanism has been proposed to explain the large cavity in the submillimeter image, but our results suggest that this mechanism must be combined with an additional process. We found that the PI slope of the outer disk is significantly different from the intensity slope obtained from HST /NICMOS, and this difference may indicate the grain growth process in the disk.

  13. A Resolved Near-Infrared Image of the Inner Cavity in the GM Aur Transitional Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Daehyeon; Hashimoto, Jun; Carson, Joseph C.; Janson, Markus; Kwon, Jungmi; Nakagawa, Takao; Mayama, Satoshi; Uyama, Taichi; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    We present high-contrast H-band polarized intensity (PI) images of the transitional disk around the young solar like star GM Aur. The near-infrared direct imaging of the disk was derived by polarimetric differential imaging using the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope and HiCIAO. An angular resolution and an inner working angle of 0 07 and radius approximately 0 05, respectively, were obtained. We clearly resolved a large inner cavity, with a measured radius of 18+/ 2 au, which is smaller than that of a submillimeter interferometric image (28 au). This discrepancy in the cavity radii at near-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths may be caused by a 34M(sub Jup) planet about 20 au away from the star, near the edge of the cavity. The presence of a near-infrared inner cavity is a strong constraint on hypotheses for inner cavity formation in a transitional disk. A dust filtration mechanism has been proposed to explain the large cavity in the submillimeter image, but our results suggest that this mechanism must be combined with an additional process. We found that the PI slope of the outer disk is significantly different from the intensity slope obtained from HSTNICMOS, and this difference may indicate the grain growth process in the disk.

  14. High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of an Equivalent Width-Selected Sample of Starbursting Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; VanDerWeL, Arjen; DaChuna, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Pacafichi, Camilla; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Franx, Marijn; VanDokkum, Pieter; Bell, Eric F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations from the Large Binocular Telescope and the Very Large Telescope reveal kinematically narrow lines (approx. 50 km/s) for a sample of 14 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs) at redshifts 1.4 < zeta < 2.3. These measurements imply that the total dynamical masses of these systems are low ( 3 × 10(exp 9) M). Their large [O III]5007 equivalent widths (500 - 1100 A) and faint blue continuum emission imply young ages of 10-100 Myr and stellar masses of 10(exp 8)-10(exp 9) M, confirming the presence of a violent starburst. The stellar mass formed in this vigorous starburst phase thus represents a large fraction of the total (dynamical) mass, without a significantly massive underlying population of older stars. The occurrence of such intense events in shallow potentials strongly suggests that supernova-driven winds must be of critical importance in the subsequent evolution of these systems.

  15. Near-infrared SN Ia Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Arturo; Kirshner, Robert; Mandel, Kaisey; Challis, Peter; Friedman, Andrew; RAISIN Team

    2018-01-01

    Observations of SN Ia in the near infrared (NIR) are a promising way to construct an accurate cosmic expansion history to constrain the properties of dark energy. SN Ia are more nearly standard candles in NIR than in optical bands, while dust absorption is less of a problem at NIR wavelengths. This allows us to investigate the dark energy properties in a way that is less sensitive to systematic errors due to the variations in the intrinsic brightness of SN Ia or the properties of dust in their host galaxies. In this talk, I present preliminary results from our RAISIN 1 (HST GO-13046) and RAISIN 2 (HST GO-14216) programs with the Hubble Space Telescope, where we have constructed a Hubble diagram combining optical + NIR photometric data using a sample of low and high redshift SN Ia. I will discuss our current results, challenges, and the advantage of using optical + NIR data to derive accurate cosmic distances and improve knowledge of the dark energy equation of state. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-156854 and AST-1211196.

  16. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Büchel, Gabriel E.

    2016-08-03

    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce4+ in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9pmolcm-2 of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the invivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Discriminating oat and groat kernels from other grains using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oat and groats can be discriminated from other grains such as barley, wheat, rye, and triticale (non-oats) using near infrared spectroscopy. The two instruments tested were the manual version of the ARS-USDA Single Kernel Near Infrared (SKNIR) and the automated QualySense QSorter Explorer high-speed...

  18. Visible and Near Infrared Fluorescence Spectral Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John P.; Condello, Danilo; Duggan, Erika; Naivar, Mark; Novo, David

    2013-01-01

    There is a long standing interest in measuring complete emission spectra from individual cells in flow cytometry. We have developed flow cytometry instruments and analysis approaches to enable this to be done routinely and robustly. Our spectral flow cytometers use a holographic grating to disperse light from single cells onto a CCD for high speed, wavelength-resolved detection. Customized software allows the single cell spectral data to be displayed and analyzed to produce new spectra-derived parameters. We show that familiar reference and calibration beads can be employed to quantitatively assess instrument performance. We use microspheres stained with six different quantum dots to compare a virtual bandpass filter approach with classic least squares (CLS) spectral unmixing, and then use antibody capture beads and CLS unmixing to demonstrate immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells using spectral flow cytometry. Finally, we characterize and evaluate several near infrared (NIR) emitting fluorophores for use in spectral flow cytometry. Spectral flow cytometry offers a number of attractive features for single cell analysis, including a simplified optical path, high spectral resolution, and streamlined approaches to quantitative multiparameter measurements. The availability of robust instrumentation, software, and analysis approaches will facilitate the development of spectral flow cytometry applications. PMID:23225549

  19. PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES−NEAR INFRARED SPECTROMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prediction (RMSEP) = 0.06 for ethanol and R2 = 0.929 and RMSEP = 0.08 for methanol, respectively. The percentage ... KEY WORDS: Distilled alcoholic beverages, Ethanol, Methanol, Near infrared spectrophotometry, Partial least ..... Mendes, L.S.; Oliveira, F.C.C.; Suarez, P.A.Z.; Rubim, J.C. Determination of ethanol in fuel.

  20. Near infrared face recognition: A literature survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, Sajad; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, U. U.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-17 ISSN 1574-0137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Literature survey * Biometrics * Face recognition * Near infrared * Illumination invariant Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0461834.pdf

  1. LED-based near infrared sensor for cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Ageev, Vladimir; Zabarylo, Urszula; Usenov, Iskander; Schulte, Franziska; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Belikova, Valeria; Minet, Olaf; Feliksberger, E.; Meshkovsky, I.; Artyushenko, Viacheslav

    2016-03-01

    Optical spectroscopic technologies are increasingly used for cancer diagnostics. Feasibility of differentiation between malignant and healthy samples of human kidney using Fluorescence, Raman, MIR and NIR spectroscopy has been recently reported . In the present work, a simplification of NIR spectroscopy method has been studied. Traditional high-resolution NIR spectrometry was replaced by an optical sensor based on a set of light-emitting diodes at selected wavelengths as light sources and a photodiode. Two prototypes of the sensor have been developed and tested using 14 in-vitro samples of seven kidney tumor patients. Statistical evaluation of results using principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis has been performed. Despite only partial discrimination between tumor and healthy tissue achieved by the presented new technique, the results evidence benefits of LED-based near-infrared sensing used for oncological diagnostics. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 4 March, 2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 7 April, 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  2. Using Ordinary Digital Cameras in Place of Near-Infrared Sensors to Derive Vegetation Indices for Phenology Studies of High Arctic Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To remotely monitor vegetation at temporal and spatial resolutions unobtainable with satellite-based systems, near remote sensing systems must be employed. To this extent we used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI sensors and normal digital cameras to monitor the greenness of six different but common and widespread High Arctic plant species/groups (graminoid/Salix polaris; Cassiope tetragona; Luzula spp.; Dryas octopetala/S. polaris; C. tetragona/D. octopetala; graminoid/bryophyte during an entire growing season in central Svalbard. Of the three greenness indices (2G_RBi, Channel G% and GRVI derived from digital camera images, only GRVI showed significant correlations with NDVI in all vegetation types. The GRVI (Green-Red Vegetation Index is calculated as (GDN − RDN/(GDN + RDN where GDN is Green digital number and RDN is Red digital number. Both NDVI and GRVI successfully recorded timings of the green-up and plant growth periods and senescence in all six plant species/groups. Some differences in phenology between plant species/groups occurred: the mid-season growing period reached a sharp peak in NDVI and GRVI values where graminoids were present, but a prolonged period of higher values occurred with the other plant species/groups. In particular, plots containing C. tetragona experienced increased NDVI and GRVI values towards the end of the season. NDVI measured with active and passive sensors were strongly correlated (r > 0.70 for the same plant species/groups. Although NDVI recorded by the active sensor was consistently lower than that of the passive sensor for the same plant species/groups, differences were small and likely due to the differing light sources used. Thus, it is evident that GRVI and NDVI measured with active and passive sensors captured similar vegetation attributes of High Arctic plants. Hence, inexpensive digital cameras can be used with passive and active NDVI devices to establish a near remote sensing network for

  3. Near-Infrared Fluorescent Nanoprobes for in Vivo Optical Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai-Hoon Quek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared (NIR fluorescent probes offer advantages of high photon penetration, reduced light scattering and minimal autofluorescence from living tissues, rendering them valuable for noninvasive mapping of molecular events, assessment of therapeutic efficacy, and monitoring of disease progression in animal models. This review provides an overview of the recent development of the design and optical property of the different classes of NIR fluorescent nanoprobes associated with in vivo imaging applications.

  4. Near-Infrared Fluorescent Nanoprobes for in Vivo Optical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Chai-Hoon; Leong, Kam W.

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes offer advantages of high photon penetration, reduced light scattering and minimal autofluorescence from living tissues, rendering them valuable for noninvasive mapping of molecular events, assessment of therapeutic efficacy, and monitoring of disease progression in animal models. This review provides an overview of the recent development of the design and optical property of the different classes of NIR fluorescent nanoprobes associated with in vivo imaging applications. PMID:28348298

  5. Hybrid Nanoclusters for Near-Infrared to Near-Infrared Upconverted Persistent Luminescence Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaochen; Zhu, Xingjun; Xu, Ming; Yuan, Wei; Feng, Wei; Li, Fuyou

    2017-09-27

    Persistent luminescence (PL) bioimaging provides an optimal method of eliminating autofluorescence for a higher resolution and sensitivity because of the absence of excitation light. However, ultraviolet light is still necessary in common energy charging processes, which limits its reactivation in vivo because of its low penetration depth. In the present study, we introduce a type of hybrid nanocluster (UCPL-NC) composed of upconversion nanoparticles, β-NaYbF4:Tm@NaYF4, and persistent nanoparticles, Zn1.1Ga1.8Ge0.1O4:0.5%Cr, which can be activated by a 980 nm laser and exhibits an afterglow at 700 nm to realize near-infrared (NIR) to NIR UCPL bioimaging. The PL of the UCPL-NCs can be reactivated even when covered with a 10 mm pork. We demonstrate that these polyethylene glycol-modified phospholipid-functionalized UCPL-NCs can be reactivated in vivo and applied in the PL lymphatic imaging on small animals.

  6. Investigations of near infrared reflective behaviour of TiO2 nanopowders synthesized by arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Kennedy, John; Carder, Damian; Futter, John; Rubanov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowders with different polymorphic phases were successfully synthesized by an arc discharge method. Samples were characterized using synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscope and near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Spherical structures were obtained after arc discharge. A mixture of both anatase and rutile phases was discovered in TiO2 samples synthesized at an arc current of 50 A, showing a majority particle size of 34 nm with size distribution between 5 nm and 60 nm. Completed anatase to rutile phase transformation was observed when the arc current increased from 50 A to 74 A. The crystallite size of the TiO2 nanopowders was significant effected by the arc discharge current during synthesis. After the arc current increased from 74 A to 110 A, the majority particle size of the obtained TiO2 increased to 85 nm with a size distribution in the range between 50 nm and 1800 nm. Diffuse reflectance of the TiO2 nanopowders synthesized at different arc discharge currents was measured. Broadband near infrared reflection (800-950 nm) of up to 50% was observed for TiO2 nanopowders synthesized at an arc current of 74 A. It is considered that rutile phase together with an appropriate mean crystallite size of the TiO2 nanopowders synthesized at an arc current of 74 A contributes to the best near infrared reflectivity in this study. The developed TiO2 nanoppowders will be of immense use in NIR reflective pigment.

  7. Discrimination of mineral waters using near infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munćan Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite that water is one of the most studied materials today its dynamic properties are still not well understood. Water state in human organism is of high importance for normal healthy functioning of human body. Different kinds of water are usually classified according to its present solutes, and concentrations of these solutes, but though it is known that water molecules can form clusters around present solutes, classification of waters based on types of water molecular organization and present clusters is not present in current literature. In this study we used multivariate analysis for classification of commercial mineral waters based on their near infrared spectra (NIR. Further, we applied Aquaphotomics, a new approach for interpretation of near infrared spectra of water, which gives insight into organization of water molecules in each of these waters.

  8. Near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic cancer detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and cancerous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  9. Multiphoton microscopy with near infrared contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Joo, Chulmin; Zhan, Chun; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Akers, Walter J.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    While multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been performed with a wide range of excitation wavelengths, fluorescence emission has been limited to the visible spectrum. We introduce a paradigm for MPM of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecular probes via nonlinear excitation at 1550 nm. This all-NIR system expands the range of available MPM fluorophores, virtually eliminates background autofluorescence, and allows for use of fiber-based, turnkey ultrafast lasers developed for telecommunications.

  10. Carbon nanotubes as near infrared laser susceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrami, Amir

    2011-01-01

    The coupling efficiency of carbon nanotubes with near infrared laser radiation at 940nm wavelength was investigated. Nanotubes treated with different post processing methods were irradiated at different laser power intensities as dry samples and suspensions in water or ethanol. The interaction with the laser beam was measured and quantified based on the temperature increase in the samples as well as the amount of energy transmitted through them. Parallel experiments using carbon black reveale...

  11. [Near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Yasuo

    2012-07-01

    The practical electric light bulb was invented by Thomas Alva Edison in 1879. Halogen lamp is the toughest and brightest electric light bulb. With light filter, it is used as a source of near infrared light. Super Lizer and Alphabeam are made as near infrared light irradiator using halogen lamp. The light emmited by Super Lizer is linear polarized near infrared light. The wave length is from 600 to 1,600 nm and strongest at about 1,000 nm. Concerning Super Lizer, there is evidence of analgesic effects and normalization of the sympathetic nervous system. Super Lizer has four types of probes. SG type is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. B type is used for narrow area irradiation. C and D types are for broad area irradiation. The output of Alphabeam is not polarized. The wave length is from 700 to 1,600 nm and the strongest length is about 1,000nm. Standard attachment is used for spot irradiation. Small attachment is used for stellate ganglion irradiation. Wide attachment is used for broad area irradiation. The effects of Alphabeam are thought to be similar to that of Super Lizer.

  12. Plasmon-Waveguide Resonances with Enhanced Figure of Merit and Their Potential for Anisotropic Biosensing in the Near Infrared Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Mahajna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The TM and TE guided modes in the coupled plasmon-waveguide resonance configuration are investigated in the spectral domain. Here we use the modes dispersion to study their capability for sensing in the near infrared region. It is shown that the spectral widths of the guided modes are, at least, one order of magnitude smaller than the conventional surface plasmon resonance counterpart. The enhanced sensitivity and figure of merit of the guided modes reveal their potential for sensing in the spectral interrogation method where the traditional configurations are inherently limited. Moreover, the high resolution associated with the narrow resonances and the polarization dependence make these modes very promising for anisotropic biosensing in the spectral interrogation approach. The extremely high figure of merit, large penetration depth, and propagation distance in the near infrared region open the possibility of combining the plasmon-waveguide configuration with absorption spectroscopy techniques for molecular recognition.

  13. Near-Infrared Fluorescent Materials for Sensing of Biological Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Xiaojun Zhao

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF materials are promising labeling reagents for sensitive determination and imaging of biological targets. In the near-infrared region biological samples have low background fluorescence signals, providing high signal to noise ratio. Meanwhile, near-infrared radiation can penetrate into sample matrices deeply due to low light scattering. Thus, in vivo and in vitro imaging of biological samples can be achieved by employing the NIRF probes. To take full advantage of NIRF materials in the biological and biomedical field, one of the key issues is to develop intense and biocompatible NIRF probes. In this review, a number of NIRF materials are discussed including traditional NIRF dye molecules, newly developed NIRF quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes, as well as rare earth metal compounds. The use of some NIRF materials in various nanostructures is illustrated. The enhancement of NIRF using metal nanostructures is covered as well. The fluorescence mechanism and bioapplications of each type of the NIRF materials are discussed in details.

  14. Near-infrared sensitive photorefractive device using polymer dispersed liquid crystal and BSO:Ru hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren Chung; Marinova, Vera; Lin, Shiuan Huei; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Ken Yuh

    2014-06-01

    A near-infrared sensitive hybrid device, based on a Ru-doped BSO photorefractive substrate and polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) layer, is reported. It is found that the photoexcited charge carriers generated in the BSO:Ru substrate create an optically induced space charge field, sufficient to penetrate into the PDLC layer and to re-orient the LC molecules inside the droplets. Beam-coupling measurements at the Bragg regime are performed showing prospective amplification values and high spatial resolution. The proposed structure does not require indium tin oxide (ITO) contacts and alignment layers. Such a device allows all the processes to be controlled by light, thus opening further potential for real-time image processing at the near-infrared range.

  15. Near-infrared forest fire detection concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P J; O, N

    1993-09-20

    A system concept is described for a pushbroom airborne optical fire detection instrument operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. In the design concept, several detection modules are used simultaneously, each having a camera lens, beam splitter, spectral filters, silicon linear array, InGaAs linear array, and signal processing. Calculations indicate that dual-wavelength signal processing should allow cool (600 K) incipient fires as small as 0.1 m in extent to be identified against the expected background of diffuse and specular sunlight.

  16. Near-infrared receiver for advanced ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Richard A.; Farrell, Richard; Zhang, Yuhua; Roorda, Austin

    2010-02-01

    We will present research on the development of an optical receiver module with a wide frequency bandwidth and excellent response to near-infrared radiation. This module is being produced to promote new imaging modalities, allowing retinal specialist to utilize established diagnostic instruments, such as scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLO) in a unique or more effective manner. In particular, it can be applied towards more accurate visual threshold studies in both the healthy and diseased eye. With this goal in mind, measurements of the targeted receiver's performance with and without additional amplification are presented, as is a survey of available APD detectors.

  17. Near-infrared scintillation of liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T. [Fermilab; Escobar, C. O. [Campinas State U.; Lippincott, W. H. [Fermilab; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab

    2016-03-03

    Since the 1970s it has been known that noble gases scintillate in the near infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum (0.7 $\\mu$m < $\\lambda$; < 1.5$\\mu$m). More controversial has been the question of the NIR light yield for condensed noble gases. We first present the motivation for using the NIR scintillation in liquid argon detectors, then briefly review early as well as more recent efforts and finally show encouraging preliminary results of a test performed at Fermilab.

  18. Recent developments in near infrared instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Mosby

    2017-01-01

    The core questions that drive astronomy stem from an eagerness to understand the details of the universe and to learn our place within it. These questions range from the smallest scales: how are planets formed, how are stars formed? And they continue to the largest scales: how do galaxies form and how do they change with time? These questions can only be answered with the cutting edge instrumentation that has been developed over time to understand the universe from its light. Near infrared in...

  19. UV Written Integrated Optical Beam Combiner for Near Infrared Astronomical Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Olivero, Massimo; Jocou, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    A near infrared integrated optical beam combiner for astronomical interferometry is demonstrated for the first time by direct UV writing. High fringe contrast >95%, low total loss (0.7 dB), low crosstalk and broadband performance is demonstrated....

  20. Potential of a newly developed high-speed near-infrared (NIR) camera (Compovision) in polymer industrial analyses: monitoring crystallinity and crystal evolution of polylactic acid (PLA) and concentration of PLA in PLA/Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daitaro; Nishii, Takashi; Mizuno, Fumiaki; Sato, Harumi; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate a new high-speed hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) camera named Compovision. Quantitative analyses of the crystallinity and crystal evolution of biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA), and its concentration in PLA/poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) blends were investigated using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. This NIR camera can measure two-dimensional NIR spectral data in the 1000-2350 nm region obtaining images with wide field of view of 150 × 250 mm(2) (approximately 100  000 pixels) at high speeds (in less than 5 s). PLA with differing crystallinities between 0 and 50% blended samples with PHB in ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, and pure films of 100% PLA and PHB were prepared. Compovision was used to collect respective NIR spectra in the 1000-2350 nm region and investigate the crystallinity of PLA and its concentration in the blends. The partial least squares (PLS) regression models for the crystallinity of PLA were developed using absorbance, second derivative, and standard normal variate (SNV) spectra from the most informative region of the spectra, between 1600 and 2000 nm. The predicted results of PLS models achieved using the absorbance and second derivative spectra were fairly good with a root mean square error (RMSE) of less than 6.1% and a determination of coefficient (R(2)) of more than 0.88 for PLS factor 1. The results obtained using the SNV spectra yielded the best prediction with the smallest RMSE of 2.93% and the highest R(2) of 0.976. Moreover, PLS models developed for estimating the concentration of PLA in the blend polymers using SNV spectra gave good predicted results where the RMSE was 4.94% and R(2) was 0.98. The SNV-based models provided the best-predicted results, since it can reduce the effects of the spectral changes induced by the inhomogeneity and the thickness of the samples. Wide area crystal evolution of PLA on a plate where a temperature slope of 70-105 °C had occurred was also

  1. High-precision molecular interrogation by direct referencing of a quantum-cascade-laser to a near-infrared frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, D; Gambetta, A; Castrillo, A; Galzerano, G; Laporta, P; Gianfrani, L; Marangoni, M

    2011-08-29

    This work presents a very simple yet effective way to obtain direct referencing of a quantum-cascade-laser at 4.3 μm to a near-IR frequency-comb. Precise tuning of the comb repetition-rate allows the quantum-cascade-laser to be scanned across absorption lines of a CO2 gaseous sample and line profiles to be acquired with extreme reproducibility and accuracy. By averaging over 50 acquisitions, line-centre frequencies are retrieved with an uncertainty of 30 kHz in a linear interaction regime. The extension of this methodology to other lines and molecules, by the use of widely tunable extended-cavity quantum-cascade-lasers, paves the way to a wide availability of high-quality and traceable spectroscopic data in the most crucial region for molecular detection and interrogation.

  2. High-sensitivity remote detection of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases at low ppm levels using near-infrared tunable diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Upadhyay, Abhishek; Chakraborty, Arup Lal

    2016-05-01

    The concentration of atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases needs to be precisely monitored for sustainable industrial development and to predict the climate shifts caused by global warming. Such measurements are made on a continuous basis in ecologically sensitive and urban areas in the advanced countries. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is the most versatile non-destructive technology currently available for remote measurements of multiple gases with very high selectivity (low cross-sensitivity), very high sensitivity (on the order of ppm and ppb) and under hazardous conditions. We demonstrate absolute measurements of acetylene, methane and carbon dioxide using a fielddeployable fully automated TDLS system that uses calibration-free 2f wavelength modulation spectroscopy (2f WMS) techniques with sensitivities of low ppm levels. A 40 mW, 1531.52 nm distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser, a 10 mW, 1650 nm DFB laser and a 1 mW, 2004 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) are used in the experiments to probe the P9 transition of acetylene, R4 transition of methane and R16 transition of carbon dioxide respectively. Data acquisition and on-board analysis comprises a Raspberry Pi-based embedded system that is controllable over a wireless connection. Gas concentration and pressure are simultaneously extracted by fitting the experimental signals to 2f WMS signals simulated using spectroscopic parameters obtained from the HITRAN database. The lowest detected concentration is 11 ppm for acetylene, 275 ppm for methane and 285 ppm for carbon dioxide using a 28 cm long single-pass gas cell.

  3. DENSE OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED MONITORING OF CTA 102 DURING HIGH STATE IN 2012 WITH OISTER: DETECTION OF INTRA-NIGHT ''ORPHAN POLARIZED FLUX FLARE''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Abe, Yuhei [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Moritani, Yuki [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Arai, Akira [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Hayashi, Masahiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-2, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hori, Takafumi; Nakata, Chikako [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Isogai, Mizuki [Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-Ku, Kyoto-City 603-8555 (Japan); Izumiura, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Honjo 3037-5, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Miyanoshita, Ryo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nakamoto, Jumpei [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Oasa, Yumiko, E-mail: itoh@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Education, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura, Saitama, 338-8570 (Japan); and others

    2013-05-10

    CTA 102, classified as a flat spectrum radio quasar at z = 1.037, produced an exceptionally bright optical flare in 2012 September. Following the Fermi Large Area Telescope detection of enhanced {gamma}-ray activity, we closely monitored this source in the optical and near-infrared bands for the 10 subsequent nights using 12 telescopes in Japan and South Africa. On MJD 56197 (2012 September 27, four to five days after the peak of bright {gamma}-ray flare), polarized flux showed a transient increase, while total flux and polarization angle (PA) remained almost constant during the ''orphan polarized-flux flare.'' We also detected an intra-night and prominent flare on MJD 56202. The total and polarized fluxes showed quite similar temporal variations, but the PA again remained constant during the flare. Interestingly, the PAs during the two flares were significantly different from the jet direction. The emergence of a new emission component with a high polarization degree (PD) up to 40% would be responsible for the observed two flares, and such a high PD indicates the presence of a highly ordered magnetic field at the emission site. We argue that the well-ordered magnetic field and even the observed directions of the PA, which is grossly perpendicular to the jet, are reasonably accounted for by transverse shock(s) propagating down the jet.

  4. Energy Transfer Highway in Nd3+-Sensitized Nanoparticles for Efficient near-Infrared Bioimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong; Xue, Meng; Zhu, Xingjun; Yang, Pengyuan; Feng, Wei; Li, Fuyou

    2017-06-07

    Despite the large absorption cross-section of Nd3+ dopant as a sensitizer in lanthanide doped luminescence system, the strong cross-relaxation effect of it impedes the promotion of doping concentration and thus reduces the utilization of excitation light. In this work, we introduce a highly efficient acceptor, Yb3+ ion, which can quickly receive energy from Nd3+ ions, to construct an energy transfer highway for the enhancement of near-infrared emission. By using the energy transfer highway, the doping amount of Nd3+ ions in our NaYF4:Yb,Nd@CaF2 core/shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) can be markedly elevated to 60%. The quantum yield of CSNPs was determined to be 20.7%, which provides strong near-infrared luminescence for further bioimaging application. Remarkably, deep tissue penetration depth (∼10 mm) in in vitro imaging and high spatial resolution of blood vessel (∼0.19 mm) in in vivo imaging were detected clearly with weak autofluorescence, demonstrating that probes can be used as excellent NIR biosensors.

  5. Iron Pyrite/Titanium Dioxide Photoanode for Extended Near Infrared Light Harvesting in a Photoelectrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di-Yan; Li, Cheng-Hung; Li, Shao-Sian; Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Tsai, Chin-Ming; Chen, Tin-Reui; Wang, Ying-Chiao; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Chia-Chun

    2016-02-01

    The design of active and stable semiconducting composites with enhanced photoresponse from visible light to near infrared (NIR) is a key to improve solar energy harvesting for photolysis of water in photoelectrochemical cell. In this study, we prepared earth abundant semiconducting composites consisting of iron pyrite and Titanium oxide as a photoanode (FeS2/TiO2 photoanode) for photoelectrochemical applications. The detailed structure and atomic compositions of FeS2/TiO2 photoanode was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma with atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Raman spectroscopy. Through the proper sulfurization treatment, the FeS2/TiO2 photoanode exhibited high photoresponse from visible light extended to near infrared range (900 nm) as well as stable durability test for 4 hours. We found that the critical factors to enhance the photoresponse are on the elimination of surface defect of FeS2 and on the enhancement of interface charge transfer between FeS2 and TiO2. Our overall results open a route for the design of sulfur-based binary compounds for photoelectrochemical applications.

  6. Efficient Cryogenic Near-Infrared Tm: YLF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    Tunable CW lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88 and 2.35 µm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fiber,” Electron. Lett. 25(24), 1660-1662 (1989). 10. J. N...Girard, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorgé, “ Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm3+, Tb3+) and (Tm3+, Eu3+) doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5...1. Introduction The near-infrared ( NIR ) spectral region around 0.8 μm lacks efficient laser sources with highly scalable diffraction-limited

  7. Near-Infrared Detection of Super-Thin Disks of Massive Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechtman-Rook, Andrew; Bershady, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    In the Milky Way star formation preferentially occurs close to the galactic midplane, and can be represented by a super-thin disk with an exponential-like radial and vertical profile. Unfortunately, due to dust attenuation, it is not clear if other massive spiral galaxies also possess such disks. Indirect evidence for the presence of such a component comes from the spectral energy distribution of spirals, which contains more far-infrared flux (from dust re-emission) than can be accounted for by an extrapolation of the observed light profile to the midplane. These spectral energy distributions contain no spatial information, however, so the detailed structural parameters of a star-forming disk are not recoverable. We have undertaken a program of high-resolution near-infrared imaging of edge-on spiral galaxies, which, coupled with state-of-the-art radiation transfer models, allow us to strip away the effects of the dust and reveal the intrinsic light distribution all the way down to the midplane. We find that, in addition to thin and thick disks already known from deep optical observations of these galaxies, super-thin disks similar to the Milky Way's are necessary to accurately fit the attenuation-corrected near-infrared light distributions. We acknowledge support for this work from the National Science Foundation (AST-1009491).

  8. Recent Characterization of the Night-Sky Irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared Spectral Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolynn; Wood, Michael; Bender, Edward; Hart, Steve

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has made numerous characterizations of the night sky over the past 45 years. Up until the last four years, the measurement devices were highly detector-limited, which led to low spectral resolution, marginal sensitivity in no-moon conditions, and the need for inferential analysis of the resulting data. In 2014, however, the PhotoResearch Model PR-745 spectro-radiometer established a new state of the art for measurement of the integrated night-sky irradiance over the Visible-to-Near-Infrared (VNIR) spectral band (400-1050nm). This has enabled characterization of no-moon night-sky irradiance with a spectral bandwidth less than 15 nanometers, even when this irradiance is attenuated by heavy clouds or forest canopy. Since 2014, we have conducted a series of night-sky data collections at remote sites across the United States. The resulting data has provided new insights into natural radiance variations, cultural lighting impacts, and the spectrally-varying attenuation caused by cloud cover and forest canopy. Several new metrics have also been developed to provide insight into these newly-found components and temporal variations. The observations, findings and conclusions of the above efforts will be presented, including planned near-term efforts to further characterize the night-sky irradiance in the Visible/Near-Infrared spectral band.

  9. Theoretical design of near - infrared organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brymora, Katarzyna; Ducasse, Laurent; Dautel, Olivier; Lartigau-Dagron, Christine; Castet, FréDéRic

    The world follows the path of digital development faster than ever before. In consequence, the Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) market is growing as well and it requires some innovations. The goal of our work is to achieve an organic Infra-Red (IR) photodetectors hitting the performance requirements for HMI applications. The quantum chemical calculations are used to guide the synthesis and technology development. In this work, in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), we consider a large variety of materials exploring small donor-acceptor-donor molecules and copolymers alternating donor and acceptor monomers. We provide a structure-property relationship in view of designing new Near-Infrared (NIR) absorbing organic molecules and polymers.

  10. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Systems for Tissue Oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl

    for other medical applications. The tissue oximeters are realised by incorporation of pn-diodes into the silicon in order to form arrays of infrared detectors. These arrays can then be used for spatially resolved spectroscopy measurements, with the targeted end user being prematurely born infant children......We present exible silicon device platforms, which combine polyimide with polydimethylsiloxane in order to add flexibility and biocompatibility to the silicon devices. The device platforms are intended as tissue oximeters, using near infrared spectroscopy, but could potentially also be used...... of aluminium oxide, as passivation on the detectors, the reverse bias current could be reduced by 30 % for small devices. Quantum efficiencies of 80- 85 % were measured for the best detectors. By using black silicon nanostructures, the reflectance from the detector surfaces could be reduced for all angles...

  11. [Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shaoqin; Mao, Hua

    2014-03-01

    To establish a method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. A rapid near-infrared Raman system was used to examine the tissue specimens of pathologically confirmed gastric cancer (33 cases), gastric precancerous lesions (27 cases), and normal gastric mucosa (45 cases). All the specimens were obtained from 105 patients undergoing gastrectomy or endoscopic biopsy of suspected gastric lesions. High-quality Raman spectra ranging from 700 to 1800 cm(-1) were acquired from the gastric tissues within 5 s. The distribution pattern of Raman spectra in gastric cancer differed significantly from those of gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the spectral ranges of 853 cm(-1), 936 cm(-1), 1003 cm(-1), 1032 cm(-1), 1174 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1323 cm(-1), 1335 cm(-1), 1450 cm(-1), and 1655 cm(-1), which contained signals related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. The diagnostic decision algorithm based on the Raman peak intensity ratios of I1003/ I1337, I1003/I1445, I1003/I1655, and I1156/I1655 yielded remarkable differences in gastric cancer from gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, and the ratios were significantly higher in normal gastric tissues (Pinfrared Raman spectroscopy using PCA-LDA algorithms associated with leave- one-out and cross-validation method showed diagnostic sensitivities of 81.5%, 85.3%, and 100%, and specificities of 86.4%, 100%, and 97.4% for normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesions and gastric cancer, respectively. near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with intensity ratio algorithms shows the potential for noninvasive diagnosis and detection of gastric malignancy at the molecular level.

  12. The Formation of Massive Stars: from Herschel to Near-Infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Persi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a number of selected high mass star forming regions, including high resolution near-infrared broad- and narrow-band imaging, Herschel (70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm and Spitzer (3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 m images. The preliminary results of one of this region, IRAS 19388+2357(MOL110 are discussed. In this region a dense core has been detected in the far-infrared, and a young stellar cluster has been found around this core. Combining near-IR data with Spitzer and Herschel photometry we have derived the spectral energy distribution of Mol110. Finally comparing our H2 and Kc narrow-band images, we have found an H2 jet in this region.

  13. The Kepler and K2 Near-Infrared Transit Survey (KNITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Knicole; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Barentsen, Geert; Cardoso, Jose Vinicius de Miranda; Vanderburg, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Kepler mission discovered a plethora of transiting exoplanets after observing a single region of the Galaxy for four years. After a second reaction wheel failed, NASA's Kepler spacecraft was repurposed as K2 to observe different fields along the ecliptic in ~80 day campaigns. To date, K2 has discovered ~130 exoplanets along with another ~400 candidates. The exoplanets that have been confirmed or validated from Kepler and K2 have been primarily subject to spectroscopic observations, high-resolution imaging, or statistical methods. However, most of these, along with all the remaining candidate exoplanets, have had no follow-up transit photometry. In addition, recent studies have shown that for single-planet systems, statistical validation alone can be unreliable and additional follow-up observations are required to reveal the true nature of the system. I will present the latest results from an ongoing program to use the 3.5-meter WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory for near-infrared transit photometry of Kepler and K2 exoplanets and candidates. Our program of high-precision, high-cadence, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared transit photometry is providing new measurements of the transit ephemerides and planetary radii as well as weeding out false positives lurking within the candidate lists. To date, 25 K2 and 5 Kepler targets have been observed with WIYN. I will also describe upcoming observations with WIYN that will take place in January 2018 as part of a campaign to observe exoplanet transits in the near-infrared simultaneously with the Kepler spacecraft during K2 Campaign 16. Our program ultimately provides a vetted sample of exoplanets that could be targeted in the future by NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and also demonstrates WIYN’s capabilities for observations of exoplanets to be discovered by NASA's all-sky Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS).Data presented herein were obtained at the WIYN Observatory from

  14. Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Institute of Microelectronics (IME), 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee [Institute of Microelectronics (IME), 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Lee, Chengkuo, E-mail: elelc@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-05-19

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300 nm, the spectral shift of 0.7 μm in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1 μm. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

  15. Single Pixel Black Phosphorus Photodetector for Near-Infrared Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jinshui; Song, Bo; Xu, Zhihao; Cai, Le; Zhang, Suoming; Dong, Lixin; Wang, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Infrared imaging systems have wide range of military or civil applications and 2D nanomaterials have recently emerged as potential sensing materials that may outperform conventional ones such as HgCdTe, InGaAs, and InSb. As an example, 2D black phosphorus (BP) thin film has a thickness-dependent direct bandgap with low shot noise and noncryogenic operation for visible to mid-infrared photodetection. In this paper, the use of a single-pixel photodetector made with few-layer BP thin film for near-infrared imaging applications is demonstrated. The imaging is achieved by combining the photodetector with a digital micromirror device to encode and subsequently reconstruct the image based on compressive sensing algorithm. Stationary images of a near-infrared laser spot (λ = 830 nm) with up to 64 × 64 pixels are captured using this single-pixel BP camera with 2000 times of measurements, which is only half of the total number of pixels. The imaging platform demonstrated in this work circumvents the grand challenges of scalable BP material growth for photodetector array fabrication and shows the efficacy of utilizing the outstanding performance of BP photodetector for future high-speed infrared camera applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. AKARI/IRC NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRAL ATLAS OF GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Ryou [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuura, Mikako [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, 5 The Parade, Roath, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Kaneda, Hidehiro, E-mail: ohsawa@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Near-infrared (2.5–5.0 μm) low-resolution (λ/Δλ ∼ 100) spectra of 72 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) were obtained with the Infrared Camera (IRC) in the post-helium phase. The IRC, equipped with a 1′ × 1′ window for spectroscopy of a point source, was capable of obtaining near-infrared spectra in a slit-less mode without any flux loss due to a slit. The spectra show emission features including hydrogen recombination lines and the 3.3–3.5 μm hydrocarbon features. The intensity and equivalent width of the emission features were measured by spectral fitting. We made a catalog providing unique information on the investigation of the near-infrared emission of PNe. In this paper, details of the observations and characteristics of the catalog are described.

  17. Analysis of brook trout spatial behavior during passage attempts in corrugated culverts using near-infrared illumination video imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Normand E.; Constantin, Pierre-Marc; Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    We used video recording and near-infrared illumination to document the spatial behavior of brook trout of various sizes attempting to pass corrugated culverts under different hydraulic conditions. Semi-automated image analysis was used to digitize fish position at high temporal resolution inside the culvert, which allowed calculation of various spatial behavior metrics, including instantaneous ground and swimming speed, path complexity, distance from side walls, velocity preference ratio (mean velocity at fish lateral position/mean crosssectional velocity) as well as number and duration of stops in forward progression. The presentation summarizes the main results and discusses how they could be used to improve fish passage performance in culverts.

