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Sample records for high radon homes

  1. Background concentrations of radon and radon daughters in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Vasudev, P.; Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Prantl, F.A.; Taniguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters were carried out in 14 Canadian cities on a total of 9999 homes selected in a statistically random manner. The geometric means of the different cities varied from 0.14 to 0.88 pCi/l. for radon and 0.0009 to 0.0036 Working Levels for radon daughters. The radon originates from natural radioactivity in the soil surrounding the homes. (author)

  2. Radon and energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1981-09-01

    Radon and its daughters in indoor air are presently responsible for dose equivalents of about 31 mSv/year (3 rem/year) to parts of the respiratory tract. Linear extrapolation from the dose response values of uranium miners heavily exposed to radon and its decay products would suggest that almost all lung cancers in the non-smoking population are caused by environmental 222 Rn. Using epidemiological data on the types of lung cancer found in non-smokers of the general public as compared to the miners, a smaller effect of low level radon exposure is assumed, which would result in a lung cancer mortality rate due to radon of about 10 deaths per year and million or 25% of the non-smoker rate. Higher indoor radon concentrations in energy efficient homes mostly caused by reduced air exchange rates will lead to a several fold increase of the lung cancer incidence from radon. Based on the above assumption, about 100 additional lung cancer deaths/year-million will result both from an increase in radionuclide concentrations in indoor air and a concomitant rise in effectiveness of radiation to cause cancer with higher exposure levels. Possibilities to reduce indoor radon levels in existing buildings and costs involved are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. The risks from radon in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A report has been proposed by a Working group of the Institute of Radiation Protection on the risks from radon in homes. The report includes a historical perspective, properties and behavior of radon and its daughters, measurement of radon exposure in UK homes, remedial action, quantification of the risk and lifetime risks from other causes. (UK)

  4. Contribution of waterborne radon to home air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Radon-222 is a member of the uranium decay chain and is formed from the decay of radium-226. Radon and its decay products emit alpha particles during the decay process. If radon is inhaled, alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon and its daughters increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon is soluble in water; thus when radon comes in contact with groundwater it dissolves. The radon concentration in groundwater may range from 100 pCi/L to 1,000,000 pCi/L. When water with a high radon level is used in the home, radon is released from the water to the air and thus can increase indoor air radon concentration. Considering the estimated health risk from radon in public water supply systems, EPA has proposed a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 300 pCi/L for radon in public drinking water supplies. To address the health risks of radon in water and the proposed regulations, the American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF) initiated a study to determine the contribution of waterborne radon to radon levels in indoor household air

  5. Radon in homes: The Alaskan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    For the past four years, since radon was first found to be a concern in Alaska in 1986, the interest and awareness of radon as a special housing and health concern has continued to grow. This paper will discuss the features of a house in Alaska which would characterize it as at risk for radon, and also those efforts at mitigation which have been most effective in reducing radon under Alaskan conditions. Clearly radon must be able to enter a home in order to be a problem. Riefenstuhl and Kline (personal communication, 1988) have analyzed the conditions for radon transport from soils to home interiors very lucidly through the following scheme: four factors must exist in a house locale for it to be a radon at risk house. Two of the factors are geological in nature: (1) there must be adequate uranium and therefore ample radon to provide a source for transport; (2) there must be enough permeability in the soil to allow rapid soil gas movement to carry radon from its origin to the interior of the home within two half-lives of time (six days) or so. The other two factors are determined by the structure of the house itself and the way in which it is operated: (3) the house must have soil contact and imperfections, holes, cracks, intentional perforations which allow movement of soil gas with radon through the envelope of the basement or crawlspace; (4) there must be a lower pressure inside the house than in the soil so that soil gas flows into the house. All four of these characteristics are required to have radon be a problem. The absence of any single characteristic will eliminate radon (in general). This presents a series of options for mitigation of radon then, since elimination of any of the four characteristics will mitigate radon

  6. Search for buildings with high radon levels in Sweden: measurements carried out by local authorities in both older and newly built homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Local authorities in Sweden have made about 58,000 radon daughter measurements with the following aims: (1) to search for houses with high radon daughter levels, (2) to determine the level above which the house would be regarded as an insanitary dwelling, and (3) to check that the radon daughter concentrations in newly built houses are below the established limit. The sampling of dwellings is therefore not representative for Swedish homes. 5300 homes were found to have levels above the limit 400 Bq.m -3 EER. The highest level found was 28,000 Bq.m -3 . In about one third of the homes found to have levels exceeding the limit, measures had been carried out to decrease the radon daughter concentration. About half of the homes in which the levels were decreased had levels below the limit for rebuilding, e.g. 200 Bq.m -3 . Measurements in order to ascertain levels in newly built houses were made in about 1100 homes out of 200,000 built since 1981 which was the year in which requirements for newly built houses came into force. Of those built with radon-protective foundations, 94% had concentrations below the 70 Bq.m -3 EER limit, compared to 80% for traditional building techniques. (author)

  7. Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

  8. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radon-resistant features. These features include gravel and plastic sheeting below the foundation, along with proper sealing ... lower the radon level. Detailed information about radon reduction in your home or building can be found ...

  9. Board statement on radon in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A new Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air in existing homes is proposed because recent research has shown that the risk of contracting lung cancer from the inhalation of the radioactive decay products of radon is greater than earlier studies had indicated. NRPB also recommends that affected areas be identified in which widespread radon measurements should be made in present homes and precautions be considered for future homes. This focuses attention on radon where it is most required. Affected areas would be those parts of the UK with 1% probability or more of present of future homes being above the new action level. A programme to define these areas is underway. (author)

  10. Modification of radon levels in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breysse, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Radon infiltration from the ground into a house is primarily due to pressure differences between the interior of the home and the soil. If the atmospheric pressure inside the home is lower than the pressure in the soil, flow into the house will be accelerated since air flows from high pressure to lower pressure. Pressure differences can arise due to wind action. Temperature differences between indoors and outdoors also affect the relative indoor and outdoor pressure. These temperature and pressure variations can produce a stack effect which sucks air in from the bottom of the structure where the interior pressure is lowered and out toward the top. The internal pressure in houses is usually less than the gas pressure in the soil. Internal pressure in houses, however, can be further lowered as the result of the operation of kitchen, bathroom and attic exhaust fans as well as by the use of fireplaces, furnaces and wood stoves, and clothes dryers. This further reduction in internal pressure will likely increase the entry of radon into the house

  11. Seasonal variation of radon concentrations in UK homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J C H; Howarth, C B; Hunter, N

    2012-01-01

    The patterns of seasonal variation of radon concentrations were measured in 91 homes in five regions of the UK over a period of two years. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the regions in the pattern or magnitude of seasonal variation in radon concentrations. The arithmetic mean variation was found to be close to that found previously in the UK national survey. Differences in the pattern between the two years of the study were not significant. Two-thirds of homes in the study followed the expected pattern of high radon in the winter and low radon in the summer. Most of the rest showed little seasonal variation, and a few showed a reversed seasonal pattern. The study does not provide any clear evidence for the recorded house characteristics having an effect on the seasonal variation in radon concentrations in UK homes, though the statistical power for determining such effects is limited in this study. The magnitude of the seasonal variation varied widely between homes. Analysis of the individual results from the homes showed that because of the wide variation in the amount of seasonal variation, applying seasonal correction factors to the results of three-month measurements can yield only relatively small improvements in the accuracy of estimates of annual mean concentrations.

  12. Solar radon reduction at six homes in northeast Iowa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, H.E.; Hoekje, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Growing concern about radon lung cancer risks, carbon monoxide poisoning, and the sick building syndrome have increased demand for improved indoor air quality. Through solar pre-heating of ventilation air, the Solar Radon Reduction System (SRRS) provides energy benefits with lower installation costs than conventional air-to-air heat exchangers and sub-slab suction approaches. Indoor air quality is improved through dilution, combustion appliance make-up air, pressurization, and reduced radon infiltration through induced-draft solar air collectors drawing supply air from outdoors. Installed at six homes in Waterloo and Cedar Falls, Iowa, the SRRS was found to significantly reduce radon concentrations in all houses with energy benefits and improved overall indoor comfort. Up to 73% reductions from closed house levels as high as 20.9 pCi/L were achieved

  13. Effect of home construction on indoor radon in Virginia and Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushrush, G.W.; Mose, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The levels of indoor radon in approximately 500 homes located in two contiguous counties of northern Virginia and southern Maryland have been measured during four consecutive, three month seasonal intervals using alpha-track detectors. These two counties represent an area of about 700 square miles. Results from the winter period show that the indoor radon levels were about twice as high as anticipated. In some areas, more than 50% of the homes had winter indoor radon levels above 4 pCi/liter, the EPA's recommended action level. For the spring and fall periods, indoor radon levels showed a considerable drop with approximately 35% of the homes above 4 pCi/L. Summer values were even lower with approximately 25% of the homes above 4 pCi/L.Indoor radon can be related to the weather, but home construction demonstrably determines indoor radon levels

  14. Exposures to radon in homes in Adana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegingil, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. The use of solid state nuclear tracks detectors (SSNTD) is one of the most convenient techniques to assess the average radiation levels of alpha activities in the environment. By using CR-39 and LR-115 detectors long term alpha activities have been investigated to be noticeable the concentrations of natural radionuclides and Rn-222 exhalation rate under different environmental conditions in Adana. The radon distributions have been measured in soils an in single houses and apartment buildings in various floors in the summer and winter time. The seasonal variation of the radon concentration measured by CR-39 and LR-115 displayed a correlation. (author). 25 refs, 2 tabs

  15. Radon in soil and homes of Osijek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Stanic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Radon, 2 22R n, is an inert radioactive gas which arises from decay of 2 26R a and ultimately from 2 38U . These parent elements are ubiquitous in the crust of the earth, although with very various concentrations. It has been recognized that Rn gas can accumulate in homes, sometimes to levels that can exceed occupational standards for mines. Enhanced concentrations of indoor radon and its also-emitting progeny 2 14P o and 2 18P o can increase the risk of pulmonary diseases, that was first observed still among underground miners (ICRP, 1987; Lubin et al., 1990; Gilliland et al., 2000). Because of the uncertainty inherent in extrapolating risks from studies of miners to the general population, epidemiological studies have been undertaken to confirm the presumed harm (carcinogenesis) of indoor radon ( Stidley and Samet, 1993; Cohen, 1995). We undertook so called ecologic and case-control studies for inhabitants of the Osijek town (East Croatia, a hundred thousand citizens) to investigate an association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer rate; some results showed a positive linear regression for the mentioned variables, although the correlation coefficient was not statistically significant, or statistical samples were not large enough (Planinic et al., 2002; further investigation is going on). A particular problem was to determine indoor radon concentrations with a satisfied precision (that reduces sample size), as well as to find a cause of their variation

  16. Variation of radon levels in US homes with various factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.; Gromicko, N.

    1988-01-01

    A program combining 70,000 purchased and 3500 random selection-no charge measurements with extensive questionnaires is described. Methods for reducing biases in purchased measurements have been reasonably successful. Distributions are roughly lognormal with σ/sub g/ ≅ 3.0 but with an excess of very high measurements. Winter and spring-fall measurements average about 60 percent and 40 percent, respectively, higher than summer measurements. Basements average 2.5 times higher radon levels than upper floors. Tightening of homes since 1974 has increased radon levels by less than 10 percent, but well-weatherized houses have ∼ 40 percent higher levels than poorly weatherized houses. Open windows reduce levels by a factor of about 2.5. Low-cost newer houses have much lower levels than more expensive newer houses, but among older houses this is reversed. Low income families have substantially lower radon levels than average. There is little variation with education level. Nonsmokers have higher radon levels than smokers, but this seems to apply mainly to living rooms and dining rooms. Suburban houses have higher levels than urban, and rural houses have still higher levels. Owner-occupied houses have much higher levels than rented houses. Variations of radon levels with weatherization do not seem to be due to cost factors. A strategy for locating areas with high mean radon levels is described

  17. Factors affecting radon levels in homes in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.R.; Phillips, B.G.; Van Netten, C.

    1992-01-01

    British Columbia, Canada's most westerly province, has diverse geologic and climatic characteristics, making it a region where predicting radon gas level is quite complex. Data recently obtained for eleven (11) communities confirm an association between background terrestrial gamma radiation measurements and indoor radon levels in homes. Direct links between radon levels and other factors such as home design/construction features and heating/ventilation systems were observed in data for some communities, but not necessarily from the overall data. (author)

  18. An investigation into the knowledge and attitudes towards radon testing among residents in a high radon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifford, Susan; Menezes, Gerard; Hevey, David

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of residents in the Castleisland area to radon. Castleisland in Co. Kerry was described as a high radon area following the discovery of a house in the area with radon levels 245 times that of the national reference level. Residents in this area were then asked to measure their homes for radon in the Castleisland radon survey. The uptake of this measurement was 17%. In order to investigate this response rate further, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to residents in the Castleisland area. This questionnaire measured the testing history of the participants, the reasons for testing/not testing, the factors important to them when considering having their home tested, radon knowledge and finally intentions to measure their home for radon. It was found that the main reason people do not test their home for radon is that they believe their home does not have a problem. Optimistic bias was thought to play a role here. The subjective norm component of the theory of planned behaviour was found to have a significant independent contribution in the variation in intentions to measure one’s home for radon and this in turn could be targeted to increase uptake of radon measurement in the future. (note)

  19. The effectiveness of radon preventive and remedial measures in Irish homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S; Fenton, D; Cremin, M; Morgan, A

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 100 000 Irish homes have radon concentrations above the reference level of 200 Bq m −3 . To minimise the number of new homes with this problem, building regulations require that all new homes built since July 1998 in high radon areas are installed with radon barriers during construction. Measurements on local authority homes in a number of high radon areas have allowed the impact of these new regulations to be assessed. In County Cork a reduction of up to 70% in the mean radon concentration was observed in homes built since 1998 relative to those built before this date. A reduction in both the number of homes exceeding the reference level and the maximum concentration measured in homes was also measured. Homes exceeding the reference level were remediated with the use of an active sump. The results of this remedial work are also presented and show that the mean reduction in radon concentration achieved was 92%. (paper)

  20. Radon reduction in homes constructed on saprolite in the Central Appalachians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushsrush, G.W.; Slone, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    A 3-year study of indoor radon in more than 1000 homes in northern Virginia and southern Maryland was conducted using 3-month exposure alpha-track monitors. In a study set of 200 homes, first-floor indoor radon concentrations, which most closely approximates home exposure levels, averaged slightly more than 3 pCi/l. In a study set of 100 homes, sub-slab ventilation was used to reduce indoor radon concentrations. Interest in remediation was related to public perception of the hazardous nature of radon; people living in homes with indoor radon measurements of more than 4 pCi/l were more likely to participate in the remediation phase of the project. Sub-slab ventilation was successful in more than 90% of the homes in reducing indoor radon from concentrations as high as 30 pCi/ to less than 4 pCi/l, at least for the entire year of post-remediation radon measurements. (orig.)

  1. Contribution of radon in natural gas to the dose from aiborne radon-daughters in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.J.; Moore, R.E.; Rohwer, P.S.

    1973-01-01

    Data have been obtained on the radon concentration in natural gas supplied to several metropolitan areas in the United States. The average value of 20 pCi/l was selected to estimate the contribution of this source of natural radioactivity to doses from radon-daughters received by individuals in homes. Radon-daughter concentrations in the home atmosphere were calculated by use of computer programs for an 8000 ft 3 house in which 27 ft 3 of gas per day was used for cooking in an unvented kitchen range. The total estimated dose to the bronchial epithelium included contributions from radon plus daughters in the outside ventilation air, each of which was assumed to be present at a concentration of 0.13 pCi/l, and from the radon plus daughters in the natural gas. The latter contribution averaged approximately 3 percent of the total dose. There was a 3.5 percent decrease in the estimated total dose when the air change rate increased from 0.25 to 2.0 per hour. We conclude that radon and radon-daughters entering the home with natural gas produce a negligible fraction of the total dose to the respiratory system of home occupants from airborne radon-daughters

  2. Radon concentrations in homes in an area of dolomite bedrock: Door County, Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, K.; Stieglitz, R.D.; Norman, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A statewide survey by the Wisconsin Department of Health and Social Services with U.S.E.P.A. assistance reported an anomalously high percentage of homes in Door County with radon concentrations in excess of 20 pCi/L. The results were of interest because the county is underlain by marine sedimentary rocks rather than the igneous and metamorphic crystalline types usually associated with elevated radon concentrations. A voluntary population of 55 homes was tested for radon using activated charcoal canisters. This population was also asked to provide questionnaire response data on family, home, and socioeconomic aspects. The data were separated into socioeconomic, energy efficiency, radon access, and karst level categories and statistically analyzed. A subpopulation was selected from the larger population for detailed site investigation, which included additional in-home air testing and, at some sites, water supply analysis and in-ground testing for radon. The field investigations collected information on the geology, soil, topography, and home construction and use. The results of the investigation verified and characterized the radon occurrences in Door County. The presence or absence of karst features is shown to be statistically significant to radon levels. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Radiation exposure in homes through radon and thoron daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmier, H.

    1984-01-01

    In a random selection of about 6000 homes in the Federal Republic of Germany, the radon concentration in room air has been measured using a simple dosemeter developed by Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre. The mean radon concentration has been determined to be approximately 40-50 Bqu/m 3 . If this experiment is taken as a representative survey for the FRG, the mean dose contributed by the natural radiation exposure through radon and its short-lived decay products to the effective annual dose to the lungs can be computed to be about 1 mSv (100 mrem), using the internationally accepted conversion factors. Apart from this survey, special radon measuring programmes have been carried out, including simultaneous recording of meteorological data, in order to obtain information on the parameters to be taken into account when describing the daily variations of radon concentrations. (orig./DG) [de

  4. Characterizing the occurrence, sources, and variability of radon in Pacific Northwest homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, B H; Prill, R J; Grimsrud, D T; Moed, B A; Sextro, R G

    1990-04-01

    A compilation of data from earlier studies of 172 homes in the Pacific Northwest indicated that approximately 65 percent of the 46 homes tested in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie region of eastern Washington/northern Idaho had heating season indoor radon (222Rn) concentrations above the U. S. EPA guideline of 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1). A subset of 35 homes was selected for additional study. The primary source of indoor radon in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie was pressure-driven flow of soil gas containing moderate radon concentrations (geometric mean concentration of 16,000 Bq m-3) from the highly permeable soils (geometric mean permeability of 5 x 10(-11) m2) surrounding the house substructures. Estimated soil gas entry rates ranged from 0.4 to 39 m3h-1 and 1 percent to 21 percent of total building air infiltration. Radon from other sources, including domestic water supplies and building materials was negligible. In high radon homes, winter indoor levels averaged 13 times higher than summer concentrations, while in low radon homes winter levels averaged only 2.5 times higher. Short-term variations in indoor radon were observed to be dependent upon indoor-outdoor temperature differences, wind speed, and operation of forced-air furnace fans. Forced-air furnace operation, along with leaky return ducts and plenums, and openings between the substructure and upper floors enhanced mixing of radon-laden substructure air throughout the rest of the building.

  5. Characterizing the occurrence, sources, and variability of radon in pacific northwest homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, B.H.; Prill, R.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Moed, B.A.; Sextro, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    A compilation of data from earlier studies of 172 homes in the Pacific Northwest indicated that approximately 65 percent of the 46 homes tested in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie region of eastern Washington/northern Idaho had heating season indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations above the U.S. EPA guideline of 148 Bq m -3 (4 pCi L -1 ). A subset of 35 homes was selected for additional study. The primary source of indoor radon in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie was pressure-driven flow of soil gas containing moderate radon concentrations (geometric mean concentration of 16,000 Bq m -3 ) from the highly permeable soils (geometric mean permeability of 5 x 10 -11 m 2 ) surrounding the house substructures. Estimated soil gas entry rates ranged from 0.4 to 39 m 3 h -1 and 1 percent to 21 percent of total building air infiltration. Radon from other sources, including domestic water supplies and building materials was negligible. In high radon homes, winter indoor levels averaged 13 times higher than summer concentrations, while in low radon homes winter levels averaged only 2.5 times higher. Short-term variations in indoor radon were observed to be dependent upon indoor-outdoor temperature differences, wind speed, and operation of forced-air furnace fans. Forced-air furnace operations, along with leaky return ducts and plenums, and openings between the substructure and upper floors enhanced mixing of radon laden substructure air throughout the rest of the building

  6. The finnish guide to radon-resistant homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New regulations of the National Finnish Building Code require consideration of radon risks and as a main rule radon technical design in the building permission documents. Slab-on-grade is the prevalent substructure in Finnish low-rise residential buildings. Building statistics show that the prevalent practices in foundation construction promote the flow of radon-bearing soil air into living spaces. Without prevention the normal practices would result in high indoor radon concentrations in Finland. In wide areas more than 50% of houses exceed the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 given for new buildings. The new guide published in 2003 requires installation of protective sheet in the slab-on-ground foundation and a preparatory radon piping. A protective sheet of durable reinforced bitumen felt with a width of 50 - 100 cm should be installed in the slab-foundation wall joint. Careful sealing of lead-troughs plays also an important role. In the case the sealing work does not result in low indoor radon concentration, the radon piping should be activated through radon-fan installation. Careful implementation of the sealing work reduces indoor radon concentration to a level of less than 50 Bq/m 3 , also in areas where the normal building practices result in indoor radon concentrations exceeding the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 in more than 50% of new houses. Recent experiences from the implementation of the guide will be considered. (author)

  7. A cost-effect analysis of an intervention against radon in homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Stigum

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background  Key words  : Radon exposure, lung cancer, cost-effect analysis, attributable risk, models-mathematical: Radon is a radioactive gas that may leak into buildings from the ground. Radon exposure is a risk factor for lung cancer. An intervention against radon exposure in homes may consist of locating homes with high radon exposure (above 200 Bq m-3 and improving these, and of protecting future houses. The purpose of this paper is to calculate the costs and the effects of this intervention. Methods: We performed a cost-effect analysis from the perspective of the society, followed by an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The distribution of radon levels in Norwegian homes is lognormal with mean=74.5 Bq/m3, and 7.6% above 200 Bq/m3. Results: The preventable attributable fraction of radon on lung cancer was 3.8% (95% uncertainty interval: 0.6%, 8.3%. In cumulative present values the intervention would cost $238 (145, 310 million and save 892 (133, 1981 lives, each life saved costs $0.27 (0.09, 0.9 million. The cost-effect ratio was sensitive to the radon risk, the radon exposure distribution, and the latency period of lung cancer. Together these three parameters explained 90% of the variation in the cost-effect ratio. Conclusions: Reducing the radon concentration in present and future homes to below 200 Bq/m3 will cost $0.27 (0.09, 0.9 million per life saved. The uncertainty in the estimated cost per life is large, mainly due to uncertainty in the risk of lung cancer from radon. Based on estimates from road construction, the Norwegian society has been willing to pay $1 million to save a life. We therefore conclude that the intervention against radon in homes is justifiable. The willingness to pay is also larger that the upper uncertainty limit of the cost per life. Our conclusion is therefore robust against the uncertainties in the parameters.

  8. National indoor radon survey in Filipino homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Cruz, Fe M.; Garcia, Teofilo Y.; Palad, Lorna Jean H.; Cobar, Ma. Lucia C.; Duran, Emerenciana B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first national survey of indoor radon concentrations in different types of Filipino houses throughout the Philippines. Measurements were carried out using 2,626 CR-39 alpha track detectors that were deployed in selected houses for a period of six months. Results of analyses showed that indoor radon concentration in Filipino houses ranged from 1.4 to 57.6 Bq/m 3 with a mean value of 21.4 ± 9.2 Bq/m 3 . This leads to an estimated annual average effective dose equivalent of 0.4 mSv. There are slight differences in the mean concentrations of radon in different types of houses, which ranged from 19.4 to 25.3 Bq/m 3 . Highest mean radon concentrations were observed in houses made of concrete with a mean radon value of 25.3 ± 10.1 Bq/m 3 . Radon concentrations in the houses surveyed were below the action limits of 200 Bq/m 3 set by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and do not pose any hazard to the health of the occupants. (author)

  9. Effectiveness of radon control techniques in fifteen homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, B.H.; Prill, R.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Sextro, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Radon control systems were installed and evaluated in fourteen homes in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie and in one home in Vancouver, Washington. Because of local soil conditions, subsurface ventilation (SSV) by pressurization was always more effective in these houses than SSV by depressurization in reducing indoor radon levels to below guidelines. Basement overpressurization was successfully applied in five houses with airtight basements where practical-sized fans could develop an overpressure of 1 to 3 Pascals. Crawlspace ventilation was more effective than crawlspace isolation in reducing radon entry from the crawlspace, but had to be used in conjunction with other mitigation techniques, from the crawlspace, but had to be used in conjunction with other mitigation techniques, since the houses also had basements. Indoor radon concentrations in two houses with air-to-air heat exchangers (AAHX) were reduced to levels inversely dependent on the new total ventilation rates and were lowered even further in one house where the air distribution system was modified. Sealing penetrations in the below-grade surfaces of substructures was relatively ineffective in controlling radon. Operation of the radon control systems (except for the AAHX's) made no measurable change in ventilation rates or indoor concentrations of other measured pollutants. Installation costs ranged from approximately $4/m 2 for sealing to $28/m 2 for the AAHXs. Annual operating costs for the active systems were estimated to be approximately $60 to $170

  10. Comparative study of radon exposure in Canadian homes and uranium mines - a discussion on the importance of national radon program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The history of lung cancer in uranium miners is well known for over hundreds of years when the disease was referred to as 'miner's disease' or 'mountain sickness'. Radon levels in uranium mines have decreased significantly over the past 30 years as a result of effective radiation protection measures at workplaces. For the most recent 10-year period, the average radon concentrations to underground and surface workers in Canadian uranium mines were 111 and 11 Bq m -3 , respectively. Based on the recent radon survey carried out in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada and the more recent radon and thoron survey in 33 Canadian cities and 4000 homes, the average radon concentration in Canadian homes is 77 Bq m -3 . This study demonstrates that, nowadays, workers are exposed to radon in underground mines at a comparable radon level to what Canadians are exposed to at home. Since exposure to indoor radon is the main source of natural radiation exposure to the population, it is important for the National Radon Program to further increase radon awareness, and to encourage more Canadians to take appropriate actions to reduce radon exposure. (authors)

  11. Building and environmental factors associated with elevated radon levels in rural Iowa homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weih, L.M.B.

    1993-01-01

    This work examined the relationships between home construction, soil, and climatic factors with radon concentration in 585 rural Iowa homes, screened in winter of 1989. The specific goals of this work were to evaluate the utility of Soil Conservation data in describing radon occurrence in Iowa, and to assess the joint influence of construction and environmental characteristics on predicting radon concentration in homes. A follow-up study in a subset of homes evaluated the variability of radon screening measurements over time. The first part found that the relationship between radon concentration and home construction factors was dependent on location of the radon test in homes. In basements, wall construction and degree of energy efficiency predominated in predicting radon concentration. On upper floors, age of home predominated in predicting radon concentration, with a general decrease in radon concentration with age of home. The second part found that texture of the soil on which the home is located was the most important predictor of radon concentration for homes tested in basements, but the explanatory power was low. Precipitation in the year preceding screening was negatively correlated with radon concentration in homes, but the relationship was only apparent when basement wall type and soil texture were accounted for. Regional trends were not apparent except in describing the relative distribution of soil texture classes across the state. Radon concentration on upper floors of homes was not well described by either soil factors or precipitation. In 1992 a decrease of 36% and 51% from 1989 radon screening levels was found for homes tested in basements and upper floors, respectively. This data set included pair measurements of the same testing location in homes tested in winter 1989. Temperature differences were positively correlated with radon concentration and precipitation differences were not significantly associated with change in radon concentration

  12. Perceived susceptibility and self-protective behavior: a field experiment to encourage home radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, N.D.; Sandman, P.M.; Roberts, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tested in a field experiment (N = 647) the hypothesis that perceptions of personal susceptibility are important in decisions to test one's home for radioactive radon gas. Experimental group subjects received a personal telephone call to tell them they lived in a high-risk area and a personal letter to reinforce the telephone message. After the intervention, experimental subjects were significantly more likely than minimal-treatment subjects to acknowledge the possibility of high radon levels in their homes. Perceptions of susceptibility and illness severity were significantly correlated with orders of radon test kits and with testing intentions. Nevertheless, there were no differences between groups in test orders or intentions. Results are discussed in terms of the difficulty of getting people to acknowledge susceptibility and the factors other than risk perceptions that influence self-protective behavior

  13. Health Risks due to Exposure to Radon in Homes in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document summarises the evidence that links exposure to radon in homes with an increase in lung cancer. Using the most recent risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies carried out abroad, the risk associated with radon exposure in homes in Ireland is derived. The relationship between exposure to radon and cigarette smoking is also discussed

  14. Exposure due to radon in homes - an IAEA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratilova-Rovenska, K.; Boal, T.; Colgan, T.

    2014-01-01

    The results of miner and residential epidemiology studies provide statistically strong evidence of harmful effects of exposure due to radon and its progeny. With the publication of the fifth edition of the International Basic Safety Standards, of the World Health Organizations Handbook on Indoor Radon and new ICRP statement on radon, there is increased interest from the public health and radiation protection authorities on controlling exposure due to radon and its progeny.The IAEA Safety Requirements publication 'Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards' sets out requirements on governments for control of existing exposure situations, which includes exposure due to radon. The types of situation that are included in the scope of existing exposure situations include exposure in workplaces for which the exposure due to radon is not required by or directly related to the work and for which annual average activity concentrations due to 222 Rn must not exceed a maximum reference level of 1000 Bq/m 3 annual activity concentration, as well as exposure in dwellings and in other buildings with high occupancy factors for members of the public for which the reference level must not exceed a maximum value of 300 Bq/m 3 . These requirements include: collecting data on the activity concentrations of radon in dwellings and other buildings with high occupancy by the public; providing information on exposure due to radon and the associated health risks; and if necessary, to develop an action plan for controlling public exposure to radon. The IAEA has developed a Safety Guide to provide guidance on developing the radon action plan: 'Protection of the Public against Exposure Indoors due to Radon and Other Natural Sources of Radiation'. This presentation will summarize the information on the assistance that the IAEA is currently providing to IAEA Member States to develop radon action plans. These activities include

  15. Parametric modelling of temporal variations in radon concentrations in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzan, K.L.; Turk, B.H.; Harrison, J.; Nero, A.V.; Sextro, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentrations in the living area, the basement, and the undelying soil of a New Jersey home have been measured at half-hour intervals over the course of a year, as have indoor and outdoor temperatures, wind speed and direction, and indoor-outdoor and basement-subslab pressures; in addition, periods of furnace opration have been logged. We generalize and extend an existing radon entry model in order to demonstrate the dependence of the radon concentration on the environmental variales and the extent of furnace use. The model contains parameters which are dependent on geological and structural factors which have not been measured or otherwise determined; statistical methods are used to find the best values of the parameters. The non-linear regression of the model predictions (over time) on the measured living area radon concentrations yields an R/aup 2/ of 0.88. 9 refs., 2 figs

  16. Radon in homes and other technologically enhanced radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Toohey, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The results are described of recent observations at Argonne National Laboratory, contributing to our knowledge of such factors as the origin of high levels of radon in houses, its variability with time or otherwise, its uniformity throughout the house or otherwise, and the behavior and fate of the short-lived daughter-products. In a sample of 110 houses, mostly in the west suburban area of Chicago, 15% had radon concentrations in excess of 6 pCi litre - 1 and 96% greater than 10 pCi litre - 1 . If this distribution is representative of all houses in the USA, the population being exposed to such high concentrations of radon is far greater than the number of people in Grand Junction being exposed to quite similar concentrations from technologically enhanced radioactivity. There is a great need for far more extensive data on radon in houses

  17. Exposure to unusually high indoor radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    Unusually high indoor radon concentrations were reported in a small village in western Tyrol, Austria. The authors have measured the seasonal course of indoor radon concentrations in 390 houses of this village. 71% of houses in winter and 33% in summer, showed radon values on the ground floor above the Austrian action level of 400 Bq/cm 3 . This proportion results in an unusually high indoor radon exposure of the population. The radon source was an 8,700-year-old rock slide of granite gneiss, the largest of the alpine crystalline rocks. It has a strong emanating power because its rocks are heavily fractured and show a slightly increased uranium content. Previous reports show increased lung cancer mortality, myeloid leukemia, kidney cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer resulting from indoor radon exposure. However, many studies fail to provide accurate information on indoor radon concentrations, classifying them merely as low, intermediate, and high, or they record only minor increases in indoor radon concentrations. Mortality data for 1970-91 were used to calculate age and sex standardized mortality rates (SMR) for 51 sites of carcinoma. The total population of Tyrol were controls. A significantly higher risk was recorded for lung cancer. The high SMR for lung cancer in female subjects is especially striking. Because the numbers were low for the other cancer sites, these were combined in one group to calculate the SMR. No significant increase in SMR was found for this group

  18. Comparative Measurements of Indoor Radon in Homes and Floating Houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changmuang, Wirote; Tantawiroon, Malulee; Polphong, Pornsri

    2003-06-01

    A survey of the radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in 318 homes and 152 floating houses (1410 samples) in Phitsanulok province, using a passive 222 Rn charcoal canister and measurement by gamma spectrometry. Floating houses showed significant lower mean levels (8.22 Bqm -3 ) than homes (21.56 Bqm -3 ) (p 222 Rn concentrations indicated that concrete homes had a higher level than wooden homes and homes lying on ground had a higher level than those built at 1 meter or more above ground. The estimated annual mean effective dose equivalent 0.35 mSvy -1 and the annual lung dose equivalent of 5.94 mSvy -1 were only one-third of the world mean estimates

  19. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, R. William; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m -3 . Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. (authors)

  20. New method of reducing radon levels in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radon is a naturally occurring gas seeping into homes and underground structures (buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, etc.) from the surrounding soil through walls, floor, etc. and emanating from construction materials such as concrete, granite, etc. The level of radon is especially great in regions with the heightened content of uranium in soil and water and with geological breaks of the earth's crust. Concentrations of uranium higher than 10 g per ton of soil have been found in 14 percent of territory of Uzbekistan. As a result, for instance, concentration of radon 10-100 times exceeds the regulation level in 14 percent of premises in Tashkent, 41 percent of premises in Almalik town and 44 percent in Yangiabad town. The purpose of this work was creating a method to reduce concentration of radon gas in buildings and underground structures. We suppose that the most effective technique is a treatment of walls, floors, etc. of basement and underground structures by special chemicals which seal micropores inside the construction materials. Sealing the pores stops radon diffusion and in addition, it blocks another radon pathway - water migration and emanation from concrete, gypsum or other construction materials. In the paper polymeric silico organic compounds are investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, Rn 222, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment by chemicals has been examined. Influence of types of cement and sand, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric silico organic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of concrete (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) have been examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spray. Experiments have shown that chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing

  1. Influence of surficial soil and bedrock on indoor radon in New York State homes. Task 2, Subtask 2 of an investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality in New York State homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, C.

    1989-10-01

    Radon can enter a building from soil and bedrock through cracks or openings in the basement. Extrapolation from data obtained from studies of miners exposed to high concentrations of radon and other carcinogens over long periods indicates that radon gas in the home poses an increased risk of lung cancer. The project was initiated to determine the characteristics of soil and bedrock that contribute to the availability of radon for infiltration into the home, and the feasibility of using soil characteristics in mapping areas at higher risk for above-average indoor radon in New York State. After conducting soil surveys across the State, the researchers choose four areas for further study. Fifteen homes in each area were tested for indoor air concentrations of radon, air infiltration into the home, radon concentrations in the soil, and the permeability of the soil for gas flow. The researchers concluded that these parameters could be combined to obtain a Radon Index Number to predict mean indoor radon levels for a given area with similar soil geology. However, this measure has a limited ability to predict indoor radon levels for a particular home due to variations in construction as well as differences in soil and bedrock

  2. Retrofit and preoccupancy radon mitigation program for homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, M.T.; Gallagher, J.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A requirement was levied on a Maryland builder by the FHA to demonstrate acceptable radon levels in his homes before they would be approved for loans. This paper describes the use of products shown by appropriate tests to be effective radon barriers to meet this requirement. The sheet goods can be used in exterior and interior applications on foundation walls. The other is applied to the interior floors and/or walls of the basement area. Product installation procedures are straightforward and relatively simple. Problems encountered were routine and concerned primarily the complete sealing of floor and wall penetrations, window openings, sealing the top of the wall under the sill plate, and the location and mounting of permanent fixtures on walls and floors. Also discussed are methods of repairing ruptures of the seal, warranties to protect the homeowner, support systems and costs. Conclusions are that effective reductions in radon levels can be achieved by the application of sealants during the construction of new homes or as a retrofit to existing structures

  3. Review of high-sensitivity Radon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.

    2017-10-01

    A challenge in many present cutting-edge particle physics experiments is the stringent requirements in terms of radioactive background. In peculiar, the prevention of Radon, a radioactive noble gas, which occurs from ambient air and it is also released by emanation from the omnipresent progenitor Radium. In this paper we review various high-sensitivity Radon detection techniques and approaches, applied in the experiments looking for rare nuclear processes happening at low energies. They allow to identify, quantitatively measure and finally suppress the numerous sources of Radon in the detectors’ components and plants.

  4. Summary of the eighth conference on protection against radon at home and at work and the 13. workshop on the geological aspects of radon risk mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratilova Rovenska, K.; Thinova, L.; Neznal, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides summary of the 8. Conference on Protection against Radon at Home and at Work and 13. Workshop on the Geological Aspects of Radon Risk Mapping held in September 2016 in Prague, Czech Republic. (authors)

  5. Conveyancing implications of radon in homes in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.

    1992-01-01

    In general the principle of caveat emptor (buyer beware) applies to house purchase. There are exceptions to this rule, but it seems unlikely that they will apply to radon unless the seller has been made a statement about radon, either voluntarily or in answer to questions. If the seller makes a false statement, the buyer has remedies in law. In future it may be that solicitors will be held to be negligent if they do not ask questions about radon in high-risk areas, but we have not reached that situation yet. A change of policy by mortgage lenders could change matters. Once lenders are seen to be alert to the problems, buyers' solicitors will not be able to afford to keep quiet about them either. (Author)

  6. Development of high sensitivity radon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Y; Kajita, T; Tasaka, S; Hori, H; Nemoto, M; Okazawa, H

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity detectors for radon in air and in water have been developed. We use electrostatic collection and a PIN photodiode for these detectors. Calibration systems have been also constructed to obtain collection factors. As a result of the calibration study, the absolute humidity dependence of the radon detector for air is clearly observed in the region less than about 1.6 g/m sup 3. The calibration factors of the radon detector for air are 2.2+-0.2 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 0.08 g/m sup 3 and 0.86+-0.06 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3) at 11 g/m sup 3. The calibration factor of the radon detector for water is 3.6+-0.5 (counts/day)/(mBq/m sup 3). The background level of the radon detector for air is 2.4+-1.3 counts/day. As a result, one standard deviation excess of the signal above the background of the radon detector for air should be possible for 1.4 mBq/m sup 3 in a one-day measurement at 0.08 g/m sup 3.

  7. Application of studies of miners to radon problem in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.; Clair Renard, K.G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The lung cancer risk from exposure in homes to short-lived daughters of radon-222 can be estimated from results for underground miners, if differences in epidemiologic and exposure variables between mining populations and the general public can be assessed. Our study of Swedish iron miners exposed at low dose rates and with long follow-up time has enabled us to determine smoking-specific risk coefficients, and to rule out other factors in the mine atmosphere as contributing to lung cancer risk. Miners differ from the population at large in the following characteristics: sex, age at exposure, dose rate, dust conditions in mines and homes, smoking, volume breathed per unit time and proportion of the year exposed. The last two factors affect the conversion of air concentrations to cumulative yearly doses, and from present evidence dose rate, sex and age should not alter risk factors to a great extent. For persons aged 60 about 30% of lung cancers in non-smokers may be attributed to radon daughters, and about 6% in smokers. The percentage may be higher at older ages if the relative risk is found to be constant at these ages. (Author)

  8. Another bogus radiation scare - radon in homes. Letter to the editor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses Health Canada's research that radon in homes is causing unnecessary lung cancer deaths. Health Canada has carried out a cross-Canada survey of radon-concentrations in homes (Health Canada 2012). The aims of their study were to obtain an estimate of the proportion of the Canadian population living in homes, with radon gas levels above the guideline of 200 Bq/m to identify new areas of this health risk. Their results indicate that 6.9% of Canadians are in 3 such homes (similar to their 1970 results). The authors state that their results can be used by governments and health professionals to help prioritize radon outreach and education efforts, and testing and remediation. Their next step is to correlate radon level and home characteristics, and also develop radon mapping methods. Several sentences in the introduction link radon with lung cancer, based on early studies of uranium miners and later studies in homes. It is estimated that about 10% of all lung cancers worldwide are related to radon exposure.

  9. Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, S.F.; Lawson, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident's unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident's knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns, and the best media to deliver radon education campaigns. A stratified random sampling method was applied for a total of 400 samples. The number of samples from each township/city was a proportion of their taxable parcels. The survey return rate was 39.8%. The data were analyzed by Epi Info and SPSS. The statistical significant level was set at α = 0.05. The results showed that resident's knowledge about radon was at a relatively superficial level. There was no association identified between the knowledge of radon and gender, age, family income, or education, except that females more frequently believed in false effects caused by radon. A significant correlation between radon knowledge and home radon tests was observed. Also found in this study was that respondents with better knowledge about diseases caused by radon had more confidence in radon mitigation actions. Newspaper was chosen by respondents as the most favorite media to deliver radon health education campaigns. Health education campaigns for the residents of Boone County might be conducted by local governments and/or other organizations

  10. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  11. Radon: Detection and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.; Loken, T.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last few years, natural radon exposure in non-industrial settings, primarily homes, has become a health concern. Research has demonstrated that many homes throughout the United States have radon concentrations much higher than the legal federal limits set for miners. Thousands of unsuspecting people are being exposed to high levels of radiation. It is estimated that up to 15 percent of lung cancers are caused from radon. This is a significant health risk. With basic knowledge of the current information on radon, a primary health care provider can address patients' radon concerns and make appropriate referrals

  12. Development of a data base on radon in US homes and applications. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1991-12-31

    This research led to the development of the compilation of data on radon in homes which is included in this document. This research also contributed to the development of two papers analyzing the results. These are a case control study test and tests of the liner no-threshold theory for lung cancer induced by exposure to radon in residential buildings.

  13. Development of a data base on radon in US homes and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This research led to the development of the compilation of data on radon in homes which is included in this document. This research also contributed to the development of two papers analyzing the results. These are a case control study test and tests of the liner no-threshold theory for lung cancer induced by exposure to radon in residential buildings.

  14. Geochemical and γ ray characterization of Pennsylvanian black shales: Implications for elevated home radon levels in Vanderburgh County, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, Kent W.; Elliott, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is a radioactive gas that results from the decay of uranium ( 238 U) in the Earth's crust. This study characterizes the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in the Pennsylvanian black shales of southwest Indiana. Cores were drilled on the campus of the University of Southern Indiana to a depth of 237.7 m (780 ft) during exploration for coal-bed methane. Gamma ray logs were taken to measure radioactive activity as a function of depth in the bore hole. Activity readings of 270, 467, 555, and 388 GAPI (American Petroleum Institute γ ray units) were measured at depths of 124.3 m (408 ft), 154.0 m (505 ft), 187.1 m (614 ft) and 214.0 m (702 ft) in four separate shale layers of the Pennsylvanian stratigraphic column. GAPI units are used in the petroleum industry when drilling to represent the relative intensities of γ radiation from 40 K, 232 Th, and 238 U in bore holes (Belknap et al., 1959). For purposes of this study, the high activity readings on the gamma ray logs were used only to identify at which depths further gamma ray spectroscopy of the cores would be completed in the laboratory. Gamma ray spectroscopic studies of these cores were conducted with a large volume NaI crystal detector to observe γ rays of specific energies. Characteristic γ rays from various isotopes were identified confirming the presence and relative quantity of radon precursors in core samples. Geochemical analysis of cores was also conducted to measure presence and quantity of trace metals and radon precursors. Of 744 homes tested in Vanderburgh County from 2007 to 2013, 169 homes (22.7 percent) had elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ). Additionally, 246 homes (33.1 percent) had measured radon levels of 74–145 mBq L −1 (2.0–3.9 pCi L −1 ). About 80 percent of elevated radon levels greater than 148 mBq L −1 (4.0 pCi L −1 ) are located in proximity to depositional contacts between the Dugger

  15. Cigarette smoking increases radon working level exposures to all occupants of the smoker's home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H. Jr.; Rosario, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the 1988 National Academy of Sciences report on radon health risks evaluated the combined effects of radon exposures and cigarettes on the lung cancer risk to smokers. This report showed that the risk of lung cancer is about 10 times greater for smokers than for nonsmokers at the same Working Level exposures. In 1986, the Surgeon General reported that 106,000 lung cancer deaths occurred among smokers. Therefore, the health risks of cigarettes alone or in combination with radon exposures are well recognized. What has not been studied is the effect of cigarette smoke on the Working Levels in homes that increases the exposure to radon decay products to all occupants, both smokers and nonsmokers. Preliminary studies in a radon chamber at Radon QC showed that the smoke from a single cigarette increased the Working Levels by a factor of five within four hours. Furthermore, the Working Levels remained at an elevated level for more than 24 hours. The equilibrium ratio of radon decay products to radon gas also went from about 14% up to 71%, with a slow decrease over 24 hours. Similar studies in the homes of a smoker and nonsmoker confirmed the laboratory observations. The studies in homes also showed the effects of thoron decay products

  16. A national-wide survey of radon and gamma radiation levels in Australian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langaroo, M.K.; Wise, K.N.; Duggleby, J.K.; Kotler, L.H.

