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Sample records for high quality pre-treatment

  1. Removal of dissolved organic matter in municipal effluent with ozonation, slow sand filtration and nanofiltration as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    In the paper the combination process of ozonation, slow sand filtration (SSF) and nanofiltration (NF) was investigated with respect to dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge. With the help of ozonation leading to breakdown of the large organic molecules, SSF preferentially removes soluble microbial by-product-like substances and DOM with molecular weight (MW) less than 1.0 kDa. NF, however, removes aromatic, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances efficiently and specially removes DOM with MW above 1.0 kDa. The residual DOM of the membrane permeate is dominated by small organics with MW 500 Da, which can be further reduced by the aquifer treatment, despite of the very low concentration. Consequently, the O(3)/SSF/NF system offers a complementary process in DOM removal. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) can be reduced from 6.5±1.1 to 0.7±0.3 mg L(-1) and from 267±24 to 52±6 μg L(-1), respectively. The very low DOC concentration of 0.6±0.2 mg L(-1) and THMFP of 44±4 μg L(-1) can be reached after the aquifer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of high carbon dioxide atmosphere packaging and soluble gas stabilization pre-treatment on the shelf-life and quality of chicken drumsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nehlawi, A; Saldo, J; Vega, L F; Guri, S

    2013-05-01

    The effects of an aerobic modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (70% CO2, 15% O2 and 15% N2) with and without a CO2 3-h soluble gas stabilization (SGS) pre-treatment of chicken drumsticks were determined for various package and product quality characteristics. The CO2 dissolved into drumsticks was determined. The equilibrium between CO2 dissolved in drumsticks and CO2 in head space was reached within 48h after packaging, showing highest values of CO2 in SGS pre-treated samples. This greater availability of CO2 resulted in lower counts of TAB and Pseudomonas in SGS than in MAP drumsticks. Package collapse was significantly reduced in SGS samples. The average of CO2 dissolved in the MAP treatment was 567mg CO2kg(-1) of chicken and, 361mg CO2kg(-1) of chicken during the MAP treatment, in SGS pre-treated samples. This difference could be the quantity of CO2 dissolved during SGS pre-treatment. These results highlight the advantages of using SGS versus traditional MAP for chicken products preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How the detector resolution affects the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment quality assurance results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, A; Esposito, M; Pini, S; Ghirelli, A; Zatelli, G; Russo, S

    2017-12-01

    Aim of this work was to study how the detector resolution can affect the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) verification results. Three detectors (PTW OCTAVIUS 4D 729, 1500 and 100 SRS) used in five configurations with different resolution were compared: 729, 729 merged, 1500, 1500 merged and 1000 SRS. Absolute local gamma passing rates of 3D pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) were evaluated for 150 dose distributions in 30 plans. Five different kinds of error were introduced in order to establish the detection sensitivity of the three devices. Percentage dosimetric differences were evaluated between planned dosevolume histogram (DVH) and patients' predicted DVH calculated by PTW DVH 4D® software. The mean gamma passing rates and the standard deviations were 92.4% ± 3.7%, 94.6% ± 1.8%, 95.3% ± 4.2%, 97.4% ± 2.5% and 97.6% ± 1.4 respectively for 729, 729 merged, 1500, 1500 merged and 1000 SRS with 2% local dose/2mm criterion. The same trend was found on the sensitivity analysis: using a tight gamma analysis criterion (2%L/1mm) only the 1000 SRS detected every kind of error, while 729 and 1500 merged detected three and four kinds of error respectively. Regarding dose metrics extracted from DVH curves, D50% was within the tolerance level in more than 90% of cases only for the 1000 SRS. The detector resolution can significantly affect the clinical significance of SBRT pre-treatment verification results. The choice of a detector with resolution suitable to the investigated field size is of main importance to avoid getting false positive. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SU-E-T-148: Benchmarks and Pre-Treatment Reviews: A Study of Quality Assurance Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenstein, J; Nguyen, H; Roll, J; Walsh, A; Tailor, A; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews have on improving the quality of submitted clinical trial data. Methods: Benchmarks are used to evaluate a site’s ability to develop a treatment that meets a specific protocol’s treatment guidelines prior to placing their first patient on the protocol. A pre-treatment review is an actual patient placed on the protocol in which the dosimetry and contour volumes are evaluated to be per protocol guidelines prior to allowing the beginning of the treatment. A key component of these QA mechanisms is that sites are provided timely feedback to educate them on how to plan per the protocol and prevent protocol deviations on patients accrued to a protocol. For both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews a dose volume analysis (DVA) was performed using MIM softwareTM. For pre-treatment reviews a volume contour evaluation was also performed. Results: IROC Houston performed a QA effectiveness analysis of a protocol which required both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews. In 70 percent of the patient cases submitted, the benchmark played an effective role in assuring that the pre-treatment review of the cases met protocol requirements. The 35 percent of sites failing the benchmark subsequently modified there planning technique to pass the benchmark before being allowed to submit a patient for pre-treatment review. However, in 30 percent of the submitted cases the pre-treatment review failed where the majority (71 percent) failed the DVA. 20 percent of sites submitting patients failed to correct their dose volume discrepancies indicated by the benchmark case. Conclusion: Benchmark cases and pre-treatment reviews can be an effective QA tool to educate sites on protocol guidelines and to minimize deviations. Without the benchmark cases it is possible that 65 percent of the cases undergoing a pre-treatment review would have failed to meet the protocols requirements.Support: U24-CA-180803

  5. EFFECT OF PRE-TREATMENT ON THE DRYING KINETICS AND PRODUCT QUALITY OF STAR FRUIT SLICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHING LIK HII

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Start fruit (Avverhoa carambola is rich in nutrients and contains dietary antioxidants which are beneficial to human health. Currently, the commercial potential of this fruit has not been fully explored especially in its dried form. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on the drying kinetics and product quality of star fruit slices. The various pre-treatment methods investigated were hot water blanching and dipping in sugar solution. The star fruit was cut into thin slices (5 mm for drying (60°C-80°C using a hot air ventilated oven. Mathematical modelling showed that the Page model was able to describe the moisture diffusion process during drying. Effective diffusivity values were found within the order reported for most food materials (10-8-10-12 m2/s. A decreasing trend in shrinkage ratios was observed with decreasing moisture ratios which corresponds to the greater rate of moisture removal especially at the falling rate period. Overall colour changes were more significant in the blanched samples which could be due to the non-enzymatic browning.

  6. Evaluation of chemical, thermobaric and thermochemical pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of high-fat cattle slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter W; Schmidt, Thomas; McCabe, Bernadette K

    2017-11-01

    This work aimed to enhance the anaerobic digestion of fat-rich dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge through chemical, thermobaric, and thermochemical pre-treatment methods. Soluble chemical oxygen demand was enhanced from 16.3% in the control to 20.84% (thermobaric), 40.82% (chemical), and 50.7% (thermochemical). Pre-treatment altered volatile fatty acid concentration by -64% (thermobaric), 127% (chemical) and 228% (thermochemical). Early inhibition was reduced by 20% in the thermochemical group, and 100% in the thermobaric group. Specific methane production was enhanced by 3.28% (chemical), 8.32% (thermobaric), and 8.49% (thermochemical) as a result of pre-treatment. Under batch digestion, thermobaric pre-treatment demonstrated the greatest improvement in methane yield with respect to degree of pre-treatment applied. Thermobaric pre-treatment was also the most viable for implementation at slaughterhouses, with potential for heat-exchange to reduce pre-treatment cost. Further investigation into long-term impact of pre-treatments in semi-continuous digestion experiments will provide additional evaluation of appropriate pre-treatment options for high-fat slaughterhouse wastewater. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of MLC error sensitivity of various commercial devices for VMAT pre-treatment quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masahide; Sano, Naoki; Shibata, Yuki; Kuriyama, Kengo; Komiyama, Takafumi; Marino, Kan; Aoki, Shinichi; Ashizawa, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the MLC error sensitivity of various measurement devices for VMAT pre-treatment quality assurance (QA). This study used four QA devices (Scandidos Delta4, PTW 2D-array, iRT systems IQM, and PTW Farmer chamber). Nine retrospective VMAT plans were used and nine MLC error plans were generated for all nine original VMAT plans. The IQM and Farmer chamber were evaluated using the cumulative signal difference between the baseline and error-induced measurements. In addition, to investigate the sensitivity of the Delta4 device and the 2D-array, global gamma analysis (1%/1, 2%/2, and 3%/3 mm), dose difference (1%, 2%, and 3%) were used between the baseline and error-induced measurements. Some deviations of the MLC error sensitivity for the evaluation metrics and MLC error ranges were observed. For the two ionization devices, the sensitivity of the IQM was significantly better than that of the Farmer chamber (P < 0.01) while both devices had good linearly correlation between the cumulative signal difference and the magnitude of MLC errors. The pass rates decreased as the magnitude of the MLC error increased for both Delta4 and 2D-array. However, the small MLC error for small aperture sizes, such as for lung SBRT, could not be detected using the loosest gamma criteria (3%/3 mm). Our results indicate that DD could be more useful than gamma analysis for daily MLC QA, and that a large-area ionization chamber has a greater advantage for detecting systematic MLC error because of the large sensitive volume, while the other devices could not detect this error for some cases with a small range of MLC error. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. The effect of pre-treatment parameters on the quality of glass-ceramic wasteforms for plutonium immobilisation, consolidated by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornber, Stephanie M.; Heath, Paul G. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Da Costa, Gabriel P. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Department of Chemical Engineering & Petroleum Engineering, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria 156, CEP 24210-240, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Glass-ceramics with high glass fractions (70 wt%) were fabricated in stainless steel canisters by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), at laboratory scale. High (600 °C) and low (300 °C) temperature pre-treatments were investigated to reduce the canister evacuation time and to understand the effect on the phase assemblage and microstructure of the hot isostatically pressed product. Characterisation of the HIPed materials was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). This analysis showed the microstructure and phase assemblage was independent of the variation in pre-treatment parameters. It was demonstrated that a high temperature pre-treatment of batch reagents, prior to the HIP cycle, is beneficial when using oxide precursors, in order to remove volatiles and achieve high quality dense materials. Sample throughput can be increased significantly by utilising a high temperature ex-situ calcination prior to the HIP cycle. Investigation of glass-ceramic wasteform processing utilising a glass frit precursor, produced a phase assemblage and microstructure comparable to that obtained using oxide precursors. The use of a glass frit precursor should allow optimised throughput of waste packages in a production facility, avoiding the need for a calcination pre-treatment required to remove volatiles from oxide precursors. - Highlights: • Optimisation of pre-treatment parameters for HIP glass-ceramics was investigated. • Entrained porosity was minimised by ex-situ bake-out of oxide precursors at 600 °C. • Phase assemblage and microstructure proved independent of bake-out parameters. • Use of glass-frit precursor further improved process s throughput and simplification.

  9. The effect of pre-treatment parameters on the quality of glass-ceramic wasteforms for plutonium immobilisation, consolidated by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornber, Stephanie M.; Heath, Paul G.; Da Costa, Gabriel P.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2017-01-01

    Glass-ceramics with high glass fractions (70 wt%) were fabricated in stainless steel canisters by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), at laboratory scale. High (600 °C) and low (300 °C) temperature pre-treatments were investigated to reduce the canister evacuation time and to understand the effect on the phase assemblage and microstructure of the hot isostatically pressed product. Characterisation of the HIPed materials was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). This analysis showed the microstructure and phase assemblage was independent of the variation in pre-treatment parameters. It was demonstrated that a high temperature pre-treatment of batch reagents, prior to the HIP cycle, is beneficial when using oxide precursors, in order to remove volatiles and achieve high quality dense materials. Sample throughput can be increased significantly by utilising a high temperature ex-situ calcination prior to the HIP cycle. Investigation of glass-ceramic wasteform processing utilising a glass frit precursor, produced a phase assemblage and microstructure comparable to that obtained using oxide precursors. The use of a glass frit precursor should allow optimised throughput of waste packages in a production facility, avoiding the need for a calcination pre-treatment required to remove volatiles from oxide precursors. - Highlights: • Optimisation of pre-treatment parameters for HIP glass-ceramics was investigated. • Entrained porosity was minimised by ex-situ bake-out of oxide precursors at 600 °C. • Phase assemblage and microstructure proved independent of bake-out parameters. • Use of glass-frit precursor further improved process s throughput and simplification.

  10. SU-E-T-77: A Statistical Approach to Manage Quality for Pre-Treatment Verification in IMRT/VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassal, K [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Sarkar, B [AMRI Cancer Centre and GLA university, Mathura, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Mohanti, B; Roy, S; Ganesh, T [FMRI, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Munshi, A [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgon, Haryana (India); Chougule, A [SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India); Sachdev, K [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan (India)

    2015-06-15

    Objective: The study presents the application of a simple concept of statistical process control (SPC) for pre-treatment quality assurance procedure analysis for planar dose measurements performed using 2D-array and a-Si electronic portal imaging device (a-Si EPID). Method: A total of 195 patients of four different anatomical sites: brain (n1=45), head & neck (n2=45), thorax (n3=50) and pelvis (n4=55) were selected for the study. Pre-treatment quality assurance for the clinically acceptable IMRT/VMAT plans was measured with 2D array and a-Si EPID of the accelerator. After the γ-analysis, control charts and the quality index Cpm was evaluated for each cohort. Results: Mean and σ of γ ( 3%/3 mm) were EPID γ %≤1= 99.9% ± 1.15% and array γ %<1 = 99.6% ± 1.06%. Among all plans γ max was consistently lower than for 2D array as compared to a-Si EPID. Fig.1 presents the X-bar control charts for every cohort. Cpm values for a-Si EPID were found to be higher than array, detailed results are presented in table 1. Conclusion: Present study demonstrates the significance of control charts used for quality management purposes in newer radiotherapy clinics. Also, provides a pictorial overview of the clinic performance for the advanced radiotherapy techniques.Higher Cpm values for EPID indicate its higher efficiency than array based measurements.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on pre-treatment on the drying characteristics and qualities of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun [Zhejiang University (China). Dept. of Biosystems Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Wheat, pretreated by {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation, was dried by hot-air with irradiation dosage 0-3 kGy, drying temperature 40-60 deg C, and initial moisture contents 19-25% (drying basis). The drying characteristics and dried qualities of wheat were evaluated based on drying time, average dehydration rate, wet gluten content (WGC), moisture content of wet gluten (MCWG)and titratable acidity (TA). A quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite experimental design, with three variables (at five levels) and five response functions, and analysis method were employed to study the effect of three variables on the individual response functions. The five response functions (drying time, average dehydration rate, WGC, MCWG, TA) correlated with these variables by second order polynomials consisting of linear, quadratic and interaction terms. A high correlation coefficient indicated the suitability of the second order polynomial to predict these response functions. The linear, interaction and quadratic effects of three variables on the five response functions were all studied. (author)

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on pre-treatment on the drying characteristics and qualities of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Wheat, pretreated by 60 Co gamma irradiation, was dried by hot-air with irradiation dosage 0-3 kGy, drying temperature 40-60 deg C, and initial moisture contents 19-25% (drying basis). The drying characteristics and dried qualities of wheat were evaluated based on drying time, average dehydration rate, wet gluten content (WGC), moisture content of wet gluten (MCWG)and titratable acidity (TA). A quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite experimental design, with three variables (at five levels) and five response functions, and analysis method were employed to study the effect of three variables on the individual response functions. The five response functions (drying time, average dehydration rate, WGC, MCWG, TA) correlated with these variables by second order polynomials consisting of linear, quadratic and interaction terms. A high correlation coefficient indicated the suitability of the second order polynomial to predict these response functions. The linear, interaction and quadratic effects of three variables on the five response functions were all studied. (author)

  13. Evaluation and performance of arccheck and film using gamma criteria in pre-treatment quality assurance of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Ramachandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the use of ArcCHECK (AC as an alternative method to replace film dosimetry for pre-treatment quality assurance (QA of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT, and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR treatment plans. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with a varied diagnosis of lung, spine, sacrum, sternum, ribs, scapula, and femur undergoing SABR were selected for this study. Pre-treatment QA was performed for all the patients using ionization chamber and film dosimetry. Measurements were also carried out on an AC phantom. The planned and measured doses from the AC device and EBT3 films were compared using four different gamma criteria: 2%/2 mm, 3%/2 mm, 3%/1 mm, and 3%/3 mm. Results: The mean gamma passing rates at 3%/3 mm for all non-spine SABR cases were 98.79 ± 0.96 and 99.27 ± 1.03 with AC and films, respectively. The mean passing rates at 3%/2 mm for AC and films were 98.76 ± 0.42 and 99.43 ± 0.27 respectively for spine VMAT SABR, and 87.15 ± 2.45 and 99.79 ± 0.14 respectively for spine IMRT SABR. In the case of spine tumors, the gamma criterion was tightened due to the proximity of spinal cord to the planning target volume. Our results show that AC provides good results for all VMAT SABR plans. Conclusion: The AC results at 3%/3 mm were in good agreement with film dosimetry for most cases. We observed a significant reduction in QA time on using AC for SABR QA. This study showed that AC results are comparable to film dosimetry for all studied sites except for spine IMRT SABR.

  14. Boiler feedwater quality improvement by replacing conventional pre-treatment with advanced membrane systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Bernhard [Process Systems Pall GmbH, Dreieich (Germany). Marketing; Venkatadri, Ramraj [Pall Corporation, Port Washington, NY (United States). Global Marketing Energy

    2013-09-01

    Two case studies in different application fields highlight significant economical and operational improvements that were achieved by replacing conventional water treatment technologies by highly-sophisticated membrane systems. The first case study deals with boiler feedwater in a power plant, focusing on the challenges faced as well as the direct and indirect benefits gained by the new system within a utility station. The second case study deals with the conventional water treatment scheme for groundwater from 13 wells at a major oil sands facility. Operational performance as well as the cost improvements gained in both cases will be presented. (orig.)

  15. Laser speckle technique to study the effect of chemical pre-treatment on the quality of minimally processed apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minz, Preeti D; Nirala, A K

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the laser speckle technique has been used for the quality evaluation of chemically treated cut apples. Chemical pre-treatment includes 1% (w/v) solution of citric acid (CA), sodium chloride (SC), and a combination of CA and sodium chloride (CS). The variation in weight loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and absorbance of chemically treated cut apples stored at 5 °C was monitored for 11 d. The speckle grain size was calculated by an autocovariance method from the speckled images of freshly cut chemically treated apples. The effect of chemicals on TSS and the TA content variation of the cut apples were well correlated to the linear speckle grain size. Circular degree of polarization confirms the presence of a small scatterer and hence Rayleigh diffusion region. For all the treated cut apples, a decrease in the concentration of small particles nearly after the mid-period of storage results in the fast decay of circular degree of polarization. For non-invasive and fast analysis of the chemical constituent of fruits during minimal processing, the laser speckle can be practically used in the food industry. (paper)

  16. Laser speckle technique to study the effect of chemical pre-treatment on the quality of minimally processed apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minz, Preeti D.; Nirala, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the laser speckle technique has been used for the quality evaluation of chemically treated cut apples. Chemical pre-treatment includes 1% (w/v) solution of citric acid (CA), sodium chloride (SC), and a combination of CA and sodium chloride (CS). The variation in weight loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and absorbance of chemically treated cut apples stored at 5 °C was monitored for 11 d. The speckle grain size was calculated by an autocovariance method from the speckled images of freshly cut chemically treated apples. The effect of chemicals on TSS and the TA content variation of the cut apples were well correlated to the linear speckle grain size. Circular degree of polarization confirms the presence of a small scatterer and hence Rayleigh diffusion region. For all the treated cut apples, a decrease in the concentration of small particles nearly after the mid-period of storage results in the fast decay of circular degree of polarization. For non-invasive and fast analysis of the chemical constituent of fruits during minimal processing, the laser speckle can be practically used in the food industry.

  17. Influence of electrochemical pre-treatment on highly reactive carbon nitride thin films deposited on stainless steel for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchikh, A.; Debiemme-Chouvy, C.; Cachet, H.; Pailleret, A.; Saidani, B.; Beaunier, L.; Berger, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a-CNx films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrate have been investigated as electrode materials. While their wide potential window was confirmed as a property shared by boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes, their electrochemical activity with respect to fast and reversible redox systems, [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+/2+ , [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3−/4− and [IrCl 6 ] 2−/3− , was assessed by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) after cathodic or anodic electrochemical pre-treatments or for as grown samples. It was shown for the three systems that electrochemical reactivity of the a-CNx films was improved after the cathodic pre-treatment and degraded after the anodic one, the apparent heterogeneous rate constant k 0app being decreased by at least one order of magnitude for the latter case. A high k 0app value of 0.11 cm s −1 for [IrCl 6 ] 2−/3− was obtained, close to the highest values found for BDD electrodes.

  18. A novel approach to detect KRAS/BRAF mutation for colon cancer: Highly sensitive simultaneous detection of mutations and simple pre-treatment without DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shun-Ichi; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Hirai, Mitsuharu; Shibata, Harumi; Takagi, Koichi; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Hatake, Kiyohiko

    2015-07-01

    It has been reported that colon cancer patients with KRAS and BRAF mutations that lie downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) acquire resistance against therapy with anti‑EGFR antibodies, cetuximab and panitumumab. On the other hand, some reports say KRAS codon 13 mutation (p.G13D) has lower resistance against anti-EGFR antibodies, thus there is a substantial need for detection of specific KRAS mutations. We have established a state-of-the-art measurement system using QProbe (QP) method that allows simultaneous measurement of KRAS codon 12/13, p.G13D and BRAF mutation, and compared this method against Direct Sequencing (DS) using 182 specimens from colon cancer patients. In addition, 32 biopsy specimens were processed with a novel pre-treatment method without DNA purification in order to detect KRAS/BRAF. As a result of KRAS mutation measurement, concordance rate between the QP method and DS method was 81.4% (144/177) except for the 5 specimens that were undeterminable. Among them, 29 specimens became positive with QP method and negative with DS method. BRAF was measured with QP method only, and the mutation detection rate was 3.9% (6/153). KRAS measurement using a simple new pre-treatment method without DNA extraction resulted in 31 good results out of 32, all of them matching with the DS method. We have established a simple but highly sensitive simultaneous detection system for KRAS/BRAF. Moreover, introduction of the novel pre-treatment technology eliminated the inconvenient DNA extraction process. From this research achievement, we not only anticipate quick and accurate results returned in the clinical field but also contribution in improving the test quality and work efficiency.

  19. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on quantity and quality of source-sorted municipal organic waste for biogas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, J.l.C.; Davidsson, Å.

    2007-01-01

    , collection bag material (plastic or paper) and easily degradable organic matter. Furthermore, the particle size of the biomass was related to the pre-treatment technology. The content of plastic in the biomass depended both on the actual collection bag material used in the system and the pre......Source-sorted municipal organic waste collected from different dwelling types in five Danish cities and pre-treated at three different plants was sampled and characterized several times during one year to investigate the origin of any differences in composition of the pre-treated waste introduced...... by city, pre-treatment technology, dwelling type or annual season. The investigated pre-treatment technologies were screw press, disc screen and shredder + magnet. The average quantity of pre-treated organic waste (biomass) produced from the incoming waste varied between the investigated pre...

  20. Seed quality preservation advantage of gamma irradiation seed pre-treatment during long term storage in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, Sameer Kumar; Sumedha; Singh, Bhupinder

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to analyse the effect of gamma irradiation seed pre-treatment on insect damage and quality preservation of soybean seeds during long term storage at ambient temperature (27-42 ℃) and relative humidity (50-95%). Freshly harvested seeds of soybean (cv. Pusa-9814) were treated with control (0), 0.01, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy gamma radiation on a Gamma irradiator (Gamma Chamber 5000, 60 Co source, activity 12000 Ci, BRIT, Mumbai, India) at the Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI, New Delhi and were stored over one year in cotton cloth bags under ambient conditions. Protein and oil per cent and fatty acid profile was measured in freshly harvested zero time unirradiated control, aged unirradiated control and other treatments of ionizing radiation. Seed oil was extracted through the soxhlet extraction method and oil profiling was done by gas chromatography. Change in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids like palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolic, linolenic acid and oleic to linoleic ratio was measured. Oil content of unirradiated stored seeds compared to that of the freshly harvested control was lower. However, radiation in general, helped in maintaining a higher seed oil during storage when compared with that of the aged unirradiated control and was insignificantly reduced over the fresh unirrradiated control. Further, gamma irradiation treatment did not yield any adverse affect on the seed protein even after prolonged storage. The results reveal a reduced rate of lipid degradation and improved seed hardness over untreated control with no significant change in fatty acid profile of the irradiated and the unirradiated seeds over a long term storage period. (author)

  1. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  2. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-01-01

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps

  3. Enzymatic pre-treatment of high content cellulosic feedstock improves biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal wastes with high lignin and cellulosic contents can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. However, these high lignin and cellulosic feedstocks are quite recalcitrant to be readily utilized by methanogens to produce ben...

  4. Radiation pre-treatment of seed imparts metabolic stability and quality protection during storage under accelerated aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumedha; Singh, Bhupinder; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of seed is known to deteriorate due to unfavoured temperature and relative humidity during accelerated aging. Protecting the seed quality during storage is thus a priority challenge for the seed industry till the seeds end up with the end user. Gamma radiation treatment has been shown to improve source to sink transport of photosynthates during terminal heat stress in cereals. An experiment was conducted to measure seed irradiation induced biochemical changes in groundnut cultivar TG-37A stored under accelerated aging at 45±2 ℃ and 95-100 % humidity for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 days to aging. The gamma irradiation doses were control (0), 0.005, 0.025, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Seed samples were periodically evaluated for oil and fatty acid profile by the soxhlet extraction method and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy respectively. Here alike earlier studies variation in fatty acid profile of seed was used as an indicator of seed health under harsh storage conditions of accelerated aging. In the majority of plant species having oil rich seeds, the lipids that are at risk of auto-oxidation contain oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) fatty acid chain. Degree of unsaturation has a significant influence on degree of degradation. Decreased total lipid content in aged sunflower seeds have been reported. Auto-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids was noticed, especially for linoleic acid in seed of oil crop after seven years of storage. Our results showed radiation treatment did not cause any significant change in oleic (C18:1), linoleic acids (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acid content of seeds. This shows that gamma radiation essentially slows down the lipid peroxidation which essentially protects membrane permeability and reduces the rate of seed deterioration at high temperature and RH. Radiation treatment imparts metabolic stability in seeds during storage under accelerated aging conditions. (author)

  5. Need of patient-specific quality assurance and pre-treatment verification program for special plans in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Bhasi, Saju; Binukumar, J.P.; Davis, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Accuracy in planned radiation dose delivery in cancer treatments becomes necessary in the advent of complex treatment delivery options with newer technology using medical linear accelerators, which makes patient management very crucial. Treatment outcome in an individual patient therefore depends on the professional involvement of staff and execution accuracy of planned procedure. Therefore, this article has addressed an important problem. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reported mis-administrations of radiation dose, the nature of their occurrence and complexity of situations. Lack of adequate quality assurance (QA) program or failure in their routine applications, complacency in attention, lack of knowledge, overconfidence, pressures of time, lack of resources and failures in communication are some of the general human causes of errors. A recent report enumerated misadministration of radiation doses under the heading 'harming instead of healing' delivery of wrong doses in small field treatment plans with stereotactic equipment' was mostly highlighted

  6. Use of high-intensity sonication for pre-treatment of biological tissues prior to multielemental analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Calle, Inmaculada; Costas, Marta; Cabaleiro, Noelia; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this work, two ultrasound-based procedures are developed for sample preparation prior to determination of P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Sr in biological tissues by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Ultrasound-assisted extraction by means of a cup-horn sonoreactor and ultrasonic-probe slurry sampling were compared with a well-established procedure such as magnetic agitation slurry sampling. For that purpose, seven certified reference materials and different real samples of animal tissue were used. Similar accuracy and precision is obtained with the three sample preparation approaches tried. Limits of detection were dependent on both the sample matrix and the sample pre-treatment used, best values being achieved with ultrasound-assisted extraction. Advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction include reduced sample handling, decreased contamination risks (neither addition of surfactants nor use of foreign objects inside the extraction vial), simpler background (no solid particles onto the sample carrier) and improved recovery for some elements such as P. A mixture of 10% v/v HNO 3 + 20–40% v/v HCl was suitable for extraction from biological tissues. - Highlights: ► We implement high-intensity sonication for pre-treatment of biological tissues. ► Multielemental analysis is performed by total reflection X-ray spectrometry. ► Ultrasound-based procedures are developed and compared to conventional slurry preparation. ► Features such as background, recovery and sample handling are favored by using ultrasonic extraction.

  7. Optimization of Pre-Treatment Process Parameters to Generate Biodiesel from Microalga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuma Onumaegbu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell disruption is an integral part of microalga production process, which improves the release of intracellular products that are essential for biofuel production. In this work, pre-treatment parameters that will enhance the efficiency of lipid production using high-pressure homogenizer on microalgae biomass will be investigated. The high-pressure homogenizer that is considered is a GYB40-10S/GY60-6S; with a pre-treatment pressure of 1000 psi, 2000 psi, and 3000 psi, the number of passes; 1, 2, and 3, a reaction time of 3, 3.5, and 4 h. Pressure and cavitation increase the efficiency of the pre-treatment process of the homogenizer. In addition, homogenization shear force and pressure are the basic significant factors that enhance the efficiency of microalgae cell rupture. Also, the use of modelling to simulate pre-treatment processes (Response Surface Methodology (RSM, Box-Behnken Designs (BBD, and design of experiment (DOE for process optimization will be adopted in this study. The results clearly demonstrate that high-pressure homogenization pre-treatment can effectively disrupt microalga cell walls to enhance lipid recovery efficiency, with a relatively short extraction time, both that are essential for maintaining a good quality of lipids for biofuel production. A maximum of 18% lipid yields were obtained after 3 h of HPH pre-treatment at 3000 psi.

  8. [Advances in research on mechanisms of seed pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian; Gao, Ya Ni; Wang, Quan Zhen

    2016-11-18

    Seeds play a vital role in nature and agro-ecosystems. The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling determine the propagation and survival of a plant species, but seed vigor is often seriously damaged because of seed aging, dormancy and the deterioration of natural habitat. Thus, exploring methods for improving germination quality is of great significance to ecology and the economy. Based on the latest international reports, seed pre-treatments are the most practical and effective methods for improving plant performance, increasing yields and enhancing stress resistance. This review provided a summary of the current pre-sowing treatment technologies and the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to these methods by addressing gene expression, cytological effects, enzyme system activities, material and energy metabolism, antioxidation mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. We also interpreted the mechanisms of the seed pre-treatment methods from aspects of seed germination acceleration and stress resistance enhancement. The bottleneck in seed pre-treatments at the cytological and molecular levels and the problems involved in their application were also discussed. Thus far, most studies had largely focused on the partial reaction alterations of plant biochemistry and enzyme activities, and they had generally been characterized by a lack of systematic and holistic study for applications to crop production. Finally, we proposed an outlook for further study in an attempt to provide a prospective and scientific reference for plant germplasm conservation, high-efficiency organic agriculture development and ecological environment re-construction.

  9. Increased viability and resilience of haemolymph cells in blue mussels following pre-treatment with acute high-dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B. [Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    In an initial experiment, blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to a range of acute high doses of gamma radiation in the laboratory. Haemolymph was extracted and the haemocytes (blood cells) were scored for cell viability (% living cells) under a microscope, directly after irradiation (0.04, 0.4 or 4 Gy) and again after a subsequent treatment with hydrogen peroxide in vitro (final H{sub 2}O{sub 2} conc.: 0.2 μM). Cell viability in controls (0 Gy) was approximately 100% and no cell death was observable from radiation exposure alone. When treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} a decrease in cell viability was seen across all treatments, however this decrease in viability was reduced with increasing radiation pre-treatment (0 Gy = 53%; 0.04 Gy = 66%; 0.4 Gy = 75%; 4 Gy = 83%). To investigate the mechanism for this therapeutic effect observed, the experiment was repeated. Using mussels from a different location, the same, but more extensive method of irradiation (0[control], 0.04, 0.4 Gy, 5 or 40 Gy) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment was used. Additional haemolymph sub-samples were taken for analysis of catalase concentration. In this second experiment, viability of cells from controls was only 62%, indicating the mussels were in a poorer condition than those of the previous experiment. The lowest level of radiation exposure (0.04 Gy) further decreased the viability (56%). However, at higher doses the viability was increased compared to control, which then gradually declined with increasing dose (0.4 Gy = 75%; 5 Gy = 72%; 40 Gy = 65%). Catalase analysis demonstrated a complimentary pattern of activity of the antioxidant in the haemolymph, directly correlating with radiation dose (0 Gy = 0.2 U; 0.04 Gy = 0.1 U; 0.4 Gy = 1.3 U; 5 Gy = 0.9 U; 40 Gy = 0.1 Gy). Treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreased cell viability across all treatments, but no pattern between radiation treatments was discernable. The results indicate that an acute dose of radiation not only has negligible

  10. Dry ice blasting as a substitution for the conventional electroplating pre-treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlmann Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For high quality electroplated products, surfaces must be thoroughly pre-treated. For this purpose electroplating currently needs a variety of chemical baths. The used chemicals are injurious to health and harmful to the environment. In addition, the conventional pre-treatment has a long process time which results in high costs. Dry ice blasting alone or in combination with other processes has the potential to completely substitute these conventional pre-treatment processes. Three process sequences as pre-treatment methods prior to electroplating were investigated on the aluminium alloys AlSi12 and AlMg3. The used processes are dry ice blasting, tempering during dry ice blasting and glass bead blasting followed by dry ice blasting. The influence of the parameters on the surface roughness, surface topography and surface tension of the workpieces was examined. A model to describe the correlation between the dry ice blasting parameters and surface parameters was developed. Finally, an adhesion test of electroplated specimen was conducted in order to determine the suitability of these alternative pre-treatment processes.

  11. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manure: Impact of total solids, substrate ratio and thermal pre treatment on methane yield and quality of biomanure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelli, Vijayalakshmi; Begum, Sameena; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Kuruti, Kranti; S, Shailaja

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of TS concentration, substrate mixing ratio (co digestion) and thermal pretreatment on biogas production, methane yield, VS reduction (%) and quality of biomanure through dry anaerobic digestion (DAD) of food waste (FW) and cattle manure (CM). Results divulged that the optimum methane yield and biomanure of 0.18 and 0.21 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 3.15 and 2.8 kg/kg waste was obtained from FW at TS of 25% and 30% at an HRT of 41 and 31 days respectively whereas it was 0.32 and 0.43 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 2.2 and 1.15 kg/kg waste from pretreated FW at an HRT of 16 and 20 days correspondingly. Improvement of methane from 62 to 81% was obtained due to thermal pretreatment. The highest nutrient recovery in terms of N, P, K was found to be 5.14, 2.6 and 3.2 respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...... by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed....

  13. Silane pre-treatments on copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorian, F.; Rossi, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2006-01-01

    A large part of aluminium products are coated with an organic layer in order to improve the corrosion resistance. Copper surfaces are also sometimes protected with an organic coating to improve the durability or the aesthetic properties. Examples of industrial applications are household appliances and heat exchanger components. For these applications it is not rare to have the industrial need to treat at the same time components made of aluminium and copper. In order to extend the service life of the organic coated copper a specific surface pre-treatment is often required. Nevertheless, probably because of the limited market of this application, no specific pre-treatments for copper are industrially developed, with the exception of cleaning procedures, but simply extensions of existing pre-treatments optimised for other metals (aluminium, zinc) are used. The application of silane pre-treatments as adhesion promoters for organic coated metals is remarkably increasing in the last decade, because silanes offer very good performance together with high environmental compatibility. The idea is therefore to try to develop a specific silane based pre-treatment for copper. The starting point is the existing silane products for aluminium, optimising the composition and the application conditions (concentration, temperature, pH of the bath, etc.) in order to develop a high performance copper alloy pre-treatment increasing the protective properties and the adhesion of a successively applied organic coating. Moreover these pre-treatments could be used for aluminium alloys too and therefore could be suggested for multi-metals components. The deposits were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy and optical and electron microscopic observations. A careful electrochemical characterisation, mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) was carried out to highlight the presence of silane and to evaluate the performance of the different deposits. In order to study an

  14. Multicentre validation of IMRT pre-treatment verification: Comparison of in-house and external audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornet, Núria; Carrasco, Pablo; Beltrán, Mercè; Calvo, Juan Francisco; Escudé, Lluís; Hernández, Victor; Quera, Jaume; Sáez, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: We performed a multicentre intercomparison of IMRT optimisation and dose planning and IMRT pre-treatment verification methods and results. The aims were to check consistency between dose plans and to validate whether in-house pre-treatment verification results agreed with those of an external audit. Materials and methods: Participating centres used two mock cases (prostate and head and neck) for the intercomparison and audit. Compliance to dosimetric goals and total number of MU per plan were collected. A simple quality index to compare the different plans was proposed. We compared gamma index pass rates using the centre’s equipment and methodology to those of an external audit. Results: While for the prostate case, all centres fulfilled the dosimetric goals and plan quality was homogeneous, that was not the case for the head and neck case. The number of MU did not correlate with the plan quality index. Pre-treatment verifications results of the external audit did not agree with those of the in-house measurements for two centres: being within tolerance for in-house measurements and unacceptable for the audit or the other way round. Conclusions: Although all plans fulfilled dosimetric constraints, plan quality is highly dependent on the planner expertise. External audits are an excellent tool to detect errors in IMRT implementation and cannot be replaced by intercomparison using results obtained by centres

  15. Application of ceramic membranes for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma; Ha, Changwon; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    and particulate fouling materials (algae, suspended and colloidal particles). Also, a pre-treatment barrier reduces organics and provides better feed water quality for RO membranes. MF and UF pre-treatment prior to SWRO provides Low Silt Density Index (SDI) values

  16. Improved method for the determination of serotonin in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography using on-line sample pre-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takkenberg, B.; Endert, E.; van Ingen, H. E.; Ackermans, M.