  18. Design of a portable imager for near-infrared visualization of cutaneous wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhaoqiang; Zhou, Jun; Dacy, Ashley; Zhao, Deyin; Kearney, Vasant; Zhou, Weidong; Tang, Liping; Hu, Wenjing

    2017-01-01

    A portable imager developed for real-time imaging of cutaneous wounds in research settings is described. The imager consists of a high-resolution near-infrared CCD camera capable of detecting both bioluminescence and fluorescence illuminated by an LED ring with a rotatable filter wheel. All external components are integrated into a compact camera attachment. The device is demonstrated to have competitive performance with a commercial animal imaging enclosure box setup in beam uniformity and sensitivity. Specifically, the device was used to visualize the bioluminescence associated with increased reactive oxygen species activity during the wound healing process in a cutaneous wound inflammation model. In addition, this device was employed to observe the fluorescence associated with the activity of matrix metalloproteinases in a mouse lipopolysaccharide-induced infection model. Our results support the use of the portable imager design as a noninvasive and real-time imaging tool to assess the extent of wound inflammation and infection.

  19. Near-infrared brightening of BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnerero, M. I.; Gonzalez, A. I.; Pulido, J. A. Acosta; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.

    2012-07-01

    Near-infrared observations at the Teide Observatory, in the framework of the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) confirm a rapid brightening of BL Lacertae, as reported by ATel#4271. Here we report on four observations obtained at the Carlos Sanchez Telescope in a week period, according to which the source has increased its brightness by 0.7 mag. On 2012 July 20.14 the source was observed at J=11.25 +/-0.01 (H=10.27+/-0.01 and Ks=9.46+/-0.01), on July 21.15 at J=11.00+/-0.02 (H=10.02+/-0.02, Ks=9.21+/-0,02), on July 24.98 at J=10.72+/-0.01 (H=9.76+/-0.01, Ks=8.94+/-0.01), and on July 26.12 at J=10.57+/-0.01 (H=9.58+/-0.01, Ks=8.77+/-0.01).

  20. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  1. Taxonomic Classification of Asteroids via Broadband Near-Infrared Photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Eric; Thomas, C.; Trilling, D.; Emery, J.; Delbo, M.; Mueller, M.; Dave, R.

    2010-01-01

    For faint asteroids, it is not practical to obtain near-infrared spectra. However, it may be possible to use broadband photometry to infer spectral classifications and study composition. As a test of this, we processed SpeX near-infrared asteroid spectral data to simulate colors that would be

  2. Prediction of pork quality attributes from near infrared reflectance spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, G.H.; Schreutelkamp, F.H.; Frankhuizen, R.; Vedder, H.W.; Faber, N.M.; Kranen, R.W.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is one of the most promising techniques for large-scale meat quality evaluation. We investigated the potential of NIRS-based models to predict drip loss and shear force of pork samples. Near infrared reflectance spectra (1000¿2500 nm), water-holding capacity, shear

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy during peripheral vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, J P; Schroeder, T V; Vogt, K C

    1997-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy was performed perioperatively on the dorsum of the foot in 14 patients who underwent infrainguinal bypass surgery using a prosthesis or the greater saphenous vein. Dual-wavelength continuous light spectroscopy was used to assess changes in tissue saturation before, during...... that near-infrared spectroscopy is appropriate for perioperative monitoring during vascular grafting....

  4. [Application and prospect of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in forage analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiu-Zhen; Guo, Hong-Ru; Jia, Yu-Shan; Ge, Gen-Tu; Wang, Kun

    2009-03-01

    Forage was the material basis of animal husbandry production, and its quality is directly related to the quality of animal products. It was very important to control the forage quality and detect the composition of forage raw materials in forage production. Predication of forage quality was often completed by the traditional and classical methods in the past, which were complex, time consuming and expensive, and could not acquire the nutritional value of forage timely. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was a highly efficient and rapid modern analysis technique developed in 1970's. It comprehensively applied the latest research results of computer technique, spectroscopy and chemometrics, and has been widely used in various fields owing to its unique advantages such as being timely, less expensive, non-destructive, and so on. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has gained more and more importance though its application to forage analysis was very late. Presently, not only conventional composition (such as moisture, dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, crude ash neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, etc.), but also non-conventional composition (including minerals, trace elements, enzyme and anti-nutritional factors etc. ) and anti-nutritional factors in forage were determined by means of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Testing and analyzing the conventional composition in forage was the traditional applied field of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, a lot of studies of which were done and it has already been one of the standard methods of testing the conventional composition. Forage bioavaibility was also evaluated by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, so as to assess the utilization rate and nutritional value of forage. Moreover, near infrared spectroscopy could be used successfully to predict the botanical composition in grassland and leaf/stem ratios. Near infrared spectroscopy technique and its application and

  5. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  6. NEAR-INFRARED THERMAL EMISSION DETECTIONS OF A NUMBER OF HOT JUPITERS AND THE SYSTEMATICS OF GROUND-BASED NEAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croll, Bryce [5525 Olund Road, Abbotsford, B.C. (Canada); Albert, Loic; Lafreniere, David [Département de physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON L3T 3R1 (Canada); Cushing, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Moutou, Claire [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Johnson, John Asher [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden St, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bonomo, Aldo S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Deleuil, Magali [Aix Marseille University, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Fortney, Jonathan, E-mail: croll@space.mit.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary eclipse detections of the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and Qatar-1b and the brown dwarf KELT-1b. We also report Y-band, K {sub CONT}-band, and two new and one reanalyzed Ks-band detections of the thermal emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. We present a new reduction pipeline for CFHT/WIRCam data, which is optimized for high precision photometry. We also describe novel techniques for constraining systematic errors in ground-based near-infrared photometry, so as to return reliable secondary eclipse depths and uncertainties. We discuss the noise properties of our ground-based photometry for wavelengths spanning the near-infrared (the YJHK bands), for faint and bright stars, and for the same object on several occasions. For the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and WASP-12b we demonstrate the repeatability of our eclipse depth measurements in the Ks band; we therefore place stringent limits on the systematics of ground-based, near-infrared photometry, and also rule out violent weather changes in the deep, high pressure atmospheres of these two hot Jupiters at the epochs of our observations.

  7. Near-infrared imaging of demineralization under sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Henry; Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and transillumination imaging can be used to acquire high contrast images of early caries lesions and composite restorative materials. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum NIR wavelengths for imaging demineralized areas under dental sealants. Fifteen natural human premolars and molars with occlusal lesions were used in this in vitro study. Images before and after application of sealants were acquired using NIR reflectance and NIR transillumination at wavelengths of 1300, 1460, and 1500 to 1700 nm. Images were also acquired using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) for comparison. The highest contrast for NIR reflectance was at 1460 nm and 1500 to 1700 nm. These NIR wavelengths are coincident with higher water absorption. The clear Delton sealant investigated was not visible in either copolarization or cross-polarization OCT images. The wavelength region between 1500 and 1700 nm yielded the highest contrast of lesions under sealants for NIR reflectance measurements.

  8. Diverse Near-Infrared Resonant Gold Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-12-08

    The ability of near-infrared (NIR) light to penetrate tissues deeply and to target malignant sites with high specificity via precise temporal and spatial control of light illumination makes it useful for diagnosing and treating diseases. Owing to their unique biocompatibility, surface chemistry and optical properties, gold nanostructures offer advantages as in vivo NIR photosensitizers. This chapter describes the recent progress in the varied use of NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for NIR-light-mediated diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We begin by describing the unique biological, chemical and physical properties of gold nanostructures that make them excellent candidates for biomedical applications. From here, we make an account of the basic principles involved in the diagnostic and therapeutic applications where gold nanostructures have set foot. Finally, we review recent developments in the fabrication and use of diverse NIR-resonant gold nanostructures for cancer imaging and cancer therapy.

  9. Biomedical imaging of colorectal cancer by near infrared fluorescent nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivony, Ran; Larush, Liraz; Sela-Tavor, Osnat; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we describe the preparation of novel Near Infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles for application in medical imaging of colorectal tumors. The nanoparticles are prepared by using only non-covalent binding processes of molecules which are approved for clinical use. The preparation process is based on the precipitation of a polycation, Eudragit-RS, followed by sequential adsorption of a blocking protein, sodium caseinate, NIR fluorescent dye, Indocyanine Green (ICG) and optionally, a targeting molecule, anti-CEA antibody. Fluorescence measurements have shown that these nanoparticles have higher resistance to photobleaching and higher quantum yield relatively to free ICG. Imaging experiments in orthotopic colorectal cancer mice models have shown that these fluorescent nanoparticles are capable of binding to LS174T human colon tumors in vivo with high specificity, even without the targeting molecule. These nanoparticles, composed of all FDA approved materials, open the way to clinical bioimaging and diagnostics of colon cancer.

  10. A near-infrared magnetic aptasensor for Ochratoxin A based on near-infrared upconversion nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shaoliang; Wu, Shijia; Duan, Nuo; Wang, Zhouping

    2016-09-01

    A multiplexed, sensitive and specific detection method is highly desirable for the simultaneous detection of several pathogenic bacteria and bio-toxins. In our previous work, multicolor upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) via doping with various rare-earth ions to obtain well-separated emission peaks by means of a solvothermal method were synthesized and were successfully applied as luminescence labels in the detection of three pathogenic bacteria. One of the basic achievements of our group has been to establish that the key to increasing the number of simultaneous detection components is the preparation of more UCNPs, the emission peaks of which can be distinguished from each other. According to this vision, NaYF4:Yb0.2, Tm0.02 UCNPs were obtained via a thermal-decomposition protocol, which has a main near-infrared (NIR) UC emission at 804nm under 980nm excitation. The emission peak at 804nm was well-separated from the emission peaks of UCNPs we have reported at 477nm, 542nm, and 660nm. It means both the excitation and the emission of NaYF4:Yb0.2, Tm0.02 UCNPs are located in the NIR spectral range (NIR-to-NIR UC emission), the so-called biological window. This result establishes the basis of achieving simultaneous detection of four components. To confirm the analytical performance of this NaYF4:Yb0.2, Tm0.02 UCNPs, a novel near-infrared magnetic aptasensor for the detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) was developed using the OTA aptamer-conjugated near-infrared upconversion nanoparticles (apt-UCNPs) and the complementary oligonucleotide-modified magnetic nanoparticles (cDNA-MNPs). The apt-UCNPs and cDNA-MNPs were hybridized to form a poly-network structure of MNP-UCNP nanocomposites. When the target OTA was introduced, the aptamer combined with the priority target and the cDNA-MNPs were replaced. The proposed method achieved a linear range between 0.01 and 100ngmL(-1), with a detection limit as low as 0.005ngmL(-1). Then, we successfully applied this method to measure

  11. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging for forensic analysis of document forgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Honorato, Ricardo S; Pasquini, Celio; Prats-Montalbán, José M; Ferrer, Alberto

    2014-10-21

    Hyperspectral images in the near infrared range (HSI-NIR) were evaluated as a nondestructive method to detect fraud in documents. Three different types of typical forgeries were simulated by (a) obliterating text, (b) adding text and (c) approaching the crossing lines problem. The simulated samples were imaged in the range of 928-2524 nm with spectral and spatial resolutions of 6.3 nm and 10 μm, respectively. After data pre-processing, different chemometric techniques were evaluated for each type of forgery. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to elucidate the first two types of adulteration, (a) and (b). Moreover, Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) was used in an attempt to improve the results of the type (a) obliteration and type (b) adding text problems. Finally, MCR-ALS and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), employed as a variable selection tool, were used to study the type (c) forgeries, i.e. crossing lines problem. Type (a) forgeries (obliterating text) were successfully identified in 43% of the samples using both the chemometric methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Type (b) forgeries (adding text) were successfully identified in 82% of the samples using both the methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Finally, type (c) forgeries (crossing lines) were successfully identified in 85% of the samples. The results demonstrate the potential of HSI-NIR associated with chemometric tools to support document forgery identification.

  12. Near-Infrared Grating Spectrometer for Mobile Phone Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pügner, Tino; Knobbe, Jens; Grüger, Heinrich

    2016-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for the chemical analysis of organic and inorganic matter. Accordingly, spectroscopic instrumentation of different complexity has been developed and is currently commercially available. However, there are an increasing number of new mobile applications that have come into focus and that cannot be addressed by the existing technology due to size and cost. Therefore, a new miniaturized scanning grating spectrometer for NIR spectroscopy has been developed at Fraunhofer IPMS. It is based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, and has been designed to meet the requirements for mobile application, regarding spectral range, resolution, overall size, robustness, and cost. The MEMS spectrometer covers a spectral range from 950 nm to 1900 nm at a resolution of 10 nm. The instrument is extremely small and has a volume of only 2.1 cm(3) Therefore, it is well suited for integration, even into a mobile phone. A first sample of the new spectrometer has been manufactured and put into operation. The results of a series of test measurements are in good agreement with the requirements and specifications. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Multi-Wavelength Near Infrared Observations of Marum and Yasur Volcanoes, Vanuatu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert R.; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2014-11-01

    To help understand and test models of thermal emission from planetary volcanoes, we obtained in May 2014 a variety of near-infrared observations of the very active Marum lava lake on Ambrym, Vanuatu, as well as the Strombolian activity at Yasur on Tanna. Our observations include high resolution images and movies made with standard and modified cameras and camcorders. In addition, to test the planetary emission models, which typically rely on multi-wavelength observations, we developed a small inexpensive prototype imager named "Kerby", which consists of three simultaneously active near-infrared cameras operating at 0.860, 0.775, and 0.675 microns, as well as a fourth visible wavelength RGB camera. This prototype is based on the Raspberry Pi and Pi-NoIR cameras. It can record full high definition video, and is light enough to be carried by backpack and run from batteries. To date we have concentrated on the analysis of the Marum data. During our observations of the 40 m diameter lava lake, convection was so vigorous that areas of thin crust formed only intermittently and persisted for tens of seconds to a few minutes at most. The convection pattern primarily consisted of two upwelling centers located about 8 m in from the margins on opposite sides of the lake. Horizontal velocities away from the upwelling centers were approximately 4 m/s. A hot bright margin roughly 0.4 m wide frequently formed around parts of the lake perimeter. We are in the process of establishing the absolute photometry calibration to obtain temperatures, temperature distributions, and magma cooling rates.

  14. Near-infrared emission spectrometry based on an acousto-optical tunable filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Pasquini, Celio

    2005-02-15

    A spectrometer has been constructed to detect the radiation emitted by thermally excited samples in the near-infrared spectral region extending from 1500 to 3000 nm. The instrument employs an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) made of TeO2 and attains maximum sensitivity by making effective use of the two diffracted beams produced by the anisotropic AOTF. The full exploitation of the transmitted power of the monochromatic beams is reported for the first time and became possible because the detector does not saturate when employed for the acquisition of the weak emission signal in the NIR region, even when exposed to the total (nondiffracted) beam. Thus, modulation and lock-in-based detection can be employed to find the intensity of the diffracted beams superimposed on the nondiffracted beam. The resolution is slighted degraded in view of the small (approximately 10 nm) difference in the wavelength diffracted in the ordinary and extraordinary beams. The instrument has been evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, effect of sample thickness, and excitation temperature and for its potential in analytical applications in monitoring high-temperature kinetics, for qualitative identification of inorganic solids, for use with a closed cell to obtain spectra of species that evaporate at the temperatures (> 150 degrees C) necessary for sample excitation, and for quantitative purposes in the determination of soybean oil content in olive oil. The feasibility of near-infrared emission spectroscopy has been demonstrated together with some of its advantages over mid-infrared emission spectroscopy, such as greater tolerance to sample thickness, suitable signal-to-noise, and its use in the investigation of kinetic phenomena and phase transitions at high temperatures.

  15. Comparison between the ESFT method and LBL method of CO2 retrieval for high-resolution satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfen; Zhang, Chunmin; Wang, Dingyi; Chen, Jie; Liu, Dongdong; Rong, Piao

    2015-02-01

    The spectra of O2 A-band (0.76 μm) and CO2 near-infrared emissions (1.6 μm) for Medium-resolution Satellite (SCIAMACHY) are simulated by the SCIATRAN model (V3.1.29), and compared with the ESFT and LBL method, as the inversion accuracy and time consuming. The time consuming of LBL was more than ESFT with the relative error less than 1%, especially for the CO2 band. But for the CO2 (2.0 um) of High-resolution Satellite, the opposite result was found. That is to say, the LBL method was more suitable for High-resolution Satellite. Different wavelength intervals and integral wavelength steps are applied to the LBL to select the most appropriate combination for High-resolution SatelliteO2 A-band (0.76 μm) and CO2 near-infrared band (1.58 μm).

  16. An Optical Computed Tomography by Means of the Simplified Collimator in Near-infrared Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Iwao; Odake, Sotoji; Mashiko, Shinro; Suzuki, Nobutaka

    The optical CT unit which was assembled with the laser diode working at the wavelength of 1.3 μm, and a glass optical fiber and a pin-hole with a diameter of the 100 μm yields the collimated near-infrared light through a scattering medium. Because the spatial collimator system needs no fast response time, a high sensitive Ge-PIN photodetector was employed the CT system. The optical CT image is allowed by use of near-infrared absorption characteristic. When the image construction of a grape was performed using projection data, so the comparatively good experimental results was obtained. The places of a grape seed was found without cutting. By means of the difference in characteristics of near-infrared absorption, the image of a cylindrical oil phantom in gelatin was reproduced.

  17. Near infrared single photon avalanche detector with negative feedback and self quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga, Krishna; Yevtukhov, Yuriy; Liang, Bing

    2009-08-01

    We present the design and development of a negative feedback devices using the internal discrete amplifier approach used for the development of a single photon avalanche photodetector in the near infrared wavelength region. This new family of photodetectors with negative feedback, requiring no quenching mechanism using Internal Discrete Amplification (IDA) mechanism for the realization of very high gain and low excess noise factor in the visible and near infrared spectral regions, operates in the non-gated mode under a constant bias voltage. The demonstrated device performance far exceeds any available solid state Photodetectors in the near infrared wavelength range. The measured devices have Gain > 2×105, Excess noise factor researchers in the field of Ladar/Lidar, free space optical communication, 3D imaging, industrial and scientific instrumentation, night vision, quantum cryptography, and other military, defence and aerospace applications.

  18. THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Winge, C. [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Kromer, M.; Gall, E. E. E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [CEOU/Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nugent, P. E. [Computational Cosmology Center, Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 50B-4206, Berkeley, CA 94611 (United States); Pignata, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Stanishev, V., E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl [CENTRA - Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

    2013-04-01

    We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

  19. High Resolution Global View of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Io, the most volcanic body in the solar system is seen in the highest resolution obtained to date by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. There are rugged mountains several kilometers high, layered materials forming plateaus, and many irregular depressions called volcanic calderas. Several of the dark, flow-like features correspond to hot spots, and may be active lava flows. There are no landforms resembling impact craters, as the volcanism covers the surface with new deposits much more rapidly than the flux of comets and asteroids can create large impact craters. The picture is centered on the side of Io that always faces away from Jupiter; north is to the top.Color images acquired on September 7, 1996 have been merged with higher resolution images acquired on November 6, 1996 by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The color is composed of data taken, at a range of 487,000 kilometers, in the near-infrared, green, and violet filters and has been enhanced to emphasize the extraordinary variations in color and brightness that characterize Io's face. The high resolution images were obtained at ranges which varied from 245,719 kilometers to 403,100 kilometers.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  20. A remote controllable fiber-type near-infrared light-responsive actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiuwei; Li, Jiahui; Hou, Chengyi; Shao, Yuanlong; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi

    2017-10-10

    A novel near-infrared (NIR) light-responsive sodium polyacrylate (PAAS)/graphene oxide (GO) fiber with a torsional pre-deformation structure is reported to realize remote control actuation. The torsional pre-deformed PAAS/GO fiber exhibited various actuation phenomena, under the control of a low powered near-infrared light (50 mW cm(-2)), such as rotating in a low-temperature range (<25 °C), rolling a distance of 10 times of its diameter within 10 s, and even driving the shape change of a fabric (the weight is as high as 20 times of the fiber itself).

  1. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sørensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units...

  2. Near-infrared branding efficiently correlates light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Derron; Nikić, Ivana; Brinkoetter, Mary; Knecht, Sharmon; Potz, Stephanie; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Misgeld, Thomas

    2011-06-05

    The correlation of light and electron microscopy of complex tissues remains a major challenge. Here we report near-infrared branding (NIRB), which facilitates such correlation by using a pulsed, near-infrared laser to create defined fiducial marks in three dimensions in fixed tissue. As these marks are fluorescent and can be photo-oxidized to generate electron contrast, they can guide re-identification of previously imaged structures as small as dendritic spines by electron microscopy.

  3. Near-infrared Spectral Observations of Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, O.

    We observed Triton during two night using the SOFI instrument mounted on the 3.6 m NTT at La Silla Observatory (Chile). The spectral domain is 0.95 to 2.52 µm, di- vided into two parts. A first grism covers the 0.95-1.64 µm wavelength range while a second grism covers the 1.53-2.52 µm range. Observations of a G2V "solarlike" nearby star have been performed every hour during the observations. This calibra- tion star provides both atmospheric and instrumental calibrations. Particular care has been devoted to derive accurately the spectral slope, especially in the J and K spec- tral ranges.The data reduction is nearly over, but it needs some additional operations before doing a detailed modeling, such as to perform very accurate wavelength and flux calibrations and to compute the geometric albedo. These observations of Triton are the first one combinating an extendedspectral range and a high (for solids) spectral resolution. They are generally in good agreement with the UKIRT/CGS4 recent data, but significant and interesting differences are observed. The most striking is the fail- ure to detect the so-called three unidentified bands. Generally, the spectral match of the already identified CH4, CO, CO2 and N2 band is good, but we observed a slight increase of CH4 bands intensity (N2 band intensity being the same in both data sets), which could mean a bigger CH4 concentration. We observed also a significant discrep- ancy with UKIRT in the [1-2 µm] region, around the broad H2O band. Our efforts are now dedicated to complete the data reduction and to perform a detailed bidirectional reflectance modeling.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of near-infrared functional lymphatic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Michael; Kassis, Timothy; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2012-06-01

    Near-infrared imaging of lymphatic drainage of injected indocyanine green (ICG) has emerged as a new technology for clinical imaging of lymphatic architecture and quantification of vessel function, yet the imaging capabilities of this approach have yet to be quantitatively characterized. We seek to quantify its capabilities as a diagnostic tool for lymphatic disease. Imaging is performed in a tissue phantom for sensitivity analysis and in hairless rats for in vivo testing. To demonstrate the efficacy of this imaging approach to quantifying immediate functional changes in lymphatics, we investigate the effects of a topically applied nitric oxide (NO) donor glyceryl trinitrate ointment. Premixing ICG with albumin induces greater fluorescence intensity, with the ideal concentration being 150 μg/mL ICG and 60 g/L albumin. ICG fluorescence can be detected at a concentration of 150 μg/mL as deep as 6 mm with our system, but spatial resolution deteriorates below 3 mm, skewing measurements of vessel geometry. NO treatment slows lymphatic transport, which is reflected in increased transport time, reduced packet frequency, reduced packet velocity, and reduced effective contraction length. NIR imaging may be an alternative to invasive procedures measuring lymphatic function in vivo in real time.

  5. The near-infrared spectrum of ethynyl radical

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Anh T; Sears, Trevor J

    2016-01-01

    Transient diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure three strong vibronic bands in the near infrared spectrum of the C$_2$H, ethynyl, radical not previously observed in the gas phase. The radical was produced by ultraviolet excimer laser photolysis of either acetylene or (1,1,1)-trifluoropropyne in a slowly flowing sample of the precursor diluted in inert gas, and the spectral resolution was Doppler-limited. The character of the upper states was determined from the rotational and fine structure in the observed spectra and assigned by measurement of ground state rotational combination differences. The upper states include a $^2\\Sigma ^+$ state at 6696 cm$^{-1}$, a second $^2\\Sigma ^+$ state at 7088 cm$^{-1}$, and a $^2\\Pi$ state at 7110 cm$^{-1}$. By comparison with published calculations (R. Tarroni and S. Carter, \\textit{J. Chem. Phys} \\textbf{119}, 12878 (2003) and \\textit{Mol. Phys}. \\textbf{102}, 2167 (2004)), the vibronic character of these levels was also assigned. The observed states...

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopic survey of brown dwarfs using NIRSPEC on the Keck II Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ian S.

    2003-02-01

    Since commissioning the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) on the Keck II telescope in April 1999 we have been carrying out an extensive spectroscopic survey of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. At least two objects in every spectral sub-class from M6 to T8 have been observed in the J band at a resolution of R ~ 2,000. For a subset of these we have obtained complete near-infrared flux-calibrated spectra from 0.9 - 2.5 μm. In addition, J band spectra at even higher resolution (R ~ 20,000) have been obtained for many sub-classes. The results of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS) are summarized in this paper and presented as an illustration of the progress in infrared technology and the scientific productivity of the Keck telescopes.

  7. AOTF-based near-infrared imaging spectrometer for rapid identification of camouflaged target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhifan; Zeng, Libo; Wu, Qiongshui

    2014-11-01

    Acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is a novel device for spectrometer. The electronic tunability qualifies it with the most compelling advantages of higher wavelength scan rate over the conventional spectrometers that are mechanically tuned, and the feature of large angular aperture makes the AOTF particularly suitable in imaging applications. In this research, an AOTF-based near-infrared imaging spectrometer was developed. The spectrometer consists of a TeO2 AOTF module, a near-infrared imaging lens assembly, an AOTF controller, an InGaAs array detector, an image acquisition card, and a PC. A precisely designed optical wedge is placed at the emergent surface of the AOTF to deal with the inherent dispersion of the TeO2 that may degrade the spatial resolution. The direct digital synthesizer (DDS) techniques and the phase locked loop (PLL) techniques are combined for radio frequency (RF) signal synthesis. The PLL is driven by the DDS to take advantage of both their merits of high frequency resolution, high frequency scan rate and strong spurious signals resistance capability. All the functions relating to wavelength scan, image acquisition, processing, storge and display are controlled by the PC. Calibration results indicate that the spectral range is 898~1670 nm, the spectral resolution is 6.8 nm(@1064 nm), the wavelength separation between frames in the spectral image assembly is 1.0 nm, and the processing time of a single image is less than 1 ms if a TV camera with 640×512 detector is incorporated. A prototype device was assembled to test the capability of differentiating samples with similar appearances, and satisfactory results were achieved. By this device, the chemical compositions and the distribution information can be obtained simultaneously. This system has the most advantages of no moving parts, fast wavelength scan and strong vibration resistance. The proposed imaging spectrometer has a significant application prospect in the area of identification of

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy in schizophrenia: A possible biomarker for predicting clinical outcome and treatment response

    OpenAIRE

    Shinsuke eKoike; Yukika eNishimura; Ryu eTakizawa; Noriaki eYahata; Kiyoto eKasai

    2013-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a relatively new technique that can measure hemoglobin changes in brain tissues, and its use in psychiatry has been progressing rapidly. Although it has several disadvantages (e.g., relatively low spatial resolution and the possibility of shallow coverage in the depth of brain regions) compared with other functional neuroimaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography), fNIRS may be a candidate i...

  9. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Schizophrenia: A Possible Biomarker for Predicting Clinical Outcome and Treatment Response

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, Shinsuke; NISHIMURA, Yukika; Takizawa, Ryu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a relatively new technique that can measure hemoglobin changes in brain tissues, and its use in psychiatry has been progressing rapidly. Although it has several disadvantages (e.g., relatively low spatial resolution and the possibility of shallow coverage in the depth of brain regions) compared with other functional neuroimaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography), fNIRS may be a candidate i...

  10. Optical coherence tomography – near infrared spectroscopy system and catheter for intravascular imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fard, Ali M.; Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Hamidi, Ehsan; Wang, Hao; Carruth, Robert W.; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its superior resolution, intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is a promising tool for imaging the microstructure of coronary artery walls. However, IVOCT does not identify chemicals and molecules in the tissue, which is required for a more complete understanding and accurate diagnosis of coronary disease. Here we present a dual-modality imaging system and catheter that uniquely combines IVOCT with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a single dual-modality imagi...

  11. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allman, M. S., E-mail: shane.allman@boulder.nist.gov; Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328 (United States); Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kumor, D. [Purdue University, 610 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  12. Charge-coupled-device based scanner for tomography of fluorescent near-infrared probes in turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Weissleder, Ralph

    2002-05-01

    We present a novel tomographer for three-dimensional reconstructions of fluorochromes in diffuse media. Photon detection is based on charge-coupled device technology that allows the implementation of a large parallel array of detection channels with high sensitivity. Using this instrument we studied the response and detection limits of near-infrared fluorochromes in diffuse media as a function of light intensity and for a wide range of biologically relevant concentrations. We further examined the resolution of the scanner and the reconstruction linearity achieved. We demonstrate that the instrument attains better than 3 mm resolution, is linear within more than two orders of magnitude of fluorochrome concentration, and can detect fluorescent objects at femto-mole quantities in small animal-like geometries. These measurements delineate detection and reconstruction characteristics associated with imaging of novel classes of fluorescent probes developed for in vivo molecular and functional probing of tissues.

  13. Computer-aided design of peptide near infrared fluorescent probe for tumor diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congying; Gu, Yueqing

    2014-09-01

    Integrin αvβ3 receptors are expressed on activated endothelial cells during neovascularization to maintain tumor growth, so they become hot research tagets in cancer diagnosis. Peptides possess several attractive features when compared to protein and small molecule, such as small size and high structural compatibility with target proteins. Efficient design of high-affinity peptide ligands to Integrin αvβ3 receptors has been an important problem. Designed peptides in silico provide a valuable and high-selectivity peptide, meanwhile decrease the time of drug screening. In this study, we design peptide which can bind with integrin αvβ3 via computer, and then synthesis near infrared fluorescent probe. The characterization of this near infrared fluorescent probe was detected by UV. To investigate the tumor cell targeting of this probe, it was labeled with visible fluorescent dye Rhodamine B (RhB) for microscopy. To evaluate the targeting capability of this near infrared fluorescent probe, mice bearing integrin αvβ3 positive tumor xenografts were used. In vitro cellular experiments indicated that this probe have a clear binding affinity to αvβ3-positive tumor cells. In vivo experiments confirmed the receptor binding specificity of this probe. The peptide of computational design can bind with integrin αvβ3. Combined peptide near-infrared fluorescent probe with imaging technology use for clinical and tumor diagnosis have a greater development in future.

  14. Cryogenic near infrared spectropolarimeter for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlmann, Andre; Giebink, Cynthia; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Messersmith, Ernesto J.; Mickey, Donald L.; Scholl, Isabelle F.; James, Don; Hnat, Kirby; Schickling, Greg; Schickling, Richard

    2016-08-01

    The Cryogenic Near Infrared Spectropolarimeter for the Daniel K Inouye Solar Telescope is designed to measure polarized light from 0.5 to 5 μm. It uses an almost all reflective design for high throughput and an R2 echelle grating to achieve the required resolution of up to R = 100,000. The optics cooled to cryogenic temperatures reduce the thermal background allowing for IR observations of the faint solar corona. Both the spectrograph and its context imager use H2RG detector arrays with a newly designed controller to allow synchronized exposures at frame rates up to 10 Hz. All hardware has been built and tested and the key components met their design goals. 1) The cryogenic system uses mechanical closed cycle coolers which introduce vibrations. Our design uses a two stage approach with a floating mounting disk and flexible cold links to reduce these. The vibration amplitudes on all critical stages were measured and are smaller than 1μm. 2) The grating stage of the spectrograph uses a double stack of harmonic drives and an optical encoder to provide sub-arcsecond resolution and a measured repeatability of better than 0.5 arcsec.

  15. Intraoperative near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, Roland; Sommerey, Sandra; Arabi, Nora Al; Hallfeldt, Klaus K J; Stepp, Herbert; Gallwas, Julia K S

    2017-08-01

    To identify parathyroid glands intraoperatively by exposing their autofluorescence using near-infrared light. Fluorescence imaging was carried out during minimally invasive and open parathyroid and thyroid surgery. After identification, the parathyroid glands as well as the surrounding tissue were exposed to near-infrared (NIR) light with a wavelength of 690-770 nm using a modified Karl Storz near-infrared/indocyanine green (NIR/ICG) endoscopic system. Parathyroid tissue was expected to show near-infrared autofluorescence, captured in the blue channel of the camera. Whenever possible the visual identification of parathyroid tissue was confirmed histologically. In preliminary investigations, using the original NIR/ICG endoscopic system we noticed considerable interference of light in the blue channel overlying the autofluorescence. Therefore, we modified the light source by interposing additional filters. In a second series, we investigated 35 parathyroid glands from 25 patients. Twenty-seven glands were identified correctly based on NIR autofluorescence. Regarding the extent of autofluorescence, there were no noticeable differences between parathyroid adenomas, hyperplasia and normal parathyroid glands. In contrast, thyroid tissue, lymph nodes and adipose tissue revealed no substantial autofluorescence. Parathyroid tissue is characterized by showing autofluorescence in the near-infrared spectrum. This effect can be used to distinguish parathyroid glands from other cervical tissue entities.

  16. Modelling of nectarine drying under near infrared - Vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, Behnam; Chayjan, Reza Amiri

    2015-01-01

    Drying of nectarine slices was performed to determine the thermal and physical properties in order to reduce product deterioration due to chemical reactions, facilitate storage and lower transportation costs. Because nectarine slices are sensitive to heat with long drying period, the selection of a suitable drying approach is a challenging task. Infrared-vacuum drying can be used as an appropriate method for susceptible materials with high moisture content such as nectarine slices. Modelling of nectarine slices drying was carried out in a thin layer near infraredvacuum conditions. Drying of the samples was implemented at the absolute pressures of 20, 40 and 60 kPa and drying temperatures of 50, 60 and 70°C. Drying behaviour of nectarine slices, as well as the effect of drying conditions on moisture loss trend, drying rate, effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy, shrinkage, colour and energy consumption of nectarine slices, dried in near infrared-vacuum dryer are discussed in this study. Six mathematical models were used to predict the moisture ratio of the samples in thin layer drying. The Midilli model had supremacy in prediction of nectarine slices drying behaviour. The maximum drying rates of the samples were between 0.014-0.047 gwater/gdry material·min. Effective moisture diffusivity of the samples was estimated in the ranges of 2.46·10-10 to 6.48·10-10 m2/s. Activation energy were computed between 31.28 and 35.23 kJ/mol. Minimum shrinkage (48.4%) and total colour difference (15.1) were achieved at temperature of 50°C and absolute pressure of 20 kPa. Energy consumption of the tests was estimated in the ranges of 0.129 to 0.247 kWh. Effective moisture diffusivity was increased with decrease of vacuum pressure and increase of drying temperature but effect of drying temperature on effective moisture diffusivity of nectarine slices was more than vacuum pressure. Activation energy was decreased with decrease in absolute pressure. Total colour

  17. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging during robotic operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Antonio Luiz de Vasconcellos; Schraibman, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The intraoperative identification of certain anatomical structures because they are small or visually occult may be challenging. The development of minimally invasive surgery brought additional difficulties to identify these structures due to the lack of complete tactile sensitivity. A number of different forms of intraoperative mapping have been tried. Recently, the near-infrared fluorescence imaging technology with indocyanine green has been added to robotic platforms. In addition, this technology has been tested in several types of operations, and has advantages such as safety, low cost and good results. Disadvantages are linked to contrast distribution in certain clinical scenarios. The intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent imaging is new and promising addition to robotic surgery. Several reports show the utility of this technology in several different procedures. The ideal dose, time and site for dye injection are not well defined. No high quality evidence-based comparative studies and long-term follow-up outcomes have been published so far. Initial results, however, are good and safe. RESUMO A identificação intraoperatória de certas estruturas anatômicas, por seu tamanho ou por elas serem ocultas à visão, pode ser desafiadora. O desenvolvimento da cirurgia minimamente invasiva trouxe dificuldades adicionais, pela falta da sensibilidade tátil completa. Diversas formas de detecção intraoperatória destas estruturas têm sido tentadas. Recentemente, a tecnologia de fluorescência infravermelha com verde de indocianina foi associada às plataformas robóticas. Além disso, essa tecnologia tem sido testada em uma variedade de cirurgias, e suas vantagens parecem estar ligadas a baixo custo, segurança e bons resultados. As desvantagens estão associadas à má distribuição do contraste em determinados cenários. A imagem intraoperatória por fluorescência infravermelha é uma nova e promissora adição à cirurgia robótica. Diversas séries mostram

  18. Determining the Physical Properties of Very-Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in the Near-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; Barman, Travis S.; McLean, Ian S.; Prato, L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2009-02-01

    Accurate measurements of the fundamental physical properties of very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are crucial for calibrating evolutionary models. Photometry and low-resolution spectroscopy effectively average over absorption features that sample different layers in complex cool atmospheres. By studying a large sample of objects bright enough for high-resolution spectroscopy, we can develop methods for determining physical properties as accurately and efficiently as possible. As part of the Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS [1, 2]), we are conducting a detailed comparison of observed and synthetic spectra for a sample of young M and L dwarfs and field M, L, and T dwarfs (~50 objects in total). High-resolution near-infrared spectra from NIRSPEC on Keck II provide an unequaled combination of resolving power and wavelength coverage. Synthetic spectra were created from PHOENIX atmosphere models calculated exclusively for this project with updated line lists and solar abundances. Combined with spectral types from photometric studies and low-resolution spectra and surface gravity estimates from age determination, the high-resolution spectra enable precise measurements of effective temperature and surface gravity, as well as accurate determination of radial velocity and projected rotational velocity. Our preliminary observation-model comparisons distinguish between wavelength regimes for which the models reproduce observed high-resolution spectra and regimes in which model data (line lists, oscillator strengths, etc.) are lacking.