    1990-04-01

    A nation-wide survey of Australian homes has been conducted to determine the average annual doses to the Australian population from exposure to radon and gamma radiation. The exposure to radon was measured using solid state track detectors (SSTD) whilst the gamma radiation dose was concurrently determined using thermoluminescent dosimetry. Dosemeters were placed in approximately 3400 randomly distributed homes (representing about 1 in 1400 occupied dwellings) for twelve months. The measured annual average radon concentration in Australian homes is 12 Bq m -3 . Using appropriate conversion factors, the annual average effective dose equivalents to the Australian population were determined to be 0.6 mSv and 0.9 mSv for radon and gamma radiation respectively. 20 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series, describes what radon is, where it is found, why it presents a risk to health, the official advice, and the remedies that are available to reduce radon levels. (author)

  18. Home radon levels and seasonal correction factors for the Isle of Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, P.; Preece, A.W.; Goodfellow, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiation dose levels due to home radon can rise to levels that would be illegal for workers in the nuclear industry. It is well known that radon levels within homes and from home to home, and also from month to month, vary considerably. To define an Isle of Man radon seasonal correction factor, readings were taken in eight homes over a 12 month period. An average island indoor exposure of 48 Bq m -3 (range 4-518 Bq m -3 ) was determined from 285 homes selected from a cohort of 1300 families participating in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) in the Isle of Man. This compares with a UK home average of 20 Bq m -3 and a European Union average (excluding UK) of 68 Bq m -3 . Ten homes of those measured were found to have radon levels above the National Radiological Protection Board 200 Bq m -3 action level. There are 29 377 homes on the Isle of Man, suggesting that there could be some 900 or more homes above the action level. No statistical difference was found between the NRPB and Isle of Man seasonal correction factors. (author)

  19. Radon in workplaces: First results of an extensive survey and comparison with radon in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucci, S.; Pratesi, G.; Viti, M. L.; Pantani, M.; Bochicchio, F.; Venoso, G.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive radon surveys have been carried out in many countries only in dwellings, whereas surveys in workplaces are rather sparse and generally restricted to specific workplaces/activities, e.g. schools, spas and caves. Moreover, radon-prone areas are generally defined on the basis of radon surveys in dwellings, while radon regulations use this concept to introduce specific requirements in workplaces in such areas. This approach does not take into account that work activities and workplace characteristics can significantly affect radon concentration. Therefore, an extensive survey on radon in different workplaces have been carried out in a large region of Italy (Tuscany), in order to evaluate radon distribution in workplaces over the whole territory and to identify activities and workplace characteristics affecting radon concentration. The results of this extensive survey are compared with the results of the survey carried out in dwellings in the same period. The workplaces monitored were randomly selected among the main work activities in the region, including both public and industrial buildings. The survey monitored over 3500 rooms in more than 1200 buildings for two consecutive periods of ∼6 months. Radon concentration was measured by means of passive nuclear track detectors. (authors)

  20. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  1. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.S.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Kelleher, K.; Paridaens, J.; Mc Laughlin, J.P.; Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P.; Onischenko, A.D.; Jovanovic, S.; Demajo, A.; Birovljev, A.; Bochicchio, F.

    2007-01-01

    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped 210 Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted 210 Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test > 0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m -3 , whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods

  2. Estimated risk from exposure to radon decay products in US homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Recent analyses now permit direct estimation of the risks of lung cancer from radon decay products in US homes. Analysis of data from indoor monitoring in single-family homes yields a tentative frequency distribution of annual-average 222 Rn concentrations averaging 55 Bq m -3 and having 2% of homes exceeding 300 Bq m -3 . Application of the results of occupational epidemiological studies, either directly or using recent advances in lung dosimetry, to indoor exposures suggests that the average indoor concentration entails a lifetime risk of lung cancer of 0.3% or about 10% of the total risk of lung cancer. The risk to individuals occupying the homes with 300 Bq m -3 or more for their lifetimes is estimated to exceed 2%, with risks from the homes with thousands of Bq m -3 correspondingly higher, even exceeding the total risk of premature death due to cigarette smoking. The potential for such average and high-level risks in ordinary homes forces development of a new perspective on environmental exposures

  3. Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, F [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1978-09-01

    The noble gas radon, formerly called emanation, was discovered a few years after radium. /sup 222/Rn, the longest-lived isotope, has a half-life of 3,82 days. This half life is so short that the experimental techniques available at present (1978) are not sufficient for a characterization of defined radon compounds, even though there are definite indications for the existence of such compounds, and one may expect such radon compounds to be even more stable than the numerous known xenon compounds. - The radon isotopes /sup 219/Rn (Actinon), /sup 220/Rn (Thoron), and /sup 222/Rn (Radon) occur in nature despite their rather short half-lives, because they are continously generated from their mothers /sup 223/Ra, /sup 224/Ra, and /sup 226/Ra, which are in secular equilibrium with long-lived isotopes /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 232/Th, and are in turn continously formed from these long-lived isotopes. Since the radon isotopes are gases, they enter the atmosphere and are carried for long distances with air currents. - Because radon is so short-lived, its practical applications are rather limited. For medical applications, small sealed glass tubes filled with radon are used as radiation sources after the radon has decayed, because the whole series of Po-, Bi-, and Pb-isotopes of the radium decay chain are formed, whose penetrating radiation is useful for therapy. When solids are spiked with Ra isotopes, radon is evolved at a constant rate. On heating such solids, phase transitions show up by sudden increased radon evolution (Hahn's emanation method). - On the basis of nuclear theoretical calculations, there is hardly a chance for the discovery of a long-lived radon species. Therefore, major progress in radon chemistry is hardly to be expected in the near future.

  4. High indoor radon concentrations in some Swedish waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.; Hagberg, N.; Mjoenes, L.; Heiberg, A.

    2002-01-01

    High indoor radon concentrations in buildings used for water treatment are not uncommon. When raw water is processed in an open system radon escapes from the water to the indoor air of the premises. It is not unusual that the staff of the waterworks have their offices in the building where the water is processed. If large volumes of water are processed and the evaporated radon can reach the workplaces the indoor radon concentration can be very high even if the radon concentration of the raw water is moderate. Groundwaters from aquifers in bedrock and soil and surface water that has been infiltrated through deposits of sand or gravel have the potential to cause high indoor radon levels. In surface water emanating directly from a lake or a river the radon concentrations are normally too low to cause problems. Three waterworks in central Sweden have been studied, Ludvika, Fredriksberg and Kolbaeck. The radon concentrations in the raw water of these waterworks are from 85 Bq/l to 300 Bq/l. Average indoor radon concentrations exceeding 17,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured in Ludvika with peaks of almost 37,000 Bq/m 3 . In Kolbaeck radon concentrations up to 56,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured. It is quite possible that employees of waterworks can receive doses exceeding 20 mSv per year (calculated according to ICRP:s dose conversion convention). Measurements of radon and gamma radiation from the waterworks are reported and methods to lower the indoor radon concentrations are discussed. (author)

  5. Summertime elevation of radon in southern Appalachian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Wilson, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    For houses in particular countries of the southern Appalachians, the atypical situation arises of higher indoor levels of radon during summertime rather than wintertime. Where such conditions prevail, it is recommended that houses be screened for elevated radon during warmer rather than colder seasons of the year. This paper discusses the materials and methods used for the screening, the results and conclusions, and presents some recommendations. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Risks from exposure to radon at home or at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.; Stager, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the risks associated with exposure to radon decay products through estimation of lifetime excess absolute risks (LEAR) per WLM for selected epidemiological risk projection models from miner studies and pooled residential radon studies applied to the ICRP 103 [6] reference populations. The mSv per WLM was calculated using the total detriment per Sv factor. The effect of smoking was considered based on application to Canadian mortality data by smoking status. There was a large variation in the risk per WLM and dose conversion factor depending on the smoking histories which vary substantially between individuals and over time. (author)

  7. Radon water to air transfer measured in a bathroom in an energy-efficient home with a private well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, Naomi H.; Chittaporn, Passaporn; Cook, Gordon B.; Fisenne, Isabel M.

    2014-01-01

    Monthly measurements of radon in kitchen and bath tap water along with indoor air concentrations were made from 1994 to 1996 in an energy-efficient home with a private well. The well supplies all water to the home. The radon in cold and hot kitchen water averaged 69±2 and 52±2 Bq l -1 , respectively. Radon in cold and hot water from the bath/shower room shower head averaged 60±1 and 38±2 Bq l -1 , respectively, whereas hot water collected in the shower at the tub base averaged 5±1 Bq l -1 or a 92 % radon loss to air. While the calculated transfer factor of 1/10 000, i.e. radon concentration in air to radon in water, conventionally applies to the whole house, measurements for the specific water release during showering in a bathroom exhibit a larger transfer factor of 1/2300, due to smaller room volume. (authors)

  8. Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York state. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    A survey of radon levels in New York State homes indicates that approximately 4.4 percent of the homes have long-term living area radon concentrations above the U.S. EPA guideline of four pCi/l. The project addressed the effectiveness of techniques to reduce the radon level in existing homes and to prevent the occurrence of high radon concentrations in new homes. The goal of the project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of radon reduction techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations of more than the current EPA guidelines of four pCi/l. At the same time, radon-resistant construction techniques were demonstrated in homes under construction to provide guidelines for houses being built in areas with a danger of high radon levels. The project demonstrated new radon mitigation techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations exceeding four pCi/l; assessed the value of previously installed radon reduction procedures, and demonstrated new radon-resistant construction methods

  9. A comparison of radon levels in Swedish homes in the 1980s and 30 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Buren, A.; Majones, L.

    1990-01-01

    The radon levels in Swedish homes were investigated in the 1950s and again in the 1980s. In 1955-56, an investigation of homes built before 1946 was carried out in four towns in Central Sweden by Hultqvist with the aim of obtaining results which were representative for the homes in the towns studied. In 1980-82 an investigation was carried out on Swedish homes built before 1976. This time the aim was to provide averages and distributions for the radon exposure of the Swedish population. Correlations with parameters such as building materials and building periods were also investigated. In this paper the radon concentrations in homes from approximately the same regions in the two investigations are compared. The average was found to be four times higher for the homes measured in 1980-82 than for those measured in 1955-56. The reason for this increase is discussed including a thorough evaluation of the sampling and measurement methods used in the two investigations

  10. Radon levels in Swedish homes: A comparison of the 1980s with the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Buren, A.; Mjones, L.

    1987-01-01

    In 1980-82 a study was carried out on Swedish homes built before 1976. The aim was to provide averages and distributions for the radon exposure of the Swedish population. Correlations with parameters such as building materials and building periods were also investigated. In 1955-56, a study of homes built before 1946 was carried out in four towns in central Sweden by Hultqvist with the aim of obtaining results which were representative for the homes in the areas that were studied. The radon concentrations in homes from approximately the same regions in the two studies are compared. The average was found to be four times higher for the homes measured in 1980-82 than for those measured in 1955-56. The reason for this increase is discussed including a thorough evaluation of the sampling and measurement methods used in the two studies. Indications that there has been an increase in the radon concentrations in other Swedish homes and also in other countries in temperature regions are also discussed

  11. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  12. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery that radon enters into residential and commercial structures and produces adverse health consequences to occupants thereof has raised issues for the real estate profession in connection with transactions involving affected structures. The legal responsibilities of real estate professionals in relation to such structures have not yet been clearly defined. Moreover, consistent and reliable testing methods and results, clear identification of circumstances where testing is necessary, and consensus as to health risks suggested by various radon levels have yet to be achieved. When these legal and technical questions are clarified, real estate buyer and sellers as well as agents and brokers will be greatly benefited

  13. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V; Koifman, S; Amaral, E C S

    2004-01-01

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m -3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  14. Natural radiation hazards. Radon in the home and in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Natural radiation exposures account for more than 80% of the doses received by most people during their lifetime. Of these natural radiation doses the contribution arising from exposure to radon and its decay products is by far the greatest and the most variable. At present it is accepted that elevated radon concentrations increase the risk of lung cancer but a causal link with other cancers has been suggested. There is also a synergistic effect between smoking and radon exposure. For the Irish population it is estimated that radon exposure may be implicated in 10 to 15% of lung cancer deaths. On the basis of the data currently available from radon surveys carried out by both UCD and the RPII it is estimated that the average indoor radon level in Ireland is in the region of 60 Bq/m 3 . At this level the average effective dose from the inhalation of the associated radon decay products is estimated to be about 1500 microsievert per year. A small number of houses in Ireland with long term average radon levels in the 2000 to 4000 Bq/m 3 have been identified. For these houses annual effective doses in the range 50,000 to 100,000 microsievert to the occupants may be applicable. In addition to dwellings a number of schools and other workplaces in Ireland have been surveyed and levels comparable to those in dwellings have been found. In Ireland the recommended reference or action level for dwellings is 200 Bq/ 3 . This is identical to the UK reference level and similar to those in operation in most EU countries. At present there is no recommended action level for radon in workplaces in Ireland. This is a matter presently under review. It is reasonable to expect that the chosen level for workplaces will be generally in keeping with the recommendation of the ICRP that it should be in the range 500 to 1500 Bq/m 3 . The achievement of acceptable radon levels in existing and future buildings is technically possible in most cases. In areas already known to have high radon levels

  15. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  16. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Can prefabrication contribute to the development of high performance homes? To answer this question, this chapter defines high performance in more broadly inclusive terms, acknowledging the technical, architectural, social and economic conditions under which energy consumption and production occur....... Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  17. Radon exposures in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Public and occupational health protection against radon is provided in the UK. Protection is advised where geological conditions cause high concentrations in domestic and commercial buildings. These circumstances are described and the resulting exposures reviewed. An account is given of the limitation scheme for radon in the home and the regulatory scheme for radon at work, the manner in which they are implemented, and the degree to which they are successful. (author)

  18. Indoor radon in selected homes in Aburi Municipality: measurement uncertainty, decision analysis and remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah, M. S.

    2014-07-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected homes in Aburi of the Akuapim North Municipal Assembly in Eastern Region, Ghana were estimated using time-intergrated passive radon detector; LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The primary objective of the study was to measure radon levels in 30 selected homes in the Aburi municipality and determine the uncertainties associated with the measured radon concentrations in order to take a decision on remedial actions to be adopted in case of any abnormality using simple qualitative decision analysis method. Measurements were carried out from December, 2013 to March, 2014. After each month of exposure for a period of three months, the detectors were subjected to chemical etching in a 2.5M analytical grade of sodium hydroxide solution at (60 ± I )OC, for 90mins in a constant temperature water bath to enlarge the latent tracks produced by alpha particles from the decay of radon. The etched tracks were magnified using the microfiche reader and counted with a tally counter. The results obtained from the study revealed that concentration of radon in most of the selected homes in the Aburi municipality is low and it is within the internationally accepted action level of 100Bqm-3 set by WHO (2009). The analysis of the results established that the average radon concentrations vary in the range 23.72- 92.24Bqm -3 , 19.07-124.36 Bqm -3 and 31.63-123.87 Bqm -3 for month I, month 2 and month 3 respectively. The corresponding mean values are 46.77, 45.92 and 56.66 Bqm -3 respectively with standard deviations of ±2.18. ±2.38 and ±2.76. These gave a mean of 49.78 ± 12.50 for the three months. Two (2) of the rooms investigated had values above 20 % of the remedial action level of 100Bqm -3 in two of the months but with their average values slightly lower than the remedial action level. From the

  19. Measurement of activity-weighted size distributions of radon decay products in a normally occupied home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Wasiolek, P.; Montassier, N.; Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Socolow, R.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the exposure of individuals to the presence of indoor radioactivity arising from the decay of radon, an automated, semicontinuous graded screen array system was developed to permit the measurement of the activity-weighted size distributions of the radon progeny in homes. The system has been modified so that the electronics and sampling heads can be separated from the pump by approximately 15 m. The system was placed in the living room of a one-storey house with basement in Princeton, NJ and operated for 2 weeks while the house was occupied by the home owners in their normal manner. One of the house occupants was a cigarette smoker. Radon and potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) measurements were also made, but condensation nuclei counts were not performed. PAEC values ranged from 23.4 to 461.6 mWL. In the measured activity size distributions, the amount of activity in the 0.5-1.5 nm size range can be considered to be the unattached fraction. The mean value for the 218 Po unattached fraction is 0.217 with a range of 0.054-0.549. The median value for the unattached fraction of PAEC is 0.077 with a range of 0.022-0.178. (author)

  20. Levels of radon gas concentration and progeny in homes of Potosi City, Bolivia to 4000 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani M, R.; Claros J, J.; Vasquez A, R.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: In this work the presence of radon gas was determined, which is a radioactive contaminant that comes from underground, able to penetrate the houses. The danger is that when mixed air and when inhaled can cause serious damage to the lungs, for the short life time that has radon and progeny for decay, damaging the pulmonary alveoli and reducing breathing capacity of the habitants, then causing polycythemia in some cases. The study was carried out in homes in the city of Potosi, Bolivia located at 4000 m. The quantification of radon gas and progeny was performed with the equipment Alpha-Zaeller-2 (Az-2), quantification was realized in 6 zones of the city of Potosi, chosen randomly. In each zone were carried out measurements in 40 homes (2 rooms more permanent), both day and night, for a period of 3 days in two different seasons and with concentrations of average humidity of 20, 50 and 80%. The values obtained for each period vary depending on the season and 30 to 50% of the allowable values given by the EPA and Who for housing. (Author)

  1. Investigation of the areas of high radon concentration in Gyeongju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Min; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the radon concentrations at 21 elementary schools in Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, to identify those schools with high radon concentrations. Considering their geological characteristics and the preliminary survey results, three schools were finally placed under close scrutiny. For these three schools, continuous measurements over 48 h were taken at the principal's and administration office. The radon concentrations at one school, Naenam, exceeded the action level (148 Bq/m 3 ) established by the U.S. EPA, while those at the other two schools were below that level. - Highlights: • Preliminary measurements of the indoor radon concentrations were performed at the auditoriums in 23 elementary schools in Gyeongju. • Considering the geological characteristics and preliminary survey results, three elementary schools were screened for closer scrutiny. • For the three schools, continuous measurements were made at their principal's and administration offices over 48-h period. • The scrutiny revealed one elementary school of high radon concentration much higher than the U.S. EPA action level

  2. Quantitative aspects of highly emanating geologic materials and their role in creating high indoor radon. Final report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundersen, L.C.S.; Schumann, R.R.; Gates, A.E.; Price, P.

    1996-01-01

    Indoor radon hot spots, areas where indoor radon commonly exceeds 20 pCi/L, are often caused by unusually highly emanating soils or rock and their interaction with ambient climatic conditions and a building's architecture. Highly emanating soils and rocks include glacial deposits; dry fractured clays; black shales; limestone-derived soils; karst and cave areas, fractured or sheared granitic crystalline rocks; mine tailings; uraniferous backfill; and most uranium deposits. The above list probably accounts for 90% of the Nation's indoor radon over 20 pCi/L. In several of these high indoor radon areas, there appears to be a link between the nature of the radon source in the ground, the architecture of the home, and the relative magnitude and ease of mitigation of the indoor air problem. Quantification of geologic materials in terms of their radon potential with respect to climatic and architectural considerations has never been accomplished. Recent studies have attempted semi-quantitative rankings but rigorous analysis has not been done. In this investigation the authors have attempted to develop the quantitative aspects of geologic materials for prediction of very high indoor radon at several scales of observation from national to census tract

  3. High-resolution radon monitoring and hydrodynamics at Mount Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigolini, Corrado; Salierno, Francesco; Gervino, Gianpiero; Bergese, Paolo; Marino, Ciro; Russo, Massimo; Prati, Paolo; Ariola, Vincenzo; Bonetti, Roberto; Begnini, Stefania

    A yearlong high-resolution radon survey has been carried on at Mount Vesuvius, starting in May 1998. Radon activities were acquired by exposing charcoal canisters and track-etch detectors. Sampling stations were deployed along two major summit faults and around the caldera bottom. Volcanically-related earthquakes, with MD ≥ 2.5, may be discriminated from regional seismic events since their cumulative radon anomalies are recorded from stations located along all the above structural features. On the contrary, radon anomalies correlated to regional earthquakes, with MD ≥ 4, are essentially recorded by the sampling sites located along the two summit faults (whose roots extend deeper into the Tertiary basement rocks that underlay the volcano). Radon migration to the surface is ruled by convection within a porous medium of relatively low porosity (ϕ ≈ 10-5), suggesting that fluid motion is strongly localised along fractures. It is suggested that fluid pressure build up, followed by fluid release and migration during incipient fracturing of the porous medium, precede the onset of volcanically-induced earthquakes.

  4. High performance homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne; Vibæk, Kasper Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    . Consideration of all these factors is a precondition for a truly integrated practice and as this chapter demonstrates, innovative project delivery methods founded on the manufacturing of prefabricated buildings contribute to the production of high performance homes that are cost effective to construct, energy...

  5. Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer: 13 collaborative analyses of individual data from European case-control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.; Hill, D.; Doll, R.; Auvinen, A.; Barros Dios, J.M.; Ruano Ravina, A.; Baysson, H.; Tirmarche, M.; Bochicchio, F.; Deo, H.; Falk, R.; Forastiere, F.; Hakama, M.; Heid, I.; Schaffrath Rosario, A.; Wichmann, H.E.; Kreienbrock, L.; Kreuzer, M.; Lagarde, F.; Pershagen, G.; Makelainen, I.; Ruosteenoja, E.; Muirhead, C.; Oberaigner, W.; TomaBek, L.; Whitley, E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk of lung cancer associated with exposure at home to the radioactive disintegration products of naturally occurring radon gas. Design: Collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. Setting: Nine European countries. Subjects: 7148 cases of lung cancer and 14 208 controls. Main outcome measures: Relative risks of lung cancer and radon gas concentrations in homes inhabited during the previous 5-34 years measured in becquerels (radon disintegrations per second) per cubic metre (Bq/m3) of household air. Results: The mean measured radon concentration in homes of people in the control group was 97 Bq/m3, with 11% measuring > 200 and 4% measuring > 400 Bq/m3. For cases of lung cancer the mean concentration was 104 Bq/m3. The risk of lung cancer increased by 8.4% (95% confidence interval 3.0% to 15.8%) per 100 Bq/m3 increase in measured radon (P=0.0007). This corresponds to an increase of 16% (5% to 31%) per 100 Bq/m3 increase in usual radon- that is, after correction for the dilution caused by random uncertainties in measuring radon concentrations. The dose-response relation seemed to be linear with no threshold and remained significant (P = 0.04) in analyses limited to individuals from homes with measured radon < 200 Bq/m3. The proportionate excess risk did not differ significantly with study, age, sex, or smoking. In the absence of other causes of death, the absolute risks of lung cancer by age 75 years at usual radon concentrations of 0, 100, and 400 Bq/m3 would be about 0.4%, 0.5%, and 0.7%, respectively, for lifelong non-smokers, and about 25 times greater (10%, 12%, and 16%) for cigarette smokers. Conclusions: Collectively, though not separately, these studies show appreciable hazards from residential radon, particularly for smokers and recent ex-smokers, and indicate that it is responsible for about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe. (author)

  6. Riddle of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Why is the most significant source of human exposure to ionising radiation - and one that is so easy to reduce - not accorded the attention it deserves from those engaged in radiological protection nor the action it requires from those affected by it at work or at home? There are, after all, clear indications that high levels of radon exist and firm strands of evidence that radon causes cancer. Some national and international authorities have even developed regulations and recommendations to limit exposures. But radon still lies in the penumbra of protection because proponents of intervention lack conviction and opponents are full of passionate intensity. Little wonder that citizens are confused! (Author)

  7. Mitigation of houses with extremely high indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.; Neznal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on the experience of the Czech Technical University in dealing with mitigation of houses in which unusually high indoor radon concentrations were found. The whole process of remediation is illustrated by example of an old single-family house that was built in the area formed by highly permeable soils with high radon content in the soil air. T he house has a small cellar located under 1/5 of the ground floor area. Two types of floors, i.e. timber floors and cracked concrete slabs were found in the house. As a result of extremely high radon concentration in the sub-floor region (up to 600 kBq/m 3 ) and leaky structures in contact with soil, radon concentrations around 100 kBq/m 3 in the cellar and up to 60 kBq/m 3 in the living rooms on the ground floor were measured prior to mitigation. Mitigation measures that were carried out in the house consist of reconstruction of timber floors and installation of active soil depressurization. Timber floors were replaced with concrete slab fitted with damp proof membrane, thermal insulation and floor covering. The soil depressurization system was made up of two sections. The first section is composed of the network of perforated pipes inserted in the drainage layer placed under the new floors and four perforated tubes drilled under the existing floors. The soil air from this section is extracted by means of a roof fan installed at the top of the vertical exhaust pipe running inside the living space and terminating above the roof. The second section was designed to withdraw by means of a small fan radon-laden air from the filling in the floor above the cellar and from perforated tubes drilled into the sub-floor region under the rooms adjacent to the cellar. It serves also for the active ventilation of the cellar. Pressure, temperature and radon concentration sensors were installed into the drainage layer during the reconstruction of floors to record variations in these

  8. Radon: Residential attitudes toward the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, R.; Hinman, G.; Rosenman, R.; Wandschneider, P.

    1990-01-01

    Veradale, Washington (east of Spokane) is a region of high residential radon concentrations. Three hundred eighty residents of Veradale recently responded to a mail survey designed to elicit (1) their knowledge of and attitudes toward the risks of radon in their homes, (2) the actions they have taken or intend to take to identify and reduce those risks, and (3) policy preferences toward radon. Results reveal that these residents know that they live in an area with high radon levels, that radon causes lung cancer, and that radon will affect their health. However only 11% of respondents have had their homes tested for radon. This especially is puzzling because a large number of respondents claimed that (1) radon was important in home buying decisions, (2) they would test their own homes, (3) they would take action if such tests revealed problems, and (4) their willingness to pay for tests and improvements was well within the current costs of these actions. It remains a mystery why testing is at such a low level. Three other results are of note. First, subsidies for radon tests and home improvements may be having the unintended consequences of unneeded improvements and (potentially) moves without improvements. Second, individuals want radon testing required and results made known during home purchase decisions. Third, at present, weatherization programs that concentrate radon are acceptable to individuals. Of course, the future may hold different results. Administrators of weatherization programs, who are trusted by respondents according to this survey, would do well to institute weatherization programs with reduced radon concentrations in mind

  9. High Radon Areas and lung cancer prevalence: Evidence from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Seraphim; Lyons, Seán; Nolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    This paper examined the relationship between radon risk and lung cancer prevalence using a novel dataset combining spatially-coded survey data with a radon risk map. A logit model was employed to test for significant associations between a high risk of indoor radon and lung cancer prevalence using data on 5590 people aged 50+ from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) and radon risk data from Ireland's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The use of data at the individual level allowed a wide range of potentially confounding factors (such as smoking) to be included. Results indicate that those who lived in an area in which 10%-20% of households were above the national reference level (200 Bq/m 3 ) were 2.9-3.1 times more likely to report a lung cancer diagnosis relative to those who lived in areas in which less than 1% of households were above the national reference level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carcinogenic risk associated with radon-enriched well water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison has been made between radon in drinking water and the incidence of cancer using a set of home occupants in Virginia and Maryland. In a subset of people who drink radon-free but chlorinated drinking water from a reservoir, about 3% develop some type of cancer. In a subset of people who drink low-radon water from private water wells, about 3% develop cancer. In a subset who drink high-radon well water, about 6% develop cancer. A comparison with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates of cancer related to airborne radon indicates that for the general population, the incidence of radon-related cancer from drinking water is similar to the incidence of cancer from inhaled radon. For the 10% of the population that consumes well water and, in particular, for the 5% of the population that consumes high-radon well water, the drinking water carries a considerably higher cancer risk than inhaling airborne radon

  11. Radon 10 x 10 project: Implantation of geographic information systems in studies of radon in homes and geology catalans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado Sanjuan, J. L.; Bach Plaza, J.; Baixeras divar, C.; Font Guiteras, L. L.; Moreno Balta, V.

    2013-01-01

    This methodology provides a useful tool to establish relationships between different data in order to identify areas in which to assess the radiological risk that represents radon in the Catalan population and gagging. (Author)

  12. Surveys of radon levels in homes in the United States: A test of the linear-no-threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Radon Project for large scale measurements of radon concentrations in homes is described. Its principal research is to test the linear-no threshold dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis by determining average radon levels in the 25 U.S. counties (within certain population ranges) with highest and lowest lung cancer rates. The theory predicts that the former should have about 3 times higher average radon levels than the latter, under the assumption that any correlation between exposure to radon and exposure to other causes of lung cancer is weak. The validity of this assumption is tested with data on average radon level vs replies to items on questionnaires; there is little correlation between radon levels in houses and smoking habits, educational attainment, or economic status of the occupants, or with urban vs rural environs which is an indicator of exposure to air pollution

  13. A comparison of contemporary and retrospective radon gas measurements in high radon dwellings in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, K.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Fenton, D.; Colgan, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Little correlations has been found between contemporary radon gas measurements made in the past and retrospective radon gas measurements in Irish dwellings. This would suggest that these two techniques would result in two significantly different cumulative radon exposure estimates. Contemporary radon gas measurements made a few years apart in the same room of a dwelling were found to be significantly different. None of these differences could be explained by known changes to the rooms themselves., such ventilation or structural alterations to the room. This highlights the limitations of the contemporary radon gas measurements as a surrogate measurement for use in residential radon epidemiology. The contemporary radon gas measurements made by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) and University College of Dublin (U.C.D.) do not cover the same exposure period as the retrospective estimates and so the accuracy of the retrospective measurements cannot be demonstrated. A weak correlation can be seen between the retrospective radon gas estimates and a combination of the two contemporary radon gas estimates. It is not unreasonable to expect improvement in the correlation if further contemporary radon gas measurements were made in these rooms. (N.C.)

  14. The control of radon levels in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jarallah, M. B. I.

    2007-01-01

    The article speaks about radon entry ways to houses, the technologies of controlling the level of radon in indoors and four possible ways to solve the problem of high concentration of radon gas in housing and protection from being gathered to a certain extent that is harmful to health. These methods are: removal of the radon source, modifying the radon source, ventilation and air filtration. The article also addresses the impact of reducing the consumption of heating energy in homes and buildings using thermal insulators in floors, walls, ceilings and doors and making double glazed windows that confine the air. It has been proven that there is a steady relationship between energy conservation measures in housing and the increase of radon concentration by two to three times. In a lot of buildings, where conservation measures have been taken, materials to conserve heat are used, which themselves launch radon and this may lead to increased levels of the gas in the housing.

  15. The unattached fraction of radon decay products: Potential effects of in-home air cleaners on lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radon decay products are a factor in the development of lung cancer. Because of their efficient deposition within the lung, the fraction of decay products not attached to particulate (i.e., the unattached fraction) is very important in lung dosimetry. This study simulated the use of two in-home air cleaning devices to reduce airborne particulate concentrations, measure the effect on the unattached fraction, and estimate the radon lung cancer risk. Radon was released into a chamber having a volume-to-surface-area ratio similar to a small home. At radon-decay product equilibrium, radon and airborne particle concentrations were measured, and the concentration of the unattached fraction was estimated. The effect of particle concentration on the unattached fraction was then determined. The average unattached fractions corresponding to the particle concentration ranges expected for the air cleaning devices were used to calculate the annual alpha radiation dose and annual radon lung cancer for men, women and children at rest and under light activity. The annual doses and related risks were compared to those used in the models published by the Environmental Protection Agency. For particulate concentrations of a home with no particulate generating activities (e.g., smoking, cooking), the electronic air cleaner is predicted to reduce the unattached fraction from seven percent (the value used by the NCRP and confirmed in this study) to four percent. These conditions represent the maximum reduction in the unattached fraction. The decrease in the unattached fraction is tentatively attributed to an increase in plateout. Based on these results, a reduction of less than ten percent in the calculated annual lung cancer risk is found in all cases

  16. Cost effectiveness of radon mitigation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Krewski, D.; Zielinski, J.M.; McGregor, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the cost effectiveness of comprehensive strategies for reducing exposure to radon gas in indoor air in Canadian homes. The analysis is conducted within the context of a general framework for risk management programme evaluation which includes well-known evaluation techniques such as cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses as special cases. Based on this analysis, it is clear that any comprehensive programme to reduce exposure to environmental radon will be extremely expensive, and may not be justifiable in terms of health impact, particularly when considered in relation to other public health programmes. Testing of homes at the point of sale and installing sub-slab suction equipment to reduce exposure to indoor radon where necessary appears to be a relatively cost-effective radon mitigation strategy. In general, radon mitigation was found to be most cost effective in cities with relatively high levels of radon. (author)

  17. Radon soil gas measurements in a geological versatile region as basis to improve the prediction of areas with a high radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabrt, Franz; Rechberger, Fabian; Schuff, Michael; Seidel, Claudia; Baumgartner, Andreas; Friedmann, Harry; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to predict the radon potential by geological data, radon soil gas measurements were made in a selected region in Styria, Austria. This region is characterised by mean indoor radon potentials of 130-280 Bq m -3 and a high geological diversity. The distribution of the individual measuring sites was selected on the basis of geological aspects and the distribution of area settlements. In this work, the radon soil gas activity concentration and the soil permeability were measured at 100 sites, each with three single measurements. Furthermore, the local dose rate was determined and soil samples were taken at each site to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. During two investigation periods, long-term soil gas radon measurements were made to study the time dependency of the radon activity concentration. All the results will be compared and investigated for correlation among each other to improve the prediction of areas with high radon potential. (authors)

  18. A model of the precaution adoption process: evidence from home radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, N.D.; Sandman, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present the precaution adoption process model--a stage theory consisting of seven distinct states between ignorance and completed preventive action. The stages are 'unaware of the issue,' 'aware of the issue but not personally engaged,' 'engaged and deciding what to do,' 'planning to act but not yet having acted,' 'having decided not to act,' 'acting,' and 'maintenance.' The theory asserts that these stages represent qualitatively different patterns of behavior, beliefs, and experience and that the factors that produce transitions between stages vary depending on the specific transition being considered. Data from seven studies of home radon testing are examined to test some of the claims made by this model. Stage theories of protective behavior are contrasted with theories that see precaution adoption in terms of movement along a single continuum of action likelihood.32 references

  19. Evaluation of lung cancer risk from radon in homes. Smoking plays the important part; Bewertung des Lungenkrebsrisikos durch Wohnungsradon. Lungenkrebsrisiko ausschliesslich durch Rauchen verursacht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1999-07-01

    Studies of lung cancer risk from the beginning of the century until today are investigated and evaluated. The result shows that the risk in homes with Radon exposure is determined exclusively by the amount of smoking. Further studies of the lung cancer risk from Radon therefore should exclusively treat with non-smokers. (orig.) [German] Studien zum Lungenkrebsrisiko durch Radon vom Anfang dieses Jahrhunderts bis heute werden untersucht und bewertet. Das Ergebnis zeigt, dass das Lungenkrebsrisiko in Wohnungen mit Radonexpositionen ausschliesslich durch den Umfang des Zigarettenrauchens bestimmt wird. Untersuchungen zur Bewertung des Lungenkrebsrisikos durch Radon sollten daher ausschliesslich bei Nichtrauchern durchgefuehrt werden. (orig.)

  20. An active radon sampling device for high humidity places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N.; Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    An active radon measurement device has been developed to be used in workplaces with a relative humidity of 100% for spot measurements of radon concentration. A mathematical model based on the convective-diffusive transport equation is used in the design of this system, which has been used to measure the radon concentration in the Pozalagua cave (Biscay, at Northern of Spain). From the obtained radon values the public and workers doses have been obtained.

  1. Radon: A health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

    1990-01-01

    Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon

  2. The use of SSNTDs in the retrospective assessment of radon exposure in high radon rural communities in Yugoslavia

    CERN Document Server

    Zunic, Z S; Walsh, C; Benderac, R

    1999-01-01

    A description is given of the field application of a technique using CR-39 and LR 115 detectors to determine alpha recoil implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po surface activity on domestic glass artefacts in dwellings. These investigations took place in two small stable rural communities in uraniferous areas of Yugoslavia where between 32% and 74% of contemporary indoor radon levels were found to be above the commonly used Action Level of 200 Bq m sup - sup 3 and individual levels as high as 8700 Bq m sup - sup 3 were measured. The sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po data is used to retrospectively estimate radon exposures in these communities. Comparisons between the retrospectively estimated radon exposures and those being received at present are made.

  3. Radon variations in active volcanoes and in regions with high seismicity: internal and external factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Cruz-Reyna, S. De la; Mena, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of 4 years of observations of radon concentrations in soils of active volcanoes of Costa Rica and a highly seismic region in Mexico are discussed. A distinction is made between the influences of external (mostly meteorological) and internal (magmatic or tectonic) factors on the variation in radon levels. The geological meaning of the radon data can be thus enhanced if the external factors are excluded. (author)

  4. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  5. Functional test of a Radon sensor based on a high-resistivity-silicon BJT detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Betta, G.F., E-mail: dallabe@disi.unitn.it [DISI, Università di Trento, and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); RSens srl, Modena (Italy); Tyzhnevyi, V. [DISI, Università di Trento, and INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Bosi, A.; Bonaiuti, M. [RSens srl, Modena (Italy); Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.A.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Ciolini, R.; Curzio, G.; D' Errico, F.; Del Gratta, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bidinelli, L. [En and tech, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia (Italy); RSens srl, Modena (Italy); and others

    2013-08-01

    A battery-powered, wireless Radon sensor has been designed and realized using a BJT, fabricated on a high-resistivity-silicon substrate, as a radiation detector. Radon daughters are electrostatically collected on the detector surface. Thanks to the BJT internal amplification, real-time α particle detection is possible using simple readout electronics, which records the particle arrival time and charge. Functional tests at known Radon concentrations, demonstrated a sensitivity up to 4.9 cph/(100 Bq/m{sup 3}) and a count rate of 0.05 cph at nominally-zero Radon concentration.

  6. Radon survey in the high natural radiation region of Niska Banja, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.S.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Birovljev, A.; Bochicchio, F.; Quarto, M.; Obryk, B.; Paszkowski, M.; Celikovic, I.; Demajo, A.; Ujic, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Olko, P.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Waligorski, M.P.R.

    2007-01-01

    A radon survey has been carried out around the town of Niska Banja (Serbia) in a region partly located over travertine formations, showing an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over the whole year, using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. Outdoor measurements were performed at 56 points distributed over both travertine and alluvium sediment formations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 102 living rooms and bedrooms of 65 family houses. In about 50% of all measurement sites, radon concentration was measured over each season separately, making it possible to estimate seasonal variations, which were then used to correct values measured over different periods, and to estimate annual values. The average annual indoor radon concentration was estimated at over 1500 Bq/m 3 and at about 650 Bq/m 3 in parts of Niska Banja located over travertine and alluvium sediment formations, respectively, with maximum values exceeding 6000 Bq/m 3 . The average value of outdoor annual radon concentration was 57 Bq/m 3 , with a maximum value of 168 Bq/m 3 . The high values of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations found at Niska Banja make this region a high natural background radiation area. Statistical analysis of our data confirms that the level of indoor radon concentration depends primarily on the underlying soil and building characteristics

  7. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  8. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m 3 in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for each

  9. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ielsch, G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  10. Tracing and dealing with dwellings with high radon and radon daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdwall, Hans

    1980-01-01

    In the late 1970s it was found that a number of buildings in Sweden, primarily those made from alum shale-based concretes, had elevated radon and radon daughter levels. A special commission investigated the problem and established provisional limiting values for radon daughter exposures, gamma radiation from the ground, and the concentrations of radioactive materials in building materials. With regard to gamma radiation from the ground the commission proposed that no building be built in an area where outside gamma radiation exceeds 100 μR/h. For building materials a gamma index (mγ) and a radium index (mRa) are suggested: mγ = Csub(K)/10000 + Csub(Ra)/1000 + Csub(Th)/700; mRa = Csub(Ra)/200 (Csub(K), Csub(Ra) and Csub(Th) are the concentrations of potassium, radium and thorium respectively). The proposed limiting values are such that the gamma index and the radium index be less than 1. It is also suggested that action should be taken to reduce radon levels in buildings with radon daughter concentrations of 0.27 WL within two years and 0.10 WL within 5 years

  11. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for the province of Kymi, southeastern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennanen, M.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Voutilainen, A.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 . It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In this study about 5900 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined from maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurements and geological data were used to assess the radon risk from soil and bedrock in different areas. The building sites of the province of Kymi were divided into thirteen sub-areas. The radon prognosis are calculated for the most radon-prone foundation types including 1) houses with a slab-on-grade and 2) houses with a basement or hillside houses with open stairwells between basement and first floor. The radon levels are generally greater in the western part of the area. The radon risk is highest in gravel-dominated esker areas in southwestern, western (in Pyhtaa, Kotka, Anjalankoski, litti, Valkeala) and central (Taipalsaari) parts of the area. The radon risk is also high in some bedrock and till areas, also in southwestern and western parts of the area. In these areas the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 80 % of new houses. About half of the future houses in these areas will have indoor radon concentrations exceeding 400 Bq/m 3 . The radon risk is lowest in the eastern part of the province of Kymi in every soil type. In this area the level of 200 Bq/m 3 will be exceeded in 30 % of new houses. Below 10 % will exceed 400 Bq/m 3 . (orig.) (14 refs.)

  12. Radon-thoron exposures in high background radiation areas: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    The radon-thoron measurements reported in literature for the high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of the world are summarised here. The most important areas covered are the Radon Spas and the thorium bearing monazite deposits. Special mention is made of the ongoing programmes of radon-thoron survey in the monazite beach areas of India; preliminary measurements indicate significant levels of thoron exposures. The diurnal and seasonal variations are quite wide underscoring the importance of carrying out integrated measurements for meaningful assessments of population exposures. Radon-thoron inhalation dose rates upto 30 mSv/y have been measured in lran as well as India. It has been generally observed that the cumulative population doses due to radon-thoron inhalation are as high as those due to the external exposures in these HBRAs. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Radon awareness in Ireland: a assessment of the effectiveness of radon road shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In late 2004 the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) initiated a series of radon road shows in areas designated as High Radon Areas 1 in the R.P.I.I. s national radon survey of homes. The main objective of these road shows was to provide information to a local audience on the risks of exposure to radon. These road shows target both employers and householders. Each road show has the same general format. A presentation and/or meeting with a major employer representative group within the area. The purpose is to make employers aware of the risks associated with exposure to radon in the workplace and to highlight their obligations under current Irish health and safety legislation regarding radon in the workplace. An information stand on radon manned by R.P.I.I. staff members in a local shopping centre or other similar area. This provides those concerned about radon with accessible information on radon exposure risks, how to measure radon and the steps a home owner could take to reduce radon concentrations where necessary. Where possible R.P.I.I. staff members visit one or more schools in the general area. A short presentation on radon was given to students and students were given an opportunity to asks questions Maximizing media exposure to publicize our visits is vital to the success of these visits. Each visit is preceded by a Press Release whose main aim is to brief local and national media on the radon issue so as to achieve maximum publicity mainly through radio and television coverage. In general the media are very interested in the whole radon area and R.P.I.I. staff members have given 57 radio and 10 television interviews to date since the commencement of this initiative. The four road shows carried out to date have been successful in encouraging householders to carry out radon measurements. Since the start of the road shows to the present, the R.P.I.I. has seen a 44% increase in the number of householders requesting radon

  14. Ten practical lessons for an effective radon risk communication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. Several recent studies have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon's risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. Unfortunately, the results of these studies have not reached practitioners. This paper is for them. It summarizes the practical implications that are most crucial for planning and implementing an effective radon risk communication program--a program that will motivate people to test for radon and mitigate when radon levels are high, without unduly alarming those whose radon levels are low

  15. Indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies

  16. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  17. A comparative review of the effectiveness of radon remediation programmes in hospitals, schools and homes in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.; Tornberg, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the UK, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has designated a number of Affected Areas where 1% or more of the homes are above the Action Level of 200 Bqm -3 , including Northamptonshire, with 6.3% of houses above the Action Level. Since 1993, a radon remediation programme in National Health Service properties in Northamptonshire has been undertaken (1). Radon levels both before and after remediation were studied, together with the number of occupants of affected rooms, and their pattern of occupation. The total costs were recorded, including the initial survey to find the affected rooms, and the work done to reduce radon levels, to estimate the total cost per annual dose saved. This method has been extended to domestic properties (2), and schools (3) in Northamptonshire. The results showed that the programmes could be justified when compared to the NRPB initiative to reduce patient dose from dental X-Rays. This paper reviews this work, and provides an updated comparison of the three studies. The domestic series now extends to 65 remediated homes with 156 occupants, and the analysis of the programme now includes the cost of UK Value Added Tax (VAT) at 17.5%, which is payable by the householder on the remediation work. Further, a local survey concluded that the public in county town of Northampton spent on average 72% of their time in their own home, rather than the 50% assumed previously. The remediation costs in all series were reviewed, and individual corrections made for inflation. While the NHS properties and Schools programmes were comprehensive, only 10% householders who discovered raised radon levels have so far proceeded to remediation, despite much local publicity. The collective dose saved annually in Northamptonshire was estimated to be 0.533 man-sieverts in NHS Properties, 4.0 man-sieverts in Schools, and has reached 18 man-sieverts in domestic properties. The domestic programme has the potential to save 690 man-sieverts if all houses

  18. Indoor air radon dose assessment for elementary, middle and high schools at Ulju county in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2016-01-01

    Ulsan is the largest industrial city and possesses the largest area among 7 metropolitan cities in Korea. Ulju county is one of the administrative districts of Ulsan, and covers over 70 % of Ulsan and is surrounded by mountain to the east and sea to the west, which has urban and rural area. Thus, there are many geological and industrial condition in its environment. Ministry of Environment (ME) of Korea is carrying out radon survey every 2 years, but this survey focuses on radon radioactivity of the houses and radon survey for schools isn't detailed. At schools, people with various age work and are educated for a specific time, therefore, it is needed to analyze the radon radioactivity concentration of indoor air to estimate the effect by the radon exposure. Indoor air radon radioactivity concentration and dose of 57 schools including elementary, middle and high schools in Ulju county were analyzed by using alpha track. It was understood that average radon concentrations of schools in Ulju county were being maintained below recommendation level although survey results of some schools showed 295 Bq/m 3 higher than regulation of Ministry of Environment for radon concentration, 148 Bq/m 3 . Indoor annual effective dose of 0.157 mSv by radon was found to be less than 7 % of the natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv when ICRP dose coefficient for adult male was applied. It was thought that further radon effect analysis for various ages including children was needed for more accurate dose assessment

  19. Indoor air radon dose assessment for elementary, middle and high schools at Ulju county in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Ulsan is the largest industrial city and possesses the largest area among 7 metropolitan cities in Korea. Ulju county is one of the administrative districts of Ulsan, and covers over 70 % of Ulsan and is surrounded by mountain to the east and sea to the west, which has urban and rural area. Thus, there are many geological and industrial condition in its environment. Ministry of Environment (ME) of Korea is carrying out radon survey every 2 years, but this survey focuses on radon radioactivity of the houses and radon survey for schools isn't detailed. At schools, people with various age work and are educated for a specific time, therefore, it is needed to analyze the radon radioactivity concentration of indoor air to estimate the effect by the radon exposure. Indoor air radon radioactivity concentration and dose of 57 schools including elementary, middle and high schools in Ulju county were analyzed by using alpha track. It was understood that average radon concentrations of schools in Ulju county were being maintained below recommendation level although survey results of some schools showed 295 Bq/m{sup 3} higher than regulation of Ministry of Environment for radon concentration, 148 Bq/m{sup 3}. Indoor annual effective dose of 0.157 mSv by radon was found to be less than 7 % of the natural radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv when ICRP dose coefficient for adult male was applied. It was thought that further radon effect analysis for various ages including children was needed for more accurate dose assessment.