    1991-01-01

    An improved method for the determination of serotonin in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP), by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and direct plasma injection, is described. The chromatographic system comprises a strong

  17. Impact of pre-treatment technologies on soil aquifer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Besançon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of pre-treatment options on the performances of soil columns simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT. For this purpose a conventional activated sludge (CAS process, a membrane bioreactor (MBR and vertical flow reed beds were used as single units or in combination before SAT. The influent and effluent from each treatment train were monitored over three successive 6-month periods, corresponding to changes in the operational conditions of the MBR and CAS units from 6 days' sludge retention time (SRT to 12 and 20 days. All the columns acted as efficient polishing steps for solids and bacteria. The column receiving effluent from the CAS system running at 6 days' SRT also presented high total nitrogen and total phosphorus removals, but this column was also associated with the lowest infiltration rates over that period. While the quality of the effluent from the column following the CAS process increased over 18 months of operation, the effluent quality of the columns receiving MBR effluent degraded. No correlations were found between variations in SRT of the MBR and CAS processes and the columns' performances. Overall, all columns, except the one receiving CAS effluent, underwent a reduction in infiltration rate over 18 months.

  18. Pre-Treatment of Platinum Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells with an MMP-9/MMP-2 Inhibitor Prior to Cisplatin Enhances Cytotoxicity as Determined by High Content Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. O'Leary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. We previously identified matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 as a potential therapeutic target of chemoresistant disease. A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant and A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used. The cytotoxic effect of MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S alone or in combination with cisplatin was determined using high content screening. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Co-incubation of cisplatin and an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S resulted in significantly greater cytotoxicity as compared to either treatment alone in a cisplatin resistant MMP-9 overexpressing cell line; A2780cis. In addition, pre-incubating with MMP-9i prior to cisplatin further enhances the cytotoxic effect. No significant difference was observed in MMP-9 protein in tissue but a trend towards increased MMP-9 was observed in recurrent serum. We propose that MMP-9/MMP-2i may be utilized in the treatment of recurrent/chemoresistant ovarian cancers that overexpress MMP-9 mRNA but its role in vivo remains to be evaluated.

  19. Selected chemical composition changes in microwave-convective dried parsley leaves affected by ultrasound and steaming pre-treatments - An optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadan, Magdalena; Rybak, Katarzyna; Wiktor, Artur; Nowacka, Malgorzata; Zubernik, Joanna; Witrowa-Rajchert, Dorota

    2018-01-15

    Parsley leaves contain a high amount of bioactive components (especially lutein), therefore it is crucial to select the most appropriate pre-treatment and drying conditions, in order to obtain high quality of dried leaves, which was the aim of this study. The optimization was done using response surface methodology (RSM) for the following factors: microwave power (100, 200, 300W), air temperature (20, 30, 40°C) and pre-treatment variant (ultrasound, steaming and dipping as a control). Total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity, chlorophyll and lutein contents (using UPLC-PDA) were determined in dried leaves. The analysed responses were dependent on the applied drying parameters and the pre-treatment type. The possibility of ultrasound and steam treatment application was proven and the optimal processing conditions were selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Waste washing pre-treatment of municipal and special waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    2012-03-15

    Long-term pollution potential in landfills is mainly related to the quality of leachate. Waste can be conveniently treated prior to landfilling with an aim to minimizing future emissions. Washing of waste represents a feasible pre-treatment method focused on controlling the leachable fraction of residues and relevant impact. In this study, non-recyclable plastics originating from source segregation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste (MSW), bottom ash from MSW incineration and automotive shredder residues (ASR) were treated and the removal efficiency of washing pre-treatment prior to landfilling was evaluated. Column tests were performed to simulate the behaviour of waste in landfill under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The findings obtained revealed how waste washing treatment (WWT) allowed the leachability of contaminants from waste to be reduced. Removal rates exceeding 65% were obtained for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). A percentage decrease of approximately 60% was reached for the leachable fraction of chlorides, sulphates, fluoride and metals, as proved by a reduction in electric conductivity values (70%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pre-treatment of oil palm fronds biomass for gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Shaharin Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil Palm Fronds (OPF has been proven as one of the potential types of biomass feedstock for power generation. The low ash content and high calorific value are making OPF an attractive source for gasification. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pre-treatments of OPF residual on gasification. The pre-treatments included the briquetting process and extensive drying of OPF which are studied separately. In briquetting process, the OPF were mixed with some portions of paper as an additives, leaflets, and water, to form a soupy slurry. The extensive drying of OPF needs to cut down OPF in 4–6 cm particle size and left to dry in the oven at 150°C for 24 hours. Gasification process was carried out at the end of each of the pre-treated processes. It was found that the average gas composition obtained from briquetting process was 8.07%, 2.06%, 0.54%,and 11.02% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 respectively. A good composition of syngas was produced from extensive dried OPF, as 16.48%, 4.03%, 0.91%,and 11.15% for CO, H2, CH4, and CO2 contents respectively. It can be concluded that pre-treatments improved the physical characteristics of biomass. The bulk density of biomass can be increased by briquetting but the stability of the structure is depending on the composition of briquette formulation. Furthermore, the stability of gasification process also depended on briquette density, mechanical strength, and formulation.

  2. Sludge pre-treatment with pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopplow, O.; Barjenbruch, M.; Heinz, V.

    2003-07-01

    The anaerobic stabilization process depends - among others - on the bio-availability of organic carbon. Through pre-treatment of the sludge which leads to the destruction of micro-organisms and to the setting-free of cell content substances (disintegration), the carbon can be microbially converted better and faster. Moreover, effects on the digestion are likely. However, only little experience is available in the sludge treatment with pulsed electric fields. Laboratory-scale digestion tests have been run to analyse the influence of pulsed electric fields on the properties of sludge, anaerobic degradation, sludge water reload and foaming of digesters. The results will be compared with those of other disintegration methods (high pressure homogenise, thermal treatment). The effect of pre-treatment on the sludge is shown by the COD release. Degrees of disintegration have been achieved up to 20%. The specific energy input was high. The energy consumption has been decreased by initial improvements (pre-heating to 55{sup o}C). The filament bacteria were partially destroyed. The foam reduction in the digesters was marginal. The anaerobic degradation performance has been improved in every case. The degradation rate of organic matter increased about 9%. Due to the increase of degradation, there is a higher reload of the sludge-water with COD and nitrogen compounds. (author)

  3. Viral persistence in surface and drinking water: Suitability of PCR pre-treatment with intercalating dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, B; Goulet, M; Lucas, F S; Joyeux, M; Moulin, L; Wurtzer, S

    2016-03-15

    After many outbreaks of enteric virus associated with consumption of drinking water, the study of enteric viruses in water has increased significantly in recent years. In order to better understand the dynamics of enteric viruses in environmental water and the associated viral risk, it is necessary to estimate viral persistence in different conditions. In this study, two representative models of human enteric viruses, adenovirus 41 (AdV 41) and coxsackievirus B2 (CV-B2), were used to evaluate the persistence of enteric viruses in environmental water. The persistence of infectious particles, encapsidated genomes and free nucleic acids of AdV 41 and CV-B2 was evaluated in drinking water and surface water at different temperatures (4 °C, 20 °C and 37 °C). The infectivity of AdV 41 and CV-B2 persisted for at least 25 days, whatever the water temperature, and for more than 70 days at 4 °C and 20 °C, in both drinking and surface water. Encapsidated genomes persisted beyond 70 days, whatever the water temperature. Free nucleic acids (i.e. without capsid) also were able to persist for at least 16 days in drinking and surface water. The usefulness of a detection method based on an intercalating dye pre-treatment, which specifically targets preserved particles, was investigated for the discrimination of free and encapsidated genomes and it was compared to virus infectivity. Further, the resistance of AdV 41 and CV-B2 against two major disinfection treatments applied in drinking water plants (UV and chlorination) was evaluated. Even after the application of UV rays and chlorine at high doses (400 mJ/cm(2) and 10 mg.min/L, respectively), viral genomes were still detected with molecular biology methods. Although the intercalating dye pre-treatment had little use for the detection of the effects of UV treatment, it was useful in the case of treatment by chlorination and less than 1 log10 difference in the results was found as compared to the infectivity measurements

  4. Pre-treatment of biofuels for power production. Final report (1998). K. Joule 3 - OPTEB, Task: No. 19/20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, P.A.; Sander, B.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1999-10-01

    Co-firing of straw and coal on existing pulverised coal fired power plants may cause problems with deposition, corrosion, deactivation of SCR catalysts and impedes the utilisation of the fly ash, because of the high chlorine and potassium content of straw. Experiments with co-combustion of straw and coal on boilers plants have shown, that when maximal 20% of straw on a thermal basis is applied the most serious problems is the deactivation of high dust SCR catalysts and the deterioration of fly ash quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate a large-scale pre-treatment process for straw. The process applies pyrolysis at a moderate temperature, where the alkaline is retained in the char. The char is then washed and char and pyrolysis gasses can be co-fired with coal without causing serious problems. Fundamental laboratory studies as well as technical investigations were conducted to evaluate the pre-treatment concept. The laboratory studies were mainly done to improve the understanding of potassium and chlorine release during pyrolysis and the extraction of char with water. Some work were also done with respect to particle characterisation, straw pyrolysis kinetic and straw char combustion. The technical evaluation of a plant with 20 tons/hour capacity included investigations of possible reactor technologies, waste water handling, power efficiency and investment costs. Based on the laboratory experiments a pyrolysis temperature of 500 to 600 deg. C is recommended for the pre-treatment process. A high degree of pyrolysis is obtained without a significant release of potassium to the gas, but a release of 30 to 60% of the chlorine can not be avoided. Extraction of potassium from char with water is a two-step process, where the first step is a fast dissolution of potassium salts and the second step is a slow release of potassium from the interior of the char particle. A high potassium removal during char wash could not be obtained for all types of char within

  5. Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge – Implications for toxicity and methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects on the methane potential and the overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 °C). In general both treatments gave an increased methane potential. The thermal t...... treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. The sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre...

  6. Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Yoney; Martin, Carlos; Gullon, Beatriz; Parajo, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author)

  7. Effects of hydrothermal pre-treatments on Giant reed (Arundo donax) methane yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Girolamo, Giuseppe; Grigatti, Marco; Barbanti, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    /20min, 180°C/10min and 180°C/20min. Conversely, the eight pre-treatments with H2SO4 catalyst incurred a methanogenic inhibition in association with high SO42- concentration in the hydrolysate, known to enhance sulphate reducing bacteria. Furfurals were also detected in the hydrolysate of five strong...

  8. Application of ceramic membranes for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma

    2013-05-30

    Low-pressure (microfiltration/ultrafiltration (MF/UF)) membranes are being increasingly used as pre-treatment, prior to seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The objective of pre-treatment before reverse osmosis (RO) membranes is to remove undesirable and particulate fouling materials (algae, suspended and colloidal particles). Also, a pre-treatment barrier reduces organics and provides better feed water quality for RO membranes. MF and UF pre-treatment prior to SWRO provides Low Silt Density Index (SDI) values recommended for RO operation. Ceramic membranes are more attractive as they made of more chemically resistant materials, which allow for more stable operation and aggressive backwashing (BW) and cleaning. A pilot plant with a monolith ceramic MF membrane (0.1 μm pore size) from METAWATER was used to carry out the study. Red Sea water pumped from a distance of 700 m offshore from Thuwal (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) was used as feed water. The pilot plant was operated automatically at constant flux of 150 LMH that involved BW, air flushing and forward flushing at the end of filtration cycle. Seawater permeates were used for hydraulic BW, while sodium hypochlorite, citric acid and sodium hydroxide were used for chemical cleaning (CIP) to restore the membrane permeability after use. Filtration cycles of 2.5 h were adopted for initial experiments. Aggressive BW flux of 1,800 LMH for 15 s, air flushing of 4 bars for 10 s and forward flushing of 300 LMH for 40 s were applied for regular membrane hydraulic cleaning. The increase of membrane resistances over time was monitored. Further studies were also performed by using Anopore ceramic membranes AAO100 (pore sizes of 0.1 μm) using a constant pressure bench-scale set-up. The feed water and permeate were analysed using an SDI unit, flow cytometre (FCM) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). The results showed that ceramic membrane filtration reduced the SDI15 of seawater from 6.1 to 2.1 which

  9. Rock Crushing Using Microwave Pre-Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Crushing and grinding are primary contributors to a high energy demand in the mining industry, yet, both are surprisingly inefficient processes, often with efficiencies as low as 1%. We analyze size reductions during crushing and grinding operations and explore the potential of multiplying internal weaknesses in rock materials by non-mechanical means. In particular, when rock blocks (wet or even dry if polycrystalline) are exposed to microwaves, internal cracks can develop along grain boundaries via differential thermal expansion between grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water in pores. Brazilian tests conducted on granite and cement mortar specimens show that the tensile strength decreases proportional to the duration of microwave treatment. Thermal changes, excessive fluid pressure buildup and induced stresses are analyzed in the context of hydro-Thermo-mechanically coupled processes. Results confirm that both differential thermal expansion of mineral grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water can generate cracks upon microwave exposure. Optimal conditions are suggested to lower the combined consumption of electric and mechanical energy.

  10. Rock Crushing Using Microwave Pre-Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2016-08-11

    Crushing and grinding are primary contributors to a high energy demand in the mining industry, yet, both are surprisingly inefficient processes, often with efficiencies as low as 1%. We analyze size reductions during crushing and grinding operations and explore the potential of multiplying internal weaknesses in rock materials by non-mechanical means. In particular, when rock blocks (wet or even dry if polycrystalline) are exposed to microwaves, internal cracks can develop along grain boundaries via differential thermal expansion between grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water in pores. Brazilian tests conducted on granite and cement mortar specimens show that the tensile strength decreases proportional to the duration of microwave treatment. Thermal changes, excessive fluid pressure buildup and induced stresses are analyzed in the context of hydro-Thermo-mechanically coupled processes. Results confirm that both differential thermal expansion of mineral grains and volumetric thermal expansion of water can generate cracks upon microwave exposure. Optimal conditions are suggested to lower the combined consumption of electric and mechanical energy.

  11. Ultrasound pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Elvira, S; Fdz-Polanco, M; Plaza, F I; Garralón, G; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    Prior research indicates that ultrasounds can be used in batch reactors as pre-treatment before anaerobic digestion, but the specific energy required at laboratory-scale is too high. This work evaluates both the continuous ultrasound device performance (efficiency and solubilisation) and the operation of anaerobic digesters continuously fed with sonicated sludge, and presents energy balance considerations. The results of sludge solubilisation after the sonication treatment indicate that, applying identical specific energy, it is better to increase the power than the residence time. Working with secondary sludge, batch biodegradability tests show that by applying 30 kWh/m3 of sludge, it is possible to increase biogas production by 42%. Data from continuous pilot-scale anaerobic reactors (V=100 L) indicate that operating with a conventional HRT=20 d, a reactor fed with pre-treated sludge increases the volatile solids removal and the biogas production by 25 and 37% respectively. Operating with HRT=15 d, the removal efficiency is similar to the obtained with a reactor fed with non-hydrolysed sludge at HTR=20 d, although the specific biogas productivity per volume of reactor is higher for the pretreated sludge. Regarding the energy balance, although for laboratory-scale devices it is negative, full-scale suppliers state a net generation of 3-10 kW per kW of energy used.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of pre-treatment biopsy for grading cutaneous mast cell tumours in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, T; Kudnig, S T; Firestone, S M

    2018-06-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are common tumours of the canine skin, and are estimated to represent up to 20% of all skin tumours in dogs. Tumour grade has a major impact on the incidence of local recurrence and metastatic potential. In addition to helping the clinician with surgical planning, knowledge of the tumour grade also assists in proper prognostication and client education. For pre-treatment biopsies to be useful, there must exist a high level of correlation between the histopathological grade obtained from the pre-treatment biopsy and the actual histopathological grade from the excisional biopsy. The aim of this study was to determine concordance of tumour grade between various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch, needle core) and the "gold standard" excisional biopsy method. We found an overall concordance rate of 96% based on the Patnaik grading system, and an overall concordance rate of 92% based on the Kiupel grading system. The accuracy of the various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch and needle core) when compared with excisional biopsy was 92%, 100% and 100%, respectively, based on the Patnaik grading system, and 90%, 95% and 100%, respectively, based on the Kiupel grading system. Of the cases with discordant results, the pre-treatment biopsies tended to underestimate the grade of the tumour. Based on these results, we conclude that pre-treatment biopsies are sufficiently accurate for differentiating low-grade from high-grade MCTs, regardless of biopsy technique or tumour location. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Increasing Water System Efficiency with Ultrafiltration Pre-treatment in Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majamaa, Katariina; Suarez, Javier; Gasia Eduard

    2012-09-01

    Water demineralization with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes has a long and successful history in water treatment for power plants. As the industry strives for more efficient, reliable and compact water systems, pressurized hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) has become an increasingly appealing pre-treatment technology. Compared to conventional, non- membrane based pretreatments, ultrafiltration offers higher efficiency in the removal of suspended solids, microorganisms and colloidal matter, which are all common causes for operational challenges experienced in the RO systems. In addition, UF is more capable of handling varying feed water qualities and removes the risk of particle carry-over often seen with conventional filtration techniques. Ultrafiltration is a suitable treatment technology for various water types from surface waters to wastewater, and the more fluctuating or challenging the feed water source is, the better the benefits of UF are seen compared to conventional pretreatments. Regardless of the feed water type, ultrafiltration sustains a constant supply of high quality feed water to downstream RO, allowing a more compact and cost efficient RO system design with improved operational reliability. A detailed focus on the design and operational aspects and experiences of two plants is provided. These examples demonstrate both economical UF operation and tangible impact of RO process improvement. Experience from these plants can be leveraged to new projects. (authors)

  14. Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of pre-treatments on the desorption isotherm characteristics of plaintain. P-N T Johnson. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjs.v39i1.15851 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  15. Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of glycyrrhizin pre-treatment on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. ... on transient ischemic brain injury in mice. Chiyeon Lim, Sehyun Lim, Young-Jun Lee, Bokcheul Kong, Byoungho Lee, Chang-Hyun Kim, Buyeo Kim, Suin Cho ... induced brain damage. Keywords: Glycyrrhizin, licorice, stroke, apoptosis ...

  16. Effect of copper surface pre-treatment on the properties of CVD grown graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Sik Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the synthesis of high quality monolayer graphene on the pre-treated copper (Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition method. The pre-treatment process, which consists of pre-annealing in a hydrogen ambient, followed by diluted nitric acid etching of Cu foil, helps in removing impurities. These impurities include native copper oxide and rolling lines that act as a nucleation center for multilayer graphene. Raman mapping of our graphene grown on pre-treated Cu foil primarily consisted of ∼98% a monolayer graphene with as compared to 75 % for the graphene grown on untreated Cu foil. A high hydrogen flow rate during the pre-annealing process resulted in an increased I2D/IG ratio of graphene up to 3.55. Uniform monolayer graphene was obtained with a I2D/IG ratio and sheet resistance varying from 1.84 – 3.39 and 1110 – 1290 Ω/□, respectively.

  17. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahre, H.; Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Steves, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Böke, M.; Hopmann, Ch; Winter, J.

    2013-02-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

  18. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahre, H; Böke, M; Winter, J; Bahroun, K; Behm, H; Hopmann, Ch; Steves, S; Awakowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered. (paper)

  19. An experimental study on the effect of aqueous hypophosphite pre-treatment used on an Al-alloy substrate before electroless Ni plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szirmai, G.; Toeroek, T.I.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A new surface pre-treatment method is under development for electroless nickel plating, which appears to be an effective and environmentally benign treatment for the following deposition of a sound and high quality surface nickel coating with good adhesion. The aluminium substrate is immersed in a mildly acidic solution (lactic acid) of sodium hypophosphite in order to modify the passive surface and make it suitable for the reductive chemical precipitation of the nickel-phosphorus nuclei from the electroless nickel plating bath. During this novel pre-treatment procedure the surface adsorption of the hypophosphite anions might play an important role, therefore, several advanced surface testing and analytical techniques (SEM-EPMA-EDXRS, TEM, XPS) were applied in order to monitor and characterize the surface reactions and adsorption phenomena taking place during the pre-treatment. For the XPS study a home built XPS machine was applied.The Al excited XPS (studying P 2s, P 2p, O 1s, C 1s, Al 2p, Ni 2p photoelectron lines) proved to be one of the most powerful technique in the identification of the chemical species formed and present on the surfaces examined in this study. Acknowledgements One of the authors J.T. is indebted for the support of the Hungarian Science Foundation OTKA: (No K67873).

  20. Study on the pre-treatment of oxidized zinc ore prior to flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong-sheng; Chen, Yun; Xiang, Ping; Yu, Zheng-jun; Potgieter, J. H.

    2018-02-01

    The pre-treatment of zinc oxide bearing ores with high slime content is important to ensure that resources are utilized optimally. This paper reports an improved process using hydrocyclone de-sliming, dispersion reagents, and magnetic removal of iron minerals for the pre-treatment of zinc oxide ore with a high slime and iron content, and the benefits compared to traditional technologies are shown. In addition, this paper investigates the damage related to fine slime and iron during zinc oxide flotation, the necessity of using hydrocyclone de-sliming together with dispersion reagents to alleviate the influence of slime, and interactions among hydrocyclone de-sliming, reagent dispersion, and magnetic iron removal. Results show that under optimized operating conditions the entire beneficiation technology results in a flotation concentrate with a Zn grade of 34.66% and a recovery of 73.41%.

  1. Multi-centre audit of VMAT planning and pre-treatment verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Bruggeman, Diego; Hernández, Victor; Sáez, Jordi; Navarro, David; Pino, Francisco; Martínez, Tatiana; Alayrach, Maria-Elena; Ailleres, Norbert; Melero, Alejandro; Jornet, Núria

    2017-08-01

    We performed a multi-centre intercomparison of VMAT dose planning and pre-treatment verification. The aims were to analyse the dose plans in terms of dosimetric quality and deliverability, and to validate whether in-house pre-treatment verification results agreed with those of an external audit. The nine participating centres encompassed different machines, equipment, and methodologies. Two mock cases (prostate and head and neck) were planned using one and two arcs. A plan quality index was defined to compare the plans and different complexity indices were calculated to check their deliverability. We compared gamma index pass rates using the centre's equipment and methodology to those of an external audit (global 3D gamma, absolute dose differences, 10% of maximum dose threshold). Log-file analysis was performed to look for delivery errors. All centres fulfilled the dosimetric goals but plan quality and delivery complexity were heterogeneous and uncorrelated, depending on the manufacturer and the planner's methodology. Pre-treatment verifications results were within tolerance in all cases for gamma 3%-3mm evaluation. Nevertheless, differences between the external audit and in-house measurements arose due to different equipment or methodology, especially for 2%-2mm criteria with differences up to 20%. No correlation was found between complexity indices and verification results amongst centres. All plans fulfilled dosimetric constraints, but plan quality and complexity did not correlate and were strongly dependent on the planner and the vendor. In-house measurements cannot completely replace external audits for credentialing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment on the physicochemical composition of Agave durangensis leaves and potential enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Hernández, M G; Ochoa-Martínez, L A; Rutiaga-Quiñones, J G; Rocha-Guzmán, N E; Lara-Ceniceros, T E; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Prado Barragán, L A; Rutiaga-Quiñones, O M

    2018-02-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of agave plants are processed annually by the Mexican tequila and mezcal industry, generating vast amounts of agroindustrial solid waste. This type of lignocellulosic biomass is considered to be agroindustrial residue, which can be used to produce enzymes, giving it added value. However, the structure of lignocellulosic biomass makes it highly recalcitrant, and results in relatively low yield when used in its native form. The aim of this study was to investigate an effective pre-treatment method for the production of commercially important hydrolytic enzymes. In this work, the physical and chemical modification of Agave durangensis leaves was analysed using ultrasound and high temperature as pre-treatments, and production of enzymes was evaluated. The pre-treatments resulted in modification of the lignocellulosic structure and composition; the ultrasound pre-treatment improved the production of inulinase by 4 U/mg and cellulase by 0.297 U/mg, and thermal pre-treatment improved β-fructofuranosidase by 30 U/mg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

    2010-12-15

    The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

  5. Physico-chemical pre-treatment for drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanien, W. A. M.

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work is to attempt to improve the quality of town water by application of alternating current, direct current and magnetic field to raw water as pre-treatment to enhance the coagulation and flocculation. The design and operation for these processes and the evaluation there of have been mentioned. Treatment generally requires application of electric current Ac or Dc (0.1-1.0 A) for residence current time 2-12 minutes, or application of magnetic field (20-400 mt). The measurement of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) of raw water were determined before and after treatment to obtain the efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal. Total bacteria count was determined using standard plate count method. Most probable number (MPN) technique was used to determine the number of coliform organisms that were present in water to obtain the efficiency of water purification. The results obtain revealed that treatment by Ac and Dc electric current gave turbidity removal efficiency in the range 40-81%, 17-76% and TSS in the range 37-61%, 9-57%, respectively. Coagulation of natural colloids and other material suspended in water is faster in water impacted by an electric current. When alum and polymer was used as coagulant together with Ac electric current, clarification rate was greater by 1.8-2.4 times in Damira 2001; 1.5-3.3 times by poly aluminum chloride together with Ac electric current ; 2.4-4.5 times by alum and poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride together with Dc electric current in Damira 2002. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 57-83% and of total coliform was 58-93% when exposed to electric current for an extended residence current times between 2 to 11 minutes. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 60-85%, and of total coliform was 53-95% when exposed to current between 0.16-0.60 A at constant current time. The results obtained from physical and chemical analysis of raw water and water treated by Ac, Dc

  6. Physico-chemical pre-treatment for drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, W A. M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work is to attempt to improve the quality of town water by application of alternating current, direct current and magnetic field to raw water as pre-treatment to enhance the coagulation and flocculation. The design and operation for these processes and the evaluation there of have been mentioned. Treatment generally requires application of electric current Ac or Dc (0.1-1.0 A) for residence current time 2-12 minutes, or application of magnetic field (20-400 mt). The measurement of turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) of raw water were determined before and after treatment to obtain the efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal. Total bacteria count was determined using standard plate count method. Most probable number (MPN) technique was used to determine the number of coliform organisms that were present in water to obtain the efficiency of water purification. The results obtain revealed that treatment by Ac and Dc electric current gave turbidity removal efficiency in the range 40-81%, 17-76% and TSS in the range 37-61%, 9-57%, respectively. Coagulation of natural colloids and other material suspended in water is faster in water impacted by an electric current. When alum and polymer was used as coagulant together with Ac electric current, clarification rate was greater by 1.8-2.4 times in Damira 2001; 1.5-3.3 times by poly aluminum chloride together with Ac electric current ; 2.4-4.5 times by alum and poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride together with Dc electric current in Damira 2002. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 57-83% and of total coliform was 58-93% when exposed to electric current for an extended residence current times between 2 to 11 minutes. The mortality efficiency of total bacteria count was 60-85%, and of total coliform was 53-95% when exposed to current between 0.16-0.60 A at constant current time. The results obtained from physical and chemical analysis of raw water and water treated by Ac, Dc

  7. Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    for ethanol fermentation. The resulting hydrolyzsates contain substances inhibitory to fermentation-depending on both the raw material (biomass) and the pre-treatment applied. An overview of the inhibitory effect on ethanol production by yeast and bacteria is presented. Apart from furans formed by sugar......An overview of the different inhibitors formed by pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials and their inhibition of ethanol production in yeast and bacteria is given. Different high temperature physical pre-treatment methods are available to render the carbohydrates in lignocellulose accessible...... degradation, phenol monomers from lignin degradation are important co-factors in hydrolysate inhibition, and inhibitory effects of these aromatic compounds on different ethanol producing microorganisms is reviewed. The furans and phenols generally inhibited growth and ethanol production rate (Q...

  8. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect...... of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis......Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...

  9. USE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY PRE-TREATMENT IN AUTOMOTIVE PAINTING LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nei Carvalho Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current safety requirements, environmental impacts and performance have been ledding the automotive industry to search for new alternatives, not just for new car bodies materials, also for new sheet surface treatments as well, used in the painting process in order to fit simultaneous, environmental requirements and corrosion resistance maintenance, that are the key feature guarantees offered by automakers and are also vital to the durability of the vehicle. This fact is of great importance considering that, besides the various types of steels and their metalic coatings, another factor that directly influences the corrosion resistance is the painting system used. Within this context, the GMB, in partnership with CSN, has been performing several works by adding the knowledge of the supplier to automotive technology. An example of this partnership we have the present study, which aimed to, comparatively, evaluate the corrosion resistance of two systems of painted galvanized steel, the first one with pre-treatment based on a traditional phosphate, and the another one based on a nano-ceramic film. In this study, was found out that materials with pre-treatment based on results of nanotechnology showed similar corrosion resistance comparing the phosphatized materials in a traditional way.

  10. Influence of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation pre-treatment on rheological characteristics of wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T T H; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation as physico-chemical pre-treatment processes on the change of rheology of wastewater sludge was investigated in this study. Pre-treated and raw sludges displayed non-Newtonian rheological behaviour with shear thinning as well as thixotropic properties for total solids ranging from 10 g/L to 40 g/L. The rheological models, namely, Bingham plastic, Casson law, NCA/CMA Casson, IPC Paste, and power law were also studied to characterize flow of raw and pre-treated sludges. Among all rheological models, the power law was more prominent in describing the rheology of the sludges. Pre-treatment processes resulted in a decrease in pseudoplasticity of sludge due to the decrease in consistency index K varying from 42.4 to 1188, 25.6 to 620.4 and 52.5 to 317.9; and increase in flow behaviour index n changing from 0.5 to 0.35, 0.62 to 0.55 and 0.63 to 0.58, for RS, UlS and FS, respectively at solids concentration 10-40 g/L. The correlation between improvement of biodegradability and dewaterability, decrease in viscosity, and change in particle size as a function of sludge pre-treatment process was also investigated. Fenton oxidation facilitated sludge filterability resulting in capillary suction time values which were approximately 50% of the raw sludges, whereas ultrasonication with high input energy deteriorated the filterability. Biodegradability was also enhanced by the pre-treatment processes and the maximum value was obtained (64%, 77% and 73% for raw, ultrasonicated and Fenton oxidized sludges, respectively) at total solids concentration of 25 g/L. Hence, pre-treatment of wastewater sludge modified the rheological properties so that: (1) the flowability of sludge was improved for transport through the treatment train (via pipes and pumps); (2) the dewaterability of wastewater sludge was enhanced for eventual disposal and; (3) the assimilation of nutrients by microorganisms for further value-addition was increased.

  11. Fast High-Quality Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Wyvill, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    At the moment the noise functions available in a graphics programmer's toolbox are either slow to compute or they involve grid-line artifacts making them of lower quality. In this paper we present a real-time noise computation with no grid-line artifacts or other regularity problems. In other words......, we put a new tool in the box that computes fast high-quality noise. In addition to being free of artifacts, the noise we present does not rely on tabulated data (everything is computed on the fly) and it is easy to adjust quality vs. quantity for the noise. The noise is based on point rendering (like...... spot noise), but it extends to more than two dimensions. The fact that it is based on point rendering makes art direction of the noise much easier....

  12. Dosimetric pre-treatment verification of IMRT using an EPID; clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijtveld, Mathilda van; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Boer, Hans C.J. de; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: In our clinic a QA program for IMRT verification, fully based on dosimetric measurements with electronic portal imaging devices (EPID), has been running for over 3 years. The program includes a pre-treatment dosimetric check of all IMRT fields. During a complete treatment simulation at the linac, a portal dose image (PDI) is acquired with the EPID for each patient field and compared with a predicted PDI. In this paper, the results of this pre-treatment procedure are analysed, and intercepted errors are reported. An automated image analysis procedure is proposed to limit the number of fields that need human intervention in PDI comparison. Materials and methods: Most of our analyses are performed using the γ index with 3% local dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement as reference values. Scalar parameters are derived from the γ values to summarize the agreement between measured and predicted 2D PDIs. Areas with all pixels having γ values larger than one are evaluated, making decisions based on clinically relevant criteria more straightforward. Results: In 270 patients, the pre-treatment checks revealed four clinically relevant errors. Calculation of statistics for a group of 75 patients showed that the patient-averaged mean γ value inside the field was 0.43 ± 0.13 (1 SD) and only 6.1 ± 6.8% of pixels had a γ value larger than one. With the proposed automated image analysis scheme, visual inspection of images can be avoided in 2/3 of the cases. Conclusion: EPIDs may be used for high accuracy and high resolution routine verification of IMRT fields to intercept clinically relevant dosimetric errors prior to the start of treatment. For the majority of fields, PDI comparison can fully rely on an automated procedure, avoiding excessive workload

  13. Effectiveness of different pre-treatments in recovering pre-burial isotopic ratios of charred plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkemper, O; Braadbaart, F; van Os, B; van Hoesel, A; van Brussel, A A N; Fernandes, R

    2018-02-15

    Isotopic analysis of archaeological charred plant remains offers useful archaeological information. However, adequate sample pre-treatment protocols may be necessary to provide a contamination-free isotopic signal while limiting sample loss and achieving a high throughput. Under these constraints, research was undertaken to compare the performance of different pre-treatment protocols. Charred archaeological plant material was selected for isotopic analysis (δ 13 C and δ 15 N values) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry from a variety of plant species, time periods and soil conditions. Preservation conditions and the effectiveness of cleaning protocols were assessed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. An acid-base-acid protocol, successfully employed in radiocarbon dating, was used to define a contamination-free isotopic reference. Acid-base-acid isotopic measurements were compared with those obtained from untreated material and an acid-only protocol. The isotopic signals of untreated material and the acid-only protocol typically did not differ more than 1‰ from those of the acid-base-acid reference. There were no significant isotopic offsets between acid-base-acid and acid-only or untreated samples. Sample losses in the acid-base-acid protocol were on average 50 ± 17% (maximum = 98.4%). Elemental XRF measurements showed promising results in the detection of more contaminated samples albeit with a high rate of false positives. For the large range of preservation conditions described in the study, untreated charred plant samples, water cleaned of sediments, provide reliable stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen. The use of pre-treatments may be necessary under different preservation conditions or more conservative measurement uncertainties should be reported. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of organic by-products from meat-processing industry. The effect of pre-treatments and co-digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luste, S.