  19. Near-infrared Thermal Emission Detections of a Number of Hot Jupiters and the Systematics of Ground-based Near-infrared Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Bryce; Albert, Loic; Jayawardhana, Ray; Cushing, Michael; Moutou, Claire; Lafreniere, David; Johnson, John Asher; Bonomo, Aldo S.; Deleuil, Magali; Fortney, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    We present detections of the near-infrared thermal emission of three hot Jupiters and one brown dwarf using the Wide-field Infrared Camera (WIRCam) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These include Ks-band secondary eclipse detections of the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and Qatar-1b and the brown dwarf KELT-1b. We also report Y-band, K CONT-band, and two new and one reanalyzed Ks-band detections of the thermal emission of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. We present a new reduction pipeline for CFHT/WIRCam data, which is optimized for high precision photometry. We also describe novel techniques for constraining systematic errors in ground-based near-infrared photometry, so as to return reliable secondary eclipse depths and uncertainties. We discuss the noise properties of our ground-based photometry for wavelengths spanning the near-infrared (the YJHK bands), for faint and bright stars, and for the same object on several occasions. For the hot Jupiters WASP-3b and WASP-12b we demonstrate the repeatability of our eclipse depth measurements in the Ks band; we therefore place stringent limits on the systematics of ground-based, near-infrared photometry, and also rule out violent weather changes in the deep, high pressure atmospheres of these two hot Jupiters at the epochs of our observations. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  20. Time-series surveys and pulsating stars: The near-infrared perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsunaga Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss the advantages and problems of nearinfrared surveys in observing pulsating stars in the Milky Way. One of the advantages of near-infrared surveys, when compared to optical counterparts, is that the interstellar extinction is significantly smaller. As we see in this review, a significant volume of the Galactic disk can be reached by infrared surveys but not by optical ones. Towards highly obscured regions in the Galactic mid-plane, however, the interstellar extinction causes serious problems even with near-infrared data in understanding the observational results. After a review on previous and current near-infrared surveys, we discuss the effects of the interstellar extinction in optical (including Gaia to near-infrared broad bands based on a simple calculation using synthetic spectral energy distribution. We then review the recent results on classical Cepheids towards the Galactic center and the bulge, as a case study, to see the impact of the uncertainty in the extinction law. The extinction law, i.e. the wavelength dependency of the extinction, is not fully characterized, and its uncertainty makes it hard to make the correction. Its characterization is an urgent task in order to exploit the outcomes of ongoing large-scale surveys of pulsating stars, e.g. for drawing a map of pulsating stars across the Galactic disk.

  1. AN ATLAS OF BRIGHT STAR SPECTRA IN THE NEAR-INFRARED FROM CASSINI-VIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Paul N.; Tuthill, Peter G. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Nicholson, Philip D. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Cornell Center for Astrophyics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hedman, Matthew M., E-mail: p.stewart@physics.usyd.edu.au [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We present the Cassini Atlas Of Stellar Spectra (CAOSS), comprised of near-infrared, low-resolution spectra of bright stars recovered from space-based observations by the Cassini spacecraft. The 65 stellar targets in the atlas are predominately M, K, and S giants. However, it also contains spectra of other bright nearby stars including carbon stars and main-sequence stars from A to F. The spectra presented are free of all spectral contamination caused by the Earth's atmosphere, including the detrimental telluric molecular bands which put parts of the near-infrared spectrum out of reach of terrestrial observations. With a single instrument, a spectro-photometric data set is recovered that spans the near-infrared from 0.8 to 5.1 μm with spectral resolution ranging from R = 53.5 to R = 325. Spectra have been calibrated into absolute flux units after careful characterization of the instrumental spectral efficiency. Spectral energy distributions for most stars match closely with literature values. All final data products have been made available online.

  2. Near infrared spectroscopy of food systems using a supercontinuum laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine

    Mid-infrared and particularly near-infrared spectroscopy is extremely useful for food analysis because they measure chemical and physical properties fast and non-destructively. The advancement of a supercontinuum light source covering the near-infrared and parts of the ultraviolet and mid......)) can be obtained, (c) that the supercontinuum light is fiber compatible i.e. it can couple directly to fibers, and (d) that the fast repetition rate of the supercontinuum pulses makes it possible to do very fast measurements. For these reasons, the supercontinuum light stands out from the commonly...... applied near- and mid-infrared incandescent light bulbs. This thesis aim to explore the utility of using a supercontinuum source in two food applications. (1) The supercontinuum light was applied for the first time to barley seeds in transmission mode in the long wavelength near-infrared region from 2260...

  3. The application of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technique for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Barabassy

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of cow’s milk in Hungary fluctuates by 15-20 % annualy. Surplus milk is dried into powder and can also be converted to modified milk powders using techniques such as ultra filtration. From approximetely 20.000 tonnes, of all milk powder types, 3.000 tonnes, is converted using ultra filtration technology. Multivariable near infrared (NIR calibration was performed on powder mixtures of whole milk, skimmed milk, whey, retenate (protein concentrate and lactose for rapid fat, protein, lactose, water and ash content determination. More than 150 samples were prepared and measured in two NIRS labs (Scottish Agriculture College – SAC – Aberdeen and University of Horticulture and Food Science - UHFS – Budapest. The results obtained from the same samples were compared. The aims of the study were: 1. Rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of mixtures of milk powder products using NIR technique. 2. Comparison of the results achieved in Aberdeen (SAC and Budapest (UHFS institutes. The mass per cent varied between 0.0-2.8% for fat, 0.0-80% for protein, 6.6-100 % for lactose, 0.0-5.0 % for water and 0.0-8.0 % for ash. High correlation coefficients (0.97-0.99 were found for all five components.

  4. Near-infrared (NIR) up-conversion optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hososhima, Shoko; Yuasa, Hideya; Ishizuka, Toru; Hoque, Mohammad Razuanul; Yamashita, Takayuki; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Sugano, Eriko; Tomita, Hiroshi; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-11-01

    Non-invasive remote control technologies designed to manipulate neural functions have been long-awaited for the comprehensive and quantitative understanding of neuronal network in the brain as well as for the therapy of neurological disorders. Recently, it has become possible for the neuronal activity to be optically manipulated using biological photo-reactive molecules such as channelrhodopsin (ChR)-2. However, ChR2 and its relatives are mostly reactive to visible light, which does not effectively penetrate through biological tissues. In contrast, near-infrared (NIR) light (650-1450 nm) penetrates deep into the tissues because biological systems are almost transparent to light within this so-called ‘imaging window’. Here we used lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs), composed of rare-earth elements, as luminous bodies to activate ChRs since they absorb low-energy NIR light to emit high-energy visible light (up-conversion). Here, we created a new type of optogenetic system which consists of the donor LNPs and the acceptor ChRs. The NIR laser irradiation emitted visible light from LNPs, then induced the photo-reactive responses in the near-by cells that expressed ChRs. However, there remains room for large improvements in the energy efficiency of the LNP-ChR system.

  5. Convolutional neural network for high-accuracy functional near-infrared spectroscopy in a brain-computer interface: three-class classification of rest, right-, and left-hand motor execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakoolwilaiwan, Thanawin; Behboodi, Bahareh; Lee, Jaeseok; Kim, Kyungsoo; Choi, Ji-Woong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an effective brain-computer interface (BCI) method based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In order to improve the performance of the BCI system in terms of accuracy, the ability to discriminate features from input signals and proper classification are desired. Previous studies have mainly extracted features from the signal manually, but proper features need to be selected carefully. To avoid performance degradation caused by manual feature selection, we applied convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as the automatic feature extractor and classifier for fNIRS-based BCI. In this study, the hemodynamic responses evoked by performing rest, right-, and left-hand motor execution tasks were measured on eight healthy subjects to compare performances. Our CNN-based method provided improvements in classification accuracy over conventional methods employing the most commonly used features of mean, peak, slope, variance, kurtosis, and skewness, classified by support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural network (ANN). Specifically, up to 6.49% and 3.33% improvement in classification accuracy was achieved by CNN compared with SVM and ANN, respectively.

  6. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  7. NIRCam: Development and Testing of the JWST Near-Infrared Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas; Beichman, Charles; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Jaffe, Daniel; Kelly, Douglas; Krist, John; Rieke, Marcia; Smith, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) is one of the four science instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Its high sensitivity, high spatial resolution images over the 0.6 - 5 microns wavelength region will be essential for making significant findings in many science areas as well as for aligning the JWST primary mirror segments and telescope. The NIRCam engineering test unit was recently assembled and has undergone successful cryogenic testing. The NIRCam collimator and camera optics and their mountings are also progressing, with a brass-board system demonstrating relatively low wavefront error across a wide field of view. The flight model?s long-wavelength Si grisms have been fabricated, and its coronagraph masks are now being made. Both the short (0.6 - 2.3 microns) and long (2.4 - 5.0 microns) wavelength flight detectors show good performance and are undergoing final assembly and testing. The flight model subsystems should all be completed later this year through early 2011, and NIRCam will be cryogenically tested in the first half of 2011 before delivery to the JWST integrated science instrument module (ISIM).

  8. Tracking single cells in live animals using a photoconvertible near-infrared cell membrane label.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia L Carlson

    Full Text Available We describe a novel photoconversion technique to track individual cells in vivo using a commercial lipophilic membrane dye, DiR. We show that DiR exhibits a permanent fluorescence emission shift (photoconversion after light exposure and does not reacquire the original color over time. Ratiometric imaging can be used to distinguish photoconverted from non-converted cells with high sensitivity. Combining the use of this photoconvertible dye with intravital microscopy, we tracked the division of individual hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells within the calvarium bone marrow of live mice. We also studied the peripheral differentiation of individual T cells by tracking the gain or loss of FoxP3-GFP expression, a marker of the immune suppressive function of CD4(+ T cells. With the near-infrared photoconvertible membrane dye, the entire visible spectral range is available for simultaneous use with other fluorescent proteins to monitor gene expression or to trace cell lineage commitment in vivo with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  9. Perdeuterated liquid crystals for near infrared applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, P.; Bennis, N.; Marć, P.; Harmata, P.; Gacioch, K.; Morawiak, P.; Jaroszewicz, L. R.

    2016-10-01

    For majority of Liquid Crystalline compounds the absorption occurs at two spectral regions: ultraviolet UV (due to electronic excitations) and infrared IR (caused by molecular vibrations). Both cause the absorption which deteriorates electro-optical modulation abilities of LC. In the MWIR and LWIR regions, there are many fundamental molecular vibration bands. The most intense are the ones with high anharmonicity, which in the case of LCs corresponds to the Csbnd H bonds, especially present in the aliphatic chains. In the NIR region, overtone molecular vibration bands derived from IR region begin to appear. In the case of Csbnd H bond system, the first overtones are present at 1.6-1.7 μm. To reduce NIR absorptions, perdeuterated Liquid crystal has been proposed. In this paper, we report the physical and optical properties of liquid crystals based on polarimetry measurements method. We also provide a polar decomposition of experimentally measured Mueller matrix in order to determine polarization properties of the device such as depolarization and diattenuation which cannot be obtained from absorption spectra.

  10. Carbon monoxide reduces near-infrared spectroscopy determined 'total' hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Mads J; Sørensen, Henrik; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) increases middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCAVmean), but the effect of CO on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) is not detailed. In our study, 11 non-smoking subjects breathed 100% O2 through a closed circuit. A CO2 scrubbe...

  11. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-03-21

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  12. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  13. Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Jeppesen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    We employ a planar metamaterial structure composed of a splitring-resonator (SRR) and paired nano-rods to experimentally realize a spectral response at near-infrared frequencies resembling that of electromagnetically induced transparency. A narrow transparency window associated with low loss...

  14. Near infrared photoacoustic detection of heptane in synthetic air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Albu, Mihaela; Willatzen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Trace contaminations of n-heptane in synthetic air is measured in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range using near infrared photoacoustic detection. We describe the fundamental theory used in the design of the photoacoustic cell for trace gas analysis and determine the detection limit of the cell. On...

  15. Near Infrared Photoacoustic Detection of Heptane in Synthetic Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Albu, Mihaela; Willatzen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Trace contaminations of n-heptane in synthetic air is measured in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range using near infrared photoacoustic detection. We describe the fundamental theory used in the design of the photoacoustic cell for trace gas analysis and determine the detection limit of the cell. On...

  16. X-Shooter Survey of Near-Infrared DIBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, N.L.J.; Cami, J.; Kaper, L.; Foing, B.H.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ochsendorf, B.B.; van Hooff, S.H.M.; Salama, F.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an exploratory VLT/X-Shooter survey of near-infrared diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in diffuse to translucent interstellar clouds. These observations confirm the presence of recently discoved NIR DIBs and provide more accurate rest wavelengths and line widths.

  17. Gemini Near-infrared Spectroscopy of Luminous z~6 Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    We present Gemini near-infrared spectroscopic observations of six luminous quasars at z=5.8$\\sim$6.3. Five of them were observed using Gemini-South/GNIRS, which provides a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.9--2.5 $\\mu$m in cross dispersion mode. The other source was observed in K band with Ge...

  18. Quantifying cerebral hypoxia by near-infrared spectroscopy tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B.; Eriksen, Vibeke R.; Andresen, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Tissue oxygenation estimated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a volume-weighted mean of the arterial and venous hemoglobin oxygenation. In vivo validation assumes a fixed arterial-to-venous volume-ratio (AV-ratio). Regulatory cerebro-vascular mechanisms may change the AV-ratio. We used...

  19. Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopic Method for the Prediction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to predict the potential of visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) Spectroscopy in estimating the amount of lycopene in intact tomato. Eight tomato varieties from loose and cluster type were selected and harvested at commercial ripening stage for the study. The tomato cultivars were prepared ...

  20. Broadband dye-sensitized upconversion of near-infrared light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Wenqiang; Visser, Cindy; Maduro, Jeremio A.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    Photon upconversion of near-infrared photons is a promising way to overcome the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit of 32% of a single-junction solar cell. However, the practical applicability of the most efficient known upconversion materials at moderate light intensities is limited by their

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Piantadosi, C A

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method for monitoring oxygen availability and utilization by the tissues. In intact skeletal muscle, NIRS allows semi-quantitative measurements of haemoglobin plus myoglobin oxygenation (tissue O2 stores) and the haemoglobin volume. Specialized...

  2. Social Perception in Infancy: A Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Blasi, Anna; Volein, Agnes; Everdell, Nick; Elwell, Claire E.; Johnson, Mark H.

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to engage and communicate in a social world is one of the defining characteristics of the human species. While the network of regions that compose the social brain have been the subject of extensive research in adults, there are limited techniques available for monitoring young infants. This study used near infrared spectroscopy to…

  3. Optical and Near-infrared Spectra of σ Orionis Isolated Planetary-mass Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Peña Ramírez, K.

    2017-06-01

    We have obtained low-resolution optical (0.7-0.98 μm) and near-infrared (1.11-1.34 μm and 0.8-2.5 μm) spectra of 12 isolated planetary-mass candidates (J = 18.2-19.9 mag) of the 3 Myr σ Orionis star cluster with the aim of determining the spectroscopic properties of very young, substellar dwarfs and assembling a complete cluster mass function. We have classified our targets by visual comparison with high- and low-gravity standards and by measuring newly defined spectroscopic indices. We derived L0-L4.5 and M9-L2.5 using high- and low-gravity standards, respectively. Our targets reveal clear signposts of youth, thus corroborating their cluster membership and planetary masses (6-13 M Jup). These observations complete the σ Orionis mass function by spectroscopically confirming the planetary-mass domain to a confidence level of ˜75%. The comparison of our spectra with BT-Settl solar metallicity model atmospheres yields a temperature scale of 2350-1800 K and a low surface gravity of log g ≈ 4.0 [cm s-2], as would be expected for young planetary-mass objects. We discuss the properties of the cluster’s least-massive population as a function of spectral type. We have also obtained the first optical spectrum of S Ori 70, a T dwarf in the direction of σ Orionis. Our data provide reference optical and near-infrared spectra of very young L dwarfs and a mass function that may be used as templates for future studies of low-mass substellar objects and exoplanets. The extrapolation of the σ Orionis mass function to the solar neighborhood may indicate that isolated planetary-mass objects with temperatures of ˜200-300 K and masses in the interval 6-13 M Jup may be as numerous as very low-mass stars.

  4. Processing Near-Infrared Imagery of the Orion Heatshield During EFT-1 Hypersonic Reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisz, Thomas S.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Gibson, David M.; Kennerly, Steve; Osei-Wusu, Kwame; Horvath, Thomas J.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Tack, Steven; Bush, Brett C.; Oliver, A. Brandon

    2016-01-01

    The Scientifically Calibrated In-Flight Imagery (SCIFLI) team captured high-resolution, calibrated, near-infrared imagery of the Orion capsule during atmospheric reentry of the EFT-1 mission. A US Navy NP-3D aircraft equipped with a multi-band optical sensor package, referred to as Cast Glance, acquired imagery of the Orion capsule's heatshield during a period when Orion was slowing from approximately Mach 10 to Mach 7. The line-of-sight distance ranged from approximately 65 to 40 nmi. Global surface temperatures of the capsule's thermal heatshield derived from the near-infrared intensity measurements complemented the in-depth (embedded) thermocouple measurements. Moreover, these derived surface temperatures are essential to the assessment of the thermocouples' reliance on inverse heat transfer methods and material response codes to infer the surface temperature from the in-depth measurements. The paper describes the image processing challenges associated with a manually-tracked, high-angular rate air-to-air observation. Issues included management of significant frame-to-frame motions due to both tracking jerk and jitter as well as distortions due to atmospheric effects. Corrections for changing sky backgrounds (including some cirrus clouds), atmospheric attenuation, and target orientations and ranges also had to be made. The image processing goal is to reduce the detrimental effects due to motion (both sensor and capsule), vibration (jitter), and atmospherics for image quality improvement, without compromising the quantitative integrity of the data, especially local intensity (temperature) variations. The paper will detail the approach of selecting and utilizing only the highest quality images, registering several co-temporal image frames to a single image frame to the extent frame-to-frame distortions would allow, and then co-adding the registered frames to improve image quality and reduce noise. Using preflight calibration data, the registered and averaged

  5. Low band gap polycyclic hydrocarbons: from closed-shell near infrared dyes and semiconductors to open-shell radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Ye, Qun; Chi, Chunyan; Wu, Jishan

    2012-12-07

    Low band gap (E(g) materials for many applications, for example, as semiconductors in organic field effect transistors (OFETs), as light-harvesting dyes in organic solar cells and photodetectors, as near infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes in high resolution bio-imaging and bio-sensing, and as chromophores in non-linear optics. The benzenoid polycyclic hydrocarbons as nano-sized graphene fragments also serve as perfect model compounds to understand the fundamental structure-property relationship of graphene. The ground state of these molecules can be described as either a closed-shell or an open-shell structure on the basis of their molecular size and edge structure. In this review, a summary will be given on a series of low band gap polycyclic hydrocarbons about their synthesis, physical properties and material applications.

  6. Near-Infrared Polarimetry of the GG Tauri A Binary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoichi; Oasa, Yumiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Egner, Sebastian; hide

    2014-01-01

    A high angular resolution near-infrared image that shows the intensity of polarization for the GG Tau A binary system was obtained with the Subaru Telescope. The image shows a circumbinary disk scattering the light from the central binary. The azimuthal profile of the intensity of polarization for the circumbinary disk is roughly reproduced by a simple disk model with the Henyey-Greenstein phase function and the Rayleigh function, indicating there are small dust grains at the surface of the disk. Combined with a previous observation of the circumbinary disk, our image indicates that the gap structure in the circumbinary disk orbits counterclockwise, but material in the disk orbits clockwise. We propose that there is a shadow caused by material located between the central binary and the circumbinary disk. The separations and position angles of the stellar components of the binary in the past 20 yr are consistent with the binary orbit with a = 33.4 AU and e = 0.34.

  7. Polymer:Fullerene Bimolecular Crystals for Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Ma, Zaifei; Sánchez-Díaz, Antonio; Ullbrich, Sascha; Liu, Yuan; Siegmund, Bernhard; Mischok, Andreas; Leo, Karl; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Li, Weiwei; Vandewal, Koen

    2017-09-01

    Spectroscopic photodetection is a powerful tool in disciplines such as medical diagnosis, industrial process monitoring, or agriculture. However, its application in novel fields, including wearable and biointegrated electronics, is hampered by the use of bulky dispersive optics. Here, solution-processed organic donor-acceptor blends are employed in a resonant optical cavity device architecture for wavelength-tunable photodetection. While conventional photodetectors respond to above-gap excitation, the cavity device exploits weak subgap absorption of intermolecular charge-transfer states of the intercalating poly[2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene] (PBTTT):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bimolecular crystal. This enables a highly wavelength selective, near-infrared photoresponse with a spectral resolution down to 14 nm, as well as dark currents and detectivities comparable with commercial inorganic photodetectors. Based on this concept, a miniaturized spectrophotometer, comprising an array of narrowband cavity photodetectors, is fabricated by using a blade-coated PBTTT:PCBM thin film with a thickness gradient. As an application example, a measurement of the transmittance spectrum of water by this device is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Construction of a shortwave near-infrared spectrofluorometer with diode laser source and CCD detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silzel, John W.; Obremski, Robert J.

    1993-05-01

    Spectrofluorometers employing xenon arc lamp excitation and photomultiplier tube detectors afford sensitivity over the UV/VIS spectral region for which these instruments were designed, but suffer sensitivity limitations in the short-wave near infrared (NIR) region (800 - 1000 nm) because of their limited source energy and low detector quantum efficiency. To achieve high sensitivity in the NIR region, a 30 mW diode laser source, an imaging spectrograph, and a cryogenically cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) have been combined in a spectrofluorometer specifically designed for use in the NIR region. The diode laser source incorporates integral source filters, optics, and a beam trap, and utilizes a vertical beam geometry which provides an illuminated volume oriented conveniently for the imaging of fluorescence emissions on the entrance slit of the spectrograph. Data is presented which demonstrates that the temporal and spectral stability of the source is equal or superior to that of an arc lamp for solution-phase fluorometry. In addition to spectral information, the CCD detector provides spatial resolution of fluorescence emissions along the vertical path of the excitation beam. An absolute photometric calibration of the CCD detector, and measurement of its read noise, fixed pattern noise, and linear dynamic range is performed using the photon transfer technique of Janesick, et al. Improvement in the instrument performance by more than six decades is demonstrated by measured LOD of NIR dyes using a commercial SLM 4800 instrument and the new diode laser/CCD arrangement. Origin of the present detection limits is discussed.

  9. Dynamic near-infrared imaging reveals transient phototropic change in retinal rod photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rongwen; Levy, Alexander M; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Pittler, Steven J; Yao, Xincheng

    2013-10-01

    Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE) is exclusively observed in cone photoreceptors, but why the SCE is absent in rod photoreceptors is still a mystery. In this study, we employed dynamic near infrared light imaging to monitor photoreceptor kinetics in freshly isolated frog and mouse retinas stimulated by oblique visible light flashes. It was observed that retinal rods could rapidly (onset: ∼10 ms for frog and 5 ms for mouse; time-to-peak: ∼200 ms for frog and 30 ms for mouse) shift toward the direction of the visible light, which might quickly compensate for the loss of luminous efficiency due to oblique illumination. In contrast, such directional movement was negligible in retinal cones. Moreover, transient rod phototropism could contribute to characteristic intrinsic optical signal (IOS). We anticipate that further study of the transient rod phototropism may not only provide insight into better understanding of the nature of vision but also promise an IOS biomarker for functional mapping of rod physiology at high resolution.

  10. Short-Wave Near-Infrared Spectrometer for Alcohol Determination and Temperature Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multichannel short-wave near-infrared (SW-NIR spectrometer module based on charge-coupled device (CCD detection was designed. The design relied on a tungsten lamp enhanced by light emitting diodes, a fixed grating monochromator and a linear CCD array. The main advantages were high optical resolution and an optimized signal-to-noise ratio (0.24 nm and 500, resp. in the whole wavelength range of 650 to 1100 nm. An application to alcohol determination using partial least squares calibration and the temperature correction was presented. It was found that the direct transfer method had significant systematic prediction errors due to temperature effect. Generalized least squares weighting (GLSW method was utilized for temperature correction. After recalibration, the RMSEP found for the 25°C model was 0.53% v/v and errors of the same order of magnitude were obtained at other temperatures (15, 35 and 40°C. And an 2 better than 0.99 was achieved for each validation set. The possibility and accuracy of using the miniature SW-NIR spectrometer and GLSW transfer calibration method for alcohol determination at different temperatures were proven. And the analysis procedure was simple and fast, allowing a strict control of alcohol content in the wine industry.

  11. Spectroscopic Characterisation of CARMENES Target Candidates from FEROS, CAFE and HRS High-Resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passegger, Vera Maria; Reiners, Ansgar; Jeffers, Sandra V.; Wende, Sebastian; Schöfer, Patrick; Amado, Pedro J.; Caballero, Jose A.; Montes, David; Mundt, Reinhard; Ribas, Ignasi; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Échelle Spectrographs) started a new planet survey on M-dwarfs in January this year. The new high-resolution spectrographs are operating in the visible and near-infrared at Calar Alto Observatory. They will perform high-accuracy radial-velocity measurements (goal 1 m s-1) of about 300 M-dwarfs with the aim to detect low-mass planets within habitable zones. We characterised the candidate sample for CARMENES and provide fundamental parameters for these stars in order to constrain planetary properties and understand star-planet systems. Using state-of-the-art model atmospheres (PHOENIX-ACES) and χ2-minimization with a downhill-simplex method we determine effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity [Fe/H] for high-resolution spectra of around 480 stars of spectral types M0.0-6.5V taken with FEROS, CAFE and HRS. We find good agreement between the models and our observed high-resolution spectra. We show the performance of the algorithm, as well as results, parameter and spectral type distributions for the CARMENES candidate sample, which is used to define the CARMENES target sample. We also present first preliminary results obtained from CARMENES spectra.

  12. Near-Infrared Lasing from Small-Molecule Organic Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuedong; Liao, Qing; Li, Hui; Bai, Shuming; Wu, Yishi; Lu, Xiaomei; Hu, Huaiyuan; Shi, Qiang; Fu, Hongbing

    2015-07-29

    Near-infrared (NIR) lasers are key components for applications, such as telecommunication, spectroscopy, display, and biomedical tissue imaging. Inorganic III-V semiconductor (GaAs) NIR lasers have achieved great successes but require expensive and sophisticated device fabrication techniques. Organic semiconductors exhibit chemically tunable optoelectronic properties together with self-assembling features that are well suitable for low-temperature solution processing. Major blocks in realizing NIR organic lasing include low stimulated emission of narrow-bandgap molecules due to fast nonradiative decay and exciton-exciton annihilation, which is considered as a main loss channel of population inversion for organic lasers under high carrier densities. Here we designed and synthesized the small organic molecule (E)-3-(4-(di-p-tolylamino)phenyl)-1-(1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (DPHP) with amphiphilic nature, which elaborately self-assembles into micrometer-sized hemispheres that simultaneously serves as the NIR emission medium with a photoluminescence quantum efficiency of ∼15.2%, and the high-Q (∼1.4 × 10(3)) whispering gallery mode microcavity. Moreover, the radiative rate of DPHP hemispheres is enhanced up to ∼1.98 × 10(9) s(-1) on account of the exciton-vibrational coupling in the solid state with the J-type molecular-coupling component, and meanwhile the exciton-exciton annihilation process is eliminated. As a result, NIR lasing with a low threshold of ∼610 nJ/cm(2) is achieved in the single DPHP hemisphere at room temperature. Our demonstration is a major step toward incorporating the organic coherent light sources into the compact optoelectronic devices at NIR wavelengths.

  13. Excitation Mechanisms of Near-Infrared Emission Lines in LINER Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehle, Anna

    2017-01-01

    I will present high spatial resolution, integral field spectroscopic observations of the nearby LINER (low ionization nuclear emission line region) galaxy NGC 404. LINERs are found at the centers of ~1/3 of galaxies within 40 Mpc, but their physical nature is not well understood. Although NGC 404 is thought to host a intermediate mass black hole at its center, it is unclear whether accretion onto the black hole or another mechanism such as shock excitation drives its LINER emission. We use the OSIRIS near-infrared integral field spectrograph at Keck Observatory behind laser guide star adaptive optics to map the strength and kinematics of [FeII], H2, and hydrogen recombination lines in the nucleus of NGC 404. These observations have a spatial pixel sampling of 0.5 pc and span the central 30 pc of the galaxy. We find that the ionized and molecular gas show differences in their morphology and kinematics on parsec scales. In particular, there are regions with line ratios of [FeII]/Pa-β that are much higher than previously seen in spatially integrated spectra, significantly restricting the possible excitation mechanisms of the near-infrared emission lines in this source. We are also applying these analysis techniques to 10 additional nearby LINERs, a part of a larger sample of 14 sources, to understand what drives the emission lines in these active galaxies. As a part of this program, I worked on the upgrade of the detector in the OSIRIS spectrograph, which has allowed observations for this survey obtained since January 2016 to be taken with increased instrument sensitivity of a factor of ~2 at J-band wavelengths (1.2 - 1.4 microns) and ~1.6 at H- and K-band wavelengths (1.5 - 2.4 microns). I will present results from the LINER survey, the OSIRIS detector upgrade, and also touch on related work using stellar orbits around the Milky Way supermassive black hole Sgr A* to constrain the mass and distance to our own Galactic Center.

  14. Imaging membrane intercalating near infrared dyes to track multiple cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Edward J; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Fried, Glenn; Gray, Brian D; Kranz, David M

    2009-08-31

    Given the increasing interest in understanding in vivo migration of different cell types, it would be useful to have a simple method for tracking multiple cell populations in animals. Here we evaluated near infrared (NIR) dyes that intercalate into cell membranes as cell tracking labels, using both high-throughput and high-resolution methods. We tracked cells in tissues containing significant autofluorescence. CellVue Burgundy (ex 683/em 707) and CellVue NIR815 (ex 786/em 814) are especially useful because their spectral properties match the laser and detectors of the LI-COR laser scanner. After labeling cells ex vivo and injecting them into tumor-bearing mice, the distribution of cells in tumor and organs could be quantified in tissue sections with high throughput by scanning many slides at once. For example, we compared brain tumor infiltration and organ distribution of naïve and activated lymphocytes in single animals. High-resolution microscopic examination of the same tissues could be done by a relatively inexpensive modification of an epifluorescence microscope using a custom designed diode laser light source. Light emitting diodes that emit 685 nm and 780 nm light allowed microscopic visualization of the NIR labeled cells in tissues. The NIR dye-labeled cells were visualized with a greater signal/noise ratio compared to visible wavelength dyes such as CFSE, because of the low levels of autofluorescence in the NIR range. We also describe a simple modification of immunohistochemical procedures that allows combined visualization of the hydrophobic NIR dyes and antibody probes of cell markers in unfixed tissue. In combination these techniques will facilitate cell tracking in vivo.

  15. Near-infrared (NIR) optogenetics using up-conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hososhima, Shoko; Yuasa, Hideya; Ishizuka, Toru; Yawo, Hiromu

    2015-03-01

    Non-invasive remote control technologies designed to manipulate neural functions for a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the neuronal network in the brain as well as for the therapy of neurological disorders have long been awaited. Recently, it has become possible to optically manipulate the neuronal activity using biological photo-reactive molecules such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). However, ChR2 and its relatives are mostly reactive to visible light which does not effectively penetrate through biological tissues. In contrast, near-infrared (NIR) light penetrates deep into the tissues because biological systems are almost transparent to light within this so-called `imaging window'. Here we used lanthanide nanoparticles (LNPs), which are composed of rare-earth elements, as luminous bodies to activate channelrhodopsins (ChRs) since they absorb low-energy NIR light to emit high-energy visible light (up-conversion). Neuron-glioma-hybrid ND-7/23 cells were cultured with LNP(NaYF4:Sc/Yb/Er) particles (peak emission, 543 nm) and transfected to express C1V1 (peak absorbance, 539 nm), a chimera of ChR1 and VChR1. The photocurrents were generated in response to NIR laser light (976 nm) to a level comparable to that evoked by a filtered Hg lamp (530-550 nm). NIR light pulses also evoked action potentials in the cultured neurons that expressed C1V1. It is suggested that the green luminescent light emitted from LNPs effectively activated C1V1 to generate the photocurrent. With the optimization of LNPs, acceptor photo-reactive biomolecules and optics, this system could be applied to non-invasively actuate neurons deep in the brain.

  16. Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Liu, Jingjing; Kildishev, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    Noble metals such as gold and silver are conventionally used as the primary plasmonic building blocks of optical metamaterials. Making subwavelength-scale structural elements from these metals not only seriously limits the optical performance of a device due to high absorption, it also substantia....... In this letter, we replace a metal with aluminum-doped zinc oxide as a new plasmonic material and experimentally demonstrate negative refraction in an Al:ZnO/ZnO metamaterial in the near-infrared range....

  17. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring and control of cell culture and fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Petersen, Nanna; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    fusion), and the description of process trajectories. On the basis of the review, we conclude that acceptance of NIR spectroscopy as a standard monitoring tool by the fermentation industry will necessitate considerably more on-line studies using industrially relevant—and highly challenging......Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can potentially provide on-line information on substrate, biomass, product, and metabolite concentrations in fermentation processes, which could be useful for improved monitoring or control. However, several factors can negatively influence the quality...

  18. Near-Infrared Monitoring of Model Chronic Compartment Syndrome In Exercising Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Breit, G. A.; Gross, J. H.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Chance, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) is characterized by muscle ischemia, usually in the anterior oompartment of the leg, caused by high intramuscular pressure during exercise. Dual-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is an optical technique that allows noninvasive tracking of variations in muscle tissue oxygenation (Chance et al., 1988). We hypothesized that with a model CCS, muscle tissue oxygenation will show a greater decline during exercise and a slower recovery post-exercise than under normal conditions.

  19. The use of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in endocrine surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahramangil, Bora; Berber, Eren

    2017-06-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in endocrine surgery is a new, yet highly investigated area. It involves indocyanine green use as well as parathyroid autofluorescence. Several groups have described their technique and reported on the observed utility. However, there is no consensus on technical details. Furthermore, the correlation between intraoperative findings and postoperative outcomes is unclear. With this study, we aim to review the current literature on fluorescence imaging and share our insights on technical details. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Project 1640 Observations of Brown Dwarf GJ 758 B: Near-infrared Spectrum and Atmospheric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R.; Veicht, A.; Giorla Godfrey, P. A.; Rice, E. L.; Aguilar, J.; Pueyo, L.; Roberts, L. C., Jr.; Oppenheimer, R.; Brenner, D.; Luszcz-Cook, S. H.; Bacchus, E.; Beichman, C.; Burruss, R.; Cady, E.; Dekany, R.; Fergus, R.; Hillenbrand, L.; Hinkley, S.; King, D.; Lockhart, T.; Parry, I. R.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soummer, R.; Vasisht, G.; Zhai, C.; Zimmerman, N. T.

    2017-03-01

    The nearby Sun-like star GJ 758 hosts a cold substellar companion, GJ 758 B, at a projected separation of ≲30 au, previously detected in high-contrast multi-band photometric observations. In order to better constrain the companion’s physical characteristics, we acquired the first low-resolution (R ˜ 50) near-infrared spectrum of it using the high-contrast hyperspectral imaging instrument Project 1640 on Palomar Observatory’s 5 m Hale telescope. We obtained simultaneous images in 32 wavelength channels covering the Y, J, and H bands (˜952-1770 nm), and used data processing techniques based on principal component analysis to efficiently subtract chromatic background speckle-noise. GJ 758 B was detected in four epochs during 2013 and 2014. Basic astrometric measurements confirm its apparent northwest trajectory relative to the primary star, with no clear signs of orbital curvature. Spectra of SpeX/IRTF observed T dwarfs were compared to the combined spectrum of GJ 758 B, with χ 2 minimization suggesting a best fit for spectral type T7.0 ± 1.0, but with a shallow minimum over T5-T8. Fitting of synthetic spectra from the BT-Settl13 model atmospheres gives an effective temperature T eff = 741 ± 25 K and surface gravity {log}g=4.3+/- 0.5 dex (cgs). Our derived best-fit spectral type and effective temperature from modeling of the low-resolution spectrum suggest a slightly earlier and hotter companion than previous findings from photometric data, but do not rule out current results, and confirm GJ 758 B as one of the coolest sub-stellar companions to a Sun-like star to date.

  1. Zwitterion functionalized gold nanoclusters for multimodal near infrared fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Danjin; Henry, Maxime; Trouillet, Vanessa; Comby-Zerbino, Clothilde; Bertorelle, Franck; Sancey, Lucie; Antoine, Rodolphe; Coll, Jean-Luc; Josserand, Véronique; Le Guével, Xavier

    2017-05-01

    Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) are an emerging type of theranostic agents combining therapeutic and imaging features with reduced toxicity. Au NCs stabilized by a zwitterion ligand with a fine control of the metal core size and the ligand coverage were synthesized by wet chemistry. Intense fluorescence signal is reported for the highest ligand coverage, whereas photoacoustic signal is stronger for the largest metal core. The best Au NC candidate with an average molecular weight of 17 kDa could be detected with high sensitivity on a 2D-near-infrared imaging instrument (limit of detection (LOD) = 2.3 μ M ) and by photoacoustic imaging. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate an efficient cell uptake in U87 cell lines, a fast renal clearance (t1 /2 α = 6.5 ± 1.3 min), and a good correlation between near infrared fluorescence and photoacoustic measurements to follow the early uptake of Au NCs in liver.

  2. Diagnosis potential of near infrared Mueller Matrix imaging for colonic adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Kan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging along with polar decomposition method was employed for the colonic adenocarcinoma detection by polarized light in the near-infrared spectral range (700-1100 nm). A high-speed (5s) Muller matrix imaging system with dual-rotating waveplates was developed. 16 (4 by 4) full Mueller matrices of the colonic tissues (i.e., normal and caner) were acquired. Polar decomposition was further implemented on the 16 images to derive the diattentuation, depolarization, and the retardance images. The decomposed images showed clear margin between the normal and adenocarcinomaous colon tissue samples. The work shows the potential of near-infrared Mueller matrix imaging for the early diagnosis and detection of malignant lesions in the colon.