  20. Radon 10 x 10 project: Implantation of geographic information systems in studies of radon in homes and geology catalans; Proyecto radon 10x10: aplicacion de los sistemas de informacion geografica en estudios de radon y geologia en viviendas catalanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amado Sanjuan, J. L.; Bach Plaza, J.; Baixeras divar, C.; Font Guiteras, L. L.; Moreno Balta, V.

    2013-07-01

    This methodology provides a useful tool to establish relationships between different data in order to identify areas in which to assess the radiological risk that represents radon in the Catalan population and gagging. (Author)

  1. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: HVAC SYTEMS IN SCHOOLS TEND TO HAVE A GREATER IMPACT ON RADON LEVELS THAN HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioing -- HVAC-- system design and operationg) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  2. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Two significant experiences related to radon in a high risk area in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, C.; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.-L.; Fuente, I.; Quindos, L.; Soto, J.; Quindos-Poncela, L.S.; Arteche, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas and it is currently accepted as being responsible for lung cancer in some cases. One of the most important sources of indoor radon is from the soil. The RADON content of soil is also a very important factor to be taken into account. The natural radiation map of Spain (MARNA) classifies the country into three regions with different levels of natural gamma radiation. There are some areas in Spain with high levels of natural radiation one of those is the province of Salamanca. Western part of this province presents a population of 20 000 inhabitants and 7% of the houses have an indoor radon concentration above 400 Bq·m -3 . In this high risk area, the village of Villar de la Yegua is of special interest: 11% of the houses in this village have an indoor radon level below 400 Bq·m -3 , 89% have above 400 Bq·m -3 and 71% of the houses have a radon concentration above 1000 Bq·m -3 . An old uranium mine site close to this village has been selected for the construction of an experimental pilot house. It is a two story house located in the place with a very high 226 Ra concentration in soil. Radon in soil at 1 m depth has an average level of 250 kBq·m -3 . We present in this work the characteristics of the experimental unit located in this high risk area and we describe the zone where one of the Spanish villages with the highest radon concentration is located. This is a very interesting place for further research on indoor radon concentration and it is a unique opportunity of testing radon monitors, radon passive detectors and remedial actions for the mitigation of radon in real conditions. It is common to carry out intercomparison exercises under laboratory conditions. Nonetheless, it is not so common to develop these exercises in real conditions as we have in the experimental unit we present here. We offer in this work the possibility for other research groups of testing their equipment in this unit and we also show the evolution of

  4. protection against radon at home and at work; recommendations of the Israel national advisory committee on radiation protection and their practical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Margaliot, M.

    1997-01-01

    Existing legislation in Israel related to protection of the worker and the public from ionizing radiation excludes certain natural radiation sources from control by national authorities. Among these sources are radon and radon daughters. Employers are not required, by law to intervene in order to reduce radon levels in the working place, even when these levels exceed the action levels recommended by the ICRP or by the International Basic Safety Standards for protection Against Ionizing radiation. The Israel National Advisory Committee for radiation protection - INACRP (appointed by the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Health) recommended, in 1993, to rectify this lack and proposed that the above two ministers issue guidelines for protecting the public and the worker from hazards of radon and radon daughters. The proposed guidelines are based on recent 1993 recommendations of the ICRP related to Radon at Home and at Work.The guidelines establish activity concentration levels, in homes and at work premises, above which remedial actions are recommended, and specify a time-table for these actions, depending on the extent to which the activity concentrations in the building exceed the remedial action levels specified. (authors)

  5. Natural radiation hazards. Radon in the home and in the workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J P [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-10-01

    Natural radiation exposures account for more than 80% of the doses received by most people during their lifetime. Of these natural radiation doses the contribution arising from exposure to radon and its decay products is by far the greatest and the most variable. At present it is accepted that elevated radon concentrations increase the risk of lung cancer but a causal link with other cancers has been suggested. There is also a synergistic effect between smoking and radon exposure. For the Irish population it is estimated that radon exposure may be implicated in 10 to 15% of lung cancer deaths. On the basis of the data currently available from radon surveys it is estimated that the average indoor radon level in Ireland is in the region of 60 Bq/m{sup 3}. At this level the average effective dose from the inhalation of the associated radon decay products is estimated to be about 1500 microsievert per year. A small number of houses in Ireland with long term average radon levels in the 2000 to 4000 Bq/m{sup 3} have been identified. For these houses annual effective doses in the range 50,000 to 100,000 microsievert to the occupants may be applicable. In addition to dwellings a number of schools and other workplaces in Ireland have been surveyed and levels comparable to those in dwellings have been found. In Ireland the recommended reference or action level for dwellings is 200 Bq/{sup 3}. This is identical to the UK reference level and similar to those in operation in most EU countries. At present there is no recommended action level for radon in workplaces in Ireland. This is a matter presently under review. It is reasonable to expect that the chosen level for workplaces will be generally in keeping with the recommendation of the ICRP that it should be in the range 500 to 1500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The achievement of acceptable radon levels in existing and future buildings is technically possible in most cases. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. High indoor radon variations and the thermal behavior of eskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Voutilainen, A.; Honkamaa, T.; Rosenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in houses built on the Pispala esker in the city of Tampere were taken. The objective was to find connections between indoor radon concentrations, esker topography, and meteorological factors. The results show that not only the permeable soil but also subterranean air-flows in the esker strongly affect the indoor radon concentrations. The difference in temperature between the soil air inside the esker and the outdoor air compels the subterranean air to stream between the upper and lower esker areas. In winter, the radon concentrations are amplified in the upper esker areas where air flows out from the esker. In summer, concentrations are amplified in certain slope zones. In addition, wind direction affects the soil air and indoor radon concentrations when hitting the slopes at right angles. Winter-summer concentration ratios are typically in the range of 3-20 in areas with amplified winter concentration, and 0.1-0.5 in areas with amplified summer concentrations. A combination of winter and summer measurements provides the best basis for making mitigation decisions. On eskers special attention must be paid to building technology because of radon. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Radon Survey in Hospitals in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Slovenia, several radon studies at workplaces have been carried out in last years, supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, and the Ministry of Health. After radon surveys in kindergartens, schools and homes, within which about 2600 buildings were checked for radon and which provided the level of radon problem in the country, next investigations were focused on the workplaces with potentially higher radon risk. Hence, in the Postojna Cave permanent radon monitoring was introduced in 1995 and comprehensive radon studies were performed: in 5 bigger spas during 1996-1998, in major waterworks and wine cellars in 2001, and in major Slovene hospitals in 2002. This paper reports the results of radon study in 26 major Slovene hospitals, comprising radon concentrations in 201 rooms and dose estimates for 1025 persons working in these rooms. Radon survey in 201 rooms of 26 major hospitals in Slovenia revealed only 7 rooms in which monthly average radon concentration in the indoor air exceeded 400 Bqm -3 . Generally, concentrations in basement were on average for about 30% higher than in ground floor, although exceptionally high values have also been found in the ground floor. For 966 persons (94.2%) of the total of 1025 persons working in the rooms surveyed, the annual effective dose, estimated according to the Basic Safety Standards was below 1 mSv, while for 59 it exceeded 1 mSv. In 7 rooms with more than 400 Bqm -3 in which 16 persons receive between 2.1 and 7.3 mSv per year radon monitoring is continued. (author)

  8. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  9. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  10. Comparison of the large-scale radon risk map for southern Belgium with results of high resolution surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.-C.; Charlet, J.M.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    A large-scale radon survey consisting of long-term measurements in about 5200 singe-family houses in the southern part of Belgium was carried from 1995 to 1999. A radon risk map for the region was produced using geostatistical and GIS approaches. Some communes or villages situated within high risk areas were chosen for detailed surveys. A high resolution radon survey with about 330 measurements was performed in half part of the commune of Burg-Reuland. Comparison of radon maps on quite different scales shows that the general Rn risk map has similar pattern as the radon map for the detailed study area. Another detailed radon survey in the village of Hatrival, situated in a high radon area, found very high proportion of houses with elevated radon concentrations. The results of this detailed survey are comparable to the expectation for high risk areas on the large-scale radon risk map. The good correspondence between the findings of the general risk map and the analysis of the limited detailed surveys, suggests that the large-scale radon risk map is likely reliable. (author)

  11. Prediction of the variation in risks from exposure to radon at home or at work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D. B.; Stager, R. H.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of a review of recent epidemiology, the ICRP recently issued a statement outlining a new approach to radon. The ICRP indicates that the Publication 65 dose conversion convention will be replaced using the dosimetric approach currently used for other radionuclides. Moreover, the ICRP indicates that the dose conversion factor is expected to increase by about a factor of 2. This paper independently examines the risks associated with exposure to radon and decay products through estimation of lifetime excess absolute risks per WLM for a variety of epidemiological risk projection models and baseline cancer and mortality rates. This paper suggests that current ICRP dosimetric models do not reflect the effect of smoking and suggest that basic risk estimates and dose conversion factors be based on risks to non-smoking populations with recognition that lifestyle choices, especially smoking, have a large effect on the risk from exposure to radon. (authors)

  12. Modelling radiation exposure in homes from siporex blocks by using exhalation rates of radon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mladen D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Building materials are the second major source of indoor radon, after soil. The contribution of building materials to indoor radon amount depends upon the radium content and exhalation rates, which can be used as a primary index for radon levels in the dwellings. This paper presents the results of using the experimentally determined exhalation rates of siporex blocks and concrete plates, to assess the radiation exposure in dwellings built of siporex blocks. The annual doses in rooms have been estimated depending on the established modes of ventilation. Realistic scenario was created to predict an annual effective dose for an old person, a housewife, a student, and an employed tenant, who live in the same apartment, spending different periods of time in it. The results indicate the crucial importance of good ventilation of the living space.

  13. Study on radon concentration monitoring using activated charcoal canisters in high humidity environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Wang Haijun; Yang Yifang; Qin Sichang; Wang Zhentao; Zhang Zhenjiang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the sensitivity using activated charcoal canisters for measuring radon concentrations in high humidity environments were studied. Every canister filled with 80 g of activated charcoal, and they were exposed to 48 h or 72 h in the relative humidity of 68%, 80%, 88% and 96% (28 degree C), respectively. The amount of radon absorbed in the canisters was determined by counting the gamma rays from 214 Pb and 214 Bi (radon progeny). The results showed that counts decreased with the increase of relative humidity. There was a negative linear relationship between count and humidity. In the relative humidity range of 68%-96%, the sensitivity of radon absorption decreased about 2.4% for every 1% (degree)rise in humidity. The results also showed that the exposure time of the activated charcoal canisters should be less than 3 days. (authors)

  14. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  15. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Mirekhtiary, F.

    2013-01-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 x 35.0 m area x 32.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg -1 . The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the 226 Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m -2 h -1 . The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m -3 with a mean of 625 Bq m -3 . Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22% higher than the passive method. (authors)

  16. Development and demonstration of indoor radon-reduction measures for 10 homes in Clinton, New Jersey. Final report, April 1986-January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, L.D.; Brennan, T.; Viner, A.S.; Mattes, A.; Turner, W.

    1987-07-01

    This report discusses the development and demonstration of indoor radon reduction methods for 10 houses in Clinton, New Jersey, where (in the spring of 1986) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) located a cluster of houses with extremely high radon levels. The work was to be completed before the 1986-87 winter heating season began. The demonstration houses were selected from 56 in the Clinton Knolls subdivision. All of these houses had shown radon concentrations in excess of 64 pCi/1 when monitored in the spring of 1986. Each house was inspected, and 10 representative houses were selected for the radon-reduction demonstration project. Following intensive diagnostic work and monitoring in each house, house-specific radon-reduction plans were developed. With the agreement of the homeowners, radon-reduction systems were installed during the summer of 1986. All 10 of the houses had radon concentrations reduced significantly by the fall of 1986. The average cost of radon reduction was $3127

  17. Geologic factors and house construction practices affecting indoor radon in Onondaga County, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laymon, C.; Kunz, C.

    1990-01-01

    Indoor radon in Onondaga County, New York is largely controlled by bedrock and surficial geology. At more local scales, these alone are insufficient to characterize indoor radon potential. This paper reports on a detailed study of the concentration of indoor radon, soil radium, soil-gas radon, soil and bedrock type, permeability, and home construction practices indicates that above-average indoor radon concentrations are associated with gravelly moraine and glaciofluvial deposits, the radium-bearing Marcellus Shale, and high permeability zones around the substructure of houses built into limestone bedrock

  18. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  19. A Laboratory for studying radon mitigation methods in high-rise office buildings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Hung, L.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.

    1996-01-01

    A territory-wide survey of indoor radon level in 1993 showed that 17% of offices Hong Kong have radon concentrations above 200 Bq m -3 compared with 4% for dwellings. Consequently, the Radioisotope Unit Radon Analysis Laboratory (RURAL) is being built for studying radon mitigation methods applicable to high-rise office buildings. The laboratory consists of three rooms; the main exposure room is built of concrete and is surrounded by the buffer room; and all controls and operations are done inside the control room. The exposure room can, with the aid of the buffer room, simulate any environmental conditions that can be faced by a real building. The pressure, temperature and humidity can be adjusted to any meteorological conditions that can be found in Hong Kong. Pressure differential and temperature differential can be adjusted to simulate the arrival of fronts, troughs or typhoons. Aerosol concentration and distribution inside the exposure room are controllable as well as the ventilation conditions. Various mitigation methods will be tested under different conditions. Passive methods include application of radon barriers to building structures and active methods include the use of air cleaners; techniques to increase radon daughters plateout or reduce their attachment to aerosols; and various modifications to the ventilation systems. Mitigation techniques involving modifications to the building strictures and building services will also be developed with the help of the RURAL. (author)

  20. The Pennsylvania radon story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1984, the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection found itself confronted with the discovery of a home in eastern Pennsylvania having the highest level of radon daughters ever reported. The Bureau responded with a massive radon monitoring, educational, and remediation effort. As of November, 1986, over 18,000 homes had been screen for radon daughters, of which approximately 59% were found to have levels in excess of the 0.020 Working Level guideline. Pennsylvania's response to the indoor radon problem is detailed in this article

  1. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Timson, K.; Shield, G.; Rogers, S.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m -3 , have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  2. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  3. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  4. The relationship between radon knowledge, concern and behavior, and health values, health locus of control and preventive health behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.; Probart, C.K.; Dorman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding similarities between health-related and radon-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors may suggest application of effective strategies of radon-related education in targeted populations. A mail survey was returned by 300 randomly selected homeowners in a community at risk for high home radon concentrations (50% response). While 64% were concerned, only 7% tested their homes. The expected association between radon knowledge, radon concern, and information-seeking was identified. In addition, those who tested their homes had greater knowledge and did more information seeking. Health values and radon concern were only weakly related. Environmental concern explained the greatest variance in radon concern (10%). Internal health locus of controls were more likely to have high radon concern. Of the preventive health behaviors, not smoking and seat belt use were the best predictors of variance in radon concern (5%). Segmenting the population is suggested for best educational outcome. Relating information to environmental issues may be helpful. Health-conscious people may need awareness of risks. Issues of self-control and radon testing and reduction may be helpful for some. Synergy between smoke and radon, compounded by smokers lack of concern suggests targeting smokers for education efforts

  5. Air pollution. Actions to promote radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Peter F.; Adams, Charles M.; McGee, William F.; Goldsmith, Larry A.; Feldesman, Alice G.; Grissinger, Charles R.; Updegraff, William D.; Langdon, Robin S.; Bartholomew, Philip L.

    1992-12-01

    To promote radon testing, EPA initiated public information and awareness programs and provided grants to states to develop programs aimed at encouraging homeowners to test for radon. Nationwide telephone surveys, according to EPA, indicate that these efforts have raised the public awareness of radon to as high as 78 percent but that about only 9 percent of those surveyed have tested their homes for radon. Concerned about improving risk reduction through its radon program, EPA convened a review panel. The panel not only recommended in May 1992 that the current voluntary approach be continued but also called for program changes to encourage more testing. These changes include targeting public information and other resources to areas where radon levels are predicted to be high and promoting testing and mitigation at the time of real estate transactions. To support state radon efforts, the Congress authorized a grant program for yearly grants of $10 million for 3 years. Funds for this program were recently extended for a fourth year through fiscal year 1993. Information to measure states' success in promoting testing by homeowners was generally not available because (1) much of the grant funding has been used to identify the extent of the radon problem; (2) federally funded public information projects were often directed to large audiences, making it difficult to measure testing rates; and (3) EPA's evaluation process for the grant program did not contain a component to measure increases in testing. We did, however, identify some state projects that have increased radon testing by targeting program efforts to homes in areas with potentially high levels of radon. The results of the state projects would seem to support the EPA review panel's recommendations on promoting radon testing through targeting program resources. In two states we surveyed, the voluntary use of disclosure statements as part of a real estate sales contract was a frequent occurrence, and in one state

  6. High concentrations of radon. Specifically affected buildings; Hohe Radonkonzentrationen. Besonders betroffene Gebaeudetypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Winfried [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents a concept for the prognosis of exceeding probabilities of thresholds of radon in dwellings in different building types. A transfer model for the interface subsoil - building was used as a basis. The partial datasets obtained by stratification of five relevant building characteristics can be de-scribed by a 3-parametric-lognormal distribution good in most times. The available data permit statistical predictions to 60 combinations of building characteristics for the region ''east'' and 85 combinations of building characteristics for the region ''West''. The uncertainties for the probability of exceeding a threshold were estimated from the data with bootstrapping. The importance of different building characteristics for the presence of enhanced radon concentrations can be predicted from the results of this estimation. Therefore, targeting of affected buildings is possible on this basis. Regional prognoses of exceeding probabilities for building types with high presence can also be created by the use of transfer factors. A Strategy to reduce the health risk from radon in the long run might be derived, where alongside the delineation of radon prone areas, special attention should be paid to a set out building characteristics, also outside the radon prone areas.

  7. HANDBOOK: SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZATION FOR LOW PERMEABILITY FILL MATERIAL DESIGN AND INSTALLATION OF A HOME RADON REDUCTION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radon, a radioactive gas, comes from the natural decay of uranium. It moves to the earth's surface through tiny openings and cracks in soil and rocks. In outdoor air, radon is diluted to such low concentrations that it is usually nothing to worry about. However, radon can accumul...

  8. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Tornberg, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump technology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  9. A direct evidence for high carbon dioxide and radon-222 discharge in Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, F.; Byrdina, S.; Richon, P.; Bollinger, L.; Bureau, S.; Richon, P.; France-Lanord, Ch.; Rajaure, S.; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Shrestha, Prithvi Lal; Gautam, Umesh Prasad; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Sapkota, Soma Nath; Revil, A.; Revil, A.; Contraires, S.

    2009-01-01

    Gas discharges have been identified at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located at the front of the High Himalaya in Central Nepal, in the Main Central Thrust zone. The hot spring waters are characterized by a temperature reaching 61 C, high salinity, high alkalinity and δ 13 C varying from +0. 7 parts per thousand to +4. 8 parts per thousand. The gas is mainly dry carbon dioxide, with a δ 13 C of -0. 8 parts per thousand. The diffuse carbon dioxide flux, mapped by the accumulation chamber method, reached a value of 19000 g m -2 day -1 , which is comparable with values measured on active volcanoes. Similar values have been observed over a two-year time interval and the integral around the main gas discharge amounts to 0. 25 ± 0. 07 mol s -1 , or 350 ± 100 ton a -1 . The mean radon-222 concentration in spring water did not exceed 2. 5 Bq L -1 , exponentially decreasing with water temperature. In contrast, in gas bubbles collected in the water or in the dry gas discharges, the radon concentration varied from 16 000 to 41000 Bq m -3 . In the soil, radon concentration varied from 25000 to more than 50000 Bq m -3 . Radon flux, measured at more than fifty points, reached extreme values, larger than 2 Bq m -2 s -1 , correlated to the larger values of the carbon dioxide flux. Our direct observation confirms previous studies which indicated large degassing in the Himalaya. The proposed understanding is that carbon dioxide is released at mid-crustal depth by metamorphic reactions within the Indian basement, transported along pre-existing faults by meteoric hot water circulation, and degassed before reaching surface. This work, first, confirms that further studies should be undertaken to better constrain the carbon budget of the Himalaya, and, more generally, the contribution of mountain building to the global carbon balance. Furthermore, the evidenced gas discharges provide a unique natural laboratory for methodological studies, and appear particularly important to study as

  10. Levels of radon gas concentration and progeny in homes of Potosi City, Bolivia to 4000 m; Niveles de concentracion de gas radon y progenie en viviendas de la Ciudad de Potosi, Bolivia a 4000 msnm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani M, R. [Universidad Autonoma Tomas Frias, Carrera de Fisica, Av. del maestro s/n, Edif. Central Potosi, Villa Imperial de Potosi (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Claros J, J. [Universidad Autonoma Tomas Frias, Facultad de Minas Potosi, Centro de Investigacion, Av. Serrudo y Arce s/n, Villa Imperial de Potosi (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Vasquez A, R., E-mail: raulm2k13@hotmail.com [Instituto Boliviano de Biologia de Altura, Calle Hoyos 953, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In this work the presence of radon gas was determined, which is a radioactive contaminant that comes from underground, able to penetrate the houses. The danger is that when mixed air and when inhaled can cause serious damage to the lungs, for the short life time that has radon and progeny for decay, damaging the pulmonary alveoli and reducing breathing capacity of the habitants, then causing polycythemia in some cases. The study was carried out in homes in the city of Potosi, Bolivia located at 4000 m. The quantification of radon gas and progeny was performed with the equipment Alpha-Zaeller-2 (Az-2), quantification was realized in 6 zones of the city of Potosi, chosen randomly. In each zone were carried out measurements in 40 homes (2 rooms more permanent), both day and night, for a period of 3 days in two different seasons and with concentrations of average humidity of 20, 50 and 80%. The values obtained for each period vary depending on the season and 30 to 50% of the allowable values given by the EPA and Who for housing. (Author)

  11. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  12. Radon: a case for public persuasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of reducing individual to elevated levels of radon is well understood by radiation protection specialists, and successful methods of locating the areas most at risk have been developed. However, less attention has been paid to informing the general public about the health rifles and encouraging those in radon-prone areas to take action. In the United Kingdom, techniques have been developed to persuade householders in high radon areas to take advantage of a government scheme that provides free long-term measurements of radon in the home. Improvements in the methods of contacting householders in the target areas and in the presentation of the facts has resulted in a twofold increase in the rate of take-up of measurements since the first large-scale surveys. (author)

  13. Indoor Air '93. Particles, microbes, radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliokoski, P.; Jantunen, M.; Seppaenen, O.

    1993-01-01

    The conference was held in Helsinki, Finland, July 4-8, 1993. The proceedings of the conference were published in 6 volumes. The main topics of the volume 5 are: (1) particles, fibers and dust - their concentrations and sources in buildings, (2) Health effects of particles, (3) Need of asbestos replacement and encapsulation, (4) Seasonal and temporal variation of fungal and bacterial concentration, (5) The evaluation of microbial contamination of buildings, (6) New methods and comparison of different methods for microbial sampling and evaluation, (7) Microbes in building materials and HVAC-systems, (8) Prevention of microbial contamination in buildings, (9) Dealing with house dust mites, (10) Radon measurements and surveys in different countries, (11) The identification of homes with high radon levels, (12) The measurement methods and prediction of radon levels in buildings, and (13) Prevention of radon penetration from the soil

  14. Developmental toxicology of radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Cross, F.T.; Mast, T.J.; Palmer, H.E.; James, A.C.; Thrall, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns about hazards associated with radon exposure in dwellings may be especially relevant to pregnant women, many of whom spend substantial amounts of time in their homes. There are few data concerning the placental transfer and fetoplacental distribution of inhaled radon and decay products or their effects on the conceptus. We performed a study in rats to determine if prenatal effects could be produced by prolonged inhalation exposures to high concentrations of radon throughout gestation. A group of 43 pregnant rats was exposed 18 h d -1 , at a rate of 124 working level months (WLM) per day, from 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg), of radon and daughters adsorbed onto ore dust. A group of 26 pregnant rats from the same shipment was exposed to a filtered-air atmosphere as controls. At 20 dg, the rats were removed from the chambers, killed, and necropsied. The fetuses were evaluated for the presence of toxic effects, which included detailed teratology protocols. These exposures did not produce detectable reproductive toxicity nor teratogenic change. Two other rats were removed from the radon chambers during the last day of exposure, and their tissues were analyzed to determine the distribution of radioactivity and for dosimetry. Samples from these rats suggested that the dose rates to the placenta were roughly threefold those to the fetus but were similar to those to the liver and femur of the pregnant rats. These data indicate that the dose to the conceptus from the decay of placentally transferred radon and its progeny is more important than the contribution of translocated decay products. Translocated radon decay products are an important source of radiation doses to placental structures, however, and may have most of the radioactivity content at birth

  15. Radon levels in dwellings in chalk terrain. Development and analysis of distributional and causal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killip, Ian Richmond

    2002-01-01

    This thesis investigates the range, distribution and causes of high radon levels in dwellings in the Brighton area of Southeast England. Indoor radon levels were measured in more than 1000 homes. The results show that high radon levels can arise in an area previously considered to offer low radon potential from local geological sources. Climate and building-related factors were found to affect significantly the radon levels in dwellings. Multiple regression was used to determine the influence of the various factors on indoor radon levels and an empirical model develop to predict indoor radon levels. The radon hazard, independent of building-related effects, was determined for each surveyed location by adjusting the radon measurement to that expected on the ground floor of a 'model' dwelling. This standardised set of radon levels was entered into a geographical information system (GIS) and related to surface geology. The geometric mean radon level for each lithological unit was plotted to produce a radon hazard map for the area. The highest radon levels were found to be associated with the youngest Chalk Formations, particularly where they meet overlying Tertiary deposits, and with Clay-with-Flints Quaternary deposits in the area. The results were also converted to the radon activity equivalent to that expected from the NRPB's standard dual-detector dwelling survey method and analysed by lognormal modelling to estimate the proportion of dwellings likely to exceed the UK Action Level of 200 Bq/m 3 for each lithological unit. The likely percentages of dwellings affected by radon thus obtained were mapped to lithological boundaries to produce a radon potential map. The radon hazard map and the empirical radon model facilitate the prediction of radon levels in dwellings of comparable construction and above similar geology and should further the understanding of the behaviour of radon gas in buildings to allow indoor radon concentrations to be controlled. The radon

  16. Scopingreport radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Vaas, L.H.; Hesse, J.M.; Slooff, W.

    1989-09-01

    This report contains general information on radon concerning the existing standards, sources and emissions, the exposure levels and effect levels. lt serves as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory melting to be held in November/December 1989, aimed at determining the contents of the Integrated Criteria Document Radon. Attention is focussd on Rn-222 (radon) and Rn-220 (thoron), presently of public interest because of radon gas pollution in private homes. In the Netherlands air quality standards nor product standards for the exhalation rate of building materials have been recommended. The major source of radon in the Netherlands is the soil gas (> 97%), minor sources are phosphate residues and building materials (> 2% in total). Hence, the major concern is the transfer through the inhalation of air, the lung being the most critical organ at risk to develop cancer. Compared to risks for humans, the risks of radon and its daughters for aquatic and terrestric organisms, as well as for agricultural crops and livestock, are assumed to be limited. In the Netherlands the average dose for man due to radon and thoron progeny is appr. 1.2 mSv per year, the estimated dose range being 0.1-3.5 mSv per year. This dose contributes for about 50% to rhe total exposure due to all sources of ionizing radiation. Of this dose respectively 80% is caused by radon and about 90% is received indoor. The estimated dose for the general population corresponds to a risk for inducing fatal cancers of about 15 x 10-6 per year, ranging from 1.2 x 10-6 to 44 x 10-6 which exceeds the risk limit of 1 x 10-6 per year -as defined in the standardization policy in the Netherlands for a single source of ionizing radiation-with a factor 15 (1- 44). Reduction of exposure is only possible in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been described to reduce the indoor dose, resulting from exhalation of the soil and building materials. )aut- hor). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

  17. A four factor model for estimating human radiation exposure to radon daughters in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, R.S.; Letourneau, E.G.; Waight, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    This model is intended to represent the exposure received by individuals who spend any part of their day in a private home. Variables are defined to represent (1) different human groups, (2) basement and other levels in a house, (3) the four seasons of the year, and (4) activities within the home. The model is extremely flexible and appears to be applicable to other exposure circumstances. The number and definition of each of the variables can be changed easily. (author)

  18. Estimating lung cancer risks of indoor radon: applications for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The epidemiologic evidence for a serious lung cancer hazard from radon exposure is very strong, and cumulative exposures accrued in residences may frequently overlap those accrued in underground miners. However, many uncertainties exist in extrapolating from mining to indoor risks because of differences in the populations, in radon exposure variables, and in other exposures. Risks are also considered for indoor radon exposures outside the home. There is already suggestive evidence of an association of lung cancer with radon levels in community settings, and several large-scale investigations are in progress. Some important questions regarding quantifying risk may not be approached, however; some further research needs are outlined including development of techniques for preventing or postponing lung cancer in individuals previously exposed to high radon levels. 31 references, 2 tables

  19. Radon concentration in a house of Calvados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleyter, L.; Riffault, B.; Mazenc, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate a link between the risk of lung cancer and residential radon exposure. However, in France, awareness of this problem was made relatively late. Accordingly this study examines the radon concentration in a private home in Calvados (Normandy region). Findings show that the presence of a fireplace in a house can accelerate radon convective transfer, and that simple adjustments to interior and exterior accommodation can significantly reduce radon concentrations in the home. (authors)

  20. Radon source apportionment in the home, dosimetry and risk modeling. Final report, 1993-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.

    1998-01-01

    This research covered the following 3 topics in 4 years: (1) the source apportionment of 222 Rn in the home; (2) the internal bronchial dosimetry of inhaled 222 Rn decay products; and (3) the lung cancer risk from inhalation of the short lived decay products of 222 Rn. A 4th year of support was appended to this grant with a switch in research effort to determine a method for long term measurement of the particle size distribution of the short lived decay products in homes

  1. Radon surveys and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Dixon, D.W.; Green, B.M.R.; Strong, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the UK, as in other countries, radon daughter inhalation is the most significant cause of human exposure to ionising radiation either at home or at work whether one considers the mean or the maximum dose. Substantial studies of radon are under way in the UK, and the importance of radon is recognised in several spheres. NRPB investigations of the radon levels in buildings and mines are reported, the distributions of doses presented and risk factors calculated. The bases of radon limitation for workers and members of the public are given and the means of compliance discussed. (author)

  2. BEIR VI report. Public summary: the health effects of exposure to indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    For centuries it has been known that some underground miners suffered from higher rates of lung cancer than the general population. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence has casually linked their lung cancers to exposure to high levels of radon and also to cigarette smoking. The connection between radon and lung cancer in miners has raised concern that radon in homes might be causing lung cancer in the general population, although the radon levels in most homes are much lower than in most mines. The National Research Council study, which has been carried out by the sixth Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR VI), has used the most recent information available to estimate the risks posed by exposure to radon in homes. The most direct way to assess the risks posed by radon in homes is to measure radon exposures among people who have lung cancer and compare them with exposures among people who have not developed lung cancer. Several such studies have been completed, and several are under way. The studies have not produced a definitive answer, primarily because the risk is likely to be very small at the low exposure encountered from most homes and because it is difficult to estimate radon exposures that people have received over their lifetimes. In addition, it is clear that far more lung cancers are caused by smoking that are caused by radon. The risk of lung cancer caused by smoking is much higher than the risk of lung cancer caused by indoor radon. Most of the radon-related deaths among smokers would not have occurred if the victims had not smoked. Furthermore, there is evidence for a synergistic interaction between smoking and radon. In other words, the number of cancers induced in ever-smokers by radon is greater than one would expect from the additive effects of smoking along and radon alone. Nevertheless, the estimated 15400 or 21800 deaths attributed to radon in combination with cigarette-smoking and radon alone in never

  3. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  4. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  5. A Radon Micro Study of Salthill, Galway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle-Tobin Ann

    2006-01-01

    This project presents a study of radon gas, when it enters from the ground into the built environment. In order to further inform the present body of knowledge on this potentially dangerous gas, a radon micro study is carried out in the area of Salthill, Galway. A total of 51 households are measured for radon. The results indicate a high variation in the levels recorded, with over a third of the houses measuring above the national safe standard of 200 becquerels per cubic meter, with a small percentage of houses exhibiting very high levels. The results are spatially analysed against the local geology, as radon is a by-product of the breakdown of uranium in rocks. Householders' knowledge and awareness of radon is explored to inform the reasons why more people are not testing their homes for radon, and not installing remedial measures when high levels are detected. The findings indicate significant gaps in householders' knowledge of radon. A certain complacency is noted, which may indicate that people still do not recognise a need to know about this invisible threat. As ways to encourage further testing and remediation levels are equally explored, the government is viewed to play a central role in these processes through partial state funding. Further evidence supports continued and more effective and widespread advertising of radon issues, through all types of media, with emphasis at local level. Incidents of lung cancer and lung disease of long term residents are recorded in an attempt to find out if there is a correlation between them. The results indicate no correlation; however, not all households could participate in this part of the survey as it was limited to long-term residents only

  6. Radon removal from different types of groundwater applying granular activated carbon filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, T.; Salonen, L.; Myllymaeki, P.

    2000-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (CAC) filters were installed in 12 private homes or vacation homes for removing unacceptably high concentrations of radon from household water. Radon removal efficiency was nearly 100% in most locations, although different water types were encountered. Other radionuclides such as uranium, radium, lead and polonium were removed less efficiently. Treated water quality remained good and no significant external radiation dose was caused to the residents. (author)

  7. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Quality assurance for radon measurements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Foerster, E.; Schmidt, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Radiation protection regarding work activities at workplaces with naturally occurring radiation has been regulated in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Regulations refer only to workplaces where the presence of natural radiation leads to a significant increase in the exposure of workers. These workplaces were identified in the following working areas with enhanced exposures to radon-222: underground mines, including visitor mines and show caves; radon-spas and galleries; water supply and distribution industries. Presently, regulations are being initiated by the German government to limit the exposures to radon in homes. For radon measurements at workplaces passive radon devices for individual monitoring as well as active measuring systems for workplace monitoring can be used. However, passive radon devices are preferred for radon measurements in homes because of low costs and availability in large quantities. To assure the quality of radon measurements the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has established annual interlaboratory comparisons for passive radon devices. The comparisons are carried out in the BfS radon calibration laboratory accredited by the German Calibration Service. Passive radon devices which use solid state track detectors, electrets or activated charcoal can be submitted. Approved radon services which offer radon measurements to determine radon exposure in homes and at workplaces have to pass the comparisons successfully. (author)

  9. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    in homes was measured and the Buildings were registered for a series of variables describing upgrades, facilities, building components, Construction characteristics and used materials. In addition, the radon level was measured in the basement in 9 of the buildings. The mean year value of the indoor radon......Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...... radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....

  10. Indoor Radon Concentration Related to Different Radon Areas and Indoor Radon Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Indoor radon has been observed in the buildings at areas with different radon risk potential. Preventive measures are based on control of main potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to avoid building of new houses above recommended indoor radon level 200 Bq/m3. Radon risk (index) estimation of individual building site bedrock in case of new house siting and building protection according technical building code are obligatory. Remedial actions in buildings built at high radon risk areas were carried out principally by unforced ventilation and anti-radon insulation. Significant differences were found in the level of radon concentration between rooms where radon reduction techniques were designed and those where it was not designed. The mathematical model based on radon exhalation from soil has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor radon concentration. The model is focused on combined radon diffusion through the slab and advection through the gap from sub-slab soil. In this model, radon emanated from building materials is considered not having a significant contribution to indoor radon concentration. Dimensional analysis and Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares parametric regression were used to simplify the problem, identify essential input variables and find parameter values. The presented verification case study is introduced for real buildings with respect to various underground construction types. Presented paper gives picture of possible mathematical approach to indoor radon concentration prediction.

  11. Survey of Gamma Dose and Radon Exhalation Rate from Soil Surface of High Background Natural Radiation Areas in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a radioactive gas and the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer after smoking. Ramsar is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on earth. Materials and Methods: In this research study, 50 stations of high radioactivity areas of Ramsar were selected in warm season of the year. Then gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were measured.Results: Results showed that gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were in the range of 51-7100 nSv/hr and 9-15370 mBq/m2s, respectively.Conclusion: Compare to the worldwide average 16 mBq/m2s, estimated average annual effective of Radon exhalation rate in the study area is too high.

  12. Diurnal variations of indoor radon progeny for Bangalore metropolitan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagesh, V.; Sathish, L.A.; Nagaraja, K.; Sundareshan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Radon progenies are identified as major causes of the lung cancer if the activity is above its normal. It has not been clear whether radon poses a similar risk of causing lung cancer in humans exposed at generally lower levels found in homes, but a number of indoor radon survey have been carried out in recent years around the world. In view of this an attempt has been made for the measurement of diurnal variation of indoor radon levels for the environment of Bangalore metropolitan, India. The Radon progeny concentrations in terms of working level were measured using Kusnetz's method. The patterns of daily and annual changes in indoor Radon concentration have been observed in a general way for many years. However, understanding of the physical basis for these changes had to await the development of continuous monitors and a more complete knowledge of transport processes in the atmosphere. Over a continent, heating of the ground surface by the Sun during the day and cooling by radiation during the night causes a marked diurnal change in temperature near the surface. As a result cool air near the ground will accumulate radon isotopes from surface flux during the night; while during the day the warm air will be transported upward carrying radon with it. Many buildings show diurnal radon variations. Concentrations are relatively higher during night than daytime. This is influenced by the outdoor-indoor temperature contrast. This effect can be enhanced in buildings with strong diurnal use patterns. Buildings that have high average radon concentrations, but are only occupied for part of the day, may need to be measured during occupied periods to determine if there is significant diurnal radon variation. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  13. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radom levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in 'The householders' guide to radon, obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. (Author)

  14. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for α particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels

  15. Development on high precision monitoring technique of radon and thoron in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Masayuki; Hamada, Hiromasa; Goto, Masahiro; Nakazato, Hiroomi; Mori, Mitsuhiro

    1999-01-01

    In a field of the environmental management, many technical research and developments such as monitoring on drainage section and flowing speed change of groundwater, analysis on alternating flow phenomenon between surface water and groundwater, analysis on water leakage at a dam, forecasting of landslide, safety evaluation on ground due to detection of faults, have conducted. And, an application to analysis on gas flowing phenomenon from underground to atmosphere as a part of study on evaluation of effect of gas emitted from earth surface on the earth environment was investigated. This study aimed to elucidate behaviors of radon and thoron at environment and to develop a high precision monitoring technique on radon and thoron required to conduct an advanced application to a tracer in hydrology, applied geology, and environment engineering. (G.K.)

  16. The matter of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; O'Riordan, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    By comparison with the radiation doses from radon, the doses to individual members of the public and to the general community from nuclear activities are quite trivial. Doses from radon in some British homes exceed the statutory dose limit for nuclear workers;the collective dose from radon is two thousand times the value for nuclear discharges. And yet, too little attention - legal or otherwise - is paid to this radioactive pollutant. An attempt is made in this paper to compensate for the neglect. The origins, properties and harmful effects of radon are described. Measurements in homes and places of work are summarised. Voluntary and regulatory controls on exposure are elucidated. Questions of public administration, confidentiality of information and sale of property are discussed. Prospects for progress are assessed. (author)

  17. Publications about Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  18. Radon exhalation rate and natural radionuclide content in building materials of high background areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavarnegin, E.; Fathabadi, N.; Vahabi Moghaddam, M.; Vasheghani Farahani, M.; Moradi, M.; Babakhni, A.

    2013-01-01

    Radon exhalation rates from building materials used in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Ramsar were measured using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. Radon exhalation rates from these samples varied from below the lower detection limit up to 384 Bq.m −2 h −1 . The 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K contents were also measured using a high resolution HPGe gamma- ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bq kg −1 , 187 Bq kg −1 and 1350 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The linear correlation coefficient between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration was 0.90. The result of this survey shows that radon exhalation rate and radium content in some local stones used as basements are extremely high and these samples are main sources of indoor radon emanation as well as external gamma radiation from uranium series. -- Highlights: ► In the selection process of local samples, portable scintillometer (NaI) was used. ► The activity concentration of 226 Ra varied from below the MDL up to 86400 Bq kg −1 . ► The activity concentration of 232 Th varied from below the MDL up to 187 Bq kg −1 . ► The activity concentration of 40 K varied from below the MDL up to 1350 Bq kg −1

  19. Radon exhalation rate and natural radionuclide content in building materials of high background areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, E; Fathabadi, N; Vahabi Moghaddam, M; Vasheghani Farahani, M; Moradi, M; Babakhni, A

    2013-03-01

    Radon exhalation rates from building materials used in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Ramsar were measured using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. Radon exhalation rates from these samples varied from below the lower detection limit up to 384 Bq.m(-2) h(-1). The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents were also measured using a high resolution HPGe gamma- ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bq kg(-1), 187 Bq kg(-1) and 1350 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The linear correlation coefficient between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration was 0.90. The result of this survey shows that radon exhalation rate and radium content in some local stones used as basements are extremely high and these samples are main sources of indoor radon emanation as well as external gamma radiation from uranium series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The history, development and the present status of the radon measurement programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The US radon measurement programme began in the late 1950's by the US Public Health Service in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah during the uranium frenzy. After the 1967 Congressional Hearings on the working conditions in uranium mines, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was asked to conduct studies in active uranium mines to assess the exposure of the miners on the Colorado Plateau and in New Mexico. From 1967 to 1972, the Health and Safety Laboratory of the US AEC in New York investigated more than 20 uranium mines for radon and radon decay product concentrations and particle size in 4 large uranium mines in New Mexico. In 1970, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established and took over some of the AEC radon measurement activities. Between 1975 and 1978, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy conducted the first detailed indoor radon survey in the USA. Later in 1984, the very high concentrations of radon found in Pennsylvania homes set the wheels in motion and gave birth to the US Radon Industry. The US EPA expanded its involvement in radon issues and assumed an active role by establishing the National Radon Proficiency Program to evaluate the effectiveness of radon measurement and mitigation methods. In 1998, due to limited resources EPA privatised the radon programme. This paper presents a personal perspective of past events and current status of the US radon programme. It will present an update on radon health effects, the incidence rate of lung cancer in the USA and the number of radon measurements made from 1988 to 2013 using short-term test methods. More than 23 million measurements were made in the last 25 y and as a result more than 1.24 million homes were mitigated successfully. It is estimated that <2 % of the radon measurements performed in the USA are made using long-term testing devices. The number of homes above the US action level of 148 Bq m -3 (4 pCi l -1 ) may be ∼8.5 million because ∼50

  1. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  2. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  3. Radon emanation chamber: High sensitivity measurements for the SuperNEMO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulé, B. [Université Bordeaux 1, Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, Chemin du Solarium, Le Haut-Vigneau, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    Radon is a well-known source of background in ββ0ν experiments due to the high Q{sub β} value of one of its daughter nucleus, {sup 214}Bi. The SuperNEMO collaboration requires a maximum radon contamination of 0.1 mBq/m{sup 3} inside its next-generation double beta decay detector. To reach such a low activity, a drastic screening process has been set for the selection of the detector's materials. In addition to a good radiopurity, a low emanation rate is required. To test this parameter, a Radon Emanation Setup is running at CENBG. It consists in a large emanation chamber connected to an electrostatic detector. By measuring large samples and having a low background level, this setup reaches a sensitivity of a few μ Bq. m{sup −2}. d{sup −1} and is able to qualify materials used in the construction of the SuperNEMO detector.