    2011-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a multi-beneficial biological treatment during which micro-organisms degrade organic material producing biogas (i.e. methane) and stabilised end-product (i.e. digestate). Methane is a versatile renewable energy source and digestate can be used as an organic fertiliser and/or soil improver. Because of the increasing consumption and tightening environment and health legislation, production of organic wastes suitable for anaerobic digestion increases. Animal by-products (ABP) from the meat-processing industry are often rendered (contaminated material), used as feedstock (in fur breeding), or composted. However, ABPs studied could not be utilised in fodder or in animal food production and have currently been rendered or directed to composting, despite being mostly considered unsuitable for composting. Many ABPs are energy-rich, wet and pasty materials and suitable for the anaerobic digestion process. Moreover, suitable pre-treatment to hydrolyse solid materials and/or co-digestion of two or several materials may improve the anaerobic digestion with ultimate goal to increase the methane production, stabilisation and reusability of digestate. The case chosen for more detailed research was that of a middle-sized Finnish meat-processing industry. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of different ABPs presently available for treatment as raw material for anaerobic digestion. Another objective was to enhance the anaerobic digestion process via specific pre-treatments and co-digestion cases with the ultimate aim to increase the methane production and the quality of the digestate. The general goal was to observe the overall process from the perspective of real-circumstances in Finland to rise to needs in practice and to produce exploitable information for adopting sustainable development locally and case-specifically into practice via versatile anaerobic digestion technology. The ABPs studied were highly bio-degradable and especially

  15. Pre-treatment of waste fuel with low-speed shredding and screening for fluidized bed incineration; Foerbehandling av avfallsbraensle foer fluidbaeddpannor med laangsamtgaaende valskross och saekerhetssiktning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Sven; Victoren, Anders; Niklasson, Fredrik; Jones, Frida

    2013-09-01

    In FB combustion of waste, an important cost factor is the pre-treatment of the waste fuel. The most common method of final levigation of the waste fuel is using hammer mills, which crushes the fuel with high force and high rotational speed. The advantage of the powerful hammer mill is, however, also a disadvantage. The fraction of fines becomes large, and the method is experienced to cause high maintenance costs and problems with accidental fires. A plausible alternative to the hammer mill is the shredder. The rotational speed of the shreeder is lower, while it cutting and slicing the waste fuel instead of grinding it. The shredder is, therefore, expected to yield less wear and tear, lower electricity consumption and less accidental fires. On the other hand, the shreeder may yield a higher fraction of oversized fuel particles, which could cause problems in the combustion, especially in smaller FB-plants with one single fuel supply conveyor. In this project, the framing of question has been if low-speed shredding in combination with screening of over sizes fuel particles, may function for smaller FB plants with one single fuel supplying conveyor. The aim of the project has been to support FB plant owners and manufacturers for independent comparision of the different fuel pre-treatment methods, via pre-treatment and combustions trials and economical comparisons. The concept of lowspeed shreddning and screening has been compared economically with a traditional hammer mill system and a shredding system designed for a larger FB plant. Moreover, combustion trials have been carried out with shredded and screened fuel, and hammer milled fuel, in two smaller parallel FB furnaces with one single fuel supplying conveyor per furnace. The fuels were analysed for particle size distribution and composition, and the operation during the combustion trial was evaluated. The economical evaluation of the new pre-treatment concept, with lowspeed shredding and screening, yielded an

  16. Hydrogen–argon plasma pre-treatment for improving the anti-corrosion properties of thin Al2O3 films deposited using atomic layer deposition on steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Härkönen, Emma; Potts, Stephen E.; Kessels, Wilhelmus M.M.; Díaz, Belén; Seyeux, Antoine; Światowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Marcus, Philippe; Radnóczi, György; Tóth, Lajos; Kariniemi, Maarit; Niinistö, Jaakko; Ritala, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The effect of H 2 –Ar plasma pre-treatment prior to thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of Al 2 O 3 films on steel for corrosion protection was investigated. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the changes in the interface. The electrochemical properties of the samples were studied with polarization measurements, and the coating porosities were calculated from the polarization results for easier comparison of the coatings. Prior to thermal ALD the plasma pre-treatment was observed to reduce the amount of impurities at the interface and coating porosity by 1–3 orders of magnitude. The anti-corrosion properties of the PEALD coatings could also be improved by the pre-treatment. However, exposure of the pre-treatment plasma activated steel surface to oxygen plasma species in PEALD led to facile oxide layer formation in the interface. The oxide layer formed this way was thicker than the native oxide layer and appeared to be detrimental to the protective properties of the coating. The best performance for PEALD Al 2 O 3 coatings was achieved when, after the plasma pre-treatment, the surface was given time to regrow a thin protective interfacial oxide prior to exposure to the oxygen plasma. The different effects that thermal and plasma-enhanced ALD have on the substrate-coating interface were compared. The reactivity of the oxygen precursor was shown to have a significant influence on substrate surface in the early stages of film growth and thereafter also on the overall quality of the protective film. - Highlights: • Influence of H 2 –Ar plasma pre-treatment to ALD coatings on steel was studied. • The pre-treatment modified the coating–substrate interface composition and thickness. • The pre-treatment improved the barrier properties of the coatings

  17. MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal.

  18. Effect of torrefaction pre-treatment on physical and combustion characteristics of biomass composite briquette from rice husk and banana residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Atan Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is an alternative renewable energy sources that can generates energy almost same as fossil fuel. The depletion sources of fossil fuel had increase the potential use of biomass energy. In Malaysia, rice husk and banana residues are abundantly left and not treated with proper disposal method which later may contribute to environment and health problems. Thus the development of biomass composite briquette made from rice husk and banana residue is one of the potential ways to reduce the problems and hence may contribute the better way to treat the waste by recycling the waste into a form of biomass product. The biomass briquettes are used for thermal applications because it can produce a complete combustion as it has a consistent quality and high burning efficiency. However, the quality of the biomass briquette can be added by application of torrefaction pre-treatment method. Torrefaction is a thermal method that can produce more high quality of the briquette with high calorific value, high fixed carbon content, low volatile matter, and low ash content. This study was conducted to assess the physical and combustion characteristic of the biomass briquette from rice husk and banana residue which was produced through torrefaction process. The biomass briquette, were densified by using hot press machine with temperature of 180°C for about 30 minutes. The briquette produce are 150 μm in particle size with varies in mixing ratio of rice husk to banana residue which are 100:0, 80:20 and 60:40. After the briquetting process, the biomass fuel briquettes have been undergoes parameter testing and the data have been analysed. Result showed the best biomass briquette is developed from torrefied rice husk and banana residue mixed at ratio of 60:40. Moreover, SEM image reveal that torrefaction pre-treatment has shrinkage the fibres size which confirming the thermal stability of the briquette.

  19. The effect of thermal pre-treatment of titanium hydride (TiH2) powder in argon condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciska P., L.; Erryani, Aprilia; Annur, Dhyah; Kartika, Ika

    2018-04-01

    Titanium hydride (TiH2) powders are used to enhance the foaming process in the formation of a highly porous metallic material with a cellular structure. But, the low temperature of hydrogen release is one of its problems. The present study, different thermal pre-treatment temperatures were employed to investigate the decomposition behavior of TiH2 to retard or delay a hydrogen gas release process during foaming. As a foaming agent, TiH2 was subjected to various heat treatments prior at 450 and 500°C during 2 hours in argon condition. To study the formation mechanism, the thermal behavior of titanium hydride and hydrogen release are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The morphology of pre-treated titanium hydride powders were examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) while unsure mapping and elemental composition of the pre-treated powders processed by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). To study the phase formation was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). In accordance with the results, an increase in pre-treatment temperature of TiH2 to higher degrees are changing the process of releasing hydrogen from titanium hydride powder. DTA/TGA results showed that thermal pre-treatment TiH2 at 450°C, released the hydrogen gas at 560°C in heat treatment when foaming process. Meanwhile, thermal pre-treatment in TiH2 at 500°C, released the hydrogen gas at 670°C when foaming process. There is plenty of direct evidence for the existence of oxide layers that showed by EDS analysis obtained in SEM. As oxygen is a light element and qualitative proof shows that the higher pre-treatment temperature produces more and thicker oxygen layers on the surface of the TiH2 powder particles. It might the thickness of oxide layer are different from different pre-treatment temperatures, which leading to the differences in the decomposition temperature. But from SEM result that oxidation of the powder does not

  20. Microwave-Assisted Alkali Pre-Treatment, Densification and Enzymatic Saccharification of Canola Straw and Oat Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Obiora S; Tabil, Lope G; Dumonceaux, Tim

    2017-03-26

    The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets' characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (0.75% and 1.5% w/v) and exposed to microwave radiation at power level 713 W and three residence times (6, 12 and 18 min). Bulk and particle densities of ground biomass samples were determined. Alkaline-microwave pre-treated and untreated samples were subjected to single pelleting test in an Instron universal machine, pre-set to a load of 4000 N. The measured parameters, pellet density, tensile strength and dimensional stability were evaluated and the results showed that the microwave-assisted alkali pre-treated pellets had a significantly higher density and tensile strength compared to samples that were untreated or pre-treated by microwave alone. The chemical composition analysis showed that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment was able to disrupt and break down the lignocellulosic structure of the samples, creating an area of cellulose accessible to cellulase reactivity. The best enzymatic saccharification results gave a high glucose yield of 110.05 mg/g dry sample for canola straw ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 1.5% NaOH for 18 min, and a 99.10 mg/g dry sample for oat hull ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 0.75% NaOH for 18 min microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatments. The effects of pre-treatment results were supported by SEM analysis. Overall, it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.

  1. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.

    2015-01-01

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  2. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  3. Pre-treatment of Used-Cooking Oil as Feed Stocks of Biodiesel Production by Using Activated Carbon and Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Syah Putra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many low-cost feedstock i.e. used-cooking oil (UCO for the production of biodiesel fuel (BDF has contained a large amount of water and high proportion of free fatty acids (FFAs. Therefore, a pre-treatment process to reduce the water content (<0.1 wt.% and FFAs (<2.0 wt.% were necessary in order to avoid an undesirable side reactions, such as saponification, which could lead to serious problem of product separation and low fatty acid methyl ester (FAME yield. . In this study, a pre-treatment process of used cooking oil as a feedstock for the production of BDF by using various adsorbents such as Activated Carbon (AC and various clay minerals, for example Smectite (S, Bentonite (B, Kaolinite (K, and Powdered Earthenware (PE were evaluated. The oil obtained from pre-treatment was compared with oil without pre-treatment process. In this study, we reported a basic difference in material ability to the oil, depending on the adsorption condition with respect to the physico-chemical parameters, e.g. refractive index (R, density (ρ, FFAs, and water content (W. The results showed that the water content and FFAs in the oil has decreased when using AC as an adsorbent compared with clay minerals. However, the refractive index of oil has similar with the oil without pre-treatment process as well; meanwhile, the density of oil has increased after the pre-treatment process by using clay minerals.

  4. Pre-treatment of substrates for biogas production - A systems analysis; Foerbehandling av biogassubstrat i systemanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My; Holmstroem, David; Lagerkvist, Anders; Bisaillon, Mattias

    2013-09-01

    The present expansion of biogas capacity responds to a growing demand for renewable vehicle fuels. Biodegradable wastes are attractive substrates and are also prioritized in national policy. The full potential of the substrates can rarely be used however. This is partly due to impurities, or the availability or degradation speed may be limiting the biogas yield. In both cases there is a need of pre-treatments. This work deals with the system impacts of pre-treatment aiming to remove impurities in food waste and pre-treatments aiming to improve the biogas yield of horse manure and ley. In the latter case steam explosion and extrusion were the treatments studied. Gas yields and the plant and system impacts on energy, climate and economic were studied. The system includes the biogas plant as well as the impact in supplementary systems for heat and power production. The three named substrates were identified to be highly prioritised due to their total potential and the improvements possible in its realisation. Existing information from literature and contacts has form the data basis, with the addition of a few supplementary analyses of substrates. The project has been operated by the authors with participation of a group of facility operators and external reviewers. Four plants have been visited during the study. Operators of digestion plants and all interested in developing the efficiency of biogas plants are the main target group for the study. The rate that the potential yield of food waste can be utilised depends largely on how efficiently contaminants can be separated without loss of substrate. In this case the separation degree has the main impact on the economy, but not a pronounced climate effect. For all types of pre-treatments the water content of substrates is important, a higher water content is detrimental to economy, energy demand and climate impact. For both the energy balance and the climate impact the generation of vehicle fuel has a large impact. An

  5. Optical monitoring systems for thermal spray processes: droplets behavior and substrate pre-treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Yamagata, Y.; Miyazaki, F.; Yamasaki, M.; Tanaka, J.; Muraoka, K.

    2017-11-01

    Thermal spray is a technique to form molten droplets using either plasma- or combustion-heating, which impinge upon substrates to form coating layers for various purposes, such as anti-corrosion and anti-wear layers. Although it is an established technique having a history of more than a century, operations of spray guns together with preparing suitable substrate surfaces for obtaining good coating layers still rely on experienced technicians. Because of the necessity of meeting more and more stringent requirements for coating quality and cost from customers, there has been a strong need to try to monitor spray processes, so as to obtain the best possible spray coating layers. The basic requirements for such monitoring systems are *reasonably cheap, *easy operation for laypersons, *easy access to targets to be investigated, and *an in-situ capability. The purpose of the present work is to provide suitable optical monitoring systems for (1) droplets behavior and (2) substrate pre-treatments. For the former (1), the first result was already presented at the 17th laser-aided plasma diagnostics meeting (LAPD17) in 2015 in Sapporo, and the results of its subsequent applications into real spray environments are shown in this article in order to validate the previous proposal. Topic (2) is new in the research program, and the proof-of-principle experiment for the proposed method yielded a favorable result. Based on this positive result, an overall strategy is being planned to fulfill the final objective of the optical monitoring of substrate pre-treatments. Details of these two programs (1) and (2) together with the present status are described.

  6. Eldecalcitol normalizes bone turnover markers regardless of their pre-treatment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Masataka; Saito, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Three-year treatment with eldecalcitol has been shown to improve lumbar and total hip bone mineral density (BMD), decrease bone turnover markers, and lower the incidences of vertebral and wrist fractures in patients with osteoporosis more than with treatment with alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a risk of eldecalcitol causing severely suppressed bone turnover in osteoporosis patients with low pre-treatment levels of bone turnover markers. Post-hoc analysis was conducted on the data from a 3-year, randomized, double-blind, active-comparator, clinical trial of eldecalcitol versus alfacalcidol under vitamin D repletion conducted in Japan. Enrolled patients with baseline measurements of bone turnover markers were stratified into tertiles according to their pre-treatment levels of serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, or urinary collagen-N-telopeptide. Eldecalcitol treatment rapidly reduced bone turnover markers, and kept them within the normal range. However, in the patients whose baseline values for bone turnover were low, eldecalcitol treatment did not further reduce bone turnover markers during the 3-year treatment period. Further long-term observation may be required to reach the conclusion. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV NUMBER: NCT00144456. Eldecalcitol normalizes, but does not overly suppress, bone turnover regardless of baseline levels of bone turnover markers. Thus, it is unlikely that eldecalcitol treatment will increase the risk of severely suppressed bone turnover and therefore deterioration of bone quality, at least for a treatment duration of 3 years.

  7. In-hospital mortality after pre-treatment with antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants and hematoma evacuation of intracerebral hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Marco; Misselwitz, Björn; Hamann, Gerhard F; Kolodziej, Malgorzata; Reinges, Marcus H T; Uhl, Eberhard

    2016-04-01

    Pre-treatment with antiplatelet agents is described to be a risk factor for mortality after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the impact of antithrombotic agents on mortality in patients who undergo hematoma evacuation compared to conservatively treated patients with ICH remains controversial. This analysis is based on a prospective registry for quality assurance in stroke care in the State of Hesse, Germany. Patients' data were collected between January 2008 and December 2012. Only patients with the diagnosis of spontaneous ICH were included (International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision codes I61.0-I61.9). Predictors of in-hospital mortality were determined by univariate analysis. Predictors with Phematoma evacuation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-4.97; P=0.010) compared to patients without antiplatelet pre-treatment treatment (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.79-1.09; P=0.376). In conclusion a higher rate of in-hospital mortality after pre-treatment with antiplatelet agents in combination with hematoma evacuation after spontaneous ICH was observed in the presented cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of Saccharification Conditions of Lignocellulosic Biomass under Alkaline Pre-Treatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Łukajtis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment is a significant step in the production of second-generation biofuels from waste lignocellulosic materials. Obtaining biofuels as a result of fermentation processes requires appropriate pre-treatment conditions ensuring the highest possible degree of saccharification of the feed material. An influence of the following process parameters were investigated for alkaline pre-treatment of Salix viminalis L.: catalyst concentration (NaOH, temperature, pre-treatment time and granulation. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in accordance to the Box-Behnken design for four factors. In the saccharification process of the pre-treated biomass, cellulolytic enzymes immobilized on diatomaceous earth were used. Based on the obtained results, a mathematical model for the optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment prediction is proposed. The optimal conditions of alkaline pre-treatment are established as follows: granulation 0.75 mm, catalyst concentration 7%, pre-treatment time 6 h and temperature 65 °C if the saccharification efficiency and cost analysis are considered. An influence of the optimized pre-treatment on both the chemical composition and structural changes for six various lignocellulosic materials (energetic willow, energetic poplar, beech, triticale, meadow grass, corncobs was investigated. SEM images of raw and pre-treated biomass samples are included in order to follow the changes in the biomass structure during hydrolysis.

  9. The design of a novel, environmentally improved cotton pre-treatment proces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit)

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this thesis of Gerrit Bouwhuis, lecturer at Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology in Enschede is the development of a new industrial applicable pre-treatment process for cotton based on catalysis. The pre-treatment generally consists of desizing, scouring and bleaching. These

  10. Process performance assessment of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patricio; Barriga, Felipe; Álvarez, Claudia; González, Zenón; Vidal, Gladys

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and digestate quality of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment. Both stages of pre-treatment contributed to chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, with an overall factor of 11.4 ± 2.2%. Pre-treatment led to 19.1, 24.0 and 29.9% increased methane yields at 30, 15 and 7.5 days solid retention times (SRT), respectively, without affecting process stability or accumulation of intermediates. Pre-treatment decreased up to 4.2% water recovery from the digestate, but SRT was a more relevant factor controlling dewatering. Advanced digestion showed 2.4-3.1 and 1.5 logarithmic removals of coliforms and coliphages, respectively, and up to a 58% increase in the concentration of inorganics in the digestate solids compared to conventional digestion. The COD balance of the process showed that the observed increase in methane production was proportional to the pre-treatment solubilization efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Control of Pre-treatment for Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Proton Ion Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Kim, D. W.; Lee, S. M.; Kim, W. J.

    2008-04-01

    The carbon nanotubes are the next generation material in fuel storage system, the gas sensor, the life science sensor or the nano-size transistor, the stiffener and the heat dissipation field. For use at appropriate position in various field, it must be developed that control technique makes carbon nanotubes with high performance synthesized at appropriate location. The density of the carbon nanotube is 1 - 2g/cm3 with aluminum (2 - 3g/cm3) to be light, the elastic modulus is the level where as many of as 30 - 50 times of iron's elastic modulus and thermal conductivity is similar to the diamond, electric conductivity is high as well above the metal. Generally, many researchers have tried to synthesize the carbon nanotubes of mm length unit using the hydrogen and porous substrate, which play a role of more activating the catalyst. The proton beam which consist of H+ was able to directly inject the hydrogen into target materials such as Ni, Co, Fe as well as transfer high activation energy to them. so we were able to carry out feasibility of controlling the porosity of thin film and substrate to synthesize carbon nanotubes. The pre-treatment method of existing which is used generally heat treatment and the ammonia controls has generated island of catalyst which has increased the surface to react the hydrocarbon. However, pre-treatment method of existing caused the random nuclear creation so it was hard to control the island size of catalyst. It was not enough to understand the porous effect against synthesis of carbon nanotubes deduced from altering various substrates. In this report, it is possible investigate how hydrogen and the porous effect influence on growth of carbon nanotubes through controlling the nuclear creation of catalysts directly and the porosity of them using proton beam

  12. The 3R anthracite clean coal technology: Economical conversion of brown coal to anthracite type clean coal by low temperature carbonization pre-treatment process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someus Edward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels is safer, faster, better, and less costly vs. the "end-of-the-pipe" post treatment solutions. The "3R" (Recycle-Reduce-Reuse integrated environment control technology provides preventive pre-treatment of low grade solid fuels, such as brown coal and contaminated solid fuels to achieve high grade cleansed fuels with anthracite and coke comparable quality. The goal of the 3R technology is to provide cost efficient and environmentally sustainable solutions by preventive pre-treatment means for extended operations of the solid fuel combustion power plants with capacity up to 300 MWe power capacities. The 3R Anthracite Clean Coal end product and technology may advantageously be integrated to the oxyfuel-oxy-firing, Foster Wheeler anthracite arc-fired utility type boiler and Heat Pipe Reformer technologies in combination with CO2 capture and storage programs. The 3R technology is patented original solution. Advantages. Feedstock flexibility: application of pre-treated multi fuels from wider fuel selection and availability. Improved burning efficiency. Technology flexibility: efficient and advantageous inter-link to proven boiler technologies, such as oxyfuel and arcfired boilers. Near zero pollutants for hazardous-air-pollutants: preventive separation of halogens and heavy metals into small volume streams prior utilization of cleansed fuels. >97% organic sulphur removal achieved by the 3R thermal pre-treatment process. Integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS programs: the introduction of monolitic GHG gas is improving storage safety. The 3R technology offers significant improvements for the GHG CCS conditions. Cost reduction: decrease of overall production costs when all real costs are calculated. Improved safety: application of preventive measures. For pre-treatment a specific purpose designed, developed, and patented pyrolysis technology used, consisting of a horizontally arranged externally

  13. Targeted pre-treatment of hemp bast fibres for optimal performance in biocomposite materials: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Thygesen, Anders; Summerscales, John

    2017-01-01

    . In order to achieve strong NFCs, well separated and cellulose-rich fibres are required. Hemp is taking a center stage in this regard as a source of suitable natural plant cellulose fibres because natural hemp bast fibres are long and inherently possess high strength. Classical field and water retting...... methods have been used for centuries for removal of non-cellulosic components from fibrous plant stems including from hemp, but carries a risk of reducing the mechanical properties of the fibres via damaging the cellulose. For NFCs new targeted fibre pre-treatment methods are needed to selectively...... and effectively remove non-cellulosic components from the plant fibres to produce cellulose rich fibres without introducing any damage to the fibres. A key feature for successful use of natural fibres such as hemp fibres in composite materials is optimal interfacial contact between the fibres and the hydrophobic...

  14. Pre-treatment child and family characteristics as predictors of outcome in cognitive behavioural therapy for youth anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundkvist-Houndoumadi, Irene; Hougaard, Esben; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective for children and adolescents (6-18 years) with anxiety disorders, but the non-response rate is high-a fact that may argue for the importance of studies on pre-treatment characteristics of children and their families...... that predict treatment outcome. AIMS: To provide a systematic review of clinical and demographic pre-treatment child and family predictors of treatment outcome in CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted based on electronic databases (PsycINFO, Embase and Pub......Med), and retrieved studies were analysed according to the box-score method of counting significant findings. RESULTS: 24 studies with a sample size ≥ 60 were located. Most studies dealt with the following predictors: child age, gender, comorbidity, symptom severity and parental psychopathology. There was some...

  15. Analysis of particulate matter in anthropized areas characterized by the presence of crude oil pre-treatment plants: The case study of the Agri Valley (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippetta, Serena; Caggiano, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano

    2013-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 (i.e., aerosol particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10, 2.5 and 1 μm, respectively) daily mass concentrations and daily particle number concentration were performed for the first time in Agri Valley (Basilicata Region - Southern Italy) from July to November 2011. This area is characterized by anthropogenic activities having high potential environmental and human health impacts. In fact, the Agri Valley houses the largest European on-shore reservoir and the largest crude oil pre-treatment plant within an anthropized area. The PM measurements were analyzed combining an innovative statistical methodology, the Singular Spectral Analysis, with forecast models and remote sensing observations. Our findings show that most of the PM collected was made up of particles in the fine and sub-micrometric fractions (i.e., PM2.5 and PM1, respectively) very likely originated by common anthropogenic sources. Moreover, PM2.5 and PM1 daily mass concentrations were characterized by a slightly increasing trend that could be related to the contribution of local sources, such as the crude oil pre-treatment plant, whose combustion processes also produce the emission of particles mainly in the fine and sub-micrometric size ranges. The integrated use of model forecasts, satellite observations and in-situ measurements shows that the only PM10 exceedance was affected by the contribution of Saharan dust, while the three PM2.5 exceedances were mainly due to local anthropogenic sources. Finally, the analysis of the PM10 and PM2.5 Air Quality Index (AQI) values shows that air quality was always “good” with respect to PM10 and “moderate” with respect to PM2.5 suggesting that fine particles, if they will be not kept under control, should represent a real problem also posing health risks to the population living close to the crude oil pre-treatment plant.

  16. Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Madalena; Baptista, Patrícia; Duarte, Elizabeth; Moreira, António L N

    2018-01-02

    Enhanced biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry and horse manure with mechanical pre-treatment. In this study, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry was investigated in a continuously stirred tank reactor, with a mechanical pre-treatment. Experiments were conducted at 37°C, with hydraulic retention times of 23 days and increasing shares of horse manure, corresponding to different horse manure to pig slurry ratios (HM:PS) equal to 0:100, 10:90, 13:87 and 20:80, in terms of percentage of inlet volatile solids (%VS inlet). The results show that the best synergetic effect between the microbial consortia of pig slurry and the high Carbon to Nitrogen ratio (C/N) of horse manure is obtained for the mixture of 20:80%VS inlet, yielding the highest specific methane production (SMP = 142.6 L kg TCOD -1 ) and the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) reduction (68.5%), due to the high volatile dissolved solids content and soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand ratio (SCOD/TCOD). Thus, co-digestion of horse manure and pig slurry is shown to be a promising approach for biogas production and as a waste treatment solution. Furthermore, the analysis provides a methodology for the pre-treatment of these substrates and to investigate into the best combination for improved biogas production.

  17. Connecting Lignin-Degradation Pathway with Pre-Treatment Inhibitor Sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunsinger, G. B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, P. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, D. K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-27

    In order to produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  18. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  19. Overcoming the Recalcitrance for the Conversion of Kenaf Pulp to Glucose via Microwave-Assisted Pre-Treatment Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Hurtado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the pre-treatment of cellulose from kenaf plant to yield sugar precursors for the production of ethanol or butanol for use as biofuel additives. In order to convert the crystalline cellulosic form to the amorphous form that can undergo enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond to yield sugars, kenaf pulp samples were subjected to two different pre-treatment processes. In the acid pre-treatment, the pulp samples were treated with 37.5% hydrochloric acid in the presence of FeCl3 at 50 °C or 90 °C whereas in the alkaline method, the pulp samples were treated with 25% sodium hydroxide at room temperature and with 2% or 5% sodium hydroxide at 50 °C. Microwave-assisted NaOH-treatment of the cellulose was also investigated and demonstrated to be capable of producing high glucose yield without adverse environmental impact by circumventing the use of large amounts of concentrated acids i.e., 83–85% phosphoric acid employed in most digestion processes. The treated samples were digested with the cellulase enzyme from Trichoderma reesei. The amount of glucose produced was quantified using the QuantichromTM glucose bioassay for assessing the efficiency of glucose production for each of the treatment processes. The microwave-assisted alkaline pre-treatment processes conducted at 50 °C were found to be the most effective in the conversion of the crystalline cellulose to the amorphous form based on the significantly higher yields of sugar produced by enzymatic hydrolysis compared to the untreated sample.

  20. Detrimental effects of rat mesenchymal stromal cell pre-treatment in a model of acute kidney rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eSeifert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC have shown immunomodulatory and tissue repair potential including partial tolerance induction by pre-treatment of donor-specific cells in a rat heart transplantation model. Very recently, we could show that autologous MSC attenuated ischemia reperfusion injury in a highly mismatched donor-recipient rat kidney transplant model. Therefore, we investigated donor-specific MSC pre-treatment in this rat kidney transplantation model to study whether graft function could be improved, or if tolerance could be induced.Donor- and recipient-type MSC or PBS as a control were injected i.v. four days before kidney transplantation. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF immunosuppression (20 mg/kg body weight was applied for 7 days. Kidney grafts and spleens were harvested between days 8-10 and analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistology. In addition, creatinine levels in the blood were measured and serum was screened for the presence of donor-specific antibodies.Surprisingly, application of both donor- and recipient-specific MSC resulted in enhanced humoral immune responses verified by intragraft B cell infiltration and complement factor C4d deposits. Moreover, signs of inflammation and rejection were generally enhanced in both MSC-treated groups relative to PBS control group. Additionally, pre-treatment with donor-specific MSC significantly enhanced the level of donor-specific antibody formation when compared with PBS- or recipient-MSC-treated groups. Pre-treatment with both MSC types resulted in a higher degree of kidney cortex tissue damage and elevated creatinine levels at the time point of rejection. Thus, MSC pre-sensitization in this model impairs the allograft outcome.Our data from this pre-clinical kidney transplantation model indicate that pre-operative MSC administration may not be optimal in kidney transplantation and caution must be exerted before moving forward with clinical studies in order to avoid adverse effects.

  1. Predicting Treatment Response for Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Using Pre-treatment Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Dorn, Lorah D; Kolko, David J; Susman, Elizabeth J; Noll, Jennie G; Bukstein, Oscar G

    2012-12-01

    Variations in adrenal and gonadal hormone profiles have been linked to increased rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). These relationships suggest that certain hormone profiles may be related to how well children respond to psychological treatments for ODD and CD. The current study assessed whether pre-treatment profiles of adrenal and gonadal hormones predicted response to psychological treatment of ODD and CD. One hundred five children, 6 - 11 years old, participating in a randomized, clinical trial provided samples for cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione. Diagnostic interviews of ODD and CD were administered up to three years post-treatment to track treatment response. Group-based trajectory modeling identified two trajectories of treatment response: 1) a High-response trajectory where children demonstrated lower rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up, and 2) a Low-response trajectory where children demonstrated higher rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up. Hierarchical logistic regression predicting treatment response demonstrated that children with higher pre-treatment concentrations of testosterone were four times more likely to be in the Low-response trajectory. No other significant relationship existed between pre-treatment hormone profiles and treatment response. These results suggest that higher concentrations of testosterone are related to how well children diagnosed with ODD or CD respond to psychological treatment over the course of three years.

  2. Factors which influence on force of boxers` and footballers` shots on the stage of base pre-treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitenko S.A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available On the stage of base pre-treatment factors which influence on force of shots the hands of boxers and feet of footballers as a criterion of competition activity efficiency are certain. Connections are certain between force of shots by hands and feet. The objective test of the specialized sense determination of boxers` and footballers` shots is offered. It is recommended to develop maximal and explosive force of all parts of sportsman body at implementation preparatory exercises with the further transfer of physical qualities on implementation of the special exercises.

  3. SU-F-T-260: Using Portal Image Device for Pre-Treatment QA in Volumetric Modulated Arc Plans with Flattening Filter Free (FFF) Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, H; Qi, P; Yu, N; Xia, P [The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement and validate a method of using electronic portal image device (EPID) for pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans using flattering filter free (FFF) beams for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods: On Varian Edge with 6MV FFF beam, open field (from 2×2 cm to 20×20 cm) EPID images were acquired with 200 monitor unit (MU) at the image device to radiation source distance of 150cm. With 10×10 open field and calibration unit (CU) provided by vendor to EPID image pixel, a dose conversion factor was determined by dividing the center dose calculated from the treatment planning system (TPS) to the corresponding CU readout on the image. Water phantom measured beam profile and the output factors for various field sizes were further correlated to those of EPID images. The dose conversion factor and correction factors were then used for converting the portal images to the planner dose distributions of clinical fields. A total of 28 VMAT fields of 14 SBRT plans (8 lung, 2 prostate, 2 liver and 2 spine) were measured. With 10% low threshold cutoff, the delivered dose distributions were compared to the reference doses calculated in water phantom from the TPS. A gamma index analysis was performed for the comparison in percentage dose difference/distance-to-agreement specifications. Results: The EPID device has a linear response to the open fields with increasing MU. For the clinical fields, the gamma indices between the converted EPID dose distributions and the TPS calculated 2D dose distributions were 98.7%±1.1%, 94.0%±3.4% and 70.3%±7.7% for the criteria of 3%/3mm, 2%/2mm and 1%/1mm, respectively. Conclusion: Using a portal image device, a high resolution and high accuracy portal dosimerty was achieved for pre-treatment QA verification for SBRT VMAT plans with FFF beams.

  4. Novel pre-treatments to control bromate formation during ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Sichel, Cosima; Andre, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide water shortage increase and water quality depletion from microbial and chemical compounds, pose significant challenges for today’s water treatment industry. Both the development of new advanced oxidation technologies, but also the enhancement of existing conventional technologies is of ...

  5. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  6. Environmentally friendly hybrid coatings for corrosion protection: silane based pre-treatments and nanostructured waterborne coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Fedel, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers a nanotechnology approach based on the production of metals pre-treatments and organic coatings (a complete protection system at all) designed from the nanoscale. The final aim is to develop protection systems with improved corrosion protection properties and a low environmental impact. In particular, multifunctional silane hybrid molecules were used to design sol-gel pre-treatments for metals and to modify the inner structure of UV curable waterborne organic coatings...

  7. Engineering high quality medical software

    CERN Document Server

    Coronato, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book focuses on high-confidence medical software in the growing field of e-health, telecare services and health technology. It covers the development of methodologies and engineering tasks together with standards and regulations for medical software.

  8. Improving enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem using peroxide and microwave assisted pre-treatment techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of microwave assisted alkali (MAA and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP pre-treatment methods in improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem was investigated. Ground cassava stems were by MAA method by varying microwave power, NaOH concentration and pre-treatment time. AHP method was performed at various H2O2 concentrations, pre-treatment temperatures and times. The results showed that reducing sugar yield was higher from MAA pretreated stem when compared with AHP pre-treatment, which demonstrated that MAA pre-treatment was effective in releasing sugars. SEM studies on the pre-treated samples revealed extensive distortion of fibres in MAA pre-treated than AHP pre-treated samples, which showed pores and cracks in the fibrous structure. Spectral studies showed the change in the chemical structure of pre-treated samples. The work revealed that the studied pre-treatment methods were effective in improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava stem.

  9. Pre-Treatment with Amifostine Protects against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruption of Taste in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Carroll, Brittany L.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP), a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy. PMID:23626702

  10. Pre-treatment with amifostine protects against cyclophosphamide-induced disruption of taste in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CYP, a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy.

  11. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  12. High quality-factor optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriet, Rémi; Salzenstein, Patrice; Coillet, Aurélien; Saleh, Khaldoun; Chembo, Yanne K; Ristic, Davor; Ferrari, Maurizio; Mortier, Michel; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice; Cibiel, Gilles; Llopis, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Various resonators are investigated for microwave photonic applications. Micro-sphere, disk and fiber ring resonators were designed, realized and characterized. Obtained quality factors are as high as Q = 10 10 . (paper)

  13. High-quality compressive ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heyan; Zhou, Cheng; Tian, Tian; Liu, Dongqi; Song, Lijun

    2018-04-01

    We propose a high-quality compressive ghost imaging method based on projected Landweber regularization and guided filter, which effectively reduce the undersampling noise and improve the resolution. In our scheme, the original object is reconstructed by decomposing of regularization and denoising steps instead of solving a minimization problem in compressive reconstruction process. The simulation and experimental results show that our method can obtain high ghost imaging quality in terms of PSNR and visual observation.

  14. Effect of surface pre-treatments on biocompatibility of magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Carla; Brunner, Johannes G; Kollmannsberger, Philip; Jaafar, Leila; Fabry, Ben; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2009-09-01

    This study reports the influence of Mg surface passivation on the survival rate of human HeLa cells and mouse fibroblasts in cell culture experiments. Polished samples of commercially pure Mg show high reactivity in the cell culture medium, leading to a pH shift in the alkaline direction, and therefore cell adhesion and survival is strongly impaired. Passivation of the Mg surface in 1M NaOH can strongly enhance cell survival. The best initial cell adhesion is observed for Mg samples incubated in simulated body fluid (M-SBF), which leads to the formation of a biomimetic, amorphous Ca/Mg-phosphate layer with high surface roughness. This surface layer, however, passivates and seals the Mg surface only partially. Subsequent Mg dissolution leads to a significantly stronger pH increase compared to NaOH-passivated samples, which prevents long-term cell survival. These results demonstrate that surface passivation with NaOH and M-SBF together with the associated changes of surface reactivity, chemistry and roughness provide a viable strategy to facilitate cell survival on otherwise non-biocompatible Mg surfaces.

  15. Air radon equilibrium factor measurement in a Waste Water Pre-Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.E.; Juste, B.; Ortiz, J.; Martorell, S.; Verdu, G.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze in this paper a Waste Water Pre-Treatment Plant (WWTP) located at the Mediterranean coast with air radon concentration above Spanish action level (600 Bq per cubic meter). This paper presents a method for radon equilibrium determination by gamma spectrometry measuring of the radon progeny concentrations in the air, in order to estimate WWTP workers effective dose more exactly. The method is based on simultaneous sampling of air through a filter paper and alpha spectrometry measurement of radon activity concentration in the air. According to the measured radon activity concentration in the air of 368±45 Bq/m 3 the equilibrium factor between radon and progenies is estimated to be F=0.27, which is in good agreement with expected values. - Highlights: • High levels of Radon in a workplace can increase health risks in the employees. • Using the typical equilibrium factor 0.4 could lead to an error in the estimation of radon doses. • We present a method for radon equilibrium determination. • Equilibrium factor is calculated by gamma spectrometry measuring of radon progeny concentrations in the air.