  3. Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Gururaj V; Liu, Jingjing; Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2012-06-05

    Noble metals such as gold and silver are conventionally used as the primary plasmonic building blocks of optical metamaterials. Making subwavelength-scale structural elements from these metals not only seriously limits the optical performance of a device due to high absorption, it also substantially complicates the manufacturing process of nearly all metamaterial devices in the optical wavelength range. As an alternative to noble metals, we propose to use heavily doped oxide semiconductors that offer both functional and fabrication advantages in the near-infrared wavelength range. In this letter, we replace a metal with aluminum-doped zinc oxide as a new plasmonic material and experimentally demonstrate negative refraction in an Al:ZnO/ZnO metamaterial in the near-infrared range.

  4. Human milk macronutrient analysis using point-of-care near-infrared spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, C W; Kim, J H

    2011-05-01

    To demonstrate that the real-time nutritional analysis of human milk carbohydrate, fat and protein with near-infrared (NIR) spectrophotometric methods is accurate. A prospective study of the measurement of the macronutrient content of human milk. Milk was first analyzed on the SpectraStar 2400 Near Infrared Analyzer (Unity Scientific, Columbia, MD, USA), and then sent for primary chemical analysis for fat, protein and carbohydrate. Forty-two samples were used to create a calibration file. Ten samples were then used to validate the machine. After logistic regression analysis, the validation set had a correlation (r (2)) of 0.91 for carbohydrates, 0.95 for fat and 0.95 for protein. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the use of NIR for nutrient analysis of human milk. NIR offers the potential for analysis and adjustable fortification of human milk to optimize nutrient intake for the high-risk neonate.

  5. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy technology (NIRS) in forage field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Bai, Shi-Qie; Yan, Jia-Jun; Gan, You-Min; Dao, Zhi-Xue

    2012-07-01

    The majority of nutrients in ruminants and other herbivores come from forages. Forage quality not only affects the growth and production efficiency of livestock, but also determines the final output and quality of livestock products. Forage quality mainly depends on nutrient concentrations and their digestibility, palatability and the level of presence of antiquality factors and mycotoxins in forage. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used in many research areas because it is a inexpensive, rapid, simple and nondestructive technique offering the potential for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The present paper briefly introduces the principle and characteristics of NIRS, detailedly expounds the application of NIRS in forage quality. In addition, other applications of near infrared spectroscopy technique in forage are also discussed, including forage breeding, identification of variety and classification by kind. This paper comprehensively reviews the status quo of application of NIRS in forage filed, in order to contribute to promoting development of NIRS in this field in China.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy of 133P/Elst-Pizarro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselot, P.; Dumas, C.; Merlin, F.

    2011-01-01

    Comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro, known to be a main-belt asteroid with a cometary activity, was observed with the near-infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope in J, H, and K bands during its 2007 perihelion passage. The goal of these observations was to attempt detection of water ice absorption bands. We present here the details of the data processing, the results of these observations, and our compositional modeling of the final spectrum. No water ice absorptions were detected within the noise of the spectrum but we show that this spectrum is compatible with a reasonable near-infrared albedo value of 7-10% and a mixture of water ice, black carbon, Tholin and silicates. This interpretation, nevertheless, is not unique.

  7. Near-infrared photodetector with reduced dark current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2012-10-30

    A photodetector is disclosed for the detection of near-infrared light with a wavelength in the range of about 0.9-1.7 microns. The photodetector, which can be formed as either an nBp device or a pBn device on an InP substrate, includes an InGaAs light-absorbing layer, an InAlGaAs graded layer, an InAlAs or InP barrier layer, and an InGaAs contact layer. The photodetector can detect near-infrared light with or without the use of an applied reverse-bias voltage and is useful as an individual photodetector, or to form a focal plane array.

  8. Predicting Digestibilities of Alfalfa Hays with Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David H.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-four alfalfa hays from different cuttings, maturities, and locations were fed to sheep in a digestion study. Subsamples of the hays along with corresponding fecal samples were ground and analyzed for dry matter, (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and permanganate lignin. In vivo digestibility (IVDMD) were also determined fro each hay. The hay and fecal samples were scanned with a near infrared reflectance spectrop...

  9. Near-infrared fundus autoflorescence imaging in solar retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepita, Maciej; Machalińska, Anna; Czepita, Damian

    2017-01-01

    Solar retinopathy is a rare clinical entity caused by photochemical damage to the retinal pigment epithelium layer and photoreceptors of the fovea. Here we describe a case of a 33-year-old female patient diagnosed by near-infrared fundus autofluorescence imaging for signs of damage to the melanosomes of the retinal pigment epithelium of the fovea. The patient was advised to discontinue looking at the sun with the naked eye.

  10. Near-infrared fundus autoflorescence imaging in solar retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czepita, Maciej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar retinopathy is a rare clinical entity caused by photochemical damage to the retinal pigment epithelium layer and photoreceptors of the fovea. Here we describe a case of a 33-year-old female patient diagnosed by near-infrared fundus autofluorescence imaging for signs of damage to the melanosomes of the retinal pigment epithelium of the fovea. The patient was advised to discontinue looking at the sun with the naked eye.

  11. Intrinsic Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Markers of Breast Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Kukreti, Shwayta; Cerussi, Albert; Tromberg, Bruce; Gratton, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    We have discovered quantitative optical biomarkers unique to cancer by developing a double-differential spectroscopic analysis method for near-infrared (NIR, 650–1000 nm) spectra acquired non-invasively from breast tumors. These biomarkers are characterized by specific NIR absorption bands. The double-differential method removes patient specific variations in molecular composition which are not related to cancer, and reveals these specific cancer biomarkers. Based on the spectral regions of a...

  12. Practical guide to interpretive near-infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Workman, Jr, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Containing focused, comprehensive coverage, Practical Guide to Interpretive Near-Infrared Spectroscopy gives you the tools necessary to interpret NIR spectra. The authors present extensive tables, charts, and figures with NIR absorption band assignments and structural information for a broad range of functional groups, organic compounds, and polymers. They include visual spectral representation of all major compound functional groupings and NIR frequency ranges. Organized by functional group type and chemical structure, based on standard compound classification, the chapters are easy to

  13. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  14. Near-infrared to near-infrared upconverting NaYF4:Yb3+,Tm3+ nanoparticles-aptamer-Au nanorods light resonance energy transfer system for the detection of mercuric(II) ions in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Qi; Yuan, Fei; Wang, Shao-Zhen; Xu, Juan; Zhang, Yi-Yan; Wang, Lun

    2013-04-21

    A new luminescence resonant energy transfer (LRET) system has been designed that utilizes near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR upconversion lanthanide nanophosphors (UCNPs) as the donor, and Au nanorods (Au NRs) as the acceptor. The UCNPs were excited by a near-infrared (980 nm) wavelength and also emitted at a near-infrared wavelength (804 nm) using an inexpensive infrared continuous wave laser diode. The Au NRs showed a high absorption band around 806 nm, which provided large spectral overlap between the donor and the acceptor. Hg(2+) ions were added to an aqueous solution containing the UCNPs and Au NRs that were modified with a Hg(2+) aptamer. Then, a sandwich-type LRET system was developed for the detection of Hg(2+) ions that had high sensitivity and selectivity in the NIR region. The method was successfully applied to the sensing of Hg(2+) ions in water and human serum samples.

  15. In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging in the Second Near-Infrared Window Using Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    In vivo fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II window, 1000-1700 nm) is a powerful imaging technique that emerged in recent years. This imaging tool allows for noninvasive, deep-tissue visualization and interrogation of anatomical features and functions with improved imaging resolution and contrast at greater tissue penetration depths than traditional fluorescence imaging. Here, we present the detailed protocol for conducting NIR-II fluorescence imaging in live animals, including the procedures for preparation of biocompatible and NIR-II fluorescent carbon nanotube solution, live animal administration and NIR-II fluorescence image acquisition.

  16. Ratiometric near infrared luminescent thermometer based on lanthanide metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Dian; Lian, Xiusheng; Cui, Yuanjing, E-mail: cuiyj@zju.edu.cn; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong, E-mail: gdqian@zju.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    A near infrared luminescent MOFs thermometer (Nd{sub 0.676}Yb{sub 0.324}BTC) was prepared via a simple solvothermal method using Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Nd, Yb) ions and 1, 3, 5-benznenetricarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}BTC), and characterized by PXRD, TGA, ICP, and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. These results indicate that the Nd{sub 0.676}Yb{sub 0.324}BTC displays high relative sensitivity and excellent repeatability in the physiological temperature range (288–323 K), and the maximum relative sensitivity is determined to be 1.187% K{sup −1} at 323 K. These NIR luminescent MOFs may have potential applications in physiological temperature sensing. - Graphical abstract: A near infrared luminescent MOFs thermometer (Nd{sub 0.054}Yb{sub 0.946}BTC ) displays high relative sensitivity and excellent repeatability in the physiological temperature range (288–323 K). Display Omitted - Highlights: • A ratiometric near infrared luminescent MOFs thermometer (Nd{sub 0.676}Yb{sub 0.324}BTC) was prepared via a simple solvothermal method. • The maximum relative sensitivity of Nd{sub 0.676}Yb{sub 0.324}BTC is determined to be 1.187% K{sup −1} at 323 K. • Nd{sub 0.676}Yb{sub 0.324}BTC showed excellent repeatability in the physiological temperature range (288–323 K).

  17. In Vivo Near-Infrared Photodynamic Therapy Based on Targeted Upconversion Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiguo; Wei, Yanchun; Chen, Qun; Xing, Da

    2015-11-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles have shown to be a promising prospect for biological detection and photodynamic therapy (PDT). The focus of this study was to develop an upconversion nanoparticle modified with a targeting peptide and photosensitizer for near-infrared photodynamic therapy. To produce a tumor-targeting nanophotosensitizer with near-infrared excitation, NaYF4:Yb/Er upconversion nanoparticles were first wrapped with O-carboxymethyl chitosan to develop an upconversion rianoplatform and then chemically conjugated with the photosensitizer pyropheophorbide-a (Ppa) and RGD peptide c(RGDyK). The nanoparticle exhibited low dark toxicity and high biocompatibility. When injected into the tail vein of tumor-bearing U87-MG mice, UCNP-Ppa-RGD revealed an enhanced tumor-specific biodistribution and successful therapeutic effect following near-infrared laser irradiation. It possessed a significantly deeper therapeutic depth compared with conventional visible light triggered PDT using Ppa. The results suggest that the nanoplatform has advantages in the spectral application, and the constructed tumor-specific nanoparticle shows high clinical potential to serve not only as a photodynamic imaging reagent but also as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of large or deeply seated tumors.

  18. High-resolution multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    This review focuses on multimodal multiphoton tomography based on near infrared femtosecond lasers. Clinical multiphoton tomographs for 3D high-resolution in vivo imaging have been placed into the market several years ago. The second generation of this Prism-Award winning High-Tech skin imaging tool (MPTflex) was introduced in 2010. The same year, the world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph. In particular, non-fluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen has been imaged with submicron resolution in patients suffering from psoriasis. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution wide-field systems such as ultrasound, optoacoustical, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer, optimization of treatment strategies, and cosmetic research including long-term testing of sunscreen nanoparticles as well as anti-aging products.

  19. A correlated-k model of radiative transfer in the near-infrared windows of Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.C.C. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxon OX1 3BH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: con@atm.ox.ac.uk; Irwin, P.G.J.; Taylor, F.W.; Wilson, C.F. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, Oxon OX1 3BH (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    We present a correlated-k-based model for generating synthetic spectra in the near-infrared window regions, from 1.0 to 2.5 {mu}m, emitted from the deep atmosphere of Venus on the nightside. This approach is applicable for use with any near-infrared instrument, ground-based and space-borne, for analysis of the thermal emissions in this spectral range. We also approach this work with the view of using the model, in conjunction with a retrieval algorithm, to retrieve minor species from the Venus Express/VIRTIS instrument. An existing radiative-transfer model was adapted for Venusian conditions to deal with the prevailing high pressures and temperatures and other conditions. A comprehensive four-modal cloud structure model based on Pollack et al. [Near-infrared light from venus' nightside: a spectroscopic analysis. Icarus 1993;103:1-42], using refractive indices for a 75% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}25% H{sub 2}O mixture from Palmer and Williams [Optical constants of sulfuric acid; application to the clouds of Venus? Appl Opt 1975;14(1):208-19], was also implemented. We then utilized a Mie scattering algorithm to account for the multiple scattering effect between cloud and haze layers that occur in the Venusian atmosphere. The correlated-k model is shown to produce good agreement with ground-based spectra of Venus in the near infrared, and to match the output from a line-by-line radiative-transfer model to better than 10%.

  20. The nature of extreme emission line galaxies at z = 1-2: kinematics and metallicities from near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maseda, Michael V.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Momcheva, Ivelina; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Nelson, Erica J. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Förster-Schreiber, Natascha M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koo, David C. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lundgren, Britt F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Physics and Astronomy Department, Tufts University, Robinson Hall, Room 257, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Patel, Shannon G., E-mail: maseda@mpia.de [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2014-08-10

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy of a sample of 22 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies at redshifts 1.3 < z < 2.3, confirming that these are low-mass (M{sub *} = 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}) galaxies undergoing intense starburst episodes (M{sub *}/SFR ∼ 10-100 Myr). The sample is selected by [O III] or Hα emission line flux and equivalent width using near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the 3D-HST survey. High-resolution NIR spectroscopy is obtained with LBT/LUCI and VLT/X-SHOOTER. The [O III]/Hβ line ratio is high (≳ 5) and [N II]/Hα is always significantly below unity, which suggests a low gas-phase metallicity. We are able to determine gas-phase metallicities for seven of our objects using various strong-line methods, with values in the range 0.05-0.30 Z{sub ☉} and with a median of 0.15 Z{sub ☉}; for three of these objects we detect [O III] λ4363, which allows for a direct constraint on the metallicity. The velocity dispersion, as measured from the nebular emission lines, is typically ∼50 km s{sup –1}. Combined with the observed star-forming activity, the Jeans and Toomre stability criteria imply that the gas fraction must be large (f{sub gas} ≳ 2/3), consistent with the difference between our dynamical and stellar mass estimates. The implied gas depletion timescale (several hundred Myr) is substantially longer than the inferred mass-weighted ages (∼50 Myr), which further supports the emerging picture that most stars in low-mass galaxies form in short, intense bursts of star formation.

  1. Evaluating oral epithelial dysplasia classification system by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Gu, Zhi-Yu; Yan, Kai-Xiao; Wen, Zhi-Ning; Zhao, Zhi-He; Li, Long-Jiang; Li, Yi

    2017-09-29

    Until now, the classification system of oral epithelial dysplasia is still based on the architectural and cytological changes, which relies on the observation of pathologists and is relatively subjective. The purpose of present research was to discriminate the oral dysplasia by the near-infrared Raman spectroscope, in order to evaluate the classification system. We collected Raman spectra of normal mucosa, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and dysplasia by near-infrared Raman spectroscope. The biochemical variations between different stages were analyzed by the characteristic peaks in the subtracted mean spectra. Gaussian radial basis function support vector machines (SVM) were used to establish the diagnostic models. At the same time, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to verify the results of SVM. Raman spectral differences were observed in the range between 730~1913 cm-1. Compared with normal mucosa, high contents of protein and DNA in oral dysplasia and OSCC were observed. There were no significant or gradual variation of Raman peaks among different dysplastic grades. The accuracies of comparison between mild, moderate, severe dysplasia with OSCC were 100%, 44.44%, 71.15%, which elucidated the low modeling ability of support vector machines, especially for the moderate dysplasia. The analysis by PCA-LDA could not discriminate the stages, either. Combined with support vector machines, near-infrared Raman spectroscopy could detect the biochemical variations in oral normal, OSCC and dysplastic tissues, but could not establish diagnostic model accurately. The classification system needs further improvements.

  2. Near infrared spectroscopy in animal science production: principles and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Riovanto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR is one of the techniques belonging to vibrational spectroscopy. Its radiation (750 to 2500nm interacts with organic matter, and the absorption spectrum is rich in chemical and physical information of organic molecules. In order to extract valuable information on the chemical properties of samples, it is necessary to mathematically process spectral data by chemometric tools. The most important part in the development of an NIR method is building the predicting model generally called calibration. NIR spectroscopy has several advantages over other analytical techniques: rapidity of analysis, no use of chemicals, minimal or no samples preparation, easily applicable in different work environments (on/in/at line applications. On the other hand, NIR spectroscopy has some disadvantages: low ability to predict compounds at low concentration (<0.1%, necessity of accurate analysis as reference, development of calibration models required high trained personnel, need of a large and up-to-date calibration data set (often difficult to obtain, difficulties to transfer calibration among instruments, initial high financial investments. In the feed industry, NIR spectroscopy is used for: feed composition, digestibility (in vivo, in vitro, in situ, traceability assessment (to avoid possible frauds. As far as animal products are concerned, NIR spectroscopy has been used to determine the main composition of meat, milk, fish, cheese, eggs. Furthermore, it was also used to predict some physical properties (tenderness, WHC (Water Holding Capacity, drip loss, colour and pH in meat; coagulation ability in milk; freshness, flavour and other sensorial parameters in cheese. Interesting applications of NIR spectroscopy regard issues like: determination of animal products’ authenticity and the detection of adulteration (in order to prevent frauds, discrimination PDO (Protected Designation of Origin and PGI (Protected Geographical Indication from other non

  3. High-Resolution Infrared Imaging of Young Outflow-Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibisch, Thomas; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd

    For a better understanding of the mechanisms by which jets and outflows from young stellar objects are generated accelerated and collimated it is essential to look as close as possible to their launching point at the disk/star boundary. High-spatial resolution is therefore of crucial importance for further progress in this field. In this contribution we present recent results from our near-infrared bispectrum speckle interferometry studies of several outflow sources. With a spatial resolution of up to 0.055'' our images have the highest spatial resolution achieved so far for these objects and exhibit previously unseen complex structures. Our results include the identification of two distinct bipolar outflow systems originating simultaneously from the protostar S140 IRS1 the detection of an episodic precessing jet from S140 IRS3 and the discovery of a micro-jet from one of the embedded sources in Mon R2 IRS3. We will also discuss the relation of the observed circumstellar structures to the jets and outflows from the young stellar objects

  4. Synthesis of luminescent near-infrared AgInS2 nanocrystals as optical probes for in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liwei; Hu, Rui; Roy, Indrajit; Lin, Guimiao; Ye, Ling; Reynolds, Jessica L; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jing; Schwartz, Stanley A; Zhang, Xihe; Yong, Ken-Tye

    2013-01-01

    Near infrared quantum dots have been receiving great attention as fluorescent optical probes for in vivo imaging applications. In this contribution, we report the synthesis and surface functionalization of cadmium free ternary AgInS2 nanocrystals emitting in the near infrared range for successful in vitro and in vivo bioimaging applications. The FDA approved triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 was used to encapsulate the nanocrystals and made them dispersible in aqueous solution. By employing a whole body small animal optical imaging setup, we were able to use the AgInS2 nanocrystals formulation for passive targeted delivery to the tumor site. The ultra-small crystal size, near-infrared emitting luminescence, and high quantum yield make the AgInS2 nanocrystals an attractive candidate as a biological contrast agent for cancer sensing and imaging.

  5. Modeling of complex viscosity changes in the curing of epoxy resins from near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, M; Larrechi, M S; Rius, F X

    2004-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the changes in complex viscosity and near-infrared spectra. Principal component regression analysis is applied to a near-infrared data set obtained from the in situ monitoring of the curing of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A with the diamine 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane. The values of complex viscosity obtained by dynamic mechanical analysis during the cure process were used as a reference. The near-infrared spectra recorded throughout the reaction, unlike the univariate data analysis at some wavelengths of the spectra, contain a sufficient amount of information to estimate the complex viscosity. The relationship found was high and the results demonstrate the quality of the fitted model. Also, a simple user-friendly procedure for applying the model, focused on the user, is shown.

  6. Tree health monitoring: perspectives from the visible and near infrared remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonthier P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, we present a critical review of those optical remote sensing techniques operating with the visible (VIS and near infrared (NIR bands for the assessment of health in forest trees. Physical, biological and physio-pathological issues of VIS-NIR reflectance of leaves are described pointing out that a decrease of NIR reflectance is highly influenced by stress conditions on tree caused by abiotic and biotic factors. In many cases the NIR spectral band is more sensitive than the VIS one, allowing to detect plant stress long before the appearance of visible symptoms. A description of the main remote sensing methods is provided, including radiometric measurements and multispectral imaging approaches. False colour infrared (FCIR images collection and their photointerpretation and processing are shown as they represent the most relevant means to acquire information of canopy from its reflectance properties. The amount and the quality of the obtainable data depend on: (i field conditions; (ii the type of the adopted instrument (camera, radiometer; (iii the recording system position (ground platforms, aircraft, satellite; (iv the format of the data (analogical, digitalised or digital; and (v the photointerpretation technique. Results from literature are discussed stressing the limits of remote sensing methods. Remote sensing in VIS and NIR spectral bands is generally a powerful classification tool to detect and score tree stress. Nevertheless, it is not a diagnostic tool in that it does not provide information on the cause of stress. Moreover, the method should be adequately tested at single tree level for many important pathogens, in particular root rot, butt rot and stem rot fungi. In perspective, new high spatial resolution satellite images and their GIS software elaboration might be suitable to improve remote sensing analysis.

  7. NEAR INFRARED DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS TOWARD THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, Satoshi; Kondo, Sohei; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kawakita, Hideyo [Laboratory of Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy, Koyama Astronomical Observatory, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Naoto [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ikeda, Yuji [Photocoding, 460-102 Iwakura-Nakamachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-0025 (Japan); Yasui, Chikako; Mizumoto, Misaki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Fukue, Kei; Yamamoto, Ryo; Izumi, Natsuko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mito, Hiroyuki [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 10762-30 Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, Nagano, 397-0101 (Japan); Nakaoka, Tetsuya; Kawanishi, Takafumi; Kitano, Ayaka; Otsubo, Shogo [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Kinoshita, Masaomi, E-mail: hamano@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    We obtained the near-infrared (NIR) high-resolution (R ≡ λ/Δλ ∼ 20,000) spectra of the seven brightest early-type stars in the Cygnus OB2 association for investigating the environmental dependence of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). The WINERED spectrograph mounted on the Araki 1.3 m telescope in Japan was used to collect data. All 20 of the known DIBs within the wavelength coverage of WINERED (0.91 < λ < 1.36 μm) were clearly detected along all lines of sight because of their high flux density in the NIR wavelength range and the large extinction. The equivalent widths (EWs) of DIBs were not correlated with the column densities of C{sub 2} molecules, which trace the patchy dense component, suggesting that the NIR DIB carriers are distributed mainly in the diffuse component. On the basis of the correlations among the NIR DIBs both for stars in Cyg OB2 and stars observed previously, λλ10780, 10792, 11797, 12623, and 13175 are found to constitute a “family,” in which the DIBs are correlated well over the wide EW range. In contrast, the EW of λ10504 is found to remain almost constant over the stars in Cyg OB2. The extinction estimated from the average EW of λ10504 (A{sub V} ∼ 3.6 mag) roughly corresponds to the lower limit of the extinction distribution of OB stars in Cyg OB2. This suggests that λ10504 is absorbed only by the foreground clouds, implying that the carrier of λ10504 is completely destroyed in Cyg OB2, probably by the strong UV radiation field. The different behaviors of the DIBs may be caused by different properties of the DIB carriers.

  8. [Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning-ning; Shen, Bing-hui; Guan, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zhu, Ye-wei; Zhang, Lu-da; Yan, Yan-lu; Zheng, Yu-yan; Dong, Cheng-yu; Kang, Ding-ming

    2015-08-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu, Yili, Wandashan were taken as testing samples. Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient, which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch, was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model. To those 32 samples, the reflecting spectrum characteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd. USA were collected for five repeats in five different days. The time span was nearly two months. Firstly, we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis. The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model. When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR (Correct Acceptance Rate) and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate), the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovementioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR-T) and CRR threshold (CRR-T). CAR means the correct rate of accepting a sample which is belong to itself, CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself. The results were shown that, when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trademark milk powders, respectively, if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day, both the CAR-T and CRR-T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0.1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day. The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result. In addition, when we ignored the trademarks, put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trademarks milk powder together

  9. [Application of near-infrared spectroscopy technology in quality control of TCM manufacturing process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yaosheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jianjun

    2011-09-01

    With the development of research in near-infrared spectroscopy technology, near-infrared spectroscopy are increasingly employed in quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing process. The recent researches in relative field were summarized in this paper. Perspective of near-infrared spectroscopy technology in quality control of TCM manufacturing process was also presented in this paper.

  10. Near infrared fluorescence imaging of rabbit thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antakia, Ramez; Gayet, Pascal; Guillermet, Stephanie; Stephenson, Tim J; Brown, Nicola J; Harrison, Barney J; Balasubramanian, Saba P

    2014-12-01

    Near infrared fluorescence imaging using intravenous methylene blue (MB) is a novel technique that has potential to aid the parathyroid gland (PG) localization during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. The aim of this study was to examine MB fluorescence in the rabbit neck and determine the influence of MB dose and time following administration on fluorescence from thyroid and PGs. Thyroid and external PGs were exposed in six New Zealand white rabbits under anesthesia. Varying doses of MB (0.025-3 mg/kg) were injected through the marginal ear vein. Near infrared fluorescence from exposed tissues was recorded at different time intervals (10-74 min) using Fluobeam 700. Specimens of identified glands were then resected for histologic assessment. Histology confirmed accurate identification of all excised thyroid and PGs; these were the only neck structures to demonstrate significant fluorescence. The parathyroid demonstrated lower fluorescence intensities and reduced washout times at all MB doses compared with the thyroid gland. A dose of 0.1 mg/kg MB was adequate to identify fluorescence; this also delineated the blood supply of the external PGs. The study demonstrates that near infrared fluorescence with intravenous MB helps differentiate between thyroid and PGs in the rabbit. This has potential to improve outcomes in thyroid and parathyroid surgery by increasing the accuracy of parathyroid identification; however, the findings require replication in human surgery. The use of low doses of MB may also avoid the side effects associated with currently used doses in humans (3-7 mg/kg). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Application of near infrared spectroscopy in analysis of wood properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Sheng; Pu, Jun-wen

    2009-04-01

    There is substantial interest in the improvement of wood properties through genetic selection or a change in silviculture prescription. Tree breeding purpose requires measurement of a large number of samples. However, traditional methods of assessing wood properties are both time consuming and destructive, limiting the numbers of samples that can be processed, so new method would be needed to find. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation of wood and it can quickly, accurately estimate the properties of increment core, solid wood or wood meal. The present paper reviews the advances in the research on the wood chemistry properties and anatomical properties using NIR.

  12. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging for colonic cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaozhuo; Mo, Jianhua; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2008-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a novel optical technique with an ability of probing larger volume of tissues or lesions located in deep tissue areas. An integrated fluorescence and reflectance imaging system was developed to evaluate its potential for cancer diagnosis. The results show that the NIR autofluorescence intensity of normal colon tissues is significantly higher than that of cancer, and the diagnostic accuracy of 92.8% can be achieved using NIR autofluorescence/reflectance imaging. This work demonstrates that NIR autofluorescence/NIR reflectance imaging technique has potential for colonic cancer diagnosis and detection.

  13. Monitoring Key Parameters in Bioprocesses Using Near-Infrared Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is known to be a rapid and non-destructive technique for process monitoring. Bioprocesses are usually complex, from both the chemical (ill-defined medium composition and physical (multiphase matrix aspects, which poses an additional challenge to the development of robust calibrations. We investigated the use of NIRS for on-line and in-line monitoring of cell, substrate and product concentrations, during aerobic and anaerobic bacterial fermentations, in different fermentation strategies. Calibration models were built up, then validated and used for the automated control of fermentation processes. The capability of NIR in-line to discriminate among differently shaped bacteria was tested.

  14. Near-infrared organic materials and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlighting emerging applications of near-infrared (NIR) organic materials that are currently receiving great attention due to their potential use in optical communications, biomedicine, and camouflage materials, this cutting-edge book reviews important recent advances in an accessible style suitable for researchers and graduates in the field on organic/polymer solar cells, optical communications, and advanced optoelectronics. A beacon in the field literature, this comprehensive work discusses several areas of research and development including thermal control and emission detectors in which

  15. Near-infrared tunable lasers with polymer waveguide Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Nam-Seon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Kim, Jun-Whee; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2012-01-16

    Wavelength tunable lasers operating at near infrared (NIR) wavelength are demonstrated through the thermo-optic (TO) refractive index tuning of polymer waveguide Bragg reflectors. The polymer-waveguide device has superior TO efficiency for substantially changing the refractive index, and it enables direct tuning of the Bragg reflection wavelength over a wide range. The waveguide is optimized for NIR wavelengths, and a third-order Bragg reflector is incorporated for facilitating fabrication of the grating. The laser exhibits an output power of 0 dBm, a side-mode suppression ratio of 40 dB, and a tuning range of 21 nm.

  16. Monitoring key parameters in bioprocesses using near-infrared technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola

    2014-10-13

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is known to be a rapid and non-destructive technique for process monitoring. Bioprocesses are usually complex, from both the chemical (ill-defined medium composition) and physical (multiphase matrix) aspects, which poses an additional challenge to the development of robust calibrations. We investigated the use of NIRS for on-line and in-line monitoring of cell, substrate and product concentrations, during aerobic and anaerobic bacterial fermentations, in different fermentation strategies. Calibration models were built up, then validated and used for the automated control of fermentation processes. The capability of NIR in-line to discriminate among differently shaped bacteria was tested.

  17. Ensemble Variability of Near-Infrared-Selected Active Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Kouzuma, Shinjirou; Yamaoka, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    We present the properties of the ensemble variability $V$ for nearly 5000 near-infrared (NIR) AGNs selected from the catalog of Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (13th Ed.) and the SDSS-DR7 quasar catalog. From 2MASS, DENIS, and UKIDSS/LAS point source catalogs, we extract 2MASS-DENIS and 2MASS-UKIDSS counterparts for cataloged AGNs by catalog cross-identification. We further select variable AGNs based on an optimal criterion for selecting the variable sources. The sample objects are divided...

  18. NIRS - Near infrared spectroscopy - investigations in neurovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore and develop methods, where continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) can be applied in different neurovascular diseases, in order to find biological markers that are useful in clinical neurology. To develop a new method to detect changes......, but this requires an acceptable LFOs variation between hemispheres and over time in the healthy brain. The second study therefore investigated day-to-day and hemispheric variations in LFOs with NIRS. It was shown that NIRS might be useful in assessing LFOs between hemispheres, as well as interhemispheric phase...

  19. Imaging bacterial peptidoglycan with near-infrared fluorogenic azide probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Peyton; Siegrist, M. Sloan; Cullen, Andrew J.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent probes designed for activation by bioorthogonal chemistry have enabled the visualization of biomolecules in living systems. Such activatable probes with near-infrared (NIR) emission would be ideal for in vivo imaging but have proven difficult to engineer. We present the development of NIR fluorogenic azide probes based on the Si-rhodamine scaffold that undergo a fluorescence enhancement of up to 48-fold upon reaction with terminal or strained alkynes. We used the probes for mammalian cell surface imaging and, in conjunction with a new class of cyclooctyne d-amino acids, for visualization of bacterial peptidoglycan without the need to wash away unreacted probe. PMID:24706769

  20. Supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. I. Bulge luminosities from dedicated near-infrared data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Läsker, Ronald; Van de Ven, Glenn [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: laesker@mpia.de [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E2E7 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M {sub •}, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L {sub bul}, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M {sub •}, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} relation in a companion paper.

  1. FIRST DETECTION OF NEAR-INFRARED LINE EMISSION FROM ORGANICS IN YOUNG CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bast, Jeanette; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Blake, Geoffrey A. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, MS 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Salyk, Colette, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We present an analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of several bright T Tauri stars using the CRIRES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope and NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck Telescope, revealing the first detections of emission from HCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in circumstellar disks at near-infrared wavelengths. Using advanced data reduction techniques, we achieve a dynamic range with respect to the disk continuum of {approx}500 at 3 {mu}m, revealing multiple emission features of H{sub 2}O, OH, HCN, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. We also present stringent upper limits for two other molecules thought to be abundant in the inner disk, CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}. Line profiles for the different detected molecules are broad but centrally peaked in most cases, even for disks with previously determined inclinations of greater than 20 Degree-Sign , suggesting that the emission has both a Keplerian and non-Keplerian component as observed previously for CO emission. We apply two different modeling strategies to constrain the molecular abundances and temperatures: we use a simplified single-temperature local thermal equilibrium (LTE) slab model with a Gaussian line profile to make line identifications and determine a best-fit temperature and initial abundance ratios, and we compare these values with constraints derived from a detailed disk radiative transfer model assuming LTE excitation but utilizing a realistic temperature and density structure. Abundance ratios from both sets of models are consistent with each other and consistent with expected values from theoretical chemical models, and analysis of the line shapes suggests that the molecular emission originates from within a narrow region in the inner disk (R < 1 AU).

  2. Inferring deep-brain activity from cortical activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Cui, Xu; Bryant, Daniel M.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly popular technology for studying brain function because it is non-invasive, non-irradiating and relatively inexpensive. Further, fNIRS potentially allows measurement of hemodynamic activity with high temporal resolution (milliseconds) and in naturalistic settings. However, in comparison with other imaging modalities, namely fMRI, fNIRS has a significant drawback: limited sensitivity to hemodynamic changes in deep-brain regions. To overcome this limitation, we developed a computational method to infer deep-brain activity using fNIRS measurements of cortical activity. Using simultaneous fNIRS and fMRI, we measured brain activity in 17 participants as they completed three cognitive tasks. A support vector regression (SVR) learning algorithm was used to predict activity in twelve deep-brain regions using information from surface fNIRS measurements. We compared these predictions against actual fMRI-measured activity using Pearson’s correlation to quantify prediction performance. To provide a benchmark for comparison, we also used fMRI measurements of cortical activity to infer deep-brain activity. When using fMRI-measured activity from the entire cortex, we were able to predict deep-brain activity in the fusiform cortex with an average correlation coefficient of 0.80 and in all deep-brain regions with an average correlation coefficient of 0.67. The top 15% of predictions using fNIRS signal achieved an accuracy of 0.7. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the feasibility of using cortical activity to infer deep-brain activity. This new method has the potential to extend fNIRS applications in cognitive and clinical neuroscience research. PMID:25798327

  3. Laboratory oscillator strengths of Sc i in the near-infrared region for astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, A.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Atomic data is crucial for astrophysical investigations. To understand the formation and evolution of stars, we need to analyse their observed spectra. Analysing a spectrum of a star requires information about the properties of atomic lines, such as wavelengths and oscillator strengths. However, atomic data of some elements are scarce, particularly in the infrared region, and this paper is part of an effort to improve the situation on near-IR atomic data. Aims: This paper investigates the spectrum of neutral scandium, Sc I, from laboratory measurements and improves the atomic data of Sc I lines in the infrared region covering lines in R, I, J, and K bands. Especially, we focus on measuring oscillator strengths for Sc I lines connecting the levels with 4p and 4s configurations. Methods: We combined experimental branching fractions with radiative lifetimes from the literature to derive oscillator strengths (f-values). Intensity-calibrated spectra with high spectral resolution were recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer from a hollow cathode discharge lamp. The spectra were used to derive accurate oscillator strengths and wavelengths for Sc I lines, with emphasis on the infrared region. Results: This project provides the first set of experimental Sc I lines in the near-infrared region for accurate spectral analysis of astronomical objects. We derived 63 log(gf) values for the lines between 5300 Å and 24 300 Å. The uncertainties in the f-values vary from 5% to 20%. The small uncertainties in our values allow for an increased accuracy in astrophysical abundance determinations.

  4. High resolution signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Donald W.

    1993-08-01

    Motivated by the goal of efficient, effective, high-speed integrated-circuit realization, we have discovered an algorithm for high speed Fourier analysis called the Arithmetic Fourier Transform (AFT). It is based on the number-theoretic method of Mobius inversion, a method that is well suited for integrated-circuit realization. The computation of the AFT can be carried out in parallel, pipelined channels, and the individual operations are very simple to execute and control. Except for a single scaling in each channel, all the operations are additions or subtractions. Thus, it can reduce the required power, volume, and cost. Also, analog switched-capacitor realizations of the AFT have been studied. We have also analyzed the performance of a broad and useful class of data adaptive signal estimation algorithms. This in turn has led to our proposed improvements in the methods. We have used perturbation analysis of the rank-reduced data matrix to calculate its statistical properties. The improvements made have been demonstrated by computer simulation as well as by comparison with the Cramer-Rao Bound.

  5. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  6. Near infrared measurment of cotton fiber micronaire by portable near infrared instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton production and usage is a global enterprise, and the export of U.S. cotton has increased dramatically. In the U.S., cotton is classed (and its primary quality parameters determined) by the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), which must be maintained under tightly controlled laboratory envir...

  7. Near-infrared neuroimaging with NinPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Strangman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial recent growth in the use of non-invasive optical brain imaging in studies of human brain function in health and disease. Near-infrared neuroimaging (NIN is one of the most promising of these techniques and, although NIN hardware continues to evolve at a rapid pace, software tools supporting optical data acquisition, image processing, statistical modeling and visualization remain less refined. Python, a modular and computationally efficient development language, can support functional neuroimaging studies of diverse design and implementation. In particular, Python's easily readable syntax and modular architecture allow swift prototyping followed by efficient transition to stable production systems. As an introduction to our ongoing efforts to develop Python software tools for structural and functional neuroimaging, we discuss: (i the role of noninvasive diffuse optical imaging in measuring brain function, (ii the key computational requirements to support NIN experiments, (iii our collection of software tools to support near-infrared neuroimaging, called NinPy, and (iv future extensions of these tools that will allow integration of optical with other structural and functional neuroimaging data sources. Source code for the software discussed here will be made available at www.nmr.mgh.harvard.edu/Neural_SystemsGroup/software.html.