  4. Lead content of deciduous tooth enamel from high-radon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, A.

    1987-01-01

    Lead concentrations in the enamel of deciduous incisors of 49 6- to 7-year children living in Askola, a rural area in which the radon level is one og the highest in Finland, were determined by the proton-induced X-ray emission method. The absolute concentrations were obtained by calibration with the animal bone standard of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The mean lead concentration of 8.8±6.6 ppm of the whole enamel agreed well with the earlier corresponding lead data from other regions of Finland, indicating that no significant increase in the lead level of the teeth would have occurred because of radon decay. However, the lead concentration level measured on the tooth surface was somewhat higher in Askola, 232±141 ppm, than in the low-radon area Oulu (167±139 ppm; ρ<0.10). The lead concentration of the whole enamel of the upper incisors, 12.2 ± 8.0 ppm, was twice as high as that of the lower incisors, 6.8 ± 4.6 ppm (ρ<0.005), emphasizing the importance of classifying lead concentration data by tooth type

  5. Survey of radon 222 in Monroe county, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houle, P.N.; Blick, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a high density of home radon concentration measurements over one Pennsylvania County that was made. Agreement between these results and larger area but lower density measurements is found to be good. It is concluded that a measurement density of approximately .15 measurements per square mile will yield results in good agreement with a density of 1.39 measurements per square mile. It is also found that Pennsylvania, in part or taken as a whole, has three times as high a percentage of homes with radon concentrations greater than 4.0 Pci/L than present E. P. A. estimates indicate

  6. Measuring radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued guidance for testing for radon in homes and interim guidance for testing in schools. Information on testing for radon in the workplace is the next initiative and this paper describes the current status of this effort. The results of measurements made in several buildings in the Washington, DC area are discussed. In this paper a discussion of preliminary guidance on radon survey design that has been offered to Federal agencies is presented

  7. Radon-technical design methods based on radon classification of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Radon-technical classification of the foundation soil divides the foundation soil into four classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Separate radon-technical designing methods and radon-technical solutions have been developed for each class. On regions of negligible class, no specific radon-technical designing methods are needed. On regions of normal radon class, there is no need for actual radon-technical designing based on calculations, whereas existing radon-technical solutions can be used. On regions of high and very high radon class, a separate radon-technical designing should be performed in each case, where radon-technical solutions are designed so that expected value for indoor radon content is lower than the maximum allowable radon content. (orig.). (3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  8. Radon in the water from drilled wells. Results from an investigation in Oerebro; Radon i vatten fraan bergborrade brunnar. Resultat fraan en undersoekning i oerebro kommun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liden, E.; Andersson, Lennart [Regionsjukhuset, Oerebro (Sweden). Yrkes- och miljoemedicinska kliniken; Linden, A. [Svensk Geofysik AB, Falun (Sweden); Aakerblom, G. [Statens Straalskyddsinstitut, Stockholm (Sweden); Aakesson, T. [Miljoe- och haelsoskyddsfoervaltningen, Oerebro (Sweden)

    1995-09-01

    In 1991 a drilled well containing water with a radon count of about 20,000 Bq/l was found in the city of Oerebro in southern Sweden. A study was started to develop measures to decrease the radon content of water, investigate public health risks and determine the prevalence of high-radon waters in Sweden. 1991-94 various techniques were tested to reduce the concentration of radon in water. The efficiency of aerating high-radon drinking water was studied under field conditions using two modified aerators in a well, in a pressure tank, and in a column of pellets. The efficiency varied from 20 to 99%. A survey of radon in water from 269 drilled wells was conducted in the Municipality of Oerebro. In water from 78 wells, the mean concentration of radon was 1336 Bq/l. The emanation of radon during normal household activities was studied in a home supplied with water from a drilled well whose radon count was approx 20,000 Bq/l. A geological investigation revealed the presence of thin Uranium-loaded fissures in the bedrock (granite) surrounding the well. 130 refs, 16 figs, 14 tabs.

  9. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of two-storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not

  10. Factors influencing upstairs and downstairs radon levels in two-storey dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Groves-Kirkby, N.P. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Environmental radon exposure of residents of two-storey domestic premises is generally estimated on the basis of the measured radon concentrations in, and the relative occupancies of, the principal living-room and bed-room, assuming 45% and 55% occupancy of these two locations respectively. In practice, however, significant case-to-case variability exists, both in the relative periods that individuals spend in the upstairs and downstairs rooms of storey homes, and in the relative radon levels in these two areas. Moreover, while it is assumed that radon levels in upper storeys of multi-storey homes will be intrinsically lower than at ground level, this is not always the case, since radon exhalation from the materials from which the house is constructed may contribute significantly to indoor levels. While studies on radon level variability in the individual units in apartment blocks have been reported, the situation in two-storey low-rise dwellings appears not to have been considered. To investigate this, detailed extended measurements of radon concentrations were made in a set of thirty-four homes situated in areas of Northamptonshire known to exhibit high radon levels and declared a radon Affected Area by the United Kingdom (UK) National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) in 1992. All homes were of typical UK construction of brick/block/stone walls under a pitched tile/slate roof. Approximately 50% of the sample were detached houses, the remainder being semidetached (duplex) or terraced (row-house). Around 25% of the sample possessed cellars, while 12% were single-storey dwellings. In two-storey homes, all monitored bedrooms were on the upper floor. Distribution of the ratios of bedroom/living-room radon levels in individual properties was left-skewed (mean 0.67, median 0.73, range 0.05 to 1.05). The mean is consistent with the outcome of early NRPB studies in England, while the variability depends principally on the characteristics of the property, and not on

  11. Rating radon through the looking glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Radon emerged as a health threat in the last five years as studies showed that exposure to high levels in the home can cause lung cancer. But many families move so often that its difficult to determine their exposure over a lifetime. Now, Battelle Memorial Institute scientists at the Energy Dept.'s Pacific Northwest Lab in Richland, Wash., have devised a clever way to do so. They tape a 2-inch-square piece of clear plastic polymer to the glass on an old mirror or framed picture. Such items as wedding photos are easily datable and normally carried from home to home. As radon decays over the years, it emits alpha particles, which embed themselves in glass. The particles leave tracks in the polymer. By analyzing these tracks, scientists can estimate a person's average annual exposure to indoor radon over 20 years or more. Starting in May, the technique will be used in a three-year National Cancer Institute study that examines radon, smoking, and diet as co-factors in the risk of lung cancer

  12. Treatment of radon rich well water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.; Mushrush, G.; Chrosniak, C.

    1991-01-01

    Private wells supply potable water to about 25% of the homes in northern Virginia, and almost all water wells contain radon, a carcinogenic radionuclide derived form uranium in rocks and soil. The average Virginia well provides about 2,000-3,000 pCi/l of dissolved radon; the US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed that 300 pCi/l of should be the allowed maximum for public water supplies. To estimate the ability of activated charcoal to remove radon from private well water, a home supplied by a water well carrying at sign 4,000 pCi/l was studied. Following 1 year of water measurements, an in-line tank containing 1 cubic foot of activated charcoal was installed, and a subsequent 6 month interval of radon measurements on untreated and on treated water was conducted. Although removal rates of more than 90% have been reported, this study home showed a 60-70% radiation removal in the tank. A high percentage removal rate was reached in less than a month after installation, and was maintained for about 4 months, but the removal rate declined to about 50% by the end of the testing interval. Additional studies are being conducted to determine the effect of using different charcoal volumes, different charcoal types; also being studied is the gamma emission of the charcoal tank

  13. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program

  14. Map showing radon potential of rocks and soils in Montgomery County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, L.C.; Reimer, G.M.; Wiggs, C.R.; Rice, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the radon potential of Montgomery County in the context of its geology. Radon is a naturally occurring gas produced by the radioactive decay of uranium. Radon produced by uraniferous rocks and soils may enter a house through porous building materials and through openings in walls and floors. Radon gases has a tendency to move from the higher pressure commonly existing in the soil to the lower pressure commonly existing in the house. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA, 1986a) estimates that elevated levels of indoor radon may be associated with 5,000 to 20,000 of the 130,000 lung cancer deaths per year. They also estimate that 8 to 12 percent of the homes in the United States will have annual average indoor radon levels exceeding 4 picoCuries per liter of air (pCi/L). Above this level, the U.S. EPA recommends homeowners take remedial action. May factors control the amount of radon which may enter a home from the geologic environment. Soil drainage, permeability, and moisture content effect the amount of radon that can be released from rocks and soils (known as the emmanation) and may limit or increase how far it can migrate. Well drained, highly permeable soils facilitate the movement of radon. Soils with water content in the 8 to 15 percent range enhance the emmanation of radon (Lindmark, 1985). Daily and seasonal variations in soil and indoor radon can be caused by meteorologic factors such as barometric pressure, temperature, and wind (Clements and Wilkening, 1974; Schery and other, 1984). Construction practices also inhibit or promote entry of radon into the home (U.S. EPA, 1986b). In general, however, geology controls the source and distribution of radon (Akerblom and Wilson, 1982; Gundersen and others, 1987, 1988; Sextro and others, 1987; U.S. EPA, 1983; Peake, 1988; Peake and Hess, 1988). The following sections describe: 1) the methods used to measure radon and equivalent uranium (eU) in soil; 2) the radon potential

  15. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.; Samet, J.M.; Cross, F.T.; Hess, T.; Muller, J.; Thomas, D.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  16. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  17. Radon analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The process claimed includes the steps of transferring radon gas produced by a sample to a charcoal trap, cooled to a temperature whereby the radon is absorbed by the charcoal, heating the charcoal trap to a sufficient temperature to release the radon, and transferring the radon to a counting device where the gas particles are counted

  18. Find a Radon Test Kit or Measurement and Mitigation Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a qualified radon service professional to fix or mitigate your home. If you have questions about a radon, you should contact your state radon contact and/or contact one or both of the two privately-run National Radon Proficiency Programs

  19. Radon and risk of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootwelt, K.

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews present knowledge on the possible detriment to health of radon in homes. It is concluded that inducement of lung cancer has neither been proved nor disproved. Large-scale epidemiological studies are in progress. Until the results of these studies have been reported, frightening anti-radon propaganda should be discouraged

  20. The history, development and the present status of the radon measurement programme in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A C

    2015-11-01

    The US radon measurement programme began in the late 1950s by the US Public Health Service in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah during the uranium frenzy. After the 1967 Congressional Hearings on the working conditions in uranium mines, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was asked to conduct studies in active uranium mines to assess the exposure of the miners on the Colorado Plateau and in New Mexico. From 1967 to 1972, the Health and Safety Laboratory of the US AEC in New York investigated more than 20 uranium mines for radon and radon decay product concentrations and particle size in 4 large uranium mines in New Mexico. In 1970, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established and took over some of the AEC radon measurement activities. Between 1975 and 1978, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy conducted the first detailed indoor radon survey in the USA. Later in 1984, the very high concentrations of radon found in Pennsylvania homes set the wheels in motion and gave birth to the US Radon Industry. The US EPA expanded its involvement in radon issues and assumed an active role by establishing the National Radon Proficiency Program to evaluate the effectiveness of radon measurement and mitigation methods. In 1998, due to limited resources EPA privatised the radon programme. This paper presents a personal perspective of past events and current status of the US radon programme. It will present an update on radon health effects, the incidence rate of lung cancer in the USA and the number of radon measurements made from 1988 to 2013 using short-term test methods. More than 23 million measurements were made in the last 25 y and as a result more than 1.24 million homes were mitigated successfully. It is estimated that USA are made using long-term testing devices. The number of homes above the US action level of 148 Bq m(-3) (4 pCi l(-1)) may be ∼8.5 million because ∼50 million homes were added since 1990 to the home

  1. A survey of indoor radon and particular concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yukiko

    1993-01-01

    Lung disease risk from inhalation of radon can be enhanced by the presence of particular pollutants in indoor air. The indoor concentration of radon and particulates were measured in homes, a department store, and offices in a high building in Tokyo metropolis, as well as in homes in both northern and western Japan. Passive radon monitors were located in living rooms and offices for more than three months at 99 sites during the winter of 1988 and 1989. Indoor radon concentration ranged from 11.1 Bq/m 3 to 148 Bq/m 3 (n=99) and averaged value S.D. was 36.5±14.2 Bq/m 3 . However, the average concentration in air conditional buildings was 21.8±9.51 Bq/m 3 (n=17). Simultaneously at 65 of the radon sites, indoor particulates were collected using personal dust samplers by impaction methods. Deposited particulate concentrations on the sampler were measured and calculated in a unit of μm/m 3 . Concentrations were determined for particle sizes above and below 2.5 μm, for both smoking or non smoking sites. Consequently, concentration of particle size below 2.5 μm was high in smoking rooms. Finally, it was considered that smoking was a complex indoor pollutant as adherence of radon daughter to aerosols. (author)

  2. Seasonal Variability in European Radon Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves-Kirkby, C. J.; Denman, A. R.; Phillips, P. S.; Crockett, R. G. M.; Sinclair, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    In temperate climates, domestic radon concentration levels are generally seasonally dependent, the level in the home reflecting the convolution of two time-dependent functions. These are the source soil-gas radon concentration itself, and the principal force driving radon into the building from the soil, namely the pressure-difference between interior and exterior environment. While the meteorological influence can be regarded as relatively uniform on a European scale, its variability being defined largely by the influence of North-Atlantic weather systems, soil-gas radon is generally more variable as it is essentially geologically dependent. Seasonal variability of domestic radon concentration can therefore be expected to exhibit geographical variability, as is indeed the case. To compensate for the variability of domestic radon levels when assessing the long term radon health risks, the results of individual short-term measurements are generally converted to equivalent mean annual levels by application of a Seasonal Correction Factor (SCF). This is a multiplying factor, typically derived from measurements of a large number of homes, applied to the measured short-term radon concentration to provide a meaningful annual mean concentration for dose-estimation purposes. Following concern as to the universal applicability of a single SCF set, detailed studies in both the UK and France have reported location-specific SCF sets for different regions of each country. Further results indicate that SCFs applicable to the UK differ significantly from those applicable elsewhere in Europe and North America in both amplitude and phase, supporting the thesis that seasonal variability in indoor radon concentration cannot realistically be compensated for by a single national or international SCF scheme. Published data characterising the seasonal variability of European national domestic radon concentrations, has been collated and analysed, with the objective of identifying

  3. Residential radon in Kansas City-black shales aren't the prime suspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    The US EPA preliminary assessment of potential radon risk (EPA, 1986) depicted a large area of the mid-continent in which radon levels might be elevated due to the presence of uranium-rich black shales. A preliminary study (Hilpman, Coveney ampersand Spencer, 1988) indicated that a significant percentage of homes in the greater Kansas City area had radon screening levels above 4 pCi/L. However, their lab tests with crushed black shale, and radon tests in limestone mines with black shale floors showed that the shale did not yield extremely high radon levels. This expanded study presents additional results of screening tests in homes, and correlates those results to bedrock geology and soil type. High radon levels in the Kansas city area are not due primarily to black shale sources. The highest readings are associated with limestone and non-organic shale. Mean radon level is higher in younger cyclothemic deposits, and a loessial soil. The EPA initial assessment overstated the radon risk attributable to black uraniferous shale sources. Assessment of the overall potential risk for the greater Kansas City area requires further evaluation of other sources

  4. The Castleisland radon Survey (Sw Ireland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Organo, C. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); O' sullivan, F. [London Univ. College, Dept of Geomatic Engineering, London, (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Full text: In September 2003, following the identification of a house near Castleisland in County Kerry (Sw Ireland) with a seasonally adjusted annual average radon concentration of 49,000 Bq/m{sup 3}, the Radiological Protection of Ireland (R.P.I.I.) undertook to carry out a localised radon survey, the so-called 'Castleisland Radon Survey' (C.R.S.). The aim was to investigate the possibility that similarly extreme radon concentrations could be present in other houses in the surrounding area. A studied area of 400 km{sup 2} was designated around the town of Castleisland, divided in four 10 x 10 km{sup 2} grid squares, and all of the approximately 2,500 householders living in this area were invited to participate. Four hundred and eighteen householders responded to the invitation (17% response rate) but only 383 completed the survey. Fourteen percent of these 383 homes were found to have an annual average radon concentration above the Irish national Reference Level for domestic dwellings of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} while 2% were found to be above 800 Bq/m{sup 3}. An arithmetic mean of 147 Bq/m{sup 3} and a geometric mean of 70 Bq/m{sup 3} were calculated for the four studied grid squares. These can be compared with the respective values of 98 and 56 Bq/m3 calculated for the same area by the Irish National Radon Survey (N.R.S.). Similar trends are observed on a grid square by grid square basis where in one of them in particular, the C.R.S. allowed us to predict that 21% of all houses would have radon concentrations in excess of 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, against 6% predicted by the N.R.S.. This clearly indicates that the extent of the radon problem in the area has been underestimated by the N.R.S.. Two of the four grid squares investigated are currently designated as High Radon Areas (where 10% or more of all houses are predicted to exceed 200 Bq/m{sup 3}) based on the results from the N.R.S.. If one was to use predictions based on the results from the C.R.S., all four grid

  5. Radon in workplaces and schools in Hungary and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, Csaba; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Reacting upon the increasing concern of possible harmful effects due to radon, more and more countries established, or intend to establish in the near future, legislation for the radon level both for homes and workplaces. The dose due to radon seems to be more complicated to assess for workplaces than for homes, although the basic principles of dose estimation are the same. The doses at workplaces need to be estimated by individual approaches, but such requirement is usually not reflected in the legislations. The present study deals with characteristic situations and refers to findings and considerations in the cases of offices, schools, underground workplaces, and open air working situations with relatively high radon level. It discusses the possible inaccuracies caused by the improper selection of time periods and methods in the measurements of the average radon concentration. The purpose of this paper is to provide some examples (mainly based on the authors' experiences) to show difficulties that might emerge in the determination of average radon concentrations in various workplaces. This will help choose the proper measurement methods for each case and contribute to the regulator's work in the precise and unambiguous legislation phrasing. (author)

  6. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Radon in Schools Related Information Managing Radon in Schools Radon Measurement ... Radon Could Be a Serious Threat to Your School Chances are you've already heard of radon - ...

  7. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  8. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  9. Measurements of indoor radon and radon progeny in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.S.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    Indoor radon has been a public concern associated with increased lung cancer risks. Radon decay products interact with indoor aerosols to form progeny with different size distributions, which may influence the lung dosimetry when the progeny are inhaled. Air pollution in Mexico City is a serious problems with high particulate concentrations, but there are few reports of indoor radon measurement. The purposes of this study were to measure the aerosol concentration, radon concentration, and radon activity size distribution in the living area of three houses in Mexico City. The radon concentration was monitored by a RGM-3 radon gas monitor (Eberline, Inc., Santa Fe, NM). A graded diffusion battery was used to determine the progeny concentration and activity size distribution. The concentration and size distribution of the indoor aerosols were monitored by a quartz, crystal microbalance cascade impactor. Our measurements showed high concentrations of indoor aerosols (20-180 gg m -3 ). However, the radon concentrations-were low ( -1 ), but showed a clear diurnal pattern with peak concentrations from 2-10 AM. The activity size distributions of radon progeny were trimodal, with peaks of 0.6 nm, 4-5 nm, and 100 rim. Most activities were associated with large particle sizes. Our results indicated that indoor radon concentration was not high, due in part to a relatively high air exchange with outdoor air. The high aerosol concentration may also play an important part in the activity size distribution of radon progeny

  10. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Whetstone, Zachary D; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M

    2016-01-01

    Because (222)Rn is a progeny of (238)U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  11. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Whetstone, Zachary D.; Mir, Khwaja M. Rafique

    2016-01-01

    Because 222 Rn is a progeny of 238 U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. (author)

  12. An evaluation of the quantitative effects on radon gas from the modification of a home heating and air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, A.

    1991-01-01

    The quantitative effects associated with the design, construction, operation, environmental and meteorological conditions on radon gas levels in a typical residential dwelling with a basement, having a measured radon level of approximately 20 pico-curies/liter (pCi/L), are evaluated. After several mechanical and electrical modifications are made on the dwelling's heating system, two different furnace breathing modes are studied. The effect on radon levels in the dwelling are observed as the furnace receives all of its combustion, draft and ventilation air - as the experiment alternates, on a bi-weekly basis - from inside and then outside the dwelling. Radon, barometric pressure, outside temperature, relative humidity, wind-speed and direction are monitored continuously; special household activity in the dwelling is also observed. A novel differential air pressure technique is used to measure inside versus outside house air pressure variations, twice each day, resulting from meteorological conditions, dwelling activity, and the furnace breathing mode. A rigorous statistical analysis is employed that includes sequential linear regression of time-series data, trend corrections to remove variations that contribute to the variance in the data without addition useful information. A novel approach using an electrical analog, to screen out unwanted variations is applied, by utilizing a computer routine to simulate the effect of an electronic RC filter, to achieve the desired analytical discrimination

  13. Strategy Guideline. Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. This guide is intended for use by all parties associated in the design and construction of high performance homes. It serves as a starting point and features initial tools and resources for teams to collaborate to continually improve the energy efficiency and durability of new houses.

  14. High radon concentrations in the indoor air in public waterworks. - A report from visits to the waterworks in Ludvika, Fredriksberg, Kolbaeck and Aendesta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.; Hagberg, N.; Mjoenes, L.; Heiberg, A.

    2000-09-01

    High radon concentrations in the indoor air in buildings used for water treatment are not uncommon. When raw water is processed in the waterworks, and the process is made in an open system, radon may escape from the water to the premises. The radon concentration of the raw water does not need to be high to give a radon escape of 2,0-50 Bq/l, which may lead to indoor air radon concentrations in the premises of 10,000 Bq/m3 to more than 50,000 Bq/m3. The waterworks are workplaces for the staff. However, it is not uncommon that other groups of employees have their jobs in the same buildings. Persons that spend long times in waterworks with high radon concentrations in the air may receive radiation doses as high as 20 mSv/a or more, which is the annual average upper limit in a consecutive five-year period for radiation workers. Waters that contain enough radon to release so much radon that it may cause high radon concentrations in the premises are groundwaters from aquifers in the bedrock and in the soil and surface waters, that has been infiltrated through deposits of sand and gravel. Surface waters that have not been infiltrated have very low radon concentrations < 1 Bq/l). This report accounts for experiences from Ludvika, Fredriksberg, Kolbaeck and Aendesta waterworks and results of radon and gamma radiation measurements in these waterworks. The report represents a part of the SSI project Inventory of industries in which radiation from natural radioactive elements is of concern. The aim of this project is to collect information on exposure to natural radiation at workplaces, and is a part in the implementation of the EU Council Directive (96119 Euratom) on Basic Safety Standards (BSS) for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against dangers arising from ionizing radiation

  15. The use of track registration detectors to reconstruct contemporary and historical airborne radon ( sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn) and radon progeny concentrations for a radon-lung cancer epidemiologic study

    CERN Document Server

    Steck, D J

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies that investigate the relationship between radon and lung cancer require accurate estimates for the long-term average concentrations of radon progeny in dwellings. Year-to-year and home-to-home variations of radon in domestic environments pose serious difficulties for reconstructing an individual's long-term radon-related exposure. The use of contemporary radon gas concentrations as a surrogate for radon-related dose introduces additional uncertainty in dose assessment. Studies of glass exposed in radon chambers and in a home show that radon progeny deposited on, and implanted in, glass hold promise for reconstructing past radon concentrations in a variety of atmospheres. We developed an inexpensive track registration detector for the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study (IRLCS) that simultaneously measures contemporary airborne radon concentrations, surface deposited alpha activity density, and implanted sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po activity density. The implanted activity is used to reconstruct the cum...

  16. Preliminary evaluation of 222Rn levels in homes and offices in two different regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.A.; Raja, G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of Rn levels was carried out in homes and offices in Damascus and phosphate mining areas near Palmyra city in Syria. The AEOI radon diffusion dosimeters were used in this study. Electrochemical etching of polycarbonate detectors was used to develop the tracks. A standard source of radon was used for calibration. Radon levels were measured in 98 homes of workers in the phosphate mining areas and 29 homes in the Damascus region. The radon diffusion chambers were placed in offices and laboratories of AEC for about four months in average. The results gave an indication of Rn level in Damascus dwellings in spite of the necessity for further comprehensive studies for the city. The radon levels were high in some offices and laboratories where phosphate analyses are carried out or buildings near phosphate storage areas or near surface phosphate rocks occurrence, in comparison with homes. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Variation of radon concentration in soil with different depth along the high background areas in Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonia, S.R.; Visnu Prasad, A.K.; Jojo, P.J.; Midhun, M.

    2016-01-01

    Radon is one of the naturally occurring radioactive gases in the environment produced from decay of radium isotopes, which are the decay product of 238 U, 232 Th and 235 U. Hence the concentration of uranium and thorium in the bed rock and soil materials determine the amount of radon produced in the soil. The radon produced in the soil migrates through the mechanism of diffusion and convection through pore spaces in the soil, fractures in the rock and along with weak zones such as shear faults, thrust etc. For some geological situations, radon migrates long distances from its place of origin and can be detected by alpha-particle recorders at the earth's surface. Concentration of radon in an area is governed by the radium content in the minerals, radon emanating power in the material, permeability of the soils and underlying rock, and moisture content in the soil

  18. Modeling of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on models for radon, which are developed not only to describe the behavior of radon and daughters since the moment that radon is created in natural sources by the alpha decay of 226 Ra up to the point that doses to humans are estimated based on the inhalation of radon and its progeny. The objective of a model should be determinant in defining the model structure and boundaries. Modeling indoors radon is particularly useful when the 226 Ra concentration in building materials and soils can be known before a house will be built with such 226 Ra bearing materials and over 226 Ra rich soils. The reported concentrations of 226 Ra in building materials range from 0.3 Bq · kg -1 in wood to about 2.6 x 10 3 Bq · kg -1 in aerated concrete based on alum shale. 30 In addition, when a house is built on a soil containing a high 226 Ra concentration, radon exhalation from the soil contributes to increase radon concentration indoors. The reported radon exhalation from soils range from 3.4 Bq · m -2 · s -1 in latosolic soil from Osaka, Japan to about 53 mBq · m -2 · s -1 in chernozemic soil from Illinois

  19. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  20. A hypothetical high level of radon output before a major geophysical event: a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnin, M.; Seidel, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Variation of radon concentration may play the role of a precursor for seisms and volcanic eruptions. This variation depends on the motion of interstitial gases. A numerical model is presented. It describes the steady states of the radon concentration and mainly the transient states between two different steady states. For an up-flow of gases, it predicts the formation of an intense emission of radon over a short period of time, called a 'kludon' [fr

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of public education and incentive programs for controlling radon in the home. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierma, T.J.; Swartzman, D.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness in Illinois of five radon public education and incentive program options. Programs evaluated included (1) no program, (2) a toll-free hotline and information packet, (3) free short-term monitors, (4) free confirmatory monitors, and (5) low-interest loans. Existing literature and expert opinion were used to estimate program costs and public responses under the various programs. Computer simulation, with Monte Carlo sampling, was used for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The cost-effectiveness model was analyzed based on assumed radon exposures to Illinois citizens. Results for standard conditions indicate that budget levels under approximately $30,000 do not warrant a radon education and incentive program. For budget levels of approximately $30,000 to $1 million, Program 2 was most effective, and Program 3 was most effective above this level. Sensitivity analyses indicate the results are relatively insensitive to input variable assumptions with the exception of public-response estimates. Study results suggest that all of the programs evaluated are likely to be relatively ineffective. Considerable improvement may be possible using more innovative approaches to public education

  2. Concentration en radon dans une maison du Calvados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleyter, Lydia; Riffault, Benoit; Mazenc, Bernard

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies indicate a link between the risk of lung cancer and residential radon exposure. However, in France, awareness of this problem was made relatively late. Accordingly this study examines the radon concentration in a private home in Calvados. Findings show that the presence of a fireplace in a house can accelerate radon convective transfer, and that simple adjustments to interior and exterior accommodation can significantly reduce radon concentrations in the home.

  3. A combined analysis of North American case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Zielinski, Jan M; Alavanja, Michael; Catalan, Vanessa S; Field, R William; Klotz, Judith B; Létourneau, Ernest G; Lynch, Charles F; Lyon, Joseph L; Sandler, Dale P; Schoenberg, Janet B; Steck, Daniel J; Stolwijk, Jan A; Weinberg, Clarice; Wilcox, Homer B

    2006-04-01

    Cohort studies have consistently shown underground miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at excess risk of lung cancer, and extrapolations based on those results indicate that residential radon may be responsible for nearly 10-15% of all lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. However, case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer have provided ambiguous evidence of radon lung cancer risks. Regardless, alpha-particle emissions from the short-lived radioactive radon decay products can damage cellular DNA. The possibility that a demonstrated lung carcinogen may be present in large numbers of homes raises a serious public health concern. Thus, a systematic analysis of pooled data from all North American residential radon studies was undertaken to provide a more direct characterization of the public health risk posed by prolonged radon exposure. To evaluate the risk associated with prolonged residential radon exposure, a combined analysis of the primary data from seven large scale case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer risk was conducted. The combined data set included a total of 4081 cases and 5281 controls, representing the largest aggregation of data on residential radon and lung cancer conducted to date. Residential radon concentrations were determined primarily by a-track detectors placed in the living areas of homes of the study subjects in order to obtain an integrated 1-yr average radon concentration in indoor air. Conditional likelihood regression was used to estimate the excess risk of lung cancer due to residential radon exposure, with adjustment for attained age, sex, study, smoking factors, residential mobility, and completeness of radon measurements. Although the main analyses were based on the combined data set as a whole, we also considered subsets of the data considered to have more accurate radon dosimetry. This included a subset of the data involving 3662 cases and 4966 controls with a-track radon

  4. Measurements of radon concentrations in a sample representative of housing in Franche-Comte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aury, K.; Clinard, F.; Tillier, C.; Catelinois, O.; Pirard, P.; Aury, K.; Nourry, L.; Hochart, A.

    2008-01-01

    Three departments on four ones in Franche-Comte are classified at risk for radon: measurements are so compulsory in establishments receiving public. For the residential sector, no obligation of measurement are compulsory when french people spend 70% of their time in it. The data concerning homes are fragmentary and deserve to be completed. This campaign of measurements has confirmed the existence of radon in relatively high concentrations in Franche-Comte, including the sedimentary areas, justifying the necessity to realize a precise evaluation of the sanitary impact. The model will allow to study different strategies to reduce radon in houses. (N.C.)

  5. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  6. Measurement of Radon (222Rn) in the High School of Medicine 'Dr.Ali Sokoli' in Prishtina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadiri, S.; Hodolli, G.; Pllana, X.; Dumani, S.; Hasani, F.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration (222Rn) were performed in the largest High School of Medicine ''Dr. Ali Sokoli'' in Prishtina. We choose four locations (classrooms) at ground level, three at first and three on the second floor. In the same premises, the measurements were performed with two methods: using a scintillation cell and a continuous method. The maximum value of radon concentration, measurements with scintillation cells, were obtained by the ground level moving to (573 ± 26) Bq m -3 , while the minimum value of (176 ± 11) Bq m -3 was obtained in the second floor. The maximum value of radon concentration measurements with the continuous method was 116 Bq m -3 in ground level, and the minimum value was 70 Bq m -3 . Based on these results, we calculated annual effective dose, which ranges between (0.76 ± 0.06) mSv and (2.48 ± 0.11) mSv, by scintillation cells. Whereas, the annual effective dose measuring by continuous method was between 0.30 mSv and 0.50 mSv. Based on those results, we conclude that radon concentration and annual effective doses were within accepted international standards. (author)

  7. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  8. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N.; Stark, A.; Ju, C.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to ''above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210

  9. The radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings

  10. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Gregory, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  11. Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Rasmussen, Sara G; Irving, Jennifer K; Pollak, Jonathan; Locke, Paul A; Schwartz, Brian S

    2015-11-01

    Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Most indoor exposure occurs by diffusion of soil gas. Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. Pennsylvania has high indoor radon concentrations; buildings are often tested during real estate transactions, with results reported to the Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). We evaluated predictors of indoor radon concentrations. Using first-floor and basement indoor radon results reported to the PADEP between 1987 and 2013, we evaluated associations of radon concentrations (natural log transformed) with geology, water source, building characteristics, season, weather, community socioeconomic status, community type, and unconventional natural gas development measures based on drilled and producing wells. Primary analysis included 866,735 first measurements by building, with the large majority from homes. The geologic rock layer on which the building sat was strongly associated with radon concentration (e.g., Axemann Formation, median = 365 Bq/m3, IQR = 167-679 vs. Stockton Formation, median = 93 Bq/m3, IQR = 52-178). In adjusted analysis, buildings using well water had 21% higher concentrations (β = 0.191, 95% CI: 0.184, 0.198). Buildings in cities (vs. townships) had lower concentrations (β = -0.323, 95% CI: -0.333, -0.314). When we included multiple tests per building, concentrations declined with repeated measurements over time. Between 2005 and 2013, 7,469 unconventional wells were drilled in Pennsylvania. Basement radon concentrations fluctuated between 1987 and 2003, but began an upward trend from 2004 to 2012 in all county categories (p Pennsylvania, 1989-2013. Environ Health Perspect 123:1130-1137; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409014.

  12. Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A.; Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; Rasmussen, Sara G.; Irving, Jennifer K.; Pollak, Jonathan; Locke, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer worldwide. Most indoor exposure occurs by diffusion of soil gas. Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. Pennsylvania has high indoor radon concentrations; buildings are often tested during real estate transactions, with results reported to the Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Objectives We evaluated predictors of indoor radon concentrations. Methods Using first-floor and basement indoor radon results reported to the PADEP between 1987 and 2013, we evaluated associations of radon concentrations (natural log transformed) with geology, water source, building characteristics, season, weather, community socioeconomic status, community type, and unconventional natural gas development measures based on drilled and producing wells. Results Primary analysis included 866,735 first measurements by building, with the large majority from homes. The geologic rock layer on which the building sat was strongly associated with radon concentration (e.g., Axemann Formation, median = 365 Bq/m3, IQR = 167–679 vs. Stockton Formation, median = 93 Bq/m3, IQR = 52–178). In adjusted analysis, buildings using well water had 21% higher concentrations (β = 0.191, 95% CI: 0.184, 0.198). Buildings in cities (vs. townships) had lower concentrations (β = –0.323, 95% CI: –0.333, –0.314). When we included multiple tests per building, concentrations declined with repeated measurements over time. Between 2005 and 2013, 7,469 unconventional wells were drilled in Pennsylvania. Basement radon concentrations fluctuated between 1987 and 2003, but began an upward trend from 2004 to 2012 in all county categories (p Pennsylvania, 1989–2013. Environ Health Perspect 123:1130–1137; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409014 PMID:25856050

  13. Radon and remedial action in Spokane River Valley residences: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, B.H.; Prill, R.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Moed, B.A.; Sextro, R.G.

    1986-03-01

    Fifty-six percent of 46 residences monitored in the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington/northern Idaho have indoor radon concentrations above the National Council for Radiation Protection (NCRP) guidelines of 8 pCi/1. Indoor levels were over 20 pCi/1 in eight homes, and ranged up to 132 pCi/1 in one house. Radon concentrations declined by factors of 4 to 38 during summer months. Measurements of soil emanation rates, domestic water supply concentrations, and building material flux rates indicate that diffusion of radon does not significantly contribute to the high concentrations observed. Rather, radon entry is dominated by pressure-driven bulk soil gas transport, aggravated by the local subsurface soil composition and structure. A variety of radon control strategies are being evaluated in 14 of these homes. Sub-surface ventilation by depressurization and overpressurization, basement overpressurization, and crawlspace ventilation are capable of successfully reducing radon levels below 5 pCi/1 in these homes. House ventilation is appropriate in buildings with low-moderate concentrations, while sealing of cracks has been relatively ineffective

  14. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  15. High annual radon concentration in dwellings and natural radioactivity content in nearby soil in some rural areas of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulan Ljiljana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some previous studies on radon concentration in dwellings of some areas of Kosovo and Metohija have revealed a high average radon concentration, even though the detectors were exposed for three months only. In order to better design a larger study in this region, the annual measurements in 25 houses were carried out as a pilot study. For each house, CR-39-based passive devices were exposed in two rooms for the two consecutive six-month periods to account for seasonal variations of radon concentration. Furthermore, in order to correlate the indoor radon with radium in nearby soil and to improve the knowledge of the natural radioactivity in the region, soil samples near each house were collected and 226Ra, 232Th, 40K activity concentration were measured. The indoor radon concentration resulted quite high from the average (163 Bq/m3 and generally it did not differ considerably between the two rooms and the two six-month periods. The natural radionuclides in soil resulted to be distributed quite uniformly. Moreover, the correlation between the226Ra content in soil and radon concentration in dwellings resulted to be low (R2=0.26. The annual effective dose from radon and its short-lived progeny (5.5 mSv, in average was calculated by using the last ICRP dose conversion factors. In comparison, the contribution to the annual effective dose of outdoor gamma exposure from natural radionuclides in soil is nearly negligible (66 mSv. In conclusion, the observed high radon levels are only partially correlated with radium in soil; moreover, a good estimate of the annual average of radon concentration can be obtained from a six-month measurement with a proper choice of exposure period, which could be useful when designing large surveys.

  16. Mitigation of indoor radon using balanced mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellford, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Previous research has shown that, for a given source strength, the concentration of Rn 222 in the home is inversely proportional to the ventilation rate. Further reductions in the concentration of the decay products of radon can be achieved due to the decrease in residence time of the parent gas as well as increased plate-out of the progeny. Natural and mechanical ventilation can affect the distribution of pressure across the building envelope potentially increasing the flow of radon bearing soil gas into the home gas into the home and/or promoting mixing of areas of higher and lower concentration. Balanced heat recovery ventilation systems were installed in ten homes in the Boyertown, Pennsylvania area. Ventilation was restricted initially to the basement area. Five installations were later modified to introduce supply air to upstairs living spaces while continuing to exhaust from the basement. An independent contractor measured Rn 222 concentrations and decay product activity in the basement and first floor living area before and after installation or modification of the heat recovery ventilation system. Additional experiments to evaluate the effect of house tightening techniques and positive pressurization of the basement were conducted. With balanced ventilation of the basement only, the mean reduction in Working Level was 92.8% with a high of 98% and a low of 76%. Mean reduction of radon gas concentration was 79.1%. When modified to supply air upstairs, mean reduction in Working Level in the living area was 90%. House tightening measures to reduce stack effect were observed to reduce radon concentration. Results indicate that balanced ventilation is an effective strategy for radon mitigation and can be expected to achieve recommended levels in a majority of homes. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, A.V.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Zhukovsky, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low. (authors)

  18. An analysis of factors affecting the high radon concentration in different types of houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulan Ljiljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of indoor radon measurements carried out in municipality of Zubin Potok, northwestern part of Kosovo and Metohija. Annual measurements in two rooms of each house were performed by solid state nuclear track detectors commercially known as Gammadata. Average indoor radon concentration in different type of houses varied from 29-326 Bq/m3. A different year of house's construction including various types of building materials were selected for survey. A detail analysis showed that the differences in radon concentration occur between various building materials used for construction, flooring level, type of room and behavior of inhabitants. It was found that building materials in some houses contribute additionally to indoor radon.

  19. Low air exchange rate causes high indoor radon concentration in energy-efficient buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A V; Yarmoshenko, I V; Zhukovsky, M V

    2015-06-01

    Since 1995, requirements on energy-efficient building construction were established in Russian Building Codes. In the course of time, utilisation of such technologies became prevailing, especially in multi-storey building construction. According to the results of radon survey in buildings constructed meeting new requirements on energy efficiency, radon concentration exceeds the average level in early-constructed buildings. Preponderance of the diffusion mechanism of radon entry in modern multi-storey buildings has been experimentally established. The experimental technique of the assessment of ventilation rate in dwellings under real conditions was developed. Based on estimates of average ventilation rate, it was approved that measures to increase energy efficiency lead to reduction in ventilation rate and accumulation of higher radon concentrations indoors. Obtained ventilation rate values have to be considered as extremely low. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Radon dosimetry: a review of radon and radon daughter exposure conditions in dwellings and other structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Poston, J.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1983-07-01

    Within the past few years several situations have been brought to light which indicate an increased radiation exposure of certain segments of the general population caused by human activities. The most widely publicized activities are those associated with the mining and milling of uranium in the western United States, the phosphate industry in Florida, and those potential problems represented by former Manhattan Engineer District sites. One of the primary problems involves exposure to radon and radon daughters which are released from large waste piles or, in some cases, evolve from backfill and construction materials used in homes, schools, and other buildings. This report presents a review of the available data on radon and radon daughter concentrations in dwellings and other structures. The primary objectives were to compile and tabulate pertinent radon exposure data and to prepare a statistical summary of the data which will be useful in the prediction of normal levels of radon and radon daughter concentrations in these structures. In addition, other parameters associated with radon exposure conditions are presented and discussed

  1. Occupational and environmental exposures to radon: A perspective for mitigators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, D.C.; Messing, M.; Saum, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares normal environmental and occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products for the occupational group, including radon mitigators and diagnosticians. Occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products and the associated high incidence of radiation-induced lung cancer form the basis for current concern for limiting exposures to radon. While it is now known that radon is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and estimates exist as to what this means in terms of cancer risk to the general population, similar estimates are not available for radon mitigators and diagnosticians

  2. Radon measurements in air in waterworks and indoor swimming pools - a primary mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinko, J.; Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Swedish Work Environment Authority asked five regional offices around the country; Falun, Malmoe, Vaexjoe, Umeaa and Oerebro, to measure radon in air in workplaces where water was likely to enhance radon levels indoors. Track etch detectors were used and placed in workplaces according to the SSI measurement protocol for determining the annual average radon concentration in homes. Rooms that are frequently used by employees were measured. The detectors were exposed between 1 to 3 months. 225 detectors were used in the project and analysed at the same laboratory. The results showed that the radon concentration in waterworks often is high. Measurements were made in 60 waterworks. Levels exceeding 1000 Bq/m 3 were found in 49 of them and levels exceeding 4000 Bq/m 3 were found in 21 waterworks. The variation between waterworks may be a result of the radon concentration in the raw water, the amount of radon gas escaping to the air when water is treated, the air exchange rate in the building and where the detectors were deployed. Measurements were made in 28 indoor swimming baths. The maximum level was 290 Bq/m 3 , but most concentrations were between 30 to 70 Bq/m 3 . The conclusion is that high radon levels do not seem to be a problem in indoor swimming baths. Maybe this is due to good ventilation or the fact that water often has been treated for radon before it is used in swimming pools. The results from measurement in food industries such as breweries showed no extreme radon levels except for a fish farm where levels over 1000 Bq/m 3 were measured in the farming room and 790 Bq/m 3 in the office. The radon concentrations in laundries were relatively low, between 30 and 170 Bq/m 3

  3. Second report of RADMIL on radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    RADMIL is the radiation and radioactivity monitoring organisation established by the 14 District Councils of Lancashire and the County Council. Annual reports on RADMIL monitoring of the Lancashire environment are produced and this is the second in a series of separate reports on one aspect of monitoring, i.e. 'Radon in homes'. Radon measurements in 283 homes showed an overall mean radon level of 20 Becquerels per cubic metre and few homes above RADMIL's current further investigation level of 75 Becquerels per cubic metre. On the basis of current information, RADMIL does not expect Lancashire to be designated on 'affected area''. (author)

  4. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  5. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  6. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.

    1999-01-01

    -state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, (2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, (3) time-dependent radon exhalation from abuilding-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive......, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  7. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de

  8. How much radon is too much?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the concerns over human exposure to radon have become more pressing. This paper will attempt to explain the phenomenon of radon gas in the home, how it can be detected and measured and what are the maximum permissible exposure levels. The talk is aimed primarily at teachers who wish to introduce this material into their classroom discussions

  9. Nuclear literacy in light of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Cziegler, I.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1992 the RAD Lauder Laboratory has carried out a survey of indoor radon levels all over Hungary. The co-workers of RAD Lauder were pupils and teachers in local schools. More than 50,000 people have taken the survey and received detailed information on the radon levels in their homes. (authors)

  10. Strategy Guideline: Partnering for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.

    2013-01-01

    High performance houses require a high degree of coordination and have significant interdependencies between various systems in order to perform properly, meet customer expectations, and minimize risks for the builder. Responsibility for the key performance attributes is shared across the project team and can be well coordinated through advanced partnering strategies. For high performance homes, traditional partnerships need to be matured to the next level and be expanded to all members of the project team including trades, suppliers, manufacturers, HERS raters, designers, architects, and building officials as appropriate. In an environment where the builder is the only source of communication between trades and consultants and where relationships are, in general, adversarial as opposed to cooperative, the chances of any one building system to fail are greater. Furthermore, it is much harder for the builder to identify and capitalize on synergistic opportunities. Partnering can help bridge the cross-functional aspects of the systems approach and achieve performance-based criteria. Critical success factors for partnering include support from top management, mutual trust, effective and open communication, effective coordination around common goals, team building, appropriate use of an outside facilitator, a partnering charter progress toward common goals, an effective problem-solving process, long-term commitment, continuous improvement, and a positive experience for all involved.

  11. Preliminary evaluation of sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn level in homes and offices in two different regions in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Al-Hushari, M.; Raja, G.

    1996-01-01

    Evaluation of Rn levels was carried out in Homes and offices in Damascus and phosphate mining areas near Palmyra city in Syria. The AEOI radon diffusion dosimeters were used in this study. Electrochemical etching of polycarbonate detectors was used to develop the tracks. A standard source of radon was used for calibration. Radon levels were measured in 98 Homes of workers in the phosphate mining areas and 29 Homes in the Damascus region. The radon diffusion chambers were placed in offices and laboratories of AEC for about four months in average. The results gave an indication of Rn level in Damascus dwellings in spite of the necessity for further comprehensive studies for the city. The radon levels were high in some offices and laboratories where phosphate analyses are carried out or buildings near phosphate storage areas or near surface phosphate rocks occurrence, in comparison with Homes. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  12. An assessment of individual health benefits from a domestic Radon remediation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.; McClatchey, J.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas occurs naturally in the environment and has been shown to cause increased numbers of lung cancers in miners when present at high levels in underground workings. Reviews of the miners' studies suggest that levels found in some homes can give rise to increased lung cancer incidence, and this has been confirmed by recent case control studies in South West England, and Germany. The current scientific consensus, expressed in the BEIR 6. report is that the risk of lung cancer has a linear relation with increasing radon exposure, and that there is no threshold of risk. The distribution of such excessive levels is geographically varied, and many countries have established programmes to identify the homes at risk, and encourage homeowners to remediate to reduce levels. Northamptonshire, in the centre of England, has been declared a radon Affected Area by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and has an average of 6.3 % of homes above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3 . Several studies have suggested that theoretically such programmes can be justified on the basis of health benefits and cost effectiveness. Our group was the first to study actual radon remediation programmes - in Northamptonshire, studying first National Health Service properties, schools, and homes. These studies demonstrated that remediation programmes in Northamptonshire could be justified. The domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, once complete, could be favourably compared to other health initiatives such as the UK mammography screening programme for women aged 50 to 65

  13. A simple bubbling system for measuring radon (222Rn) gas concentrations in water samples based on the high solubility of radon in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, D; Snopek, B; Sayed, A M; Domanski, T

    2004-01-01

    Based on the different levels of solubility of radon gas in organic solvents and water, a bubbling system has been developed to transfer radon gas, dissolving naturally in water samples, to an organic solvent, i.e. olive oil, which is known to be a good solvent of radon gas. The system features the application of a fixed volume of bubbling air by introducing a fixed volume of water into a flask mounted above the system, to displace an identical volume of air from an air cylinder. Thus a gravitational flow of water is provided without the need for pumping. Then, the flushing air (radon-enriched air) is directed through a vial containing olive oil, to achieve deposition of the radon gas by another bubbling process. Following this, the vial (containing olive oil) is measured by direct use of gamma ray spectrometry, without the need of any chemical or physical processing of the samples. Using a standard solution of 226Ra/222Rn, a lowest measurable concentration (LMC) of radon in water samples of 9.4 Bq L(-1) has been achieved (below the maximum contaminant level of 11 Bq L(-1)).