  16. Pre-treatment with antibiotics and Escherichia coli to equalize the gut microbiota in conventional mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota can vary widely between individual mice of the same batch and thereby affect the resulting outcome in experimental studies. Therefore, an efficient method is needed to equalize the gut microbiota prior to the start of critical experiments. In order to minimize variations in gut microbiota between animals and provide the animals with a Gram-negative flora exposing lipopolysaccharides in the cell-walls, C57BL/6 mice were given a mixture of ampicillin, metronidazole and clindamycin in the drinking water for 3 days and then Escherichia coli for two additional days. Treatment with antibiotics alone or with antibiotics in combination with E. coli was well tolerated by all animals. Body weight and liver weight were not affected, although higher hepatic fat content was found in treated animals (p antibiotics and antibiotics in combination with E. coli (p < 0.01), without affecting the total amount of bacteria. Cloned and sequenced 16S rRNA genes showed high presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Porphymonadaceae in the treated animals. Analysis with Principal Component Analysis gave a clear separation of the composition in microbiota between different treatment groups. The described treatment efficiently equalized the gut microbiota and provided the animals with a strong abundance of Enterobacteriaceae without changing the total load of bacteria. This is a straightforward, lenient and efficient method of pre-treatment to equalize the gut microbiota of mice as a starting procedure of animal studies.

  17. Potential of filter-vermicomposter for household wastewater pre-treatment and sludge sanitisation on site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajurel, D; Deegener, S; Shalabi, M; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    Septic tank systems have been widely used to separate and digest solid matter in the household wastewater for a long time. However, they contaminate groundwater with pathogens and nutrients and deprive agriculture of valuable nutrients and soil conditioner from human excreta. Compared with septic tank systems the filter-composter (Rottebehaelter), which usually consists of an underground monolithic concrete tank having two filter beds at its bottom or two filter bags that are hung side by side and used alternately at intervals of 6-12 months, is an efficient component for solid-liquid separation, pre-treatment and collection/storage of solid matter in household wastewater. The solids are retained and decompose in the filter bags or on the filter bed while the liquid filters through. However, because of the high moisture content of the retained solids decomposition is slow. Therefore, secondary treatment of the retained solids is required for sanitisation. The breakthrough was the combination of vermicomposting with the filter-composter system. Relatively dry and stable retained materials were obtained in the filter bags in about 3 months only. No secondary treatment is required as the human excreta will be converted to vermicastings, which are hygienically safe and can be reused as soil conditioner. Therefore, further development of the filter-composter with vermicomposting is worthwhile, especially the aspects of sanitisation of the faecal matter and its reuse as a soil conditioner.

  18. Modification of Bi:YIG film properties by substrate surface ion pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Mikhailova, T.V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Avenue, 4, Simferopol, 95007 (Ukraine); Kotov, V.A. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, RAS, 11 Mohovaya Street, Moscow, 125009 (Russian Federation); Balabanov, D.E. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sharay, I.V.; Salyuk, O.Y. [Institute of Magnetism, NAS of Ukraine, 03142, Kiev (Ukraine); Vasiliev, M. [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup 6027 (Australia); Golub, V.O., E-mail: v_o_golub@yahoo.com [Institute of Magnetism, NAS of Ukraine, 03142, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Effects of substrates ion beam treatment on magnetoptical properties Bi:YIG films. • Substrate surface damage results in sign inversion of the magneto-optical effects. • Atomically smooth films growth takes place on low energy ions treated substrates. • High energy ions treatment results in selective nucleation mechanism of the growth. - Abstract: The effect of a controlled ion beam pre-treatment of (1 1 1)-oriented Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} substrates on the magneto-optical properties and surface morphology of the ultrathin bismuth-substituted yttrium–iron garnet films with a composition Bi{sub 2.8}Y{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was studied. It has been shown that the observed sign inversion of magneto-optical effects (Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism) observed in films that were deposited on the GGG substrate pre-treated by 1 keV and 4 keV Ar{sup +} ion beams is a result of the substrate surface amorphization caused by the ion bombardment.

  19. Modification of Bi:YIG film properties by substrate surface ion pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikov, A.N.; Prokopov, A.R.; Karavainikov, A.V.; Berzhansky, V.N.; Mikhailova, T.V.; Kotov, V.A.; Balabanov, D.E.; Sharay, I.V.; Salyuk, O.Y.; Vasiliev, M.; Golub, V.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of substrates ion beam treatment on magnetoptical properties Bi:YIG films. • Substrate surface damage results in sign inversion of the magneto-optical effects. • Atomically smooth films growth takes place on low energy ions treated substrates. • High energy ions treatment results in selective nucleation mechanism of the growth. - Abstract: The effect of a controlled ion beam pre-treatment of (1 1 1)-oriented Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 substrates on the magneto-optical properties and surface morphology of the ultrathin bismuth-substituted yttrium–iron garnet films with a composition Bi 2.8 Y 0.2 Fe 5 O 12 was studied. It has been shown that the observed sign inversion of magneto-optical effects (Faraday rotation and magnetic circular dichroism) observed in films that were deposited on the GGG substrate pre-treated by 1 keV and 4 keV Ar + ion beams is a result of the substrate surface amorphization caused by the ion bombardment

  20. Response surface methodology for the optimization of sludge solubilization by ultrasonic pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingyue; Zhang, Xiaohui; Lu, Peng; Cao, Qiguang; Yuan, Yuan; Yue, Mingxing; Fu, Yiwei; Wu, Libin

    2018-02-01

    The present study examines the optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment conditions with response surface experimental design in terms of sludge disintegration efficiency (solubilisation of organic components). Ultrasonic pre-treatment for the maximum solubilization with residual sludge enhanced the SCOD release. Optimization of the ultrasonic pre-treatment was conducted through a Box-Behnken design (three variables, a total of 17 experiments) to determine the effects of three independent variables (power, residence time and TS) on COD solubilization of sludge. The optimal COD was obtained at 17349.4mg/L, when the power was 534.67W, the time was 10.77, and TS was 2%, while the SE of this condition was 28792J/kg TS.

  1. Pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron to alleviate pain on propofol injection: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Propofol is one of the widely used intravenous (i.v. anaesthetics, although pain on injection still remains a considerable concern for the anaesthesiologists. A number of techniques has been tried to minimize propofol-induced pain with variable results. Recently, a 5-HT 3 antagonist, ondansetron pre-treatment, has been shown to reduce propofol-induced pain. The aim of our randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study was to determine whether pre-treatment with intravenous granisetron, which is routinely used in our practice for prophylaxis of post-operative nausea and vomiting, would reduce propofol-induced pain. Methods: Eighty-two women, aged 18-50 years, American society of Anaesthesiologist grading (ASA I-II, scheduled for various surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. One group received 2 mL 0.9% sodium chloride while the other group received 2 mL granisetron (1 mg/mL, and were accompanied by manual venous occlusion for 1 min. Then, 2 mL propofol was injected through the same cannula. Patients were asked by a blinded investigator to score the pain on injection of propofol with a four-point scale: 0=no pain, 1=mild pain, 2=moderate pain, 3=severe pain. Results: Twenty-four patients (60% complained of pain in the group pre-treated with normal saline as compared with six (15% in the group pre-treated with granisetron. Pain was reduced significantly in the granisetron group (P<0.05. Severity of pain was also lesser in the granisetron group compared with the placebo group (2.5% vs. 37.5%. Conclusion: We conclude that pre-treatment with granisetron along with venous occlusion for 1 min for prevention of propofol-induced pain was highly successful.

  2. SU-E-J-149: Establishing the Relationship Between Pre-Treatment Lung Ventilation, Dose, and Toxicity Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, N; D'Souza, W; Sornsen de Koste, J; Senan, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, there has been an interest in incorporating functional information in treatment planning especially in thoracic tumors. The rationale is that healthy lung regions need to be spared from radiation if possible to help achieve better control on toxicity. However, it is still unclear whether high functioning regions need to be spared or have more capacity to deal with the excessive radiation as compared to the compromised regions of the lung. Our goal with this work is to establish the tools by which we can establish a relationship between pre-treatment lung function, dose, and radiographic outcomes of lung toxicity. Methods: Treatment planning was performed using a single phase of a 4DCT scan, and follow-up anatomical CT scans were performed every 3 months for most patients. In this study, we developed the pipeline of tools needed to analyze such a large dataset, while trying to establish a relationship between function, dose, and outcome. Pre-treatment lung function was evaluated using a recently published technique that evaluates Fractional Regional Ventilation (FRV). All images including the FRV map and the individual follow-up anatomical CT images were all spatially matched to the planning CT using a diffusion based Demons image registration algorithm. Change in HU value was used as a metric to capture the effects of lung toxicity. To validate the findings, a radiologist evaluated the follow-up anatomical CT images and scored lung toxicity. Results: Initial experience in 1 patient shows a relationship between the pre-treatment lung function, dose and toxicity outcome. The results are also correlated to the findings by the radiologist who was blinded to the analysis or dose. Conclusion: The pipeline we have established to study this enables future studies in large retrospective studies. However, the tools are dependent on the fidelity of 4DCT reconstruction for accurate evaluation of regional ventilation. Patent Pending for the technique

  3. Fabrication of high-quality brazed joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    Problem of ensuring of joint high-quality when brazing different parts in power engineering is considered. To obtain high-quality joints it is necessary to correctly design brazed joint and to choose a gap width, overlap length and fillet radius; to clean up carefully the surfaces to be brazed and fix them properly one relative to another; to apply a solder so as to provide its flowing into the gap and sticking in it; to exactly regulate thermal conditions of brazing. High quality and reliability of brazed joints are ensured by the application of solders based on noble metals, and cheap solders based on nickel, manganese and copper. Joints brazed with nickel base solders may operate at temperatures as high as 888 deg C

  4. Previously unclassified bacteria dominate during thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic pre-treatment of primary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Hasina M; Batstone, Damien J; Bond, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Thermophilic biological pre-treatment enables enhanced anaerobic digestion for treatment of wastewater sludges but, at present, there is limited understanding of the hydrolytic-acidogenic microbial composition and its contribution to this process. In this study, the process was assessed by comparing the microbiology of thermophilic (50-65 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) pre-treatment reactors treating primary sludge. A full-cycle approach for the 16S rRNA genes was applied in order to monitor the diversity of bacteria and their abundance in a thermophilic pre-treatment reactor treating primary sludge. For the thermophilic pre-treatment (TP), over 90% of the sequences were previously undetected and these had less than 97% sequence similarity to cultured organisms. During the first 83 days, members of the Betaproteobacteria dominated the community sequences and a newly designed probe was used to monitor a previously unknown bacterium affiliated with the genus Brachymonas. Between days 85 and 183, three phylotypes that affiliated with the genera Comamonas, Clostridium and Lysobacter were persistently dominant in the TP community, as revealed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Hydrolytic and fermentative functions have been speculated for these bacteria. Mesophilic pre-treatment (MP) and TP communities were different but they were both relatively dynamic. Statistical correlation analysis and the function of closely allied reference organisms indicated that previously unclassified bacteria dominated the TP community and may have been functionally involved in the enhanced hydrolytic performance of thermophilic anaerobic pre-treatment. This study is the first to reveal the diversity and dynamics of bacteria during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HIGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan SERİN, Alper AYTEKİN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of Total Quality Management (TQM has been even more common and most recently its use in high education has been discussed. Likewise the enterprises producing various products, universities have also inputs, processes, and outputs. Due to conditions of competition, universities have to improve the qualities of these inputs, processes, and outputs, according to satisfaction, demands, and expectations of internal and external customers. If the TQM has been implemented in the universities with a manner that aims for customer satisfaction (students, lecturers, public and private establishments, and families, supports constant development, ensures participatory approach, and encourages working in groups, it will provide universities with effectiveness, efficiency, dynamics, and economics. In this study, common problems of universities, definitions of quality and TQM in high education, customer concept at universities, and factors affecting the quality of education have been explained. Besides, in order TQM approach to be successfully implemented in the universities, various suggestions have been presented.

  6. Investigations of interfaces formed between bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) and aluminum after different Forest Product Laboratory pre-treatment times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, M.; Kim, J.; Wong, P.C.; Wong, K.C.; Mitchell, K.A.R

    2004-01-15

    The adhesion performance of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) coatings on high-purity aluminum surfaces, which have been subjected to a Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) pre-treatment for different times, has been assessed with secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After coating, SIMS measurement of the ratio of peak intensities at 71 to 70 amu is used to identify the direct Al-O-Si bonding. The overall strength of the silane adhesion is assessed by comparing measurements of the Si 2p signals before and after application of an ultrasonic rinse to the coated sample. For the shorter FPL pre-treatment times (<10 min), substantial BTSE adsorption occurs on less-firmly anchored parts of the oxide which can be removed by the sonication test. The optimal adhesive bonding is indicated by these more microscopic studies to occur with the pre-treatments in the 10-25 min range, and this is in close correspondence with the normal FPL recipe that has been identified by performance in macroscopic tests. Pre-treatments longer than 25 min modify the surface topography further and give less direct Al-O-Si bonding, although the total BTSE adsorption is essentially constant and the adhesion remains strong enough to survive the sonication test.

  7. Pre-treatment risk stratification of prostate cancer patients: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, George; Warde, Padraig; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Brundage, Michael; Souhami, Luis; Lukka, Himu

    2012-04-01

    The use of accepted prostate cancer risk stratification groups based on prostate-specific antigen, T stage and Gleason score assists in therapeutic treatment decision-making, clinical trial design and outcome reporting. The utility of integrating novel prognostic factors into an updated risk stratification schema is an area of current debate. The purpose of this work is to critically review the available literature on novel pre-treatment prognostic factors and alternative prostate cancer risk stratification schema to assess the feasibility and need for changes to existing risk stratification systems. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify original research publications and review articles on prognostic factors and risk stratification in prostate cancer. Search terms included risk stratification, risk assessment, prostate cancer or neoplasms, and prognostic factors. Abstracted information was assessed to draw conclusions regarding the potential utility of changes to existing risk stratification schema. The critical review identified three specific clinically relevant potential changes to the most commonly used three-group risk stratification system: (1) the creation of a very-low risk category; (2) the splitting of intermediate-risk into a low- and high-intermediate risk groups; and (3) the clarification of the interface between intermediate- and high-risk disease. Novel pathological factors regarding high-grade cancer, subtypes of Gleason score 7 and percentage biopsy cores positive were also identified as potentially important risk-stratification factors. Multiple studies of prognostic factors have been performed to create currently utilized prostate cancer risk stratification systems. We propose potential changes to existing systems.

  8. SBR treatment of olive mill wastewaters: dilution or pre-treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabegoli, G; Chiavola, A; Rolle, E

    2012-01-01

    The olive-oil extraction industry is an economically important activity for many countries of the Mediterranean Sea area, with Spain, Greece and Italy being the major producers. This activity, however, may represent a serious environmental problem due to the discharge of highly polluted effluents, usually referred to as 'olive mill wastewaters' (OMWs). They are characterized by high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (80-300 g/L), lipids, total polyphenols (TPP), tannins and other substances difficult to degrade. An adequate treatment before discharging is therefore required to reduce the pollutant load. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate performances of a biological process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with pre-treated OMWs. Pre-treatment consisted of a combined acid cracking (AC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process. The efficiency of the system was compared with that of an identical SBR fed with the raw wastewater only diluted. Combined AC and GAC adsorption was chosen to be used prior to the following biological process due to its capability of providing high removal efficiencies of COD and TPP and also appreciable improvement of biodegradability. Comparing results obtained with different influents showed that best performances of the SBR were obtained by feeding it with raw diluted OMWs (dOMWs) and at the lowest dilution ratio (1:25): in this case, the removal efficiencies were 90 and 76%, as average, for COD and TPP, respectively. Feeding the SBR with either the pre-treated or the raw dOMWs at 1:50 gave very similar values of COD reduction (74%); however, an improvement of the TPP removal was observed in the former case.

  9. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  11. SONO-OXIDATIVE PRE-TREATMENT OF WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE BEFORE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Şahinkaya

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of sonication, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4 oxidation and their simultaneous combination (called "sono-oxidative pre-treatment" on chemical properties and anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS were investigated and compared comprehensively. Based on chemical parameters, the optimum operating conditions were found to be 0.3 g K2FeO4/g total solids (TS dosage for 2-h individual K2FeO4 oxidation, 0.50 W/mL ultrasonic power density for 10-min individual sonication and, lastly, the combination of 2.5-min sonication at 0.75 W/mL ultrasonic power density with 2-h chemical oxidation at 0.3 g K2FeO4/g TS dosage for sono-oxidative pre-treatment. The disintegration efficiencies of these methods under the optimized conditions were in the following descending order: 37.8% for sono-oxidative pre-treatment > 26.3% for sonication > 13.1% for K2FeO4 oxidation. The influences of these methods on anaerobic biodegradability were tested with the biochemical methane potential assay. It was seen that the cumulative methane production increased by 9.2% in the K2FeO4 oxidation reactor, 15.8% in the sonicated reactor and 18.6% in the reactor with sono-oxidative pre-treatment, compared to the control (untreated reactor.

  12. Pre-treatment with a sinus node blockade, ivabradine, before coronary CT angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrechtsen, J; Egstrup, K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether a simple pre-treatment regimen of sinus node inhibition by ivabradine taken at home for only 1 day resulted in a lower pre-scanning heart rate (HR) and reduced the need for intravenous beta-blockers (BB) prior to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA)....

  13. The role of pre-treatment proactive coping skills in successful weight management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Charlotte D. W.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Kroese, Floor M.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Proactive coping encompasses future-oriented self-regulatory skills that help people prepare for future difficulties before they occur, such as planning and monitoring. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay between pre-treatment proactive coping skills and expected

  14. Effects of thermo-chemical pre-treatment on anaerobic biodegradability and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, T.; Klaasse Bos, G.J.; Zeeman, G.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of different thermo-chemical pre-treatment methods were determined on the biodegradability and hydrolysis rate of lignocellulosic biomass. Three plant species, hay, straw and bracken were thermo-chemically pre-treated with calcium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate and maleic acid. After

  15. Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of pre-treatments on seed germination of Parkia biglobosa (Benth) ... There has been emphasis on the use of indigenous tree species to check land ... out to investigate the most effective pre-sowing treatments to break seed dormancy and to ... Matured seeds of P. biglobosa were collected from farmers at Mbalagh ...

  16. Gambling Disorder: Exploring Pre-treatment and In-treatment Dropout Predictors. A UK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of treatment dropout in a sample of gamblers attending a specialist clinic for gambling disorder. We analysed data on 846 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Firstly, we investigated differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables between treatment completers and pre-treatment dropouts, as well as between treatment completers and during-treatment dropouts. Subsequently, variables were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to identify significant predictors of pre-treatment and in-treatment dropout. Overall, 44.8% of clients did not complete the treatment: 27.4% dropped out before starting it, while 17.4% dropped out during the treatment. Younger age and use of drugs were associated with pre-treatment dropout, while family history of gambling disorder, a lower PGSI score, and being a smoker were related with in-treatment dropout. Our findings suggest that pre-treatment dropouts differ from in-treatment dropouts, and, thus, further research will benefit from considering these groups separately. In addition, this newly gained knowledge will also be helpful in increasing treatment retention in specific subgroups of problem gamblers.

  17. Investigation on the influence of pre-treatments on drying behaviour of broccoli by MRI experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows the monitoring of internal moisture content of food products during drying non-destructively. In an experimental set-up with continuous and controlled hot air supply, the internal moisture distribution of broccoli with different pre-treatments are

  18. Assuring quality in high-consequence engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Marcey L.; Kolb, Rachel R.

    2014-03-01

    In high-consequence engineering organizations, such as Sandia, quality assurance may be heavily dependent on staff competency. Competency-dependent quality assurance models are at risk when the environment changes, as it has with increasing attrition rates, budget and schedule cuts, and competing program priorities. Risks in Sandia's competency-dependent culture can be mitigated through changes to hiring, training, and customer engagement approaches to manage people, partners, and products. Sandia's technical quality engineering organization has been able to mitigate corporate-level risks by driving changes that benefit all departments, and in doing so has assured Sandia's commitment to excellence in high-consequence engineering and national service.

  19. Investigation of Surface Pre-Treatment Methods for Wafer-Level Cu-Cu Thermo-Compression Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Tanaka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To increase the yield of the wafer-level Cu-Cu thermo-compression bonding method, certain surface pre-treatment methods for Cu are studied which can be exposed to the atmosphere before bonding. To inhibit re-oxidation under atmospheric conditions, the reduced pure Cu surface is treated by H2/Ar plasma, NH3 plasma and thiol solution, respectively, and is covered by Cu hydride, Cu nitride and a self-assembled monolayer (SAM accordingly. A pair of the treated wafers is then bonded by the thermo-compression bonding method, and evaluated by the tensile test. Results show that the bond strengths of the wafers treated by NH3 plasma and SAM are not sufficient due to the remaining surface protection layers such as Cu nitride and SAMs resulting from the pre-treatment. In contrast, the H2/Ar plasma–treated wafer showed the same strength as the one with formic acid vapor treatment, even when exposed to the atmosphere for 30 min. In the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS measurement of the H2/Ar plasma–treated Cu sample, the total number of the detected H2 was 3.1 times more than the citric acid–treated one. Results of the TDS measurement indicate that the modified Cu surface is terminated by chemisorbed hydrogen atoms, which leads to high bonding strength.

  20. Effect of biological activated carbon pre-treatment to control organic fouling in the microfiltration of biologically treated secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2014-10-15

    Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic fouling of a microfiltration membrane (0.1 μm polyvinylidene fluoride) in the treatment of a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. BAC treatment of the BTSE resulted in a marked improvement in permeate flux, which was attributed to the effective removal of organic foulants and particulates. Although the BAC removed significantly less dissolved organic carbon than the granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment which was used as a control for comparison, it led to a markedly greater flux. This was attributed to the effective removal of the very high molecular weight substances such as biopolymers by the BAC through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm. Size exclusion chromatography showed the BAC treatment led to approximately 30% reduction in these substances, whereas the GAC did not greatly remove these molecules. The BAC treatment led to a greater reduction of loosely-attached and firmly-attached membrane surface foulant, and this was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. This study demonstrated the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing organic fouling and thus improving flux for the microfiltration of BTSE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Producing high-quality slash pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Barnett; Sue Varela

    2003-01-01

    Slash pine is a desirable species. It serves many purposes and is well adapted to poorly drained flatwoods and seasonally flooded areas along the lower Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. The use of high-quality seeds has been shown to produce uniform seedlings for outplanting, which is key to silvicultural success along the Coastal Plain and elsewhere. We present...

  2. Endorectal high dose rate brachytherapy quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devic, S.; Vuong, T.; Evans, M.; Podgorsak, E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our quality assurance method for preoperative high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy of endorectal tumours. Reproduction of the treatment planning dose distribution on a daily basis is crucial for treatment success. Due to the cylindrical symmetry, two types of adjustments are necessary: applicator rotation and dose distribution shift along the applicator axis. (author)

  3. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin

    2017-07-01

    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH 3 ) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH 3 -N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH 3 -N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH 3 -N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH 4 /kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d -1 ) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B 0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synergistic effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment combined with UV irradiation for secondary effluent disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Li, Zifu; Xie, Lanlan; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Tingting

    2013-11-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) disinfection efficiency is often affected by suspended solids (SS). Given their high concentration or large particle size, SS can scatter UV light and provide shielding for bacteria. Thus, ultrasound is often employed as a pre-treatment process to improve UV disinfection. This work investigated the synergistic effect of ultrasound combined with UV for secondary effluent disinfection. Bench-scale experiments were conducted in using samples obtained from secondary sedimentation tanks. These tanks belonged to three wastewater treatment plants in Beijing that use different kinds of biological treatment methods. Several parameters may contribute to the changes in the efficiency of ultrasound and UV disinfection. Thus, the frequency and energy density of ultrasound, as well as the SS, were investigated. Results demonstrated that samples which have relatively higher SS concentrations or higher percentages of larger particles have less disinfection efficiency using UV disinfection alone. However, the presence of ultrasound could improve the disinfection efficiency because it has synergistic effect. Changes in the particle size distribution and SS concentration notably affected the efficiency of UV disinfection. The efficiency of Escherichia coli elimination can be decreased by 1.2 log units as the SS concentration increases from 16.9 mg/l to 25.4 mg/l at a UV energy density of 40 mJ/cm(2). UV disinfection alone reduced the E. coli population by 3.4 log units. However, the synergistic disinfection of ultrasound and UV could reach 5.4 log units during the reduction of E. coli at a 40 kHz frequency and an energy density of 2.64 kJ/l. The additional synergistic effect is 1.1 log units. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  6. Mechanical pre-treatment for enzymatically enhanced energy efficient TMP; Mekanisk foerbehandling av flis foer effektiv enzymatisk paaverkan vid energieffektiv TMP tillverkning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2008-11-15

    Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) processes are high energy demanding. This together with the high energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, why less energy demanding processes are wished. This project has evaluated the potential for energy reductions in a TMP process by a mechanical pre-treatment of the wood chips combined with an enzymatic modification based on a cellulase mixture. The structure of the wood was opened up by the mechanical pre-treatment making it easier for the enzymes to penetrate into the pre-treated wood material. The enzymatic treatment was then run at optimum standard conditions. The EU project - Ecotarget 2004-2008 (www.ecotarget.com) have studied different types of enzymes that could be used for pre-treatment of wood chips in order to save energy during TMP processes. Based on these studies cellulose enzyme was recommended to be used at pre-treatment experiment performed by the Vaermeforsk project. Due to the fact that the Ecotarget-project has also been run during 2008 with activities involving enzymes, the steering board of the Vaermeforsk project took the decision to co-ordinate the experiments from both of the projects. This co-operation increased the funds and also the number of experiments for both of the projects. The experimental results from this project showed that energy reductions at a given tensile index could be achieved if gently mechanical pre-treated wood chips were enzymatically treated. An intensive mechanical pre-treatment gave negative effects on both fibre length and tear index while the light scattering coefficient was promoted, probably due to the fibre shortening. Enzymatic modification of mechanically pre-treated chips showed a favourable modification of the fibres, even regarding the fibre shortening, if compared to mechanical pre-treated chips only. The effects of cellulases was however not as expected, why a high amount of cellulases was used. Other types of enzymes which could attack the primary wall of

  7. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  8. Boiling curve in high quality flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralkar, B.S.; Hein, R.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1980-01-01

    The post dry-out heat transfer regime of the flow boiling curve was investigated experimentally for high pressure water at high qualities. The test section was a short round tube located downstream of a hot patch created by a temperature controlled segment of tubing. Results from the experiment showed that the distance from the dryout point has a significant effect on the downstream temperatures and there was no unique boiling curve. The heat transfer coefficients measured sufficiently downstream of the dryout point could be correlated using the Heineman correlation for superheated steam, indicating that the droplet deposition effects could be neglected in this region

  9. Improving the sludge disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinkaya, S; Sevimli, M F; Aygün, A

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious problems encountered in biological wastewater treatment processes is the production of waste activated sludge (WAS). Sonication, which is an energy-intensive process, is the most powerful sludge pre-treatment method. Due to lack of information about the combined pre-treatment methods of sonication, the combined pre-treatment methods were investigated and it was aimed to improve the disintegration efficiency of sonication by combining sonication with alkalization and thermal pre-treatment methods in this study. The process performances were evaluated based on the quantities of increases in soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), protein and carbohydrate. The releases of soluble COD, carbohydrate and protein by the combined methods were higher than those by sonication, alkalization and thermal pre-treatment alone. Degrees of sludge disintegration in various options of sonication were in the following descending order: sono-alkalization > sono-thermal pre-treatment > sonication. Therefore, it was determined that combining sonication with alkalization significantly improved the sludge disintegration and decreased the required energy to reach the same yield by sonication. In addition, effects on sludge settleability and dewaterability and kinetic mathematical modelling of pre-treatment performances of these methods were investigated. It was proven that the proposed model accurately predicted the efficiencies of ultrasonic pre-treatment methods.

  10. The effect of lime pre-treatments of date palm leaves on delignification and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, M.; Ahmadi, F.; Rajaee Rad, A.; Zamiri, M.J.; Cone, J.W.; Polikarpov, I.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of lime pre-treatment on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability of date palm leaves (DPL). Lime pre-treatments, with or without oxygen supply, were applied for 1, 2 and 3 weeks at 25 and 40 °C. Lime was neutralized by the

  11. Pre-treatment Social Anxiety Severity Moderates the Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or Aerobic Exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. PMID:25684277

  12. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural (furan-2-carboxaldehyde), formed during dilute acid hydrolysis of biomass, is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. The present study used a biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model biofuel fermentation broth. The pre-treatment in...

  13. Effect of sample pre-treatment on the determination of steroid esters in hair of bovine calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of three sample pre-treatment steps, washing, cutting and grinding on the determination of steroid esters in hair is studied. The study is performed by using hair samples obtained after pour-on application of steroid esters to bovine calves. After sample pre-treatment the hair is treated

  14. Effects of chemical-physical pre-treatment processes on hemp fibres for reinforcement of composites and textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bohn, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    Retted hemp fibres were treated using chemical-physical pre-treatments and the material was characterised chemically in order to evaluate the effect of the pre-treatments, respectively, wet oxidation (WO), hydrothermal treatment (HT) and steam explosion (STEX). Process variables were addition...

  15. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...... germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments at batch-scale of sludge samples from two WWTPs using anaerobic digestion, and thermal and ozonation pre......-treatments. Glyphosate and eco-labelled soil were used as references. Inhibition of germination of seeds exposed to the glyphosate and sludge was registered and thus germination was successfully applied for sludge ecotoxicity assessment, and using the root elongation as the end-point was both faster and more precise...

  16. Pre-treatment technology for electrochemical detection of heavy metal lead and cadmium in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke YAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wet digestion is used as the pre-treatment technology for the electrochemical detection of heavy metals in food, and the complete wet digestion condition of food sample is optimized by electrochemical experiments. The results show that the experimental samples can be digested completely using the Nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide system and is not pre-digested after adding 10 mL nitric acid at 120~140 ℃ and adding 10~15 mL of hydrogen peroxide during the heating process. The correlation coefficient of electrochemical detect is 0.99 for digestion solution of the samples, and the recovery of standard addition is 82%~115%. Wet digestion as a pre-treatment technology of food samples. It can digest sample fully and meet the requirements of electrochemical detection.

  17. FMECA about pre-treatment system for purge gas of test blanket module in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The pre-treatment system for purge gas of TBM will be installed in Port Cell for installing TBM in ITER, the function of which includes filtering purge gas, removing HTO, cooling, and adjusting flow rate, etc. The purge gas treated will be conveyed into TES (Tritium Extraction System). The technological process and system components in pre-treatment system were introduced. Tritium releasing risk was regarded as failure criterion; failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) were carried out and several weaknesses or failure mode in the system were found. Besides, risk priority number (RPN) and failure mode criticality were calculated. Finally, some design improvement measures and usage compensation measures were given. At last, four important potential failure modes were found out. The analysis will provide the design basis for reducing risk of excessive tritium releasing, which is also a useful assist for safety analysis about other tritium system. (authors)

  18. Use of basic and specific pre-treatments for the biogas production. Revision and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez Hernández, Carlos M.; García López, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in mind the importance that has today the use of national and international biogas plants, which use as raw material animal manure; as well as agricultural and agroindustrial residuals for the energy production and biofertilizers, minimizing the aspects of environmental contamination. This work is presented in three parts, in those which: firstly the technologies and the methods are described to apply the basic and special pre-treatments to the different biomass in order to obtain their maximum potential of methane. A second part where it is approached the particularities to do that. Finally, a third part where their possible use is analyzed in the Cuban case. As a result of the same one, the state of the art is shown in the use of basic and special pre-treatments, with the objective of to potentialize the increase of the methane production in agricultural or animal biomasses. (author)

  19. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  20. Time dependent pre-treatment EPID dosimetry for standard and FFF VMAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, Mark; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M J J G; Persoon, Lucas C G G; Scheib, Stefan G; Baltes, Christof; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-08-21

    Methods to calibrate Megavoltage electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for dosimetry have been previously documented for dynamic treatments such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using flattened beams and typically using integrated fields. While these methods verify the accumulated field shape and dose, the dose rate and differential fields remain unverified. The aim of this work is to provide an accurate calibration model for time dependent pre-treatment dose verification using amorphous silicon (a-Si) EPIDs in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for both flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams. A general calibration model was created using a Varian TrueBeam accelerator, equipped with an aS1000 EPID, for each photon spectrum 6 MV, 10 MV, 6 MV-FFF, 10 MV-FFF. As planned VMAT treatments use control points (CPs) for optimization, measured images are separated into corresponding time intervals for direct comparison with predictions. The accuracy of the calibration model was determined for a range of treatment conditions. Measured and predicted CP dose images were compared using a time dependent gamma evaluation using criteria (3%, 3 mm, 0.5 sec). Time dependent pre-treatment dose verification is possible without an additional measurement device or phantom, using the on-board EPID. Sufficient data is present in trajectory log files and EPID frame headers to reliably synchronize and resample portal images. For the VMAT plans tested, significantly more deviation is observed when analysed in a time dependent manner for FFF and non-FFF plans than when analysed using only the integrated field. We show EPID-based pre-treatment dose verification can be performed on a CP basis for VMAT plans. This model can measure pre-treatment doses for both flattened and unflattened beams in a time dependent manner which highlights deviations that are missed in integrated field verifications.

  1. Influence of different pre-treatment routes on the anaerobic digestion of a filamentous algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Poulsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    biomass blending (20% compared to use of a mechanical size reduction method alone. The methane yields from Rhizoclonium biomass were however observed to be considerably lower than those of other algae species from......The anaerobic digestion of outdoor cultivated Rhizoclonium biomass was investigated in this study. The influence of applying mechanical and biological pre-treatment methods prior to the biomass digestion on the overall methane yields was examined. The results show that the application of a combined...

  2. Sludge reduction and water quality improvement in anaerobic lagoons through influent pre-treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons may require cleanup and closure measures in the future. In practice, liquid and sludge need to be removed by pumping, usually at great expense of energy, and land applied ...

  3. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  4. Effect on Al:MO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface (M = Hf, Zr) of trimethyl-aluminum pre-treatment during atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamperti, A., E-mail: alessio.lamperti@mdm.imm.cnr.it [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Molle, A.; Cianci, E.; Wiemer, C.; Spiga, S. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    For the fabrication of n-type metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor based on high mobility III–V compound semiconductors as channel materials, a major requirement is the integration of high quality gate oxides on top of the III–V substrates. A detailed knowledge of the interface between the oxide layer and the substrate is mandatory to assess the relevance of interdiffusion and related defects, which are detrimental. Here we grow high dielectric constant (k) Al:MO{sub 2} (M = Hf, Zr) gate materials on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As substrates by atomic layer deposition, after an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pre-treatment based on trimethylaluminum is performed to properly passivate the substrate surface. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiles reveal not only the film integrity and the chemical composition of the high-k oxide but also well elucidate the effect of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pre-treatment on Al:MO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface. Even though the chemical profile is well defined in both cases, a broader interface is detected for Al:ZrO{sub 2}. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy evidenced the presence of As{sup 3+} states in Al:ZrO{sub 2} only. Accordingly, preliminary capacitance–voltage measurements point out to a better field effect modulation in the capacitor incorporating Al:HfO{sub 2}. Based on the above considerations Al:HfO{sub 2} looks as a preferred candidate with respect to Al:ZrO{sub 2} for the integration on top of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As substrates. - Highlights: • Al:MO{sub 2} (M = Hf, Zr) thin films are grown on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As substrates. • Trimethylaluminum (TMA) pre-treatment properly passivates the substrate surface. • ToF-SIMS depth profiles reveal the chemical composition of the high-k films. • Depth profiles well elucidate the effect of TMA on Al:MO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As substrates. • XPS evidences the presence of As{sup 3+} state in Al:ZrO{sub 2}/In{sub 0

  5. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity moderates the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction and aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaieri, Hooria; Lee, Ihno A; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether social anxiety severity at pre-treatment would moderate the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) or aerobic exercise (AE) for generalized social anxiety disorder. MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly social anxiety symptoms. Improvements were moderated by pre-treatment social anxiety severity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise (AE) are effective in reducing symptoms of social anxiety. Pre-treatment social anxiety severity can be used to inform treatment recommendations. Both MBSR and AE produced equivalent reductions in weekly levels of social anxiety symptoms. MBSR appears to be most effective for patients with lower pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. AE appears to be most effective for patients with higher pre-treatment social anxiety symptom severity. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Effect of various pre-treatments on the ultrafiltration of sweet cheese whey at about 55 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiddink, J; De Boer, R; Nooy, P F.C.