  8. NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer on Hayabusa2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takahiro; Kitazato, Kohei; Abe, Masanao; Ohtake, Makiko; Arai, Takehiko; Arai, Tomoko; Hirata, Naru; Hiroi, Takahiro; Honda, Chikatoshi; Imae, Naoya; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Matsuoka, Moe; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nakato, Aiko; Nakauchi, Yusuke; Osawa, Takahito; Senshu, Hiroki; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Tsumura, Kohji; Takato, Naruhisa; Watanabe, Sei-ichiro; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Palomba, Ernesto; Ozaki, Masanobu

    2017-07-01

    NIRS3: The Near Infrared Spectrometer is installed on the Hayabusa2 spacecraft to observe the target C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu at near infrared wavelengths of 1.8 to 3.2 μm. It aims to obtain reflectance spectra in order to detect absorption bands of hydrated and hydroxide minerals in the 3 μm-band. We adopted a linear-image sensor with indium arsenide (InAs) photo diodes and a cooling system with a passive radiator to achieve an optics temperature of 188 K (-85°C), which enables to retaining sufficient sensitivity and noise level in the 3 μm wavelength region. We conducted ground performance tests for the NIRS3 flight model (FM) to confirm its baseline specifications. The results imply that the properties such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conform to scientific requirements to determine the degree of aqueous alteration, such as CM or CI chondrite, and the stage of thermal metamorphism on the asteroid surface.

  9. Patient identification using a near-infrared laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manit, Jirapong; Bremer, Christina; Schweikard, Achim; Ernst, Floris

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new biometric approach where the tissue thickness of a person's forehead is used as a biometric feature. Given that the spatial registration of two 3D laser scans of the same human face usually produces a low error value, the principle of point cloud registration and its error metric can be applied to human classification techniques. However, by only considering the spatial error, it is not possible to reliably verify a person's identity. We propose to use a novel near-infrared laser-based head tracking system to determine an additional feature, the tissue thickness, and include this in the error metric. Using MRI as a ground truth, data from the foreheads of 30 subjects was collected from which a 4D reference point cloud was created for each subject. The measurements from the near-infrared system were registered with all reference point clouds using the ICP algorithm. Afterwards, the spatial and tissue thickness errors were extracted, forming a 2D feature space. For all subjects, the lowest feature distance resulted from the registration of a measurement and the reference point cloud of the same person. The combined registration error features yielded two clusters in the feature space, one from the same subject and another from the other subjects. When only the tissue thickness error was considered, these clusters were less distinct but still present. These findings could help to raise safety standards for head and neck cancer patients and lays the foundation for a future human identification technique.

  10. Influence of earlobe thickness on near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Wang, Tianpei; Li, Si; Li, Lin; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been recognized as a potential technology for noninvasive blood glucose sensing. However, the detected spectral signal is unstable mainly because of (1) the weak light absorption of glucose itself within NIR range, (2) the influence of temperature and individual differences of biotissue. Our previous results demonstrated that the synergistic effect of both transmittance and reflectance could enhance the strength of the detection signal. In this talk, we design a set of experiments to analyze the effect of earlobe thickness on Near Infrared spectroscopic measurement by using home-made optical fiber probe within the wavelength of 1000-1600nm. Firstly, we made a MC simulation of single-layer skin model and five-layer skin model to get the diffused transmittance spectra and diffused reflectance spectra under different optaical path lengths. And then we obtain the spectra of the earlobes from different volunteers by the same way. The experimental results showed that with the increase of the thickness,the light intensity of diffused transmittance decreases, and the light intensity of diffused reflectance remaines substantially unchanged.

  11. Length-free near infrared measurement of newborn malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Fatin Hamimi; Bek, Emily J.; Huvanandana, Jacqueline; Jones, Peter W.; Carberry, Angela E.; Jeffery, Heather E.; Jin, Craig T.; McEwan, Alistair L.

    2016-11-01

    Under-nutrition in neonates can cause immediate mortality, impaired cognitive development and early onset adult disease. Body fat percentage measured using air-displacement-plethysmography has been found to better indicate under-nutrition than conventional birth weight percentiles. However, air-displacement-plethysmography equipment is expensive and non-portable, so is not suited for use in developing communities where the burden is often the greatest. We proposed a new body fat measurement technique using a length-free model with near-infrared spectroscopy measurements on a single site of the body - the thigh. To remove the need for length measurement, we developed a model with five discrete wavelengths and a sex parameter. The model was developed using air-displacement-plethysmography measurements in 52 neonates within 48 hours of birth. We identified instrumentation required in a low-cost LED-based screening device and incorporated a receptor device that can increase the amount of light collected. This near-infrared method may be suitable as a low cost screening tool for detecting body fat levels and monitoring nutritional interventions for malnutrition in neonates and young children in resource-constrained communities.

  12. Prediction of Canola Residue Characteristics Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami L. Stubbs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been done to characterize and quantify the residue traits affecting decomposition of winter and spring canola (Brassica napus L. residue in dryland farming systems of the Pacific Northwest United States. Traditional methods of characterizing residue fiber and nutrients are time-consuming and expensive and require large quantities of chemical reagents. The goal of this research was to determine whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS could accurately predict neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL, carbon (C, and nitrogen (N of canola stems, litter, and roots and decomposition of canola stems. Canola residue varied in decomposition, fiber, and nutrients by year, location, and type. NIRS predictions were successful for NDF and ADF in 2011 (standard error of prediction SEP0.95 and NDF, ADF, and N in 2012 (SEP0.91. Other predictions for residue fiber and nutrient characteristics were considered moderately successful. Prediction of canola residue decomposition with NIRS was useful for screening purposes. Near-infrared spectroscopy shows promise for rapidly and reproducibly predicting some canola residue fiber and nutrient traits and may be useful for estimating residue decomposition potential in dryland conservation cropping systems.

  13. Near-Infrared Camera Calibration for Optical Surgical Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ken; Yang, Rongqian; Lin, Qinyong; Liu, Sujuan; Chen, Huazhou; Ou, Shanxing; Huang, Wenhua; Zhou, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared optical tracking devices, which are important components of surgical navigation systems, need to be calibrated for effective tracking. The calibration results has a direct influence on the tracking accuracy of an entire system. Therefore, the study of calibration techniques is of theoretical significance and practical value. In the present work, a systematic calibration method based on movable plates is established, which analyzes existing calibration theories and implements methods using calibration reference objects. First, the distortion model of near-infrared cameras (NICs) is analyzed in the implementation of this method. Second, the calibration images from different positions and orientations are used to establish the required linear equations. The initial values of the NIC parameters are calculated with the direct linear transformation method. Finally, the accurate internal and external parameters of the NICs are obtained by conducting nonlinear optimization. Analysis results show that the relative errors of the left and right NICs in the tracking system are 0.244 and 0.282 % for the focal lengths and 0.735 and 1.111 % for the principal points, respectively. The image residuals of the left and right image sets are both less than 0.01 pixel. The standard error of the calibration result is lower than 1, and the measurement error of the tracking system is less than 0.3 mm. The experimental data show that the proposed method of calibrating NICs is effective and can generate favorable calibration results.

  14. Near Infrared Spectroscopy: fundamentals, practical aspects and analytical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini Celio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to review the basic theory of Near Infrared (NIR Spectroscopy and its applications in the field of Analytical Science. It is addressed to the reader who does not have a profound knowledge of vibrational spectroscopy but wants to be introduced to the analytical potentialities of this fascinating technique and, at same time, be conscious of its limitations. Essential theory background, an outline of modern instrument design, practical aspects, and applications in a number of different fields are presented. This work does not intend to supply an intensive bibliography but refers to the most recent, significant and representative material found in the technical literature. Because this paper has been produced as consequence of the First Workshop on Near Infrared Spectroscopy, whose venue was Campinas - Brazil, as a pre-conference activity of the XI National Meeting on Analytical Chemistry (ENQA, it also depicts the state of the art of NIR spectroscopy in Brazil, pointing out the current achievements and the need to take the technology to a level consistent with this country's economical activities.

  15. Near infrared spectroscopy--investigations in neurovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to explore and develop methods, where continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CW-NIRS) can be applied in different neurovascular diseases, in order to find biological markers that are useful in clinical neurology. To develop a new method to detect changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), the first study investigated a multi-source detector separation configuration and indocyanine green (ICG) as a tracer to calculate a corrected blood flow index (BFI) value. The study showed no correlation between CBF changes measured by 133Xenon single photon emission computer tomography (133Xe-SPECT) and the corrected BFI value. It was concluded, that it was not possible to obtain reliable BFI data with the ICG CW-NIRS method. NIRS measurements of low frequency oscillations (LFOs) may be a reliable method to investigate vascular alterations in neurovascular diseases, but this requires an acceptable LFOs variation between hemispheres and over time in the healthy brain. The second study therefore investigated day-to-day and hemispheric variations in LFOs with NIRS. It was shown that NIRS might be useful in assessing LFOs between hemispheres, as well as interhemispheric phase and gain directly and over time. Migraine may be associated with persistent impairment of neurovascular coupling, but there is no experimental evidence to support this. The third study therefore investigated interictal neurovascular coupling during a mental task by a Stroop test in migraine without aura (MO) patients, which is the most common type of migraine. The study showed intact neurovascular coupling in the prefrontal cortex outside of attacks in patients with MO. The fourth study aimed to investigate possible changes in LFOs amplitude following nitric oxide (NO) donor infusion in familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), which is a rare Mendelian subtype of migraine with aura. This study showed increased LFOs amplitude only in FHM patients with co-existing common type of migraine

  16. Versatile visualization of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes with near-infrared fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyboulski, Dmitri A; Bachilo, Sergei M; Weisman, R Bruce

    2005-05-01

    Fluorescence microscopy in the near-infrared between 950 and 1600 nm has been developed as a novel method to image and study single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in a variety of environments. Intrinsic photoluminescence of disaggregated pristine SWNTs was excited by a diode laser and detected with a two-dimensional InGaAs photodiode array. Individual nanotubes were visualized with a spatial resolution of ca. 1 microm and characterized with polarization measurements and emission spectroscopy. Spatially resolved emission spectra allowed (n,m) identification of single nanotubes and revealed small environmentally induced spectral shifts between segments of long tubes. Nanotube motions in aqueous surfactant were visualized with a time resolution of 50 ms and used to estimate the diffusion coefficient.

  17. High Spatiotemporal Resolution Prostate MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0341 TITLE: High Spatiotemporal Resolution Prostate MRI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen J. Riederer, Ph.D...Resolution Prostate MRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0341 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen J. Riederer E-Mail...overall purpose of this project is to develop improved means using MRI for detecting prostate cancer with the potential for differentiating disease

  18. Near-Infrared, Kilosecond Variability of the Wisps And Jet in the Crab Pulsar Wind Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melatos, Andrew; Scheltus, D.; /Melbourne U.; Whiting, M.T.; /New South Wales U.; Eikenberry, S.S.; /Florida U.; Romani, R.W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rigaut, F.; /Gemini; Spitkovsky, A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Arons, J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.; Payne, D.J.B.; /Melbourne U.

    2006-01-11

    We present a time-lapse sequence of 20 near-infrared (J- and K'-band) snapshots of the central 20'' x 20'' of the Crab pulsar wind nebula, taken at sub-arcsecond resolution with the Hokupa'a/QUIRC adaptive optics camera on the Gemini North Telescope, and sampled at intervals of 10 minutes and 24 hours. It is observed that the equatorial wisps and polar knots in the termination shock of the pulsar wind appear to fluctuate in brightness on kilosecond time-scales. Maximum flux variations of {+-}24 {+-} 4 and {+-}14 {+-} 4 per cent relative to the mean (in 1.2 ks) are measured for the wisps and knots respectively, with greatest statistical significance in J band where the nebula background is less prominent. The J and K' flux densities imply different near-infrared spectra for the nonthermal continuum emission from the wisps and outermost polar knot (''sprite''), giving F{sub {nu}} {proportional_to} {nu}{sup -0.56{+-}0.12} and F{sub {nu}} {proportional_to} {nu}{sup -0.21{+-}0.13} respectively. The data are compared with existing optical and UV photometry and applied to constrain theories of the variability of the wisps (relativistic ion-cyclotron instability) and knots (relativistic fire hose instability).

  19. Classification of urea data from a novel near-infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamatianos, Dimitrios; Liatis, Panos; Wellstead, Peter E.

    2005-09-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is being applied to the solution of problems in many areas of biomedical and pharmaceutical research. The need for modern medical diagnostics to develop small portable instruments that enable fast and effective monitoring of the biological properties of the human body is apparent. We have developed a portable and robust spectrometer that consists of a two beam interferometer operating in the near-infrared wavelength range for real-time measurements. The device has limited spectral resolution and so methods of computational intelligence and advanced signal processing have been applied to the NIR data to produce more precise and informative diagnostic information. Our target application concerns blood and tissue status in a form that can be interpreted directly by the user, without special knowledge of spectral analysis. More specifically, theories and methods from the field of machine intelligence (learning algorithms, neural networks, etc.) were first applied to classify in vitro urea samples of different concentrations. The results are encouraging, with overall mean squared prediction errors of less than 10-4, and in vivo trials will follow to further develop the device. Non-intrusive diagnostics of this kind are suitable for point-of-care screening.

  20. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K

    2010-03-26

    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  1. Imaging Snow Stratigraphy Using Near-Infrared Photography and the Spatial Variability of the Snowpack (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebeli, M.

    2009-12-01

    Near-infrared photography measures equivalent optical snow grain diameter (EOD), equivalent to the specific surface area (SSA). Traditionally, snow stratigraphy relies on distinct changes in snow properties, defining layer boundaries. Grain size is used to discriminate layers, but only on discrete points. Hand hardness is the most decisive parameter, which is not necessarily related to EOD. It is well known that properties in a snow profile change usually faster vertically than horizontally. However, processes as erosion by wind, formation of sastrugi, and channeled water flow break up the horizontal layering. In addition, sedimentation and metamorphism often create slowly changing vertical gradients in EOD. Using near-infrared photography, the change in EOD is investigated based on an effective resolution of about 2 x 2 mm in a continuous field, in contrast to a point or gridded sampling grid. Based on images from different seasons and regions, we get a more detailed image how many point measurements are necessary, and how complex EOD is distributed in a snow pack. Questions can be answered like how many samples have to be taken to get an unbiased measurement of SSA and information on the necessary support and sampling size for direct SSA and spectroscopic measurements. In addition, sedimentation and metamorphism can be observed and reconstructed more precisely.

  2. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  3. Near infrared study of the star-forming properties of the Rosette Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.

    The Rosette Complex is one of the most important astrophysical laboratories for the study of star formation. In this region we can study the interaction of an expanding HII region---impulsed by the stellar winds from the large OB association NGC 2244---with a large remnant molecular cloud, which is known to host seven embedded clusters. As part of a large observational program to study the nature of young stellar populations in giant molecular clouds, we made a complete near-infrared imaging survey of the Rosette Complex using the detector FLAMINGOS. This survey is deep enough to detect stars near the brown dwarf limit, improving considerably over available databases. However, given the location of the Rosette Complex at a large distance from the Sun and at a latitude close to the galactic disk, the contamination of the survey data by field populations is high. In order to facilitate the detection of young populations, we combined a selection of cloud members by means of their infrared excess emission with a technique to detect star clusters using distances to nearest neighbors. This way we were able to confirm the seven clusters previously identified, and to discover four new clusters. For every stellar cluster we determined for the first time their approximate extensions and number of members. We found that the fraction of stars in clusters in the Rosette Complex is close to 87%, which is similar to other clouds like Orion. However, the formation of clusters in the Rosette seems to be heavily influenced by the interaction with the expanding nebula, as evidenced by the fact that the core of the molecular cloud, coincident with the shock front of the expanding nebula contains 50% of the total cluster population. The clusters in the core are also more extended and more populated. Our study was complemented with a high resolution millimeter wavelength radio survey of the dense gas emission around the 8 most prominent clusters in the sample. We confirmed that all of

  4. The use of near-infrared spectrometry in the olive oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, S; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2010-06-01

    The enormous possibilities offered by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the (on/in/at-line) quality control process of olive fruits, pastes, and oils are summarized throughout this paper. Special attention has been paid to the combination of NIR and chemometric treatments for the on-line analysis of olive fruits and also for the quality parameters evaluation on olive oils and pastes which can enhance the production of a high quality olive oil and the selection of olive fruit with superior properties. The implementation of NIR sensors in olive mills with successful results has also been reviewed and the commercial olive fruit and oil analyzers highlighted.

  5. Storable near-infrared chemiluminescent probes for in vivo optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley D.

    2011-03-01

    A new class of chemiluminescent and fluorescent dyes and dye-doped nanoparticles can be stored at zero degrees and then made to emit near-infrared light by warming to body temperature (no chemical or electrical stimulus is needed). In vivo chemiluminescence imaging permits identification of target sites that are five times deeper than planar fluorescence imaging. A new imaging paradigm employs the dual modality probes first in high contrast chemiluminescence mode to locate relatively deep anatomical locations in vivo and subsequently in fluorescent mode to identify the microscopic targets within thin histopathology sections taken from the same specimen.

  6. Frequency Selective Surfaces as Near Infrared Electro-Magnetic Filters for Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RF Kristensen; JF Beausang; DM DePoy

    2004-06-28

    Frequency selective surfaces (FSS) effectively filter electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (1 mm to 100 mm). Interest exists in extending this technology to the near infrared (1 {micro}m to 10 {micro}m) for use as a filter of thermal radiation in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. This paper assesses the ability of FSS to meet the strict spectral performance requirements of a TPV system. Inherent parasitic absorption, which is the result of the induced currents in the FSS metallization, is identified as a significant obstacle to achieving high spectral performance.

  7. Frequency Selective Surfaces as Near Infrared Electro-Magnetic Filters for Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan T. Kristensen; John F. Beausang; David M. DePoy

    2003-12-01

    Frequency selective surfaces (FSS) effectively filter electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (1mm to 100mm). Interest exists in extending this technology to the near infrared (1 {micro}m to 10 {micro}m) for use as a filter of thermal radiation in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. This paper assesses the ability of FSS to meet the strict spectral performance requirements of a TPV system. Inherent parasitic absorption, which is the result of the induced currents in the FSS metallization, is identified as a significant obstacle to achieving high spectral performance.

  8. Ratiometric near infrared luminescent thermometer based on lanthanide metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dan; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Dian; Lian, Xiusheng; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2016-09-01

    A near infrared luminescent MOFs thermometer (Nd0.676Yb0.324BTC) was prepared via a simple solvothermal method using Ln3+ (Ln=Nd, Yb) ions and 1, 3, 5-benznenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTC), and characterized by PXRD, TGA, ICP, and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. These results indicate that the Nd0.676Yb0.324BTC displays high relative sensitivity and excellent repeatability in the physiological temperature range (288-323 K), and the maximum relative sensitivity is determined to be 1.187% K-1 at 323 K. These NIR luminescent MOFs may have potential applications in physiological temperature sensing.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring water permeability of optical coatings on plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, U; Kaiser, N

    1997-02-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has been applied to determine the water content of plastic lenses. An analytical method is presented for monitoring the water permeability of thin layers on plastic optics by utilizing the reversible moisture absorption of organic polymers. As an example, scratch-resistant and antireflective layers on poly[diethylenglycol-bis(allylcarbonate)] lenses are investigated. The measurements demonstrate the relatively high water barrier of coatings deposited by plasma-ion-assisted deposition compared with classical physical vapor deposition coatings and polysiloxane dip coatings.

  10. meso-Substituted bisanthenes as soluble and stable near-infrared dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jinling

    2010-02-05

    (Chemical Equation Presented) Three meso-substituted bisanthenes, 4-6, were prepared in a short synthetic route from the bisanthenequinone. They exhibit largely improved stability and solubility in comparison to the parent bisanthene. All of these compounds also show near-infrared (NIR) absorption and emission with high to moderate fluorescence quantum yields. Amphoteric redox behavior was observed for 4-6 by cyclic voltammetry, and these compounds can be reversibly oxidized and reduced into respective cationic and anionic species by both electrochemical and chemical processes. In addition, compound 5 adopts a herringbone π-stacking motif in the single crystal. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Near-Infrared Photoluminescent Polymer-Carbon Nanodots with Two-Photon Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Siyu; Sui, Laizhi; Liu, Junjun; Zhu, Shoujun; Chen, Anmin; Jin, Mingxing; Yang, Bai

    2017-04-01

    Near-infrared-emissive polymer-carbon nanodots (PCNDs) are fabricated by a newly developed facile, high-output strategy. The PCNDs emit at a wavelength of 710 nm with a quantum yield of 26.28%, which is promising for deep biological imaging and luminescent devices. Moreover, the PCNDs possess two-photon fluorescence; in vivo bioimaging and red-light-emitting diodes based on these PCNDs are demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Comparing the rates of absorption and weight loss during a desorption test using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qassem, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2013-05-01

    The importance of determining skin hydration has over the years prompt the development of many instruments and methods, specifically designed to assess this parameter or water contents especially in the stratum corneum, and have greatly matured to suit different anatomical sites and measure multiple attributes. Of those, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) has gained wide interest as a precise, safe, fast and noninvasive technique for determining skin hydration due to its high sensitivity to hydrogen bonding and ability to measure the amount of water in skin directly using the intensities of overtone and combination bands of OH and HOH water bonds occurring in the NIR region, that are good indicators of the state of skin hydration. This paper reports near infrared spectrophotometric measurements using a highly sophisticated spectrophotometer in the region of 1000-2500 nm to study the water uptake and dehydration properties of skin in vitro using samples of porcine skin. Initial results of pure liquid water and skin samples have clearly displayed the prominent bands associated with water content, and desorption tests have been able to verify changes in these bands associated with water content, although a clear correlation between the rates of weight loss and absorbance loss at various hydration periods has not yet been established. These preliminary results are expected to further explain the relationship between water and skin, and its role within, in hope to aid the future development of a portable instrument based on near infrared spectroscopy that would be capable of directly measuring skin hydration and/or water content in a fast and noninvasive manner. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. High Resolution Temperature Measurement of Liquid Stainless Steel Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Devesse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A contactless temperature measurement system is presented based on a hyperspectral line camera that captures the spectra in the visible and near infrared (VNIR region of a large set of closely spaced points. The measured spectra are used in a nonlinear least squares optimization routine to calculate a one-dimensional temperature profile with high spatial resolution. Measurements of a liquid melt pool of AISI 316L stainless steel show that the system is able to determine the absolute temperatures with an accuracy of 10%. The measurements are made with a spatial resolution of 12 µm/pixel, justifying its use in applications where high temperature measurements with high spatial detail are desired, such as in the laser material processing and additive manufacturing fields.

  14. In-flight calibration of SIR near infrared spectrometer onboard SMART-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilenius, E.; Mall, U.; Kaydash, V.

    The near-infrared, point spectrometer SIR onboard the European Space Agency's SMART-1 spacecraft was built by a consortium led by Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany. It covers a spectral range from 934 nm to 2394 nm and surpasses any previous Moon mission in the number of channels and spectral resolution with 256 channels and 6 nm resolution [1]. The field of view is 3.8 arcmin, which translates to a spatial resolution of 330 m from an altitude of 300 km. Analysis of the SIR data will provide surface composition and mineralogy maps of the major minerals as well as information on the effects of space weathering. To obtain reliable results the instrument has been calibrated in a controlled environment at the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in the summer of 2002. The SMART-1 spacecraft was launched in September 2003 and started its scientific mission in February 2005, after 16 months of spiraling orbits, including 150 crossings of Earth's radiation belts. While the tuning of calibration during a mission can be challenging for near infrared instrumentation (as we know from the Clementine mission in 1994 [2]), it has to be assumed that due to the long journey of SMART-1 to the Moon and the thermal cycling involved, the instrument function extracted from preflight calibration of SIR may not represent the current SIR instrument function accurately enough. It therefore has to be systematically compared with in-flight data. In-flight calibration of SIR data can be done by observing Apollo 16 and other sites on the lunar surface, whose near infrared spectrum is known from soil samples or atmosphere corrected telescopic observations. In addition to that, data from the Clementine mission, either by using Clementine's five channels that are within the spectral range of SIR or Clementine UVVIS data for consistency checks can be used as well. We report on various calibration issues of SIR including on comparisons of target tracking observations

  15. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy oximetry in extremely preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Pellicer, Adelina; Alderliesten, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if it is possible to stabilise the cerebral oxygenation of extremely preterm infants monitored by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry. DESIGN: Phase II randomised, single blinded, parallel clinical trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary neonatal intensive care units...... in eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 166 extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation: 86 were randomised to cerebral NIRS monitoring and 80 to blinded NIRS monitoring. The only exclusion criterion was a decision not to provide life support. INTERVENTIONS: Monitoring of cerebral...... with 1.1 (0.1-23.4) %hours in the control group (P=0.98). We found no statistically significant differences between the two groups at term corrected age. No severe adverse reactions were associated with the device. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral oxygenation was stabilised in extremely preterm infants using...

  16. Near-infrared molecular probes for in vivo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Bloch, Sharon; Akers, Walter; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-04-01

    Cellular and tissue imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm is advantageous for in vivo imaging because of the low absorption of biological molecules in this region. This unit presents protocols for small animal imaging using planar and fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques. Included is an overview of NIR fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using NIR organic fluorophores, nanoparticles, and multimodal imaging probes. The development, advantages, and application of NIR fluorescent probes that have been used for in vivo imaging are also summarized. The use of NIR agents in conjunction with visible dyes and considerations in selecting imaging agents are discussed. We conclude with practical considerations for the use of these dyes in cell and small animal imaging applications.

  17. Near-infrared-responsive, superparamagnetic Au@Co nanochains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadee Vittur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes a new type of nanomaterial, namely superparamagnetic Au@Co nanochains with optical extinctions in the near infrared (NIR. The Au@Co nanochains were synthesized via a one-pot galvanic replacement route involving a redox-transmetalation process in aqueous medium, where Au salt was reduced to form Au shells on Co seed templates, affording hollow Au@Co nanochains. The Au shells serve not only as a protective coating for the Co nanochain cores, but also to give rise to the optical properties of these unique nanostructures. Importantly, these bifunctional, magneto-optical Au@Co nanochains combine the advantages of nanophotonics (extinction at ca. 900 nm and nanomagnetism (superparamagnetism and provide a potentially useful new nanoarchitecture for biomedical or catalytic applications that can benefit from both activation by light and manipulation using an external magnetic field.

  18. Deep tissue near-infrared imaging for vascular network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Seker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous vein network plays important roles to maintain microcirculation that is related to some diagnostic aspects. Despite developments of optical imaging technologies, still the difficulties about deep skin vascular imaging have been continued. On the other hand, since hemoglobin concentration of human blood has key role in the veins imaging by optical manner, the used wavelength in vascular imaging, must be chosen considering absorption of hemoglobin. In this research, we constructed a near infrared (NIR light source because of lower absorption of hemoglobin in this optical region. To obtain vascular image, reflectance geometry was used. Next, from recorded images, vascular network analysis, such as calculation of width of vascular of interest and complexity of selected region were implemented. By comparing with other modalities, we observed that proposed imaging system has great advantages including nonionized radiation, moderate penetration depth of 0.5–3mm and diameter of 1mm, cost-effective and algorithmic simplicity for analysis.

  19. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Watching the Brain in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrivel, Angela; Hearn, Tristan A.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neurological sensing technique applicable to optimizing human performance in transportation operations, such as commercial aviation. Cognitive state can be determined via pattern classification of functional activations measured with fNIRS. Operational application calls for further development of algorithms and filters for dynamic artifact removal. The concept of using the frequency domain phase shift signal to tune a Kalman filter is introduced to improve the quality of fNIRS signals in real-time. Hemoglobin concentration and phase shift traces were simulated for four different types of motion artifact to demonstrate the filter. Unwanted signal was reduced by at least 43%, and the contrast of the filtered oxygenated hemoglobin signal was increased by more than 100% overall. This filtering method is a good candidate for qualifying fNIRS signals in real time without auxiliary sensors.

  20. Non-linear calibration models for near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Wangdong; Nørgaard, Lars; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    -linear models on linear problems, robustness to small or medium sample sets, and robustness to pre-processing, are discussed. The results suggest that GPR and BANN are powerful and promising methods for handling linear as well as nonlinear systems, even when the data sets are moderately small. The LS......-SVM), relevance vector machines (RVM), Gaussian process regression (GPR), artificial neural network (ANN), and Bayesian ANN (BANN). In this comparison, partial least squares (PLS) regression is used as a linear benchmark, while the relationship of the methods is considered in terms of traditional calibration...... by ridge regression (RR). The performance of the different methods is demonstrated by their practical applications using three real-life near infrared (NIR) data sets. Different aspects of the various approaches including computational time, model interpretability, potential over-fitting using the non...

  1. Brain plasticity and rehabilitation by using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balconi Michela

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review elucidated the use of optical imaging technique (Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, NIRS to better explain the brain plasticity for learning mechanisms, rehabilitation and post-traumatic brain recovery. Some recent applications were discussed, with specific focus on the usability of integrated measures (such as electroencephalography, EEG-NIRS; Transcranial Magnet Stimulation, TMS-NIRS to study plasticity and its dynamic effects. NIRS-Neurofeedback and NIRS-BCI (Brain Computer Interface were also explored as possible tools to produce a specific long-lasting learning in relationship with a specific cognitive domain. Finally a proficient domain where NIRS was found to be useful to test neuroplasticity is the interpersonal brain-to-brain coupling, termed “hyperscanning”, a new emerging paradigm in neuroscience which measures brain activity from two or more people simultaneously.

  2. Near-infrared photochemistry at interfaces based on upconverting nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Si; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-09-13

    Near-infrared (NIR) light is better suited than ultraviolet (UV) light for biomedical applications because it penetrates deeper into tissue and causes less photodamage to biological systems. The use of NIR light to control biointerfaces has attracted increasing interest. Here, we review NIR photoreactions at interfaces based on upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). UCNPs can convert NIR light to UV or visible light, which can then induce photoreactions of photosensitive compounds. This process is referred to as UCNP-assisted photochemistry. Recently, we and others demonstrated UCNP-assisted photochemistry at interfaces to control interfacial properties of nano-carriers, implants, emulsions, and cells. We introduce the fundamentals of UCNP-assisted photochemistry at interfaces, highlight its potential applications, and discuss remaining challenges.

  3. Near infrared reflectance measurement of nitrogen faecal losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, L; Caliari, S; Bonfante, F; Guidi, G C; Brentegani, M T; Castellani, G; Sembenini, C; Bardelli, E; Vantini, I

    1992-06-01

    Chemical methods of measuring nitrogen in stools are complex, unpleasant, and therefore rarely performed. Recently, near infrared reflectance (NIRA) has been suggested for stool analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of this method in routine faecal nitrogen measurement. Nitrogen concentration and daily output were measured in the stools of 83 patients using NIRA and, for comparison, the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen concentration and output ranged between 0.4-2.72 g% and 0.45-8.96 g/day respectively. Correlation coefficients (r), of 0.89 and 0.97 were found between the two methods for concentration and output respectively, and similar values were found in patients on enteral nutrition. Repeated measurements from the same stool collection, requiring only a few minutes, allowed homogenisation to be avoided. NIRA seems to be an easy, fast, and reliable alternative to chemical assays of nitrogen measurement in the management of patients with digestive disorders.

  4. Design of planar chiral metamaterials for near-infrared regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sabri; Turkmen, Mustafa; Topaktas, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Planar chiral metamaterials (PCMs) comprising double-layer dielectric-metal-dielectric resonant structures in the shape of a windmill are presented for near-infrared regime. The circular dichroism is retrieved from transmission spectra. Effects of used materials on circular dichroism characteristics of PCM arrays are investigated for the first time. The dependence of spectral characteristics on the geometrical parameters of the PCMs is analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain method. The observations indicated that the circular dichroism characteristics of the proposed PCM arrays are strongly dependent on the type of metal and dielectric materials. Due to the enhanced chiroptical near-field response and tunable spectral behavior, proposed PCM arrays may have potential for biosensing applications of chiral biomolecules.

  5. Neuroimaging with functional near infrared spectroscopy: From formation to interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vega, Javier; Treviño-Palacios, Carlos G.; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is gaining momentum as a functional neuroimaging modality to investigate the cerebral hemodynamics subsequent to neural metabolism. As other neuroimaging modalities, it is neuroscience's tool to understand brain systems functions at behaviour and cognitive levels. To extract useful knowledge from functional neuroimages it is critical to understand the series of transformations applied during the process of the information retrieval and how they bound the interpretation. This process starts with the irradiation of the head tissues with infrared light to obtain the raw neuroimage and proceeds with computational and statistical analysis revealing hidden associations between pixels intensities and neural activity encoded to end up with the explanation of some particular aspect regarding brain function.To comprehend the overall process involved in fNIRS there is extensive literature addressing each individual step separately. This paper overviews the complete transformation sequence through image formation, reconstruction and analysis to provide an insight of the final functional interpretation.

  6. Near infrared reflectance measurement of nitrogen faecal losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, L; Caliari, S; Bonfante, F; Guidi, G C; Brentegani, M T; Castellani, G; Sembenini, C; Bardelli, E; Vantini, I

    1992-01-01

    Chemical methods of measuring nitrogen in stools are complex, unpleasant, and therefore rarely performed. Recently, near infrared reflectance (NIRA) has been suggested for stool analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of this method in routine faecal nitrogen measurement. Nitrogen concentration and daily output were measured in the stools of 83 patients using NIRA and, for comparison, the Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen concentration and output ranged between 0.4-2.72 g% and 0.45-8.96 g/day respectively. Correlation coefficients (r), of 0.89 and 0.97 were found between the two methods for concentration and output respectively, and similar values were found in patients on enteral nutrition. Repeated measurements from the same stool collection, requiring only a few minutes, allowed homogenisation to be avoided. NIRA seems to be an easy, fast, and reliable alternative to chemical assays of nitrogen measurement in the management of patients with digestive disorders. PMID:1624153

  7. Discrimination of seasonality in cheeses by near-infrared technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Salvador-Esteban, Javier; González-Pérez, Claudio; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana

    2011-04-01

    Owing to the importance of the season of collection of milk for cheese quality, a study was made of the usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for discriminating the seasonal origin (winter or summer) of milk and quantifying the fat content of cheeses, since fat is one of the components most affected by the season of collection of milk for the elaboration of cheeses. In the internal validation, 96% of samples from winter milk and 97% of samples from summer milk were correctly classified, while in the external validation the prediction rate of samples correctly classified was 92%. Moreover, quantitative models allowed the determination of fat in winter, summer and winter + summer cheeses. Rapid prediction of the fat content of cheeses and the seasonal origin (winter or summer) of milk was achieved using NIRS without previous destruction or treatment of samples. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Predicting rapeseed oil content with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Rossato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to establish a calibration equation and to estimate the efficiency of near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy for evaluating rapeseed oil content in Southern Brazil. Spectral data from 124 half-sib families were correlated with oil contents determined by the chemical method. The accuracy of the equation was verified by coefficient of determination (R² of 0.92, error of calibration (SEC of 0.78, and error of performance (SEP of 1.22. The oil content of ten genotypes, which were not included in the calibration with NIR, was similar to the one obtained by the standard chemical method. NIR spectroscopy is adequate to differentiate oil content of rapeseed genotypes.

  9. High-resolution optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence, and infrared reflectance imaging in Sjögren reticular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauwvlieghe, Pieter-Paul; Torre, Kara Della; Coppieters, Frauke; Van Hoey, Anneleen; De Baere, Elfride; De Zaeytijd, Julie; Leroy, Bart P; Brodie, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    To describe the phenotype of three cases of Sjögren reticular dystrophy in detail, including high-resolution optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. Two unrelated teenagers were independently referred for ophthalmologic evaluation. Both underwent a full ophthalmologic workup, including electrophysiologic and extensive imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, autofluorescence imaging, and near-infrared reflectance imaging. In addition, mutation screening of ABCA4, PRPH2, and the mitochondrial tRNA gene was performed in Patient 1. Subsequently, the teenage sister of Patient 2 was examined. Strikingly similar phenotypes were present in these three patients. Fundoscopy showed bilateral foveal pigment alterations, and a lobular network of deep retinal, pigmented deposits throughout the posterior pole, tapering toward the midperiphery, with relative sparing of the immediate perifoveal macula and peripapillary area. This network is mildly to moderately hyperautofluorescent on autofluorescence and bright on near-infrared reflectance imaging. Optical coherence tomography showed abnormalities of the retinal pigment epithelium-Bruch membrane complex, photoreceptor outer segments, and photoreceptor inner/outer segment interface. The results of retinal function test were entirely normal. No molecular cause was detected in Patient 1. Imaging suggested that the lobular network of deep retinal deposits in Sjögren reticular dystrophy is the result of accumulation of both pigment and lipofuscin between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as within the retinal pigment epithelium.

  10. Self-luminescing BRET-FRET near-infrared dots for in vivo lymph-node mapping and tumour imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liqin; Shuhendler, Adam J; Rao, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Strong autofluorescence from living tissues, and the scattering and absorption of short-wavelength light in living tissues, significantly reduce sensitivity of in vivo fluorescence imaging. These issues can be tackled by using imaging probes that emit in the near-infrared wavelength range. Here we describe self-luminescing near-infrared-emitting nanoparticles employing an energy transfer relay that integrates bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, enabling in vivo near-infrared imaging without external light excitation. Nanoparticles were 30-40 nm in diameter, contained no toxic metals, exhibited long circulation time and high serum stability, and produced strong near-infrared emission. Using these nanoparticles, we successfully imaged lymphatic networks and vasculature of xenografted tumours in living mice. The self-luminescing feature provided excellent tumour-to-background ratio (>100) for imaging very small tumours (2-3 mm in diameter). Our results demonstrate that these new nanoparticles are well suited to in vivo imaging applications such as lymph-node mapping and cancer imaging.

  11. The state of affairs of neurologic monitoring by near-infrared spectroscopy in pediatric cardiac critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshat Vahid, Samira; Panisello, Jose M

    2014-06-01

    The decreasing postoperative mortality in patients with congenital heart disease has enabled an increasing interest in preventing morbidity, especially from the central nervous system. Near-infrared spectroscopy, a noninvasive technology that provides an estimate of tissue oxygenation, has been introduced in the intensive care unit and has gained popularity over the last decade. This review aims to ascertain its ability to affect outcome. Recent studies have started to incorporate cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy in the assessment, evolution, and outcomes of surgical patients with congenital heart disease. These studies often represent small single-center high-risk cohorts that are evaluated in a retrospective or an observational manner. Nevertheless, new data are starting to indicate that near-infrared spectroscopy may be helpful not only in the assessment of critical care parameters, such as cardiac output performance or likelihood of adverse events, but, most notably, in the long-term neurological outcome. In addition to additional corroborative trials from different centers, a critical question that remains to be answered is whether targeting cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy values, as part of goal-directed therapy protocols, can help to improve outcome overall.