  14. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Jaggs, M.P.R.

    1998-01-01

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m 3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  15. Uncertainties of estimating average radon and radon decay product concentrations in occupied houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronca-Battista, M.; Magno, P.; Windham, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radon and radon decay product measurements made in up to 68 Butte, Montana homes over a period of 18 months were used to estimate the uncertainty in estimating long-term average radon and radon decay product concentrations from a short-term measurement. This analysis was performed in support of the development of radon and radon decay product measurement protocols by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The results of six measurement methods were analyzed: continuous radon and working level monitors, radon progeny integrating sampling units, alpha-track detectors, and grab radon and radon decay product techniques. Uncertainties were found to decrease with increasing sampling time and to be smaller when measurements were conducted during the winter months. In general, radon measurements had a smaller uncertainty than radon decay product measurements. As a result of this analysis, the EPA measurements protocols specify that all measurements be made under closed-house (winter) conditions, and that sampling times of at least a 24 hour period be used when the measurement will be the basis for a decision about remedial action or long-term health risks. 13 references, 3 tables

  16. Radon and lung cancer in Bangalore Metropolitan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, L.A.; Nethravathi, K.S.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas released from the normal decay of 238 U in rocks and soil. It is an invisible, odorless, tasteless gas that seeps up through the ground and diffuses into the air. In a few areas, depending on local geology, radon dissolves into ground water and can be released into the air when the water is used. Radon gas usually exists at very low levels outdoors. However, in areas without adequate ventilation, such as underground mines, radon can accumulate to levels that substantially increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon decays quickly, giving off tiny radioactive particles. When inhaled, these radioactive particles can damage the cells that line the lung. Long-term exposure to radon can lead to lung cancer, the only cancer proven to be associated with inhaling radon. Public interest in radon has been occasionally piqued by articles in the general press. Considerable attention has been given to the high radon levels that were uncovered in the Reading Prong region of Pennsylvania, following the discovery in late 1984 of extremely high levels in one home. Several epidemiological study programmes in different countries are in progress to estimate the population exposures due to natural radiation with a view to obtain the radiation risk coefficients at low dose rate levels. In this regard, radiation surveys in high background areas (HBRAs) can provide excellent settings for epidemiological studies relating to the effects of low doses of radiation. In view of these, a comprehensive estimate of the natural inhalation dose requires both 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in the indoor atmosphere. In this outlook an attempt is made to investigate the 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in dwellings of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. Three year results shows that the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, radon in ground water, the concentrations 222 Rn and 220 Rn and the dose rate (mSvy -1 ) are at alarming levels for the environment of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. The

  17. Indoor radon -- a strategic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Even the average 222 Rn concentration in US homes corresponds to an estimated individual lifetime risk of fatal lung cancer between 0.1% and 1%, depending on whether one smokes or not. Perhaps 50,000 to 100,000 homes have ten times the average or more, implying radiation doses to the occupants at or above the occupational radiation limit. But even this picture has been exaggerated by information provided the public by the EPA and the media, associating with nonsmokers risk estimated for smokers, and -- due to a faulty monitoring protocol -- giving the impression that a large fraction of homes have elevated levels. The result has been a program that focuses in fact on slightly-above-average indoor levels, while having no program for rapidly identifying and assisting those living at genuinely high levels. A sensible and effective strategy, in contrast, would (1) rely on accurate and specific public information, (2) recommend a monitoring protocol yielding the annual-average concentration in living space, the parameter of health significance, (3) constitute a national program to identify systematically and rapidly the areas of the country where the bulk of the high-radon homes occur, (4) build a sensible long-term research and action program associated with lower concentrations. Accomplishing these purposes will require a commitment to careful analysis and planning, involving an effective interaction with the scientific community, that has so far not been demonstrated

  18. THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS RADON DANGER MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Chunikhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is the major contributor to the background exposure of the population. In the world practice, the radon risk or radon potential mapping are used for the radon dose assessment.The aim of this work was a radon danger mapping of the Republic of Belarus to assess the radiation situation and determine the radon hazard critical areas.Materials and methods: The mapping is based on measured values of radon volume activity in the living rooms of different buildings on the territory of the six regions of the Republic of Belarus. We have performed more than 4000 measurements. Integral track radon radiometers based on the polymer Kodak LR-115 film were used to evaluate radon volume activity. Exposure time ranged from 90 to 120 days. The cartogram was built with using the MAPINFO software package.Results: The low levels of radon concentrations were determined in the Brest and Gomel regions, as well as in the southern districts of Minsk and south-western districts of the Mogilev region. The high levels radon concentrations were determined in some districts of the Vitebsk and Grodno regions, as well as in the north-eastern districts of the Mogilev region. About 2–5 times nonuniformity of radon distribution in settlements of the Republic was observed. The radon hazard critical areas with radon concentrations in the range of 200–400 Bq/m3 were found in some districts of the Vitebsk, Grodno and Mogilev regions.Conclusions: The radon risk map of the Republic of Belarus gives the possibility to estimate the existing radiation risk. Taking into account the low efficiency of countermeasures long after the Chernobyl accident, it is necessary to increase the level of radiation protection through the radon mitigation activities or to change the radon normative documents.

  19. Simulation of lifetime radon exposures using observation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, I.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The frequency distribution of lifetime risk of radon-induced lung cancer is a function of the frequency distribution of lifetime radon exposure, which differs from the frequency distribution of radon in homes because of residential mobility. Cumulative personal exposures are averages of a variable number of house radon values, weighted according to duration of occupancy and recency of residence. We simulated a distribution of individual, cumulative Working Level Month (WLM) exposures using observed residence histories from lung cancer cases from Eastern Pennsylvania and (basement) Working Levels (WL) from a survey of Reading Prong, Pennsylvania. The measurements for basement-level houses have a higher skewed distribution, well-approximated by a Gamma distribution with small shape parameter for this high-radon area, where 30% of the houses have basement radon levels that exceed 9 pCi/ell. Using the BEIR IV model and assuming a 50% occupancy factor, we assigned either lifetime residence in a single house or a real residence history at random for women randomly selected from the age distribution of female lung cancer cases. Averaging over houses reduces the exposure of the most highly exposed 5% of the population but increases it for 95%: the upper 25% attains lifetime exposure of ≥ 74 WLM, yielding a relative risk (RR) ≥ 2.1. Ignoring mobility and basing the calculations on the distribution of radon in houses, the corresponding values would be 48.0 WLM and a RR of 1.7. The 50th percentile of the population has an estimated WLM exposure of 34.6 (RR = 1.5); this estimate would be 16.8 (RR = 1.2) if we assume one house per lifetime

  20. Radon Survey in Kalamata (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranios, A.; Kakoulidou, M.; Mavroidi, Ph.; Moschou, M.; Fisher, S.; Burian, I.; Holecek, J.

    2001-01-01

    A national radon survey is still lacking for Greece. Some groups have carried out several more or less local or extended radon surveys and valuable experience has been gained. After the first preliminary survey carried out by our group, where 500 Kodak LR-115 etched track detectors were placed in Greek schools and dwellings for one year, indoor radon measurements were continued by placing the same number of detectors in a restricted area, covering the city of Kalamata (a medium size city with 60,000 inhabitants), situated in the south of Peloponnese. Although Kalamata was not of special radon interest, the local authorities insisted on knowing for their citizens' sake the level of this natural radiation. At first, the intention was to use a different method of organisation and distribution of the etched-track detectors from the previous one, attempting mainly to acquire more reliable results and to collect as many detectors as possible. Secondly, it was of great importance to test the statistics of the indoor radon concentrations for a rather small area, and thirdly, to estimate independently the annual absorbed dose by children, taking into account radon concentrations measured both in their home and at school. The set of detectors' readings (about 370), revealed, in general, lower values for Kalamata, compared to the ones found in the preliminary radon survey in Greece and almost all concentrations were found to be below the NRPB action level (200 Bq.m -3 ) (author)

  1. Men and radon - a noble gas of many disguise - Part I and Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momcilovic, B.; Lykken, G. I.

    2005-01-01

    Radon-induced lung cancer can be traced back to the 16th century miners in Europe, but recently there has been a world wide concern that elevated radon progeny levels in dwellings may also be implicated in lung cancer. Historical and experimental evidence is presented to document how inhaled radon is distributed throughout the body and stored in fats and lipids. Background counts in a steel room using a human whole-body counter (HWBC) progressively decreased throughout the day, which is attributed to a lowering of radon as subjects entered the steel room. The observed increases in potassium-40 (4 0K ) counts in marathon runners was attributed to inhalation of environmental radon, and radon progeny was verified by measuring contributions to the 4 0K photopeak by 2 14B i in cyclists and an untrained subject who exercised in a room with radon-laden air. Effective half-lives and regional 2 14B i emissions were found to be the highest in the areas of the head (brain) and stomach (omentum) when filtered radon-laden air was inhaled. These observations prompted analyses for radon progeny (2 10B i and 2 10P o) from brain tissues of persons who suffered from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases (AD and PD). Protein in AD and lipids in PD were high in these progeny relative to the control tissues. Whole body counts (2 14B i emissions) of subjects over a period of 24 years were analysed for radon body content (Rn-conc). Statistically significant correlations were found between total body fat and Rn-conc in women and between seasonal home radon concentrations and seasonal Rn-conc in subjects participating in community-based studies. It is concluded that environmental radon is indeed stored in the body, that body concentration correlates with body fat in women, and that these reflect seasonal concentrations in their dwellings. Radon decay products include a number of alpha and beta particle emitters. These emissions produce a radiation risk and may play a role in multiple

  2. Nanomaterial Containing Wall Paints Can Increase Radon Concentration in Houses Located in Radon Prone Areas Haghani M.2 , Mortazavi S. M. J.1, 2*, Faghihi R.3, Mehdizadeh S.3, Moradgholi J.4, Darvish L.5, Fathi-Pour E.5, Ansari L.5, Ghanbar-pour M. R.3 1The Center for Radiological Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran 2Department of Med

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghani M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, extensive technological advancements have made it possible to use nanopaints which show exciting properties. In IR Iran excessive radon levels (up to 3700 Bq m–3 have been reported in homes located in radon prone areas. Over the past decades, concerns have been raised about the risk posed by residential radon exposure. Objective: This study aims at investigating the effect of using nanomaterial containing wall paints on radon concentration in homes. Methods: Two wooden model houses were used in this study. Soil samples from Ramsar high background radiation areas were used for simulating the situation of a typical house in radon-prone areas. Conventional water-soluble wall paint was used for painting the walls of the 1st house model; while the 2nd house model was painted with the same wall paint with montmorillonite nanoclay. Results: Three days after sealing the house models, radon level was measured by using a portable radon survey meter. The mean radon level inside the 1st house model (conventional paint was 515.3 ± 17.8 Bq/m3 while the mean radon concentration in the 2nd house model (nano-painted house model was 570.8 ± 18.5 Bq/m3. The difference between these means was statistically signifcant (P<0.001. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the frst investigation on the effect of nano-material containing wall paints on indoor radon concentrations. It can be concluded that nano-material-containing wall paints should not be used in houses with wooden walls located in radon prone areas. Although the mechanism of this effect is not clearly known, decreased porosity in nano-paints might be a key factor in increasing the radon concentration in homes.

  3. Field demonstrations of radon adsorption units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Four radon gas removal units have been installed in homes in the Northeast U.S. These units utilize dynamic adsorption of the radon gas onto activated charcoal to remove the radon from room air. Two beds of charcoal are used so that one bed removes radon while the second bed is regenerated using outdoor air in a unique process. The beds reverse at the end of a predetermined cycle time, providing continuous removal of radon from the room air. The process and units have undergone extensive development work in the laboratory as well as in homes and a summary of this work is discussed. This work showed that the system performs very effectively over a range of operating conditions similar to those found in a home. The field test data that is presented shows that scale up from the laboratory work was without problem and the units are functioning as expected. This unit provides homeowners and mitigation contractors with another option to solve the radon gas problem in homes, particularly in homes that it is difficult to prevent radon from entering

  4. An overview of Ireland's National Radon Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.; Fenton, D.

    2011-01-01

    In Ireland radon is a significant public health issue and is linked to 150-200 lung cancer deaths each year. Irish National Radon Policy aims to reduce individual risk by identifying and remediating buildings with high radon concentrations and also to reduce collective dose through radon prevention as required by revised building regulations. Achievements to date are significant and include the completion of the National Radon Survey, the testing of every school in Ireland, the on-going testing of social housing, collaboration between the public health and radiation protection authorities and the inclusion of radon in inspections of workplaces. However, this work now needs to be drawn together centrally to comprehensively address the radon problem. The RPII and the relevant central governing department, the Dept. of Environment, Heritage and Local Government are currently working to constitute a group of key experts from relevant public authorities to drive the development of a National Radon Control Strategy. (authors)

  5. Radioactivity in the furnace air-cleaning filter from a house with an unusually high level of airborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Essling, M.A.; Urnezis, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    The amounts of the three short-lived daughters of radon on the furnace air-cleaning filter from a house with a high level of radon were estimated to be 8.2, 33, and 38 kBq (0.22, 0.89, and 1.03 μCi) for 218 Po, 214 Pb, and 214 Bi, respectively, at the time of removal from the furnace. These data were used to calculate the airborne concentrations of the three, and the results indicated that about 70% of the daughters were lost to surfaces in the house and by impaction in the air ducts. The filter's content of 210 Pb was found to be 4.4 kBg (0.12 μCi); from this the average concentration of radon-producing filterable daughters during the time the furnace blower operated, was estimated to be 860 Bq m -3 . This indicated that there was no significant loss to surfaces or in air ducts. Possible reasons for the difference are given. The filter was also found to contain 1 kBq (27 nCi) of 212 Bi from the thorium series

  6. Radon dose to the skin and the possible induction of skin cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatough, J.P.; Henshaw, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The radon related alpha particle dose equivalent to the basal layer of the epidermis has been calculated and found to be at least 2 mSv.y -1 , for exposed skin at the UK average radon exposure of 20 Bq.m -3 . A considerably greater dose equivalent may be received at this same radon concentration depending on the plateout conditions. Using standard risk factors 13% of skin cancers would theoretically be attributed to radon at the UK average exposure of 20 Bq.m -3 . Direct studies of skin cancer and radon in the home are needed before the validity of this prediction can be established. There is little evidence from high dose studies suggesting the induction of malignant melanoma by ionising radiation, although some circumstantial evidence exists, and the possibility that radon may be a co-factor with UV light in the induction of malignant melanoma, should not be dismissed. Due to the nature of the radiation risk factors the majority of any skin cancers linked to radon will simultaneously be linked to ultraviolet light exposure. (author)

  7. Risk assessment of radon gas concentration for some selected offices of KNUST campus, Kumasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bediako, Yaw Addo

    2013-11-01

    Radon (Rn-222) has been identified as an factor that could result in a health hazard by studies all around the world. The health risks can be minimised by preventing measures where radon is highly concentrated as in some mines or homes or offices. A study in the buildup concentration of the inert gas, will give us a better understanding of its possible pathways through soil into the air surrounding and offices where radon releases can become hazardous. Measuring the radon concentrations on campus, can help to deduce the radon flux to identify the problem areas for rehabilitation. An active method incorporating Trace level radon gas detection and continious monitoring method was used in this study to determine the radon concentration of the selected offices. Concentrations ranging from 0.010 to 0.498 pCi/I were detected, with the head of optometry and Visual Science recording the highest concentration of 0.498 pCi/I, while the head of Agricultural Engineering Department office with the least concentration of 0.010 pCi/I. Although these concentrations are generally low as compared with the EPA guidelines of an action level of 4 pCi/I, but no amount of radiation is said to be safe. (au)

  8. Expert systems: A new approach to radon mitigation training and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Hanlon, R.L.; Parker, G.B.

    1990-07-01

    Training radon mitigators and ensuring that they provide high-quality work on the scale necessary to reduce radon to acceptable levels in the large number of homes and schools requiring some mitigation is a challenging problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency and several states have made commendable efforts to train mitigators and ensure that they provide quality services to the public. Expert systems could be used to extend and improve the effectiveness of these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the radon community to this promising new technology. The paper includes a description of a prototype system developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory that illustrates several of the capabilities that expert systems can provide, a brief explanation of how the prototype works, and a discussion of the potential roles and benefits of fully-developed expert systems for radon mitigation. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Expert systems: A new approach to radon mitigation training and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambley, M.R.; Hanlon, R.L.; Parker, G.B.

    1990-07-01

    Training radon mitigators and ensuring that they provide high-quality work on the scale necessary to reduce radon to acceptable levels in the large number of homes and schools requiring some mitigation is a challenging problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency and several states have made commendable efforts to train mitigators and ensure that they provide quality services to the public. Expert systems could be used to extend and improve the effectiveness of these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the radon community to this promising new technology. The paper includes a description of a prototype system developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory that illustrates several of the capabilities that expert systems can provide, a brief explanation of how the prototype works, and a discussion of the potential roles and benefits of fully-developed expert systems for radon mitigation. 4 refs., 3 figs

  10. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  11. Rehabilitation of a house with high radon level, using a ground ventilation system with double barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefous, Y.C.; Richon, P.; Arnautou, J.C.; Sabroux, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    A ground ventilation system has been designed and implemented in a town hall in Brittany. Radon concentration in the heating unit room of this building has been reduced from 10000 Bq/m 3 to less than 200 Bq/m 3 by the means of a depressurization system using a 32 W fan, which blows air into a permeable gravel layer intercalated between two radon barrier mylar films. Results show that passive systems should be applicable; for new buildings, very low energy consumption systems with 10 W fans, are easily implemented if designed before construction

  12. A Radon Chamber without Radium Source for Detector Calibration and Radon Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, D.; Karunakara, N.

    2008-01-01

    A radon chamber of volume 216 liters was designed and constructed for calibration of radon detectors and radon test measurements. The main feature of this chamber is that the active 226 Ra source, to generate the 222 Rn inside the chamber volume, is not required. Instead, 222 Rn from soil gas is utilized for this purpose. The supply of radon comes from the soil gas. Soil gas is drawn from the soil to fill the chamber with high radon concentration levels (∼ 80 kBq/m3). Desired radon concentration levels can be obtained by drawing the soil gas for different time durations and/or flow rate (author)

  13. Indoor radon level measurements in Iran using AEOI passive dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Solaymanian, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A passive radon diffusion dosimeter was developed at the RPD of AEOI for nationwide indoor radon level measurements. Several parameters of the dosimeter were studied. Radon levels were determined in about 250 houses in Ramsar (a high natural radiation area), Tehran, Babolsar and Gonabad. In this paper, the results of some dosimeter parameters as well as radon levels in indoor air are reported

  14. Radon reduction in wood foundation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, an issue of growing concern to the building industry. Silently, invisibly, it invades existing structures as it will future foundation structures. This paper addresses the nature and causes of radon, and cost-effective prevention and retrofit techniques used for wood foundation systems. Radon also can enter homes with foundations that use the under-floor as an air distribution system. These building practices will be shown; even materials used in construction may release radon, for example, this may be a problem in a house that has a solar heating system in which its heat is stored in large beds of stone. Stone is most often used in wood foundation construction. The common radon entry points will be looked at, and the latest prevention techniques will be illustrated, such as natural and forced ventilation, sealing major radon sources and entry routes, and sub-slab and sump crock ventilations

  15. Radon problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the health hazards resulting from the release of naturally occurring radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium. It is estimated that random inhalation is now causing about 10,000 fatal lung cancers per year in the US. Radon is constantly being generated in rocks and soils (in which uranium is naturally present) and in materials produced from them (e.g., brick, stone, cement, plaster). It is emphasized that radon levels in buildings are typically 5 times higher than outdoors because radon diffusing up from the ground below or out of bricks, stone, cement, or plaster is trapped inside for a relatively long time

  16. Radon and aldehyde concentrations in the indoor environment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschandreas, D.J.; Rector, H.E.

    1981-04-01

    Findings regarding indoor air contaminants in the energy-efficient residence (EER) in Mt. Airy, Maryland are reported. The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze relevant air quality samples (specifically radon and aldehydes), characterize the indoor air quality with respect to radon and aldehydes, and develop relationships between air infiltration rates and contaminant levels. One-fifth of the measured formaldehyde concentrations were in the range that may cause health concerns. Although indoor temperature and relative humidity affect indoor HCHO concentration, the elevated formaldehyde concentrations were measured under very low air infiltration rates. The data show that ventilation of the indoor air space is somewhat effective in reducing high HCHO concentrations. The operation of the heat exchanger led to an increase of the air infiltration rate which in turn resulted in substantial reduction of formaldehyde concentrations. A considerable number of the collected samples of indoor air displayed radon concentrations at levels higher than 1.0 to 4.0 nCim -3 (assuming an equilibrium factor of 0.5, these radon levels would correspond to working levels above the health guidelines suggested by the US EPA for homes in Florida built on land reclaimed from phosphate mining). As in the case of indoor formaldehyde concentrations, elevated indoor concentrations are substantially reduced when the infiltration rate is increased. The data base shows that the use of the air to air heat exchanger leads to reduction of indoor radon concentration by increasing the residential ventilation rate

  17. Radon and radon daughters in South African underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and the radon daughters are the radionuclides which primarily determine the level of the radiation hazard in underground uranium mines and to a smaller extent in non-uranium mines. Radon is a gas, and its daughters adsorb on aerosol particles which are of respirable size. The hazard thus arises from the alpha decay of radon and its daughters in contact with lung tissue. Radon is itself part of the uranium decay chain. The major radionuclide, 238 U, decays successively through thirteen shorter-lived radionuclides to 206 Pb. Radon is the only gaseous decay product at room temperature; the other twelve are solids. The main hazard presented by the uranium decay chain is normally determined by the radon concentration because gaseous transport can bring alpha emitters close to sensitive tissue. There is no such transport route for the other alpha emitters, and the level of beta and gamma radiation caused by the uranium decay chain generally presents a far lower external radiation hazard. Radon itself is the heaviest of the noble gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Its chemical reactions are of no concern in regard to its potential hazard in mines as it may be considered inert. It does, however, have a solubility ten times higher than oxygen in water, and this can play a significant part in assisting the movement of the gas from the rock into airways. Radon continuously emanates into mine workings from uranium ores and from the uranium present at low concentrations in practically any rock. It has been found that the control of the exposure level is most effectively achieved by sound ventilation practices. In South African mines the standard of ventilation is generally high and exposure to radon and radon daughters is at acceptably low levels

  18. Mitigation of radon and thoron decay products by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Meisenberg, Oliver; Chen Yongheng; Karg, Erwin; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) decay products is the most important source of exposure to ionizing radiation for the human respiratory tract. Decreasing ventilation rates due to energy saving reasons in new buildings suggest additional active mitigation techniques to reduce the exposure in homes with high radon and thoron concentrations but poor ventilation. Filtration techniques with HEPA filters and simple surgical mask material have been tested for their potential to reduce the indoor exposure in terms of the total effective dose for mixed radon and thoron indoor atmospheres. The tests were performed inside an experimental room providing stable conditions. Filtration (at filtration rates of 0.2 h -1 and larger) removes attached radon and thoron decay products effectively but indoor aerosol as well. Therefore the concentration of unattached decay products (which have a higher dose coefficient) may increase. The decrease of the attached decay product concentrations could be theoretically described by a slowly decreasing exponential process. For attached radon decay products, it exhibited a faster but weaker removal process compared to attached thoron decay products (- 70% for attached radon decay products and - 80% for attached thoron decay products at a filtration rate of 0.5 h -1 with an HEPA filter). The concentration of unattached thoron decay products increased distinctly during the filtration process (+ 300%) while that of unattached radon decay products rose only slightly though at a much higher level (+ 17%). In the theoretical description these observed differences could be attributed to the different half-lives of the nuclides. Considering both effects, reduced attached and increased unattached decay product concentrations, filtration could significantly decrease the total effective dose from thoron whereas the overall effect on radon dose is small. A permanent filtration is recommended because of the slow decrease of the

  19. High output stomas: ensuring safe discharge from hospital to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa

    High-output stomas are a challenge for the patient and all health professionals involved. This article discusses safe discharge home for this patient group, encouraging collaborative working practices between acute care trust and the community services. The authors also discuss the management of a high-output stoma and preparation and education of the patient before discharge home.

  20. How well do radon mitigation strategies work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matson, N.

    1992-01-01

    Naturally occurring radon in homes can't be completely avoided, but it can be minimized. Indoor air quality researchers compared results of six popular ways to mitigate radon in houses in the Spokane River Valley and New Jersey. Over the course of the past decade, Americans have become aware of the health hazards from radon, a naturally occurring gas that can enter a home through a variety of pathways from the surrounding terrain. Recent research carried out at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and elsewhere suggests that radon mitigation is feasible but requires long-term monitoring to ensure lasting effectiveness. These studies compare the selection, installation, and performance evaluations of several common radon mitigation strategies

  1. Development and distribution of radon risk maps in New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, M.E.; Kunz, C.O.; New York State Univ., Albany, NY; Green, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon maps for each county in New York State have been developed on the township level indicating the percent of homes with ≥ 148 Bq/m 3 (4 pCi/l) in the indoor air of the basement and living area. Estimates are based on a combination of nearly 45,000 basement-screening measurements and correlations to surficial geology. Many of the towns and cities in the State with the highest average indoor radon concentrations are located on highly-permeable gravelly soils formed during the retreat of the Wisconsinan Glaciation. As many towns (32% of total) had ≤ 5 measurements, a project to obtain additional measurements in high-risk towns produced results comparable to estimates based on correlations to surficial geology. Radon risk maps for each county have been distributed to municipal governments, schools, and professionals in activities related to homes, buildings, and indoor air quality. (author)

  2. A perspective on risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D. J.

    2010-10-01

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m -3 . The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m -3 . A risk coefficient of 8 x 10 -10 per Bq h m -3 is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures: 1) The estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. 2) The estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m -3 . Evidence available from other countries shows that: 1) The effects of radon in the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at levels less then about 50-100 Bq m -3 . 2) The estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m -3 depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels. 3) Risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. Its concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon. (Author)

  3. A perspective on risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the ICRP has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m -3 . The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m -3 . A risk coefficient of 8x10 -10 per Bq h m is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures,the estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. Also the estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m -3 . Evidence available from other countries shows that: effects on the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at radon levels below 100 Bq m -3 ; the estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m -3 depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels, and risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. It is concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon.

  4. A perspective on risks from radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, D. J., E-mail: higsond@bigpond.net.a [Australasian Radiation Protection Society, PO Box 7108, Upper Ferntree Gully, Victoria 3156 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    In its Statement on Radon (November 2009), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has reduced the upper reference level for radon gas in dwellings to 300 Bq m{sup -3}. The recommended level for workplaces is 1000 Bq m{sup -3}. A risk coefficient of 8 x 10{sup -10} per Bq h m{sup -3} is recommended without reference to smoking habits. On the basis of these figures: 1) The estimated risk of fatal cancer from exposure to radon at home and at work could be greater than the observed risk of accidental death from travelling by car, which would be surprising if true. 2) The estimated risk of lung cancer from radon could be greater than the observed risk of lung cancer from all causes, which is actually known to be dominated by smoking. The author is not aware of any direct evidence of risks from inhaling radon in Australian dwellings, 99% of which have radon levels below 50 Bq m{sup -3}. Evidence available from other countries shows that: 1) The effects of radon in the incidences of lung cancer are uncertain at levels less then about 50-100 Bq m{sup -3}. 2) The estimation of risks at levels below 200 Bq m{sup -3} depends on extrapolation from risks observed at higher levels. 3) Risks to non-smokers from radon are 25 times less than risks to smokers. Its concluded that the ICRP Statement on Radon and radon policies in the US and UK have the potential to cause unwarranted concern. Some people may be made to feel they need to spend money modifying their homes and workplaces to protect occupants from exposure to radon when there is no compelling reason to show that this is necessary. The vast majority of non-smokers do not need to be protected from radon. (Author)

  5. Radon classification of building ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Laboratories of Building Technology and Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology in cooperation with The Ministry of the Environment have proposed a radon classification for building ground. The proposed classification is based on the radon concentration in soil pores and on the permeability of the foundation soil. The classification includes four radon classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Depending on the radon class the radon-technical solution for structures is chosen. It is proposed that the classification be done in general terms in connection with the site investigations for the planning of land use and in more detail in connection with the site investigations for an individual house. (author)

  6. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  7. Certain problems about radon. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huishan

    2005-01-01

    Discussion has been made on certain pointed out problems which presently influence the work and development of radon survey, and certain specific problems have been put forward which should be paid much attention and taken measures. Among the problems, some come from cognition, i.e. two kinds of balance and examination about radon, chief culprit of radon's daughter, multiply control and migration, the significance of radon in the water and soil, important standards for designing and evaluating the sites of construction projects, thoughts on the mechanism of the harm of radon and its daughters, diseases causing of both high and low radon, difficulty of emanation of indoor radon, normal low radon from natural marble; and others must be resolved specifically, i.e. establishment of national radon standards as quickly as possible, improvement of on-the-spot examination technique, national-wide radon survey with multiple disciplines and technology, the research on the mechanism of radon's harm and the establishment national radon study center. (authors)

  8. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes: Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) Teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  9. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes. Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  10. Proceedings of the 4th European conference on protection against radon at home and at work. Conference programme and session presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The conference was divided into 6 sections as follows (the numbers of PDF files included in the CD-ROM are given in parentheses): 1. Radon measurement in dwellings (7); 2. Radon measurement at workplaces (14); 3. Methods of measurement and devices (16); 4. Remedial measures and techniques (5); 5. Preventive measures and techniques (10); and 6. National radon programmes (6). In addition, the CD-ROM contains 3, 11, 9, 5, 6, and 6 PowerPoint presentations shown in the six sections, respectively, plus a total of 93 abstracts, mostly of posters. (P.A.)

  11. Radon measurements in indoor workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Furukawa, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujitaka, K.; Pan, J.; Kurosawa, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radon measurements in several office buildings located in Tokyo were carried out with two types of device to study the time-dependent radon concentration in indoor workplaces. Both types of device use the electrostatic field for the collection of 218 Po onto the electrode of the detector. One provides an average radon concentration throughout the day. The other, in which a weekly timer is installed in the circuit of the electrode of the device, provides an average radon concentration during working hours (9:00-17:00, Monday-Friday). Although radon concentrations in Japanese dwellings have been found to be generally low, relatively high concentrations were observed in the office buildings. No consistent seasonal variation was recognised in this study. Little difference of average radon concentrations between working hours and the whole day was found throughout the year in two offices. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in other offices. The operation of an air conditioner might change the radon concentration during working hours. From the results of radon measurements the average effective dose in the workplace was estimated to be 0.23 mSv for 2000 working hours in a year. (Author)

  12. Airborne geophysical radon hazard mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.

    1993-01-01

    Shales containing uranium pose a radon health hazard even when covered by several meters of overburden. Such an alum shale in southern Norway has been mapped with a joint helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM) and radiometric survey. Results are compared with ground spectrometer, radon emanometer and radon gas measurements in dwellings, and a model to predict radon gas concentrations from the airborne data is developed. Since the shale is conductive, combining the HEM data with the radiometric channel allows the shale to be mapped with greater reliability than if the radiometric channel were used alone. Radiometrically more active areas which do not pose a radon gas hazard can thus be separated from the shales which do. The ground follow-up work consisted of spectrometer and radon emanometer measurements over a uranium anomaly coinciding with a conductor. The correlation between the airborne uranium channel, the ground uranium channel and emanometry is extremely good, indicating that airborne geophysics can, in this case, be used to predict areas having a high radon potential. Contingency tables comparing both radon exhalation and concentration in dwellings with the airborne uranium data show a strong relationship exists between exhalation and the airborne data and while a relationship between concentration and the airborne data is present, but weaker

  13. Measurements of radon concentrations in dwelling houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, W.; Klink, T.

    1993-01-01

    Radon and its daughter products gain in importance in health protection and radiation safety. Especially in the southern region of Saxony radon concentrations in dwellings may be high by former silver and uranium mines. We found radon contents of about 20.000 Bq/m 3 in dwellings. To redevelop such houses it is necessary to know intrude path of radon. In present work we studied different measuring systems, active and passive detectors, short and long term integrating devices. By means of investigation of radon sources several redeveloping methods are rates as well from radiological as from civil engineering point of view. (author)

  14. Radon measurements in hispaniola dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Colgan, P.A.; Cancio, D.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a national radon survey and a number of regional surveys of radon in spanish dwelling are reviewed. The best estimate of the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations is 41.1. Bq/m -3 and single-family dwellings have been shown to be more at risk than apartments. Results need to be interpreted with some caution due to differences in survey methodologies and measurement procedures. The risks from radon exposure are put in perspective by comparison with other voluntary risks. Finally, although a number of 'high risk' areas have already been identified, it is concluded that implementation of a national programme to reduce radon exposure may await a better definition of the problem extent. (authors). 20 refs., 1 tab

  15. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables

  17. Is environmental radon gas associated with the incidence of neurodegenerative conditions? A retrospective study of multiple sclerosis in radon affected areas in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.; Denman, Antony R.; Campbell, Jackie; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Phillips, Paul S.; Rogers, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    To test whether an association exists between radon gas concentration in the home and increased multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence, a retrospective study was undertaken of MS incidence in known areas of raised domestic radon concentration in England and Wales, using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) clinical research database. The study population comprised 20,140,498 person-years of clinical monitoring (males: 10,056,628: 49.93%; females: 10,083,870: 50.07%), representing a mean annual population of 2.5 million individuals. To allow for the possible latency of MS initiation following exposure, data extraction was limited to patients with at least five years registration history with the same GP practice before first diagnosis. Patient records were allocated to one of nine radon concentration bands depending on the average radon level in their postcode sector. MS incidence was analysed by searching for patients with first MS diagnosis over the eight calendar years 2005–2012 inclusive. 1512 new MS cases were diagnosed, 1070 females, 442 males, equivalent to raw incidence rates of 7.51, 10.61 and 4.40 per 10 5 person-years respectively, comparable to previously reported results. Of these new cases, 115 could be allocated to one of the radon bands representing high radon areas. Standardising to the UK 2010 population, excess relative risk (ERR) figures for MS were calculated for each radon band. Linear regression of ERR against mean band radon concentration shows a positive gradient of 0.22 per 100 Bq·m −3 (R 2  = 0.25, p = 0.0961) when forced through the origin to represent a linear-no-threshold response. The null hypothesis falls inside the 95% confidence interval for the linear fit and therefore this fit is not statistically significant. We conclude that, despite THIN sampling around 5% of the population, insufficient data was available to confirm or refute the hypothesised association between MS incidence and radon concentration. - Highlights:

  18. Application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jarad, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    The application of nuclear track detectors for radon related measurements is discussed. The ''Can Technique'', used for measuring radon emanation from building materials, walls and soil; the ''Working Level Monitor'', used for measuring short period working levels of radon daughters in houses; and ''Passive Radon Dosimeters'', used to measure radon levels in houses for long term (few months) periods are described. Application of nuclear track detectors for measuring the radon daughters plate-out on the surface of mixing fan blades and walls are discussed. The uranium content of some wall papers was found to be 6 ppm. The variation of radon progeny concentration in the same room was measured and supported by another study through Gas Chromatograph measurements. The independence of radon concentration on room level in high-rise buildings was established. The effect of sub-floor radon emanation on radon concentration in houses is dependent on whether there is sub-floor ventilation or not. (author)

  19. Fluid-based radon mitigation technology development for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.V.; Gabor, J.D.; Holtz, R.E.; Gross, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the radon mitigation technology development effort is to develop an efficient and economical radon gas removal technology based on a fluid absorption process. The technology must be capable of cleaning up a wide range of radon gas stream concentrations to a level that meets EPA gas emission standards for residential and industrial applications. Argonne has recently identified a phenomenon that offers the possibility of radon recovery from the atmosphere with high efficiency at room temperature, and radon release at slightly elevated temperatures (50-60 degrees C.) such a device would offer numerous substantial advantages over conventional cryogenic charcoal systems for the removal of radon. Controlled sources of radon in Argonne's radon research facility are being used to quantitatively assess the performance of a selected class of absorbing fluids over a range of radon concentrations. This paper will discuss the design of laboratory- and engineering-scale radon absorption units and present some preliminary experimental test results

  20. Characterizing the source of radon indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1983-09-01

    Average indoor radon concentrations range over more than two orders of magnitude, largely because of variability in the rate at which radon enters from building materials, soil, and water supplies. Determining the indoor source magnitude requires knowledge of the generation of radon in source materials, its movement within materials by diffusion and convection, and the means of its entry into buildings. This paper reviews the state of understanding of indoor radon sources and transport. Our understanding of generation rates in and movement through building materials is relatively complete and indicates that, except for materials with unusually high radionuclide contents, these sources can account for observed indoor radon concentrations only at the low end of the range observed. Our understanding of how radon enters buildings from surrounding soil is poorer, however recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that soil may be the predominant source in many cases where the indoor radon concentration is high. 73 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  1. Indoor air radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references

  2. Variation of radon levels in U.S. homes correlated with house characteristics, location, and socio-economic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    Data are analyzed on measurements of Rn levels in numerous U.S. homes, accompanied by responses to questionnaires. Substantial (but far from complete) bias reduction was accomplished using questionnaire responses, leaving 37,000 measurements in living areas and 33,000 in basements for the analysis. Variables studied included: level with respect to ground where measurement was made, room type, age of house, recent weatherization actions, draftiness, location (urban, suburban, rural), air pollution, market value of house, annual household income, educational attainment of head of household, cigarette smoking, whether the house is rented or owner occupied, and geographic section of U.S. Geometric mean Rn levels were determined for each response to questionnaire items (correlations) and for each pair of responses (cross correlations). Many interesting correlations and cross correlations were found, and their explanation and consequences are discussed

  3. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  4. Surveying dwellings with high indoor radon levels: a BRE guide to remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is aimed specifically at builders, surveyors and building specialists surveying for and prescribing remedial measures for dwellings. It supplements guidance available in The householders' guide to radon obtainable from local environmental health officers or from the Department of the Environment. The report has been prepared on the basis of experience gained in remedial work on more than 100 dwellings following advice given by BRE, and of discussions with others in the field, notably the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council. Work is continuing, particularly dealing with suspended timber floors, basements and ventilation systems. Results will be incorporated into revisions of this report as they become available. (Author)

  5. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracin, D.; Csige, I.; Graaf, E.R. van der; Jiranek, M.; Rehs, B.; Svoboda, Z.; Toro, L.

    1999-04-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to more fundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain that results obtained with these models are of good quality, it is necessary that such models are tested. This document reports on a benchmark test organized by the EU project ERRICCA: European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action. The test comprises the following cases: 1) Steady-state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, 2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, 3) time-dependent radon exhalation from a building-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive transport of radon, flux calculations, and partitioning of radon between air and water in soil pores. Seven groups participated in the intercomparison. All groups submitted results without knowing the results of others. For these results, relatively large group-to-group discrepancies were observed. Because of this, all groups scrutinized their computations (once more) and engaged in follow-up discussions with others. During this debugging process, problems were indeed identified (and eliminated). The accordingly revised results were in better agreement than those reported initially. Some discrepancies, however, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommended that additional exercises are carried out. (au)

  6. Radon monitoring technique with electret collecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zhiheng; Zuo Fuqi; Xiao Detao; Zhao Xkiuliang

    1991-12-01

    The integrating radon monitoring technique with electret collecting is a method which collects the 218 Po + positive ions by electrostatic field produced by electret. It has greatly improved the sensitivity of radon measurement. The response factor of this method reaches to 4.7 cm -2 Bq -1 m 3 h -1 , 1000 times larger than that of common passive sampling method. The monitoring device and its principle are introduced. The measuring results of radon concentration and radon flux rate and quality assurance system by using this method in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, Human Environmental Monitoring Central Station and some uranium mines are also presented. The analytical results show that the radon concentration in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant is affected by wind direction. When wind directs toward sea, the radon concentration is high. If the wind is to the contrary, it is low. The radon concentration ratio of both is about 2

  7. Membrane barriers for radon gas flow restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Research was performed to assess the feasibility of barrier membrane substances, for use within mining or associated high risk environments, in restricting the diffusion transport of radon gas quantities. Specific tests were conducted to determine permeability parameters of a variety of membrane materials with reference to radon flow capabilities. Tests were conducted both within laboratory and in-situ emanation environments where concentrations and diffusion flows of radon gas were known to exist. Equilibrium radon gas concentrations were monitored in initially radon-free chambers adjacent to gas sources, but separated by specified membrane substances. Membrane barrier effectiveness was demonstrated to result in reduced emanation concentrations of radon gas within the sampling chamber atmosphere. Minimum gas concentrations were evidenced where the barrier membrane material was shown to exhibit lowest radon permeability characteristics

  8. Radon in drinking water in Co. Wicklow. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Sequeira, S.; McKittrick, L.; Colgan, P.A.

    2003-02-01

    Attention has been focused on the issue of radon in drinking water by a European Commission recommendation proposing that surveys should be undertaken in Member States to determine the scale and nature of exposures caused by radon in domestic drinking water supplies. The Commission recommends 1000 Bq/l as the radon activity concentration in private drinking water supplies above which remedial action to reduce the concentration should be taken. The logic behind the proposed action level is that it would broadly correspond to the risk posed to an individual from exposure to radon in the home at the current Reference Level of 200 Bq/m3 in air. A pilot study to assess the distribution and concentrations of radon in private ground water supplies was recently completed in Co. Wicklow. County Wicklow was selected for the study primarily on the basis that the underlying geology is predominantly granite with elevated uranium content. Furthermore, there is an estimated 1200 to 5000 private ground water supplies in use in the county and high radon activity concentrations in air in a significant number of dwellings have previously been predicted. As part of the pilot study, a number of scientific issues were addressed in order to underpin the results obtained and these are also discussed in the report. Radon activity concentrations were measured in the private ground water supplies of 166 houses in Co. Wicklow. In all cases the ground water was the principal source of drinking water for the house occupants. Four supplies had activity concentrations in excess of the Recommended EC action level of 1000 Bq/l, fifteen had activity concentrations between 500 and 1000 Bq/l, 51 were between 100 and 500 Bq/l and 96 had activity concentrations below 100 Bq/l. The doses estimated for the ingestion of radon bearing water vary significantly with the quantity of drinking water consumed and the degree to which the water has been processed prior to consumption. However dose estimates based

  9. Radon in drinking water in Co. Wicklow. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Sequeira, S.; McKittrick, L.; Colgan, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    Attention has been focused on the issue of radon in drinking water by a European Commission recommendation proposing that surveys should be undertaken in Member States to determine the scale and nature of exposures caused by radon in domestic drinking water supplies. The Commission recommends 1000 Bq/l as the radon activity concentration in private drinking water supplies above which remedial action to reduce the concentration should be taken. The logic behind the proposed action level is that it would broadly correspond to the risk posed to an individual from exposure to radon in the home at the current Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 in air. A pilot study to assess the distribution and concentrations of radon in private ground water supplies was recently completed in Co. Wicklow. County Wicklow was selected for the study primarily on the basis that the underlying geology is predominantly granite with elevated uranium content. Furthermore, there is an estimated 1200 to 5000 private ground water supplies in use in the county and high radon activity concentrations in air in a significant number of dwellings have previously been predicted. As part of the pilot study, a number of scientific issues were addressed in order to underpin the results obtained and these are also discussed in the report. Radon activity concentrations were measured in the private ground water supplies of 166 houses in Co. Wicklow. In all cases the ground water was the principal source of drinking water for the house occupants. Four supplies had activity concentrations in excess of the Recommended EC action level of 1000 Bq/l, fifteen had activity concentrations between 500 and 1000 Bq/l, 51 were between 100 and 500 Bq/l and 96 had activity concentrations below 100 Bq/l. The doses estimated for the ingestion of radon bearing water varies significantly with the quantity of drinking water consumed and the degree to which the water has been processed prior to consumption. However dose estimates

  10. Project radon final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.; Rossby, U.

    1990-01-01

    The main radiation problem in Sweden is due to radon in dwellings. At the Swedish State Power Board, R, D and D about radon has been going on since 1980. The work has concentrated on the important questions: How to find building with enhanced radon levels?; How to accurately decide on measures that will give adequate cleaning-up results, using appropriate measurement procedures; What cleaning-up effect is possible to achieve with an electro-filter?; and What cleaning-up effects are possible to achieve with different types of ventilation systems? The R, D and D-work, has been pursued in cooperation with universities of technology in Denmark and Finland, equipment manufacturers, consultants and authorities concerned. It was decided in December 1986 to give an offer to some SSPB-employees to investigate the radon situation of their dwellings, in order to test methods of measurement and cleaning-up under realistic conditions and to develop the methods to commercial maturity. The investigation was named 'Project Radon' and was carried out in three years with costs amounting to 1 M dollars. During the project less comprehensive radon measurements, named 'trace-measurements' were undertaken in about 1300 dwellings and more elaborate measurements, leading to suggestions of actions to be taken, in about 400 dwellings. Out of the suggestions, about 50 are carried out including control measurement after actions taken. The control measurement have shown that the ability to suggest appropriate actions is very successful - in just one case was a minor additional action necessary. The high reliability is achieved by always doing elaborate measurements before suggested mitigation method is decided on. (authors)

  11. The US radon problem, policy, program and industry: achievements, challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    US radon research, policy and programs have stalled since their start in the late 1980's and early 1990's. In 2005, more homes had radon above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Reference Level than anytime in history since more homes were added to the housing stock that had indoor radon concentrations exceeding 150 Bq m -3 than had been mitigated. Funding for the US radon program has declined two-thirds from 1997 to 2007. Despite impressive goals for radon reduction, EPA lacks sound progress indicators especially in new construction radon control systems. School radon reduction has been at a standstill since the early 1990's. There has been no significant radon risk reduction in low-income sectors of the population. There is need for effective partnerships between the public and private sectors of the US radon professional communities as well as with the international programs and professionals. (authors)

  12. A study of radon levels in NHS premises in affected areas around the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Lewis, G.T.R.; Brennen, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas contributes a significant fraction of the natural background radiation dose, and in some areas raised levels are found in buildings, both homes and the workplace. Different UK Action Levels apply to homes and the workplace, because of the diurnal variation of radon. This study reviews the results for a number of hospitals throughout England and Wales, and suggests that the likelihood of finding raised radon levels is similar in the workplace and homes in the same area. Radon measurements and consequent remediation of any raised levels are appropriate in all workplaces in radon Affected Areas with over 5% of houses above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3

  13. Measurement of exhalation rate of radon and radon concentration in air using open vial method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    It was recognized that more than half of total exposure dose on human subject is caused by radon and its decay products which originate from naturally occurring radioactive substances (1988 UNSCEAR). Since then the exhalation of radon from the ground surface has received increasing attention. The authors have developed a new method for the determination of radon in natural water using toluene extraction of radon and applying a liquid scintillation counter of an integral counting technique which is able to get the absolute counting of radon. During these studies, the authors found out that when a counting vial containing of Liquid scintillator (LS)-toluene solution, without a lid, is exposed to the atmosphere for a while, dissolution of radon clearly occurs due to high solubility of radon into toluene layer. To extend this finding for the determination of radon in the atmosphere, the authors devised a new method to actively collect the atmosphere containing radon in a glass bottle by discharging a definite amount of water in it, which is named as open-vial dynamic method. The radon concentration can be easily calculated after the necessary corrections such as the partition coefficient and others. Applying proposed method to measure the radon exhalation rate from the ground surface and radon concentration in air of the dwelling environment, radioactive mineral spring zone and various geological formation such as granitic or sedimentary rocks. (author)

  14. Radon in houses and soil of Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Miklavcic, I.; Planinic, J. [Osijek Univ., Dept. of Physics (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements in thousand Croatian homes, randomly selected, were performed by the LR-115 track etch detectors during a year 2003/2004. The obtained values of arithmetic means of radon concentrations in 20 Croatian counties were in range from 33 to 198 Bq/m{sup 3}, while the arithmetic and geometric means for Croatia were 68 and 50 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively. Indoor radon concentrations follow log-normal distribution and the percentage of dwellings with concentrations above 400 Bq/m{sup 3} was 1.8 %. Radon concentrations in soil gas, at depth of 0.8 m, were measured by 'Alphaguard' measuring system. Association between levels of indoor and soil radon was investigated. (authors)

  15. Radon risk in the house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values [it

  16. Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, J D; Doyle, E; Fenton, D; Organo, C

    2011-06-01

    The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km × 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland is evaluated in this study. Airborne data are compared statistically with in-house radon measurements in conjunction with geological and ground permeability data to establish linear regression models and produce radon potential maps. The best agreement between the percentage of dwellings exceeding the reference level (RL) for radon concentrations in Ireland (% > RL), estimated from indoor radon data, and modelled RP in the Tralee-Castleisland area is produced using models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry equivalent uranium (eU) and ground permeability data. Good agreement was obtained between the % > RL from indoor radon data and RP estimated from eU data in the Cavan area using terrain specific models. In both areas, RP maps derived from eU data are spatially more detailed than the published 10 km grid map. The results show the potential for using airborne radiometric data for producing RP maps.