    1981-11-01

    The permeate flux at 55 degrees C during ultrafiltration of Gouda cheese whey (5.5% TS and 11% TS) can be readily manipulated by applying pre-treatments based on inactivation or removal of calcium. The following pre-treatments were carried out: clarification, decalcificication, desalting, pre-heating at 45, 55, and 60 degrees C for 30 minutes, pre-heating at 55 degrees C for 30 minutes combined with pH adjustment to pH 7.5, 4.5 and 3.0 and preheating at 55 degrees C for 30 minutes (coupled with addition of sodum hexametaphosphate. In particular decalification, clarification and pH adjustment to 7.5 or 3.0 gave high permeate fluxes, while pre- heating for 30 minutes resulted in a moderate flux. The pretreatment not only affects the permeate flux but also the composition and properties of the whey protein concentrate. A high ash content, which also reflects a high calcium and phosphorous content, was obtained with a pretreatment based on pH 7 5, while low ash contents were achieved by desalting and clarification. The solubility of the protein was reduced to some 60-70% if the pH of the pre-treated whey was brought to 3.0 or 7.5. Furthermore, it appeared that the influence of the type of membrane - a tubular and a plate-and-frame module were used - was of minor importance as far as the retention or the composition of the whey protein concentrate was concerned. However, the permeate flux of the two types of equipment was different. Under the applied process conditions the tubular system tended to give a higher permeate flux than did the plate-and-frame system, but the energy consumption of the former was considerably higher. (Refs. 25).

  7. Tailoring degradation of AZ31 alloy by surface pre-treatment and electrospun PCL fibrous coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanas, T. [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, Kerala 673601 (India); Sampath Kumar, T.S., E-mail: tssk@iitm.ac.in [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Perumal, Govindaraj; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology - Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-08-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy was coated with polycaprolactone (PCL) nano-fibrous layer using electrospinning technique so as to control degradation in physiological environment. Before coating, the alloy was treated with HNO{sub 3} to have good adhesion between the coating and substrate. To elucidate the role of pre-treatment and coating, samples only with PCL coating as well as HNO{sub 3} treatment only were prepared for comparison. Best coating adhesion of 4B grade by ASTM D3359–09 tape test was observed for pre-treated samples. The effect of coating on in vitro degradation and biomineralization was studied using supersaturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5 ×). The weight loss and corrosion results obtained by immersion test showed that the combination of HNO{sub 3} pre-treatment and PCL coating is very effective in controlling the degradation rate and improving bioactivity. Cytotoxicity studies using L6 cells showed that PCL coated sample has better cell adhesion and proliferation compared to uncoated samples. Nano-fibrous PCL coating combined with prior acid treatment seems to be a promising method to tailor degradation rate with enhanced bioactivity of Mg alloys. - Highlights: • PCL electrospun coating on HNO{sub 3} pre-treated AZ31 alloy controls biodegradation. • Acid pre-treatment stabilizes the substrate - coating interface. • Electrospun porous coating improves biomineralization. • Coating similar to extracellular matrix enhances cell adhesion.

  8. Effect of the pre-treatment on the performance of MBR, Berghausen WWTP. Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat A.E. Moustafa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilot scale experiments were carried out to examine the effect of the pre-treatment methods on the performance of MBR. The PURON® MBR module was used in this study. In order to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on the behaviour of membrane, samples were withdrawn at different locations in Berghausen WWTP. During the first period samples have been collected directly from the main source as raw sewage to determine its main characteristics. During the second period samples have been screened with screening 1 mm filter material to prevent debris from damaging the membrane. During the third phase samples have been taken after the primary settling tank to have the benefits of filtering out unwanted trash, removing scum and floating debris. The study showed that the membrane bio-reactor filters out nearly all solids, the pre-treatment has a positive effect on the MBR performance, and the pre-sedimentation is more effective than fine screening. Moreover, aeration is considered as one of the intrinsic parameters in both hydraulic and biological process performances because of its ability to maintain solids in suspension, scours the membrane surface, limits fouling, and provide oxygen to the biomass, which results in a better biodegradability.

  9. Pre-treatment of Biomass By Rolling - A Combined Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Ravn, Christian; Nielsen, Emil Krabbe

    2017-01-01

    Pre-treatment of bulk straw material by rolling is studied as a possible method to prepare for subsequent biogas production. A combined experimental and theoretical study is presented. A pilot rolling mill with a double screw feeder is designed and constructed for crushing of bulk straw. Experime...... process window for pre-treatment of wheat straw by roll pressing varying the feed, the roll gap, the roll speed and the moisture content of the bulk straw.......Pre-treatment of bulk straw material by rolling is studied as a possible method to prepare for subsequent biogas production. A combined experimental and theoretical study is presented. A pilot rolling mill with a double screw feeder is designed and constructed for crushing of bulk straw....... Experiments show that the roll speed and the roll reduction should be chosen within a specific range depending on the injection screw speed to avoid blocking or insufficient compaction. A mechanical testing procedure of the bulk straw material including closed die compaction testing as well as simple...

  10. Antisense pre-treatment increases gene therapy efficacy in dystrophic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccate, Cécile; Mollard, Amédée; Le Hir, Maëva; Julien, Laura; McClorey, Graham; Jarmin, Susan; Le Heron, Anita; Dickson, George; Benkhelifa-Ziyyat, Sofia; Piétri-Rouxel, France; Wood, Matthew J; Voit, Thomas; Lorain, Stéphanie

    2016-08-15

    In preclinical models for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, dystrophin restoration during adeno-associated virus (AAV)-U7-mediated exon-skipping therapy was shown to decrease drastically after six months in treated muscles. This decline in efficacy is strongly correlated with the loss of the therapeutic AAV genomes, probably due to alterations of the dystrophic myofiber membranes. To improve the membrane integrity of the dystrophic myofibers at the time of AAV-U7 injection, mdx muscles were pre-treated with a single dose of the peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PPMO) antisense oligonucleotides that induced temporary dystrophin expression at the sarcolemma. The PPMO pre-treatment allowed efficient maintenance of AAV genomes in mdx muscles and enhanced the AAV-U7 therapy effect with a ten-fold increase of the protein level after 6 months. PPMO pre-treatment was also beneficial to AAV-mediated gene therapy with transfer of micro-dystrophin cDNA into muscles. Therefore, avoiding vector genome loss after AAV injection by PPMO pre-treatment would allow efficient long-term restoration of dystrophin and the use of lower and thus safer vector doses for Duchenne patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of some pre-treatments on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, S.; Guerses, A.; Bayrak, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments, such as HCl treatment, demineralization and pyrolysis, under a CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite were investigated. The adsorption capacities of the samples were determined before and after these pre-treatments. In addition, the removals of pyritic and organic sulfur and ash contents for the same coal samples were also defined. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the samples decreased after these pre-treatments. The decrease in adsorption capacity with pyrolysis can be attributed to the changes in surface morphology and/or pore size distribution of the coal samples. On the other hand, the observed decrease in adsorption capacity with removal of carbonates and silicates shows that these minerals have an important effect on methylene blue adsorption, and the adsorption considerably occurs through electrostatic interactions. In addition, the obtained results showed that the organic sulfur presence in the coal matrix have a positive effect on the methylene blue adsorption

  12. Predicting Dropout from Intensive Outpatient Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder Using Pre-treatment Characteristics: A Naturalistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroling, Maartje S; Wiersma, Femke E; Lammers, Mirjam W; Noorthoorn, Eric O

    2016-11-01

    Dropout rates in binge eating disorder (BED) treatment are high (17-30%), and predictors of dropout are unknown. Participants were 376 patients following an intensive outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy programme for BED, 82 of whom (21.8%) dropped out of treatment. An exploratory logistic regression was performed using eating disorder variables, general psychopathology, personality and demographics to identify predictors of dropout. Binge eating pathology, preoccupations with eating, shape and weight, social adjustment, agreeableness, and social embedding appeared to be significant predictors of dropout. Also, education showed an association to dropout. This is one of the first studies investigating pre-treatment predictors for dropout in BED treatment. The total explained variance of the prediction model was low, yet the model correctly classified 80.6% of cases, which is comparable to other dropout studies in eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Effect of low temperature thermal pre-treatment on the solubilization of organic matter, pathogen inactivation and mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Espinoza, Juan E; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M; Alvarado-Lassman, Alejandro; Martínez-Delgadillo, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of poultry industry effluents produces wastewater sludge with high levels of organic compounds and pathogenic microorganisms. In this research, the thermal pre-treatment of poultry slaughterhouse sludge (PSS) was evaluated for low temperatures in combination with different exposure times as a pre-hydrolysis strategy to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Organic compounds solubilization and inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were evaluated after treatment at 70, 80 or 90°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. The results showed that 90°C and 90 min were the most efficient conditions for solubilization of the organic compounds (10%). In addition, the bacteria populations and the more resistant structures, such as helminth eggs (HE), were completely inactivated. Finally, the thermal pre-treatment applied to the sludge increased methane yield by 52% and reduced hydraulic retention time (HRT) by 52%.

  14. Improvement of Haramay Fiber by Pre-treatment of Retting Process withPhosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntari-Sasas; Neni-Rustini Eriawati

    2000-01-01

    Haramay as bast fiber contains of cellulose fiber as the main part, mixedwith hemi cellulose, pectin, and lignin as binding material for cellulosefiber to keep it together in the bundle form. For textile material, this bastfiber has to be freed from its binding material, called as retting process,before subjecting to scouring, dyeing and finishing process in textileindustry. In the retting process the dissolve of binding material can be doneeither by using enzyme in bio technology or extraction with strong alkalinecondition in common technology. Using sodium hydroxide for dissolving thebinding material can be carried out easily with good dissolving ability, butcan render the strength retention of the cellulose fiber. Pre-treatment ofthe bast fiber with phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ), is expected to hydrolyze someof the binding materials that can not be dissolved in alkaline condition,including natural pigment that colored the fiber with creamy white. In thisstudy, the pre-treatment process before retting with phosphoric acid wascarried out in various condition, such as concentration of phosphoric acid (5ml/l- 25 ml/l), time and temperature of pre-treatment (1-3 hours at 50 o C or12-24 hours at room temperature), followed by neutralization in dilutealkaline. The retting process was carried out by means of scouring in variousconcentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH 38 o Be, 10 ml/l-30 m/l), and then wascontinued with bleaching process in hydrogen peroxide solution. Aftercarrying out those experiment, the bast fiber that called haramay wassubjected to testing for weight reduction, strength retention and degree ofwhiteness. From the testing results it is concluded that pre-treatment withphosphoric acid can increase the weight reduction, strength retention ortenacity and degree of whiteness of haramay fiber compared to the oneswithout pre-treatment with phosphoric acid. The best result was obtained bypre-treatment with 5 ml/l H 3 PO 4 at 50 o C for 2 hours, continued by

  15. Lignite pre-treatment and its effect on bio-stimulative properties of respective lignite humic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlckova, Z.; Grasset, L.; Antosova, B.; Pekar, M.; Kucerik, J. [Brno University of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemistry

    2009-09-15

    Humic acids originating from South-Moravian lignite were subjected to a comparative study with the aim to assess the alteration of their physico-chemical properties after various lignite pre-treatments. Physical modification was achieved with two organic acids, such as acetic acid and citric acid and chemical modification by nitric acid and hydrogene peroxide in various concentrations. Elemental analysis, solid-state NMR, GC-MS analysis of polyols and size exclusion chromatography were carried out for chemical-physical characterization of obtained humic acids. Their biological effect, in form of potassium and ammonium humates, was tested on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. In these tests, potassium humates achieved far better overall results than ammonium humates. Results were inter-correlated in order to appraise the influence of humic acids physical and chemical properties on biological activity. Surprisingly, fractions with the lowest molecular size (0-35 kDa) showed no correlation with bioactivity results (Pearson coefficient from 0.05 to -0.4). On the contrary, middle-sized fractions (35-175 kDa) showed highly significant positive correlation (Pearson coefficient up to 0.92) and the highest molecular-size-fractions (275-350 kDa) showed negative correlation (Pearson coefficient up to -0.75). These findings were identical for both potassium and ammonium humates. No connection was found between bioactivity of humates and polyols content which was remarkably high; it reached 150 mg per g of humic acids in the most extreme case of 5% hydrogene peroxide pre-treatment. In the final analysis, the preparation mode bore pivotal responsibility for the control of humic acids biological effect and showed the best results for potassium humates obtained from lignite pre-treated by acetic acid and by 2% hydrogen peroxide.

  16. The association of pre-treatment HPV subtypes with recurrence of VIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Martinelli, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Signorelli, Mauro; Taverna, Francesca; Lombardo, Claudia; Chiappa, Valentina; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Recalcati, Dario; Scaffa, Cono; Perotto, Stefania; Sabatucci, Ilaria; Indini, Alice; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    To assess whether pre-treatment HPV types are associated with recurrence of high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN2+). Data of consecutive patients with pretreatment HPV DNA test undergoing treatment for VIN2+ were retrospectively collected. Risk factors promoting the risk of VIN2+ persistence and recurrence were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard proportional models. 64 patients had pretreatment vulvar-vaginal HPV DNA test. Two were excluded due to the presence of synchronous vulvar cancer, thus leaving 62 patients for the final analysis. HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 were the most common HPV genotype detected, occurring in 15 (24.2%), 4 (6.5%), 8 (12.9%) and 5 (8.0%) patients, respectively. HPV was not detected in 19 (30.6%) patients. During a mean (SD) follow up of 56.7 (±26.7) months, 10 (16.1%) patients had VIN2+ persistence/recurrence. Mean (SD) lesion-free interval was 51.7 (±31.4) months. Via multivariate analysis, pretreatment infection from HPV31 (HR:46.7(95%CI:4.21,518.4); p=0.02) and HPV33 (HR:77.0(95%CI:6.73,881.9); p<0.001) correlated with an increased risk of VIN2+ persistence/recurrence. Additionally, we observed that patients undergoing surgical excision followed by LASER ablation experienced a trend towards lower recurrence rate than patients undergoing other surgical or medical treatments (HR:0.20(95%CI:0.03,1.09); p=0.05). Two (3.2%) patients developed progression to vulvar cancer. Owing to the inherent biases of the retrospective study design and the small sample size, our data have to be corroborated by larger and prospective studies. HPV31 and HPV33 have a potential role in predicting VIN2+ persistence/recurrence. These findings will be paramount, owing to the implementation of new immunization programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of ozonation, anion exchange resin and UV/H2O2 pre-treatments to control fouling of ultrafiltration membrane for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Suja, Fatihah

    2017-06-01

    The effects of ozonation, anion exchange resin (AER) and UV/H 2 O 2 were investigated as a pre-treatment to control organic fouling (OF) of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of drinking water. It was found that high molecular weight (MW) organics such as protein and polysaccharide substances were majorly responsible for reversible fouling which contributed to 90% of total fouling. The decline rate increased with successive filtration cycles due to deposition of protein content over time. All pre-treatment could reduce the foulants of a Ultrafiltration membrane which contributed to the improvement in flux, and there was a greater improvement of flux by UV/H 2 O 2 (61%) than ozonation (43%) which in turn was greater than AER (23%) treatment. This was likely due to the effective removal/breakdown of high MW organic content. AER gave greater removal of biofouling potential components (such as biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents) compared to UV/H 2 O 2 and ozonation treatment. Overall, this study demonstrated the potential of pre-treatments for reducing OF of ultrafiltration for the treatment of drinking water.

  18. Effect of biological and coagulation pre-treatments to control organic and biofouling potential components of ultrafiltration membrane in the treatment of lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Kajol, Annaduzzaman; Suja, Fatihah; Md Zain, Shahrom

    2017-03-01

    Biological aerated filter (BAF), sand filtration (SF), alum and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated as a pre-treatment for reducing the organic and biofouling potential component of an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in the treatment of lake water. The carbohydrate content was mainly responsible for reversible fouling of the UF membrane compared to protein or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. All pre-treatment could effectively reduce these contents and led to improve the UF filterability. Both BAF and SF markedly led to improvement in flux than coagulation processes, and alum gave greater flux than M. oleifera. This was attributed to the effective removal and/or breakdown of high molecular weight (MW) organics by biofilters. BAF led to greater improvement in flux than SF, due to greater breakdown of high MW organics, and this was also confirmed by the attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Coagulation processes were ineffective in removing biofouling potential components, whereas both biofilters were very effective as shown by the reduction of low MW organics, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon and assimilable organic carbon contents. This study demonstrated the potential of biological pre-treatments for reducing organic and biofouling potential component and thus improving flux for the UF of lake water treatment.

  19. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse waste (SHW): influence of heat and pressure pre-treatment in biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuetos, M J; Gómez, X; Otero, M; Morán, A

    2010-10-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (34+/-1 degrees C) of pre-treated (for 20 min at 133 degrees C, >3 bar) slaughterhouse waste and its co-digestion with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) have been assessed. Semi-continuously-fed digesters worked with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 36 d and organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2 and 2.6 kg VS(feed)/m(3)d for digestion and co-digestion, respectively, with a previous acclimatization period in all cases. It was not possible to carry out an efficient treatment of hygienized waste, even less so when OFMSW was added as co-substrate. These digesters presented volatile fatty acids (VFA), long chain fatty acids (LCFA) and fats accumulation, leading to instability and inhibition of the degradation process. The aim of applying a heat and pressure pre-treatment to promote splitting of complex lipids and nitrogen-rich waste into simpler and more biodegradable constituents and to enhance biogas production was not successful. These results indicate that the temperature and the high pressure of the pre-treatment applied favoured the formation of compounds that are refractory to anaerobic digestion. The pre-treated slaughterhouse wastes and the final products of these systems were analyzed by FTIR and TGA. These tools verified the existence of complex nitrogen-containing polymers in the final effluents, confirming the formation of refractory compounds during pre-treatment. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  1. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  2. Recent developments in sample preparation and data pre-treatment in metabonomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Song, Yi peng; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-01

    Metabonomics is a powerful approach for biomarker discovery and an effective tool for pinpointing endpoint metabolic effects of external stimuli, such as pathogens and disease development. Due to its wide applications, metabonomics is required to deal with various biological samples of different properties. Hence sample preparation and corresponding data pre-treatment become important factors in ensuring validity of an investigation. In this review, we summarize some recent developments in metabonomics sample preparation and data-pretreatment procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of pre-treatments for inhibiting bromate formation during ozonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Maria; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    This study compared several pre-treatment methods for inhibiting BrO3- formation during ozonation of tap water, from the DTU campus, including H2O2 addition (perozone), pH-depression, NH4+ and Cl2/NH4+ addition. At the same time, the inhibition of atrazine and carbamazepine removal was evaluated...... close to the 10 μg/L limit, however atrazine removal did not exceed 75%. Carbamazepine was completely removed under all the tested experimental conditions with the 3.5 mg/L O3 dose....

  4. Effect of pre-treatments on the germination of jasmin box (Phillyrea latifolia) seeds in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Spyroglou, Gavriil; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    The major problem in seedlings production of jasmin box (Phillyrea latifolia) is the poor and irregular germination due to seed dormancy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate methods of seed pre-treatments to increase germination. The effect of different solutions of KOH and NaOH, wood ash lye, GA3 and cold or warm stratification on germination were evaluated. Sets of four replicates of 25 seeds were soaked for 24 hours in KOH and NaOH solutions of 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2 %, in wood a...

  5. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  6. High quality data: An evaluation of AIM data quality and data quality procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of every monitoring program is to collect high-quality data which can then be used to provide information to decision makers. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) program is one such data set which provides rangeland status, condition, and trend in...

  7. High-picture quality industrial CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Takao; Nishide, Akihiko; Fujii, Masashi.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial X-ray-CT-scanners, which provide cross-sectional images of a tested sample without destroying it, are attracting attention as a new nondestructive inspection device. In 1982, Toshiba commenced the development of industrial CT scanners, and introduced the 'TOSCANER' -3000 and-4000 series. Now, the state of the art 'TOSCANER'-20000 series of CT systems has been developed incorporating the latest computer tomography and image processing technology, such as the T9506 image processor. One of the advantages of this system is its applicability to a wide range of X-ray energy . The 'TOSCANER'-20000 series can be utilized for inspecting castings and other materials with relatively low-transparency to X-rays, as well as ceramics, composite materials and other materials with high X-ray transparency. A further feature of the new system is its high-picture quality, with a high-spatial resolution resulting from a pixel size of 0.2x0.2(mm). (author)

  8. [Quality management is associated with high quality services in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Hassert; Riis, Allan; Mainz, Jan; Jensen, Anne-Louise Degn

    2013-12-09

    In these years, quality management has been the focus in order to meet high quality services for the patients in Danish health care. This article provides information on quality management and quality improvement and it evaluates its effectiveness in achieving better organizational structures, processes and results in Danish health-care organizations. Our findings generally support that quality management is associated with high quality services in health care.

  9. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  10. High Quality Data for Grid Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Draxl, Caroline; Sengupta, Manajit; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-01-22

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. The existing electric grid infrastructure in the US in particular poses significant limitations on wind power expansion. In this presentation we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets are presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. The need for high-resolution weather data pushes modeling towards finer scales and closer synchronization. We also present how we anticipate such datasets developing in the future, their benefits, and the challenges with using and disseminating such large amounts of data.

  11. Social Pre-treatment Modulates Attention Allocation to Transient and Stable Object Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Oláh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that ostensive-communicative signals in social learning situations enable observers to focus their attention on the intrinsic features of an object (e.g. color at the expense of ignoring transient object properties (e.g. location. Here we investigated whether off-line social cues, presented as social primes, have the same power to modulate attention allocation to stable and transient object properties as on-line ostensive-communicative cues. The first part of the experiment consisted of a pre-treatment phase, where adult male participants either received intensive social stimulation or were asked to perform non-social actions. Then, they participated in a change detection test, where they watched pairs of pictures depicting an array of five objects. On the second picture, a change occurred compared to the first picture. One object changed either its location (moving forward or backward or was replaced by another object, and participants were required to indicate where the change had happened. We found that participants detected the change more successfully if it had happened in the location of the object; however, this difference was reduced following a socially intense pre-treatment phase. The results are discussed in relation to the claims of the natural pedagogy theory.

  12. The economic pre-treatment of coal mine drainage water with caustic and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, B H; Nador, L; Addleman, S; Jeston, L

    2017-09-01

    Coal mine drainage waters are low in pH with varying amounts of iron and manganese and are generally brackish. The Austar Coal Mine in NSW, Australia, sought alternatives to their current lime dosing as the pre-treatment before the downstream reverse osmosis plant. Undesirable operating aspects of the current system include manganese and gypsum scaling/fouling, the need for anti-scalants and reduced water recovery. Thirteen processes for acid mine drainage were initially considered. The preferred process of caustic and ozone for Mn(II) oxidation was pilot tested at up to 0.74 kL/hr at the mine site. Under proper conditions and no aeration, about 81 per cent of the Fe could be removed (initially at 156 mg/L) as green rust. Supplemental aeration followed first-order kinetics and allowed 99.9 per cent Fe(II) oxidation and removal but only with a hydraulic residence time of about 47 minutes. The addition of supplemental Cu catalyst improved Fe removal. Ozone applied after caustic was effective in stoichiometrically oxidising recalcitrant Mn(II) and any remaining Fe(II). Control of the ozonation was achieved using the oxidation reduction potential during oxidation of the Mn(II) species. The use of caustic, followed by ozone, proved economically comparable to the current lime pre-treatment.

  13. Impact analysis of different chemical pre-treatments on colour of apple discs during drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Lukinac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to compare colour changes of chemically pre-treated dried apple discs. Changes were observed by chromameter in L*a*b* colour model by using Minolta chromameter CR-400 and by image analysis system in RGB colour model. Apple discs variety "Gold Rush" were pre-treated and dried in laboratory tray drier at drying temperature 70 °C and at airflow velocity of 1.5 ms-1. Different chemical pre-treatments were applied on apple discs (dipping in 0.5% ascorbic acid solution; 0.3% L–cysteine solution; 0.1% 4–hexyl resorcinol solution and 1% sodium metabisulphite solution. Mean values of colour parameters, colour changes and correlation coefficients for apple discs were calculated for both colour models. The analysis showed statistically significant influence of pre-treatment method on total colour changes for both chosen colour models of dried apples. Calculated correlation coefficient between colour changes for used models was found to be 0.894. According to colour characteristics the best results were achieved when samples were pre-treated with 0.5% ascorbic acid solution. According to calculated results it was found that image analysis method as well as colorimetric method can be used to observe the colour changes on dried apple discs.

  14. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment of thermomechanical pulp on hydrogen peroxide bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, E.; Charles, A.; Daneault, C.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatments of softwood TMP had been carried to evaluate its impact on the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide bleaching. The trials were performed after a factorial design of experiment using frequency, power and time as variables. The experiments were conducted in an ultrasonic bath and then bleached with hydrogen peroxide. Measurements such as brightness, L*A*B* color system coordinate, residual hydrogen peroxide and metal content were evaluated on bleached pulp. The results indicate that the effect of ultrasonic treatment on brightness was dependent on the ultrasound frequency used; the brightness increased slightly at 68 kHz and decreased at 40 and 170 kHz. These results were correlated to the ultrasound effect on the generation of transition metals (copper, iron and manganese) which are responsible for catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The influence of metal interference was minimized by using a chelating agent such as diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). With the results obtained in this study we have identified a set of option conditions, e.g. 1000 W, 40 kHz, 1.5 % consistency and 0.2% addition of DTPA prior to the bleaching stage (after ultrasonic pre-treatment) who improve brightness by 2.5 %ISO.

  15. Is Inconsistent Pre-treatment Bedtime Related to CPAP Non-Adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Amy M.; King, Tonya S.; Sawyer, Douglas A.; Rizzo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Lack of adherence to continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) limits the effectiveness of treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that an irregular bedtime would be negatively related to regular use of CPAP treatment. If so, modifying bedtime schedule may address the persistent problem of inconsistent CPAP use in adults with OSA. In a prospective longitudinal study, we examined whether inconsistent self-reported bedtime before initiation of CPAP treatment, operationalized as bedtime variability, was (1) different among those adherent (≥ 4 hours per night) and non-adherent to CPAP treatment at one week and one month; and/or (2) was related to one-week and one-month CPAP use when other variables were accounted for. Consecutively-recruited newly-diagnosed OSA adults (N=79) completed sleep diaries prior to CPAP treatment. One-week and one-month objective CPAP use data were collected. Pre-treatment bedtime variability was different among CPAP non-adherers and adherers at one month and was a significant predictor of non-adherence at one month in multivariate analyses. The odds of one-month CPAP non-adherence were 3.5 times greater in those whose pre-treatment bedtimes varied by >75 minutes. Addressing sleep schedule prior to CPAP initiation may be an opportunity to improve CPAP adherence. PMID:25353159

  16. Characterization of lignin during oxidative and hydrothermal pre-treatment processes of wheat straw and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaparaju, Prasad; Felby, Claus

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize and map changes in lignin during hydrothermal and wet explosion pre-treatments of wheat straw and corn stover. Chemical composition, microscopic (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) and spectroscopic (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ATR-FTIR) analyses were performed. Results showed that both pre-treatments improved the cellulose and lignin content with substantial removal of hemicellulose in the pre-treated biomasses. These values were slightly higher for hydrothermal compared to wet explosion pre-treatment. ATR-FTIR analyses also confirmed these results. Microscopic analysis showed that pre-treatments affected the biomass by partial difibration. Lignin deposition on the surface of the hydrothermally pre-treated fibre was very distinct while severe loss of fibril integrity was noticed with wet exploded fibre. The present study thus revealed that the lignin cannot be removed by the studied pre-treatments. However, both pre-treatments improved the accessibility of the biomass towards enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  18. One year follow-up reveals no difference in quality of life between high dose and conventional dose radiation: a quality of life assessment of RTOG 94-05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachnic, L.A.; Scott, C.; Ginsberg, R.; Pisansky, T.; Martenson, J.; Komaki, R.; Okawara, G.; Rosenthal, S.; Kelsen, D.; Minsky, B.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated and compared the quality of life (QOL) outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer receiving combined modality therapy (CMT) with conventional dose radiation (RT) vs. high dose RT as used in RTOG study 94-05. Materials and Methods: Between June 12, 1995 and July 1, 1999, 236 patients with cT1-4NxM0 esophageal cancers were randomized on RTOG 94-05 to conventional dose (CD) CMT: 50.4 Gy RT + concurrent 5-FU and cisplatin administered on weeks 1 and 5 and repeated 4 weeks post RT vs. high dose (HD) CMT: 64.8 Gy RT + the same chemotherapy. QOL was assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) - Head and Neck (version 2). This questionnaire was administered to patients pre-treatment, post-treatment, at 8 months from the start of CMT, at 1 year and at 6-month intervals to year 5. Results: Of 209 eligible protocol patients, 169 (81%) participated in the pre-treatment QOL component of RTOG 94-05 (83 in the HD arm and 86 in the CD arm). The principle reason for non-participation was institutional error. The distribution of pre-treatment characteristics by participation in QOL assessment was similar in both treatment arms. African-Americans, patients with ≥ 10% weight loss, and patients with low performance status were significantly less likely to complete QOL forms (p=0.04, p=0.01 and p=0.004 respectively). Baseline QOL parameters were similar in the two treatment arms. Pulmonary symptoms were the most significant pre-treatment dysfunction reported. Female gender and ≥10% pre-treatment weight loss correlated with pre-treatment total QOL scores. Women reported lower overall QOL as well as worse physical and emotional well-being in the HD arm as compared to the CD arm (p=0.07, p=0.01 and p=0.03 respectively). Patients with ≥10% weight loss reported decreased QOL in nearly all domains in both treatment groups, although more pronounced in the 64.8 Gy arm. Treatment arm assignment, age, performance status, tumor size and

  19. Impact of granular filtration on ultrafiltration membrane performance as pre-treatment to seawater desalination in presence of algal blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour-Eddine Sabiri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate fouling of the ultrafiltration (UF membrane and improve permeate quality, we coupled granular filters (GF with UF membrane as a pre-treatment for reconstituted seawater in the presence of algal bloom. Mono and bilayer granular filtrations were led at a mean velocity of 10 m h−1 over a 7-hour period. Both GF gave the same algal cell retention rate (∼63% after 7 hours of filtration. Turbidity reduction rate was 50% for the monolayer filter and 75% for the bilayer filter. Resulting organic matter removal rate was 10% for the monolayer filter and 35% for the bilayer filter. Dissolved organic carbon removal was low (20% with the bilayer filter and non-existent with the monolayer filter. GF-coupled UF reduced humic acids in the permeate (20% compared with UF alone. Peak pressure of 3 bars was reached at the end of 30 minutes of UF in both direct UF or UF after monolayer GF. The filtrate from the bilayer GF enables UF over a longer period (7 hours.

  20. Diazepam e nordiazepam em plasma: métodos de extração líquido-líquido e em fase sólida no pré-tratamento de amostras para análise cromatográfica em fase líquida Diazepam and nordiazepam in plasma: liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction in sample pre-treatment for high performance liquid chromatography analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Figueiredo Freire

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of diazepam (DZP and its active metabolite nordiazepam (NDZP in plasma is commonly performed in clinical medicine to ensure proper therapeutic effects while minimizing the incidence of toxicity. This study aimed to optimize analytical parameters and compare two pre-treatment techniques, liquid-liquid (LLE and solid phase extraction (SPE, as well as liquid chromatographic conditions to analyze simultaneously DZP and NDZP in plasma from 20 patients treated with a daily dose of 10 mg. Both techniques showed to be well in line with the international criteria for analytical validation, which permitted to quantify DZP (66.2 - 1148.6 ng mL-1 and NDZP (138.5 - 808.6 ng mL -1 in all samples. The correlation coefficients between SPE and LLE were respectively 0.9729 for DZP and 0.9643 for NDZP.

  1. Effect of Pre-treatment method on the Hydrolysis of Corn cob and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawole Ogirima Olanipekun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient pre-treatment has been found to be crucial step before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into fuels or chemicals. As a result various pretreatment methods have been developed to facilitate these bio-conversion processes, and this research focuses on the effect of two pretreatment methods such as liquid hot water and sulphuric acid pre-treatment to remove some of the components like lignin and hemicellulose which form structural barrier to enzymatic accessibility of cellulose in corn cobs and sawdust. The cellulosic materials were first dried in oven at 65 oC for 24 hours,  and using   solid to liquid ratio of 1:10, the two methods were carried out at resident times ranging from 10 - 40 minutes. The liquid hot water method involved heating the cellulosic materials in water at 120 oC and 1atmosphere in a pressure vessel, and for the second method, the dried cellulosic materials were refluxed in 5 % sulphuric acid at a temperature of 120 oC. Pretreated samples were filtered and liquid fractions were analyzed for the presence of reducing sugars, while solid residues were dried in the oven and weighed to measure the mass lost during pretreatment as a pointer to lignin breakdown. It was observed that the mass lost increased with time for both pretreatment methods, but the liquid hot water pretreatment gave higher lignin and hemicellulose removal when compared to the sulphuric acid pre-treatment. The pretreated materials were hydrolyzed with two combinations of commercial enzymes namely cellulase/ hemicellulase and cellulase/β glucosidase. The reducing sugar was measured using Dinitrosalycilic acid (DNSA method and the sugar yields from corn cobs were higher than that of sawdust when subjected to similar process conditions, and the enzyme combination of cellulase/glucosidase gave higher yields of reducing sugars.  A model equation which describes the hydrolysis process was developed from first principles and the experimental data

  2. Ensuring High-Quality Learning for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Elsa M.

    2018-01-01

    The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) has embarked on a sustained program to enhance the quality of student learning on campuses, while also supporting AAC&U members' efforts to bring liberal education to all sectors of society. This commitment to quality and equity in service to democracy forms the basis for…

  3. The importance of pre-treatment of spent hydrotreating catalysts on metals recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Luiz de Souza Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a three-step pre-treatment route for processing spent commercial NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts. Extraction of soluble coke with n-hexane and/or leaching of foulant elements with oxalic acid were performed before burning insoluble coke under air. Oxidized catalysts were leached with 9 mol L-1 sulfuric acid. Iron was the only foulant element partially leached by oxalic acid. The amount of insoluble matter in sulfuric acid was drastically reduced when iron and/or soluble coke were previously removed. Losses of active phase metals (Ni, Mo during leaching with oxalic acid were compensated by the increase of their recovery in the sulfuric acid leachate.

  4. Functionality of colinergic systems in rats pre-treatment with triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, O.M.S. de.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of experimental hiperthyroidism in the colinergic activity, rats were injected daily, during 1, 5, 19 or 20 days, with triiodothyronine (0 to 100 ug/kg, s.c.). The hiperthyroidism was evaluated by the decrease of the body weight and the increase of the body temperature and serum hormonal levels (T3). After the administration of the cholinergic agonists (pilocarpine and oxotremorine) or a anticholinesterase drug (eserine), the cholinergic behavioural and pharmacologic activity was evaluated recording the rectal temperature, locomotor activity, catalepsy, tremor and cromodacryorrhea. The results suggests that T3 pre-treatment may induce in rats changes in the functionality of the central cholinergic post-sinaptic receptors. However, the administration of this hormone does not seem to induce any alterations in the periferic cholinergic receptors, implicated in cromodacryorrhea effect. (author)

  5. Arsenic adsorption in pre-treatment natural zeolite with magnesium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Z, F.; Valenzuela G, J. L.; Aguayo S, S.; Meza F, D.

    2009-01-01

    A methodology was developed to modify a natural zeolite (chabazite) with magnesium oxide in order to remove arsenic (As +5 ) from water for human consumption. It is proposed a magnesium oxide while regarded as an efficient adsorbent for removing metals in water. X-ray diffraction analyses show significant changes in the chabazite due to the presence of oxides and amorphous hydroxides incorporated during the pre-treatment. Experimental design results show an efficiency greater than 90% of As +5 adsorbed in five minutes. The results indicate that the most significant variables affecting the adsorption of As +5 are the initial concentration of As and the solid/liquid ratio. Experimental data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm with a 20.17 mg/g adsorption capability. (Author)

  6. The importance of pre-treatment of spent hydrotreating catalysts on metals recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Alexandre Luiz de Souza; Silva, Cristiano Nunes da; Afonso, Julio Carlos, E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Mantovano, Jose Luiz [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN/IEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Materiais Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This work describes a three-step pre-treatment route for processing spent commercial Ni Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Extraction of soluble coke with n-hexane and/or leaching of foulant elements with oxalic acid were performed before burning insoluble coke under air. Oxidized catalysts were leached with 9 mol L{sup -1} sulfuric acid. Iron was the only foulant element partially leached by oxalic acid. The amount of insoluble matter in sulfuric acid was drastically reduced when iron and/or soluble coke were previously removed. Losses of active phase metals (Ni, Mo) during leaching with oxalic acid were compensated by the increase of their recovery in the sulfuric acid leachate. (author)

  7. A review on hydrothermal pre-treatment technologies and environmental profiles of algal biomass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavish; Guo, Miao; Izadpanah, Arash; Shah, Nilay; Hellgardt, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The need for efficient and clean biomass conversion technologies has propelled Hydrothermal (HT) processing as a promising treatment option for biofuel production. This manuscript discussed its application for pre-treatment of microalgae biomass to solid (biochar), liquid (biocrude and biodiesel) and gaseous (hydrogen and methane) products via Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC), Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Supercritical Water Gasification (SCWG) as well as the utility of HT water as an extraction medium and HT Hydrotreatment (HDT) of algal biocrude. In addition, the Solar Energy Retained in Fuel (SERF) using HT technologies is calculated and compared with benchmark biofuel. Lastly, the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) discusses the limitation of the current state of art as well as introduction to new potential input categories to obtain a detailed environmental profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhanced methane production from pig slurry with pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2018-02-01

    Intensive amount of manure produced in pig breeding sectors represents negative impact on the environment and requires optimal management. Anaerobic digestion as a well-known manure management process was optimized in this experimental study by pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment. The effect of PEF on methane production was investigated at three different intensities (15, 30 and 50 kWh/m 3 ). The results indicate that the methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was improved by continuous escalation of applied intensity, up to 50 kWh/m 3 . In comparison with untreated slurry, methane production and COD removal were increased up to 58% and 44%, respectively.