  12. An electromagnetic scanning mirror integrated with blazed grating and angle sensor for a near infrared micro spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wen, Quan; Wen, Zhiyu; Huang, Jian; Chang, Fei

    2017-12-01

    This work presents an electromagnetic scanning mirror integrated with blazed grating and an angle sensor for a near infrared micro spectrometer. This device is fabricated on an aluminum coated 7.9° off-oriented (1 1 1) silicon substrate by utilizing the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The proposed MEMS electromagnetic scanning grating mirror not only provides high diffraction efficiency by integrating blazed grating, but also realizes the closed-loop control of the scanning angle by designing an angle sensor during the mirror scanning. Finally, in order to verify the effectiveness of this proposed device, the near infrared micro spectrometer is presented. The use of this MEMS electromagnetic scanning grating mirror allows the near infrared micro spectrometer to span a spectral range of 800 nm–1800 nm accurately. Based on this configuration, the near infrared micro spectrometer is extremely simple and only one single InGaAs photodetector is achieved, instead of a detector array.

  13. Luminescent Probes for Sensitive Detection of pH Changes in Live Cells through Two Near-Infrared Luminescence Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Chen, Tzu-Ho; Lee, Hsien-Ming; Bi, Jianheng; Ghosh, Avik; Fang, Mingxi; Qian, Zichen; Xie, Fei; Ainsley, Jon; Christov, Christo; Luo, Fen-Tair; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Haiying

    2017-07-28

    Two water-soluble near-infrared luminescent probes, which possess both conventional intense Stokes fluorescence and unique single-photon frequency upconversion luminescence (FUCL), were developed for sensitive and selective detection of pH changes in live cells. The water solubility and biocompatibility of these probes were achieved by introducing mannose residues through 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethylamine tethered spacers to a near-infrared conventional fluorescence (CF) and FUCL organic fluorophore. At a pH higher than 7.4, the probes have ring-closed spirocyclic lactam structures, thus are colorless and nonfluorescent. Nevertheless, they sensitively respond to acidic pH values, with a drastic structural change to ring-opened spirocyclic lactam forms, which cause significant absorbance increases at 714 nm. Correspondingly, their near-infrared CF and FUCL intensities at 740 nm are also significantly enhanced when excited by 690 and 808 nm, respectively. The probes hold a variety of advantages such as high sensitivity, excellent reversibility and selectivity to pH over metal ions, low cellular autofluorescence background interference, good cell membrane permeability and photostability, as well as low cytotoxicity. Our results have successfully proven that these probes can visualize intracellular lysosomal pH changes in live cells by monitoring both near-infrared CF and FUCL changes.

  14. Near-Infrared Coloring via a Contrast-Preserving Mapping Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Hwan Son; Xiao-Ping Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Near-infrared gray images captured along with corresponding visible color images have recently proven useful for image restoration and classification. This paper introduces a new coloring method to add colors to near-infrared gray images based on a contrast-preserving mapping model. A naive coloring method directly adds the colors from the visible color image to the near-infrared gray image. However, this method results in an unrealistic image because of the discrepancies in the brightness and image structure between the captured near-infrared gray image and the visible color image. To solve the discrepancy problem, first, we present a new contrast-preserving mapping model to create a new near-infrared gray image with a similar appearance in the luminance plane to the visible color image, while preserving the contrast and details of the captured near-infrared gray image. Then, we develop a method to derive realistic colors that can be added to the newly created near-infrared gray image based on the proposed contrast-preserving mapping model. Experimental results show that the proposed new method not only preserves the local contrast and details of the captured near-infrared gray image, but also transfers the realistic colors from the visible color image to the newly created near-infrared gray image. It is also shown that the proposed near-infrared coloring can be used effectively for noise and haze removal, as well as local contrast enhancement.

  15. Diffuse reflectance near infrared-chemometric methods development and validation of amoxicillin capsule formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nawaz Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present study was to establish near infrared-chemometric methods that could be effectively used for quality profiling through identification and quantification of amoxicillin (AMOX in formulated capsule which were similar to commercial products. In order to evaluate a large number of market products easily and quickly, these methods were modeled. Materials and Methods: Thermo Scientific Antaris II near infrared analyzer with TQ Analyst Chemometric Software were used for the development and validation of the identification and quantification models. Several AMOX formulations were composed with four excipients microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, croscarmellose sodium and colloidal silicon dioxide. Development includes quadratic mixture formulation design, near infrared spectrum acquisition, spectral pretreatment and outlier detection. According to prescribed guidelines by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH and European Medicine Agency (EMA developed methods were validated in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, and robustness. Results: On diffuse reflectance mode, an identification model based on discriminant analysis was successfully processed with 76 formulations; and same samples were also used for quantitative analysis using partial least square algorithm with four latent variables and 0.9937 correlation of coefficient followed by 2.17% root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC, 2.38% root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP, 2.43% root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV. Conclusion: Proposed model established a good relationship between the spectral information and AMOX identity as well as content. Resulted values show the performance of the proposed models which offers alternate choice for AMOX capsule evaluation, relative to that of well-established high-performance liquid chromatography method. Ultimately three commercial products were successfully evaluated

  16. Diffuse reflectance near infrared-chemometric methods development and validation of amoxicillin capsule formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahmed Nawaz; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ajayakumar, P V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of present study was to establish near infrared-chemometric methods that could be effectively used for quality profiling through identification and quantification of amoxicillin (AMOX) in formulated capsule which were similar to commercial products. In order to evaluate a large number of market products easily and quickly, these methods were modeled. Thermo Scientific Antaris II near infrared analyzer with TQ Analyst Chemometric Software were used for the development and validation of the identification and quantification models. Several AMOX formulations were composed with four excipients microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, croscarmellose sodium and colloidal silicon dioxide. Development includes quadratic mixture formulation design, near infrared spectrum acquisition, spectral pretreatment and outlier detection. According to prescribed guidelines by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and European Medicine Agency (EMA) developed methods were validated in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, and robustness. On diffuse reflectance mode, an identification model based on discriminant analysis was successfully processed with 76 formulations; and same samples were also used for quantitative analysis using partial least square algorithm with four latent variables and 0.9937 correlation of coefficient followed by 2.17% root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), 2.38% root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), 2.43% root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV). Proposed model established a good relationship between the spectral information and AMOX identity as well as content. Resulted values show the performance of the proposed models which offers alternate choice for AMOX capsule evaluation, relative to that of well-established high-performance liquid chromatography method. Ultimately three commercial products were successfully evaluated using developed methods.

  17. Near-infrared fundus autofluorescence-visualized melanin in the choroidal abnormalities of neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda-Consolvo T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Ueda-Consolvo, Akio Miyakoshi, Hironori Ozaki, Satoshi Houki, Atsushi HayashiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, JapanPurpose: To report a series of three cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 examined by near-infrared fundus autofluorescence (NIR-AF with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT to show the characteristics of choroidal abnormalities.Methods: Retrospective case series. Six eyes of three patients were examined by conventional fundus examinations, near-infrared monochromatic light reflectance (NIR-R and NIR-AF, OCT, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography.Results: All eyes showed multiple bright patchy regions in the choroid of the posterior pole with NIR-R. NIR-AF revealed high fluorescent regions of similar sizes at fundus locations identical to those shown by NIR-R. In one case, hypofluorescent regions were shown by indocyanine green angiography in the bright fluorescent region shown by NIR-AF. The other two cases showed no abnormality under conventional fundus examination or fluorescein angiography. OCT images crossing the bright patchy region showed irregular hyper-reflectivity in the choroid in two cases and hyporeflectivity in one case.Conclusions: NIR-AF demonstrated that dense melanin was included in the choroidal nodules of neurofibromatosis type 1. The choroidal nodules showed hyper- or hyporeflectivity in the choroid on OCT, which did not affect the retinal structure.Keywords: near-infrared fundus autofluorescence, neurofibromatosis type 1, choroidal nodule, melanin

  18. Theranostic reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles for near-infrared imaging and pancreatic cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haijie; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yangjun; Li, Zuhong; Wang, Yin; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2015-12-01

    A biodegradable and reduction-cleavable gemcitabine (GEM) polymeric prodrug with in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging ability was reported. This theranostic GEM prodrug PEG-b-[PLA-co-PMAC-graft-(IR820-co-GEM)] was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and ``click'' reaction. The as-prepared reduction-sensitive prodrug could self-assemble into prodrug micelles in aqueous solution confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro drug release studies showed that these prodrug micelles were able to release GEM in an intracellular-mimicking reductive environment. These prodrug micelles could be effectively internalized by BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, which were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Meanwhile, a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that this prodrug exhibited high cytotoxicity against BxPC-3 cells. The in vivo whole-animal near-infrared (NIR) imaging results showed that these prodrug micelles could be effectively accumulated in tumor tissue and had a longer blood circulation time than IR820-COOH. The endogenous reduction-sensitive gemcitabine prodrug micelles with the in vivo NIR imaging ability might have great potential in image-guided pancreatic cancer therapy.A biodegradable and reduction-cleavable gemcitabine (GEM) polymeric prodrug with in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging ability was reported. This theranostic GEM prodrug PEG-b-[PLA-co-PMAC-graft-(IR820-co-GEM)] was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and ``click'' reaction. The as-prepared reduction-sensitive prodrug could self-assemble into prodrug micelles in aqueous solution confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro drug release studies showed that these prodrug micelles were able to release GEM in an intracellular-mimicking reductive environment. These prodrug micelles could be effectively internalized by BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells, which

  19. High Resolution Brackett α and γ Spectroscopy of Arp 299

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John, III; Turner, J.; Beck, S. C.; Crosthwaite, L. P.; Meier, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Extreme star forming regions seen in nearby galaxies often consist of young super star clusters (SSCs) that may be the precursors to globular clusters. The method of formation of large clusters such as globular clusters is not well understood since our Galaxy does not currently have massive clusters that are sufficiently young to reflect their birth conditions. How do these young clusters form, evolve, and interact with their gaseous surroundings? Presented here is high spectral resolution Brackett line spectroscopy of the luminous HII regions in the nearby LIRG Arp 299, which is composed of the interacting galaxies NGC 3690 and IC 694. Echelle spectra data were collected using the NIRSPEC (Near Infrared Spectrograph) instrument on the Keck Telescope for the hydrogen recombination lines, Brackett α and γ at λ = 4.05 μm, 2.17 μm respectively. Using custom IDL (Interactive Data Language) procedures, Gaussian profiles are fit to the spectra to determine the velocity dispersion and thus the bulk motions of the hot, ionized gas surrounding these young clusters. The high spectral ( 24000) and spatial (regions; based on its optical appearance we infer that the star formation is likely to occur in the twin gas peaks near the nucleus that are typical of a barred spiral galaxy. In NGC 3690, which is more irregular in appearance, we also do not see strong evidence for an AGN in the line profiles. At all positions the infrared K band extinctions are sizable, ~ 1 magnitude.

  20. Development of a high spectral resolution surface albedo product for the ARM Southern Great Plains Central Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Gaustad, Krista L.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Long, Charles N.; Delamere, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    We present a method for identifying dominant surface type and estimating high spectral resolution surface albedo at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) facility at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma for use in radiative transfer calculations. Given a set of 6-channel narrowband visible and near-infrared irradiance measurements from upward and downward looking multi-filter radiometers (MFRs), four different surface types (snow-covered, green vegetation, partial vegetation, non-vegetated) can be identified. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used to distinguish between vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces, and a scaled NDVI index is used to estimate the percentage of green vegetation in partially vegetated surfaces. Based on libraries of spectral albedo measurements, a piecewise continuous function is developed to estimate the high spectral resolution surface albedo for each surface type given the MFR albedo values as input. For partially vegetated surfaces, the albedo is estimated as a linear combination of the green vegetation and non-vegetated surface albedo values. The estimated albedo values are evaluated through comparison to high spectral resolution albedo measurements taken during several Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs) and through comparison of the integrated spectral albedo values to observed broadband albedo measurements. The estimated spectral albedo values agree well with observations for the visible wavelengths constrained by the MFR measurements, but have larger biases and variability at longer wavelengths. Additional MFR channels at 1100 nm and/or 1600 nm would help constrain the high resolution spectral albedo in the near infrared region.

  1. Probing Evolutionary Population Synthesis Models in the Near Infrared with Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmer-Hahn, Luis Gabriel; Riffel, Rogério; Rodríguez-Ardila, Alberto; Martins, Lucimara P.; Kehrig, Carolina; Heckman, Timothy M.; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Dametto, Natacha Z.

    2018-02-01

    We performed a near-infrared (NIR, ˜1.0μm-2.4μm) stellar population study in a sample of early type galaxies. The synthesis was performed using five different evolutionary population synthesis libraries of models. Our main results can be summarized as follows: low spectral resolution libraries are not able to produce reliable results when applied to the NIR alone, with each library finding a different dominant population. The two newest higher resolution models, on the other hand, perform considerably better, finding consistent results to each other and to literature values. We also found that optical results are consistent with each other even for lower resolution models. We also compared optical and NIR results, and found out that lower resolution models tend to disagree in the optical and in the NIR, with higher fraction of young populations in the NIR and dust extinction ˜1 magnitude higher than optical values. For higher resolution models, optical and NIR results tend do aggree much better, suggesting that a higher spectral resolution is fundamental to improve the quality of the results.

  2. A spectroscopic survey of young brown dwarfs in the near-infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark Roland

    Motivated by the discovery of numerous Jupiter-sized brown dwarfs in infrared imaging surveys, and stimulated by the advent of sensitive near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers on very large telescopes, this thesis presents the results of a unique observational survey to investigate and characterize the near-infrared spectra of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. The project, called the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (or BDSS) was carried out with the Keck 10- m telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii using the facility cryogenic NIR spectrometer (NIRSPEC) developed at UCLA by Professor Ian McLean. Beginning in April 1999, immediately after NIRSPEC was delivered to the telescope, this infrared spectroscopic survey was developed in multiple phases to obtain the largest self-consistent set of high quality spectra yet obtained for the two new classes of very cool objects known as L and T dwarfs (T eff ~ 2200-750K). This work presents the results of two of the major phases of the BDSS and includes near-infrared spectra from over 150 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. In the first phase of the project the emphasis was on the effects of decreasing effective temperature (T eff ) on the infrared spectral morphology. Observations were concentrated on the J -band region of the spectrum from 1.14- 1.36 microns. Over 50 objects spanning the spectral types from M6 to T8 were observed in this band. With the spectral resolving power of the NIRSPEC instrument (R ~ 2000) we developed nine spectral indices to classify these objects in the J -band. From this data base it was possible for the first time to create a pure infrared spectral classification system for the L dwarfs, and to confirm the existing infrared classification system for T dwarfs. This is an important development because most of the flux from L and T dwarfs is radiated in the near-infrared, where they are several magnitudes brighter than at visible wavelengths, and classification via NIR properties is not only important but

  3. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  4. The black hole mass of NGC 4151. II. Stellar dynamical measurement from near-infrared integral field spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Valluri, Monica; Brown, Jonathan S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); McGregor, Peter J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Office 610, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Vestergaard, Marianne [Dark Cosmology Centre, The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Física, CP 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A., E-mail: christopher.onken@anu.edu.au, E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu [Departamento de Física, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    We present a revised measurement of the mass of the central black hole (M{sub BH} ) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. The new stellar dynamical mass measurement is derived by applying an axisymmetric orbit-superposition code to near-infrared integral field data obtained using adaptive optics with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS). When our models attempt to fit both the NIFS kinematics and additional low spatial resolution kinematics, our results depend sensitively on how χ{sup 2} is computed—probably a consequence of complex bar kinematics that manifest immediately outside the nuclear region. The most robust results are obtained when only the high spatial resolution kinematic constraints in the nuclear region are included in the fit. Our best estimates for the black hole mass and H-band mass-to-light ratio are M{sub BH} ∼ 3.76 ± 1.15 × 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} (1σ error) and Y{sub H} ∼ 0.34 ± 0.03 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉} (3σ error), respectively (the quoted errors reflect the model uncertainties). Our black hole mass measurement is consistent with estimates from both reverberation mapping (3.57{sub −0.37}{sup +0.45}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}) and gas kinematics (3.0{sub −2.2}{sup +0.75}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}; 1σ errors), and our best-fit mass-to-light ratio is consistent with the photometric estimate of Y{sub H} = 0.4 ± 0.2 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉}. The NIFS kinematics give a central bulge velocity dispersion σ{sub c} = 116 ± 3 km s{sup –1}, bringing this object slightly closer to the M{sub BH}-σ relation for quiescent galaxies. Although NGC 4151 is one of only a few Seyfert 1 galaxies in which it is possible to obtain a direct dynamical black hole mass measurement—and thus, an independent calibration of the reverberation mapping mass scale—the complex bar kinematics makes it less than ideally suited for this purpose.

  5. Evidence for kinetic inhomogeneity in the curing of epoxy using the near-infrared multispectral imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Tran, C D

    1999-03-01

    The kinetics of curing of an epoxy resin by amine was studied using a near-infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging spectrometer. This imaging spectrometer is capable of sensitively and rapidly recording NIR spectral images of a sample because it was constructed with an acousto-optic tunable filter and an InGaAs focal plane array NIR camera. The high sensitivity and fast scanning ability of the spectrometer make it suitable for kinetic determination of fast reactions. Additionally, it has features that conventional NIR spectrometers cannot offer, namely, its ability to provide kinetic information at different positions within a sample. Furthermore, the high spatial resolution and sensitivity of the InGaAs camera make it possible to determine the kinetics from data collected by a single pixel in the camera. The kinetics of curing of epoxy by amine, determined by this multispectral imaging instrument, show that the reaction rates within the sample are very inhomogeneous. Because of this kinetic inhomogeneity, differences in the degrees of cure at different positions within the sample can be as high as 37% when data from only a single pixel were used for calculation. The inhomogeneity was not be observed if an average of a large number of pixels were used.

  6. Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) of 3D printed pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorasani, Milad; Edinger, Magnus; Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar

    2016-01-01

    Hot-melt extrusion and 3D printing are enabling manufacturing approaches for patient-centred medicinal products. Hot-melt extrusion is a flexible and continuously operating technique which is a crucial part of a typical processing cycle of printed medicines. In this work we use hot-melt extrusion...... for manufacturing of medicinal films containing indomethacin (IND) and polycaprolactone (PCL), extruded strands with nitrofurantoin monohydrate (NFMH) and poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO), and feedstocks for 3D printed dosage forms with nitrofurantoin anhydrate (NFAH), hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly (lactic acid) (PLA......). These feedstocks were printed into a prototype solid dosage form using a desktop 3D printer. These model formulations were characterized using near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) and, more specifically, the image analytical data were analysed using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR...

  7. [Quality anlysis of the before redrying raw tobacco & after redrying sheet tobacco by using online near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhao-qi; Liu, Ying; Shu, Ru-xin; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Long-lian; Zhang, Lu-da; Zhang Ye-hui; Li, Jun-hui

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the 7 different origin before redrying raw tobacco & after redrying sheet tobacco's online near infrared spectroscopy were collected from sorting & redrying production line specifically for "ZHONGHUA" brand. By using the projection model bulit by different origin tobacco's online spectroscopy and the method of variance and correlation analysis, we studied the uniformity and similarity quality characteristics change before and after the redrying of tobacco, which can provide support for understanding the quality of the tobacco material and cigarette product formulations. This study show that selecting about 10,000 by equally spaced sampling time from a huge number of online near infrared spectroscopy, for modeling are feasible, and representative. After manual sorting, threshing, and redrying, the uiformity of each origin tobacco near-infrared spectroscopy can be increased by 10%~35%, homogeneity of the tobacco leaf has been significantly improved. After redrying, the similar relationship embodied in the origin also have significant changes, overall it reduce significantly, that shows the quality differences embodied by origin significantly improve, which can provide greater space for formulations, it shows the need for high-quality Chinese cigarette production requires large amounts of financial and human resources to implement cured tobacco processing. The traditional means of chemical analysis, it takes a lot of time and effort, it is difficult to control the entire processing chain, Near Infrared Spectroscopy with its rapid, non-destructive advantage, not only can achieve real-time detection and quality control, but also can take full advantage of near-infrared spectroscopy information created in the production process, which is a very promising online analytical detection technology in many industries especially in the agricultural and food processing industries.

  8. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martin, I.; Vilaescusa-Garcia, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Oiz-Jimenez, C.; Lobos-Ortega, I. A.; Gordillo, B.; Hernandez-Hierro, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low) oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation. (Author) 23 refs.

  9. Rapid Characterization of Fatty Acids in Oleaginous Microalgae by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Jin; Chen, Tianpeng; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Yue; Wei, Dong; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The key properties of microalgal biodiesel are largely determined by the composition of its fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The gas chromatography (GC) based techniques for fatty acid analysis involve energy-intensive and time-consuming procedures and thus are less suitable for high-throughput screening applications. In the present study, a novel quantification method for microalgal fatty acids was established based on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique. The lyophilized cells of oleaginous Chlorella containing different contents of lipids were scanned by NIRS and their fatty acid profiles were determined by GC-MS. NIRS models were developed based on the chemometric correlation of the near-infrared spectra with fatty acid profiles in algal biomass. The optimized NIRS models showed excellent performances for predicting the contents of total fatty acids, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:3, with the coefficient of determination (R2) being 0.998, 0.997, 0.989, 0.991 and 0.997, respectively. Taken together, the NIRS method established here bypasses the procedures of cell disruption, oil extraction and transesterification, is rapid, reliable, and of great potential for high-throughput applications, and will facilitate the screening of microalgal mutants and optimization of their growth conditions for biodiesel production. PMID:25826532

  10. Rapid Characterization of Fatty Acids in Oleaginous Microalgae by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The key properties of microalgal biodiesel are largely determined by the composition of its fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. The gas chromatography (GC based techniques for fatty acid analysis involve energy-intensive and time-consuming procedures and thus are less suitable for high-throughput screening applications. In the present study, a novel quantification method for microalgal fatty acids was established based on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique. The lyophilized cells of oleaginous Chlorella containing different contents of lipids were scanned by NIRS and their fatty acid profiles were determined by GC-MS. NIRS models were developed based on the chemometric correlation of the near-infrared spectra with fatty acid profiles in algal biomass. The optimized NIRS models showed excellent performances for predicting the contents of total fatty acids, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:3, with the coefficient of determination (R2 being 0.998, 0.997, 0.989, 0.991 and 0.997, respectively. Taken together, the NIRS method established here bypasses the procedures of cell disruption, oil extraction and transesterification, is rapid, reliable, and of great potential for high-throughput applications, and will facilitate the screening of microalgal mutants and optimization of their growth conditions for biodiesel production.

  11. Novel multifunctional theranostic liposome drug delivery system: construction, characterization, and multimodality MR, near-infrared fluorescent, and nuclear imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shihong; Goins, Beth; Zhang, Lujun; Bao, Ande

    2012-06-20

    Liposomes are effective lipid nanoparticle drug delivery systems, which can also be functionalized with noninvasive multimodality imaging agents with each modality providing distinct information and having synergistic advantages in diagnosis, monitoring of disease treatment, and evaluation of liposomal drug pharmacokinetics. We designed and constructed a multifunctional theranostic liposomal drug delivery system, which integrated multimodality magnetic resonance (MR), near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent and nuclear imaging of liposomal drug delivery, and therapy monitoring and prediction. The premanufactured liposomes were composed of DSPC/cholesterol/Gd-DOTA-DSPE/DOTA-DSPE with the molar ratio of 39:35:25:1 and having ammonium sulfate/pH gradient. A lipidized NIR fluorescent tracer, IRDye-DSPE, was effectively postinserted into the premanufactured liposomes. Doxorubicin could be effectively postloaded into the multifunctional liposomes. The multifunctional doxorubicin-liposomes could also be stably radiolabeled with (99m)Tc or (64)Cu for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, respectively. MR images displayed the high-resolution micro-intratumoral distribution of the liposomes in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) tumor xenografts in nude rats after intratumoral injection. NIR fluorescent, SPECT, and PET images also clearly showed either the high intratumoral retention or distribution of the multifunctional liposomes. This multifunctional drug carrying liposome system is promising for disease theranostics allowing noninvasive multimodality NIR fluorescent, MR, SPECT, and PET imaging of their in vivo behavior and capitalizing on the inherent advantages of each modality.

  12. 1,7-Bis-(N,N-dialkylaminoperylene Bisimides: Facile Synthesis and Characterization as Near-Infrared Fluorescent Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew-Yu Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Three symmetric alkylamino-substituted perylene bisimides with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 6, 12, or 18, 1,7-bis-(N,N-dialkylaminoperylene bisimides (1a–1c, were synthesized under mild condition and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopy. Their optical and electrochemical properties were measured using UV-Vis and emission spectroscopic techniques as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV. These compounds show deep green color in both solution and solid state, and are highly soluble in dichloromethane and even in nonpolar solvents such as hexane. The shapes of the absorption spectra of 1a–1c in the solution and solid state were found to be almost the same, indicating that the long alkyl chains could efficiently prevent intermolecular contact and aggregation. They show a unique charge transfer emission in the near-infrared region, of which the peak wavelengths exhibit strong solvatochromism. The dipole moments of the molecules have been estimated using the Lippert–Mataga equation, and upon excitation, they show larger dipole moment changes than that of 1,7-diaminoperylene bisimide (2. Moreover, all the dyes exhibit two irreversible one-electron oxidations and two quasi-reversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. Complementary density functional theory calculations performed on these chromophores are reported in order to rationalize their electronic structure and optical properties.

  13. Development and application of the near-infrared and white-light thoracoscope system for minimally invasive lung cancer surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yamin; Wang, Kun; He, Kunshan; Ye, Jinzuo; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Jian; Li, Hao; Chen, Xiuyuan; Wang, Jun; Chi, Chongwei; Tian, Jie

    2017-06-01

    In minimally invasive surgery, the white-light thoracoscope as a standard imaging tool is facing challenges of the low contrast between important anatomical or pathological regions and surrounding tissues. Recently, the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging shows superior advantages over the conventional white-light observation, which inspires researchers to develop imaging systems to improve overall outcomes of endoscopic imaging. We developed an NIR and white-light dual-channel thoracoscope system, which achieved high-fluorescent signal acquisition efficiency and the simultaneously optimal visualization of the NIR and color dual-channel signals. The system was designed to have fast and accurate image registration and high signal-to-background ratio by optimizing both software algorithms and optical hardware components for better performance in the NIR spectrum band. The system evaluation demonstrated that the minimally detectable concentration of indocyanine green (ICG) was 0.01 μM, and the spatial resolution was 35 μm. The in vivo feasibility of our system was verified by the preclinical experiments using six porcine models with the intravenous injection of ICG. Furthermore, the system was successfully applied for guiding the minimally invasive segmentectomy in three lung cancer patients, which revealed that our system held great promise for the clinical translation in lung cancer surgeries.

  14. A Unique "Integration" Strategy for the Rational Design of Optically Tunable Near-Infrared Fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Dong, Baoli; Tang, Yonghe; Lin, Weiying

    2017-06-20

    Fluorescence imaging is a rapidly growing technique for noninvasive imaging of biological molecules and processes with high spatial and temporal resolution. For effective biological imaging, it is essential and important to develop robust fluorescent dyes, in particular, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes with favorable optical properties. Compared with the visible light emitting dyes, NIR dyes have relatively longer emission wavelengths (650-900 nm) with lower energy and are advantageous as imaging agents owing to the minimum photodamage of NIR light to biological samples, deep penetration into tissues, and low interference from autofluorescence of biomolecules. Although great efforts have been devoted to engineer NIR fluorophores, it is still very challenging to regulate their photophysical properties as they often lack optically tunable mechanisms, and this shortcoming considerably restricts the realization of their full potential. Consequently, the rational design of small-molecule optically tunable NIR fluorophores is of high priority and great value. In general, two key characteristics are indispensable for designing excellent optically tunable NIR fluorescent dyes. First, NIR fluorescent dyes should display the maximal absorption and emission located in the NIR region and also have the prominent properties including excellent fluorescence quantum yields, large Stokes shifts, good chemical stability and photostability, low cytotoxicity, and desirable compatibility with biological systems. Second, in principle, functional NIR dyes should also possess optically tunable groups, which can be easily modified to afford responsive sites for the targets of interest. With these considerations in mind, in this Account, we described a unique "integration" strategy for judicious design of the optically tunable NIR fluorophores, which are an intuitive combination of the traditional NIR dyes and the optically tunable mechanisms in the visible light emissive dyes. Thus

  15. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  16. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  17. Perovskite-Erbium Silicate Nanosheet Hybrid Waveguide Photodetectors at the Near-Infrared Telecommunication Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Yang, Shuzhen; Zhou, Hong; Liang, Junwu; Liu, Huawei; Xia, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Ying; Zhang, Qinglin; Hu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Liu, Hongjun; Hu, Weida; Wang, Xiao; Pan, Anlian

    2017-06-01

    Methylammonium lead halide perovskites have attracted enormous attentions due to their superior optical and electronic properties. However, the photodetection at near-infrared telecommunication wavelengths is hardly achievable because of their wide bandgaps. Here, this study demonstrates, for the first time, novel perovskite-erbium silicate nanosheet hybrid photodetectors with remarkable spectral response at ≈1.54 µm. Under the near-infrared light illumination, the erbium silicate nanosheets can give strong upconversion luminescence, which will be well confined in their cavities and then be efficiently coupled into and simultaneously excite the adjacent perovskite to realize photodetection. These devices own prominent responsivity and external quantum efficiency as high as previously reported microscale silicon-based subbandgap photodetectors. More importantly, the photoresponse speed (≈900 µs) is faster by five orders than the ever reported hot electron silicon-based photodetectors at telecommunication wavelengths. The realization of perovskite-based telecommunication band photodetectors will open new chances for applications in advanced integrated photonics devices and systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [Estimation of modulus of elasticity of Eucalyptus pellita wood by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong-jun; Huo, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Li

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, the rapid prediction of wood modulus of elasticity (MOE) of Eucalyptus pellita by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is described. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and conventional mechanical testing methods were used to measure modulus of elasticity of small clear wood samples of Eucalyptus pellita. After collecting the near-infrared reflectance spectra of each sample from radial and tangential faces, the NIR spectra were preprocessed with the second-derivative methods, and regression models were built between 410 to 2 480 nm. The calibration models were established using two thirds of whole samples with the partial least squares method, and validation models were developed on an independent set (one third of whole samples). The analysis results showed that high correlation coefficients were obtained between the laboratory-determined MOE values and NIR prediction values of Eucalyptus pellita. The correlation coefficients of prediction model for MOE were 0.93 and 0.81, and RPD were 2.70 and 1.71. NIR analysis technique can realize the rapid prediction of the MOE of small clear wood samples of Eucalyptus pellita.

  19. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy and multipoint measurements for quality control of pharmaceutical drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiret, Mathieu; Chauchard, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive analytical technique that enables better-understanding and optimization of pharmaceutical processes and final drug products. The use in line is often limited by acquisition speed and sampling area. This work focuses on performing a multipoint measurement at high acquisition speed at the end of the manufacturing process on a conveyor belt system to control both the distribution and the content of active pharmaceutical ingredient within final drug products, i.e., tablets. A specially designed probe with several collection fibers was developed for this study. By measuring spectral and spatial information, it provides physical and chemical knowledge on the final drug product. The NIR probe was installed on a conveyor belt system that enables the analysis of a lot of tablets. The use of these NIR multipoint measurement probes on a conveyor belt system provided an innovative method that has the potential to be used as a new paradigm to ensure the drug product quality at the end of the manufacturing process and as a new analytical method for the real-time release control strategy. Graphical abstract Use of near-infrared spectroscopy and multipoint measurements for quality control of pharmaceutical drug products.

  20. Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Perfect Absorption in the Near-Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Junho; Zhou, Ming; Badsha, Md. Alamgir; Kim, Tae Young; Jun, Young Chul; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2015-08-01

    Perfect absorption (PA) of incident light is important for both fundamental light-matter interaction studies and practical device applications. PA studies so far have mainly used resonant nanostructures that require delicate structural patterning. Here, we realize tunable and broadband PA in the near-infrared region using relatively simple thin film coatings. We adjust the growth condition of an ITO film and control its epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) wavelength. We show that this results in highly tunable PA in the telecommunication window. Then, using an ITO multilayer of different ENZ wavelengths, we demonstrate broadband PA that covers a wide range of near-infrared wavelengths. The use of ENZ coatings makes PA adjustable during the film growth and does not require any structural patterning afterward. It also facilitates the chip-scale integration of perfect absorbers with other device components. Broadband PA relaxes the single wavelength condition in previous PA studies, and thus it is suitable for many practical device applications, including sensors, photodetectors, and energy harvesting devices.

  1. Tunable broadband near-infrared absorber based on ultrathin phase-change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Er-Tao; Gu, Tong; Guo, Shuai; Zang, Kai-Yan; Tu, Hua-Tian; Yu, Ke-Han; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Lee, Young-Pak; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a tunable broadband near-infrared light absorber was designed and fabricated with a simple and lithography free approach by introducing an ultrathin phase-change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) layer into the metal-dielectric multilayered film structure with the structure parameters as that: SiO2 (72.7 nm)/Ge2Sb2Te5 (6.0 nm)/SiO2 (70.2 nm)/Cu (>100.0 nm). The film structure exhibits a modulation depth of ∼72.6% and an extinction ratio of ∼8.8 dB at the wavelength of 1410 nm. The high light absorption (95%) of the proposed film structure at the wavelength of 450 nm in both of the amorphous and crystalline phase of GST, indicates that the intensity of the reflectance in the infrared region can be rapidly tuned by the blue laser pulses. The proposed planar layered film structure with layer thickness as the only controllable parameter and large reflectivity tuning range shows the potential for practical applications in near-infrared light modulation and absorption.

  2. Near-infrared fundus autofluorescence-visualized melanin in the choroidal abnormalities of neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda-Consolvo, Tomoko; Miyakoshi, Akio; Ozaki, Hironori; Houki, Satoshi; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    To report a series of three cases of neurofibromatosis type 1 examined by near-infrared fundus autofluorescence (NIR-AF) with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to show the characteristics of choroidal abnormalities. Retrospective case series. Six eyes of three patients were examined by conventional fundus examinations, near-infrared monochromatic light reflectance (NIR-R) and NIR-AF, OCT, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. All eyes showed multiple bright patchy regions in the choroid of the posterior pole with NIR-R. NIR-AF revealed high fluorescent regions of similar sizes at fundus locations identical to those shown by NIR-R. In one case, hypofluorescent regions were shown by indocyanine green angiography in the bright fluorescent region shown by NIR-AF. The other two cases showed no abnormality under conventional fundus examination or fluorescein angiography. OCT images crossing the bright patchy region showed irregular hyper-reflectivity in the choroid in two cases and hyporeflectivity in one case. NIR-AF demonstrated that dense melanin was included in the choroidal nodules of neurofibromatosis type 1. The choroidal nodules showed hyper- or hyporeflectivity in the choroid on OCT, which did not affect the retinal structure.

  3. Rapid assessment of selected free amino acids during Edam cheese ripening by near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Mlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on rapid determination of free amino acids produced during the ripening of cheese, by using near infrared spectroscopy. Analyses of 96 samples of Edam cheese (30% and 45% of fat in dry matter were performed at monthly intervals up to the ripening age of 6 months. In total, 19 amino acids were analysed with infrared spectrometer using two different methods, either in the regime of reflectance in the integrating sphere of the apparatus or using a fibre optic apparatus with the fibre optic probe. Reference data based on high-performance liquid chromatography were used for calibration of the spectrophotometer. Calibration models were developed using a partial least square algorithm and tested by means of cross-validation. When measured with the integrating sphere and with the probe, the values of correlation coefficients ranged from 0.835 to 0.993 and from 0.739 to 0.995, respectively. Paired t-test did not show significant differences between the reference and predicted values (P < 0.05. The results of this new calibration method showed the possibility of near infrared technology for fast determination of free amino acids, which occur during the ripening of Edam cheese. The content of free amino acids allow us to prepare Edam cheese quickly and efficiently for sale or to prepare the material for processed cheese.

  4. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEAR-INFRARED LIGHT RESPONSIVE MICROCAPSULE SYSTEM FOR CANCER THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YINGFENG DI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel near-infrared light responsive microcapsule system, gold nanorod-covered DOX-loaded hollow CaCO3 microcapsule (AuNR-HM-DOX is developed for cancer therapy. The hollow CaCO3 microcapsules were prepared based on the self-assembly between chitosan and sodium alginate on CaCO3 particles via layer-by-layer technique, and then covered with gold nanorods to obtain the microcapsule system. Upon near-infrared (NIR irradiation, microcapsule with gold nanorods can convert the absorbed NIR light into heat. Meanwhile, doxorubicin (DOX, a chemotherapy drug, is loaded into the microcapsule system via electrostatic adsorption for combined photothermal therapy and chemotherapy. Properties of AuNR-HM-DOX including grain diameter, optical spectra were characterized. Confocal fluorescence imaging was performed to observe the morphology of the capsules and existence of DOX in the core, confirming the successful loading of DOX. The release of DOX from the capsules under continuous NIR irradiation was investigated to evaluate the temperature responsiveness of AuNR-HM-DOX. Results indicate that AuNR-HM-DOX microcapsules possess uniform particle size and high light responsiveness. The combination of chemical and physical therapy of AuNR-HM-DOX features great potential as an adjuvant therapeutic alternative material for combined cancer therapy.

  5. [Recognition of corn seeds based on pattern recognition and near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Ling; Su, Qi-Ya; Sun, Qun; Yang, Li-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Pattern recognition technology and data mining methods have become a hot topic in chemometrics. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis has been widely used in spectrum signal processing and modeling due to its advantages of quickness, simplicity and nondestructiveness. Based on five different methods of pattern recognition, namely the locally linear embedding (LLE), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machine (SVM), the pattern recognition system for corn seeds is proposed using NIR technology, and applied to classification of 108 hybrid samples and 178 female samples for corn seeds. Firstly, we get rid of noise or reduce the dimension using LLE, WT, PCA and PLS, and then use SVM to identify two-class samples. In the meantime, 1-norm SVM is the method of direct classification and identification. Experimental results for three different spectral regions show that the performances of three methods, i. e. PCA+SVM, LLE+SVM, PLS+SVM, are superior to WT+SVM and 1-norm SVM methods, and obtain a high classification accuracy, which indicates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods. Moreover, this investigation provides the theoretical support and practical method for recognition of corn seeds utilizing near infrared spectral data.