  17. High-LET alpha-emitters: Radon, lung cancer and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The National Academy of Sciences BEIR IV Report deals with the health effects in human populations exposed to internally-deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides and their decay products. Quantitative risk estimates for cancer induction are derived, mainly from analyses of epidemiological data. The Report addresses the health outcomes of exposure to radon and its daughters, primarily lung cancer risks of worker exposure to radon progeny in underground mines and in the general public in indoor domestic environments. An excess relative risk model of lung cancer mortality and exposure to radon progeny is developed; this models the excess risk per Working Level Month in terms of time intervals prior to an attained age, and is dependent on time-since-exposure and age at risk. Risk projections are presented and cover exposure situations of current public health concern. For example, lifetime exposure to 1 WLM y/sup /minus/1/ is estimated to increase the number of deaths due to lung cancer by a factor of about 1.5 over the current rate for both males and females in a population having the current prevalence of cigarette-smoking. Occupational exposure to 4 WLM y/sup /minus/1/ from ages 20 y to 40 y is projected to increase lung cancer deaths by a factor of 1.6 over the current rate of this age cohort in the general population. In all of these cases, most of the increased risk occurs to smokers for whom the risk is up to ten times greater than for non-smokers. 8 refs., 1 tab

  18. Indoor radon pollution: Control and mitigation. June 1978-December 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for June 1978-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the control and mitigation of radon pollution in homes and commercial buildings. Citations cover radon transport studies in buildings and soils, remedial action proposals on contaminated buildings, soil venting, building ventilation, sealants, filtration systems, water degassing, reduction of radon sources in building materials, and evaluation of existing radon mitigation programs including their cost effectiveness. Analysis and detection of radon and radon toxicity are covered in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 129 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  19. Radon concentrations in contaminated and uncontaminated premises in two Ontario towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, J.H.; Baker, E.G.; Chatterjee, R.M.; Kusiak, R.; Tai-Pow, J.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in air were measured by grab sampling in a large number of private homes and other buildings in the town of Port Hope, Ontario. The purpose of the measurements is to identify places where a health hazard might exist due to improper disposal of radium-contaminated materials. Contaminated fill, rubble, lumber, and other building materials have been found in a number of premises in the town. Radon concentrations up to 750 pCi/l have been found in some homes. The thrust of the program is to identify quickly places where concentrations might be high enough to justify some prompt interim remedial action such as installation of special ventilation systems, pending final remedial work by removal of the contamination. The methods and instrumentation immediately available are those formerly used for radon-in-breath analysis in radium workers. Grab sampling for radon and gamma surveying in every building in town are used together in a screening program. Experience showed that both radon sampling and gamma surveying are required to identify contaminated locations

  20. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.; O'Colmain, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m 3 and 100 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  1. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m 3 and 70 Bq/m 3 . The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  2. Radiation exposure due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Underground miners working over long periods of time in mines with a high content of radon and radon daughters belong to that group of occupationally exposed persons who are subject to the greatest somatic risk, with values especially high if the permissible dose limits are exceeded. Follwing an overview of the permissible limits currently in use for radon and radon daughters as well as the results of examinations performed in nationally-owned underground mining of the G.D.R., considerations are presented on the measuring quantities requisite for statistical, control and safety measurements in this field. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the measuring procedures and instruments to be employed for practical work. (author)

  3. Effectiveness of air vapor barriers combined with ventilated crawlspaces in decreasing residential exposure to radon daughters to radon daughters: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, T.D.; Arundel, A.; McIntyre, D.; Sterling, E.; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    Radon gas is present in many homes. Concentrations may be increased in airtight, energy-efficient structures. This is especially true in cold climates where energy conservation is an important factor leading to the widespread application of sealing and tightening techniques both in older renovated homes and new construction. To reduce radon concentrations, it may be effective to ventilate crawlspaces and prevent infiltration of radon gas into the house by means of an air/vapor barrier. The authors report first results of comparing radon levels in homes with and without ventilated crawlspaces and air/vapor barriers. Radon emissions were measured in a tightly sealed home with ventilated crawlspaces and an air/vapor barrier and in two homes without such vapor barriers and ventilated crawlspaces, but differing in ventilation. Preliminary results suggest that use of ventilated crawlspaces and bottomside vapor barriers may reduce indoor radon levels by approximately 60%. 15 references, 1 table

  4. Experience from using plastic film in radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1999-01-01

    Plastic film is a useful detector of radon gas. The method of detection of the gas is used for several decades to measure radon concentrations both indoors and in soil. Experiences from radon measurements in Sweden indoors, in soil and in water using the plastic film Kodak LR 115-II are discussed in this report. Some examples are given from various projects. One example is taken from a large scale mapping of indoor radon levels in houses, where the building material is the main source of radon. In another example the measurements from a large scale soil radon mapping are discussed. The use of the plastic film for measurements of radon levels in water is also discussed. All the investigations are made in order to give the authorities concerned information of the radon situation and to study the connection between high indoor radon levels and various types of cancers

  5. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  6. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  7. Sources and protective measures of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Quanlu; Wang Hengde

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the relative contribution to indoor radon 222 Rn of various sources in twenty three rooms of three kinds in Taiyuan area. The results show that the major sources in this area are radon emanation from surfaces of soil and building materials and that from outdoor air, while the contribution of water and gas consumed in the rooms is less important. These results suggest a basis for taking suitable protective measures against indoor radon. Some materials are also recommended which are effective in restraining radon exhalation and low in price, by testing more than ten kinds of materials and comparing them using cost-effectiveness analysis technique, such as painting materials, polyvinyl alcohol (CH 2 :CHOH)n, etc. Their sealing effects on radon exhalation were examined with home-made REM-89 Radon Exhalation Monitor. The deposition effects of negative ion generator and humidifier on radon progeny were also tested. The maximum deposition may reach 70-90%, which proves they are also effective and economical in radon protection. (2 tabs., 3 figs.)

  8. Instrumentation for a radon research house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.; Robb, A.W.

    1981-07-01

    A highly automated monitoring and control system for studying radon and radon-daughter behavior in residences has been designed and built. The system has been installed in a research house, a test space contained in a two-story wood-framed building, which allows us to conduct controlled studies of (1) pollutant transport within and between rooms, (2) the dynamics of radon daughter behavior, and (3) techniques for controlling radon and radon daughters. The system's instrumentation is capable of measuring air-exchange rate, four-point radon concentration, individual radon daughter concentrations, indoor temerature and humidity, and outdoor weather parameters (temperature, humidity, modules, wind speed, and wind direction). It is also equipped with modules that control the injection of radon and tracer gas into the test space, the operation of the forced-air furnace, the mechanical ventilation system, and the mixing fans located in each room. A microcomputer controls the experiments and records the data on magnetic tape and on a printing terminal. The data on tape is transferred to a larger computer system for reduction and analysis. In this paper we describe the essential design and function of the instrumentation system, as a whole, singling out those components that measure ventilation rate, radon concentration, and radon daughter concentrations

  9. Radon and hydrotherapy: application to French spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameon, R.

    2004-01-01

    Owing to the use of thermal water for treatments, the dissolved radon ends up, through degassing, in the atmosphere of the various spa premises. According to the type of treatments, the radon activity concentration in the air is very variable; it depends on two factors, the supply of thermal water, and therefore of radon, and the ventilation of the various premises. In unfavourable, even non-existent, ventilation conditions, it is not uncommon to measure radon concentration reaching several thousands of becquerels per air cubic meter. These high values of radon activity concentration, with or without its short-lived daughters, may lead to a staff exposure of approximately ten or several tens of mSv per year. A French spa was subject to a radon 'expertise' during which the radon source terms, 'ground in contact with the buildings' and 'thermal water' were characterized. The radon mapping in the internal atmosphere of the various spa premises and the workstations' analysis resulted in an assessment of the exposure due to radon inhalation. This study showed that on workstations, notably linked to hydrotherapy, the staff exposure to radon is in the same range as the dose assessments from foreign studies. The implementation of an appropriate ventilation of the treatment rooms and a better management of the thermal water in the spa resulted in a significant reduction of staff exposure

  10. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

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  11. Radon levels and transport parameters in Atlantic Forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, E.E.G. de; Silva Neto, P.C. da; Souza, E.M. de; De Franca, E.J.; Hazin, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    In natural forest soils, the radon transport processes can be significantly intensified due to the contribution of living organism activities to soil porosity. In this paper, the first results of the radon concentrations were obtained for soil gas from the Atlantic Forest, particularly in the Refugio Ecologico Charles Darwin, Brazil. The estimation of permeability and radon exhalation rate were carried out in this conservation unit. For forested soils, radon concentrations as high as 40 kBq m -3 were found. Based on the radon concentrations and on the permeability parameter, the results indicated considerable radon hazard for human occupation in the neighborhood. (author)

  12. Postprandial changes in the exhalation of radon from the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J.

    1978-01-01

    The exhalation of radon originally inhaled from the home environment and dissolved in body fluids and tissues has been studied serially for periods of several hours in six persons. The observation of a pronounced postprandial peak in the rate of exhalation of radon shows that the similar peak observed in the exhalation of radon produced from radium in vivo results from the flushing of a reservoir in soft tissue and not from a change in the fraction lost from bone

  13. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    to be 60 Bq/m{sup 3}. Using the detriment factor given by ICRP, annually about 90 Estonians are expected to develop lung cancer due to exposure to radon in their homes. Most of them, about 75, are smokers, which are affected by the synergetic effect of the two carcinogens, smoking and radon. In Estonia the source of indoor radon is radon-containing soil air that is transported into the buildings from the ground. Building materials with enhanced radium concentrations are not known in Estonia. In this survey, the highest indoor radon concentrations have been found in the northern part of Estonia where uranium rich Dictyonema shale and uranium containing phosphorous Glauconite sandstone exist in the bedrock and as fragments in the soils. Radon concentrations higher than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} have also been measured in buildings situated in areas with karst formations. Areas with Dictyonema shale, Glauconite sandstone and karst are areas with a special risk for radon.

  14. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2003-10-01

    the detriment factor given by ICRP, annually about 90 Estonians are expected to develop lung cancer due to exposure to radon in their homes. Most of them, about 75, are smokers, which are affected by the synergetic effect of the two carcinogens, smoking and radon. In Estonia the source of indoor radon is radon-containing soil air that is transported into the buildings from the ground. Building materials with enhanced radium concentrations are not known in Estonia. In this survey, the highest indoor radon concentrations have been found in the northern part of Estonia where uranium rich Dictyonema shale and uranium containing phosphorous Glauconite sandstone exist in the bedrock and as fragments in the soils. Radon concentrations higher than 400 Bq/m 3 have also been measured in buildings situated in areas with karst formations. Areas with Dictyonema shale, Glauconite sandstone and karst are areas with a special risk for radon

  15. Mechanisms of radon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    In this new project, they conduct molecular, cellular and whole-animal research relevant to understanding the inhalation toxicology of radon and radon-daughter exposures. The work specifically addresses the exposure-rate effect in radon-daughter carcinogenesis; the induction-promotion relationships associated with exposure to radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures; the role of oncogenes in radon-induced cancers; the effects of radon on DNA as well as on DNA repair processes; and the involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced carcinogenesis. Preliminary experiments showed that oncogenes are activated in radon-induced lung tumors. They have therefore begun further exposures pertinent to the oncogene and growth-factor studies. An in vitro radon cellular-exposure system was designed, and cell exposures were initiated. Initiation-promotion-initiation studies with radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures have also begun; and they are compiling a radon health-effects bibliography

  16. Reasons for increasing radon concentrations in radon remediated houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, B.

    1997-01-01

    The study comprises 31 single-dwelling houses where remedial actions were carried out in the 1980s. In all of them the radon concentrations have increased more than 30% according to recent control measurements. Radon sources are building material as well as the soil. The remedial actions dealt with ventilation systems, leakage through the basement floor, air cushions, sub-slab suction or radon wells according to the original problems. Causes for the increase varied: In many houses with soil radon problems, the installation of a normal mechanical ventilation system is not a good remedial action. In some houses on a ground with high permeability and high radon content in the soil air, the radon concentration may increase by the lowering of the indoor air pressure. In other houses the increase was a measurement effect, where sites/rooms were confused. Living related causes were identified in a number of cases, where fan speeds were reduced for energy conservation/noise reduction purposes or different use of windows airing had occurred. Extension of the dwelling space without changing the ventilation system caused the increase in one house. 23 refs

  17. The radon anomaly of Porcheresse (Ardennes, Belgium). A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlet, J.M.; Zhu, H.C.; Poffijn, A.

    1999-01-01

    From a very high radon concentration in a dwelling of the village of Porcheresse (Belgium), the paper discusses on of the significance of the numerous radon indoor anomalies detected in the Southern part of Belgium

  18. Estimated risks of radon-induced lung cancer by two-mutation model for different exposures in mines and in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.; Nikodemova, D.; Salat, D.; Drabova, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the two-mutation model has been applied and compared with BEIR VI models for a prediction of the radon risk in various environments. The obtained results can be summarised into several points. The values of risk from the radon exposure predicted by the two-mutation model are comparable with the results obtained by BEIR VI for the short-time as well as for the long-time exposures. In the range of low exposures is this agreement of the results closer to the risk values assessed by the exposure-age-concentration model. In the range of higher exposures the results are closer to the values based on the age- duration model. The two-mutation model predicts the increase of dRR/dC with the increase of the radon concentration in the range of low concentrations. According to our results the inverse effect occurs only when the radon concentrations reach the value of 1500 Bq/m 3 . The two-mutation model can be taken as an universal model for the risk calculation in different environments, and for various smoking status. This model makes possible to analyse the influence of the fractionalisation of the exposure on the resulting RR. (authors)

  19. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, D.; Adlam, K.

    2000-01-01

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  20. Investigations of radon and radon daughters in surficial aquifers of florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The principal purpose of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that radon soil flux, considered the principal source of indoor radon contamination, has an underlying relationship to the radon content of associated shallow groundwaters. The working hypothesis was that radon build-up in both soil and shallow groundwater is basically a consequence of the same factor, radon emanation from soil grains and the solid surfaces of the aquifers. Groundwater may be advantageous as an indicator of radon potential. Another object of the project was to investigate temporal and spatial trends of radon daughter products in shallow aquifers. After analyzing all of the radon soil, flux, and groundwater measurements made over the two-year study period, it is clear that while there is no direct relationship between either radon soil concentration or flux and groundwater radon. Measurements in wells where polonium is present at very high concentrations have shown that 210Po is largely unsupported by its radioactive predecessor, and that polonium is considerably more variable, in both space and time than other parameters measured in the same wells, including radon

  1. Communicating the risk from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Doyle, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    A prominent television station developed a special series of newscasts and public service announcements about radon. This was combined with their advertising of the availability of reduced-price radon test kits in a local supermarket chain. The large number of test kits sold was a success from a marketing perspective, but not from a public health perspective - especially because of the very small share of high readings that were mitigated. In contrast, a study of housing sales showed a much higher testing rate and corresponding mitigation when risk communication accompanied the housing transaction, rather than being directed toward the general public. This paper examined the relative effectiveness of these alternative approaches to radon risk communication, emphasizing the implications for developing and implementing radon programs

  2. Measurement and apportionment of radon source terms for modeling indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.

    1990-01-01

    This research has two main goals; (1) to quantify mechanisms for radon entry into homes of different types and to determine the fraction of indoor radon attributable to each source and (2) to model and calculate the dose (and therefore alpha particle fluence) to cells in the human and animal tracheobronchial tree that is pertinent to induction of bronchogenic carcinoma from inhaled radon daughters

  3. Indoor radon concentrations in Vushtrri, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xhafa, B.; Jonuzaj, A.; ); Bekteshi, S.; Ahmetaj, S.; Kabashi, S.; )

    2009-01-01

    Indoor air radon concentration was measured by exposing trac ketch detectors in the two elementary schools, one high school, a kindergarten and the hospital in the city of Vushtrri. Measurements were performed with the radon monitor PRM-145, which uses alpha scintillation cells and serves to determine the current concentration of radon. The results we obtained are in the range between the average values of radon for the interior spaces, and values that pose a potential risk for lung cancer. Measuring the concentration of radon was done in total of 34 rooms and came up with values which are between 28Bqm -3 and 398Bqm -3 . In order to reduce the concentration of radon, we have built a ventilation pump, then we performed repeated measurements and finally came with results between 130-145Bqm -3 .

  4. Radiometers for radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartak, J.; Machaj, B.; Pienkos, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Constant grow of science and technology stimulates development of new improved measuring tools. New measuring demand arise also in radon concentration measurements. Varying rock stress and rock cracks influencing radon emanation encouraged research aimed at use of this phenomenon to predict crumps of mine formation among others based on variation of radon emanation. A measuring set was developed in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology enabling long term monitoring of radon concentration in mine bore-hole. The set consists probe and probe controller. Detection threshold of the probe is 230 Bq/m 3 . The set can operate in the environment with methane explosion hazard. A radiometer employing Lucas cell as radiation detector for radon concentration in air was also developed its detection threshold is approx. 10 Bq/m 3 . Replaceable Lucas cell of the radiometer allows for measurement of high as well as low radon concentration in short time interval. (author)

  5. Cost and effectiveness of radon barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-12-01

    Earthen, asphalt, and multilayer radon barrier systems can all provide reduction in the amount of radon gas released from uranium mill tailings. Pacific Northwest Laboratory field tested all three types of covers at Grand Junction, Colorado during the summer of 1981. All nine individual radon barrier systems tested currently meet the EPA standard for radon flux of 20 pCi m - 2 s - 1 . The cost of the asphalt and 3m earthen covers were about the same at the field test. Multilayer covers were significantly more costly. Cost estimates for three high priority western sites indicate 3m of earthen cover is the least costly radon barrier when earthen material is available at or near the disposal site. If earthen material must be imported more than 8 to 10 km asphalt and possibly multilayer radon barriers can be cost effective

  6. Radon, a real threat to our health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, T.; Mauna, A.; Ghita, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radon is invisible, odorless and tasteless a radioactive gas that comes from the radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium and thorium in soil and rock, can concentrate in domestic homes, overground workplaces, and caves. Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancers in the U.S., about 20.000 per year, and is present in millions of homes. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of USA designated January 2005 as National Radon Action Month (NRAM) and held the second week of October every year as National Radon Action Week (NRAW). The focus of NRAM and NRW is to promote awareness about, testing for and mitigation of indoor radon gas with various events and outreach campaigns. The EPA considering radon exposure as capital problem for the population health decided to have a special dedicated free phone number the similar for every county state of USA taking into account the increase easy call by interested people. Many universities and research centers, including NGO from different countries world wide, following the recommendation of 'United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation' (USNCEAR) and 'International Commission on Radiological Protection ' (ICRP) until 1977, developed their own radon researches in order to clarify the properties, area distribution and concentration, geological production and other needed aspects. This paper compare the radon risk versus radioactive waste gaseous Nuclear Power Plant release in normal or abnormal operation and underlines the needs for Romanian's radiation research laboratories to undertake radon protection programs similar to to those underway in other countries. (authors)

  7. Radon in Rented Accommodation and Variables Determining Its Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes in rented accommodation. In addition, buildings were registered for a series of variables describing building characteristics and used materials. The mean year value of the indoor radon level was 30.7 (1~250) Bq/m3. The indoor radon level exceeded 100...... Bq/m3 in 5.9% of the homes. Of the investigated variables, only homes in single-family terraced houses, were statistically significant. Approx. 75% of homes exceeding 100 Bq/m3 indoor radon level had levels between 100 and 200 Bq/m3 and 25% had indoor radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. Significant...... differences in indoor radon levels were found in homes located in multi-occupant houses. Additionally, the risk of indoor radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was the highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....

  8. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  9. Controlling exposure to radon, France, December 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.L.; Dechaux, E.; Pineau, C.

    2007-01-01

    Controlling exposure to radon, France, December 2006 Exposure to radon, along with medical exposure, is the leading source of the French population exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon is a confirmed cause of lung cancer in man (classified in group I by the international Agency for research on Cancer (I.A.R.C.)). According to available estimates, the numbers of lung cancers attributable to radon exposure in France are far fewer than those caused by tobacco. However, according to a recent European study, around 9% of lung cancers in Europe may be caused by radon. Thus, due to the number of people exposed, radon has become a public health issue which calls for action, considering that exposure can be significantly reduced by implementing measures which are often simple. Since 2002, the Nuclear Safety Authority (Asn) has proceeded in implementing a new regulatory framework for the risk management related to the presence of radon in public places. The new system is now fully operational. In addition, based on the initiatives adopted by the government in June 2004 in the context of the National Health and Environment Plan (P.N.S.E.), the Asn drew up a plan in 2005, in collaboration with the Ministry for Urban Planning and Construction, to coordinate the actions of various national bodies involved in this field. This three-pronged strategy is as follows: - Creation of a new risk management policy related to the presence of radon in existing homes and in new buildings; - Supporting and controlling the implementation of regulations for managing radon related risks in public places; - Improvement and dissemination of knowledge on radon exposure and its related risks. (author)

  10. Limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughters in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughter concentrations in Swedish homes are described. The application of the Swedish provisional limitation system in use since 1980 is also reported. As a background the radon source and the international and national recommedations in other countries are reviewed. (author)

  11. Radon exhalation rates corrected for leakage and back diffusion – Evaluation of radon chambers and radon sources with application to ceramic tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural radon decay, leakage and back diffusion are the main removal processes of radon from its container. Ignoring these processes leads to underestimate the measured value of radon related parameters like exhalation rate and radium content. This work is aimed to evaluate two different radon chambers through determining their leakage rate λv and evaluation of radon source by determine its back diffusion rate λb inside the evaluated radon chambers as well as a small sealed cup. Two different methods are adapted for measuring both the leakage rate and the back diffusion rate. The leakage rate can be determined from the initial slope of the radon decay curve or from the exponential fitting of the whole decay curve. This can be achieved if a continuous monitoring of radon concentration inside the chamber is available. Also, the back diffusion rate is measured by sealing the radon source in the chamber and used the initial slope of the buildup curve to determine λb and therefore the exhalation rate of the source. This method was compared with simple equation for λb based on the ratio of the source to the chamber volume. The obtained results are applied to ceramic tile as an important radon source in homes. The measurement is targeted the ceramic glaze before and after firing as well as the obtained tile after adhere the glaze on the tile main body. Also, six different tile brands from Egyptian market are subjected to the study for comparison.

  12. Radon and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Radon is radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water, outdoor and indoor air. Since environmental radon on average accounts for about half of all human exposure to radiation from natural sources, increasing attention has been paid to exposure to radon and its associated health risks. Many countries have introduced regulations to protect their population from radon in dwellings and workplaces. In this article are discussed main characteristics of radon, including sources of exposure, variation in radon exposure, how managing risks from radon exposure, how to measure the concentration of radon. There are results of measurements conducted under the 'National radon programme' in Bulgaria also. Key words: radon, sources of exposure, risk, cancer, measure to decrease the concentration [bg

  13. Indoor radiation exposures from radon and its daughters: a view of the issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Exposure to radon daughters indoors can result in significant risk to the general public, particularly those living in homes with much higher than average concentrations. This paper reviews what is known about indoor concentrations, associated risks, and the effect of measures to save energy by reducing ventilation rates. It concludes that, by employing appropriate control measures in homes having unacceptably high concentrations, the average exposure (and therefore risk) of the general public can remain at its present level, or even decrease, despite programs to save energy by tightening homes

  14. A 2-year study of seasonal indoor radon variations in northern Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Chrosniak, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    The concentrations of indoor radon in the basements of homes located in northern Virginia average about 1.4 times the first-floor radon concentrations. Basement indoor radon concentrations exhibit seasonal variations that can be related to home use patterns of the occupants. Little indoor radon difference was seen between homes that have concrete block basement walls and poured concrete basement walls, but homes that use oil or gas furnaces for heating have ∼ 25% lower indoor radon than homes that use electrical heating systems. Particular geological units seem to be associated with elevated indoor radon concentrations, and several units are associated with indoor radon concentrations that exceed 4 pCi/l (the U.S. Environmental Agency action level) at some time in more than 40% of the homes. Comparative studies between indoor radon and total gamma aeroradioactivity show that aeroradioactivity can be accurately used to estimate community radon hazards. When combined with information about the home heating system, geology and aeroradioactivity can be used to identify problem homes

  15. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-01

    caused by the homogenous radon concentrations measured in the Laxemar area. The radon concentrations in near surface water measured in Forsmark showed large variability with both low and high radon concentrations. This large variability in radon concentration could not be explained by the flow pattern of the groundwater since no clear correlation between radon concentration and recharge/discharge classification was found. The radon concentration was also measured at different depths in the soil profile at three locations in the Forsmark area. The results showed large differences with increasing radon concentration with increasing depth. This gradient of radon concentration can be explained largely by the radon emanation potential of the local soil type at different depths. High radon concentrations were found in wells with higher radon emanation potential like till and bedrock. These observations showed the importance of the radon emanation potential of the local soil for the radon concentration in groundwater. The main purpose of this study has been to evaluate the use of radon as a tracer for groundwater flow patterns. The method is based on the ingrowth of radon from its progenitor radium according to the law of radioactive decay. According to this law the radon concentration in groundwater will reach equilibrium conditions after approximately 30 days in contact with the surrounding soil. The equilibrium radon concentration of the near surface groundwater was measured at several location in the Forsmark area and a range of the steady state radon concentration was calculated. The measured steady state radon concentration was then used to evaluate the radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in the area. A recharge/discharge classification of the wells was done based on the range of steady state radon concentration and the measured radon concentrations in groundwater. All wells with radon concentration below the steady state radon concentration were

  16. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.

    1998-01-01

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  17. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  18. The distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania (Romania) - influence of the natural and anthropogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucos Dinu, Alexandra; Baciu, Calin; Dicu, Tiberius; Papp, Botond; Moldovan, Mircea; Bety Burghele, Denissa; Tenter, Ancuta; Szacsvai, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to radon in homes and workplaces is now recognized as the most important natural factor in causing lung cancer. Radon activity is usually higher in buildings than in the outside atmosphere, as it may be released from building materials and soil beneath the constructions, and the concentration builds-up indoor, due to the low air renewal rates. Indoor radon levels can vary from one to multiple orders of magnitude over time and space, as it depends on several natural and anthropogenic factors, such us the radon concentration in soil under the construction, the weather conditions, the degree of containment in the areas where individuals are exposed, building materials, outside air, tap water and even city gas, the architecture, equipment (chimney, mechanical ventilation systems, etc.), the environmental parameters of the building (temperature, pressure, etc.), and on the occupants' lifestyle. The study presents the distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania, Romania, together with the measurements of radon in soil and soil water. Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors exposed for 3 months on ground-floor level of dwellings, according to the NRPB Measurement Protocol. Radon concentrations in soil and water were measured using the LUK3C device. A complete map was plotted at the date, based on 3300 indoor radon measurements, covering an area of about 42% of the Romanian territory. The indoor radon concentrations ranged from 5 to 3287 Bq m-3, with an updated preliminary arithmetic mean of 179 Bq m-3, and a geometric mean of 122 Bq m-3. In about 11% of the investigated grid cells the indoor radon concentrations exceed the threshold of 300 Bq m-3. The soil gas radon concentration varies from 0.8 to 169 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 26 kBq m-3. For water samples, the results show radon concentrations within the range of 0.3 - 352.2 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 7.7 Bq L-1. A weak correlation between the three sets of values

  19. Radon in the Environment: Friend or Foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Radon 222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is part of the Uranium decay series. Its Presence in the environment is associated mainly with trace amounts of uranium and its immediate parent, radium 226 , in rocks, soil and groundwater. About one-half of the effective doses from natural sources is estimated to be delivered by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny. Owing to this fact, radon is the most popular subject of studies on environmental radioactivity. The presence of high level of radon in indoor environment constitutes a major health hazard for man. The radon progeny is well established as causative agents of lung cancer and other types of caners. Radon unique properties as a naturally radioactive gas have led to its use as a geophysical tracer for locating buried faults and geological structures, in exploring for uranium, and for predicting earthquakes. Radon has been used as a tracer in the study of atmospheric transport process. There have been several other applications of radon in meteorology, water research and medicine. This paper summarizes the health effects and the potential benefits of radon and its progeny.

  20. Reduction of radon from household water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, P.S.; Sorg, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater can be a major source of indoor radon in homes that use individual wells or are served by very small community water supply systems. In the United States, several wells have been found to contain more than 37,000,000 Bq.m -3 of radon dissolved in the water. This radon can be released in the indoor air in the course of using water for normal household activities. A measurement of the radon in the drinking water can be made when an indoor radon problem is suspected. While ventilation may reduce indoor radon levels that result from household water usage, the most common control technique presently applied is removing the radon from the water using a granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment system. Aeration methods are also effective and have been proven to be economical for small community water supplies. Some of the issues faced in using GAC are sizing and maintaining the unit and shielding and disposing of the GAC to prevent exposure from gamma radiation. (author)

  1. The Radon Book. Preventive measures in new buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    This book describes in text and picture how one can prevent that the radon concentrations in new buildings become to high. The book's centre of gravity lies on how to build in order to prevent that radon gas from the ground enters the building. The book contains extensive information about ground radon and how to examine the ground before constructing a new building. Release of radon from ground water and construction material is treated, as well as technology for measurement of radon and gamma radiation. The book presents current threshold values/recommended values for radon and the authorities' regulations and recommendations. The book is directed to persons who professionally need knowledge about radon and how to prevent that radon is accumulated in new buildings

  2. Domestic radon in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, Michele V.; Omrane, Latifa; Mtimet, Sadok; Hammou, Azza

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine level of natural radioactivity and to eventually identify areas where radon concentrations are elevated, measurements of indoor air radon concentrations were carried out in Tunisian houses since 1999. Passive alpha-track open Kodalpha dosimeters have been placed in one or two rooms by dwellings at 1 m to 1.50 m from soil. The first campaign controlled the capital, Tunis, and lasted 14 months by two months periods. The annual median was 30 Bq m -3 . In the 120 surveyed houses, a seasonal variation has been found with the highest concentrations unregistered in winter. The second campaign was conducted in 1,151 houses situated in all the inhabited areas of Tunisia during two winter months. The median was 36 Bq m -3 with a maximum of 512 Bq m -3 . The majority of results were lower than 100 Bq m -3 . Only 5.5% of results were comprised between 100 and 200 Bq m -3 and 0.7% between 200 and 400 Bq m -3 . The third campaign was performed in an area where inhabitants used to live in underground homes. Sixty modern and sixty underground houses were controlled during one year by three months periods. The results were significantly different with a median at 46.5 Bq m -3 in the modern houses and 305 Bq m -3 in the underground caves with a maximum at 1,563 Bq m -3 . 54% of results were under 100 Bq m -3 , 32% between 100 and 400, 13% between 400 and 1,000 Bq m -3 . Only 1% (two underground houses) were higher than 1,000 Bq m -3 . A careful enquiry showed that most of these underground houses are no more inhabited and are rarely opened. In these dwellings, the highest concentrations were found during summer. Most of the indoor radon concentration levels found in Tunisia were under international recommended levels. (author)

  3. Indoor radon measurements and radon prognosis for eastern Uusimaa. Askola, Lapinjaervi, Liljendal, Loviisa, Myrskylae, Maentsaelae, Maentsaelae, Pernaja, Pornainen, Porvoo, Porvoon mlk, Pukkila, Ruotsinpyhtaeae and Sipoo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of the regional radon prognosis is to classify areas with different levels of radon risk. The radon prognosis gives the percentages of future homes expected to have indoor radon concentrations exceeding the levels of 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 . It is assumed that no protection against the entry of radon is used in construction. In the study about 2400 indoor radon measurements made in single family houses, semi-detached houses and row houses were used. Data on the location, geology and construction of buildings were determined form maps and questionnaires. An empirical statistical model, the adjusted indoor radon measurement and geological data were used to assess the radon risk form soil and bedrock in different areas. (15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.)

  4. Radon measurements indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements of Radon concentrations have been made using photographic film detectors in the communities of Uppsala, Soedertaelje and Tyresoe. The result from 6700 filmexposures in both one-family and apartment houses are reported. The fraction of dwellings with radon daughter concentrations exceeding 200 Bq/m 3 is between 3 and 14 percent for one-family houses and 0 to 5 percent for apartment buildings. 8 to 68 percent of the one-family houses and 57 to 83 percent of the apartment buildings had concentrations lower than 70 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variations were recorded in one-family houses in Uppsala. In houses with low concentrations, the winter values were higher than the summer values. For houses with high concentrations the reversed variation was recorded. (Author)

  5. Health effects of radon in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Widely accepted risk estimates for exposure to radon in homes are derived largely from studies of miners. These include large groups of US Czechoslovakian, and Canadian uranium miners, Newfoundland fluorspar miners, and Swedish iron, lead, and zinc miners, all of which give roughly consistent results, with the excess risk of lung cancer increasing linearly with the exposure to radon. The authors have studied correlations between average radon levels and lung cancer rates in counties of the US. One study based on 50,000 purchased measurements in the main living areas of houses in which there have been no previous measurements involves 310 counties. It gives a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between mean radon levels and lung cancer rates for both females and males, whereas the usual risk estimates predict a large positive correlation

  6. Assessment of indoor radon gas concentration change of college

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Jeong, Eui Hwan; Kim, Hak Jae; Lyu, Kang Yeul [Dept. of of Radiological Technology, Shingu College, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact by comparing the concentration of indoor radon and look for ways to lower the concentration of indoor radon gas measurements of three variables, the year of completion, volume of the building and ventilation. Measurement target is six classrooms on the sixth floor of building that was constructed in 1973 and was extended in 2011. Selected classroom's volume is different. Four classrooms were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the year of completion, Classrooms that is same year of completion were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the volume, six classroom was performed closure and ventilation to compare radon concentration according to ventilation. Radon concentrations in accordance with the year of building completion showed a high concentration of radon in a building recently built. Also, Radon concentration in volume is high the smaller the volume. Radon concentration change according to ventilation showed a reduction of about 80% when the ventilation than during closing. Especially, The radon concentrations were high detected while the recently year of building completion and the smaller volume. Ventilation of the three variables is considered that can be expected to exposure reduction effect by radon affecting the greatest radon concentration reduction.

  7. Assessment of indoor radon gas concentration change of college

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Jeong, Eui Hwan; Kim, Hak Jae; Lyu, Kang Yeul; Lee, Ju Young

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact by comparing the concentration of indoor radon and look for ways to lower the concentration of indoor radon gas measurements of three variables, the year of completion, volume of the building and ventilation. Measurement target is six classrooms on the sixth floor of building that was constructed in 1973 and was extended in 2011. Selected classroom's volume is different. Four classrooms were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the year of completion, Classrooms that is same year of completion were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the volume, six classroom was performed closure and ventilation to compare radon concentration according to ventilation. Radon concentrations in accordance with the year of building completion showed a high concentration of radon in a building recently built. Also, Radon concentration in volume is high the smaller the volume. Radon concentration change according to ventilation showed a reduction of about 80% when the ventilation than during closing. Especially, The radon concentrations were high detected while the recently year of building completion and the smaller volume. Ventilation of the three variables is considered that can be expected to exposure reduction effect by radon affecting the greatest radon concentration reduction

  8. Radon programme: presence and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation an overview of radon programme experiences is presented. The paper summarises national radon policy, national programmes, legislation, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, practical protection in dwellings, radon measurements strategies, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, natural radioactivity of building materials and radioactivity in public water and their role in the radon programme, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions of radon issues in future

  9. Radon exhalation from building materials for decorative use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jing, E-mail: jing.chen@hc-sc.gc.c [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada); Rahman, Naureen M.; Atiya, Ibrahim Abu [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    Long-term exposure to radon increases the risk of developing lung cancer. There is considerable public concern about radon exhalation from building materials and the contribution to indoor radon levels. To address this concern, radon exhalation rates were determined for 53 different samples of drywall, tile and granite available on the Canadian market for interior home decoration. The radon exhalation rates ranged from non-detectable to 312 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Slate tiles and granite slabs had relatively higher radon exhalation rates than other decorative materials, such as ceramic or porcelain tiles. The average radon exhalation rates were 30 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for slate tiles and 42 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for granite slabs of various types and origins. Analysis showed that even if an entire floor was covered with a material having a radon exhalation rate of 300 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, it would contribute only 18 Bq m{sup -3} to a tightly sealed house with an air exchange rate of 0.3 per hour. Generally speaking, building materials used in home decoration make no significant contribution to indoor radon for a house with adequate air exchange.

  10. Procedure for the characterization of radon potential in existing dwellings and to assess the annual average indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignan, Bernard; Powaga, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment due to radon exposure indoors is based on annual average indoor radon activity concentration. To assess the radon exposure in a building, measurement is generally performed during at least two months during heating period in order to be representative of the annual average value. This is because radon presence indoors could be very variable during time. This measurement protocol is fairly reliable but may be a limiting in the radon risk management, particularly during a real estate transaction due to the duration of the measurement and the limitation of the measurement period. A previous field study defined a rapid methodology to characterize radon entry in dwellings. The objective of this study was at first, to test this methodology in various dwellings to assess its relevance with a daily test. At second, a ventilation model was used to assess numerically the air renewal of a building, the indoor air quality all along the year and the annual average indoor radon activity concentration, based on local meteorological conditions, some building characteristics and in-situ characterization of indoor pollutant emission laws. Experimental results obtained on thirteen individual dwellings showed that it is generally possible to obtain a representative characterization of radon entry into homes. It was also possible to refine the methodology defined in the previous study. In addition, numerical assessments of annual average indoor radon activity concentration showed generally a good agreement with measured values. These results are encouraging to allow a procedure with a short measurement time to be used to characterize long-term radon potential in dwellings. - Highlights: • Test of a daily procedure to characterize radon potential in dwellings. • Numerical assessment of the annual radon concentration. • Procedure applied on thirteen dwellings, characterization generally satisfactory. • Procedure useful to manage radon risk in dwellings, for real

  11. Radon variations in a Hungarian village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Deak, F.; Marx, G.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Vajda, N.

    1997-01-01

    A steady radon exhalation is assumed in most publications. In a village of North-East Hungary, however, high radon concentrations have been measured, differing strongly in neighbouring houses and varying in time, due to the interplay of geochemical phenomena. (orig.)

  12. A passive radon dosemeter suitable for workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, C.; Orlando, P.; Patrizii, L.; Tommasino, L.; Tonnarini, S.; Trevisi, R.; Viola, P.

    2002-01-01

    The results obtained in different international intercomparisons on passive radon monitors have been analysed with the aim of identifying a suitable radon monitoring device for workplaces. From this analysis, the passive radon device, first developed for personal dosimetry in mines by the National Radiation Protection Board, UK (NRPB), has shown the most suitable set of characteristics. This radon monitor consists of a diffusion chamber, made of conductive plastic with less than 2 cm height, containing a CR-39 film (Columbia Resin 1939), as track detector. Radon detectors in workplaces may be exposed only during the working hours, thus requiring the storage of the detectors in low-radon zones when not exposed. This paper describes how this problem can be solved. Since track detectors are also efficient neutron dosemeters, care should be taken when radon monitors are used in workplaces, where they may be exposed to neutrons, such as on high altitude mountains, in the surroundings of high energy X ray facilities (where neutrons are produced by (gamma, n) reactions) or around high energy particle accelerators. To this end, the response of these passive radon monitors to high energy neutron fields has been investigated. (author)

  13. Do the UK workplace Radon Action Levels reflect the radiation dose received by the occupants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Parkinson, S.; Barker, S.P.; Marley, F.; Phillips, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    In the UK, Action Levels for radon have been established at 400 Bq m -3 for the workplace and 200 Bq m -3 for the home. We have estimated the dose received by occupants of rooms with radon levels near or above the Action Level, using hourly radon readings, and a questionnaire to record occupancy. In the workplace, results for 73 staff suggest that doses are lower than expected, partly due to part-time working and partly due to the mobility of staff. The 75% quantile for the series, corrected to a 37 hour week, is 5.2 mSv at 400 Bq m -3 . Compared to the current annual limit for radiation workers, the Action Level could be increased, but the current Action Level is compatible with the recent EEC Directive requiring a lower dose limit. However, when raised radon levels in the workplace were reduced by remediation in the series we studied, the dose reduction to staff was consistently around half of the radon level reduction. Although it would be appropriate to study more locations, this suggests an Action Level for remediated workplaces of 200 Bq m -3 . Finally, in a limited series of dose assessments in domestic properties, we found that doses could considerably exceed 5 mSv at the 200 Bq m -3 Action Level, primarily because the sample included an example of high occupancy, in our case several Asian wives in purdah, whose occupancy was almost total. (author)

  14. Mapping of groundwater radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aekerblom, G.; Lindgren, J.

    1997-01-01

    The domestic use of water with elevated radon concentration may represent a public health hazard, partly due to the release of radon to the indoor air. While only a limited number of countries have implemented regulations with respect to radon in water, many more are considering doing so. The compulsory limits proposed by Swedish authorities are 100 Bq/1 for public water, while water from private wells is not to exceed 1000 Bq/1. Furthermore, it is recommended that water with a radon content above 500 Bq/1 should not be given to children under five years of age. In Sweden, the estimated number of wells with radon levels above 1000 Bq/1 exceeds 10,000, with a considerable amount in excess of 10,000 Bq/1. The highest radon concentration in a well supplying drinking water encountered so far is 57,000 Bq/1. Radon levels exceeding 500 Bq/1 are almost exclusively found in wells drilled into bedrock and in springs with intramontaneous water. Elevated ground water radon levels require that the water has passed through bedrock with elevated concentration of uranium, or through fractures with coatings of minerals containing enhanced concentrations of radium-226. Intramontaneous water from areas with uranium-bearing rock types (e.g. uranium-rich granites, pegmatites and vulcanites) often manifests elevated radon levels. Routines for the establishment of risk maps focusing on water are currently under development. The backbone of the process is the access to high spatial resolution radiometric information together with bedrock and soil information on a detailed scale (1:50,000). This information is available from the Geological Survey of Sweden, which is routinely carrying out airborne measurements at an altitude of 30 m and a line spacing of 200 m. While some 60% of Sweden is covered up to now, 75 % is expected to be covered within the next ten years. Other available databases utilized in the risk mapping process include radon measurements in wells, geochemical data from

  15. Indoor radon level in schools of Shillong, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, A.; Sharma, Y.; Maibam, D.; Walia, D.; Diengdoh, E.