  9. Correlation between pre-treatment quasispecies complexity and treatment outcome in chronic HCV genotype 3a.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moreau, Isabelle

    2012-02-03

    Pre-treatment HCV quasispecies complexity and diversity may predict response to interferon based anti-viral therapy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively (1) examine temporal changes in quasispecies prior to the start of therapy and (2) investigate extensively quasispecies evolution in a group of 10 chronically infected patients with genotype 3a, treated with pegylated alpha2a-Interferon and ribavirin. The degree of sequence heterogeneity within the hypervariable region 1 was assessed by analyzing 20-30 individual clones in serial serum samples. Genetic parameters, including amino acid Shannon entropy, Hamming distance and genetic distance were calculated for each sample. Treatment outcome was divided into (1) sustained virological responders (SVR) and (2) treatment failure (TF). Our results indicate, (1) quasispecies complexity and diversity are lower in the SVR group, (2) quasispecies vary temporally and (3) genetic heterogeneity at baseline can be use to predict treatment outcome. We discuss the results from the perspective of replicative homeostasis.

  10. Pre-treatment of desalination feed seawater by Jordanian Tripoli, Pozzolana and Feldspar: batch experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIMAN E. AL-RAWAJFEH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, composites of layered double hydroxide (LDH with three Jordanian natural raw materials: Tripoli (T, Pozzolana (P and Feldspar (F were prepared by co-precipitation and have been used for feed seawater pre-treatment. The data reveals that percent adsorption decreased with increase in initial concentration, but the actual amount of adsorbed ions per unit mass of LDH/T-P-F increased with increase in metal ion concentrations. The values of ΔG were negative and within 21 to 26 kJ/mol, while the values of and ΔS were positive, with ΔH within the range of 0.1 to 25 kJ/mol. The values of ΔH, ΔS and ΔG indicate the favorability of physisorption and show that the LDH/T-P-F composites have a considerable potential as adsorbents for the removal of ions from seawater.

  11. Energy-positive sewage sludge pre-treatment with a novel ultrasonic flatbed reactor at low energy input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Thomas; Bandelin, Jochen; Musch, Alexandra; Drewes, Jörg E; Koch, Konrad

    2018-05-20

    The performance of a novel ultrasonic flatbed reactor for sewage sludge pre-treatment was assessed for three different waste activated sludges. The study systematically investigated the impact of specific energy input (200 - 3,000 kJ/kg TS ) on the degree of disintegration (DD COD , i.e. ratio between ultrasonically and maximum chemically solubilized COD) and methane production enhancement. Relationship between DD COD and energy input was linear, for all sludges tested. Methane yields were significantly increased for both low (200 kJ/kg TS ) and high (2,000 - 3,000 kJ/kg TS ) energy inputs, while intermediate inputs (400 - 1,000 kJ/kg TS ) showed no significant improvement. High inputs additionally accelerated reaction kinetics, but were limited to similar gains as low inputs (max. 12%), despite the considerably higher DD COD values. Energy balance was only positive for 200 kJ/kg TS -treatments, with a maximum energy recovery of 122%. Results suggest that floc deagglomeration rather than cell lysis (DD COD =1% - 5% at 200 kJ/kg TS ) is the key principle of energy-positive sludge sonication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Essential pre-treatment imaging examinations in patients with endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Mari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no reports discussing which imaging procedures are truly necessary before treatment of endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer (eEGC. The aim of this pilot study was to show which imaging examinations are essential to select indicated treatment or appropriate strategy in patients with eEGC. Methods In 140 consecutive patients (95 men, 45 women; age, 66.4 +/- 11.3 years [mean +/- standard deviation], range, 33-90 with eEGC which were diagnosed during two years, the pre-treatment results of ultrasonography (US and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT of the abdomen, barium enema (BE and chest radiography (CR were retrospectively reviewed. Useful findings that might affect indication or strategy were evaluated. Results US demonstrated useful findings in 13 of 140 patients (9.3%: biliary tract stones (n = 11 and other malignant tumors (n = 2. Only one useful finding was demonstrated on CT (pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous tumor but not on US (0.7%; 95% confidential interval [CI], 2.1%. BE demonstrated colorectal carcinomas in six patients and polyps in 10 patients, altering treatment strategy (11.4%; 95%CI, 6.1-16.7%. Of these, only two colorectal carcinomas were detected on CT. CR showed three relevant findings (2.1%: pulmonary carcinoma (n = 1 and cardiomegaly (n = 2. Seventy-nine patients (56% were treated surgically and 56 patients were treated by endoscopic intervention. The remaining five patients received no treatment due to various reasons. Conclusions US, BE and CR may be essential as pre-treatment imaging examinations because they occasionally detect findings which affect treatment indication and strategy, although abdominal contrast-enhanced CT rarely provide additional information.

  13. A Conversation on Data Mining Strategies in LC-MS Untargeted Metabolomics: Pre-Processing and Pre-Treatment Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Tugizimana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolomic studies generate information-rich, high-dimensional, and complex datasets that remain challenging to handle and fully exploit. Despite the remarkable progress in the development of tools and algorithms, the “exhaustive” extraction of information from these metabolomic datasets is still a non-trivial undertaking. A conversation on data mining strategies for a maximal information extraction from metabolomic data is needed. Using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic dataset, this study explored the influence of collection parameters in the data pre-processing step, scaling and data transformation on the statistical models generated, and feature selection, thereafter. Data obtained in positive mode generated from a LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic study (sorghum plants responding dynamically to infection by a fungal pathogen were used. Raw data were pre-processed with MarkerLynxTM software (Waters Corporation, Manchester, UK. Here, two parameters were varied: the intensity threshold (50–100 counts and the mass tolerance (0.005–0.01 Da. After the pre-processing, the datasets were imported into SIMCA (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden for more data cleaning and statistical modeling. In addition, different scaling (unit variance, Pareto, etc. and data transformation (log and power methods were explored. The results showed that the pre-processing parameters (or algorithms influence the output dataset with regard to the number of defined features. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the pre-treatment of data prior to statistical modeling affects the subspace approximation outcome: e.g., the amount of variation in X-data that the model can explain and predict. The pre-processing and pre-treatment steps subsequently influence the number of statistically significant extracted/selected features (variables. Thus, as informed by the results, to maximize the value of untargeted metabolomic data

  14. CH4 and N2O from mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting systems following in-vessel pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, A.M.; Frederickson, J.; Dise, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are included in the six greenhouse gases listed in the Kyoto protocol that require emission reduction. To meet reduced emission targets, governments need to first quantify their contribution to global warming. Composting has been identified as an important source of CH 4 and N 2 O. With increasing divergence of biodegradable waste from landfill into the composting sector, it is important to quantify emissions of CH 4 and N 2 O from all forms of composting and from all stages. This study focuses on the final phase of a two stage composting process and compares the generation and emission of CH 4 and N 2 O associated with two differing composting methods: mechanically turned windrow and vermicomposting. The first stage was in-vessel pre-treatment. Source-segregated household waste was first pre-composted for seven days using an in-vessel system. The second stage of composting involved forming half of the pre-composted material into a windrow and applying half to vermicomposting beds. The duration of this stage was 85 days and CH 4 and N 2 O emissions were monitored throughout for both systems. Waste samples were regularly subjected to respirometry analysis and both processes were found to be equally effective at stabilising the organic matter content. The mechanically turned windrow system was characterised by emissions of CH 4 and to a much lesser extent N 2 O. However, the vermicomposting system emitted significant fluxes of N 2 O and only trace amounts of CH 4 . In-vessel pre-treatment removed considerable amounts of available C and N prior to the second stage of composting. This had the effect of reducing emissions of CH 4 and N 2 O from the second stage compared to emissions from fresh waste found in other studies. The characteristics of each of the two composting processes are discussed in detail. Very different mechanisms for emission of CH 4 and N 2 O are proposed for each system. For the windrow system, development

  15. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from co-digestion of wastewater sludges and agricultural wastes: Comparison with microwave pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylin Alagöz, B; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonication and microwave sludge disintegration/pre-treatment techniques on the anaerobic co-digestion efficiency of wastewater sludges with olive and grape pomaces. The effects of both co-digestion and sludge pre-treatment techniques were evaluated in terms of the organic removal efficiency and the biogas production. The "co-digestion" of wastewater sludge with both types of pomaces was revealed to be a much more efficient way for the biogas production compared to the single (mono) sludge digestion. The ultrasonication and microwave pre-treatments applied to the sludge samples caused to a further increase in biogas and methane yields. Based on applied specific energies, ultrasonication pre-treatment was found much more effective than microwave irradiation. The specific energy applied in microwave pre-treatment (87,000kj/kgTS) was almost 9 times higher than that of used in ultrasonication (10,000kj/kgTS), resulting only 10-15% increases in biogas/methane yield. Co-digestion of winery and olive industry residues with pre-treated wastewater sludges appears to be a suitable technique for waste management and energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J; Manter, Daniel K

    2014-10-01

    Furfural is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. This study used a naturally occurring (not GMO) biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model fermentation broth. Pre-treatment involved inoculating and incubating the fermentation broth with strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides. The Leuconostoc strains converted furfural to furfuryl alcohol without consuming large amounts of dextrose in the process. Coupling this pre-treatment to ethanolic fermentation reduced furfural in the broth and improved growth, dextrose uptake and ethanol formation. Pre-treatment permitted ethanol formation in the presence of 5.2 g L(-1) furfural, which was otherwise inhibitive. The pre-treatment and presence of the Leuconostoc strains in the fermentation broth did not interfere with Z. mobilis ethanolic fermentation or the amounts of ethanol produced. The method suggests a possible technique for reducing the effect that furfural has on the production of ethanol for use as a biofuel. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben; Pratt, Steven; Schenk, Peer M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  18. Comparative effects of biomass pre-treatments for direct and indirect transesterification to enhance microalgal lipid recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough eGhasemi Naghdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane-ethanol (3:1. Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171% under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  19. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Pratt, Steven [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  20. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown

  1. Studies on the influence of surface pre-treatments on electroless copper coating of boron carbide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, J.P.; Resmi, V.G.; Rajan, T.P.D.; Pavithran, C.; Pai, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Boron carbide is one of the hard ceramic particles which find application as structural materials and neutron shielding material due to its high neutron capture cross section. Copper coating on boron carbide particle is essential for the synthesis of metal-ceramic composites with enhanced sinterability and dispersibility. Surface characteristics of the substrate and the coating parameters play a foremost role in the formation of effective electroless coating. The effect of surface pre-treatment conditions and pH on electroless copper coating of boron carbide particles has been studied. Surface pre-treatement of B 4 C when compared to acid treated and alkali treated particles were carried out. Uniform copper coating was observed at pH 12 in alkali treated particles when compared to others due to the effective removal of inevitable impurities during the production and processing of commercially available B 4 C. A threshold pH 11 was required for initiation of copper coating on boron carbide particles. The growth pattern of the copper coating also varies depending on the surface conditions from acicular to spherical morphology.

  2. Study of thermal pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse waste by TGA-MS and FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Abalde, Ángela; Gómez, Xiomar; Blanco, Daniel; Cuetos, María José; Fernández, Belén; Flotats, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis coupled to mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to describe the effect of pasteurization as a hygienic pre-treatment of animal by-products over biogas production. Piggery and poultry meat wastes were used as substrates for assessing the anaerobic digestion under batch conditions at mesophilic range. Poultry waste was characterized by high protein and carbohydrate content, while piggery waste presented a major fraction of fat and lower carbohydrate content. Results from anaerobic digestion tests showed a lower methane yield for the pre-treated poultry sample. TGA-MS and FTIR spectroscopy allowed the qualitative identification of recalcitrant nitrogen-containing compounds in the pre-treated poultry sample, produced by Maillard reactions. In the case of piggery waste, the recalcitrant compounds were not detected and its biodegradability test reported higher methane yield and production rates. TGA-MS and FTIR spectroscopy were demonstrated to be useful tools for explaining results obtained by anaerobic biodegradability test and in describing the presence of inhibitory problems.

  3. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.

  4. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810) in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%), more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education), and employed (>70%). The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69%) and crystalline heroin (24%). The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%), crystalline heroin (28%), cannabis (16%), amphetamines (15%), and other drugs (33%). Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men. PMID:22676557

  5. Improved performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMT by N2O plasma pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Min-Han; Zhang Kai; Zhao Sheng-Lei; Wang Chong; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue

    2015-01-01

    The influence of an N 2 O plasma pre-treatment technique on characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) prepared by using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system is presented. After the plasma treatment, the peak transconductance (g m ) increases from 209 mS/mm to 293 mS/mm. Moreover, it is observed that the reverse gate leakage current is lowered by one order of magnitude and the drain current dispersion is improved in the plasma-treated device. From the analysis of frequency-dependent conductance, it can be seen that the trap state density (D T ) and time constant (τ T ) of the N 2 O-treated device are smaller than those of a non-treated device. The results indicate that the N 2 O plasma pre-pretreatment before the gate metal deposition could be a promising approach to enhancing the performance of the device. (paper)

  6. Effect of storage temperature and osmotic pre-treatment with alternative solutes on the shelf-life of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofania N. Tsironi

    2017-01-01

    Osmotic pre-treatment led to significant shelf-life extension of fillets, in terms of microbial growth, chemical changes and organoleptic deterioration. The pre-treatment with the alternative solutes led to depression of the freezing point (−1.8, −2.6, −3.2 and −3.5 °C for the untreated samples and the osmotically pre-treated with HDM, HDM + treh and HDM + gluc, respectively. TVB-N values were higher in untreated samples, followed by osmotically treated fillets, mainly at higher storage temperatures (i.e. 10 and 15 °C. Based on the mathematical models for sensory evaluation scoring, the shelf-life was 12, 19, 22 and 22 days at 0 °C for untreated and osmotically pre-treated with HDM, HDM + treh and HDM + gluc fish slices, respectively, while the respective values at −3 °C were 21, 35, 38 and 38 days. The alternative solutes had no significant effect on the quality and shelf-life of pre-treated fish fillet during storage at refrigerated conditions.

  7. Analysis of high-quality modes in open chaotic microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, W.; Yamilov, A.; Cao, H.

    2005-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the high-quality modes in two-dimensional dielectric stadium microcavities. Although the classical ray mechanics is fully chaotic in a stadium billiard, all of the high-quality modes show a 'strong scar' around unstable periodic orbits. When the deformation (ratio of the length of the straight segments over the diameter of the half circles) is small, the high-quality modes correspond to whispering-gallery-type trajectories and their quality factors decrease monotonically with increasing deformation. At large deformation, each high-quality mode is associated with multiple unstable periodic orbits. Its quality factor changes nonmonotonically with the deformation, and there exists an optimal deformation for each mode at which its quality factor reaches a local maximum. This unusual behavior is attributed to the interference of waves propagating along different constituent orbits that could minimize light leakage out of the cavity

  8. High quality steel casting for energy technics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, F.; Koefler, G.

    1982-01-01

    The casting of several chromium-molybdenum steels for steam and hydraulic turbines is discussed. Non-destructive testing of the castings is performed demonstrating the safety for use in nuclear technology. The effect of metallurgical parameters on steel casting quality, the heat treatment, and the effect of construction design on costs for fettling and repair weldings are considered. (Auth.)

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis from ophthalmic products: can pre-treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate increase patch test sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Monica; Virgili, Annarosa

    2005-05-01

    In patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis because of topical ophthalmic medicaments, patch tests performed with patients' own products are often negative. The irritant anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) may alter the stratum corneum and increase antigen penetration. Pre-treatment of the skin with SLS 0.5% for 24 h was performed in the sites of patch tests with patients' own products in 15 selected patients. In patients previously negative to their own products tested with conventional patch tests, SLS pre-treatment showed 6 new relevant positive reactions and induced a stronger positive reaction in 1 patient. SLS pre-treatment could be proposed as an alternative promising method, which may increase sensitivity of patch tests with patients' own products.

  10. Use of principal components analysis (PCA) on estuarine sediment datasets: The effect of data pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.K.; Spencer, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) is a multivariate statistical technique capable of discerning patterns in large environmental datasets. Although widely used, there is disparity in the literature with respect to data pre-treatment prior to PCA. This research examines the influence of commonly reported data pre-treatment methods on PCA outputs, and hence data interpretation, using a typical environmental dataset comprising sediment geochemical data from an estuary in SE England. This study demonstrated that applying the routinely used log (x + 1) transformation skewed the data and masked important trends. Removing outlying samples and correcting for the influence of grain size had the most significant effect on PCA outputs and data interpretation. Reducing the influence of grain size using granulometric normalisation meant that other factors affecting metal variability, including mineralogy, anthropogenic sources and distance along the salinity transect could be identified and interpreted more clearly. - Data pre-treatment can have a significant influence on the outcome of PCA.

  11. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (pcervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benassi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA, an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project. The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste.

  13. Rice Husk Ash to Stabilize Heavy Metals Contained in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash: First Results by Applying New Pre-treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Franchi, Federica; Catina, Daniele; Cioffi, Flavio; Rodella, Nicola; Borgese, Laura; Pasquali, Michela; Depero, Laura E.; Bontempi, Elza

    2015-01-01

    A new technology was recently developed for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash stabilization, based on the employment of all waste and byproduct materials. In particular, the proposed method is based on the use of amorphous silica contained in rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural byproduct material (COSMOS-RICE project). The obtained final inert can be applied in several applications to produce “green composites”. In this work, for the first time, a process for pre-treatment of rice husk, before its use in the stabilization of heavy metals, based on the employment of Instant Pressure Drop technology (DIC) was tested. The aim of this work is to verify the influence of the pre-treatment on the efficiency on heavy metals stabilization in the COSMOS-RICE technology. DIC technique is based on a thermomechanical effect induced by an abrupt transition from high steam pressure to a vacuum, to produce changes in the material. Two different DIC pre-treatments were selected and thermal annealing at different temperatures were performed on rice husk. The resulting RHAs were employed to obtain COSMOS-RICE samples, and the stabilization procedure was tested on the MSWI fly ash. In the frame of this work, some thermal treatments were also realized in O2-limiting conditions, to test the effect of charcoal obtained from RHA on the stabilization procedure. The results of this work show that the application of DIC technology into existing treatment cycles of some waste materials should be investigated in more details to offer the possibility to stabilize and reuse waste. PMID:28793605

  14. Lead isotopic signatures in Antarctic marine sediment cores: A comparison between 1 M HCl partial extraction and HF total digestion pre-treatments for discerning anthropogenic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, A.T.; Snape, I.; Palmer, A.S.; Seen, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive analytical techniques are typically required when dealing with samples from Antarctica as even low concentrations of contaminants can have detrimental environmental effects. Magnetic Sector ICP-MS is an ideal technique for environmental assessment as it offers high sensitivity, multi-element capability and the opportunity to determine isotope ratios. Here we consider the Pb isotope record of five marine sediment cores collected from three sites in the Windmill Islands area of East Antarctica: Brown Bay adjacent to the current Australian station Casey, Wilkes near the abandoned US/Australian Station and McGrady Cove lying midway between the two. Two sediment pre-treatment approaches were considered, namely partial extraction with 1 M HCl and total dissolution involving HF. Lead isotope ratio measurements made following sediment partial extraction provided a more sensitive indication of Pb contamination than either Pb concentrations alone (irrespective of sample pre-treatment method) or isotope ratios made after HF digestion, offering greater opportunity for discrimination between impacted and natural/geogenic samples and sites. Over 90% of the easily extractable Pb from sediments near Casey was anthropogenic in origin, consisting of Pb from major Australian deposits. At Wilkes impact from discarded batteries with a unique isotopic signature was found to be a key source of Pb contamination to the marine environment with ∼ 70-80% of Pb being anthropogenic in origin. The country and source of origin of these batteries remain unknown. Little evidence was found suggesting contamination at Wilkes by Pb originating from the major US source, Missouri. No definitive assessment could be made regarding Pb impact at McGrady Cove as the collected sediment core was of insufficient depth. Although Pb isotope ratio signatures may indicate anthropogenic input, spatial concentration gradients at nearby Brown Bay suggest contamination at McGrady Cove is unlikely. We

  15. Comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment use of selenium in retinal ischemia reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Yazici

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of selenium in rat retinal ischemia reperfusion (IR model and compare pre-treatment and post-treatment use. METHODS: Selenium pre-treatment group (n=8 was treated with intraperitoneal (i.p. selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d and terminated 24h after the IR injury. Selenium post-treatment group (n=8 was treated with i.p. selenium 0.5 mg/kg for 7d after the IR injury with termination at the end of the 7d period. Sham group (n=8 received i.p. saline injections identical to the selenium volume for 7d with termination 24h after the IR injury. Control group (n=8 received no intervention. Main outcome measures were retina superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH, total antioxidant status (TAS, malondialdehyde (MDA, DNA fragmentation levels, and immunohistological apoptosis evaluation. RESULTS: Compared to the Sham group, selenium pre-treatment had a statistical difference in all parameters except SOD. Post-treatment selenium also resulted in statistical differences in all parameters except the MDA levels. When comparing selenium groups, the pre-treatment selenium group had a statistically higher success in reduction of markers of cell damage such as MDA and DNA fragmentation. In contrast, the post-selenium treatment group had resulted in statistically higher levels of GSH. Histologically both selenium groups succeeded to limit retinal thickening and apoptosis. Pre-treatment use was statistically more successful in decreasing apoptosis in ganglion cell layer compared to post-treatment use. CONCLUSION: Selenium was successful in retinal protection in IR injuries. Pre-treatment efficacy was superior in terms of prevention of tissue damage and apoptosis.

  16. Growth of high quality Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy single crystals by the modified vertical Bridgman method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, O.; Tanaka, H.; Echizen, Y.; Kishida, S.

    2004-01-01

    We grew Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O y (Bi-2212) single crystals by the modified vertical Bridgman (VB) method, and investigated their characteristics in order to clarify the optimum growth conditions for obtaining high-quality Bi-2212 single crystals. The Bi-2212 single crystals were grown changing pulling rates or using starting materials after pre-treatments. We found that the superconducting critical temperature (T c ) of the single crystal prepared at a slow growth rate of 0.25 mm/h was about 88 K and that the single crystals were a Bi-2212 single phase. Moreover, the single crystals grown using the starting materials pre-treated in Ar and O 2 atmospheres, had the T c of about 88 and 86 K, respectively. In addition, both of single crystals were Bi-2212 single phase

  17. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70ºC prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, H.N.; Lu, Jingquan

    2005-01-01

    . The present study investigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 degrees C on thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 degrees C enhanced the removal of organic matter...... and the methane production during the subsequent anaerobic digestion step at 55 degrees C. It also greatly contributed to the destruction of pathogens present in primary sludge. Finally it results in enhanced microbial activities of the subsequent anaerobic step suggesting that the same efficiencies in organic...... matter removal and methane recovery could be obtained at lower HRTs....

  18. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre-treatment......, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested......-sized wastewater treatment plants....

  19. The role of pre-treatment MRI in established cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tins, Bernhard; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor; McCall, Iain

    2009-01-01

    Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) often results in functional impairment and premature osteoarthritis despite surgical treatment. Treatment decisions are commonly based on the clinical history and radiographic appearance. This study assesses the pre-treatment features of SCFE and correlates them to the clinical history to: (1) define the underlying pathological mechanisms; (2) correlate the morphological hip abnormalities with the clinical classifications; (3) identify specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that could carry prognostic implications for treatment approach and outcome. Methods: Clinical history and pre- and posttreatment radiographs and pre-treatment MRIs of 14 patients with 15 affected hips were reviewed. Alignment, impingement, fulcrum formation, remodelling, osteopenia, synovitis, joint effusion, bone marrow and soft tissue oedema and status of the physis and the periosteal sleeve were assessed and related to the clinical history, in particular history of trauma, duration of clinical symptoms and ability to bear weight. Results: Bone marrow oedema around the growth plate and joint effusion occurred in all patients. Synovitis occurred in 13/15 patients. 6 patients had a fall before presenting with SCFE. 5/6 had periarticular soft tissue oedema, complete disruption of the physis and partial periosteal sleeve disruption. 9 patients had no fall prior to presentation, physis and periost were intact in 7/9; periarticular oedema was not seen. 14/15 showed evidence of chronic remodelling. Despite an acute clinical history remodelling was present. A fulcrum-like alignment, impingement of the epiphysis on the metaphysis with a small area of physical contact, was seen in 8 patients, 6/8 had a prior fall. There was no case of avascular necrosis. Spontaneous reduction of SCFE occurred in 1 case, the only case without chronic remodelling. With MRI as gold standard radiographs underestimate the severity of SCFE. Conclusion

  20. The role of pre-treatment MRI in established cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tins, Bernhard [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY 10 7 AG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Bernhard.Tins@rjah.nhs.uk; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor; McCall, Iain [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire SY 10 7 AG (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Background: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) often results in functional impairment and premature osteoarthritis despite surgical treatment. Treatment decisions are commonly based on the clinical history and radiographic appearance. This study assesses the pre-treatment features of SCFE and correlates them to the clinical history to: (1) define the underlying pathological mechanisms; (2) correlate the morphological hip abnormalities with the clinical classifications; (3) identify specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that could carry prognostic implications for treatment approach and outcome. Methods: Clinical history and pre- and posttreatment radiographs and pre-treatment MRIs of 14 patients with 15 affected hips were reviewed. Alignment, impingement, fulcrum formation, remodelling, osteopenia, synovitis, joint effusion, bone marrow and soft tissue oedema and status of the physis and the periosteal sleeve were assessed and related to the clinical history, in particular history of trauma, duration of clinical symptoms and ability to bear weight. Results: Bone marrow oedema around the growth plate and joint effusion occurred in all patients. Synovitis occurred in 13/15 patients. 6 patients had a fall before presenting with SCFE. 5/6 had periarticular soft tissue oedema, complete disruption of the physis and partial periosteal sleeve disruption. 9 patients had no fall prior to presentation, physis and periost were intact in 7/9; periarticular oedema was not seen. 14/15 showed evidence of chronic remodelling. Despite an acute clinical history remodelling was present. A fulcrum-like alignment, impingement of the epiphysis on the metaphysis with a small area of physical contact, was seen in 8 patients, 6/8 had a prior fall. There was no case of avascular necrosis. Spontaneous reduction of SCFE occurred in 1 case, the only case without chronic remodelling. With MRI as gold standard radiographs underestimate the severity of SCFE. Conclusion

  1. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  2. Leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste printed circuit boards of mobile phone by iodide lixiviant after supercritical water pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a novel process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs. • The effect of SCWO on the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd in waste PCBs was studied. • SCWO was highly efficient for enhancing the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd. • The optimum leaching parameters for Au, Ag, and Pd in iodine–iodide were studied. - Abstract: Precious metals are the most attractive resources in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones. In this work, an alternative process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process was developed. In the process, the waste PCBs of mobile phones were pre-treated in supercritical water, then a diluted hydrochloric acid leaching (HL) process was used to recovery the Cu, whose leaching efficiency was approximately 100%, finally the resulting residue was subjected to the iodine–iodide leaching process for recovering the Au, Ag, and Pd. Experimental results indicated that SCWO pre-treatment temperature, time, and pressure had significant influence on the Au, Ag, and Pd leaching from (SCWO + HL)-treated waste PCBs. The optimal SCWO pre-treatment conditions were 420 °C and 60 min for Au and Pd, and 410 °C and 30 min for Ag. The optimum dissolution parameters for Au, Pd, and Ag in (SCWO + HL)-treated PCBs with iodine–iodide system were leaching time of 120 min (90 min for Ag), iodine/iodide mole ratio of 1:5 (1:6 for Ag), solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:10 g/mL (1:8 g/mL for Ag), and pH of 9, respectively. It is believed that the process developed in this study is environment friendly for the recovery of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by SCWO pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process

  3. Leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste printed circuit boards of mobile phone by iodide lixiviant after supercritical water pre-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong, E-mail: xiu_chem@hotmail.com [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Qi, Yingying [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We report a novel process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs. • The effect of SCWO on the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd in waste PCBs was studied. • SCWO was highly efficient for enhancing the leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd. • The optimum leaching parameters for Au, Ag, and Pd in iodine–iodide were studied. - Abstract: Precious metals are the most attractive resources in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones. In this work, an alternative process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process was developed. In the process, the waste PCBs of mobile phones were pre-treated in supercritical water, then a diluted hydrochloric acid leaching (HL) process was used to recovery the Cu, whose leaching efficiency was approximately 100%, finally the resulting residue was subjected to the iodine–iodide leaching process for recovering the Au, Ag, and Pd. Experimental results indicated that SCWO pre-treatment temperature, time, and pressure had significant influence on the Au, Ag, and Pd leaching from (SCWO + HL)-treated waste PCBs. The optimal SCWO pre-treatment conditions were 420 °C and 60 min for Au and Pd, and 410 °C and 30 min for Ag. The optimum dissolution parameters for Au, Pd, and Ag in (SCWO + HL)-treated PCBs with iodine–iodide system were leaching time of 120 min (90 min for Ag), iodine/iodide mole ratio of 1:5 (1:6 for Ag), solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:10 g/mL (1:8 g/mL for Ag), and pH of 9, respectively. It is believed that the process developed in this study is environment friendly for the recovery of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by SCWO pre-treatment combined with iodine–iodide leaching process.

  4. Impact of biological activated carbon pre-treatment on the hydrophilic fraction of effluent organic matter for mitigating fouling in microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2017-07-24

    The hydrophilic (HPI) fraction of effluent organic matter, which has protein and carbohydrate contents, has a high propensity to foul low-pressure membranes. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration was examined as a pre-treatment for reducing the fouling of a microfiltration (MF) membrane (0.1 µm PVDF) by the HPI organic fraction extracted from a biologically treated secondary effluent (BTSE). Although the BAC removed less dissolved organic carbon, carbohydrate and protein from the HPI fraction than the granular activated carbon treatment which was used for comparison, it led to better improvement in permeate flux. This was shown to be due to the removal/breakdown of the HPI fraction resulting in less deposition of these organics on the membrane, many components of which are high molecular weight biopolymers (such as protein and carbohydrate molecules) through biodegradation and adsorption of those molecules on the biofilm and activated carbon. This study established the potential of BAC pre-treatment for reducing the HPI fouling of the membrane and thus improving the performance for the MF of BTSE for water reclamation.

  5. REMOVE AND RELEASE OF NUTRIENTS AFTER HYBRID PRE-TREATMENT OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Machnicka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in wastewater treatment technologies is the formation of foam/scum on the surface of bioreactors. The foam elimination/destruction can be carried out by various methods among which disintegration is included. Hybrid disintegration (chemical decomposition and hydrodynamic cavitation of the foam microorganisms results in phosphates, ammonium nitrogen, magnesium and potassium transferred from the foam solids into the liquid phase. Application of both methods as a hybrid pre-treatment process caused in an increased concentration of phosphates of about 677 mg PO43- L-1, ammonium nitrogen about 41 mg N-NH4+ L-1. The concentration of Mg2+ and K+ in the solution increased from 6.2 to 31.1 mg Mg2+ L-1 and from 22.4 to 102.0 mg K+ L-1, respectively. The confirmation of physicochemical changes and release of cellular matter as a result of cellular lysis (hybrid disintegration was IR analysis. It was demonstrated that the disintegration of foam permits removal of a part of nutrients in the form of struvite.

  6. Impact of the environmental conditions and substrate pre-treatment on whey protein hydrolysis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2017-01-22

    Proteins in solution are subject to myriad forces stemming from interactions with each other as well as with the solvent media. The role of the environmental conditions, namely pH, temperature, ionic strength remains under-estimated yet it impacts protein conformations and consequently its interaction with, and susceptibility to, the enzyme. Enzymes, being proteins are also amenable to the environmental conditions because they are either activated or denatured depending on the choice of the conditions. Furthermore, enzyme specificity is restricted to a narrow regime of optimal conditions while opportunities outside the optimum conditions remain untapped. In addition, the composition of protein substrate (whether mixed or single purified) have been underestimated in previous studies. In addition, protein pre-treatment methods like heat denaturation prior to hydrolysis is a complex phenomenon whose progression is influenced by the environmental conditions including the presence or absence of sugars like lactose, ionic strength, purity of the protein, and the molecular structure of the mixed proteins particularly presence of free thiol groups. In this review, we revisit protein hydrolysis with a focus on the impact of the hydrolysis environment and show that preference of peptide bonds and/or one protein over another during hydrolysis is driven by the environmental conditions. Likewise, heat-denaturing is a process which is dependent on not only the environment but the presence or absence of other proteins.

  7. Evaluation of pre-treatment technologies for phosphorous removal from drinking water to mitigate membrane biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolova, M.; Tihomirova, K.; Mežule, L.; Rubulis, J.; Gruškeviča, K.; Juhna, T.

    2017-10-01

    Membranes are widely used for the treatment of various solutions. However, membrane fouling remains the limiting factor for their usage, setting biofouling as the most severe type of it. Therefore, the production of biologically stable water prior to membranes is important. Since lack of phosphorus may hinder the growth of microorganisms, the aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of microbially available phosphorus (MAP) removal via affordable water pre-treatment methods (adsorption, biofiltration, electrocoagulation) on bacterial growth. Four cylindrical reactors were installed at an artificially recharged groundwater station. Further temperature influence and carbon limitation were tested for biofiltration technology. The amount of MAP and total cell count was measured by flow cytometry. The results showed that at lower temperatures electrocoagulation performed the best, resulting in complete MAP removal (detection limit 6.27x10-3μg P l-1). Sorbent demonstrated MAP removal of 70-90%. Biomass did not have any noteworthy results at +8°C, however, at +19°C MAP removal of around 80% was achieved. Main conclusions obtained within this study are: (i) tested technologies effectively eliminate MAP levels; (ii) temperature has a significant effect on MAP removal in a bioreactor, (iii) multi-barrier approach might be necessary for better P limitation that might prolong operating time of a membrane.

  8. Effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across rat intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Adukondalu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Many drug substances along with a variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components interact with the CYP enzyme system.The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pre-treatment on the transport of carbamazepine across the rat intestine "nMethods: The transport of carbamazepine across different parts of rat intestine was studied by everted and non-everted sac methods. The control and pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg-1 for 7 days pre-treated rats were sacrificed and isolated the intestine. The sacs of intestine were prepared, treated with carbamazepine solution and then placed in dulbeccos buffer. Samples were collected periodically and the drug content was estimated using HPLC. Results and conclusion: The results show that there was a significant (p<0.05 difference in the transport of carbamazepine from the intestinal sacs of pretreated with pomegranate juice and control. It seems that pomegranatejuice might have induced CYP3A4enzymes and hence drug is extensively metabolized.

  9. Pre-treatment of soybean plants with calcium stimulates ROS responses and mitigates infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaoui, Arbia; El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Daayf, Fouad

    2018-01-01

    Considering the high incidence of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in a variety of field crops and vegetables, different control strategies are needed to keep the disease under economical threshold. This study assessed the effect of foliar application of a calcium formulation on disease symptoms, oxalic acid production, and on the oxidative stress metabolism in soybean plants inoculated with each of two isolates of the pathogen that have contrasting aggressiveness (HA, highly-aggressive versus WA, weakly-aggressive). Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in soybean plants inoculated with S. sclerotiorum isolates were assessed at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h post inoculation (hpi). Generation of ROS including hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), anion superoxide (O 2 - ) and hydroxyl radical (OH) was evaluated. Inoculation with the WA isolate resulted in more ROS accumulation compared to the HA isolate. Pre-treatment with the calcium formulation restored ROS production in plants inoculated with the HA isolate. We also noted a marked decrease in oxalic acid content in the leaves inoculated with the HA isolate in presence of calcium, which coincided with an increase in plant ROS production. The expression patterns of genes involved in ROS detoxification in response to the calcium treatments and/or inoculation with S. Sclerotiorum isolates were monitored by RT-qPCR. All of the tested genes showed a higher expression in response to inoculation with the WA isolate. The expression of most genes tested peaked at 6 hpi, which preceded ROS accumulation in the soybean leaves. Overall, these data suggest that foliar application of calcium contributes to a decrease in oxalic acid production and disease, arguably via modulation of the ROS metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Amphibian and reptile response to prescribed burning and thinning in pine-hardwood forests: pre-treatment results

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Sutton; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of pretreatment data is essential to determine long-term effects of forest management on amphibians and reptiles. We present pre-treatment amphibian and reptile capture data from April 2005 to May 2006 for a long-term study on herpetofaunal response to prescribed burning and tree thinning in the William B. Bankhead National Forest, AL, United States....