  6. Near infrared spectroscopy is suitable for the classification of hazelnuts according to Protected Designation of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscetti, Roberto; Radicetti, Emanuele; Monarca, Danilo; Cecchini, Massimo; Massantini, Riccardo

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the possibility of using near infrared spectroscopy for the authentication of the 'Nocciola Romana' hazelnut (Corylus avellana L. cvs Tonda Gentile Romana and Nocchione) as a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) hazelnut from central Italy. Algorithms for the selection of the optimal pretreatments were tested in combination with the following discriminant routines: k-nearest neighbour, soft independent modelling of class analogy, partial least squares discriminant analysis and support vector machine discriminant analysis. The best results were obtained using a support vector machine discriminant analysis routine. Thus, classification performance rates with specificities, sensitivities and accuracies as high as 96.0%, 95.0% and 95.5%, respectively, were achieved. Various pretreatments, such as standard normal variate, mean centring and a Savitzky-Golay filter with seven smoothing points, were used. The optimal wavelengths for classification were mainly correlated with lipids, although some contribution from minor constituents, such as proteins and carbohydrates, was also observed. Near infrared spectroscopy could classify hazelnut according to the PDO 'Nocciola Romana' designation. Thus, the experimentation lays the foundations for a rapid, online, authentication system for hazelnut. However, model robustness should be improved taking into account agro-pedo-climatic growing conditions. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. [SIC algorithm based model updating for near infrared analysis of Salvia miltiorrhiza alcohol extraction process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuai-Yun; Xu, Bing; Yang, Chan; Cui, Xiang-Long; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for offline monitoring of alcohol extraction process of Salvia miltiorrhiza was investigated, with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of value for reference. The partial least squares method was adopted to establish the tanshinone ⅡA quantitative calibration model, so as to detect extraction process of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Because the differences between batches of raw materials may endanger the robustness of the original model, the simple interval calculation (SIC) was applied in updating the near-infrared quantitative model for traditional Chinese medicine extraction process for the first time, and compared with Random Selection (RS) method. SIC's final updating results showed that root mean square with cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of tanshinone ⅡA were 0.006 8 g•L⁻¹, 0.005 4 g•L⁻¹ and 3.14, respectively; but RS' final updating results showed that RMSECV, RMSEP and RPD were 0.006 4 g•L⁻¹, 0.006 8 g•L⁻¹ and 2.50, respectively. This study suggested that SIC is superior to RS, and provided a research foundation for quality control and monitoring of S. miltiorrhiza extraction process in the future. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  9. [Study on online detection modeling parameters of jujube internal quality of southern Xinjiang with near infrared spectrometric techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hua-ping; Lu, Qi-peng; Ding, Hai-quan; Gao, Hong-zhi; Guo, Ling

    2012-05-01

    To establish the on-line near infrared spectral correction model for the jujube quality of Southern Xinjiang, the main influence factors of online testing results were analyzed, and the corresponding parameters were studied. First of all, the collecting conditions of different jujube were set, such as measurement condition, spectral region, and the parameters of the apparatus. With near infrared spectrometer and self-designed jujube batch collecting attachment, the quality spectrum of jujube was obtained, and combining spectral preprocessing and detection precision, condition parameters were selected. Secondly, through PLS spectrum correction with different modeling parameters and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analysis, Brix characteristic spectral parameters were selected. The results showed that with sugar degree central wavelength 9116, 9 418 and 10,500 cm(-1), acquisition resolution 16 cm(-1), and scan number 8, the sugar degree relative error was 8%-10%, the size of single grain jujube spectra was reduced to 1/10 of the original, and the time was reduced to 3 seconds. It was concluded that with the experimental parameters, the spectra were compressed, a primary online correction model was established, and the jujube quality online detection with near infrared spectroscopy was basically realized.

  10. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Glutathione-Capped CdTe/CdSe Near-Infrared Quantum Dots for Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Li, Liang; Lai, Yongxian; Yan, Jianna; Tang, Yichen; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-05-19

    These glutathione (GSH)-conjugated CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles in aqueous solution were synthesized using a microwave-assisted approach. The prepared type II core/shell QD nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Results revealed that the QD nanoparticles exhibited good dispersity, a uniform size distribution and tunable fluorescence emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region. In addition, these nanoparticles exhibited good biocompatibility and photoluminescence in cell imaging. In particular, this type of core/shell NIR QDs may have potential applications in molecular imaging.

  11. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Glutathione-Capped CdTe/CdSe Near-Infrared Quantum Dots for Cell Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available These glutathione (GSH-conjugated CdTe/CdSe core/shell quantum dot (QD nanoparticles in aqueous solution were synthesized using a microwave-assisted approach. The prepared type II core/shell QD nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM. Results revealed that the QD nanoparticles exhibited good dispersity, a uniform size distribution and tunable fluorescence emission in the near-infrared (NIR region. In addition, these nanoparticles exhibited good biocompatibility and photoluminescence in cell imaging. In particular, this type of core/shell NIR QDs may have potential applications in molecular imaging.

  12. [A simple design of functional near-infrared spectroscopy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Li, Xiao-li; Liu, Xiao-min

    2015-02-01

    With the development in last twenty years, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique which widely used in cognitive neuroscience studies. Based on mechanism of neurovascular coupling, increased functional neural activities in brain induce higher regional cerebral blood flow, which will cause relative concentration change of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. In this paper, a single channel continuous wave fNIRS system based on multi-function data acquisition board was proposed. With the benefits of narrow spectral peaks and low divergence, laser diodes provided a better accuracy for measurement with optimal dual-wavelength of 690 and 830 nm. Frequency multiplexing technique was used to distinguish light sources from different emitters, and remove environmental stable interference sources such as ambient light and line power noise as well. LabVIEW was used to design graphical user interface with functionalities including source sequence schedule, auto gain setting, digital inhase and quadrature demodulation, data visualization and storage. The experimental results during holding breath and mental arithmetic task indicated that our system was capable of monitoring regional concentration change of hemoglobin in real time, and detecting activation associated with advanced brain functions.

  13. Development of a new diffuse near-infrared food measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Piao, Renguan

    2006-11-01

    Industries from agriculture to petrochemistry have found near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis useful for quality control and quantitative analysis of materials and products. The general chemical, polymer chemistry, petrochemistry, agriculture, food and textile industries are currently using NIR spectroscopic methods for analysis. In this study, we developed a new sort NIR instrument for food measuring. The instrument consists of a light source, 12 filters to the prismatic part. The special part is that we use a mirror to get two beams of light. And two PbS detectors were used. One detector collected the radiation of one light beam directly and the value was set as the standard instead the standard white surface. Another light beam irradiate the sample surface, and the diffuse light was collected by another detector. The value of the two detectors was compared and the absorbency was computed. We tested the performance of the NIR instrument in determining the protein and fat content of milk powder. The calibration showed the accuracy of the instrument in practice.

  14. Automatic and Accurate Shadow Detection Using Near-Infrared Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüfenacht, Dominic; Fredembach, Clément; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to automatically detect shadows in a fast and accurate manner by taking advantage of the inherent sensitivity of digital camera sensors to the near-infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum. Dark objects, which confound many shadow detection algorithms, often have much higher reflectance in the NIR. We can thus build an accurate shadow candidate map based on image pixels that are dark both in the visible and NIR representations. We further refine the shadow map by incorporating ratios of the visible to the NIR image, based on the observation that commonly encountered light sources have very distinct spectra in the NIR band. The results are validated on a new database, which contains visible/NIR images for a large variety of real-world shadow creating illuminant conditions, as well as manually labeled shadow ground truth. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations show that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art shadow detection algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  15. Bundled-Optode Method in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Dung Nguyen

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theory for detection of the absolute concentrations of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO and deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR from hemodynamic responses using a bundled-optode configuration in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is proposed. The proposed method is then applied to the identification of two fingers (i.e., little and thumb during their flexion and extension. This experiment involves a continuous-wave-type dual-wavelength (760 and 830 nm fNIRS and five healthy male subjects. The active brain locations of two finger movements are identified based on the analysis of the t- and p-values of the averaged HbOs, which are quite distinctive. Our experimental results, furthermore, revealed that the hemodynamic responses of two-finger movements are different: The mean, peak, and time-to-peak of little finger movements are higher than those of thumb movements. It is noteworthy that the developed method can be extended to 3-dimensional fNIRS imaging.

  16. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Evaluation of Anesthetic Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hernandez-Meza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard-of-care guidelines published by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA recommend monitoring of pulse oximetry, blood pressure, heart rate, and end tidal CO2 during the use of anesthesia and sedation. This information can help to identify adverse events that may occur during procedures. However, these parameters are not specific to the effects of anesthetics or sedatives, and therefore they offer little, to no, real time information regarding the effects of those agents and do not give the clinician the lead-time necessary to prevent patient “awareness.” Since no “gold-standard” method is available to continuously, reliably, and effectively monitor the effects of sedatives and anesthetics, such a method is greatly needed. Investigation of the use of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS as a method for anesthesia or sedation monitoring and for the assessment of the effects of various anesthetic drugs on cerebral oxygenation has started to be conducted. The objective of this paper is to provide a thorough review of the currently available published scientific studies regarding the use of fNIRS in the fields of anesthesia and sedation monitoring, comment on their findings, and discuss the future work required for the translation of this technology to the clinical setting.

  17. Mental fatigue detection based on the functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Fenggang; Yang, Hanjun; Jiang, Jin; Cao, Yong; Jiao, Xuejun

    2017-02-01

    Mental fatigue can be induced by long time mental work, mental fatigue caused worse performance and accidents. As a non-invasive technique, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can measure blood oxygen activity in the cerebral cortex which reflect the cognitive function of brain indirectly. Aiming at investigating whether fNIRS can measure the mental fatigue and study the spatial pattern of hemodynamic response for mental fatigue, we used three sessions of verbal 2-back working memory task for a total of 120 minutes to induce mental fatigue, 15 healthy subjects were recruited and 30 channels including prefrontal cortex (PFC) and motor cortex (MC) were measured by fNIRS. The mean oxyhemoglobin feature for 20s was extracted as well as subjective fatigue level and performance. The results showed significant increase of subjected fatigue level as well as significant decrease performance from session one to three task. With the increased level of fatigue, oxyhemoglobin in PFC increase significantly and the spatial pattern of hemodynamic response in the all 30 channels varied with task duration as well. These findings indicated the potential of fNIRS measured hemodynamic as a mental fatigue indicator.

  18. Giant Planet Interior Physics from Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Thorngren, Daniel; Line, Michael R.; Morley, Caroline

    2017-10-01

    Transiting planets give us excellent probes of giant exoplanet structure (from mass and radius) and atmospheres (from transit and occultation spectroscopy). However, the combined power of these observations to understand how the planetary interior structure may impact its atmosphere has not yet been fully exploited. This will change with JWST. In particular, near-infrared wavelengths have less water opacity than mid-IR wavelengths, which allows us to probe thermal emission from deeper, hotter regions of the atmosphere. In some circumstances we should be able to see thermal emission coming from below the radiative-convective boundary in the atmosphere, including the adiabat itself. This adiabat continues into the planet’s very deep interior -- the specific entropy of this adiabat sets the planetary radius at a given mass. Hot internal adiabats, which we should be able to ``see” in thermal emission, should be present for the most inflated hot Jupiters, and planets like warm Neptunes that are strongly influenced by tidal heating (e.g. GJ 436b, Morley et al. 2017). Determining the flux coming from these atmospheric depths can be an important constraint on structure models of planets that have aimed to understand giant planet bulk metal enrichment, which is an important constraint on formation models. These flux detections can also provide novel and reasonably direct constraints on planetary tidal Q for eccentric planets. We highlight how we expect JWST to open up this new window into exoplanetary physics.

  19. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging system for root phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; Leitner, Raimund; Bodner, Gernot

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the development and application of a hyper-spectral imaging system for root phenotyping. For sustainable plant production root systems optimized for growing conditions in the field are required. Therefore, the presented system is used for the research in the field of plant drought resistance. The system is used to acquire spatially resolved near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data of rhizoboxes. In contrast to using visible light (380 nm-780 nm) the NIR wavelength range (900 nm-1700 nm) allows to discriminate essential features for the root segmentation and water distribution mappings. The increased image contrast in the NIR range allows roots to be segmented from soil and additional information, e.g. basic root-architecture, to be extracted. In addition, the water absorption bands in the NIR wavelength range can be used to determine the water content and to estimate the age of the roots. In this paper the hardware setup of the hyper-spectral root imaging system, the data analysis, the soil water content estimations and the root segmentation using different methods to optimize separation between roots and soil, both constituting complex materials of variable properties, are presented.

  20. Near-infrared autofluorescence for the detection of parathyroid glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paras, Constantine; Keller, Matthew; White, Lisa; Phay, John; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    A major challenge in endocrine surgery is the intraoperative detection of parathyroid glands during both thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies. Current localization techniques such as ultrasound and sestamibi scan are mostly preoperative and rely on an abnormal parathyroid for its detection. In this paper, we present near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence as a nonintrusive, real-time, automated in vivo method for the detection of the parathyroid gland. A pilot in vivo study was conducted to assess the ability of NIR fluorescence to identify parathyroid glands during thyroid and parathyroidectomies. Fluorescence measurements at 785 nm excitation were obtained intra-operatively from the different tissues exposed in the neck region in 21 patients undergoing endocrine surgery. The fluorescence intensity of the parathyroid gland was found to be consistently greater than that of the thyroid and all other tissues in the neck of all patients. In particular, parathyroid fluorescence was two to eleven times higher than that of the thyroid tissues with peak fluorescence occurring at 820 to 830 nm. These results indicate that NIR fluorescence has the potential to be an excellent optical tool to locate parathyroid tissue during surgery.

  1. Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging for detection of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros G; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Ramsamooj, Rajen; White, Ralph deVere

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of tissues under long-wavelength laser excitation in the green and red spectral region complemented by cross-polarized elastic light scattering was explored for cancer detection. Various types of normal and malignant human tissue samples were utilized in this investigation. A set of images for each tissue sample was recorded that consisted of two autofluorescence images obtained under 532- and 632.8-nm excitation and light-scattering images obtained under linearly polarized illumination at 700, 850, and 1000 nm. These images were compared with the histopathology of the tissue sample. The experimental results indicated that for various tissue types, the intensity of the autofluorescence integrated over the 700 to 1000-nm spectral region was considerably different in cancer tissues than in that of the contiguous non-neoplastic tissues. This difference provided the basis for the detection of cancer and delineation of the tumor margins. Variations on the relative intensity were observed among different tissue types and excitation wavelengths. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  2. Distributed Software for Observations in the Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavryusev, V.; Baffa, C.; Giani, E.

    We have developed an integrated system that performs astronomical observations in Near Infrared bands operating two-dimensional instruments at the Italian National Infrared Facility's \\htmllink{ARNICA}{http://helios.arcetri.astro.it:/home/idefix/Mosaic/ instr/arnica/arnica.html} and \\htmllink{LONGSP}{http://helios.arcetri.astro.it:/home/idefix/Mosaic/ instr/longsp/longsp.html}. This software consists of several communicating processes, generally executed across a network, as well as on a single computer. The user interface is organized as widget-based X11 client. The interprocess communication is provided by sockets and uses TCP/IP. The processes denoted for control of hardware (telescope and other instruments) should be executed currently on a PC dedicated for this task under DESQview/X, while all other components (user interface, tools for the data analysis, etc.) can also work under UNIX\\@. The hardware independent part of software is based on the Athena Widget Set and is compiled by GNU C to provide maximum portability.

  3. Intrinsic Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Markers of Breast Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwayta Kukreti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have discovered quantitative optical biomarkers unique to cancer by developing a double-differential spectroscopic analysis method for near-infrared (NIR, 650–1000 nm spectra acquired non-invasively from breast tumors. These biomarkers are characterized by specific NIR absorption bands. The double-differential method removes patient specific variations in molecular composition which are not related to cancer, and reveals these specific cancer biomarkers. Based on the spectral regions of absorption, we identify these biomarkers with lipids that are present in tumors either in different abundance than in the normal breast or new lipid components that are generated by tumor metabolism. Furthermore, the O-H overtone regions (980–1000 nm show distinct variations in the tumor as compared to the normal breast. To quantify spectral variation in the absorption bands, we constructed the Specific Tumor Component (STC index. In a pilot study of 12 cancer patients we found 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for lesion identification. The STC index, combined with other previously described tissue optical indices, further improves the diagnostic power of NIR for breast cancer detection.

  4. DIAGNOcam--a Near Infrared Digital Imaging Transillumination (NIDIT) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Marwa; Krejci, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, clinical manifestation of carious lesions is changing: instead of dentists being confronted with wide-open cavities, more and more hidden caries are seen. For a long time, the focus of the research community was on finding a method for the detection of carious lesions without the need for radiographs. The research on Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination (DIFOTI) has been an active domain. The scope of the present article is to describe a novel technology for caries diagnostics based on Near Infrared Digital Imaging Transillumination (NIDIT), and to give first examples of its clinical indications. In addition, the coupling of NIDIT with a head-mounted retinal image display (RID) to improve clinical workflow is presented. The novel NIDIT technology was shown to be useful as a diagnostic tool in several indications, including mainly the detection of proximal caries and, less importantly, for occlusal caries, fissures, and secondary decay around amalgam and composite restorations. The coupling of this technology with a head-mounted retinal image system allows for its very efficient implementation into daily practice.

  5. Application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Schneider, Sabrina; Dresler, Thomas; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-15

    Two decades ago, the introduction of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) into the field of neuroscience created new opportunities for investigating neural processes within the human cerebral cortex. Since then, fNIRS has been increasingly used to conduct functional activation studies in different neuropsychiatric disorders, most prominently schizophrenic illnesses, affective disorders and developmental syndromes, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as well as normal and pathological aging. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of state of the art fNIRS research in psychiatry covering a wide range of applications, including studies on the phenomenological characterization of psychiatric disorders, descriptions of life-time developmental aspects, treatment effects, and genetic influences on neuroimaging data. Finally, methodological shortcomings as well as current research perspectives and promising future applications of fNIRS in psychiatry are discussed. We conclude that fNIRS is a valid addition to the range of neuroscientific methods available to assess neural mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Future research should particularly focus on expanding the presently used activation paradigms and cortical regions of interest, while additionally fostering technical and methodological advances particularly concerning the identification and removal of extracranial influences on fNIRS data as well as systematic artifact correction. Eventually, fNIRS might be a useful tool in practical psychiatric settings involving both diagnostics and the complementary treatment of psychological disorders using, for example, neurofeedback applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Near-infrared-light-driven artificial photosynthesis by nanobiocatalytic assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Seok; Nam, Dong Heon; Kuk, Su Keun; Park, Chan Beum

    2014-03-24

    Artificial photosynthesis in nanobiocatalytic assemblies aims to reconstruct man-made photosensitizers, electron mediators, electron donors, and redox enzymes for solar synthesis of valuable chemicals through photochemical cofactor regeneration. Herein, we report, for the first time, on nanobiocatalytic artificial photosynthesis in near-infrared (NIR) light, which constitutes over 46% of the solar energy. For NIR-light-driven photoenzymatic synthesis, we synthesized silica-coated upconversion nanoparticles, Si-NaYF4:Yb,Er and Si-NaYF4:Yb,Tm, for efficient photon-conversion through Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) with rose bengal (RB), a photosensitizer. We observed NIR-induced electron transfer by using linear sweep voltammetric analysis; this indicates that photoexcited electrons of RB/Si-NaYF4:Yb,Er are transferred to NAD+ through a Rh-based electron mediator. RB/Si-NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles, which exhibit higher FRET efficiency due to more spectral overlap than RB/Si-NaYF4:Yb,Tm, perform much better in the photoenzymatic conversion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Portable visible and near-infrared spectrophotometer for triglyceride measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Tsukamoto, Megumi; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Sakudo, Akikazu

    2009-01-01

    An affordable and portable machine is required for the practical use of visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. A portable fruit tester comprising a Vis-NIR spectrophotometer was modified for use in the transmittance mode and employed to quantify triglyceride levels in serum in combination with a chemometric analysis. Transmittance spectra collected in the 600- to 1100-nm region were subjected to a partial least-squares regression analysis and leave-out cross-validation to develop a chemometrics model for predicting triglyceride concentrations in serum. The model yielded a coefficient of determination in cross-validation (R2VAL) of 0.7831 with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 43.68 mg/dl. The detection limit of the model was 148.79 mg/dl. Furthermore, masked samples predicted by the model yielded a coefficient of determination in prediction (R2PRED) of 0.6856 with a standard error of prediction (SEP) and detection limit of 61.54 and 159.38 mg/dl, respectively. The portable Vis-NIR spectrophotometer may prove convenient for the measurement of triglyceride concentrations in serum, although before practical use there remain obstacles, which are discussed.

  8. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Lymphatic Imaging in Lymphangiomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, John C; Fife, Caroline E; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2015-09-01

    Lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder of the lymphatic system that can impact the dermis, soft tissue, bone, and viscera and can be characterized by lymphangiomas, swelling, and chylous discharge. Whether disordered lymphangiogenesis in lymphangiomatosis affects the function and anatomy of the entire systemic lymphatic circulation or is localized to specific sites is not fully known. A 35-year-old Caucasian female diagnosed with whole-body lymphangiomatosis at 2 months of age and who continues to present with progressive disease was imaged with near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging. While the peripheral lymphatics in the extremities appeared largely normal compared to prior studies, we observed tortuous lymphatic vessels, fluorescence drainage from the peripheral lymphatics into lymphangiomas, and extensive dermal lymphatics in the left thigh and inguinal regions where the subject had previously had surgical assaults, potentially indicating defective systemic lymphangiogenesis. Further research into anatomical and functional lymphatic changes associated with the progression and treatment of lymphangiomatosis could aid in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease as well as point to treatment strategies.

  9. Novel near infrared sensors for hybrid BCI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajidy, Rand K.; Le, Khang S.; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2015-07-01

    This study's goal is to develop a low cost, portable, accurate and comfortable NIRS module that can be used simultaneously with EEG in a dual modality system for brain computer interface (BCI). The sensing modules consist of electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes (at the positions Fp1, Fpz and Fp2 in the international 10-20 system) with eight custom made functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) channels, positioned on the prefrontal cortex area with two extra channels to measure and eliminate extra-cranial oxygenation. The NIRS sensors were designed to guarantee good sensor-skin contact, without causing subject discomfort, using springs to press them to the skin instead of pressing them by cap fixture. Two open source software packages were modified to carry out dual modality hybrid BCI experiments. The experimental paradigm consisted of a mental task (arithmetic task or text reading) and a resting period. Both oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes (HbO), and EEG signals showed an increase during the mental task, but the onset, period and amount of that increase depends on each modality's characteristics. The subject's degree of attention played an important role especially during online sessions. The sensors can be easily used to acquire brain signals from different cerebral cortex parts. The system serves as a simple technological test bed and will be used for stroke patient rehabilitation purposes.

  10. The application of near infrared spectroscopy in nutritional intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A Jackson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive optical imaging technique used to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and by proxy neuronal activation. The use of NIRS in nutritional intervention studies is a relatively novel application of this technique, with only a small, but growing, number of trials published to date. These trials—in which the effects on CBF following administration of dietary components such as caffeine, polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are assessed—have successfully demonstrated NIRS as a sensitive measure of change in haemodynamic response during cognitive tasks in both acute and chronic treatment intervention paradigms. The existent research in this area has been limited by the constraints of the technique itself however advancements in the measurement technology, paired with studies endeavouring increased sophistication in number and locations of channels over the head should render the use of NIRS in nutritional interventions particularly valuable in advancing our understanding of the effects of nutrients and dietary components on the brain.

  11. Near-infrared hybrid plasmonic multiple quantum well nanowire lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiamin; Wei, Wei; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Jinnan; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-04-17

    The lasing characteristics of hybrid plasmonic AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowire (NW) lasers beyond diffraction limit have been investigated by 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations. The results show that the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has lower threshold gain over a broad diameter range in comparison with its photonic counterpart. Beyond the diffraction limit, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has a lowest threshold gain of 788 cm-1 at a diameter of 130 nm, and a cutoff diameter of 80 nm, half that of the photonic lasers. In comparison with the hybrid plasmonic core-shell NWs, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NWs exhibit significantly lower threshold gain, higher Purcell factor, and smaller cutoff diameter, which are attributed to the superior overlap between the hybrid plasmonic modes and gain medium, as well as a stronger optical confinement due to the grating-like effect of MQW structures. Moreover, the hybrid plasmonic MQW NW has a lower threshold gain than that of the core-shell NW over a broad wavelength range. The hybrid plasmonic MQW NW structure is promising for ultrasmall and low-consumption near-infrared nanolasers.

  12. Near infrared emission spectroscopy induced by ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sivanildo Silva; Korn, Mauro; Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Pasquini, Celio

    2006-07-01

    Near infrared emission caused by ultrasonic excitation is demonstrated for the first time in this work. The instrument is constituted of an acousto-optical tunable filter-based spectrometer, an ultrasonic processor connected to a titanium alloy ultrasonic probe and a cylindrical borosilicate flask containing the sample to be excited. The radiation emitted by the sample is collected by a concave mirror and sent to the spectrometer. The effects of the position of the probe extremity in relation to a lateral entrance of the borosilicate flask and of the ultrasonic power on the emission signal were studied. The best results were obtained by positioning the probe extremity up to 2mm from the reflexive body (lateral entrance) using 30% of the full ultrasonic incident power and acquiring spectra after 5 min of sonication. The NIR emission spectra resulting from the ultrasonic excitation were in agreement with that obtained by thermal excitation. The proposed technique was utilized to study different poly(dimethylsiloxane) samples having different viscosities.

  13. Thermal consequences of colour and near-infrared reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Fox, Devi; Newton, Elizabeth; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2017-07-05

    The importance of colour for temperature regulation in animals remains controversial. Colour can affect an animal's temperature because all else being equal, dark surfaces absorb more solar energy than do light surfaces, and that energy is converted into heat. However, in reality, the relationship between colour and thermoregulation is complex and varied because it depends on environmental conditions and the physical properties, behaviour and physiology of the animal. Furthermore, the thermal effects of colour depend as much on absorptance of near-infrared ((NIR), 700-2500 nm) as visible (300-700 nm) wavelengths of direct sunlight; yet the NIR is very rarely considered or measured. The few available data on NIR reflectance in animals indicate that the visible reflectance is often a poor predictor of NIR reflectance. Adaptive variation in animal coloration (visible reflectance) reflects a compromise between multiple competing functions such as camouflage, signalling and thermoregulation. By contrast, adaptive variation in NIR reflectance should primarily reflect thermoregulatory requirements because animal visual systems are generally insensitive to NIR wavelengths. Here, we assess evidence and identify key research questions regarding the thermoregulatory function of animal coloration, and specifically consider evidence for adaptive variation in NIR reflectance.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Small Protonated Water Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J. Philipp; McDonald, David C., II; McCoy, Anne B.; Duncan, Michael A.

    2017-06-01

    Small protonated water clusters and their argon tagged analogues of the general formula H^{+}(H_{2}O)_{n}Ar_{m} have been generated in a pulsed electric discharge source. Clusters containing n=1-8 water molecules were mass-selected and their absorptions in the near-infrared were probed with a tunable Nd/colonYAG pumped OPA/OPA laser system in the region from 4850-7350 cm^{-1}. A doublet corresponding to overtones of the free O-H stretches of the external waters was observed around 7200 cm^{-1} that was continuously decreasing in intensity with increasing cluster size. Broad, mostly featureless absorptions were found around 5300 cm^{-1} associated with stretch/bend combinations and with the hydrogen bonded waters in the core of the clusters. Vibrational assignments were substantiated by comparison to anharmonic frequency computations via second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory.

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy is feasible to discriminate hazelnut cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Stella

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the feasibility of the near infrared (NIR spectroscopy use for hazelnut-cultivar sorting. Hazelnut spectra were acquired from 600 fruit for each cultivar sample, two diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from opposite sides of the same hazelnut. Spectral data were transformed into absorbance before the computations. A different variety of spectral pretreatments were applied to extract characteristics for the classification. An iterative Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA algorithm was used to select a relatively small set of variables to correctly classify samples. The optimal group of features selected for each test was analyzed using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA. The spectral region most frequently chosen was the 1980-2060 nm range, which corresponds to best differentiation performance for a total minimum error rate lower than 1.00%. This wavelength range is generally associated with stretching and bending of the N-H functional group of amino acids and proteins. The feasibility of using NIR Spectroscopy to distinguish different hazelnut cultivars was demonstrated.

  16. Subsurface thermal coagulation of tissues using near infrared lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Hung Jack

    Noninvasive laser therapy is currently limited primarily to cosmetic dermatological applications such as skin resurfacing, hair removal, tattoo removal and treatment of vascular birthmarks. In order to expand applications of noninvasive laser therapy, deeper optical penetration of laser radiation in tissue as well as more aggressive cooling of the tissue surface is necessary. The near-infrared laser wavelength of 1075 nm was found to be the optimal laser wavelength for creation of deep subsurface thermal lesions in liver tissue, ex vivo, with contact cooling, preserving a surface tissue layer of 2 mm. Monte Carlo light transport, heat transfer, and Arrhenius integral thermal damage simulations were conducted at this wavelength, showing good agreement between experiment and simulations. Building on the initial results, our goal is to develop new noninvasive laser therapies for application in urology, specifically for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Various laser balloon probes including side-firing and diffusing fibers were designed and tested for both transvaginal and transurethral approaches to treatment. The transvaginal approach showed the highest feasibility. To further increase optical penetration depth, various types and concentrations of optical clearing agents were also explored. Three cadavers studies were performed to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of laser treatment for SUI.

  17. Noninvasive near-infrared fluorescent protein-based imaging of tumor progression and metastases in deep organs and intraosseous tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiguet-Jiglaire, Carine; Cayol, Mylène; Mathieu, Sylvie; Jeanneau, Charlotte; Bouvier-Labit, Corinne; Ouafik, L.'houcine; El-Battari, Assou

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body imaging of experimental tumor growth is more feasible within the near-infrared (NIR) optical window because of the highest transparency of mammalian tissues within this wavelength spectrum, mainly due to improved tissue penetration and lower autofluorescence. We took advantage from the recently cloned infrared fluorescent protein (iRFP) together with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based lentiviral vector to produce virally transduced tumor cells that permanently express this protein. We then noninvasively explored metastatic spread as well as primary tumor growth in deep organs and behind bone barriers. Intrabone tumor growth was investigated through intracranial and intratibial injections of glioblastoma and osteosarcoma cells, respectively, and metastasis was assessed by tail vein injection of melanoma cells. We found that the emitted fluorescence is captured as sharp images regardless of the organ or tissue considered. Furthermore, by overlaying fluorescence spots with the white light, it was possible to afford whole-body images yet never observed before. This approach allowed us to continuously monitor the growth and dissemination of tumor cells with a small number of animals, minimal animal handling, and without the need for any additive. This iRFP-based system provides high-resolution readouts of tumorigenesis that should greatly facilitate preclinical trials with anticancer therapeutic molecules.

  18. Development and Testing of an LED-Based Near-Infrared Sensor for Human Kidney Tumor Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Zabarylo, Urszula; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Belikova, Valeria; Ageev, Vladimir; Usenov, Iskander; Galyanin, Vladislav; Minet, Olaf; Sakharova, Tatiana; Danielyan, Georgy; Feliksberger, Elena; Artyushenko, Viacheslav

    2017-08-19

    Optical spectroscopy is increasingly used for cancer diagnostics. Tumor detection feasibility in human kidney samples using mid- and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy has been reported (Artyushenko et al., Spectral fiber sensors for cancer diagnostics in vitro. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Biomedical Optics, Munich, Germany, 21-25 June 2015). In the present work, a simplification of the NIR spectroscopic analysis for cancer diagnostics was studied. The conventional high-resolution NIR spectroscopic method of kidney tumor diagnostics was replaced by a compact optical sensing device constructively represented by a set of four light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at selected wavelengths and one detecting photodiode. Two sensor prototypes were tested using 14 in vitro clinical samples of 7 different patients. Statistical data evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) confirmed the general applicability of the LED-based sensing approach to kidney tumor detection. An additional validation of the results was performed by means of sample permutation.

  19. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  20. Evaluation of image reconstruction algorithm for near infrared topography by virtual head phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Okada, Eiji

    2007-07-01

    The poor spatial resolution and reproducibility of the images are disadvantages of near infrared topography. The authors proposed the combination of the double-density probe arrangement and the image reconstruction algorithm using a spatial sensitivity profile to improve the spatial resolution and the reproducibility. However, the proposed method was evaluated only by the simplified adult head model. It is uncertain whether the proposed method is effective to the actual head that has complicated structure. In this study, the proposed method is evaluated by the virtual head phantom the 3Dstructure of which is based upon an MRI scan of an adult head. The absorption change the size of which is almost equivalent to the width of the brain gyri was measured by the conventional method and the proposed method to evaluate the spatial resolution of the topographic images obtained by each method. The positions of the probe arrangements are slightly changed and the topographic images of the same brain activation measured by two probe positions are compared to evaluate the reproducibility of the NIR topography. The results indicate that the combination of the double-density probe arrangement and the image reconstruction algorithm using the spatial sensitivity profile can improve both the spatial resolution and the reproducibility of the topographic image of brain activation in the virtual head phantom. However, the uneven thickness of the superficial tissues affects the accuracy of the position of activation in the images.

  1. High Resolution Fluorescence Imaging of Cancers Using Lanthanide Ion-Doped Upconverting Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naccache, Rafik; Rodríguez, Emma Martín; Bogdan, Nicoleta [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Concordia University, Montreal H4B 1R6 (Canada); Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco [Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Cruz, Maria del Carmen Iglesias de la [Departamento de Fisiología. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28029 (Spain); Fuente, Ángeles Juarranz de la [Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Vetrone, Fiorenzo [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, Varennes J3X 1S2 (Canada); Jaque, Daniel; Solé, José García, E-mail: jose.garcia_sole@uam.es [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Capobianco, John A., E-mail: jose.garcia_sole@uam.es [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Concordia University, Montreal H4B 1R6 (Canada)

    2012-10-22

    During the last decade inorganic luminescent nanoparticles that emit visible light under near infrared (NIR) excitation (in the biological window) have played a relevant role for high resolution imaging of cancer. Indeed, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and metal nanoparticles, mostly gold nanorods (GNRs), are already commercially available for this purpose. In this work we review the role which is being played by a relatively new class of nanoparticles, based on lanthanide ion doped nanocrystals, to target and image cancer cells using upconversion fluorescence microscopy. These nanoparticles are insulating nanocrystals that are usually doped with small percentages of two different rare earth (lanthanide) ions: The excited donor ions (usually Yb{sup 3+} ion) that absorb the NIR excitation and the acceptor ions (usually Er{sup 3+}, Ho{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+}), that are responsible for the emitted visible (or also near infrared) radiation. The higher conversion efficiency of these nanoparticles in respect to those based on QDs and GNRs, as well as the almost independent excitation/emission properties from the particle size, make them particularly promising for fluorescence imaging. The different approaches of these novel nanoparticles devoted to “in vitro” and “in vivo” cancer imaging, selective targeting and treatment are examined in this review.

  2. High Resolution Fluorescence Imaging of Cancers Using Lanthanide Ion-Doped Upconverting Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Capobianco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade inorganic luminescent nanoparticles that emit visible light under near infrared (NIR excitation (in the biological window have played a relevant role for high resolution imaging of cancer. Indeed, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs and metal nanoparticles, mostly gold nanorods (GNRs, are already commercially available for this purpose. In this work we review the role which is being played by a relatively new class of nanoparticles, based on lanthanide ion doped nanocrystals, to target and image cancer cells using upconversion fluorescence microscopy. These nanoparticles are insulating nanocrystals that are usually doped with small percentages of two different rare earth (lanthanide ions: The excited donor ions (usually Yb3+ ion that absorb the NIR excitation and the acceptor ions (usually Er3+, Ho3+ or Tm3+, that are responsible for the emitted visible (or also near infrared radiation. The higher conversion efficiency of these nanoparticles in respect to those based on QDs and GNRs, as well as the almost independent excitation/emission properties from the particle size, make them particularly promising for fluorescence imaging. The different approaches of these novel nanoparticles devoted to "in vitro" and "in vivo" cancer imaging, selective targeting and treatment are examined in this review.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biomedical Applications of a Targeted Dual-Modal Near-Infrared-II Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Imaging Nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Chen, Hao; Jenkins, Cesare H; Zhang, Guanglei; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Zhe; Han, Fei; Fung, Jonathan; Yang, Meng; Jiang, Yuxin; Xing, Lei; Cheng, Zhen

    2017-12-26

    Our development of multifunctional dual-modal imaging probes aims to integrate the benefits from both second near-infrared (NIR-II) fluorescence (1000-1700 nm) and photoacoustic imaging with an ultimate goal of improving overall cancer diagnosis efficacy. Herein we designed a donor-acceptor chromophore based nanoparticle (DAP) as a dual-modal image contrast agent has strong absorption in the NIR-I window and a strong fluorescence emission peak in the NIR-II region. The dual-modal DAPs composed of D-π-A-π-D-type chromophores were PEGylated through nanoprecipitation. The multifunctional DAP surface was thus available for subsequent bioconjugation of EGFR Affibody (Ac-Cys-Z EGFR:1907 ) to target EGFR-positive cancers. The Affibody-conjugated DAPs appeared as highly monodisperse nanoparticles (∼30 nm) with strong absorption in the NIR-I window (at ca. 680 nm) and an extremely high fluorescence in the NIR-II region (maximum peak at 1000 nm). Consequently, the Affibody-DAPs show significantly enhanced photoacoustic and NIR-II fluorescence contrast effects in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Moreover, the Affibody-DAPs have the capability to selectively target EGFR-positive tumors in an FTC-133 subcutaneous mouse model with relatively high photoacoustic and fluorescent signals. By taking advantage of high spatial resolution and excellent temporal resolution, photoacoustic/NIR-II fluorescence imaging with targeted dual-modal contrast agents allows us to specifically image and detect various cancers and diseases in an accurate manner.