    2010-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) in the atmosphere is the most important contributor to human exposure from natural sources. Radon is a noble inert gas; and it decays to radionuclides that are chemically active and relatively short lived. Inhalation of the short lived radon progeny imparts a radiation dose to the lung, to which an increased risk of lung cancer is attributed due to the alpha particle irradiation of the secretory and basal cells of the respiratory tract. The indoor radon concentration is dependent on the texture, porosity, permeability, water content of the soil underlying the structure and the radon behaviour in soils on aspects of geology and climate. The direct cause of high radon entry rates into structures exhibiting high indoor radon concentrations are fractures in bedrock formations, cracks in the soil, and similar inhomogeneities in the materials of the foundation of the structures. Other factors influencing indoor radon concentration includes exhalations from the walls and ceilings, building design and material, cracks and openings in the foundation of the buildings. The geological factors in the study area promote radon accumulation especially in buildings and dwellings. The world average annual effective dose in the indoor environments is 1.01 mSv.y -1 . The importance of radon level measurements in school buildings is of interest as children are more sensitive to radon exposure than adults. Hence, radon measurements in 10 schools have been undertaken in the present study

  16. Secular variations of radon in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Slawson, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sampling of radon within the soil from three sites in metropolitan Vancouver is reported. Alpha trace bi-weekly measurements during a period of 4 years show secular variations with a period of 8-15 months. There are low-radon and high-radon episodes enduring several months to a year. Average radon level during the high-radon episodes reaches 5-10 times that of the low-radon periods. During high-radon episodes the high-frequency variations show very high amplitudes. After filtering of the high-frequency fluctuations, the data from different sites demonstrate remarkably similar trends. It is suggested that along with hydrogeological events, stress relaxation in rocks, earthquake, and magma emplacement may contribute to the sources of secular variations of radon. Because of long-term variations, radon level in urban areas should be monitored on a continuous basis. Single measurements, even those integrating radiation over a period of few months, may sample a low-radon episode, and provide a false assurance, or occur during a high-radon episode and give a false alarm

  17. World Health Organization's International Radon Project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Zhanat; Shannoun, Ferid; Zielinski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to indoor radon have confirmed that radon in homes is a serious health hazard that can be easily mitigated. To address the issue at an international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Radon Project (IRP). The project was launched in January 2005 with its first meeting attended by 36 experts representing 17 countries. The project's scope and the key objectives were outlined at this meeting and later refined: 1-) To identify effective strategies for reducing the health impact of radon; 2-) To promote sound policy options, prevention and mitigation programs (including monitoring and evaluation of programs; 3-) To raise public, political and economical awareness about the consequences of exposure to radon (including financial institutions as target group); 4-) To estimate the global health impact of exposure to residential radon using available data on radon worldwide. WHO and its member states strive through the WHO-IRP to succeed in putting indoor radon on the environmental health agenda in countries with lower awareness of radon as a health problem and in strengthening local and national radon-related activities in countries with ongoing radon programs. Two subsequent working meetings were held: in March, 2006 in Geneva with 63 participants from 25 countries, along with representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and European Commission (EC); and in March 2007 in Munich with 61 participants from 27 countries. Both meetings reviewed the IRP progress and focused on the two main outputs: 'The WHO Report on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to Radon' and 'The WHO Radon Handbook'. The former applies the WHO methodology for GBD assessment and considers ways to graphically map residential radon concentrations

  18. The role of house surveys in geological radon potential mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, K.

    1997-01-01

    Because radon levels vary widely between apparently identical buildings on the same geological unit, no map can predict the radon level in an individual building. Maps can, however, give the probability that a building in a particular locality is above a threshold of radon concentration such as a reference or action level. The probability may be calculated for a particular building type or for a mixture of building types. In the latter case the probability is in effect an estimate of the proportion of buildings above the threshold level. Alternatively maps can provide estimates of the mean radon levels in buildings by area. Maps showing the geographical variation in probability that new or existing building will exceed a radon reference level are used to prevent excessive exposures to radon. The information may be used in various ways, such as to target information campaigns encouraging measurement of radon levels in homes or to modify regulations for new buildings. The data which are used to provide the estimates of the proportion of buildings above a threshold may be radon measurements results from a sample of buildings, or may be indirect indicators such as ground radium concentrations, emanation coefficients and permeability measurements. Consistency in radon measurement protocols and detailed positional information are prerequisites for mapping radon prone areas based upon house data. Grouping building radon measurements by geological formation and superficial cover can produce radon potential maps which are more spatially accurate than grid square maps and more accurate in estimating numbers of homes affected than mapping based only on measuring geological and pedagogical properties

  19. Radon reduction in waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, O.; Haberer, K.; Wilken, R.D.; Funk, H.; Stueber, J.; Wanitschek, J.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.; Stauder, S.

    2000-01-01

    The removal of radon from water using water aeration is one of the most effective methods for reducing radon in waterworks. Therefore, this report describes investigations on packed tower columns and shallow aeration devices and a method for mathematical modelling of gas exchange processes for dimensioning packed tower columns for radon removal. Moreover, possibilities for removing radon using active carbon filtration under waterworks typical conditions and for reducing indoor radon levels in waterworks are discussed. Finally, conclusions on the necessity of radon removal in German waterworks are drawn. (orig.) [de

  20. Application of the can technique and radon gas analyzer for radon exhalation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Musazay, M.S.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-12-01

    A passive 'can technique' and an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container were applied for radon exhalation rate measurements from different construction materials, viz. five marble seven ceramic and 100 granite tiles used in Saudi Arabia. The marble and ceramic tiles did not show detectable radon exhalation using the active radon gas analyzer system. However the granite tiles showed relatively high radon exhalations, indicating a relatively high uranium content. A comparison of the radon exhalation rates measured by the two techniques showed a linear correlation coefficient of 0.57. The radon exhalation rates from the granites varied from 0.02 to 6.58 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1} with an average of 1.35{+-}1.40 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. The geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation of the frequency distribution were found to be 0.80 and 3.1, respectively. The track density found on the nuclear track detectors in the can technique exposed to the granites, having high exhalation rates, varied linearly with exposure time with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.99. This experimental finding agrees with the theoretical prediction. The can technique showed sensitivity to low radon exhalation rates from ceramic, marble and some granite over a period of 2 months, which were not detectable by the active radon gas analyzer system. The reproducibility of data with both measuring techniques was found to be within a 7% deviation.

  1. Uranium and radon surveys in western Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    The water samples from mountain springs, streams and river systems in the western Himalaya were collected and analysed in the laboratory for uranium and radon contents. It is observed that the Himalayan river system is conspicuous by its high dissolved uranium and radium concentration. The water samples contain from 0.89 ppb to 63.4 ppb of uranium and from 34 Bq/I to 364 Bq/I of radon. The radon emanation in soil is measured by the track-etch method, emanometry and alpha-logger technique. The daily and long-term variation of radon was monitored in some mineralized zones of Himachal Pradesh (HP) state with high uranium content in the soil. The maximum values of radon are recorded in Chhinjra, Rameda, Samurkala and Kasol areas of HP. (author)

  2. Parameters that characterize the radon hazard of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, T.E.; Mervis, J.A.; Jarzemba, M.S.; Carey, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    It has been observed that the radon concentration in homes does not depend solely on the steady-state 222 Rn concentration in the soil. An explanation for the lack of correlation between radon concentrations in the soil and in adjacent homes includes factors such as the construction of the homes, their heating systems, and the habits of their occupants. Another explanation, which is proposed in this paper, is that the steady-state concentration of radon in the pore gas does not fully characterize the soil as a radon hazard. Other soil properties, such as its diffusion length for radon and its porosity, may be important. In this paper, the authors have identified the soil properties important in radon transport into the basement of a home by mathematically modeling ventilated basement air enclosed in basement walls and surrounded by soil and by solving the model equations to determine an expression for the basement air radon concentration as a function of the properties of the soil and basement wall

  3. Radon remediation of a two-storey UK dwelling by active sub-slab depressurization: observations on hourly Radon concentration variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Radon concentration levels in a two-storey detached single-family dwelling in Northamptonshire, UK, were monitored at hourly intervals throughout a 5-week period during which sub-slab depressurization remediation measures, including an active sump system, were installed. Remediation of the property was accomplished successfully, with the mean radon levels upstairs and downstairs greatly reduced and the prominent diurnal variability in radon levels present prior to remediation almost completely removed. Following remediation, upstairs and downstairs radon concentrations were 32% and 16% of their pre-remediation values respectively. The mean downstairs radon concentration was lower than that upstairs, with pre-and post-remediation values of the upstairs/downstairs concentration ratio, R U/D , of 0.93 and 1.76 respectively. Cross-correlation between upstairs and downstairs radon concentration time-series indicates a time-lag of the order of 1 hour or less, suggesting that diffusion of soil-derived radon from downstairs to upstairs either occurs within that time frame or forms a relatively insignificant contribution to the upstairs radon level. Cross-correlation between radon concentration time-series and the corresponding time-series for local atmospheric parameters demonstrated correlation between radon concentrations and internal/external pressure-difference prior to remediation. This correlation disappears following remediation, confirming the effectiveness of the remediation procedure in mitigating radon ingress from the ground via the stack-effect. Overall, these observations provide further evidence that radon emanation from building materials makes a not insignificant contribution to radon concentration levels within the building. Furthermore, since this component remains essentially unaffected by sub-slab depressurization, its proportional contribution to the total radon levels in the home increases following remediation, leading to the conclusion that where

  4. Radon atlas of England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.; Bradley, E.J.; Rees, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    This new report brings together and updates the information in three earlier reports on radon levels in English and Welsh homes. In particular, data from measurements in over 400,000 homes in England and Wales are presented in tabular format. The tables give the data by various administrative divisions, down to electoral wards for Cornwall, Devon and Somerset and council areas elsewhere and to sector level of the postcode system. The radon probability maps are based on the national grid system and show significantly more locational detail than the previous publications, an extra division in the probability banding to coincide with current Government initiatives on radon in England and, in southwest England, more detailed probability mapping than before - by 1 km grid squares in place of the 5 km grid squares used in Wales and the rest of England. (author)

  5. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S.

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations

  6. The radon monitoring system in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.C.; Kwan, K.K.; Kwok, M.W.; Kwok, T.; Leung, J.K.C.; Leung, K.Y.; Lin, Y.C.; Luk, K.B.; Pun, C.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a highly sensitive, reliable and portable automatic system (H 3 ) to monitor the radon concentration of the underground experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. H 3 is able to measure radon concentration with a statistical error less than 10% in a 1-h measurement of dehumidified air (R.H. 5% at 25 °C) with radon concentration as low as 50 Bq/m 3 . This is achieved by using a large radon progeny collection chamber, semiconductor α-particle detector with high energy resolution, improved electronics and software. The integrated radon monitoring system is highly customizable to operate in different run modes at scheduled times and can be controlled remotely to sample radon in ambient air or in water from the water pools where the antineutrino detectors are being housed. The radon monitoring system has been running in the three experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment since November 2013.

  7. Radon sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeham, C.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A radon sump which can be installed easily by unskilled labour and which is cheap to produce comprises a unit in the form of a box-like housing having one or more walls, a floor and a roof, and is preferably made from a synthetic plastics material, optionally reinforced with glass fibre or other reinforcing material, the housing having a plurality of inlets in its wall or walls and at least one outlet leading to a pipe spigot which is made in one piece with the housing. Alternatively, the housing is made in concrete, in 3 pieces (floor, wall, roof) with a knock-out portion which can be removed for insertion of an outlet pipe. (Author)

  8. Conceptual model for the origin of high radon levels in spring waters - The example of the St. Placidus spring, Grisons, Swiss Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainon, F.; Goldscheider, N.; Surbeck, H.

    2007-01-01

    A variety of geological, hydrochemical and isotopic techniques were applied to explain the origin of exceptionally high radon levels in the St. Placidus spring near the city of Disentis in the Swiss Alps, where an average of 650 Bq/L 222 Rn was measured. 222 Rn is a radioactive noble gas with a half-life of 4 days, which results from the disintegration of radium ( 226 Ra). The high radon levels can neither be explained by generally increased radium content in the fractured aquifer rock (orthogneiss), nor by the radium concentration in the spring water. It was possible to show that there must be a productive radium reservoir inside the aquifer but very near to the spring. This reservoir mainly consists of iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides, which precipitate in a zone where reduced, iron-rich groundwaters mix occasionally with oxygen-rich, freshly infiltrated rainwater or meltwater. The iron, as well as the reduced and slightly acid conditions, can be attributed to pyrite oxidation in the recharge area of the spring. Radium cations strongly adsorb and accumulate on such deposits, and generate radon, which is then quickly transported to the spring with the flowing groundwater. (author)

  9. Effects of radon in indoor air studied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radon is an odorless, tasteless and colourless radioactive noble gas that enters indoor air from the ground. Radon causes lung cancer. A committee set up to evaluate the health risks of chemical substances has been drafting a report on radon, which will compile the major research findings on the lung cancer risk posed by radon. Animal tests have shown that even small doses of radon can cause lung cancer. Smokers seem to contract radon-induced lung cancer more readily than non-smokers. Because research findings have been conflicting, however, it is not known exactly how high the risk of lung cancer caused by indoor radon exposure really is. Several major research projects are under way to obtain increasingly accurate risk assessments. An on-going European joint project brings together several studies - some already finished, some still being worked on. In this way it will be possible to get more accurate risk assessments than from individual studies. In order to prevent lung cancer, it is important to continue the work of determining and reducing radon connects and to combat smoking. (orig.)

  10. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-15

    caused by the homogenous radon concentrations measured in the Laxemar area. The radon concentrations in near surface water measured in Forsmark showed large variability with both low and high radon concentrations. This large variability in radon concentration could not be explained by the flow pattern of the groundwater since no clear correlation between radon concentration and recharge/discharge classification was found. The radon concentration was also measured at different depths in the soil profile at three locations in the Forsmark area. The results showed large differences with increasing radon concentration with increasing depth. This gradient of radon concentration can be explained largely by the radon emanation potential of the local soil type at different depths. High radon concentrations were found in wells with higher radon emanation potential like till and bedrock. These observations showed the importance of the radon emanation potential of the local soil for the radon concentration in groundwater. The main purpose of this study has been to evaluate the use of radon as a tracer for groundwater flow patterns. The method is based on the ingrowth of radon from its progenitor radium according to the law of radioactive decay. According to this law the radon concentration in groundwater will reach equilibrium conditions after approximately 30 days in contact with the surrounding soil. The equilibrium radon concentration of the near surface groundwater was measured at several location in the Forsmark area and a range of the steady state radon concentration was calculated. The measured steady state radon concentration was then used to evaluate the radon concentrations measured in near surface groundwater in the area. A recharge/discharge classification of the wells was done based on the range of steady state radon concentration and the measured radon concentrations in groundwater. All wells with radon concentration below the steady state radon concentration were

  11. Radon levels at the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tims, S.; Ryan, B.; Martin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A high sensitivity radon monitor has now been in continuous operation at the Nabarlek mine site for several months. The pit area can be viewed as a single, extended radon source, which can be used to assess the validity of radon dispersal predictions. The data have been recorded simultaneously with a variety of meteorological parameters, with a view to using correlations between the data sets as a guide for the improvement of dispersion model inputs. The sensitivity of radon concentration to selected parameters will be discussed, as will the future of the study which aims to make additional simultaneous radon measurements at selected locations around the mine site

  12. Radon: implications for the health professional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Radon is a colorless, odorless gas formed by radioactive decay of radium and uranium, which are naturally present in the earth's crust. When concentrated indoors, this invisible gas becomes a potential health hazard. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that up to 20,000 lung cancer deaths annually can be attributed to prolonged radon exposure. Radon is an important health issue that should be understood by all health care professionals. This paper discusses some of the important issues regarding radon, such as the incidences of lung cancer believed to be attributable to radon, the high-risk areas in the United States, federal safety guidelines, and public apathy. These issues and their impact on the health care required by professionals, especially nurse practitioners, are discussed

  13. Novel Radon Sub-Slab Suctioning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2013-01-01

    A new principle for radon protection is currently presented which makes use of a system of horizontal pressurised air ducts located within the lower part of the rigid insulation layer of the ground-floor slab. The function of this system is based on the principles of pressure reduction within...... a grid of horizontal air ducts with low pressure which are able to remove air and radon from the ground. Results showed the system to be effective in preventing radon infiltrating from the ground through the ground-floor slab, avoiding high concentrations of radon being accumulated inside houses....... For the system to be effective, the pressure within the ducts must be lower than the pressure inside the house. The new principle was shown to be effective in preventing radon from polluting the indoor air by introducing low pressure in the horizontal grid of air ducts. A lower pressure than the pressure inside...

  14. Radon risk map of the city Brno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Data of radon risk mapping of the city Brno area from 1992 to 1999 were collected from databases of six private companies measuring radon risk there. The data sets are completed now. The first results are presented in this paper. In the city Brno area only low (385 measured sites) and medium (300) radon risk categories were found. The largest number of measured areas were situated in places with loess and loess loam (total quantity 344 sites, with medium radon risk category 158 sites), recent fluvial sediments (64, 32) and anthropogenous deposits (61, 23). High values of radon volume activity in soil gas were found predominantly in Quaternary sediments and in granodiorite, type Veverska Bityska, low values in leucotonalite and metabasalt. (author)

  15. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  16. Intercomparison of radon gas detectors 1999 and 2000 at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Christoph; Butterweck, Gernot

    2000-10-01

    This report describes the results of two radon intercomparison exercises performed by the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut from Sep 9th to Oct 6th, 1999, and from March 21st to 28th, 2000. Radon gas detectors and instruments were exposed in the PSI Radon Chamber in reference atmospheres to 1060 kBqhm -3 radon gas exposure at an average radon gas concentration of 6400 Bqm -3 and to 2050 kBqhm -3 radon gas exposure at an average radon gas concentration of 12500 Bqm -3 , respectively. These intercomparison exercises determined the performance of electret ionisation chambers, track etch detectors and measuring instruments at high humidity (1999 Intercomparison Exercise) and at a high radon gas exposure (2000 Intercomparison Exercise). In the 1999 Intercomparison Exercise, electret ionisation chambers revealed an influence on high humidity. This effect may be due to impurities on a microscopic scale on the electrets of these detectors. With few exceptions, in both the 1999 and the 2000 Radon Intercomparison Exercise the deviations of the measurement results to the reference radon gas concentration values were less than 15% (traceability criterion) and the standard deviation of the results of five detectors less than 15% (reproducibility criterion). (author) [de

  17. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    AF Branding & Trademark Licensing Join the Air Force Home About Us The Air Force Symbol Display Resources Document Library TM Connect Search AF Branding and Trademark Licensing Program: important links Legal Documents 10 U.S.C. § 2260 15 U.S.C. § 167;167; 1114-1125 DODI 5535.12, DoD Branding and

  18. Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    intersect as Attack Wing leaders change roles The 112th COS postured as cyber shield for Pa. infrastructure 111th Attack Wing 111th Attack Wing 21st Century Guard Airmen Home News Photos Art Video Resources - The Balance Search 111th Attack Wing: COMMUNITY/ENVIRO May 16, 2018; Pa. Department of Health update

  19. Dosimetry of inhaled radon and thoron progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This chapter reviews recent developments in modeling doses received by lung tissues, with particular emphasis on application of ICRP's new dosimetric model of the respiratory tract for extrapolating to other environments the established risks from exposure to radon progeny in underground mines. Factors discussed include: (1) the influence of physical characteristics of radon progeny aerosols on dose per unit exposure, e.g., the unattached fraction, and the activity-size distributions of clustered and attached progeny; (2) the dependence of dose on breathing rate, and on the exposed subject (man, woman or child); (3) the variability of dose per unit exposure in a home when exposure is expressed in terms of potential α energy or radon gas concentration; (4) the comparative dosimetry of thoron progeny; and (5) the effects of air-cleaning on lung dose. Also discussed is the apparent discrepancy between lung cancer risk estimates derived purely from dosimetry and the lung cancer incidence observed in the epidemiological studies of radon-exposed underground miners. Application of ICRP's recommended risk factors appears to overestimate radon lung-cancer risk for miners by a factor of three. ''Normalization'' of the calculated effective dose is therefore needed, at least for α dose from radon and thoron progeny, in order to obtain a realistic estimate of lung cancer risk

  20. Evaluation of several air cleaners for reducing indoor radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Jensen, B.; Montassier, N.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past several years, studies have been made of the effectiveness of several kinds of air cleaners in removing radon decay products from indoor air using a recently developed automated, semi-continuous measurement system that can determine the activity-weighted size distributions in occupied homes. Measurements of activity-weighted size distributions and radon concentrations were made every 90 min in a home with a high air exchange rate. A week-long series of measurements was made for the home with no cleaner operating and a similar set of measurements were made for each of the air cleaners. Two different types of air cleaners were tested in this study; filtration units (two different designs from two different manufacturers) and two ion generator/fan systems (identical design NO-RAD systems, but from two different manufacturers). It was found that the filtration units resulted in a median reduction in exposure of 15% and 36% for the two units and corresponding dose reductions of 32% and 53%. The two NO-RAD systems produced 37% and 10% reductions in the median exposure, but the reductions in the median dose were 49% and 46%. (author)

  1. High sensitivity two filter radon/thoron detectors with a wire or nylon screen as a second filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.; Zahorowski, W.; Wasiolek, P.

    1994-12-01

    A study is made of the use of wire and nylon screens as a second filter in two radon or thoron detectors. It is shown that acceptable detection efficiency is obtained at flow rates comparable to those used in detectors in which other types of filter are used. The main advantage of the screens is their very low flow impedance. Several designs of detector which exploit this feature are discussed. Details are given of the performance of three prototypes: a 32 L radon detector with a limit of detection of 0.0027 Bq m -3 and power consumption of 25 watts; and a portable thoron emanometer capable of detecting fluxes as low as 1 m Bq m -2 s -1 . The radon detectors are rugged and simple. They can operate with no routine maintenance and are suited to remote locations where only infrequent technical support is available. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs

  2. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, Tracy

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  3. Investigation of the Radon exhalation potential in the PACA region. Phase II: case of high potential exhalation areas in Medium Champsaur (05) and South Esterel (83). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the results of the first phase of the study and the objectives of the second phase, the authors present the methodology: uranium and thorium analysis on rock, radon-222 activity measurement in soil gases, and gamma radiation measurement. They discuss the influence of rock uranium content on radon exhalation (natural contextual and physical phenomena governing radon transport, radon properties, uranium geochemistry). They report the results obtained in the two considered areas (meteorological conditions, radon 222 content in soils, uranium and thorium contents in geological formations, influence of geological formation type and distribution on radon activity)

  4. Preliminary Study for 3D Radon Distribution Modelling in the Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ChoongWie; Kim, HeeReyoung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radon exists in the form of noble gas, which comes from decay of {sup 238}U, becoming stable {sup 206}Pb going through 4 alpha and 4 beta decays. If this process occurred in human body after inhalation, lung could be damaged by interaction with these radiations causing lung cancer. Most radon in indoor air comes from soil (85 - 97%) through crack of the wall but it also came from wall (2 - 5%) itself in home. Due to its hazardous and unpredictable characteristic, radon became one of the concerning nuclides in indoor air. Hence, the number of survey and research about radon has been increased. Although accurate radon measurement is important to evaluate health risk, it is hard to actually achieve because radon is affected by many conditions, where its concentration can vary easily. Moreover, radon concentration can vary according to the height because of density of radon in the spatial aspect. 3D distribution modelling in the room of radon with aerodynamic features and sources variations was carried out to find average and maximum radon concentration. 3D radon distribution in the room would be find through this computational analysis and it is thought to be possible to correct measured radon concentration with spatial variation to fit the height of nose where inhalation occur. The methodological concept for 3D modelling was set up to solve transport equation for radon behavior by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software such as FLUENT.

  5. Radon in Finnish dwellings. Sample survey 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Kinnunen, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Valmari, T.; Arvela, H.

    2009-12-01

    concentrations are high in houses using a slab-on-ground foundation. In addition, foundation solution in hillside houses or houses that have a basement with open staircase between the lowest floor and the rest of the dwelling still increases radon concentrations. This is caused by the ground contact constructions that allow radon-bearing air to flow through them into the living spaces. Also the soil at the building site affects radon concentration. Radon concentrations were higher in houses built on gravel and sand formations and quarried rock than other soil types. High concentrations were found also on tighter soil types. The use of light-weight concrete blocks increases radon leaks from the soil. Radon concentrations were lower in houses with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation than in houses with natural or mechanical exhaust ventilation. After the rise in radon concentrations in new houses that started in sixties, concentrations have started to drop in houses built in 2000 and later. This is due to the crawl space foundation and mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation becoming more common. In addition, the use of radon prevention techniques in new building has increased. In the areas of Tavastia and South-Eastern Finland radon piping has been installed in 64 per cent of houses built after 1995, the percentage being 24 in the whole country. The sealing of foundation constructions, which is important for radon prevention, has not become as common as was hoped for. The success of radon prevention in new building is crucial when aiming for low radon concentrations in the building stock. (orig.)

  6. A review of the factors affecting the cost effectiveness and health benefits of domestic radon remediation programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Radon levels in domestic properties can be sufficiently high to pose a health hazard, significantly increasing the risk of lung cancer. The distribution of high levels varies geographically. As a result, radon remediation programmes in the United Kingdom (UK) have been developed, firstly to find the houses with high levels, and then remediate these. Our group has extensively studied domestic remediation programmes in the U.K., principally in Northamptonshire, where 6.3% of existing houses exhibit radon levels greater than the UK Action Level of 200 Bq.m -3 , but also in other parts of the country. This analysis has addressed the influences of a number of different factors. Firstly, programmes in areas where more houses are over the Action level are necessarily more cost-effective. Secondly, cost-effectiveness is reduced if people do not take action to test, and then remediate, their houses, which is the case in practice. Therefore, radon awareness programmes in areas with a modest number of houses over the Action level can be more expensive, and therefore inappropriate, compared with other health interventions. Our studies have also demonstrated that the occupancy of the home, together with the ratio of radon levels upstairs and downstairs, has only a modest effect on the value of remediation. More significantly, remediation with an active pump eliminates diurnal variation, and night-time exposure is thus reduced while day-time exposure is not. The most significant impact on the value of remediation programmes, however, is whether the occupants smoke, as radon and smoking combine to produce a greater health risk. Unfortunately, surveys have shown that fewer smokers take action to test and remediate their homes, and many of those most at risk are consequently not reached by the current programmes. This paper presents a review of these issues, and considers the impact of the results on the design of future remediation programmes. (author)

  7. A study of radon 222 transfer indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Robe, M.C.; Archimbaud, M.

    1985-01-01

    Indoor exposure can vary considerably depending upon the natural environment (geology, climate), man-made arrangements (building materials, insulation and ventilation systems...) or way of living. In order to specify the sources and assess their respective contribution in a given dwelling, a good knowledge of radon transfer and dispersion processes is required as well as a heavy experimental device (continuous radon and ventilation monitoring...). The study must be limited to some cases selected by a systematic measurement program either because they are representative of dwelling conditions, or preferably on account of their high radon level, the origin of which will be investigated. As a consequence, countermeasures can be developed. A pilot study has been carried out on radon transport in two houses of the Rhone river valley. The two houses -selected among 131 other ones for their high radon levels- are built with the same architectural approach and located very close to each other, yet the factors accounting for domestic exposure are quite different. Indoor parameters are at the origin of various radon concentrations in the case of low natural ventilation; conversely, outdoor parameters only seem to act in the case of high ventilation. For a larger part, however, radon seems to emanate from under the foundations of both houses [fr

  8. Orphan radon daughters at Denver Radium site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, R.F.; Droullard, R.F.; Davis, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    During 18 mo of sampling airborne radioactively at a National Priority List (open-quotes Superfundclose quotes) site in metroPOlitan Denver, Bureau of mines personnel discovered radon daughters that are not supported by the parent radon gas. We refer to them as open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters because the parent, radon, is not present in sufficient concentration to support the measured daughter products. Measurements of the open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters were made continuously, using the Bureau-developed radon and working-level (radon-daughter) monitors. The data showed high equilibrium ratios, ranging from 0.7 to 3.5, for long periods of time. Repeated, high-volume, 15-min grab samples were made, using the modified Tsivoglou method, to measure radon daughters, to which thoron daughters contributed 26 ± 12%. On average 28 ± 6% of the particulate activity was contributed by thoron daughters. Most samples were mixtures in which the 218 Po concentration was lower than that of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, in agreement with the high-equilibrium factors obtained from the continuous sampling data. In view of the short half-life of radon progeny, we conclude that the source of the orphan daughters is not far from the Superfund sites. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood at this time, but we will discuss its possible significance in evaluating population doses

  9. A radon meter chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1990-01-01

    The meter consists of a cylindrical house with two openings, at the ends, one of which is equipped with an alpha particle detector and the other covered with a metal net. The house is manufactured in an isolating material e.g. plastic, with a metallic layer applied to all internal surfaces. The metallic layer and net are kept at a positive electric potential, compared to the alpha detector, in order to attract the radon daughters to the detector and achieve a high efficiency. (L.E.)

  10. Radon emanation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of gamma spectrometric sample measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) emanation coefficients and radium concentrations ( 226 Ra) from about 800 Finnish soil samples are presented. The radon emanation rate was measured in about 400 soil samples, using radon-tight cans and Lucas cells. The effects of water content and temperature on radon emanation were investigated, using various samples of different soil types. Radon emanation and the effect of water content on radon emanation were investigated separately for different grain sizes (samples of till). The results provide some information on radon emanation in different soil types and relate emanation in laboratory conditions to conditions in ground soil. In routine measurements of radon emanation from soil samples, use of a 5% water content was considered advisable. The correction coefficients of radon emanation varied between 0.3 and 1.5, depending on the water content and soil type. At 5% water content, hardly any difference was found between radon emanation at temperatures of 20 and 1 o C. Radon emanation was found to be an inverse function of grain sizes larger than 0.5 mm in diameter. (author)

  11. Radon in coal power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, Traian; Mauna, Andriesica

    2006-01-01

    Radon, the radioactive colourless and inodorous noble gas, represents more than 55% of the natural average radioactivity. It is permanently released from the soil and majority of building materials, it builds up in the mine galleries, in dwelling houses and in other closed rooms. Radon gained increasingly in importance, particularly after 1990 when was doubtless identified as the second cause of lung cancer if a given concentration threshold is surpassed. This threshold is established differentially by each country as a function of the particular site and generally ranges between 150 Bq.m -3 and 600 Bq.m -3 . The telluric radon consists of two isotopes, 222 Rn, a daughter of radium descending from uranium, which induces 90% of the effects, and 220 Rn from thorium series which have too short a lifetime to count in the risk assessments of radon inhalation. The interest of the authorities and population for diminishing the radon effects was illustrated by specific studies which in USA were managed by the National Counsel of Research, the BEIR VI committee of which has issued a report concerning the lung cancer produced by radon and its descendants. Coal mining, the transport, processing, burning, slag and ash disposal are activities entailing radon release. The miners' dwellings are placed in areas with the high radon potential. The local building materials have a high content of radioactive elements from the uranium or thorium series so that radon can build up in the closed rooms of these buildings. Hence the social responsible authorities in the coal power industry zones should consider this aspect long time ignored in the Balkans macro zone so far. The radon issue must be differentially approached in different areas hence a zonal mapping of the radon emission should be first done. It is worth to underline that the gaseous radioactive emission from operational nuclear power plants amounts up to a few percents of the radon natural emissions what entails a

  12. First report of RADMIL on radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    RADMIL'S carbon diffusion measurement data has been assessed using the 150 Becquerels per cubic metre guideline. The assessment shows that (i) of 391 Lancashire homes measured 1 exceeded the 150 Becquerels per cubic metre guideline value; (ii) Radon levels found fall distinctly into two groups. Those within an area of particularly Radon emitting geology and those outside that area; (iii) levels within districts in the central, north and north-eastern areas of the county are clearly higher than those outside those areas. (author)

  13. Radon risks: Attitudes, perceptions and actions. Risk communication series. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.

    1989-08-01

    As many as 8 million homes in the United States may have elevated radon levels, with accompanying lung cancer risks several orders of magnitude higher than for most other environmental risks. The U.S. Environmental Protection Program (EPA) does not have clear regulatory authority over radon, so has relied on an information program. Less than 5% of homes have been tested, which is disappointing from a public health stance. The report summarizes the available research on communicating about the risk from radon from the perspective of a psychologist. The research results are critiqued to draw practical conclusions for radon policy and suggest the most important topics for further risk communication research.

  14. Indoor radon survey in Eastern Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, R.; Immè, G.; Mangano, G.; Morelli, D.; Tazzer, A. Rosselli

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation of radon (Rn-222) and its progeny is one of the most significant sources of natural radiation exposure of the population. Nowadays, high radon exposures have been shown to cause lung cancer and many governments all over the world have therefore recommended that radon exposures in dwellings and indoor workplaces should be limited. Radon levels in buildings vary widely from area to area depending on local geology. This paper presents the results of a long-term survey of radon concentrations carried out from 2005 till 2010 in schools and dwellings of Eastern Sicily, using the solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) technique. The investigated area shows medium-high indoor radon concentrations, higher than the Italian average of about 70 Bq/m 3 , with peaks of 500 Bq/m 3 or more in buildings near active faults. Fortunately, only a small fraction of the measurements, about 1.5% of total, was found greater than EU and Italian action limits for indoor and workplaces. - Highlights: ► In this paper we report radon monitoring survey carried out in the east Sicily in schools and dwellings. ► The detection methodology was the solid-state nuclear track detector one. ► The work was supported by a national projects financed by the National Institute of Nuclear Physics.

  15. A High Rated Solar Water Distillation Unit for Solar Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is presently focusing on complete utilization of solar energy and saving fossil fuels, which are limited. Various solar energy systems like solar cookers, solar water heaters, solar lanterns, solar PV lights, and solar lamps are continuously availing by the people of India at a low cost and on good subsidies. Apart from this, India is a solar energy promising country with a good number of solar homes (carrying solar energy systems in its various locations. The present paper focuses on a unique combination of solar dish cooker (SDC and solar water heater (SWH to produce distilled water with a high distillate and a high daily productivity. The procedure has been discussed on the basis of experimental testing to produce distilled water by combining an evacuated type SWH and a SDC. Experimentation has been carried out in MIT, Moradabad (longitude, 28.83°N, and latitude, 78.78°E by developing the same experimental setup on behalf of solar homes. The daily productivity of distilled water was found around 3.66 litres per day in full sunshine hours for an approximated pH value of 7.7 and a ppm value of 21. The payback period (PBP has been estimated around 1.16 years of the present system.

  16. The equivalent doses of indoor radon in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O.; Choukri, J.; Reyss, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The principal source of exposure to radiation for public in built-up areas is known to be the inhalation for radon its short-lived daughters.Most of this exposure occurs inside homes,where many hours are spent each day and where the volumic activity of radon is usually higher than outdoors. The compelling effects of radon and its short-lived decay products spread slowly but surely through a wide range of biological problems encountered in such areas as the mortality rates and lung cancer in uranium mines,the results of experimental work with animals, and the discovery of unsually high levels of radon in the living environments of the general population. As a way of prevention, we have measured the volumic activities of indoor radon-222 and we have calculated their effective equivalent dose in some dwellings and enclosed areas in Morocco. The obtained results show that the effective equivalent dose of activities measured indoor dwellings are inferior to the admissible annual limit fixed by ICRP for population, except in two twons situated in regions rich in phosphate deposits where the calculated doses are slightly upper than this limit. The results obtained for enclosed areas are inferior to the admissible annual limit fixed by ICRP for workers, except in the cave of geophysical observatory situated at depth of-12 meters where the obtained value don't present in risk for workers health because workers pass only a few minutes by day in this cave. The risks related to the volumic activities for indoor radon could be avoided by simple precautions such the continuous ventilation

  17. Canadian individual risks of radon-induced lung cancer for different exposure profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Indoor radon has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. There is an increasing need among radiation practitioners to have numerical values of lung cancer risks for men and women, ever-smokers and never-smokers exposed to radon in homes. This study evaluates individual risks for the Canadian population exposed to radon in homes at different radon concentrations and for different periods of their lives. Based on the risk model developed recently by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), individual risks of radon-induced lung cancers are calculated with Canadian age-specific rates for overall and lung cancer mortalities (1996-2000) as well as the Canadian smoking prevalence data in 2002. Convenient tables of lifetime relative risks are constructed for lifetime exposures and short exposures between any two age intervals from 0 to 110, and for various radon concentrations found in homes from 50 to 1000 Bq/m3. The risk of developing lung cancer from residential radon exposure increases with radon concentration and exposure duration. For short exposure periods, such as 10 or 20 years, risks are higher in middle age groups (30-50) compared especially to the later years. Individuals could lower their risks significantly by reducing radon levels earlier in life. The tables could help radiation protection practitioners to better communicate indoor radon risk to members of the public.

  18. Measurements of radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Schelin, Hugo R.; Barbosa, Laercio; Sadula, Tatyana; Matsuzaki, Cristiana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: After the decades of systematic and numerous studies performed at different countries of the World, it has been concluded that radon as well as its progeny is the main cause of lung cancer. It is well known that more than 50% of the effective annual radiation dose received by a human being is related to the radon and its progenies. Among the principle mechanisms that bring the radon inside the dwelling is the soil exhalation as well as exhalation and release from the water. Radon concentration in the soil and its transport (emanation, diffusion, advection and adsorption) to the surface depends on different physical, geological and ambient parameters such as the geology of the area, geochemical composition of the soil, its porosity and permeability, grain size, soil humidity, bottom sediments and inputs from streams, temperature, atmospheric pressure, etc. Since the main part of indoor radon originates in the soil, the measurements of radon concentration in soil gas have to be considered as an important tool and indicator of probable high levels of radon inside the dwellings. Present work describes the radon in soil gas measurements performed during the last two years in cooperation between the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) and the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) from the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Following previously concluded measurements of radon concentration in dwellings and the measurements of 222 Rn activity in drinking water collected at artesian bores of Curitiba urban area, present step of activities has been dedicated to measurements of radon concentration in soil gas. Experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (ALPHA GUARD) connected to specially developed for such measurements Soil Gas Probe through the air pump and filter system. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0

  19. Radon concentrations in some Egyptian dwellings using LR 115 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, A S [Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Power Plants Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-06-15

    Radon, a well-established risk factor for human lung cancer, is present at low concentrations in most homes. Consequently, many countries have established national guidelines for residential radon concentrations. This survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Egypt. Indoor radon survey of a total of 15 randomly selected houses in Qena city, Upper Egypt was carried out. LR 115 detectors were exposed for one year, covering all the seasons. The estimated indoor radon levels varied from 19 to 59 Bq m{sup 3} with an average of 40 Bq m{sup 3}. Using the bare and filtered LR 115 detectors, the average equilibrium factor F was assessed as 0.30 indoors. An average annual effective dose of 0.40 mSv has been estimated and was found to be lower than the ICRP-65.

  20. Mortality and indoor radon daughter concentrations in 13 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Wigle, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine if lung cancer and general mortality rates in 13 Canadian cities were significantly correlated with average indoor radon daughter concentrations. The radon daughter measurements were obtained from a study of 10,000 homes chosen in a statistically valid grab sample basis. Cancer deaths by year of death, sex, age, and cause were retrieved for each of the cities for the period 1957-1976. Age specific and age standardized mortality rates were calculated. The results showed no evidence of any substantial association between general or lung cancer mortality rates and indoor radon daughter concentrations. The limitations of this study and the feasibility of a common international program of epidemiology of radon daughter exposure are discussed. A proposal is made for the use of case control studies of lung cancer to assess the relative importance of smoking, occupational and domestic exposure to radon daughters

  1. First measurement of radon transfer. Water - skin - blood - air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipsborn, H. von; Grunewald, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    While radon is disliked in uranium mines and homes, it is used medically in radon spas for the treatment of several ailments. The transfer of radon gas from water, through skin into blood and into expiratory air was studied completely for the first time for a person resting 20-30 min in radon water. For waterborne radon concentrations of 1500±100 Bq/L, 4±1 Bq/L were measured in the blood and 2.4±0.5 kBq/m 3 (Bq/L) in the expiratory air. The results can be understood according to the principles of physiology. The nature of the experiments excluded persons other than the authors. Hence the study has been radiometric (physical), not clinical (medical). (orig.)

  2. Indoor Radon and Lung Cancer Risk in Osijek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Culo, D.; Smit, G.; Suveljak, B.; Stanic, D.; Faj, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear. Our investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 188 cases of the disease appeared in Osijek town during last five years. Radon concentration was measured in homes of the patients as well as for a control group. An ecologic method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1,1km2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. For indoor radon level in the fields and belonging number of the diseases, a positive correlation coefficient was obtained, that was statistically significant, and a linear regression equation of cancer mortality rates was determined. In the mentioned population of the patients, subgroups of smokers and nonsmokers, males and females were also particularly investigated. (author)

  3. Statistical uncertainty analysis of radon transport in nonisothermal, unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holford, D.J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gee, G.W.; Freeman, H.D.

    1990-10-01

    To accurately predict radon fluxes soils to the atmosphere, we must know more than the radium content of the soil. Radon flux from soil is affected not only by soil properties, but also by meteorological factors such as air pressure and temperature changes at the soil surface, as well as the infiltration of rainwater. Natural variations in meteorological factors and soil properties contribute to uncertainty in subsurface model predictions of radon flux, which, when coupled with a building transport model, will also add uncertainty to predictions of radon concentrations in homes. A statistical uncertainty analysis using our Rn3D finite-element numerical model was conducted to assess the relative importance of these meteorological factors and the soil properties affecting radon transport. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Radon concentrations in some Egyptian dwellings using LR 115 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Radon, a well-established risk factor for human lung cancer, is present at low concentrations in most homes. Consequently, many countries have established national guidelines for residential radon concentrations. This survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Egypt. Indoor radon survey of a total of 15 randomly selected houses in Qena city, Upper Egypt was carried out. LR 115 detectors were exposed for one year, covering all the seasons. The estimated indoor radon levels varied from 19 to 59 Bq m 3 with an average of 40 Bq m 3 . Using the bare and filtered LR 115 detectors, the average equilibrium factor F was assessed as 0.30 indoors. An average annual effective dose of 0.40 mSv has been estimated and was found to be lower than the ICRP-65

  5. 220Radon (Thoron) and progeny exposures in the front-end of nuclear fuel cycle activities with special reference to radioactive minerals, thorium and rare earths processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Radon is a major Source of radiation exposure both at home and work places due to its universal presence. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has always treated the radioactive noble gas radon ( 222 Rn) and its isotope thoron ( 220 Rn) as a separate subject. ICRP Publication 65 (ICRP, 1993) summarizes the current knowledge of health effects of inhaled radon and its decay products and gives recommendations/guidelines for the control of exposures due to high radon levels encountered in dwellings and work places. A major departure from earlier publications on the subject is the entirely epidemiological considerations for developing the recommendations. In work place monitoring the progeny concentrations are of primary concern than the gases themselves. However radon/thoron gas measurements may also be used provided reliable information on the equilibrium factors are available. Though many developments have taken place and many options are available for individual monitoring for radon (mainly progeny) exposures of occupational workers, a viable personal dosimeter for individual monitoring for thoron daughters is yet to materialize. The doses are mostly estimated by making use of work place monitoring data in combination with occupancy factors

  6. Pilot study of the application of Tellus airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data for radon mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, J.D. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jda@bgs.ac.uk; Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R. [Health Protection Agency (HPA) - Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Larmour, R. [Environment and Heritage Service, Department of the Environment, Belfast BT7 2JA (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    The scope for using Tellus Project airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and soil geochemical data to predict the probability of houses in Northern Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is evaluated, in a pilot study in the southeast of the province, by comparing these data statistically with in-house radon measurements. There is generally good agreement between radon maps modelled from the airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data using multivariate linear regression analysis and conventional radon maps which depend solely on geological and indoor radon data. The radon maps based on the Tellus Project data identify some additional areas where the radon risk appears to be relatively high compared with the conventional radon maps. One of the ways of validating radon maps modelled on the Tellus Project data will be to carry out additional indoor measurements in these areas.

  7. Evaluation of strategies for promoting effective radon mitigation. Risk communication and economic research series. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, J.K.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Locke, P.A.; Elliott, S.R.

    1990-03-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that as many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to exposure to radon gas. The report evaluates alternative strategies for motivating people to test for radon gas in their homes and to mitigate if necessary. Specifically, two separate radon information and awareness programs were evaluated, one targeted to the general population in the Washington, D.C. area and the other to home buyers in the Boulder, Colorado area. The results suggest that a home buyer program is likely to be far more effective in terms of effective remediation to reduce home radon levels than a program aimed at the general population. The report discusses the empirical findings and develops a recommendation for increasing the effectiveness of radon awareness and mitigation programs

  8. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  9. Radon Protection in the Technical Building Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutos, B.; Garcia, J. P.; Martin, J. L.; Olaya, M.; Serrano, J I.; Suarez, E.; Fernandez, J. A.; Rodrigo, F.