  11. Influence of pre-treatment on enzymatic degumming of apocynum venetum bast fibers in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Shi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-treatment of apocynum venetum bast fibers in supercritical carbon dioxide can improve the efficiency of enzymatic degumming of apocynum venetum bast fiber. This paper studies experimentally effect of pressure and degumming time on degradation rate, the results can be used for optimal design of degumming.

  12. Importance of food waste pre-treatment efficiency for global warming potential in life cycle assessment of anaerobic digestion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, My; Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    treatment of the refuse. The objective of this study was to investigate how FW pre-treatment efficiency impacts the environmental performance of waste management, with respect to global warming potential (GWP). The modeling tool EASETECH was used to perform consequential LCA focusing on the impact...

  13. Assessing the application and downstream effects of pulsed mode ultrasound as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Raed A; Aravinthan, Vasantha; Yusaf, Talal; Bowtell, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    The application of pulsed mode ultrasound (PMU) as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation was investigated at various alum dosages and pH levels. The effects of the treatments on turbidity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and residual Al were evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the operating conditions of the applied treatments. The results showed that PMU pre-treatment increased turbidity and DOC removal percentages from maximum of 96.6% and 43% to 98.8% and 52%, respectively. It also helped decrease the minimum residual Al from 0.100 to 0.094 ppm. The multiple response optimization was carried out using the desirability function. A desirability value of >0.97 estimated respective turbidity removal, DOC removal and Al residual of 89.24%, 45.66% and ∼ 0.1 ppm for coagulation (control) and 90.61%, >55% and ∼ 0 for coagulation preceded by PMU. These figures were validated via confirmatory experiments. PMU pre-treatment increased total coliform removal from 80% to >98% and decreased trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 250 to 200 ppb CH3Cl. Additionally, PMU application prior to coagulation improved the settleability of sludge due to the degassing effects. The results of this study confirms that PMU pre-treatment can significantly improve coagulation performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On the changing electrochemical behaviour of boron-doped diamond surfaces with time after cathodic pre-treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R.; Andrade, Leonardo S.; Nascente, Pedro A.P.; Pizani, Paulo S.; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Avaca, Luis A.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical response of the Fe(CN) 6 4-/3- redox couple on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes immediately after a cathodic pre-treatment and as a function of time exposed to atmospheric conditions is reported here. After this pre-treatment the electrode exhibits a changing electrochemical behaviour, i.e., a loss of the reversibility for the Fe(CN) 6 4-/3- redox couple as a function of time. Raman spectra showed that neither important bulk structural differences nor significant changes in the sp 2 /sp 3 content are introduced into the BDD film by the cathodic pre-treatment indicating that H-terminated sites play an important role in the electrochemical response of the electrodes. Thus, the changing behaviour reflected by a progressive decrease of the electron transfer rate with time must be associated to a loss of superficial hydrogen due to oxidation by oxygen from the air, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Moreover, it was also found that this changing electrochemical behaviour is inversely proportional to the doping level, suggesting that the boron content has a stabilizing effect on the H-terminated surface. These results point out the necessity of doing the cathodic pre-treatment just before the electrochemical experiments are carried out in order to ensure reliable and reproducible results

  15. Fungicidal Effects of Plasma and Radio-Wave Pre-treatments on Seeds of Grain Crops and Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Irina; Azharonok, Viktor; Shik, Alexander; Antoniuk, Alexandra; Terletskaya, Natalia

    An influence of RF plasma and RF electromagnetic field pre-treatments on level of fungal infection of some important agricultural plants has been studied. It is shown that pre-sowing plasma and radio-wave seeds treatments contribute to their germination enhancement and plant productivity improvement owing to stimulative and fungicidal effect of plasma and RF electromagnetic field irradiation.

  16. Impact of mechanical, chemical and enzymatic pre-treatments on the methane yield from the anaerobic digestion of switchgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigon, Jean-Claude; Mehta, Punita; Guiot, Serge R.

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of cellulosic crops into biofuels, including methane, is receiving a lot of attention lately. Panicum vergatum, or switchgrass, is a warm season perennial grass well adapted to grow in North America. Different pre-treatments were tested in 0.5 l batch reactors, at 35 °C, in order to enhance the methane production from switchgrass, including temperature, sonication, alkalinization and autoclaving. The methane production on the basis of volatile solids (VS) added to the fermentation were 112.4 ± 8.4, 132.5 ± 9.7 and 139.8 ml g −1 after 38 days of incubation for winter harvested switchgrass (WHS) after grinding, grinding with alkalinization, and grinding with alkalinization and autoclaving, respectively. The methane production was higher for fresh summer harvested switchgrass (SHS), with a production of 256.6 ± 8.2 ml g −1 VS after mulching, alkalinization and autoclaving. The methane production from SHS was improved by 29 and 42% when applying lignin (LiP) or manganese peroxidase (MnP), at 202.1 ± 9.8 and 222.9 ± 22.5 ml g −1 VS, respectively. The combination of an alkali pre-treatment with the MnP increased the methane production furthermore at 297.7 ml g −1 VS. The use of pectinases without chemical pre-treatment showed promising yields at 287.4 and 239.5 ml g −1 VS for pectate-lyase and poly-galacturonase, respectively. An estimation of the methane yield per hectare of crop harvested resulted in net energy production of 29.8, 49.7 and 78.1 GJ for winter harvested switchgrass, mulched and pretreated summer harvested switchgrass, respectively. Switchgrass represents an interesting candidate as a lignocellulosic crop for methane production. -- Highlights: ► Switchgrass is a model energy crops for biofuels production. ► This study evaluated different pre-treatments to enhance methane production. ► Pre-treatments increase significantly the methane produced from switchgrass. ► Enzymatic pre-treatments were superior to physical and

  17. Effect of Chemical Washing Pre-treatment of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) biochar on Characterization of Hydrogel Biochar composite as Bioadsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meri, N. H.; Alias, A. B.; Talib, N.; Rashid, Z. A.; Wan, W. A.; Ghani, Ab Karim

    2018-05-01

    Hydrogel biochar composite (HBC) is a recent interest among researchers because of the hydrophilic characteristic which can adsorb chemical fluid and showed a versatile potential as adsorbent in removing hazardous material in wastewater and gas stream. In this study, the effect of chemical washing pre-treatment by using two different type of chemical agent Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) was analysed and investigated. The raw EFB biochar was prepared using microwave assisted pyrolysis under 1000W for 30 min under N2 flow with 150 mL/min. To improve the adsoprtion ability, the EFB biochar has been chemical washed pre-treatment with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) before polymerization process with acrylamide (AAm) as monomer, N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator. The characterization has studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). FTIR result shows that, the formation of Raw EFB to Hydrogel Biochar Composite (Raw EFB > EFB Biochar > Treated Biochars (HCl & H2O2) > Hydrogel Biochar Composite) have changed in functional group. For DSC result it shows that the thermal behaviour of all samples is endothermic process and have high thermal resistance.

  18. Effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) on poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyong; Yoon, Young-Man; Han, Seong Kuk; Kim, Daegi; Kim, Ho

    2017-06-01

    This study is an assessment of the hydrothermal pre-treatment (HTP) of poultry slaughterhouse waste (PSW) sludge for the enhancement of the solubilization, physical properties, and biogas production through anaerobic digestion. This assessment was carried out to ascertain the optimal HTP temperature. The solubilization and physical properties efficacy was investigated by capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF), and particle size. In addition, the anaerobic digestion was investigated through biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and subsequent statistical analysis using the modified Gompertz model. HTP was found to have improved the solubilization of the PSW sludge with increasing HTP temperature. In addition, the results of the CST, TTF, and particle size decreased with increasing HTP temperature. These results of the assessment that was conducted in this study confirm that the HTP process indeed modifies the physical properties of PSWs to enhance the solubilization of organic solids. Nevertheless, the results of the BMP tests and the modified Gompertz model analysis show that the optimal HTP temperature of PSWs for anaerobic digestion is 190°C. These findings show that to achieve high conversion efficiency, an accurately designed pre-treatment step must be included in the overall anaerobic digestion process for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-treatment Predictors of Dropout from Prolonged Exposure Therapy in Patients with Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleau, Emily L.; Chin, Eu Gene; Wanklyn, Sonya G.; Zambrano-Vazquez, Laura; Schumacher, Julie A.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are commonly co-occurring disorders associated with more adverse consequences than PTSD alone. Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is one of the most efficacious treatments for PTSD. However, among individuals with PTSD-SUD, 35–62% of individuals drop out of trauma-focused exposure treatments. Thus, it is important to identify predictors of PTSD treatment dropout among substance abusers with PTSD in order to gain information about adapting treatment strategies to enhance retention and outcomes. The current study explored pre-treatment predictors of early termination from PE treatment in a sample of 85 individuals receiving concurrent treatment for PTSD and a SUD in a residential treatment facility as part of a randomized controlled trial. The results indicated that less education and more anxiety sensitivity uniquely predicted PE treatment dropout. Demographic variables, PTSD severity, SUD severity, mental health comorbidities, and emotion regulation difficulties did not predict treatment dropout. These results suggest that adding pre-treatment interventions that address anxiety sensitivity, and promote social adjustment and cognitive flexibility, could possibly improve PE retention rates in clients with high anxiety or low education. PMID:28147254

  20. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes: Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) Teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  1. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes. Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  2. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  3. Drivers of microbial community composition in mesophilic and thermophilic temperature-phased anaerobic digestion pre-treatment reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Hasina M; Dennis, Paul G; Lim, Hui J; Tyson, Gene W; Batstone, Damien J; Bond, Philip L

    2013-12-01

    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) is an emerging technology that facilitates improved performance and pathogen destruction in anaerobic sewage sludge digestion by optimising conditions for 1) hydrolytic and acidogenic organisms in a first-stage/pre-treatment reactor and then 2) methogenic populations in a second stage reactor. Pre-treatment reactors are typically operated at 55-65 °C and as such select for thermophilic bacterial communities. However, details of key microbial populations in hydrolytic communities and links to functionality are very limited. In this study, experimental thermophilic pre-treatment (TP) and control mesophilic pre-treatment (MP) reactors were operated as first-stages of TPAD systems treating activated sludge for 340 days. The TP system was operated sequentially at 50, 60 and 65 °C, while the MP rector was held at 35 °C for the entire period. The composition of microbial communities associated with the MP and TP pre-treatment reactors was characterised weekly using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) supported by clone library sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The outcomes of this approach were confirmed using 454 pyrosequencing of gene amplicons and fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH). TP associated bacterial communities were dominated by populations affiliated to the Firmicutes, Thermotogae, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi. In particular there was a progression from Thermotogae to Lutispora and Coprothermobacter and diversity decreased as temperature and hydrolysis performance increased. While change in the composition of TP associated bacterial communities was attributable to temperature, that of MP associated bacterial communities was related to the composition of the incoming feed. This study determined processes driving the dynamics of key microbial populations that are correlated with an enhanced hydrolytic functionality of the TPAD system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Prediction of distant metastasis in head neck cancer patients: implications for induction chemotherapy and pre-treatment staging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studer, G.; Glanzmann, C.; Seifert, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) combined treatment approaches, surgical and radiodiagnostic advances, respectively, lead to improved local-regional control in head neck cancer (HNC). With increasing local-regional control, distant metastases (DM) become more meaningful. In some trials without concomitant chemotherapy, induction chemotherapy (IC) resulted in an absolute reduction of DM by ∝10-15%. In order to define a more efficient selection of patients at risk for DM with respect to IC and M-staging, we analysed our patients treated by contemporary standards. Patients and methods: between 1/2002 to 12/2007, 409 HNC patients were treated with IMRT; 303/409 (74%) underwent definitive, 106 (26%) postoperative IMRT. The mean/median follow-up was 23/20 months (3-72). 70% tolerated 4-7, 9% 1-3 cycles of simultaneous cisplatin. Treatment followed a prospectively designed protocol. In a previous study with 172 HNC IMRT patients, gross tumor volume (GTV) was found the strongest predictor for local-regional control. In the current study, this criterion has been prospectively tested for DM. Numbers needed to treat were calculated for IC. Results: DM developed in 28/399 (7%) patients; 10 presented initially with DM (total 38/409). In 13/28 (46%), DM remained the only manifestation of disease. GTV was the strongest predictor for DM (p 70 cc; only 6 of them (6/73, 8%) developed isolated DM. Conclusion: GTV was the most significant predictor for DM, that could guide selective pre-treatment M-staging. The subgroup with isolated DM in the high risk group, that could benefit from IC, is small. (orig.)

  5. Pre-treatments, characteristics, and biogeochemical dynamics of dissolved organic matter in sediments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Hur, Jin

    2015-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sediments, termed here sediment DOM, plays a variety of important roles in global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients as well as in the fate and transport of xenobiotics. Here we reviewed sediment DOM, including pore waters and water extractable organic matter from inland and coastal sediments, based on recent literature (from 1996 to 2014). Sampling, pre-treatment, and characterization methods for sediment DOM were summarized. The characteristics of sediment DOM have been compared along an inland to coastal ecosystems gradient and also with the overlying DOM in water column to distinguish the unique nature of it. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from inland sediment DOM was generally higher than coastal areas, while no notable differences were found for their aromaticity and apparent molecular weight. Fluorescence index (FI) revealed that mixed sources are dominant for inland sediment DOM, but marine end-member prevails for coastal sediment DOM. Many reports showed that sediments operate as a net source of DOC and chromophoric DOM (CDOM) to the water column. Sediment DOM has shown more enrichment of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds in the elemental signature than the overlying DOM. Fluorescent fingerprint investigated by excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) further demonstrated the characteristics of sediment DOM lacking in the photo-oxidized and the intermediate components, which are typically present in the overlying surface water. In addition, the biogeochemical changes in sediment DOM and the subsequent environmental implications were discussed with the focus on the binding and the complexation properties with pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved mechanical properties of retorted carrots by ultrasonic pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Li; Xu, Mi; Øiseth, Sofia K; Mawson, Raymond

    2012-05-01

    The use of ultrasound pre-processing treatment, compared to blanching, to enhance mechanical properties of non-starchy cell wall materials was investigated using carrot as an example. The mechanical properties of carrot tissues were measured by compression and tensile testing after the pre-processing treatment prior to and after retorting. Carrot samples ultrasound treated for 10 min at 60 °C provided a higher mechanical strength (P<0.05) to the cell wall structure than blanching for the same time period. With the addition of 0.5% CaCl(2) in the pre-treatment solution, both blanching and ultrasound treatment showed synergistic effect on enhancing the mechanical properties of retorted carrot pieces. At a relatively short treatment time (10 min at 60 °C) with the use of 0.5% CaCl(2), ultrasound treatment achieved similar enhancement to the mechanical strength of retorted carrots to blanching for a much longer time period (i.e. 40 min). The mechanism involved appears to be related to the stress responses present in all living plant matter. However, there is a need to clarify the relative importance of the potential stress mechanisms in order to get a better understanding of the processing conditions likely to be most effective. The amount of ultrasound treatment required is likely to involve low treatment intensities and there are indications from the structural characterisation and mechanical property analyses that the plant cell wall tissues were more elastic than that accomplished using low temperature long time blanching. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation and uncertainty analysis of a pre-treatment 2D dose prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Jose A.; Wolfs, Cecile J. A.; Nijsten, Sebastiaan M. J. J. G.; Verhaegen, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Independent verification of complex treatment delivery with megavolt photon beam radiotherapy (RT) has been effectively used to detect and prevent errors. This work presents the validation and uncertainty analysis of a model that predicts 2D portal dose images (PDIs) without a patient or phantom in the beam. The prediction model is based on an exponential point dose model with separable primary and secondary photon fluence components. The model includes a scatter kernel, off-axis ratio map, transmission values and penumbra kernels for beam-delimiting components. These parameters were derived through a model fitting procedure supplied with point dose and dose profile measurements of radiation fields. The model was validated against a treatment planning system (TPS; Eclipse) and radiochromic film measurements for complex clinical scenarios, including volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Confidence limits on fitted model parameters were calculated based on simulated measurements. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of the parameter uncertainties on the model output. For the maximum uncertainty, the maximum deviating measurement sets were propagated through the fitting procedure and the model. The overall uncertainty was assessed using all simulated measurements. The validation of the prediction model against the TPS and the film showed a good agreement, with on average 90.8% and 90.5% of pixels passing a (2%,2 mm) global gamma analysis respectively, with a low dose threshold of 10%. The maximum and overall uncertainty of the model is dependent on the type of clinical plan used as input. The results can be used to study the robustness of the model. A model for predicting accurate 2D pre-treatment PDIs in complex RT scenarios can be used clinically and its uncertainties can be taken into account.

  8. Electron beam application as pre treatment of sugar cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanessa Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Due to increasing worldwide shortage of food and energy sources, sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, much of which is in a crystalline structure, 40% hemicelluloses, an amorphous polymer usually composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and mannose and 20% lignin, which cannot be easily separated into readily usable components due to their recalcitrant nature. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation efficiency as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 10 0 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose in. (author)

  9. Correlation between gamma index passing rate and clinical dosimetric difference for pre-treatment 2D and 3D volumetric modulated arc therapy dosimetric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Yan, H; Han, C; Zhou, Y; Yi, J; Xie, C

    2015-03-01

    To investigate comparatively the percentage gamma passing rate (%GP) of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) pre-treatment volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dosimetric verification and their correlation and sensitivity with percentage dosimetric errors (%DE). %GP of 2D and 3D pre-treatment VMAT quality assurance (QA) with different acceptance criteria was obtained by ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL) for 20 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and 20 patients with oesophageal cancer. %DE were calculated from planned dose-volume histogram (DVH) and patients' predicted DVH calculated by 3DVH® software (Sun Nuclear Corporation). Correlation and sensitivity between %GP and %DE were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Relatively higher %DE on some DVH-based metrics were observed for both patients with NPC and oesophageal cancer. Except for 2%/2 mm criterion, the average %GPs for all patients undergoing VMAT were acceptable with average rates of 97.11% ± 1.54% and 97.39% ± 1.37% for 2D and 3D 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. The number of correlations for 3D was higher than that for 2D (21 vs 8). However, the general correlation was still poor for all the analysed metrics (9 out of 26 for 3D 3%/3 mm criterion). The average area under the curve (AUC) of ROCs was 0.66 ± 0.12 and 0.71 ± 0.21 for 2D and 3D evaluations, respectively. There is a lack of correlation between %GP and %DE for both 2D and 3D pre-treatment VMAT dosimetric evaluation. DVH-based dose metrics evaluation obtained from 3DVH will provide more useful analysis. Correlation and sensitivity of %GP with %DE for VMAT QA were studied for the first time.

  10. Optimizing bio-physical conditions and pre-treatment options for breaking lignin barrier of maize stover feed using white rot fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Atuhaire

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest limitation to utilization of maize stover by ruminants as a feed is the high concentration of lignin, which limits fibre digestibility. However, ruminants can effectively utilize maize stover if its nutritive value is improved using white rot fungal species. This study was designed to determine optimal bio-physical conditions for mycelial growth and select the most ideal fungal species and pre-treatment options for improving nutritive value of maize stover. Four popular edible Pleurotus fungal species (viz. Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus sajor caju and Pleurotus pulmonarius were subjected to varying temperatures, pH levels, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration and illumination to establish the extent of mycelial growth rate. Inclusion of H2O2 was used to determine optimal levels for preservation and prevention of contamination from other indigenous microbiota. Effects of pre-treatment options on chemical composition and nutritive value of maize stover were also examined. Mycelial growth rate of Pleurotus species on potato dextrose agar (PDA varied (P < 0.05 with temperature, pH level and H2O2 concentration following a quadratic trend. Optimal temperature, pH and H2O2 concentration for mycelial growth on PDA were 25 °C, 5 and 0.01 mL/L, respectively. Under the different bio-physical conditions, P. sajor caju had the highest mycelia density and growth rate. Chemical composition of solid-state fermented maize stover differed (P < 0.05 among the Pleurotus species. Maize stover fermented with P. sajor caju had the highest crude protein (CP of 86.6 g/kg DM, in-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of 731 g/kg DM, in-vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD of 670.4 g/kg DM and metabolizable energy (ME of 10.0 MJ/kg DM but with the lowest lignin (sa of 50 g/kg DM. At 25 °C, P. sajor caju had the highest mycelial growth rate on PDA and highest lignin (sa breakdown in the maize stover substrate. It was

  11. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  12. Adoption and impact of high quality bambara flour (HQBF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption and impact of high quality bambara flour (HQBF) technology in the ... consumer acceptability/quality of products, credit, availability of raw materials, and ... as a result of 12.5 per cent increase in demand for bambara-based products.

  13. Quack: A quality assurance tool for high throughput sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, Adam; Arick, Mark; Peterson, Daniel G

    2018-05-01

    The quality of data generated by high-throughput DNA sequencing tools must be rapidly assessed in order to determine how useful the data may be in making biological discoveries; higher quality data leads to more confident results and conclusions. Due to the ever-increasing size of data sets and the importance of rapid quality assessment, tools that analyze sequencing data should quickly produce easily interpretable graphics. Quack addresses these issues by generating information-dense visualizations from FASTQ files at a speed far surpassing other publicly available quality assurance tools in a manner independent of sequencing technology. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER

    OpenAIRE

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Online presentation and webinar by Stracke, C. M. (2017, 18 December) on "Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER" for the Belt and Road Open Education Learning Week by the Beijing Normal University, China.

  15. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi (IMCHA) ... In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health initiative to improve ... Total funding.

  16. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  17. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M F; Roager, Henrik Munch; Larsen, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera, the human gut microbiota can be divided into two relatively stable groups that might play a role in personalized nutrition. We studied these simplified enterotypes as prognostic markers for successful body fat loss on two different diets. A total....... divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Modifications of dietary effects of pre-treatment P/B group were examined by linear mixed models. Among individuals with high P/B the NND resulted in a 3.15 kg (95%CI 1.55;4.76, Pfat loss compared to ADD...... to lose body fat on diets high in fiber and wholegrain than subjects with a low P/B-ratio....

  18. EPR Oximetry for Investigation of Hyperbaric O2 Pre-treatment for Tumor Radiosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin B; Hou, Huagang; Coombs, Rachel; Swartz, Harold M

    A number of studies have reported benefits associated with the application of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) delivered immediately prior to radiation therapy. While these studies provide evidence that pre-treatment with HBO may be beneficial, no measurements of intratumoral pO2 were carried out and they do not directly link the apparent benefits to decreased hypoxic fractions at the time of radiation therapy. While there is empirical evidence and some theoretical basis for HBO to enhance radiation therapy, without direct and repeated measurements of its effects on pO2, it is unlikely that the use of HBO can be understood and optimized for clinical applications. In vivo EPR oximetry is a technique uniquely capable of providing repeated direct measurements of pO2 through a non-invasive procedure in both animal models and human patients. In order to evaluate the ability of pretreatment with HBO to elevate tumor pO2, a novel small animal hyperbaric chamber system was constructed that allows simultaneous in vivo EPR oximetry. This chamber can be placed within the EPR magnet and is equipped with a variety of ports for multiplace gas delivery, thermoregulation, delivery of anesthesia, physiologic monitoring, and EPR detection. Initial measurements were performed in a subcutaneous RIF-1 tumor model in C3H/HeJ mice. The mean baseline pO2 value was 6.0 ± 1.2 mmHg (N = 7) and responses to two atmospheres absolute pressure HBO varied considerably across subjects, within tumors, and over time. When an increase in pO2 was observed, the effect was transient in all but one case, with durations lasting from 5 min to over 20 min, and returned to baseline levels during HBO administration. These results indicate that without direct measurements of pO2 in the tissue of interest, it is likely to be difficult to know the effects of HBO on actual tissue pO2.

  19. Emblems of Quality in Higher Education. Developing and Sustaining High-Quality Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Jennifer Grant; Conrad, Clifton F.

    This book proposes an "engagement" theory of program quality to evaluate and improve higher education programs at all degree levels. Based on interviews with 781 participants in a national study of Masters degree programs, it focuses on the interactive roles of students, faculty, and administrators in developing high-quality programs…

  20. Replacement of 5% of OPC by fly ash and APC residues from MSWI with electrodialytic pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magro, Cátia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Guedes, Paula

    2016-01-01

    as pre-treatment prior to incorporation in mortar, aiming to stabilize and remove HM and chlorides. Eight ED experiments were performed for 7 days with a L/S ratio of 3.5. The number of compartments (2 or 3) and current density (0.1 or 1.0 mA cm-2) varied. After ED treatment the heavy metals left...... in the ash were not leached to the same extent as in the original ash. In mortar 5% of Ordinary Portland Cement was replaced by FA and APC residues (raw and ED upgraded). The studied parameters: compressive strength, HM leachability, and Cl content. The ED pre-treatment resulted in a decrease in both...

  1. Possibility of content change in bioethanol gasoline during pre-treatment process for using accelerator mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Yunoki, Shunji; Suzuki, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to determine the bioethanol content of E3 gasoline by applying ASTM D6866 method B. In the pre-treatment process using accelerator mass spectroscopy(AMS), the graphite samples were prepared from E3 gasoline. Three portions of the same graphite sample were measured, and the contents agreed within the measurement error of AMS. The graphite samples prepared from eight portions of the same E3 gasoline sample were measured, but the accuracy was insufficient. There are many kinds of hydrocarbon compounds in the gasoline and their boiling points are different. The content of bioethanol was found to decrease with vaporization when E3 gasoline was placed in open air. A very small amount of E3 gasoline is pre-treated for AMS and the volatile loss cannot be ignored. It seems that the content change of bioethanol was caused by vaporization of E3 gasoline during the pre-treatment process. (author)

  2. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondary sludge at 70 °C prior to anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Lu, J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is more widely used compared tothermophilic digestion, mainly because of the lower energy requirements and higher stability of the process. However, the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process is usually characterised by accelerated...... studyinvestigates the effect of the pre-treatment at 70 °C on thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic digestion of primaryand secondary sludge in continuously operated digesters. Thermal pre-treatment of primary and secondarysludge at 70 °C enhanced the removal of organic matter and the methane production during...... the subsequentanaerobic digestion step at 55 °C. It also greatly contributed to the destruction of pathogens present inprimary sludge. Finally it results in enhanced microbial activities of the subsequent anaerobic stepsuggesting that the same efficiencies in organic matter removal and methane recovery could be obtained...

  3. Effect of HCl pre-treatment on corrosion resistance of cerium-based conversion coatings on magnesium and magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelli, Katya; Dabala, Manuele; Calliari, Irene; Magrini, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion protection afforded by a cerium conversion coating, formed by immersion in a solution containing rare earth salt and hydrogen peroxide, on pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys, AZ91 and AM50, has been studied. The effect of HCl pre-treatments on the morphology and on the corrosion resistance of the cerium conversion layer was investigated. A thicker and more homogeneous distribution of the conversion coating was obtained when the sample surface was pre-treated with acid. Higher amounts of cerium on the surface of the pre-treated samples were detected. The cerium conversion coating increased the corrosion resistance of the alloys because it ennobled the corrosion potential and decreased both the anodic and cathodic current. The acid pre-treatment further increased the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys. After five days of immersion in chloride environment the untreated samples showed localized corrosion while the chemical conversion coated samples appeared unaffected

  4. Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristics of purslane ( Portulaca oleracea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2015-06-01

    Effects of open-air sun drying and pre-treatment on drying characteristic of purslanes ( Portulaca oleracea L.) were investigated. Drying times were determined as 31, 24 and 9 h for natural, salted and blanched, respectively. The higher "L" value and lower "-a/b" ratio values were obtained in natural dried purslane. The Aghbashlo et al. model gave a better fit to drying data.

  5. EFFICIENCY OF PRE-TREATMENT OF LEACHATE FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE DUMPS BY GASEOUS DESORPTION (STRIPPING OF AMMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Koc-Jurczyk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the efficiency of pre-treatment of landfill leachate by gaseous desorption of ammonia. The research was done on a municipal non-hazardous waste dump in Krosno (Sub-Carpathian Province, Poland. The pretreatment provided a favorable BOD5/COD ratio in leachate. Also concentrations of 16 PAHs and heavy metals did not exceed the legal limits. However, gaseous desorption of ammonia was insufficiently efficient in recovering ammonia nitrogen from leachate.

  6. Circulating LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR may identify pre-treatment IVF patients at risk of OHSS and poor implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Anne E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful pregnancy via in vitro fertilization (IVF depends on the recovery of an adequate number of healthy oocytes and on blastocyst implantation following uterine transfer. Two hormones, LH and hCG, utilize a common LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR, variations in which have profound implications in human reproduction. Soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR is released from experimental cell lines and placental explants and it can be detected in the follicular fluid and serum. Methods To evaluate the impact of circulating soluble LHCGR (sLHCGR in fertility treatment, we measured sLHCGR and LH-sLHCGR complex in serum from women seeking IVF using specifically developed quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Following an IVF cycle of treatment, patients were grouped according to oocyte yield into low (lower than or equal to 7 oocytes, intermediate (8-14 oocytes and high (greater than or equal to 15 oocytes responders and pregnancy outcome noted. Results Pre-treatment sLHCGR identified many women at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation. Low levels of sLHCGR were associated with pregnancy in both high and low responders but sLHCGR did not significantly affect the treatment outcome of intermediate responders. Low responders who failed to become pregnant had high levels of circulating sLHCGR bound to LH (LH-sLHCGR. Conclusions Pre-treatment measurement of sLHCGR could be used to tailor individual fertility treatment programs and improve outcomes by avoiding ovarian hyperstimulation and poor embryo implantation.

  7. High quality, high efficiency welding technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeyuki; Nagura, Yasumi

    1996-01-01

    For nuclear power plants, it is required to ensure the safety under the high reliability and to attain the high rate of operation. In the manufacture and installation of the machinery and equipment, the welding techniques which become the basis exert large influence to them. For the purpose of improving joint performance and excluding human errors, welding heat input and the number of passes have been reduced, the automation of welding has been advanced, and at present, narrow gap arc welding and high energy density welding such as electron beam welding and laser welding have been put to practical use. Also in the welding of pipings, automatic gas metal arc welding is employed. As for the welding of main machinery and equipment, there are the welding of the joints that constitute pressure boundaries, the build-up welding on the internal surfaces of pressure vessels for separating primary water from them, and the sealing welding of heating tubes and tube plates in steam generators. These weldings are explained. The welding of pipings and the state of development and application of new welding methods are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal organic wastes and pre-treatment to enhance biogas production from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Co-digestion and pre-treatment have been recognized as effective, low-cost and commercially viable approaches to reduce anaerobic digestion process limitations and improve biogas yields. In our previous batch-scale study, fat, oil, and grease (FOG) was investigated as a suitable potential co-substrate, and thermo-chemical pre-treatment (TCPT) at pH = 10 and 55 °C improved CH4 production from FOG co-digestions. In this project, co-digestions with FOG were studied in bench-scale two-stage thermophilic semi-continuous flow co-digesters with suitable TCPT (pH = 10, 55 °C). Overall, a 25.14 ± 2.14 L/d (70.2 ± 1.4% CH4) biogas production was obtained, which was higher than in the two-stage system without pre-treatment. The results could provide valuable fundamental information to support full-scale investigations of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal organic wastes.

  9. Nanostructured sol-gel coatings doped with cerium nitrate as pre-treatments for AA2024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludkevich, M.L.; Serra, R.; Montemor, M.F.; Yasakau, K.A.; Salvado, I.M. Miranda; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured hybrid sol-gel coatings doped with cerium ions were investigated in the present work as pre-treatments for the AA2024-T3 alloy. The sol-gel films have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) precursors. Additionally the hybrid sol was doped with zirconia nanoparticles prepared from hydrolyzed tetra-n-propoxyzirconium (TPOZ). Cerium nitrate, as corrosion inhibitor, was added into the hybrid matrix or into the oxide nanoparticles. The chemical composition and the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films were studied by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy), respectively. The evolution of the corrosion protection properties of the sol-gel films was studied by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), which can provide quantitative information on the role of the different pre-treatments. Different equivalent circuits, for different stages of the corrosion processes, were used in order to model the coating degradation. The models were supported by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) measurements. The results show that the sol-gel films containing zirconia nanoparticles present improved barrier properties. Doping the hybrid nanostructured sol-gel coatings with cerium nitrate leads to additional improvement of the corrosion protection. The zirconia particles present in the sol-gel matrix seem to act as nanoreservoirs providing a prolonged release of cerium ions. The nanostructured sol-gel films doped with cerium nitrate can be proposed as a potential candidate for substitution of the chromate pre-treatments for AA2024-T3

  10. Effect of Pre-treatment with Moringa oleifera (Drumstick Leaves on Diabetogenesis Produced by Alloxan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsun Nahar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. Objective: In the study, we aimed to investigate the pre-treatment effect or preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (MO leaves on blood sugar of rats. Materials and method: This experimental study was carried out in the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Sir Salimullah Medical College in collaboration with Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR, Dhaka. A total 24 long Evans rats were included in this study and divided in to four groups. Hyperglycemia was induced on rats using alloxan (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitioneally. Blood sample was collected from tail vein by tail tipping method. Pre-treatment effect or preventive role of Moringa oleifera (drumstick leaf powder on diabetogenesis produced by Alloxan in rats was tested by giving 50 mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder for 14 days orally as pre-treatment along with standard rat feed. Then alloxan was administered intraperitoneally on 15th day of the experiment and 50mg/rat/day Moringa oleifera leaf powder was given for 7 days as post-treatment. Results: No significant effect of MO on blood glucose level was observed on normal rats and non significant hypoglycaemic effect was found in rats that were pretreated with MO. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Moringa oleifera leaf powder did not produce any significant protective effect in diabetogenesis produced by alloxan though it has hypoglycaemic effect.

  11. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  12. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  13. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  14. High-quality planar high-Tc Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeal, N.; Grison, X.; Lesueur, J.; Faini, G.; Aprili, M.; Contour, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Reproducible high-T c Josephson junctions have been made in a rather simple two-step process using ion irradiation. A microbridge (1 to 5 μm wide) is firstly designed by ion irradiating a c-axis-oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ film through a gold mask such as the nonprotected part becomes insulating. A lower T c part is then defined within the bridge by irradiating with a much lower fluence through a narrow slit (20 nm) opened in a standard electronic photoresist. These planar junctions, whose settings can be finely tuned, exhibit reproducible and nearly ideal Josephson characteristics. This process can be used to produce complex Josephson circuits

  15. A comparison of reactive plasma pre-treatments on PET substrates by Cu and Ti pulsed-DC and HIPIMS discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audronis, M., E-mail: m.audronis@yahoo.co.uk [Gencoa Ltd, Physics Road, Speke, Liverpool, L24 9HP (United Kingdom); Hinder, S.J. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Mack, P. [ThermoFisher Scientific Ltd, Imberhorne Lane, East Grinstead, Sussex, RH19 1UB (United Kingdom); Bellido-Gonzalez, V. [Gencoa Ltd, Physics Road, Speke, Liverpool, L24 9HP (United Kingdom); Bussey, D.; Matthews, A. [Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Baker, M.A. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-30

    PET web samples have been treated by magnetically enhanced glow discharges powered using either medium frequency pulse direct current (p-DC) or low frequency high power pulse (HIPIMS) sources. The plasma pre-treatment processes were carried out in an Ar-O{sub 2} atmosphere using either Cu or Ti sputter targets. XPS, AFM and sessile drop water contact angle measurements have been employed to examine changes in surface chemistry and morphology for different pre-treatment process parameters. Deposition of metal oxide onto the PET surface is observed as a result of the sputter magnetron-based glow discharge web treatment. Using the Cu target, both the p-DC and HIPIMS processes result in the formation of a thin CuO layer (with a thickness between 1 and 11 nm) being deposited onto the PET surface. Employing the Ti target, both p-DC and HIPIMS processes give rise to a much lower concentration of Ti (< 5 at.%), in the form of TiO{sub 2} on the PET treated surface. The TiO{sub 2} is probably distributed as an island-like distribution covering the PET surface. Presence of Cu and Ti oxide constituents on the treated PET is beneficial in aiding the adhesion but alone (i.e. without oxygen plasma activation) is not enough to provide very high levels of hydrophilicity as is clear from sessile drop water contact angle measurements on aged samples. Exposure to the plasma treatments leads to a small amount of roughening of the substrate surface, but the average surface roughness in all cases is below 2.5 nm. The PET structure at the interface with a coating is mostly or wholly preserved. The oxygen plasma treatment, metal oxide deposition and surface roughening resulting from the HIPIMS and p-DC treatments will promote adhesion to any subsequent thin film that is deposited immediately following the plasma treatment.