  4. Imaging brain injury using time-resolved near infrared light scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houten, J P; Benaron, D A; Spilman, S; Stevenson, D K

    1996-03-01

    Conventional brain imaging modalities are limited in that they image only secondary physical manifestations of brain injury, which may occur well after the actual insult to the brain and represent irreversible structural changes. A real-time continuous bedside monitor that images functional changes in cerebral blood flow or oxygenation might allow for recognition of brain tissue ischemia or hypoxia before the development of irreversible injury. Visible and near infrared light pass through human bone and tissue in small amounts, and the emerging light can be used to form images of the interior structure of the tissue and measure tissue blood flow and oxygen utilization based on light absorbance and scattering. We developed a portable time-of-flight and absorbance system which emits pulses of near infrared light into tissue and measures the transit time of photons through the tissue. Images can then be reconstructed mathematically using either absorbance or scattering information. Pathologic brain specimens from adult sheep and human newborns were studied with this device using rotational optical tomography. Images generated from these optical scans show that neonatal brain injuries such as subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhages can be successfully identified and localized. Resolution of this system appears to be better than 1 cm at a tissue depth of 5 cm, which should be sufficient for imaging some brain lesions as well as for detection of regional changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation. We conclude that light-based imaging of cerebral structure and function is feasible and may permit identification of patients with impending brain injury as well as monitoring of the efficacy of intervention. Construction of real-time images of brain structure and function is now underway using a fiber optic headband and nonmechanical rotational scanner allowing comfortable, unintrusive monitoring over extended periods of time.

  5. New biomedical devices that use near-infrared technology to assist with phlebotomy and vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Kenneth; Gorelick, Marc H

    2013-03-01

    Obtaining intravenous access in children is often challenging. Devices using the novel technology of near-infrared imaging have been developed and marketed to facilitate intravenous catheter placement and phlebotomy. We review the technology of near-infrared imaging and the evidence for its use in the pediatric emergency population.

  6. A near infrared luminescent metal-organic framework for temperature sensing in the physiological range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiusheng; Zhao, Dian; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2015-12-28

    A near infrared pumped luminescent metal-organic framework thermometer Nd(0.577)Yb(0.423)BDC-F4, with near infrared fluorescence and excellent sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (293-313 K), has been first realized, and might be potentially applied for biomedical systems.

  7. 7 CFR 801.7 - Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers. (a) Reference methods. (1) The... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reference methods and tolerances for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analyzers. 801.7 Section 801.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...

  8. The evaluation of non-ionizing radiation (near-infrared radiation) based medical imaging application: Diabetes foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Young Jin [Dept. of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Cheol Won; Ahn, Sung Min; Hong, Jun Yong; Ahn, Yun Jin; Lim, Cheong Hwan [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Near-infrared radiation (NIR) is non-ionizing, non-invasive, and deep tissue penetration in biological material, thereby increasing research interests as a medical imaging technique in the world. However, the use of current near-infrared medical image is extremely limited in Korea (ROK) since it is not well known among radiologic technologists and radiological researchers. Therefore to strengthen the knowledge for NIR medical imaging is necessary so as to prepare a qualified radiological professionals to serve medical images in high-quality on the clinical sites. In this study, an overview of the features and principles of N IR imaging was demonstrated. The latest research topics and worldwide research trends were introduced for radiologic technologist to reinforce their technical skills. In particular, wound care and diabetic foot which have high feasibility for clinical translation were introduced in order to contribute to accelerating NIR research for developing the field of radiological science.

  9. Near-infrared Hong-Ou-Mandel interference on a silicon quantum photonic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinan; Xie, Zhenda; Zheng, Jiangjun; Liang, Junlin; Zhong, Tian; Yu, Mingbin; Kocaman, Serdar; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Englund, Dirk R; Wong, Franco N C; Wong, Chee Wei

    2013-02-25

    Near-infrared Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference is observed in silicon nanophotonic directional couplers with raw visibilities on-chip at 90.5%. Spectrally-bright 1557-nm two-photon states are generated in a periodically-poled KTiOPO₄ waveguide chip, serving as the entangled photon source and pumped with a self-injection locked laser, for the photon statistical measurements. Efficient four-port coupling in the communications C-band and in the high-index-contrast silicon photonics platform is demonstrated, with matching theoretical predictions of the quantum interference visibility. Constituents for the residual quantum visibility imperfection are examined, supported with theoretical analysis of the sequentially-triggered multipair biphoton, towards scalable high-bitrate quantum information processing and communications. The on-chip HOM interference is useful towards scalable high-bitrate quantum information processing and communications.

  10. James Webb Telescope's Near Infrared Camera: Making Models, Building Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, D. W.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2010-10-01

    The Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders is a science education program sponsored by NASA's next large space telescope: The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The E/PO team for JWST's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), in collaboration with the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council, has developed a long-term relationship with adult leaders from all GSUSA Councils that directly benefits troops of all ages, not only in general science education but also specifically in the astronomical and technology concepts relating to JWST. We have been training and equipping these leaders so they can in turn teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, i.e., the night sky environment. We model what astronomers do by engaging trainers in the process of scientific inquiry, and we equip them to host troop-level astronomy-related activities. It is GSUSA's goal to foster girls’ interest and creativity in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math, creating an environment that encourages their interests early in their lives while creating a safe place for girls to try and fail, and then try again and succeed. To date, we have trained over 158 leaders in 13 camps. These leaders have come from 24 states, DC, Guam, and Japan. While many of the camp activities are related to the "First Light” theme, many of the background activities relate to two of the other JWST and NIRCam themes: "Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems” and "Planetary Systems and the Origin of Life.” The latter includes our own Solar System. Our poster will highlight the Planetary Systems theme: 1. Earth and Moon: Day and Night; Rotation and Revolution. 2. Earth/Moon Comparisons. 3. Size Model: The Diameters of the Planets. 4. Macramé Planetary (Solar) Distance Model. 5.What is a Planet? 6. Planet Sorting Cards. 7. Human Orrery 8. Lookback Time in Our Daily Lives NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  11. Augmented microscopy with near-infrared fluorescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Martirosyan, Nikolay; Skoch, Jesse; Lemole, G. Michael; Anton, Rein; Romanowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence has become a frequently used intraoperative technique for image-guided surgical interventions. In procedures such as cerebral angiography, surgeons use the optical surgical microscope for the color view of the surgical field, and then switch to an electronic display for the NIR fluorescence images. However, the lack of stereoscopic, real-time, and on-site coregistration adds time and uncertainty to image-guided surgical procedures. To address these limitations, we developed the augmented microscope, whereby the electronically processed NIR fluorescence image is overlaid with the anatomical optical image in real-time within the optical path of the microscope. In vitro, the augmented microscope can detect and display indocyanine green (ICG) concentrations down to 94.5 nM, overlaid with the anatomical color image. We prepared polyacrylamide tissue phantoms with embedded polystyrene beads, yielding scattering properties similar to brain matter. In this model, 194 μM solution of ICG was detectable up to depths of 5 mm. ICG angiography was then performed in anesthetized rats. A dynamic process of ICG distribution in the vascular system overlaid with anatomical color images was observed and recorded. In summary, the augmented microscope demonstrates NIR fluorescence detection with superior real-time coregistration displayed within the ocular of the stereomicroscope. In comparison to other techniques, the augmented microscope retains full stereoscopic vision and optical controls including magnification and focus, camera capture, and multiuser access. Augmented microscopy may find application in surgeries where the use of traditional microscopes can be enhanced by contrast agents and image guided delivery of therapeutics, including oncology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology.

  12. Intraoperative pulmonary neoplasm identification using near-infrared fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Koo; Quan, Yu Hua; Choi, Byeong Hyeon; Park, Ji-Ho; Han, Kook Nam; Choi, Yeonho; Kim, Beop-Min; Choi, Young Ho

    2016-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging provides surgeons with real-time visual information during surgery. The purpose of this pilot trial was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the intraoperative detection of pulmonary neoplasms with NIR fluorescence imaging after low-dose indocyanine green (ICG) injection. Eleven consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo resection of pulmonary neoplasms were enrolled in this study. ICG (1 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 1 day before surgery, and the retrieved surgical specimens were examined for fluorescence signalling by using NIR fluorescence imaging system on a back table in the operating room. We analysed the fluorescence intensity, pathology, size, depth from the pleural surface and metabolic activity of the pulmonary neoplasms. Fluorescence signalling was detected in all specimens except in one from a patient with primary lung cancer. Two false-positive cases that presented no residual tumour with obstructive pneumonitis, after concurrent chemoradiation therapy for primary lung cancer before the operation, were identified, and their fluorescence intensity was 8.6 ± 0.4. The mean fluorescence intensity of the eight pulmonary tumours was 3.4 ± 1.9, and these tumours did not differ in pathology, size, depth from the pleural surface or metabolic activity. NIR fluorescence imaging could safely identify pulmonary neoplasms after the systemic injection of ICG. In addition, low-dose ICG is sufficient for NIR fluorescence imaging of pulmonary neoplasms. However, because the passive accumulation of ICG could not be used to discriminate tumours with inflammation, tumour-targeted fluorescence should be developed to solve this problem in the future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  13. Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging to detect parathyroid glands in thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, R; Al Arabi, N; Guendogar, U; Hallfeldt, Kkj; Stepp, H; Gallwas, Jks

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify and save parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy by displaying their autofluorescence. Methods Autofluorescence imaging was carried out during thyroidectomy with and without central lymph node dissection. After visual recognition by the surgeon, the parathyroid glands and the surrounding tissue were exposed to near-infrared light with a wavelength of 690-770 nm using a modified Karl Storz near infrared/indocyanine green endoscopic system. Parathyroid tissue was expected to show near infrared autofluorescence at 820 nm, captured in the blue channel of the camera. Results We investigated 41 parathyroid glands from 20 patients; 37 glands were identified correctly based on near-infrared autofluorescence. Neither lymph nodes nor thyroid revealed substantial autofluorescence and nor did adipose tissue. Conclusions Parathyroid tissue is characterised by showing autofluorescence in the near-infrared spectrum. This effect can be used to identify and preserve parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy.

  14. Near-infrared nano-imaging spectroscopy using a phase change mask method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yu; Kanazawa, Shohei; Saiki, Toshiharu

    2014-11-01

    We propose a technique that employs an optical mask layer of a phase-change material, e.g. GeSbTe, which is widely used for rewritable optical recording media, for realizing highly sensitive near-field imaging spectroscopy of single semiconductor quantum constituents at optical telecommunication wavelengths. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have shown great promise as efficient single photon emitters and entangled photon sources, making them attractive for quantum communication and quantum information processing applications. Self-assembled InAs QDs on InP substrate are promising as near-infrared (NIR) single photon and entangled photon emitters. In order to clarify and control the optical properties of QDs for telecommunication devices, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy studies of single QDs with high spatial resolution at NIR wavelength is necessary. The most useful technique to attain this is by using near-field scanning optical miscroscopy (NSOM). However, NSOM has a lower PL collection efficiency at NIR wavelength than at visible wavelength [1]. This problem inhibits NIR-PL spectroscopy based on NSOM to be practically realized. Therefore, we deveopled a method to overcome the low NIR-PL spectroscopy by using a nanoaperture on an optical mask layer of phase-change material (PCM) [2]. Due to the large optical contrast between the crystalline and amorphous phases of the phase-change material at visible wavelengths and its high transparency at NIR wavelengths, an amorphous nanoaperture can be used to realize imaging spectroscopy with a high spatial resolution and a high collection efficiency (Fig. 1). We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing numerical simulations and PL measurements of InAs/InP QDs.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i10-a/DFU089F1F1DFU089F1Fig. 1.Schematic illustration of phase change mask method PCM mask effect has also the potential to be applied in emission energy control of QDs. One of the main problems for realization of

  15. Broadband frequency-domain near-infrared spectral tomography using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia; Jiang, Shudong; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    Frequency-domain near-infrared (NIR) diffuse spectral tomography with a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser is presented, providing tunable multiwavelength quantitative spectroscopy with maximal power for thick tissue imaging. The system was developed to show that intrinsically high stability can be achieved with many wavelengths in the NIR range, using a mode-locked signal of 80 MHz with heterodyned lock-in detection. The effect of cumulative noise from multiple wavelengths of data on the reconstr...

  16. Near-infrared fluorescent probe for detection of thiophenols in water samples and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dehuan; Huang, Feihu; Ding, Shuangshuang; Feng, Guoqiang

    2014-09-02

    The development of probes for rapid, selective, and sensitive detection of the highly toxic thiophenols is of great importance in both environmental and biological science. Despite the appealing advantages of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent detection, no NIR fluorescent probes have been reported for thiophenols to date. Using the chemical properties of thiophenols that are able to cleave sulfonamide selectively and efficiently under mild conditions, we herein report a dicyanomethylene-benzopyran (DCMB)-based NIR fluorescent probe for thiophenols. This probe features remarkable large Stokes shift and shows a rapid, highly selective, and sensitive detection process for thiophenols with significant NIR fluorescent turn-on responses. The potential applications of this new NIR fluorescent probe were demonstrated by the quantitative detection of thiophenol in real water samples and by fluorescent imaging of thiophenol in living cells.

  17. Extraction of heart rate from functional near-infrared spectroscopy in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Katherine L.; Westerlund, Alissa; McCormick, Sarah A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2014-06-01

    Changes in heart rate are a useful physiological measure in infant studies. We present an algorithm for calculating the heart rate (HR) from oxyhemoglobin pulsation in functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals. The algorithm is applied to data collected from 10 infants, and the HR derived from the fNIRS signals is compared against the HR as calculated by electrocardiography. We show high agreement between the two HR signals for all infants (r>0.90), and also compare stimulus-related HR responses as measured by the two methods and find good agreement despite high levels of movement in the infants. This algorithm can be used to measure changes in HR in infants participating in fNIRS studies without the need for additional HR sensors.

  18. Near-infrared optical absorption enhanced in black silicon via Ag nanoparticle-induced localized surface plasmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Shibin; Liu, Chunhua; Wei, Xiongbang; Wu, Zhiming; Jiang, Yadong; Chen, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Due to the localized surface plasmon (LSP) effect induced by Ag nanoparticles inside black silicon, the optical absorption of black silicon is enhanced dramatically in near-infrared range (1,100 to 2,500 nm). The black silicon with Ag nanoparticles shows much higher absorption than black silicon fabricated by chemical etching or reactive ion etching over ultraviolet to near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR, 250 to 2,500 nm). The maximum absorption even increased up to 93.6% in the NIR range (820 to 2,500 nm). The high absorption in NIR range makes LSP-enhanced black silicon a potential material used for NIR-sensitive optoelectronic device. 78.67.Bf; 78.30.Fs; 78.40.-q; 42.70.Gi.

  19. Surface-enhanced near-infrared absorption on nanoporous gold nanoparticle array chip (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Chuan; Zhao, Fusheng

    2017-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) absorption spectroscopy in the 1-2.5 μm wavelength range can provide chemical information based on the overtones and combination bands of fundamental vibrational modes in the infrared (IR) wavelength range. NIR absorption features are significantly broader and weaker due to the fact that the underlying processes are quantum mechanically forbidden. However, substantially lower water absorption allows NIR spectroscopy to be performed on samples with high water content, e.g., biological specimen and other in situ measurements, which otherwise restricts the use of IR light. However, small NIR absorption cross-section results in less sensitivity compared to measuring the IR fundamentals. In addition, NIR measurements are more challenging compared to in other spectral regions because of the lack of high-sensitivity detectors. To overcome these barriers, we propose the use of plasmonic nanostructures. Nanoporous gold nanoparticle (NPG-NP) array chip showcases tunable pore and ligament sizes ranging from nanometers to microns. The nanoporous structure and sub-wavelength nanoparticle shape contribute to its unique LSPR properties. NPG-NP features large specific surface area and high-density plasmonic field enhancement known as "hot-spots". Hence, NPG-NP has found many applications in nanoplasmonic sensor development. In our recent studies, we have shown that NPG-NP array chip can be utilized for high-sensitivity detection by various enhanced spectroscopic modalities, as photothermal agents, and for disease biomarker detection. In this paper, we show the first experimental demonstration of effective and robust surface-enhanced near-infrared absorption (SENIRA) on NPG-NP array chip.

  20. A miniaturized near infrared spectrometer for non-invasive sensing of bio-markers as a wearable healthcare solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungmok; Druzhin, Vladislav V.; Anikanov, Alexey G.; Afanasyev, Sergey V.; Shchekin, Alexey; Medvedev, Anton S.; Morozov, Alexander V.; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Sang Kyu; Moon, Hyunseok; Jang, Hyeongseok; Shim, Jaewook; Park, Jongae

    2017-02-01

    A novel miniaturized near-infrared spectrometer readily mountable to wearable devices for continuous monitoring of individual's key bio-markers was proposed. Spectrum is measured by sequential illuminations with LED's, having independent spectrum profiles and a continuous detection of light radiations from the skin tissue with a single cell PD. Based on Tikhonov regularization with singular value decomposition, a spectrum resolution less than 10nm was reconstructed based on experimentally measured LED profiles. A prototype covering first overtone band (1500-1800nm) where bio-markers have pronounced absorption peaks was fabricated and verified of its performance. Reconstructed spectrum shows that the novel concept of miniaturized spectrometer is valid.

  1. Research on the Effects of Drying Temperature on Nitrogen Detection of Different Soil Types by Near Infrared Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pengcheng; Dong, Tao; He, Yong; Xiao, Shupei

    2018-01-29

    Soil is a complicated system whose components and mechanisms are complex and difficult to be fully excavated and comprehended. Nitrogen is the key parameter supporting plant growth and development, and is the material basis of plant growth as well. An accurate grasp of soil nitrogen information is the premise of scientific fertilization in precision agriculture, where near infrared sensors are widely used for rapid detection of nutrients in soil. However, soil texture, soil moisture content and drying temperature all affect soil nitrogen detection using near infrared sensors. In order to investigate the effects of drying temperature on the nitrogen detection in black soil, loess and calcium soil, three kinds of soils were detected by near infrared sensors after 25 °C placement (ambient temperature), 50 °C drying (medium temperature), 80 °C drying (medium-high temperature) and 95 °C drying (high temperature). The successive projections algorithm based on multiple linear regression (SPA-MLR), partial least squares (PLS) and competitive adaptive reweighted squares (CARS) were used to model and analyze the spectral information of different soil types. The predictive abilities were assessed using the prediction correlation coefficients (R P ), the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP), and the residual predictive deviation (RPD). The results showed that the loess (R P = 0.9721, RMSEP = 0.067 g/kg, RPD = 4.34) and calcium soil (R P = 0.9588, RMSEP = 0.094 g/kg, RPD = 3.89) obtained the best prediction accuracy after 95 °C drying. The detection results of black soil (R P = 0.9486, RMSEP = 0.22 g/kg, RPD = 2.82) after 80 °C drying were the optimum. In conclusion, drying temperature does have an obvious influence on the detection of soil nitrogen by near infrared sensors, and the suitable drying temperature for different soil types was of great significance in enhancing the detection accuracy.

  2. Solar corona at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Zombeck, M. V. Z.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The earth's surface is shielded from solar X rays almost completely by the atmosphere. It is, therefore, necessary to place X-ray detectors on rockets or orbiting satellites. Solar rays were detected for the first time in the late 1940's, using V-2 rockets. In 1960, the first true X-ray images of the sun were obtained with the aid of a simple pinhole camera. The spatial resolution of the X-ray images could be considerably improved by making use of reflective optics, operating at grazing incidence. Aspects of X-ray mirror developments are discussed along with the results obtained in coronal studies utilizing the new devices for the observation of solar X-ray emission. It is pointed out that the major achievements of the Skylab missions were due primarily to the unique opportunity to obtain data over an extended period of time. Attention is given to normal incidence X-ray optics, achievements possible by making use of high spatial resolution optics, and details of improved mirror design.

  3. Near-infrared photometry and stellar populations of first-ranked galaxies in a complete sample of nearby Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Trinx X.; Puschell, Jeffery J.

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-four brightest cluster members (BCMs) in the complete sample of high Galactic latitude nearby Abell clusters of Hoessel, Gunn, and Thuan (HGT) are investigated. The stellar populations in BCMs using near-infrared and optical-near-infrared colors are studied. Brighter BCMs have redder (J-K) and (V-K) colors, suggesting a metallicity increase in brighter galaxies. The larger dispersion of their colors implies that BCMs possess more heterogeneous stellar populations than their lower luminosity counterparts, the normal elliptical galaxies. Special attention is paid to BCMs associated with cooling flows. BCMs with larger accretion rates have bluer (V-K) colors due to ultraviolet excesses and are brighter in the visual wavelength region, but not in the infrared. It is suggested that part of the X-ray emitting cooling gas is converted into high- and intermediate-mass stars emitting in the blue and visible, but not in the infrared. The properties of BCMs as standard candles in the near-infrared are examined and compared with those in the optical.

  4. Dye-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes induce photothermal therapy under the guidance of near-infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyuan; Shang, Wenting; Chi, Chongwei; Zeng, Chaoting; Wang, Kun; Fang, Chihua; Chen, Qingshan; Liu, Huiyu; Fan, Yingfang; Tian, Jie

    2016-12-28

    Recently, photothermal therapy (PTT) has become viewed as an ideal auxiliary therapeutic treatment for cancers. However, the development of safe, convenient, and highly effective photothermal agents remains a great challenge. In this study, we prepared single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for PTT against breast tumors under the guidance of infrared fluorescent cyanines. Tumors were accurately located using near-infrared imaging (NIR) and then exposed to laser irradiation. Both the in vivo and in vitro results showed that the SWNTs have high stability and low cytotoxicity. Introducing polyethylene glycol into our nanoparticles increased the blood-circulation time. Our in vivo results further showed that Cy5.5-conjugated SWNTs mediated PTT, resulting in efficient tumor suppression in mice under the guidance of near-infrared imaging. Due to the small amount of absorption at 808-nm, Cy5.5 increased the efficiency of PTT. Breast tumors significantly shrunk after irradiation under the 808-nm near-infrared laser. The treated mice developed scabs, but otherwise recovered after 15 days, and their physical conditions restored gradually. These data indicate that our unique photothermal-responsive SWNT-Cy5.5-based theranostic agent can serve as a promising candidate for PTT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of blood glucose concentration measurement using photoacoustic spectroscopy in near-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namita, Takeshi; Sato, Mitsuki; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes, a typical lifestyle-related disease, is an important disease presenting risks of various complications such as retinopathy, kidney failure, and nervous neuropathy. To treat diabetes, regular and continual self-measurement of blood glucose concentrations is necessary to maintain blood glucose levels and to prevent complications. Usually, daily measurements are taken using invasive methods such as finger-prick blood sampling. Some non-invasive optical techniques have been proposed to reduce pain and infection risk, however, few practical techniques exist today. To realize highly accurate and practical measurement of blood glucose concentrations, the feasibility of a photoacoustic method using near-infrared light was evaluated. A photoacoustic signal from a solution of glucose in water (+0-5 g/dl) or equine blood (+0-400 mg/dl) was measured using a hydrophone (9 mm diameter) at 800-1800 nm wavelengths. We investigated the relation between the glucose solution concentration and the photoacoustic signal intensity or peak position of the received photoacoustic signal (i.e. speed of sound in solutions). Results show that the signal intensity and sound speed of the glucose solution increase with increased glucose concentration for wavelengths at which light absorbance of glucose is high. For quantitative estimation of the glucose solution concentration, the photoacoustic signal intensity ratio between two wavelengths, at which dependence of the signal intensity on glucose concentration is high and low, was calculated. Results confirmed that the signal intensity ratios increase linearly with the glucose concentration. These analyses verified the feasibility of glucose level estimation using photoacoustic measurement in the near-infrared region.

  6. Fresh Soil Sensing using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    Fast, precise and affordable soil analytical techniques are needed for the determination of soil fertility of each zone of a field in site specific land management. The objective of this poster is to demonstrate how nutrients can be estimated from fresh soil using visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method. This could be carried out by summarizing the methodology to develop a calibration model for soil phosphorus with the VIS-NIR spectroscopy method. Obviously, it can be simply extended for other nutrients with the same methodology. A large samples set should be collected from different fields with a wide range of soil type and texture. The samples in this set should be represented a wide range of moisture content and soil nutrient which is desired to be calibrated by the spectroscopy technique. Immediately after sampling, the samples should be kept in a cold room (± 1 °C) until the time of the spectral measurement and the chemical analysis. The samples should be taken from the cold room one hour before the spectral measurement to ensure that the samples were at room temperature and no condensation occurs on the optical instruments. Each soil sample was thoroughly mixed and debris such as plant material and stones were removed. The soil sample was divided into three parts, one part for spectral measurement, another part for chemical analysis and the rest was archived. The part for chemical analysis should be examined for their soil nutrients. A small amount of soil (about 30 g) should be placed in a small plastic petridish (e.g. 7.5 mm depth and 30 mm diameter). The soil in the petridish should be first pressed and then carefully levelled in order to obtain a smooth surface for a maximum light reflectance. Soil samples should be put under the spectrophotometer. Three reflectance spectra should be measured on each soil specimen by rotating the plastic cups over 120°. Having finished measuring, the reflectance data should be put against the chemical

  7. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Ethynyl Radical, C2H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh T.; Hall, Gregory; Sears, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    The ethynyl radical, C_2H, is a reactive intermediate important in various combustion processes and also widely observed in the interstellar medium. In spite of extensive previous spectroscopic studies, the characterization of the near infrared transitions from the tilde{X}2Σ+ state to the mixed vibrational overtone and tilde{A}2Π states is incomplete. A strong band of C_2H at 7064 cm-1 was first observed in a neon matrix and assigned as the tilde{A}2Π(002)1 - tilde{X}2Σ+ transition by Forney et al. Subsequent theoretical work of Tarroni and Carter attributed the strong absorptions in this region to transitions terminating in two upper states, each a mixture of vibrationally excited tilde{X} states and different zero-order tilde{A}-state bending levels: a 2Σ+ symmetry combination of tilde{X}(0,20,3) and tilde{A}(0,3,0)0κ and a 2Π symmetry combination of tilde{X}(0,31,3) and tilde{A}(0,0,2)1. Transitions to them from the zero point level of the tilde{X} state are calculated to differ in energy by less than 10 cm-1 and to be within a factor of two in intensity. Diode laser transient absorption was used to record Doppler-limited spectra between 7020 and 7130 cm-1, using 193 nm photolysis of CF_3C_2H as a source of C_2H. Two interleaved, rotationally resolved bands were observed, consistent with a 2Σ - 2Σ transition at 7088 cm-1 and a 2Π - 2Σ transition at 7108 cm-1, in good accord with the Tarroni and Carter calculation. Progress on the assignment and fitting of the spectra will be reported. Acknowledgements: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, and supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. D. Forney, M.E. Jacox, and W.E. Thompson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 178 (1995). R. Tarroni and S. Carter, Mol. Phys. 102, 2167 (2004)

  8. Transparent Organic Photodetector using a Near-Infrared Absorbing Cyanine Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Jenatsch, Sandra; de Jonghe, Jelissa; Nüesch, Frank; Steim, Roland; Véron, Anna C.; Hany, Roland

    2015-03-01

    Organic photodetectors are interesting for low cost, large area optical sensing applications. Combining organic semiconductors with discrete absorption bands outside the visible wavelength range with transparent and conductive electrodes allows for the fabrication of visibly transparent photodetectors. Visibly transparent photodetectors can have far reaching impact in a number of areas including smart displays, window-integrated electronic circuits and sensors. Here, we demonstrate a near-infrared sensitive, visibly transparent organic photodetector with a very high average visible transmittance of 68.9%. The transmitted light of the photodetector under solar irradiation exhibits excellent transparency colour perception and rendering capabilities. At a wavelength of 850 nm and at -1 V bias, the photoconversion efficiency is 17% and the specific detectivity is 1012 Jones. Large area photodetectors with an area of 1.6 cm2 are demonstrated.

  9. Photoacoustic imaging of the near-infrared fluorescent protein iRFP in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Arie; Filonov, Grigory S.; Xia, Jun; Yao, Junjie; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    Genetically encoded probes powerfully and non-invasively target specific tissues, cells, and subcellular locations. iRFP, a novel near-infrared fluorescent protein with low quantum yield whose absorption and fluorescence maxima are located at wavelengths longer than the Q-band of hemoglobin absorption, is ideal for PAT. Here, we report on an in vitro comparison of iRFP with other far-red fluorescent proteins, and its use in imaging a mouse tumor xenograft model. In an in vivo experiment, we stably transfected iRFP into MTLn3 adenocarcinoma cells and injected them into the mammary fat pad of female SCID/NCr mice, then imaged the resulting tumors two and three weeks post injection. The contrast increase from the protein expression was high enough to clearly separate the tumor region from the rest of the animal.

  10. On-Line Monitoring of Fermentation Processes by Near Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina

    of on-line monitoring systems. The primary aim of this thesis is to elucidate and explore the dynamics in fermentation processes by spectroscopy. Though a number of successful on-line lab-scale monitoring systems have been reported, it seems that several challenges are still met, which limits the number......Monitoring and control of fermentation processes is important to ensure high product yield, product quality and product consistency. More knowledge on on-line analytical techniques such as near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy is desired in the fermentation industry to increase the efficiency...... or decrease was observed in the fluorescence landscapes. This thesis presents a correction strategy based on a chemometric modelling approach, where weighted non-linear regression and weighted PARAFAC analysis are combined. Based on the research conducted in this PhD project, it is concluded that near...

  11. A multivariate regression model for detection of fumonisins content in maize from near infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo, Della Riccia; Stefania, Del Zotto

    2013-12-15

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species that commonly live in maize. Whereas fungi damage plants, fumonisins cause disease both to cattle breedings and human beings. Law limits set fumonisins tolerable daily intake with respect to several maize based feed and food. Chemical techniques assure the most reliable and accurate measurements, but they are expensive and time consuming. A method based on Near Infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical regression is described as a simpler, cheaper and faster alternative. We apply Partial Least Squares with full cross validation. Two models are described, having high correlation of calibration (0.995, 0.998) and of validation (0.908, 0.909), respectively. Description of observed phenomenon is accurate and overfitting is avoided. Screening of contaminated maize with respect to European legal limit of 4 mg kg(-1) should be assured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Determination of chemical oxygen demand in water using near infrared transmission and UV absorbance method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Qing; Bi, Wei-Hong; Lui, Jia-Ming; Fu, Guang-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a synthetical indicator which represents the degree of organic pollution in water. The near-infrared (NIR) transmission and the UV absorbance method based on photoelectric detection technology and spectroscopy analysis have some advantages such as high precision, speed, non-contact, no secondary pollution etc compared to conventional wet chemical method. The NIR transmission spectra and UV absorbance spectra of standard solution configured with phthalate hydrogen potassium were collected respectively by MPA FTIR spectrometer (Bruker Optics Inc.) made in Germany and AvaSpec-2048-2 UV spectrometer (Avantes Inc.) made in Netherlands. After different pretreatment to the spectra, COD quantitative analysis model was established using partial least squares regression (PLS) and linear regression. The statistical analysis of COD quantitative model was implemented, and the result showed that UV absorbance method had a higher relevance but lower forecast accuracy and precision than NIR transmission method.

  13. Broad-band time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy in the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.C.; Pastor, I.; Cal, E. de la; McCarthy, K.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Diaz, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dept Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    First experimental results on broad-band, time-resolved Near Infrared (NIR;here loosely defined as covering from 750 to 1650 nm) passive spectroscopy using a high sensitivity InGaAs detector are reported for the TJ-II Stellarator. Experimental set-up is described together with its main characteristics, the most remarkable ones being its enhanced NIR response, broadband spectrum acquisition in a single shot, and time-resolved measurements with up to 1.8 kHz spectral rate. Prospects for future work and more extended physics studies in this newly open spectral region in TJ-II are discussed. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Storable, thermally activated, near-infrared chemiluminescent dyes and dye-stained microparticles for optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumes, Jeffrey M.; Gassensmith, Jeremiah J.; Giblin, Jay; Lee, Jung-Jae; White, Alexander G.; Culligan, William J.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Kuno, Masaru; Smith, Bradley D.

    2010-12-01

    Imaging techniques are a vital part of clinical diagnostics, biomedical research and nanotechnology. Optical molecular imaging makes use of relatively harmless, low-energy light and technically straightforward instrumentation. Self-illuminating, chemiluminescent systems are particularly attractive because they have inherently high signal contrast due to the lack of background emission. Currently, chemiluminescence imaging involves short-lived molecular species that are not stored but are instead generated in situ, and they typically emit visible light, which does not penetrate far through heterogeneous biological media. Here, we describe a new paradigm for optical molecular imaging using squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides, interlocked fluorescent and chemiluminescent dye molecules that have a squaraine chromophore encapsulated inside a macrocycle endoperoxide. Squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides can be stored indefinitely at temperatures below -20 °C, but upon warming to body temperature they undergo a unimolecular chemical reaction and emit near-infrared light that can pass through a living mouse.

  15. A Near-Infrared Optical Tomography System Based on Photomultiplier Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huacheng Feng

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse optical tomography (DOT is a rapidly growing discipline in recent years. It plays an important role in many fields, such as detecting breast cancer and monitoring the cerebra oxygenation. In this paper, a relatively simple, inexpensive, and conveniently used DOT system is presented in detail, in which only one photomultiplier tube is employed as the detector and an optical multiplexer is used to alter the detector channels. The 32-channel imager is consisted of 16-launch fibers and 16-detector fibers bundles, which works in the near-infrared (NIR spectral range under continuous-wave (CW model. The entire imaging system can work highly automatically and harmoniously. Experiments based on the proposed imaging system were performed, and the desired results can be obtained. The experimental results suggested that the proposed imaging instrumentation is effective.

  16. Luminescent Zinc Fingers: Zn-Responsive Neodymium Near-Infrared Emission in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Manon; Raibaut, Laurent; Cepeda, Céline; Roux, Amandine; Boturyn, Didier; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Petoud, Stéphane; Sénèque, Olivier

    2017-08-16

    Responsive luminescent probes emitting in the near-infrared (NIR) are in high demand today for biological applications as they allow for the easy and unambiguous discrimination of autofluorescence. Due to their luminescence properties, lanthanide ions offer an interesting alternative to classical organic fluorescent dyes. This has stimulated the development of lanthanide-based responsive probes. Nevertheless, responsive probes that can operate in water with NIR-emitting lanthanide ions are scarce. In this communication, zinc fingers are shown to be versatile scaffolds to elaborate a variety of Zn2+ -responsive probes based on lanthanide emission and featuring desirable properties for the selective detection of Zn2+ in experimental conditions close to cellular. Of special interest is a NIR-emitting probe relying on Nd3+ emission. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 1064  nm dispersive Raman spectroscopy of tissues with strong near-infrared autofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Chetan A; Pence, Isaac J; Lieber, Chad A; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2014-01-15

    Raman spectroscopy is an established technique for molecularly specific characterization of tissues. However, even with near-infrared (NIR) excitation, some tissues possess background autofluorescence, which can overwhelm Raman scattering. Here, we report collection of spectra from tissues with strong autofluorescence using a 1064 nm system with a high-throughput dispersive spectrometer and deep-cooled InGaAs array. Spectra collected at 1064 nm were compared with those collected at 785 nm in specimens from human breast, liver, and kidney. The results demonstrate superior performance at 1064 nm in the liver and kidney, where NIR autofluorescence is intense. The results indicate the feasibility of new biomedical applications for Raman spectroscopy at 1064 nm in tissues with strong autofluorescence.

  18. Proposed Photosynthesis Method for Producing Hydrogen from Dissociated Water Molecules Using Incident Near-Infrared Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient solar energy utilization is very desirable in photocatalytic water splitting. However, until now, the infrared part of the solar spectrum, which constitutes almost half of the solar energy, has not been used, resulting in significant loss in the efficiency of solar energy utilization. Here, we propose a new mechanism for water splitting in which near-infrared light can be used to produce hydrogen. This ability is a result of the unique electronic structure of the photocatalyst, in which the valence band and conduction band are distributed on two opposite surfaces with a large electrostatic potential difference produced by the intrinsic dipole of the photocatalyst. This surface potential difference, acting as an auxiliary booster for photoexcited electrons, can effectively reduce the photocatalyst's band gap required for water splitting in the infrared region. Our electronic structure and optical property calculations on a surface-functionalized hexagonal boron-nitride bilayer confirm the existence of such photocatalysts and verify the reaction mechanism.

  19. Development of a Machine-cut Metal Grating for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Miwa; Motohara, Kentaro; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Sugiyama, Kouji; Tomita, Kazuhisa; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori

    1998-07-01

    We have developed a special grating capable of producing an echellogram (a spectrum arranged in raster form) in the 30th or even higher order in the near-infrared wavelength region. The grating substrate is made of an aluminum alloy that has been carved mechanically with a high-precision shaving machine. The optical efficiency, measured with a special spectrophotometer at about 2 mum, is ~70%. The diffuse light component, possibly attributable to scattering on the grating surface, has been estimated to be at most ~5% when the grating is incorporated in an actual spectrograph system. The measured efficiency of the fabricated grating is compared with that given by a numerical analysis. The comparison shows remarkable agreement in both the optical efficiency and the distribution of energy diffracted to various orders.

  20. Single camera imaging system for color and near-infrared fluorescence image guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyue; Zhu, Nan; Pacheco, Shaun; Wang, Xia; Liang, Rongguang

    2014-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging systems have been developed for image guided surgery in recent years. However, current systems are typically bulky and work only when surgical light in the operating room (OR) is off. We propose a single camera imaging system that is capable of capturing NIR fluorescence and color images under normal surgical lighting illumination. Using a new RGB-NIR sensor and synchronized NIR excitation illumination, we have demonstrated that the system can acquire both color information and fluorescence signal with high sensitivity under normal surgical lighting illumination. The experimental results show that ICG sample with concentration of 0.13 μM can be detected when the excitation irradiance is 3.92 mW/cm(2) at an exposure time of 10 ms.