    2003-01-01

    Building construction in areas with high radon gas contamination in land requires the incorporation of certain measures in order to prevent the accumulation of this gas on the inside of buildings. These measures should be considered primarily in the design and construction phases and should take the area of the country into consideration where the construction will take place depending on the potential risk of radon entrance. Within the Technical Building Code, radon protection has been considered through general classification of the country and specific areas where building construction is to take place, in different risk categories and in the introduction of building techniques appropriate for each area. (Author) 17 refs

  10. Methodology for determination of radon-222 production rate of residential building and experimental verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Thomas C.W.; Niu, J.L.; Burnett, J.; Lau, Judy O.W.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor radon concentration is mainly associated with the radon production rate of building material, ventilation rate, and the outdoor radon concentrations. Radon production rate of a room is defined as the sum of the products of the radon emanation rates and the exposed areas of the materials. Since the selection of the building materials and the exposed areas are different from room to room, it makes the radon production rate of homes fall in a wide range. Here, the radon production rate of a room is suggested to be quantified by a sealing method, in which the systematic radon growth curve is obtained. The radon production rate of the room can be determined from the initial slope of the growth curve. Three rooms at different homes in Hong Kong were selected in the study for verifying the methodology. The uncertainty characterized by data scatter arisen from the coupling effect of the leakage rate and outdoor radon was also included in the discussion. During the measurements, no occupant was allowed into the home. No mechanical ventilation was involved in the measurement. The indoor and outdoor radon concentrations of the sampled homes were monitored simultaneously and lasted for more than three days. The radon production rates and the uncertainties of three rooms at Homes 1, 2, and 3 were found to be 232.8, 46.0, 414.6, and 20.3, 9.4, 59.2Bqh -1 , respectively. The approach is valid when the air leakage rate of the room is controlled below 0.1h -1

  11. Element of risk: The politics of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The recent history of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to managing the risk of indoor radon offers a rich base from which to consider US practice in risk assessment, management, and communication. The biological evidence of risks from high-level exposure to radon is in many ways stronger--and the gap to be spanned by extrapolation from laboratory animal studies to ambient exposures narrower--than for many of the toxic and hazardous air pollutants that have been the focus of EPA regulatory attention. The epidemiological evidence about radon is complicated by a number of confounding variables, but this is often the state of epidemiological evidence. Radon has also been the focus of a considerable amount of research on risk communication. To complete the promising ingredients, disagreements between federal regulators at EPA and managers of federal nuclear programs run by the Department of Energy (DOE) concerning radon from uranium mill tailings, for example, and other issues in radiation health physics offer a rich array of opportunities to explore issues in federal bureaucratic politics. This book provides a straightforward report of much of the development of US policy on indoor radon over the past decade. As such, it gives readers unfamiliar with the evolution of radon regulation an opportunity to come quickly up to speed on many historical details

  12. Lung Cancer Risk from Occupational and Environmental Radon and Role of Smoking in Two Czech Nested Case-Control Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Tomasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from combined exposure to radon and smoking. Methodologically, it is based on case-control studies nested within two Czech cohort studies of nearly 11,000 miners followed-up for mortality in 1952–2010 and nearly 12,000 inhabitants exposed to high levels of radon in homes, with mortality follow-up in 1960–2010. In addition to recorded radon exposure, these studies use information on smoking collected from the subjects or their relatives. A total of 1,029 and 370 cases with smoking information have been observed in the occupational and environmental (residential studies, respectively. Three or four control subjects have been individually matched to cases according to sex, year of birth, and age. The combined effect from radon and smoking is analyzed in terms of geometric mixture models of which the additive and multiplicative models are special cases. The resulting models are relatively close to the additive interaction (mixing parameter 0.2 and 0.3 in the occupational and residential studies, respectively. The impact of the resulting model in the residential radon study is illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in hypothetical populations of smokers and non-smokers. In comparison to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk from the best geometric mixture model is considerably higher, particularly in the non-smoking population.

  13. Home Here, Home There: The lives and Landscape within High-tech Trans-Pacific Commuter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglin Chang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the last two decades the issue of 'home identity' (how a home reflects a person's identity has been an emerging topic within contemporary intellectual discourse in fields as diverse as Asian-American studies, anthropology, cultural geography, cultural studies, literary criticism and landscape architecture. In this article, I focus on the transnational experiences of members of a newly emerging trans-Pacific commuter culture, and give special attention to describing how individual members of this group construct the relationship between self and landscape. This article reveals the complex process in which members of a newly emerging trans-Pacific commuter culture have developed new non-traditional ways of constructing the landscape/home relationship - ways that call for challenging essentialist versions of home within a rapidly changing information age. I examine how Taiwanese-born, high-tech computer engineers who relocated to Silicon Valley engage in a struggle between their old identities and their newly forming American identities. These engineers and their families - members of the 'trans-Pacific home phenomenon' that emerged in the late 1990s - have a lifestyle in which they regularly commute between their American and Taiwanese homes. The ease of global travel and instant worldwide communication that became available in the 1990s afforded the trans-Pacific commuter group ease of travel, simultaneous ownership of two homes, and led to the reinvention of the relationship between global and local within the construction of self and home. This article explores how members of the trans-Pacific commuter culture struggle to make sense between the here-and-there homes across the Pacific Rim. With evidence from 80 interviews conducted in Silicon Valley (USA, Hsinchu (Taiwan, and Shanghai and Beijing (China, I focus on the ways in which members of the global-commuter group invented new, non-essentialist ways of constructing their home

  14. Radon: A health problem and a communication problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is making great efforts to alert the American public to the potential health risks of radon in homes. The news media have widely publicized radon as a problem; state and local governments are responding to public alarms; and hundreds of radon open-quotes expertsclose quotes are now offering radon detection and mitigation services. Apparently, USEPA's communication program is working, and the public is becoming increasingly concerned with radon. But are they concerned with radon as a open-quotes healthclose quotes problem in the way USEPA intended? The answer is yes, partly. More and more, however, the concerns are about home resale values. Many homebuyers are now deciding whether to buy on the basis of a single radon screening measurement, comparing it with USEPA's action guide of 4 pCi L -1 . They often conclude that 3.9 is OK, but 4.1 is not. Here is where the communication problems begin. The public largely misunderstands the significance of USEPA's guidelines and the meaning of screening measurements. Seldom does anyone inquire about the quality of the measurements, or the results of USEPA performance testing? Who asks about the uncertainty of lifetime exposure assessments based on a 1-hour, 1-day, 3-day, or even 30-day measurement? Who asks about the uncertainty of USEPA's risk estimates? Fortunately, an increasing number of radiation protection professions are asking such questions. They find that USEPA's risk projections are based on many assumptions which warrant further evaluation, particularly with regard to the combined risks of radon and cigarette-smoking. This is the next communication problem. What are these radiation professions doing to understand the bases for radon health-risk projections? Who is willing to communicate a balanced perspective to the public? Who is willing to communicate the uncertainty and conservatism in radon measurements and risk estimates?

  15. Distributions of radon in houses as a basis for radiological protection: Swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.; Maekitalo, A.

    1991-01-01

    As a basis for protection against high radon exposure in houses, three types of sampling are adequate: (1) random sampling, (2) identification of regions with high risk for radon problems in houses, and (3) searching for houses with high levels. The objectives can be achieved in a single study. In Sweden, several types of sampling have been used. The motive for the Swedish choice of strategy and the results of experience are discussed. Examples of reasons for different strategies are political aims and differences in the organisation of the radiation protection in houses. Random sampling was carried out in 80-82 in homes throughout Sweden. The strategy for the local authorities responsible for points 2 and 3 above differs because of local conditions. In general, they select houses for measurement on the basis of radon risk maps, information on high content of radium in houses, previous measurements, and reports from home owners. Comparison with the random sampling study has shown that they have been five times more successful than chance in their selection for measurements in the one-family houses. (Author)

  16. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  17. Nuclear literacy in the light of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, I.; Cziegler, I.

    2001-01-01

    Education of nuclear physics basic knowledge in Hungary is discussed. Activity levels of radon in Hungary schools and houses were monitored. Results of monitoring are presented. From the data set of some 11,500 single-story houses were in villages or suburbs, where higher radon levels are expected. The number of settlements involved was 121, from which 85 settlements population was less than 5,000 people. The total population of these villages is about 3 million people (almost one third of our whole country). During the whole survey, 109 houses were found with radon activity-concentrations higher than 600 Bq/m3. As the sorting of the data revealed, these homes are mainly in the mountains of Hungary and are single-story village houses without exception. The geology of the country may indeed have a great role in this distribution. (authors)

  18. EPA program to demonstrate mitigation measures for indoor radon: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    EPA has installed radon mitigation techniques in 18 concrete block basement homes in the Reading Prong region of eastern Pennsylvania. Three alternative active soil ventilation approaches were tested: suction on the void network within the concrete block basement walls; suction on the footing drain tile system; and suction on the aggregate underneath the concrete slab. The initial 18 mitigation installations were designed to demonstrate techniques which would have low to moderate installation and operating costs. Where effective closure of major openings in the block walls is possible, suction on the wall voids has proved to be extremely effective, able to reduce homes having very high radon Working Levels (up to 7 WL) to 0.02 WL and less. However, where inaccessible major openings are concealed within the wall, it is more difficult and/or more expensive to develop adequate suction on the void network, and performance is reduced. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the steps required to achieve high performance with wall suction in homes with such difficult-to close walls. Drain tile suction can be very effective where the drain tiles completely surround the home; drain tile suction is the least expensive and most aesthetic of the active soil ventilation approaches, but appears susceptible to spikes in radon levels when the basement is depressurized. Sub-slab suction as tested in this study - with one or two individual suction points in the slab - does not appear adequate to ensure sustained high levels of reduction on block wall basement homes; it appears to effectively treat slab-related soil gas entry routes so long as a uniform layer of aggregate is present, but it does not appear to effectively treat the wall-related entry routes. Closure of major openings might have improved sub-slab suction performance. 5 figures, 3 tables

  19. Calibration of SSNDT detectors for radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Laura C.; Santos, Talita O.; Pinheiro, Rose Mary M.; Rocha, Zildete

    2017-01-01

    The methods and instrumentation used to measure the concentration of radon need to be calibrated to obtain accurate results. The Nuclear Track Detector is considered the main method of analysis of radon research. Thus, the Natural Radioactivity Laboratory of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG, Brazil) uses the detector CR-39 (Landauer) to measure the concentration of radon in homes, workplaces, underground mines, soils and in environment. Epidemiological studies reveal the strong relationship between lung cancer and radon exposure. Therefore, it is important to monitor this gas and its progeny in order to assess the radiological risk. The alpha particles emitted by radon and its progeny leave traces on CR-39 due to Coulombian interactions with the atoms of the material. The liquid density of traces is converted to radon concentration by means of a calibration factor obtained in calibrated systems. This work aims to determine the LRN / CDTN calibration factor. To do so, the CR-39 detectors were placed inside the calibration chambers, along with two AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) detectors and Ra-266 sources with activities of 3,379 kBq or 0.483 kBq, referenced by NIST. From this, six levels of exposure were obtained, which were: 44 kBq.d.m 3 , 4 kBq.d.m 3 , 3 kBq.d.m 3 , 15 kBq.d.m 3 , 30 kBq.d.m 3 , 26 kBq.d.m 3 . The conversion factor between the liquid density of traces and the total exposure time obtained was K = 52.028 ± 0.752 [(trace density.cm -2 ) / (kBq.d.m -3 )]. After the determination of the conversion factor, it was used to measure the concentration of radon in underground mines, obtaining concentration results between 122 ± 24 and 7384 ± 517 kBq.m -3

  20. Mapping the geogenic radon potential of the eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Jesús G.; Alonso, Hector; Arnedo, Miguel. A.; Tejera, Alicia; Martel, Pablo; Gil, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Rafael; González, Jonay

    2014-05-01

    The main contribution of indoor radon comes from soils and thus, the knowledge of the concentration of this gas in soils is important for estimating the risk of finding high radon indoor concentrations. To characterize the behavior of radon in soils, it is common to use the a quantity named Radon Potential which results of a combination of properties of the soil itself and from the underlying rock, such as concentration and distribution of radium, porosity, permeability, the moisture content and meteorological parameters, among others. In this work, the results three year of campaigns of measurement radon gas as well as the permeability in soils of the Eastern Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) are presented. By combining these two parameters and through the use of geostatistic interpolation techniques, the radon potential of soils is estimated and it is used to carry on a classification of the territory into hazard zones according to their potential for radon emanation. To measure the radon soil gas a probe equipped with a "lost" sharp tip is inserted to the desired sampling depth. One of the characteristics of the Canary Islands is the absence of developed soils and so the bedrock is found typically at very shallow depth. This fact has led us to adopt a sampling depth of 50 cm at most. The probe is connected to the continuous radon monitor Durridge RAD7 equipped with a solid-state alpha spectrometer to determine concentration radon using the activity its short-lived progeny. Dried soil air is delivered to the RAD7 radon monitor by pumping. A half hour counting time for all sampling points has been taken. In parallel to the radon measurement campaign, the permeability of soils has also been determined at each point using the permeameter RADON-JOK. The principle of operation of this equipment consists of air withdrawal by means of negative pressure. The gas permeability is then calculated using the known flow of air flowing through the probe

  1. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  2. Radon testing in schools in New York State: a 20-year summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 20 years the Department of Health has conducted programs to assist in the measurement and reduction of indoor radon concentrations in 186 schools located primarily in Zone 1 areas of New York State. Although many schools had few or no rooms containing radon above 148 Bq/m 3 , some rooms had >740 Bq/m 3 and remediation techniques were utilized to reduce exposure. Short-term radon measurements in the schools showed little correlation to basement and first-floor radon results from single-family homes in the towns. - Highlights: • Relatively few schools in New York State have been tested for indoor radon. • We provide a summary of radon-testing results for measured schools. • The radon potential in schools is often less than in local houses. • Short-term measurement results exceeded their long-term counterparts in nearly every case

  3. Final survey reports on radon concentration in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    In order to grasp the present state of indoor radon concentration all over Japan, this survey was conducted in five years from Heisei 4 FY to 8 FY. Measurements were conducted using a radon and thoron separation apparatus so as to enable to develop radon and thoron separately. This was only one survey all over Japan obtained the only radon concentration by removing thoron perfectly. However, it was planned to obtain the mean indoor radon concentration all over Japan by limiting 20 houses for measurement aim because of limitation on numbers of the apparatus. In this survey, no extremely high region of the radon concentration was found. However, it was comparatively higher in Chugoku, Kinki and Kyushu-Okinawa areas, but was comparatively low in Kanto area. These results showed the same tendency as those of γ-ray level from the ground, and the radon concentration also showed temperature difference of a tendency of higher west and lower east. In this survey, seasonal variation of the radon concentration was found. In the third quarter (from October to December) maximum radon concentration (mean value: 15 Bq/cu m) and in the second quarter, the minimum concentration (mean value: 9 Bq/cu m) were observed, respectively. On comparing the indoor radon concentration of each housing structure used in enquete survey, concrete block house showed higher radon concentration. On its arithmetic mean, the radon concentration was high in order of concrete, steel frame, and wood constructions, and lowest in prefabricated house. The radon concentration of the concrete construction showed about 1.8 times higher than that of the wood construction. (G.K.)

  4. The rationale and experiences in implementing New Jersey's radon program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bynum, J.; Klotz, J.; Cahill, M.; Nicholls, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss how radon data from domestic modeling, mining studies, and animal studies provided a strong basis for New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) to support MJDEP's recommendation to establish a state radon program. The program, described in this report, focuses on promoting intensive testing by state residents followed by prompt remediation for residences with radon levels greater than or equal to four pico curies per liter. NJDOH believes a threshold for radiation carcinogens does not exist. Even at low levels, exposure to radiation is associated with some health risk. Hence, with consideration given to the length of exposure in the home prompt action is warranted until more definitive data suggest otherwise

  5. The radon service industry in selected Northeastern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.R.; Reese, J.P.; Adams, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 the EPA initiated an expedited program of technical assistance in response to the discovery of extremely elevated levels of indoor radon in Pennsylvania homes. A vital component of this project was a training program which addressed the variety of techniques used to reduce human exposure to radon gas and its decay products. The New York State Energy Office was selected as the most suitable organization to assist in this project because of its relevant experience in training programs, especially the building for energy efficiency workshop series with its indoor radon gas component. This paper reports on the project

  6. Ventilation techniques and radon in small houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, J.; Graeffe, G.; Janka, K.

    1988-01-01

    Indoor radon is the main cause of radiation exposure in Finland. The National Board of Health set the recommended concentration limits in 1986: an action level of 800 Bq/m 3 and a planning value of 200 Bq/m 3 for new buildings. The 800 Bq/m 3 concentration is estimated to be exceeded in 1.4% of the housing. This rather high number has motivated a number of studies concerning countermeasures against radon in existing houses. The purpose of this study was to find out possible remedial actions against radon using standard ventilation techniques. The ventilation rates were not increased over 0.71/h in order to have a realistic view about the possibilities of the state-of-the-art techniques. Special attention was given to methods which would be generally applicable to a large number of dwellings already existing. Results are reported of a pilot study with six small houses with established high radon concentrations

  7. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  8. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Saum, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality

  9. Leukaemia risks and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    A correlation has been established between domestic radon exposure and mutation in peripheral T lymphocytes. Some caution must be exercised, however, in interpreting this result as evidence that levels of domestically encountered radon are sufficient to cause leukaemogenic chromosomal alterations. Radon may simply be acting as a surrogate for some other mutagenic factor. Correlations with Local Authority statistics collected in the United Kingdom 1981 Census appear to show that lower domestic radon levels reflect relatively greater socioeconomic deprivation whereas higher levels reflect greater prosperity. The relative risk of lymphoproliferative disease correlates with the same factors that determine domestic radon levels at the county level. Putative relationships between domestic radon exposure and cancer thus need to be controlled for socioeconomic status and associated factors, at least at the county level. (The correlations may not apply to smaller areas.) Similarly, the causative factors underlying the relationships between higher regional socioeconomic status and leukaemia require closer examination. (author)

  10. Dealing with radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castren, O.

    1987-01-01

    A review is made of the measurements, regulatory initiatives and remedial action taken in Finland since the discovery in 1981 of the first indoor radon concentrations higher than 10,000 Bq/m 3 . The emphasis is on the results of measurements, explanations of them and their use for the rational solution of the radon problems. Localizing the high-concentration areas and dwellings has been one of the main objectives. The latest radon map is based on measurements in 8,150 dwellings in 235 localities. The geographical distribution cannot be explained only by the uranium concentration of the bedrock. The main reason for deviations is the ground permeability. The local fine structure is most notably influenced by the glacifluvial sand and grvel formations (eskers and ice-marginal formations). The highest concentrations are often caused by synergism between an elevated uranium concentration, situation on an esker and a great temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air. They are usually connected with a large seasonal variation, the concentration being at maximum during the coldest time in winter. Indoor radon distribution is compared with newly published maps on the incidence of lung cancer in Finland

  11. Indoor radon and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises the epidemiological literature on domestic exposure to radon and risk for childhood leukaemia. The results of 12 ecological studies show a consistent pattern of higher incidence and mortality rates for childhood leukaemia in areas with higher average indoor radon concentrations. Although the results of such studies are useful to generate hypotheses, they must be interpreted with caution, as the data were aggregated and analysed for geographical areas and not for individuals. The seven available case - control studies of childhood leukaemia with measurement of radon concentrations in the residences of cases and controls gave mixed results, however, with some indication of a weak (relative risk < 2) association with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The epidemiological evidence to date suggests that an association between indoor exposure to radon and childhood leukaemia might exist, but is weak. More case - control studies are needed, with sufficient statistical power to detect weak associations and based on designs and methods that minimise misclassification of exposure and provide a high participation rate and low potential selection bias. (authors)

  12. Lung cancer risk from radon and smoking - additive or multiplicative effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate the risk of lung cancer when combined radon and smoking exposure. Methodologically the evaluation is based on case and control study nested in two cohort studies, including 11,000 miners and 12,000 residents exposed to high concentrations of radon in homes. Radon exposure in individuals is complemented by information on smoking gained personally from them or from their relatives. The study is based on 1,073 cases of lung cancer among miners and 372 cases in population study. Control subjects were randomly selected in each study based on gender, year of birth and age achieved. The combined effect of smoking and radon is evaluated using the so-called geometric mixed models, whose special case is an additive or multiplicative model. The resulting model of the risk is closer to additive interaction (parameter of mixed model 0.2). The consequences of the model in the study of population are illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in a hypothetical population of smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk significantly increased according to the best geometric mixed model, especially in the population of non-smokers. (author)

  13. Regulatory Strategy to Control Radon Exposure in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younus, Irfan; Cho, Kun Woo

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) was established in 2001 with one of the objectives to ensure the protection of workers, general public and the environment from the harmful effects of naturally occurring and artificially produced ionizing radiations by formulating and implementing the effective regulations. Radon is a naturally occurring odorless, colorless, tasteless, imperceptible to senses and chemically inert radioactive gas which is produced continuously from the natural decay of U-238, U-235 and Th-232 in most soils, rocks and water all over the earth. High levels of radon in the soil and rock are primarily responsible for indoor radon problems. Therefore when inhaled with air, there much probability that radon decay products will stay and decay in the lungs. If stayed in the lungs, the radiation may damage the cells causing lung cancer. Hence the radon problems have been taken seriously in most of the developed countries of the world. Radon reference levels for dwellings and workplaces have been set and the general public has been made alert of radon through newspapers and electronic media. In Pakistan, neither publicity campaign nor radon measurement and control programmes have been started countrywide. Rather small individual efforts for the sake of interest have been done to investigate the radon in some specific area or institution. This paper presents the regulatory strategy to control radon exposure for the sake of radiation protection of public and workers in Pakistan

  14. Using high-resolution in situ radon measurements to determine groundwater discharge at a remote location: Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, W.C.; Chanyotha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia) is the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia, and is reported to have one of the highest freshwater fish productions anywhere. During the dry season (November-April) the lake drains through a tributary to the Mekong River. The flow in the connecting tributary completely reverses during the wet monsoon (May-October), adding huge volumes of water back to the lake, increasing its area about fourfold. We hypothesize that nutrients are at least partially delivered via groundwater discharge, especially during the draining portion of the annual flood cycle. We surveyed over 200 km in the northern section of the lake using a customized system that measures natural 222 Rn (radon), temperature, conductivity, GPS coordinates and water depth while underway. Results showed that there were portions of the lake with significant enrichments in radon, indicating likely groundwater inputs. These same areas were generally characterized by lower electrical conductivities. Samples collected from nearby wells also showed a general inverse relationship between radon and conductivity. Our data suggest that groundwater pathways are important, accounting for roughly 10-20 % of the freshwater flow of the Tonle Sap tributary (connection to the Mekong River), the largest single source of fresh water to the lake. Nutrient inputs from these inputs, because of higher concentrations in groundwater, will be correspondingly higher. (author)

  15. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  16. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  17. A nationwide survey of radon concentration in Japan. Indoor, outdoor and workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Tetsuya; Oikawa, Shinji; Kanno, Nobuyuki; Abukawa, Johji; Higuchi, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace radon concentrations were surveyed in Japan. These surveys were conducted to estimate the natural radiation dose due to radon and its progeny for the general public. The radon concentration was measured using passive type radon monitor. The number of radon monitors were installed at indoor, outdoor and workplace for 940 houses, 705 points and 705 sites, respectively. The radon concentration was measured for one year at each measurement site. Annual mean radon concentration was obtained from four quarters measurements of 47 prefectures in Japan. The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace annual mean radon concentration were 15.5 Bq m -3 , 6.1 Bq m -3 and 20.8 Bq m -3 , respectively. Their radon concentration shows approximately a logarithmic normal distribution. Workplace showed relatively high radon concentration compared with other environments, may be due to construction materials and low ventilation rate. The indoor radon concentration found to be seasonal variation and architectural dependences. Seasonal variation and regional distribution of outdoor radon concentration was also observed. From the results of these radon surveys, the annual effective dose to the general public due to radon and its progeny was estimated to be 0.49 mSv y -1 in Japan. (author)

  18. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, B.E.; Boman, C.A.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents the function of the ventilation by natural draught in three-storey houses. In some cases also the measurement of gamma radiation, radon and radon daughters was made. The investigation took place in Uppsala. The houses were built of light weight concrete made of alum-shale. The measurements showed that the contents of radon daughters were far below the provisional limits. (G.B.)

  19. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.M.; Finn, M.

    1995-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  20. Psychosocial aspects of Czech Radon Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojtikova, I.; Neznal, M.; Hrdy, L.

    2004-01-01

    things, the questionnaire included two items representing radiation risk: living in a house with high radon levels, and operation of a nuclear power station. The respondents were to assign a value from 1 (least dangerous) to 3 (most dangerous) to each item. No correlation was found between the results and the respondents' age, sex or level of education. The results were compared with those obtained from a group of radiation experts. The groups do not differ in their perception of the radon risk

  1. Detailed radon emanation mapping in Northern Latium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumento, F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed radon surveys over 5,000 km 2 of Northern Latium, covering the northern part of the volcanic province of Central Italy, commenced in the mid eighties as part of a geothermal exploration programme; the surveys have subsequently been continued and amplified with environmental protection in mind. The area is now covered by ground emission maps, radon levels in water supplies, emissions from the different lithologies and concentrations in houses. The high uraniferous content of the volcanics, the porous nature of the ubiquitous pyroclastics, and active geothermal systems in the area combine to convey to ground level high concentrations of radon. The emissions show strong lateral variations which are geologically and tectonically controlled, such that only detailed surveys reveal the extent and locations of anomalous radon emanations. Unfortunately, long ago towns often developed in strategic locations. For Northern Latium this means on volcanic highs formed by faulted tuff blocks, two geological features associated with particularly high radon emissions. As a result, in contrast to the low average indoor radon concentrations for the greater part of Italy, in some of these town the average values exceed 450 Bq/m 3 . (author). 1 fig

  2. Mapping radon-prone areas using γ-radiation dose rate and geological information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Talavera, M; Rey, C; Ramos, L; García-Pérez, A

    2013-01-01

    Identifying radon-prone areas is key to policies on the control of this environmental carcinogen. In the current paper, we present the methodology followed to delineate radon-prone areas in Spain. It combines information from indoor radon measurements with γ-radiation and geological maps. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it lessens the requirement for a high density of measurements by making use of commonly available information. It can be applied for an initial definition of radon-prone areas in countries committed to introducing a national radon policy or to improving existing radon maps in low population regions. (paper)

  3. Biological indicators of exposure to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.

    1998-01-01

    A review is given of recent investigations into mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to alpha irradiation by the radon progeny. Studies of the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations after alpha irradiation are given particular attention. In the author's opinion, up to now no useful biological indicator of response to high and low doses of alpha particles has been found, including those of radon on the molecular and cellular level. (A.K.)

  4. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Mizoram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalramengzami, R.; Laldawngliana, C.; Sinha, D.; Ghosh, S.; Dwivedi, K.K.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of indoor radon has been measured in some dwellings of Mizoram state by employing time integrated method using solid state nuclear track detector. This state is located in the north eastern region of India which has been identified as a high background area. The indoor radon levels determined in this work are compared with data obtained from other regions of India and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed safe limit. (author). 7 refs., 2 figs

  5. Measurement of mean radon concentrations in the Tokai districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Ikebe, Yukimasa; Yamanishi, Hirokuni

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an electrostatic integrating radon monitor designed for the environmental radon monitoring and longterm measurements of mean radon concentrations in outdoor and indoor air. The position of the collecting electrode within the monitor was determined based on the calculation of the internal electric field. The radon exchange rate between the monitor and the outside air through the filter was 0.75 h -1 . The exchange rate can make the radon concentration inside the monitor to follow thoroughly the outside concentration. Since the electrostatic collection of RaA + ( 218 Po + ) atoms depends on the humidity of the air, the inside of the monitor was dehumidified with a diphosphorus pentaoxide (P 2 O 5 ) drying agent which is powerful and dose not absorb radon gas. From the relationship between track density and radon exposure, the calibration factor was derived to be 0.52 ± 0.002 tracks cm -2 (Bq m -3 h) -1 . The detection limit of mean radon level is 1.2 Bq m -3 for an exposure time fo 2 months. The mean radon concentrations in various environments were measured through the year using the monitors this developed. The annual mean outdoor radon level in the Tokai districts was 7.0 Bq m -3 . The mean radon concentrations was found to vary from 3.5 to 11.7 Bq m -3 depending upon the geographical conditions even in this relatively small region. The annual indoor radon concentrations at Nagoya and Sapporo ranged from 6.4 to 11.9 Bq m -3 and from 15.5 to 121.1 Bq m -3 , respectively, with the type of building material and the ventilation rate. The mean radon concentrations in tightly built houses selected at Sapporo are about 10 times as high as those in drafty houses at Nagoya. (author)

  6. Measurement and apportionment of radon source terms for modeling indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.

    1992-01-01

    This research has two main goals; (1) to quantify mechanisms for radon entry into homes of different types and to determine the fraction of indoor radon attributable to each source and (2) to model and calculate the dose (and therefore alpha particle fluence) to cells in the human and animal tracheobronchial tree that is pertinent to induction of bronchogenic carcinoma from inhaled radon daughters. The dosimetry has been extended to include organs other than the lung

  7. Radon in large buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed. (orig.). (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  8. Radon in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.; Rusov, V.D.; Pavlovych, V.N.; Vaschenko, V.M.; Hanzic, L.; Bondarchuk, Y.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews results of radon measurements obtained in Antarctic research stations in the last 40 years by both active and passive radon monitors. A brief description of the radon laboratory set-up in the Ukrainian Academician Vernadsky station on the Antarctic Peninsula (W 64 o 16 ' , S 65 o 15 ' ), where radon is measured by two types of etched track Rn dosimeter and 4 types of continuous radon monitoring devices is presented. Some selected results of research work are described related to: (i) analysis of radon storms, defined as an abrupt increase of 222 Rn during the occurrence of a cyclone, and its applicability for the study of the transport of air masses of continental origin to Antarctica; (ii) a study of the correlation of changes of radon concentration and geomagnetic field induced by tectonic activity and its application to predicting tectonomagnetic anomalies, and (iii) verification of a newly developed theoretical model based on noise analysis of the measured radon signal for earthquake prediction. Suggestions for future utilization of radon for basic research in Antarctica (and not only in Antarctica) conclude the contribution. conclude the contribution

  9. Radon atlas of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Pennanen, M.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-11-01

    The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m 3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m 3 . The maps and tables in this report are useful tools for those who plan and decide what kind of radon mitigation measures are needed in municipalities. STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has an indoor radon database of 52 000 dwellings, for which the indoor radon concentration and construction details are known. The building site soil type of about 38 000 dwellings is known. This atlas is a summary of all indoor radon measurements made by STUK in lowrise dwellings and in first-floor flats. The results are shown as arithmetic means of 5- or 10-km squares on maps of the provinces. Three radon maps have been made for each province. On one map the data consist of all measurements the position coordinates of which are known. On the two other maps the building sites of houses are classified into permeable and low-permeable soil types. The tables show statistics for all indoor radon measurements by municipality and building site soil type. (orig.)

  10. Radon dose and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Vukovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium factor value (F) was measured in the NRPB radon chamber and the corresponding track density ratio (r = D/D 0 ) of bare (D) and diffusion (D 0 ) LR-115 nuclear track detectors was determined, as well as the regression equation F(r). Experiments with LR-115 nuclear track detectors and aerosol sources (burning candle and cigarette) were carried out in the Osijek University radon chamber and afterwards an empirical relationship between the equilibrium factor and aerosol concentration was derived. For the purpose of radon dose equivalent assessment, procedures for determining the unattached fraction of radon progeny were introduced using two nuclear track detectors. (author)

  11. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  12. Study of the factors affecting radon diffusion through building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following - decay of 226 Ra in underground soil and building materials used, in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. The diffusion of radon in dwellings is a process determined by the radon concentration gradient across the building material structure and can be a significant contributor to indoor radon inflow. Radon can originate from the deeply buried deposit beneath homes and can migrate to the surface of earth. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. It is well known that for building construction materials the porosity, permeability and the diffusion coefficient are the parameters, which can quantify the materials capability to hinder the flow of radon soil gas. An increase in porosity will provide more air space within the material for radon to travel, thus reducing its resistance to radon transport. The permeability of material describes its ability to act as a barrier to gas movement when a pressure gradient exists across it and is closely related to the porosity of material. The radon diffusion coefficient of a material quantifies the ability of radon gas to move through it when a concentration gradient is the driving force. This parameter depends upon the porosity and permeability of the medium. As diffusion process is the major contributor to indoor levels, therefore, the factors affecting the diffusion process need to be kept in consideration. Keeping this in mind the experimental arrangements have been made for control study of radon diffusion through some building materials to observe the effects of different factors viz.; compaction, grain size, temperature, humidity and the mixing of these materials etc. For the present study alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used for the recording of alpha tracks caused by radon gas after its diffusion through the

  13. Environmental Assessment for moving the Pacific Northwest Laboratory radon generators from Life Sciences Laboratory II, Richland North Area, to Life Sciences Laboratory I, 300 Area, and their continued use in physical and biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) radon generators are a core resource of the overall U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Radon Research Program and are administratively controlled within the ''Radon Hazards in Homes'' project. This project primarily focuses on radon exposures of animals and addresses the major biologic effects and factors influencing risks of indoor radon exposures. For example, the ''Mechanisms of Radon Injury'' and ''In vivo/In vitro Radon-Induced Cellular Damage'' projects specifically address the cytogenetic and DNA damage produced by radon exposure as part of a larger effort to understand radon carcinogenesis. Several other ongoing PNL projects, namely: ''Biological Effectiveness of Radon Alpha Particles: A Microbeam Study of Dose Rate Effects,'' ''Laser Measurements of Pb-210,'' ''Radon Transport Modeling in Soils,'' ''Oncogenes in Radiation Carcinogenesis,'' ''Mutation of DNA Targets,'' ''Dosimetry of Radon Progeny,'' and ''Aerosol Technology Development'' also use the radon exposure facilities in the conduct of their work. While most, but not all, studies in the PNL Radon Research Program are funded through DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research, PNL also has ongoing collaborative radon studies with investigators worldwide; many of these use the radon exposure facilities. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide for relocation of the radon generators to a DOE-owned facility and to continue to provide a controlled source of radon-222 for continued use in physical and biological research

  14. Radon parameters in outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Zock, Ch.; Wendt, J.; Reineking, A.

    2002-01-01

    For dose estimation by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny in outdoor air, the equilibrium factor (F), the unattached fraction (f p ), and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny were measured. Besides the radon parameter the meteorological parameter like temperature, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were registered. The measurements were carried out continuously for several weeks to find out the variation with time (day/night) and for different weather conditions. The radon gas, the unattached and aerosol-attached radon progenies were measured with an monitor developed for continuous measurements in outdoor air with low activity concentrations. For the determination of the activity size distribution a low pressure online alpha cascade impactor was used. The measured values of the equilibrium factor varied between 0.5-0.8 depending on weather conditions and time of the day. For high pressure weather conditions a diurnal variation of the F-factor was obtained. A lower average value (F=0.25) was registered during rainy days. The obtained f p -values varied between 0.04 and 0.12. They were higher than expected. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny averaged over a measurement period of three weeks can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction is adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters and geometric standard deviation values between 250-450 nm and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The activity median diameter of this accumulation mode in outdoor air was significantly greater than in indoor air (150-250 nm). An influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) is attached on coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0-10%. 20

  15. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  16. Indoor radon measurements in Adelaide, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, D.

    1989-01-01

    In 1986 a study of radon levels in homes in Melbourne was made, using activated charcoal to adsorb the gas from indoor air. Cups containing 25g of activated charcoal were exposed for periods of nominally 7 days. The cups were sealed and the accumulated activity was measured by gamma counting. Cup activity was related to ambient radon concentration by calibrations done in the Australian Radiation Laboratory's radon reference chamber. This work was continued in Adelaide, South Australia (S.A.) between July and November 1986 using the same methods. Cups were exposed in their homes by 213 volunteers from the staff of the S.A. Institute of Technology and the S.A. Health Commission. The median concentration of radon in air was 10 Bq/m 3 , with 90% of values below 35 Bq/m 3 , and 100% below 75 Bq/m 3 . The lower bound of the distribution is poorly defined because of inadequate counting statistics. 4 refs., 6 figs

  17. Aerosol properties of indoor radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Lung cancer risks attributable to indoor radon are highly dependent on the properties of radon progeny aerosols which, in turn, are dependent on the nature and concentration of small particles in indoor air. In clean filtered air, radon progeny are attached to small hygroscopic particles of high mobility which are rapidly deposited on surfaces. By contrast, radon progeny attached to cigarette smoke are on large particles of low mobility which persist in air. Radon progeny ingaled by smokers are largely associated with smoke particles from 0.5 to 4.0 μm diameter. Such particles are selectively deposited at bronchial bifurcations and are highly resistant to dissolution. The attached radon progeny undergo a substantial degree of radioactive decay at deposition sites before clearance which gives rise to large alpha radiation doses in small volumes of bronchial epithelium. These processes provide new insights on mechanisms of bronchial cancer induction and on relative risks of lung cancer in smokers, passive smokers, and other non-smokers. (Author)

  18. A self-calibrating radon monitor with statistical discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcov, N.; Purghel, L.

    2002-01-01

    A radon monitor, able to perform the measurement of the radon and its progeny volumic activity, in a gamma-ray or natural radiation background field, was developed. The instrument consists of a 10 l ionization chamber, a high voltage source, an integrating preamplifier, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. A new method for self-calibration of Radon volumic activity measurements, based on the alpha counting with an ionization chamber is also presented

  19. Regressionanalysis of radon measurements; Regressionsanalysen von Radonmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buermeyer, J.; Neugebauer, T.; Hingmann, H.; Grimm, V.; Breckow, J. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz (IMPS); Gundlach, M. [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen (THM), Giessen (Germany). Fachbereich fuer Mathematik, Naturwissenschaften und Informatik

    2016-07-01

    In the course of the renewal of the Radiation Protection Guidelines for Germany, radon becomes a more prominent concern. Thus, it is important to gain more information on the temporal behaviour of radon and its measureable parameters. This work focuses on the determination on possible influencing factors using regression-analysis methods. So far the radon concentration has been analysed and it was revealed, that the most important impact comes from the gradient of the temperature and pressure as the difference of the values in and outside the building. The carbon dioxide, which was logged as an indicator for the influences of the inhabitant does not show the high influence on the Radon levels as expected.

  20. Distribution of indoor radon levels in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, G; Rickards, J; Gammage, R B

    1999-01-01

    Our laboratory has carried out a systematic monitoring and evaluation of indoor radon concentration levels in Mexico for ten years. The results of the distribution of indoor radon levels for practically the entire country are presented, together with information on geological characteristics, population density, socioeconomic levels of the population, and architectural styles of housing. The measurements of the radon levels were made using the passive method of nuclear tracks in solids with the end-cup system. CR-39 was used as the detector material in combination with a one-step chemical etching procedure and an automatic digital- image counting system. Wherever a high level was measured, a confirming measurement was made using a dynamic method. The results are important for future health studies, including the eventual establishment of patterns for indoor radon concentration, as it has been done in the USA and Europe.

  1. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Valdes, C.; Pena, P.; Mena, M.; Tamez, E.

    2001-01-01

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages

  2. Probing the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for assessment of deposited flux of Radon and Thoron progeny in high exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R., E-mail: rosaline@barc.gov.in; Sapra, B.K.; Rout, R.P.; Prajith, R.

    2016-12-01

    Direct measurement of Radon and Thoron progeny in the atmosphere and occupational environments such as Uranium mines, Uranium and Thorium handling facilities has gained importance because of its radiological significance in inhalation dose assessment. In this regard, Radon and Thoron Progeny sensors (DTPS and DRPS) are the only passive solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD, LR115) based devices which are being extensively used for time integrated direct progeny measurements. An essential component of the analysis is the chemical etching of the detectors, followed by spark counting of tracks and then estimation of the inhalation dose using appropriate calibration factors. Alternatively, the tracks may be counted using image analysis techniques. However, under high exposure conditions, both these methods have inherent limitations and errors arising due to increased frequency of tracks. In the present work, we probe the use of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyse the deposited fluence of the progeny particulates based on change in transmittance of the nitric group vibrational bands of the LR115. A linear relationship between the transmittance and the deposited fluence was observed, which can be used to estimate the deposited fluence rate and the inhalation dose. This alternative method of analysis will provide a faster and non-destructive technique for inhalation dose assessment, specially for routine large scale measurements. - Highlights: • An alternative method of inhalation dose assessment. • Linearity between the transmittance of nitric goup bands and the deposited fluence. • Faster and non-destructive technique for high exposure scenarios.

  3. Uranium-238 and thorium-232 series concentrations in soil, radon-222 indoor and drinking water concentrations and dose assessment in the city of Alameda, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E. E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx; Villalba, L.; Renteria Villalobos, M.; Torres Moye, E.; Garcia Leon, M.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.; Sanchez Aroche, D

    2004-07-01

    High-resolution gamma spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in soil samples taken from areas surrounding the city of Aldama, in Chihuahua. Results of indoor air short-time sampling, with diffusion barrier charcoal detectors, revealed relatively high indoor radon levels, ranging from 29 to 422 Bq/m{sup 3}; the radon concentrations detected exceeded 148 Bq/m{sup 3} in 76% of the homes tested. Additionally, liquid scintillation counting showed concentrations of radon in drinking water ranging from 4.3 to 42 kBq/m{sup 3}. The high activity of {sup 238}U in soil found in some places may be a result of the uranium milling process performed 20 years ago in the area. High radon concentrations indoor and in water may be explained by assuming the presence of uranium-bearing rocks underneath of the city, similar to a felsic dike located near Aldama. The estimated annual effective dose of gamma radiation from the soil and radon inhalation was 3.83 mSv.

  4. Uranium-238 and thorium-232 series concentrations in soil, radon-222 indoor and drinking water concentrations and dose assessment in the city of Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero Sujo, L; Montero Cabrera, M E; Villalba, L; Rentería Villalobos, M; Torres Moye, E; García León, M; García-Tenorio, R; Mireles García, F; Herrera Peraza, E F; Sánchez Aroche, D

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution gamma spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in soil samples taken from areas surrounding the city of Aldama, in Chihuahua. Results of indoor air short-time sampling, with diffusion barrier charcoal detectors, revealed relatively high indoor radon levels, ranging from 29 to 422 Bq/m3; the radon concentrations detected exceeded 148 Bq/m3 in 76% of the homes tested. Additionally, liquid scintillation counting showed concentrations of radon in drinking water ranging from 4.3 to 42 kBq/m3. The high activity of 238U in soil found in some places may be a result of the uranium milling process performed 20 years ago in the area. High radon concentrations indoor and in water may be explained by assuming the presence of uranium-bearing rocks underneath of the city, similar to a felsic dike located near Aldama. The estimated annual effective dose of gamma radiation from the soil and radon inhalation was 3.83 mSv.

  5. "I had a dream and i built it": power and self-staging in ubiquitous high-end homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Aviaja Borup; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Hepworth, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Research on smart homes and ubiquitous homes is often highly focused on the challenges and obstacles for establishing and living in smart homes. Few have studied peoples' motivations for establishing smart homes as well as the real life experiences living in such homes. We have had the chance to ...

  6. Correlations of soil-gas and indoor radon with geology in glacially derived soils of the northern Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, R.R.; Owen, D.E.; Peake, R.T.; Schmidt, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that a higher percentage of homes in parts of the northern Great Plains underlain by soils derived from continental glacial deposits have elevated indoor radon levels (greater than 4 pCi/L) than any other area in the country. Soil-gas radon concentrations, surface radioactivity, indoor radon levels, and soil characteristics were studied in areas underlain by glacially-derived soils in North Dakota and Minnesota to examine the factors responsible for these elevated levels. Clay-rich till soils in North Dakota have generally higher soil-gas radon levels, and correspondingly higher indoor radon levels, than the sandy till soils common to west-central Minnesota. Although the proportions of homes with indoor radon levels greater than 4 pCi/L are similar in both areas, relatively few homes underlain by sandy tills have screening indoor radon levels greater than 20 pCi/L, whereas a relatively large proportion of homes underlain by clayey tills have screening indoor radon levels exceeding 20 pCi/L. The higher radon levels in North Dakota are likely due to enhanced emanation from the smaller grains and to relatively higher soil radium concentrations in the clay-rich soils, whereas the generally higher permeability of the sandy till soils in Minnesota allows soil gas to be drawn into structures from a larger source volume, increasing indoor radon levels in these areas

  7. Radiation hazard due to radon in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, G.

    1987-01-01

    Inhalation of the noble gas radon and its short-lived daughter products present in normal room air causes a considerable increase of the mean natural radiation exposure of the population. As there is an uncontested relationship between lung dose and cancer risk, measures should be taken to guarantee that the radon concentrations in room air do at least not reach maxima. The most simple measure is frequent, brief, good ventilation. Very high radon concentrations are measured in houses where radon pentrates direct from the soil into buildings. For this case, radon-tight insulation of the building from the soil is recommended. A forced ventilation system with heat recovery, installed by experts, has shown to be very successful in radon reduction in 'problematic' houses. (orig.) [de

  8. Nuclear tracks in solids and gas radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in USA, and the European Community, have dedicated significant budget to the Radon study, its health effects and remedial actions for controlling and achieving lower levels, in these cases, nationwide research programs have been organized. With the aim to contribute on the radon levels knowledge in our country, the Applied Dosimetry Project at the Physics Institute of the University of Mexico has developed an indoor and outdoor radon measurement methodology. In this paper a passive radon detector device based on CR-39 polycarbonate for use in radon research and routine measurements is presented. As well the methodology for the track formation, automatic reading system, calibration procedure and measurements in a different location, are shown in this work. The results had been compared with dynamic detection systems, and another methodologies and research groups in order to have a high confidence in the radon levels reported. (Author)

  9. Geological Structure and Radon Hazards in Lublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Gazda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to show the relationship between the geological structure of the Lublin region (eastern Poland and radon concentrations in the ground air, and therefore, in the indoor environment of buildings located in that area. The study was based on the information pertaining to the geological structure of Lublin region available in the literature. The radon concentrations in buildings, caves, wells, as well as coal, phosphate and chalk mines were measured with both passive and active methods. Elemental analyses and uranium and lead isotope analyses of ground rocks were also performed. The conducted studies indicated that the sources of radon in Lublin region constitute Paleogene and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks rich in radionuclides. Application of radon remediation methods is recommended in the existing buildings located in the vicinity of these rocks, which are characterized by relatively high radon exhalations. On the other hand, the designed buildings should employ the measures protecting against harmful effects of radon presence.

  10. Express method and radon gas measurement detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajdarov, R.A.; Khajdarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the activated charcoal adsorption method. The detector consisted of an electronic unit (200 mm x 180 mm x 80 mm) and a scintillation cell (a tube 200 mm long, 60 mm diam.). The electronic unit contained a power supply, amplifier, discriminator, timer, counter and indicator. The scintillation cell contained a zinc sulfide scintillator, photomultiplier, preamplifier, high voltage power supply and a 200 ml chamber above the scintillator. This chamber was intended to situate activated carbon fibrous absorber and air compressor. In this method, air is drawn through a filter to remove radon decay products and then through the activated carbon cloth by using a compressor. Sampling takes between 5 and 15 minutes. After the sampling, the cloth is heated for 5-10 sec up to 200-250 deg C by electric current passing through the fiber. Radon gas evaporates from the cloth and the device detects scintillation pulses. Owing to a high radon preconcentration factor (by adsorption of radon on the activated carbon cloth from 50-150 L of air of and evaporation into the small volume of the chamber), the detection limit of the method is 2-4 Bq/m 3 . Since the distance between the filter, cloth and scintillator is over 80 mm, the detector only measures radiation from radon without interference from the radon decay products, remaining in the filter and cloth

  11. Evaluation of the radon risk from the geologic under-gown of towns with number of inhabitants more than 1000