  16. Key factors for a high-quality VR experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Doré, Renaud; Mollet, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    For many years, Virtual Reality has been presented as a promising technology that could deliver a truly new experience to users. The media and entertainment industry is now investigating the possibility to offer a video-based VR 360 experience. Nevertheless, there is a substantial risk that VR 360 could have the same fate as 3DTV if it cannot offer more than just being the next fad. The present paper aims at presenting the various quality factors required for a high-quality VR experience. More specifically, this paper will focus on the main three VR quality pillars: visual, audio and immersion.

  17. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  18. High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation: current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Benjamin S

    2016-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represents the cornerstone of cardiac arrest resuscitation care. Prompt delivery of high-quality CPR can dramatically improve survival outcomes; however, the definitions of optimal CPR have evolved over several decades. The present review will discuss the metrics of CPR delivery, and the evidence supporting the importance of CPR quality to improve clinical outcomes. The introduction of new technologies to quantify metrics of CPR delivery has yielded important insights into CPR quality. Investigations using CPR recording devices have allowed the assessment of specific CPR performance parameters and their relative importance regarding return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge. Additional work has suggested new opportunities to measure physiologic markers during CPR and potentially tailor CPR delivery to patient requirements. Through recent laboratory and clinical investigations, a more evidence-based definition of high-quality CPR continues to emerge. Exciting opportunities now exist to study quantitative metrics of CPR and potentially guide resuscitation care in a goal-directed fashion. Concepts of high-quality CPR have also informed new approaches to training and quality improvement efforts for cardiac arrest care.

  19. SU-F-T-351: Establishing a Workflow for IMRT Pre-Treatment Reviews for NRG-GY006 Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaddui, T [Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, N; Moore, K; Mell, L [University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Curry, K [MIM Software, Inc., Clevealand, OH (United States); Leath, C [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Kunos, C [Northeastern Ohio University College, Clevealand, OH (United States); Xiao, Y [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To establish a workflow for NRG-GY006 IMRT pre-treatment reviews, incorporating advanced radiotherapy technologies being evaluated as part of the clinical trial. Methods: Pre-Treatment reviews are required for every IMRT case as part of NRG-GY006 (a randomized phase II trial of radiation therapy and cisplatin alone or in combination with intravenous triapine in women with newly diagnosed bulky stage I B2, stage II, IIIB, or IVA cancer of the uterine cervix or stage II-IVA vaginal cancer. The pretreatment review process includes structures review and generating an active bone marrow(ABM)- to be used as an avoidance structure during IMRT optimization- and evaluating initial IMRT plan quality using knowledgeengineering based planning (KBP). Institutions will initially submit their simulation CT scan, structures file and PET/CT to IROC QA center for generating ABM. The ABM will be returned to the institution for use in planning. Institutions will then submit an initial IMRT plan for review and will receive information back following implementation of a KBP algorithm, for use in re-optimization, before submitting the final IMRT used for treatment. Results: ABM structure is generated using MIM vista software (Version 6.5, MIM corporation, Inc.). Here, the planning CT and the diagnostic PET/CT are fused and a sub threshold structure is auto segmented above the mean value of the SUV of the bone marrow. The generated ABM were compared with those generated with other software system (e.g. Velocity, Varian) and Dice coefficient (reflects the overlap of structures) ranged between 80 – 90% was achieved. A KBP model was built in Varian Eclipse TPS using the RapidPlan KBP software to perform plan quality assurance. Conclusion: The workflow for IMRT pretreatment reviews has been established. It represents a major improvement of NRG Oncology clinical trial quality assurance and incorporates the latest radiotherapy technologies as part of NCI clinical trials. This project

  20. SU-F-T-351: Establishing a Workflow for IMRT Pre-Treatment Reviews for NRG-GY006 Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaddui, T; Li, N; Moore, K; Mell, L; Curry, K; Leath, C; Kunos, C; Xiao, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a workflow for NRG-GY006 IMRT pre-treatment reviews, incorporating advanced radiotherapy technologies being evaluated as part of the clinical trial. Methods: Pre-Treatment reviews are required for every IMRT case as part of NRG-GY006 (a randomized phase II trial of radiation therapy and cisplatin alone or in combination with intravenous triapine in women with newly diagnosed bulky stage I B2, stage II, IIIB, or IVA cancer of the uterine cervix or stage II-IVA vaginal cancer. The pretreatment review process includes structures review and generating an active bone marrow(ABM)- to be used as an avoidance structure during IMRT optimization- and evaluating initial IMRT plan quality using knowledgeengineering based planning (KBP). Institutions will initially submit their simulation CT scan, structures file and PET/CT to IROC QA center for generating ABM. The ABM will be returned to the institution for use in planning. Institutions will then submit an initial IMRT plan for review and will receive information back following implementation of a KBP algorithm, for use in re-optimization, before submitting the final IMRT used for treatment. Results: ABM structure is generated using MIM vista software (Version 6.5, MIM corporation, Inc.). Here, the planning CT and the diagnostic PET/CT are fused and a sub threshold structure is auto segmented above the mean value of the SUV of the bone marrow. The generated ABM were compared with those generated with other software system (e.g. Velocity, Varian) and Dice coefficient (reflects the overlap of structures) ranged between 80 – 90% was achieved. A KBP model was built in Varian Eclipse TPS using the RapidPlan KBP software to perform plan quality assurance. Conclusion: The workflow for IMRT pretreatment reviews has been established. It represents a major improvement of NRG Oncology clinical trial quality assurance and incorporates the latest radiotherapy technologies as part of NCI clinical trials. This project

  1. Next Generation High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, we have witnessed an explosion of video initiatives in the industry worldwide. Several advancements in video technology are currently improving the way we interact and collaborate. These advancements are forcing tendencies and overall experiences: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To cope with this technology progresses, CERN IT Department has taken the leading role to establish strategies and directions to improve the user experience in remote dispersed meetings and remote collaboration at large in the worldwide LHC communities. Due to the high rate of dispersion in the LHC user communities, these are critically dependent of videoconferencing technology, with a need of robustness and high quality for the best possible user experience. We will present an analysis of the factors that influenced the technical and strategic choices to improve the reliability, efficiency and overall quality of the LHC remote sessions. In particular, ...

  2. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the method of interviewing by questionnaires was applied. The sample survey was conducted among undergraduate students, teachers and staff of the Teacher Training Faculty in Uzice.

  3. EFFECT OF PRE-TREATMENT ON QUALITATIVE INDICES OF WHITE ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bilenka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work, various technological methods are presented of preliminary processing of celery and parsnip roots to prevent their darkening during cooking in restaurants. These methods are: immersing in a citric acid solution (c = 0.05 %, 0.1 %, 0.15 %, in solution NaCl (c = 0. 5%, 1 %, 2 %, and microwave processing in various modes. The activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and ascorbate oxidase enzymes of root crops in the varietal section is also determined. Fresh white roots were selected as research objects: celery of the varieties Yablucnyy and Diamant, and parsnip of the varieties Student and Kruhlyy. It was revealed that polyphenol oxidase shows the highest activity. In order to inactivate the above-stated oxidoreductase, different methods of treating white roots were compared, too. The lowest oxidative enzymes activity was characteristic of the roots of the Diamant varieties and the parsnip roots of the Student variety, which were selected for further work. Studies have been carried out on changes in the mass fraction of L-ascorbic acid during steam blasting and microwave processing in different modes. It is proved that the treatment of white roots with ultra high frequency irradiation at 650 W for 1 minute is optimal. Such treatment allowes preventing the darkening of the raw material after its peeling due to the action of oxidation-reducing enzymes. It also allows preserving L-ascorbic acid by 64.6 % and 65.0 % in the roots of celery and parsnip, respectively. The distribution of polyphenol oxidase activity in the celery and parsnip root crop is analyzed. The results of the work can be used in preparation of dishes with the use of white roots in restaurants in order to improve technological techniques during processing of raw materials into finished products, improve its quality, and preserve L-ascorbic acid, as well as expand the range of culinary products based on spicy aromatic raw materials.

  4. Full utilization of silt density index (SDI) measurements for seawater pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-07-01

    In order to clarify the fouling mechanism during silt density index (SDI) measurements of seawater in the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, 11 runs were conducted under constant-pressure (207kPa) dead-end filtration mode according to the standard protocol for SDI measurement, in which two kinds of 0.45μm membranes of different material and seawater samples from the Mediterranean including raw seawater and seawater pre-treated by coagulation followed by sand filtration (CSF) and coagulation followed by microfiltration (CMF) technologies were tested. Fouling mechanisms based on the constant-pressure filtration equation were fully analyzed. For all runs, only t/(V/A)∼t showed very good linearity (correlation coefficient R 2>0.99) since the first moment of the filtration, indicating that standard blocking rather than cake filtration was the dominant fouling mechanism during the entire filtration process. The very low concentration of suspended solids rejected by MF of 0.45μm in seawater was the main reason why a cake layer was not formed. High turbidity removal during filtration indicated that organic colloids retained on and/or adsorbed in membrane pores governed the filtration process (i.e., standard blocking) due to the important contribution of organic substances to seawater turbidity in this study. Therefore the standard blocking coefficient k s, i.e., the slope of t/(V/A)∼t, could be used as a good fouling index for seawater because it showed good linearity with feed seawater turbidity. The correlation of SDI with k s and feed seawater quality indicated that SDI could be reliably used for seawater with low fouling potential (SDI 15min<5) like pre-treated seawater in this study. From both k s and SDI, the order of fouling potential was raw seawater>seawater pre-treated by CSF>seawater pre-treated by CMF, indicating the better performance of CMF than CSF. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic investigation of the role of alkaline pre-treatment in corrosion resistance of a silane coating on magnesium alloy, ZE41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty Banerjee, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); CAST Cooperative Research Centre, Hawthorn, VIC-3122 (Australia); Singh Raman, R.K., E-mail: raman.singh@eng.monash.edu.a [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    The protective performance of the coatings of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl) ethane (BTSE) on ZE41 magnesium alloy with different surface pre-treatments were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. Electrical equivalent circuits were developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and cross section of the alloy subjected to different pre-treatments and coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscope. A specific alkaline pre-treatment of the substrate prior to the coating has been found to improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  6. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic investigation of the role of alkaline pre-treatment in corrosion resistance of a silane coating on magnesium alloy, ZE41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty Banerjee, P.; Singh Raman, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The protective performance of the coatings of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl) ethane (BTSE) on ZE41 magnesium alloy with different surface pre-treatments were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. Electrical equivalent circuits were developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and cross section of the alloy subjected to different pre-treatments and coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscope. A specific alkaline pre-treatment of the substrate prior to the coating has been found to improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  7. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  8. extraction of high quality dna from polysaccharides-secreting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    A DNA extraction method using CTAB was used for the isolation of genomic DNA from ten. Xanthomonas campestris pathovars, ten isolates of Xanthomonas albilineans and one isolate of. Pseudomonas rubrisubalbicans. High quality DNA was obtained that was ideal for molecular analy- ses. Extracellular polysaccharides ...

  9. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  10. Synthesis and spectroscopic study of high quality alloy Cdx S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    In the present study, we report the synthesis of high quality CdxZn1–xS nanocrystals alloy at. 150°C with .... (XRD) using a Siemens model D 500, powder X-ray ... decays were analysed using IBH DAS6 software. 3. ... This alloying process is.

  11. Radiopaque marker motion during pre-treatment CBCT as a predictor of intra-fractional prostate movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Brink, Carsten; Agergaard, Soeren N.

    2013-01-01

    The intra-fractional movement of the prostate constitutes a hindrance for the reduction of the planning target volume margin for prostate cancer patients. Monitoring the movement of the prostate during treatment is a promising but in most centres not feasible solution. However, the projection images of the pre-treatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provide information about the motion of the target immediately preceding the treatment. This motion information can be extracted from any standard CBCT scan which is available in many institutions. In this study we measure the motion of the prostate during the pre-treatment CBCT and investigate whether this motion is correlated with the intra-fractional movement of the prostate. Material and methods: Pre- and post-treatment CBCT scans were made during a number of the fractions (average 11 range 8-12) for 13 prostate cancer patients during the radiation treatment course. The displacement of the post-treatment CBCT scans relative to the pre-treatment position was used to assess the intra-fractional motion. Automated image analysis was used to track the 2D position of radiopaque markers in the projection images of the scans. The most probable 3D trajectory of the markers during the CBCT scan was estimated based on a probability density function which was established for each individual scan. Results: The accuracy of the tracking algorithm was found satisfactory and the motion of the markers during the CBCT scans was successfully extracted from the projection images. This motion was generally small and uncorrelated with the subsequent intra-fractional movement of the prostate. The correlation coefficients were - 0.05, 0.07, and - 0.05 in the LR, AP, and CC direction, respectively. Conclusion: It is tempting to exploit the pre-treatment CBCT to predict the intra-fractional movement of the prostate but, unfortunately, we have found no correlation between the intra-fractional movement and the motion of the prostate

  12. Predictive modelling of vegetable firmness after thermal pre-treatments and steaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Dekkers, E.; Jasper, A.; Baár, C.; Verkerk, R.

    2014-01-01

    Texture is an important product property that strongly affects the quality evaluation of processed vegetables by consumers. The rate of texture decrease is dependent on the processing temperature and the type of vegetable. A large data set on instrumental texture measurements of carrot and broccoli

  13. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  14. Managing quality inside a high-technology project organization

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, T. (Tauno)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This action research addresses the deployment of Total Quality Management (TQM) principles in a high-technology new product development organisation. During the period of study, the organisation grew fast. High-technology product development and hypergrowth provided a unique combination of extreme conditions for the study. The existing concepts of TQM are presented as an organised map enabling strategic analysis for an implementation plan. The history of TQM dates back to the ...

  15. APLIKASI THERMAL PRE-TREATMENT LIMBAH TANAMAN JAGUNG (Zea mays SEBAGAI CO·SUBSTRAT PADA PROSES ANAEROBIK DIGESTI UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Darwin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal pre-treatment was given on corn stover in the purpose of breaking the lignin content; thus, it may help anaerobic microorganisms to convert polymer including cellulose and hemicelluloses into biogas. This study aimed to investigate the effects of thermal pre-treatment on corn stover in anaerobic digestion process related to the production of biogas as well as digestion process efficiency. This research was carried out by utilizing batch reactors where the temperature was maintained at mesophilic conditions above room temperature (33 ± 2 oC. Based on the result, it was known that thermal pre-treatment given on the corn stover may enhance anaerobic digestion process for biogas production at the first 10 days. This condition reduced the time of lag phase during anaerobic digestion. The biogas production of corn stover given thermal pre-treatment was slow at 26 days where their average total production were 12,412.5 mL,12,310 mL at 15 and 25 minutes thermal pre-treatment, respectively while biogas production of non pre-treated corn stover was 12,557 mL. The highest daily biogas production was accomplished by corn stover that was given thermal pre-treatment at 25 minutes (915 mL. Corn stover given with 15 minutes thermal pre-treatment also generated higher daily biogas production at day 9 (772.5 mL compared with corn stover that was not pre-treated (405 mL. This research also revealed that corn stover given thermal pre-treatment reached higher biogas yield compared with non pre-treated corn stover where their biogas yield were 670.39, 690.65 mL/g volatile solids added at 15 and 25 minutes thermal pre- treatment respectively, and 456.37 mL/g volatile solids added of non pre-treated corn stover. Keywords: Thermal pre-treatment, corn stover, anaerobic digestion, biogas   ABSTRAK Thermal pre-treatment diberikan pada limbah tanaman jagung dengan tujuan untuk memecahkan kandungan lignin yang terdapat pada limbah tanaman jagung sehingga memudahkan

  16. [Quality of sleep and academic performance in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugueño, Maithe; Curihual, Carolina; Olivares, Paulina; Wallace, Josefa; López-AlegrÍa, Fanny; Rivera-López, Gonzalo; Oyanedel, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.

  17. Highly qualified does not equal high quality: A study of urban stakeholders' perceptions of quality in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel Joseph

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions that urban stakeholders hold about what characteristics should distinguish a high school science teacher whom they would consider to demonstrate high quality in science teaching. A maximum variation sample of six science teachers, three school administrators, six parents and six students from a large urban public school district were interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, a list of observable characteristics which urban stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching was generated. Observational techniques were utilized to determine the extent to which six urban high school science teachers, who meet the NCLB Act criteria for being "highly qualified", actually possessed the characteristics which these stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set. The findings suggest that urban stakeholders perceive that a high school science teacher who demonstrates high quality in science teaching should be knowledgeable about their subject matter, their student population, and should be resourceful; should possess an academic background in science and professional experience in science teaching; should exhibit professionalism, a passion for science and teaching, and a dedication to teaching and student learning; should be skillful in planning and preparing science lessons and in organizing the classroom, in presenting the subject matter to students, in conducting a variety of hands-on activities, and in managing a classroom; and should assess whether students complete class goals and objectives, and provide feedback about grades for students promptly. The findings further reveal that some of the urban high school science teachers who were deemed to be "highly qualified", as defined by the NCLB Act, engaged in practices that threatened quality in science

  18. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  19. Long quantum channels for high-quality entanglement transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchi, L; Apollaro, T J G; Cuccoli, A; Verrucchi, P; Vaia, R

    2011-01-01

    High-quality quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be achieved in an unmodulated spin bus operating in the ballistic regime, which occurs when the endpoint qubits A and B are nonperturbatively coupled to the chain by a suitable exchange interaction j 0 . Indeed, the transition amplitude characterizing the transfer quality exhibits a maximum for a finite optimal value j opt 0 (N), where N is the channel length. We show that j opt 0 (N) scales as N -1/6 for large N and that it ensures a high-quality entanglement transfer even in the limit of arbitrarily long channels, almost independently of the channel initialization. For instance, for any chain length the average quantum-state transmission fidelity exceeds 90% and decreases very little in a broad neighbourhood of j opt 0 (N). We emphasize that, taking the reverse point of view, should j 0 be experimentally constrained, high-quality transfer can still be obtained by adjusting the channel length to its optimal value. (paper)

  20. Integration study of high quality teaching resources in universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglu Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development level and quality of education depend on the merits and efficiency in the use of teaching resources, especially in the case of obvious contradiction between the demand and supply of teaching resources. So to integrate teaching resources, improve the efficiency in the use of high quality teaching resources, and take the road of content development to enhance the competitiveness of education has become very important and urgent.Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of analysis on the teaching resources of universities and the problems they faced, this paper introduced the basic concepts of cloud storage, and built the integration architecture of high quality teaching resources in universities based on the cloud storage.Findings and Originality/value: The HDFS-based cloud storage proposed in this paper is a dynamically adjustable and Internet-based storage solution, and the users can access storage targets using the network through a common and easy-to-use protocol and application programming interfaces. This new technology is useful for end users benefits. With the continuous development and improvement of cloud storage, it will necessarily result in more and more applications in the institutions of higher learning and education network.Originality/value: This paper introduced the cloud storage into the integration of high quality teaching resources in universities first and as a new form of service, it can be a good solution.

  1. Examination of Operation Quality for High-frequent Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2009-01-01

    take the first train in their direction. The article examines four different approaches to examine operation quality for high-frequent operation that are based on the experiences of the passengers. These approaches are the service frequency of the operation, travel time extension, a combination......The examination of operation quality for high-frequent operation requires other approaches than the typical evaluation of punctuality (trains on time) and reliability (operated trains). This is because passengers in high-frequent railway systems do not necessarily notice train delays as they just...... of the service frequency and travel time approaches, and passenger delays. The service frequency and travel time approaches are simple measurements with low complexity and complement each other. Therefore, the article recommends combining the service frequency and travel time approaches to get a more accurate...

  2. Further development of chemical and biological processes for production of bioethanol: Optimisation of pre-treatment processes and characterisation of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Schmidt, Anette Skammelsen

    1999-03-01

    The efficiency of several processes for pre-treatment of lignocellulose has been investigated to provide feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Wet oxidation (WO) (with and without alkaline) has been investigated for wheat straw, birch wood, and willow treating 60 g/L. Three different harvest years of wheat straw were included to evaluate the effect of crop variation from year to year. Comparative studies were made using steaming and steam explosion of wheat straw. Alkaline WO fractionated wheat straw efficiently into solubilised hemicellulose and a highly convertible cellulose fraction. High oxygen (12 bar) during WO and low lignin in treated fibres resulted in highly convertible cellulose. Different optimal reaction conditions were found for different harvest years. For straw 1993 and 1997, conditions were 185 deg. C, 15 minutes resulting in 9-10 g/L solubilised hemicellulose and 63-67% cellulose convertibility. For straw 1994, conditions were 195 deg. C, 5 minutes resulting in 7.5 g/L solubilised hemicellulose and 96% cellulose convertibility. For willow, the optimal pre-treatment was WO without alkaline using 185 deg. C, 15 minutes, giving 8.2 g/L hemicellulose in solution and 50% cellulose convertibility. For birch wood, the best process conditions were hydrothermal treatment (without oxygen and alkaline). At 200 deg. C and 15 minutes, 8 g/L hemicellulose was solubilised with high recoveries for both polysaccharides, however, poor cellulose convertibility was found (<30%). Alkaline WO resulted in the highest cellulose convertibility but low contents of solubilised hemicellulose (<4 g/L). In general, formation of furfural was avoided by adding alkaline during wet oxidation. In the absence of alkaline, furfural formation was higher (up to 130 mg/100 g wheat straw) than that of steam explosion (43 mg/100 g straw). Formation of carboxylic acids was highest during alkaline wet oxidation and highest for birch wood (up to 8 g/L). Minor amounts of

  3. Effects of ultrasound pre-treatment on the amount of dissolved organic matter extracted from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianguo; Gong, Changxiu; Wang, Jiaming; Tian, Sicong; Zhang, Yujing

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a series of studies on the effects of food waste disintegration using an ultrasonic generator and the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) by anaerobic hydrolysis. The results suggest that ultrasound treatment can significantly increase COD [chemical oxygen demand], proteins and reducing sugars, but decrease that of lipids in food waste supernatant. Ultrasound pre-treatment boosted the production of VFAs dramatically during the fermentation of food waste. At an ultrasonic energy density of 480W/L, we treated two kinds of food waste (total solids (TS): 40 and 100g/L, respectively) with ultrasound for 15min. The amount of COD dissolved from the waste increased by 1.6-1.7-fold, proteins increased by 3.8-4.3-fold, and reducing sugars increased by 4.4-3.6-fold, whereas the lipid content decreased from 2 to 0.1g/L. Additionally, a higher VFA yield was observed following ultrasonic pre-treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of covariance with pre-treatment measurements in randomized trials: comparison of equal and unequal slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatogawa, Ikuko; Funatogawa, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    In randomized trials, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is often used to analyze post-treatment measurements with pre-treatment measurements as a covariate to compare two treatment groups. Random allocation guarantees only equal variances of pre-treatment measurements. We hence consider data with unequal covariances and variances of post-treatment measurements without assuming normality. Recently, we showed that the actual type I error rate of the usual ANCOVA assuming equal slopes and equal residual variances is asymptotically at a nominal level under equal sample sizes, and that of the ANCOVA with unequal variances is asymptotically at a nominal level, even under unequal sample sizes. In this paper, we investigated the asymptotic properties of the ANCOVA with unequal slopes for such data. The estimators of the treatment effect at the observed mean are identical between equal and unequal variance assumptions, and these are asymptotically normal estimators for the treatment effect at the true mean. However, the variances of these estimators based on standard formulas are biased, and the actual type I error rates are not at a nominal level, irrespective of variance assumptions. In equal sample sizes, the efficiency of the usual ANCOVA assuming equal slopes and equal variances is asymptotically the same as those of the ANCOVA with unequal slopes and higher than that of the ANCOVA with equal slopes and unequal variances. Therefore, the use of the usual ANCOVA is appropriate in equal sample sizes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 23 experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio; Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Felissia, Fernando; Castro, Eulogio

    2010-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H 2 SO 4 or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2 3 full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and β-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work.

  6. Ultrasound coupled with Fenton oxidation pre-treatment of sludge to release organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Changxiu [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, Jianguo, E-mail: jianguoj@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Management and Environment Safety, Ministry of Education of China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Regional Environmental Quality, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, De' an [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-01

    We focused on the effects of ultrasound and Fenton reagent in ultrasonic coupling Fenton oxidation (U + F) pre-treatment processes on the disintegration of wastewater treatment plant sludge. The results demonstrated that U + F treatment could significantly increase soluble COD, TOC, total N, proteins, total P and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} concentrations in sludge supernatant. This method was more effective than ultrasonic (U) or Fenton oxidation (F) treatment alone. U + F treatment increased the soluble COD by 2.1- and 1.4-fold compared with U and F alone, respectively. U + F treatment increased the total N and P by 1.7- and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared with F alone. After U + F treatment, sludge showed a considerably finer particle size and looser microstructure based on scanning electron microscopy, and the highest OH· signal intensity increased from 568.7 by F treatment to 1106.3 using electron spin resonance. This demonstrated that U + F treatment induces disintegration of sludge and release of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus better. - Highlights: • Combined ultrasound–Fenton pre-treatment was proposed for sludge disintegration. • Ultrasound–Fenton significantly increased carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus release. • Higher level of OH· was detected after combined disintegration than Fenton.

  7. Physico-chemical pre-treatment and biotransformation of wastewater and wastewater sludge--fate of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting compound largely used in plastic and paper industry, ends up in aquatic systems via wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) among other sources. The identification and quantification of BPA in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. Many treatment technologies, including various pre-treatment methods, such as hydrolysis, Fenton oxidation, peroxidation, ultrasonication and ozonation have been developed in order to degrade BPA in WW and WWS and for the production of WWS based value-added products (VAPs). WWS based VAPs, such as biopesticides, bioherbicides, biofertilizers, bioplastics and enzymes are low cost biological alternatives that can compete with chemicals or other cost intensive biological products in the current markets. However, this field application is disputable due to the presence of these organic compounds which has been discussed with a perspective of simultaneous degradation. The pre-treatment produces an impact on rheology as well as value-addition which has been reviewed in this paper. Various analytical techniques available for the detection of BPA in WW and WWS are also discussed. Presence of heavy metals and possible thermodynamical behavior of the compound in WW and WWS can have major impact on BPA removal, which is also included in the review.

  8. Effect of thermal pre-treatment on the availability of PAHs for successive chemical oxidation in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M; Chaudhary, A; Biache, C; Faure, P; Hanna, K

    2016-01-01

    This is the premier study designed to evaluate the impact of thermal pre-treatment on the availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for successive removal by chemical oxidation. Experiments were conducted in two soils having different PAH distribution originating from former coking plant sites (Homécourt, H, and Neuves Maisons, NM) located in northeast of France. Soil samples were pre-heated at 60, 100, and 150 °C for 1 week under inert atmosphere (N2). Pre-heating resulted in slight removal of PAHs (soil samples were subjected to Fenton-like oxidation (H2O2 and magnetite) at room temperature. Chemical oxidation in soil without any pre-treatment showed almost no PAH degradation underscoring the unavailability of PAHs. However, chemical oxidation in pre-heated soils showed significant PAH degradation (19, 29, and 43% in NM soil and 31, 36, and 47% in H soil pre-treated at 60, 100, and 150 °C, respectively). No preferential removal of PAHs was observed after chemical oxidation in both soils. These results indicated the significant impact of pre-heating temperature on the availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and therefore may have strong implications in the remediation of contaminated soils especially where pollutant availability is a limiting factor.

  9. Ultrasound coupled with Fenton oxidation pre-treatment of sludge to release organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Changxiu; Jiang, Jianguo; Li, De'an

    2015-01-01

    We focused on the effects of ultrasound and Fenton reagent in ultrasonic coupling Fenton oxidation (U + F) pre-treatment processes on the disintegration of wastewater treatment plant sludge. The results demonstrated that U + F treatment could significantly increase soluble COD, TOC, total N, proteins, total P and PO 4 3− concentrations in sludge supernatant. This method was more effective than ultrasonic (U) or Fenton oxidation (F) treatment alone. U + F treatment increased the soluble COD by 2.1- and 1.4-fold compared with U and F alone, respectively. U + F treatment increased the total N and P by 1.7- and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared with F alone. After U + F treatment, sludge showed a considerably finer particle size and looser microstructure based on scanning electron microscopy, and the highest OH· signal intensity increased from 568.7 by F treatment to 1106.3 using electron spin resonance. This demonstrated that U + F treatment induces disintegration of sludge and release of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus better. - Highlights: • Combined ultrasound–Fenton pre-treatment was proposed for sludge disintegration. • Ultrasound–Fenton significantly increased carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus release. • Higher level of OH· was detected after combined disintegration than Fenton

  10. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional Nearest neighbor search

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei; Yi, Ke; Sheng, Cheng; Kalnis, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The existing LSH implementations are either rigorous or adhoc. Rigorous-LSH ensures good quality of query results, but requires expensive space and query cost. Although adhoc-LSH is more efficient, it abandons quality control, i.e., the neighbor it outputs can be arbitrarily bad. As a result, currently no method is able to ensure both quality and efficiency simultaneously in practice. Motivated by this, we propose a new access method called the locality sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) that enables fast highdimensional NN search with excellent quality. The combination of several LSB-trees leads to a structure called the LSB-forest that ensures the same result quality as rigorous-LSH, but reduces its space and query cost dramatically. The LSB-forest also outperforms adhoc-LSH, even though the latter has no quality guarantee. Besides its appealing theoretical properties, the LSB-tree itself also serves as an effective index that consumes linear space, and supports efficient updates. Our extensive experiments confirm that the LSB-tree is faster than (i) the state of the art of exact NN search by two orders of magnitude, and (ii) the best (linear-space) method of approximate retrieval by an order of magnitude, and at the same time, returns neighbors with much better quality. © 2009 ACM.

  11. High quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelbloom, A.M.; Hadley, P.; van der Marel, D.; Mooij, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a high quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation developed and tested for the MBE growth of high temperature superconductors. The system can be applied to any electron gun without altering the electron gun itself. Essential elements of the system are a high bandwidth mass spectrometer, control electronics and a high voltage modulator to sweep the electron beam over the melt at high frequencies. the sweep amplitude of the electron beam is used to control the evaporation flux at high frequencies. The feedback loop of the system has a bandwidth of over 100 Hz, which makes it possible to grow superlattices and layered structures in a fast and precisely controlled manner

  12. Safety and quality management at the high flux reactor Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita, A.; Ahlf, J.

    1995-01-01

    The High Flux Reactor (HFR) is one high power multi-purpose materials testing research reactor of the tank-in-pool type, cooled and moderated by light-water. It is operated at 45 MW at a prescribed schedule of 11 cycles per year, each comprising 25 operation days and three shut-down days. Since the licence for the operation of HFR was granted in 1962, a total of 14 amendments to the original licence have been made following different modifications in the installations. In the meantime, international nuclear standards were developed, especially in the framework of the NUSS programme of the IAEA, which were adopted by the Dutch Licensing Authorities. In order to implement the new standards, the situation at the HFR was comprehensively reviewed in the course of an audit performed by the Dutch Licensing Authorities in 1988. This also resulted in formulating the task of setting-up an 'HFR - Integral Quality Assurance Handbook' (HFR-IQAD) involving both organizations JRCIAM and ECN, which had the unique framework and basic guideline to assure the safe and efficient operation and exploitation of the HFR and to promote safety and quality in all aspects of HFR related activities. The assurance of safe and efficient operation and exploitation of the HFR is condensed together under the concepts of safety and quality of services and is achieved through the safety and quality management. (orig.)

  13. Investigations of the pre-treatment and the conversion of energy crops into biogas and bioethanol; Untersuchungen zur Aufbereitung und Umwandlung von Energiepflanzen in Biogas und Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Britt

    2008-07-01

    -degradation of raw materials containing high amounts of lignocellulose should be the subject of research and development in the future. The combination of biological (enzymatic), chemical, thermal and mechanical pre-treatment techniques need to be investigated with the focus on energy efficiency. Methane yields of energy crops and stillage A broad number of biogas tests had been carried out on various maize cultivars. The specific methane yields of the maize cultivars varied over the harvesting date differently. The cultivars with a low ripening number reached higher specific methane yields. The dominant factor for the energy yield per hectare was the dry matter yield, not the specific methane yield. In general it is recommended to use well adapted cultivars with high dry matter yields and a good ensilaging behaviour. The catch crops increased the methane yields per hectare just partly. But for reasons of soil conservation the cultivation is recommended. The nitrogen fertilizer had mostly a positive effect on the dry matter yields and the energy yields per hectare, respectively. Maize gained higher energy yields per hectare than switch grass. The utilization of stillage out of whole maize plants or triticale's grain from the ethanol production as well as the utilization of by-products like straw in the biogas production could double the energy output per hectare compared to the simple ethanol production. Further options for the optimization of the biogas production under conditions of practice are digester systems well-adapted on the substrate, the use of multi step systems and the development of analytic methods in order to gain effective process control. Correlation between chemical components and measured methane yields The specific methane yields calculated out of the neutral detergents fibre, starch, sugar, raw proteins and its substrate-specific factors were very close to the experimentally determined yields of the maize cultivars for the four harvesting times. But

  14. Evaluation of a metal artifact reduction algorithm applied to post-interventional flat detector CT in comparison to pre-treatment CT in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennecke, Angelika; Svergun, Stanislav; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Scholz, Bernhard [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany); Royalty, Kevin [Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Metal artefacts can impair accurate diagnosis of haemorrhage using flat detector CT (FD-CT), especially after aneurysm coiling. Within this work we evaluate a prototype metal artefact reduction algorithm by comparison of the artefact-reduced and the non-artefact-reduced FD-CT images to pre-treatment FD-CT and multi-slice CT images. Twenty-five patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were selected retrospectively. FD-CT and multi-slice CT before endovascular treatment as well as FD-CT data sets after treatment were available for all patients. The algorithm was applied to post-treatment FD-CT. The effect of the algorithm was evaluated utilizing the pre-post concordance of a modified Fisher score, a subjective image quality assessment, the range of the Hounsfield units within three ROIs, and the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation. The pre-post concordance of the modified Fisher score, the subjective image quality, and the pre-post correlation of the ranges of the Hounsfield units were significantly higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. Within the metal-affected slices, the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation coefficient was higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. The overall diagnostic quality of the artefact-reduced images was improved and reached the level of the pre-interventional FD-CT images. The metal-unaffected parts of the image were not modified. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of a metal artifact reduction algorithm applied to post-interventional flat detector CT in comparison to pre-treatment CT in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennecke, Angelika; Svergun, Stanislav; Doerfler, Arnd; Struffert, Tobias; Scholz, Bernhard; Royalty, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Metal artefacts can impair accurate diagnosis of haemorrhage using flat detector CT (FD-CT), especially after aneurysm coiling. Within this work we evaluate a prototype metal artefact reduction algorithm by comparison of the artefact-reduced and the non-artefact-reduced FD-CT images to pre-treatment FD-CT and multi-slice CT images. Twenty-five patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were selected retrospectively. FD-CT and multi-slice CT before endovascular treatment as well as FD-CT data sets after treatment were available for all patients. The algorithm was applied to post-treatment FD-CT. The effect of the algorithm was evaluated utilizing the pre-post concordance of a modified Fisher score, a subjective image quality assessment, the range of the Hounsfield units within three ROIs, and the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation. The pre-post concordance of the modified Fisher score, the subjective image quality, and the pre-post correlation of the ranges of the Hounsfield units were significantly higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. Within the metal-affected slices, the pre-post slice-wise Pearson correlation coefficient was higher for artefact-reduced than for non-artefact-reduced images. The overall diagnostic quality of the artefact-reduced images was improved and reached the level of the pre-interventional FD-CT images. The metal-unaffected parts of the image were not modified. (orig.)

  16. Wellbeing Understanding in High Quality Healthcare Informatics and Telepractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The proper use of healthcare informatics technology and multidimensional conceptual clarity are fundamental to create and boost outstanding clinical and telepractice results. Avoiding even terminology ambiguities is mandatory for high quality of care service. For instance, well-being or wellbeing is a different way to write the same concept only, or there is a good deal of ambiguity around the meanings of these terms the way they are written. In personal health, healthcare and healthcare informatics, this kind of ambiguity and lack of conceptual clarity has been called out repeatedly over the past 50 years. It is time to get the right, terse scenario. We present a brief review to develop and achieve ultimate wellbeing understanding for practical high quality healthcare informatics and telepractice application. This article presents an innovative point of view on deeper wellbeing understanding towards its increased clinical effective application.

  17. Quality assurance system for sitting high risk facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Aymee; Peralta, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    The paper shows how we have conceived and designed the quality assurance system for the site selection process of an area for sitting the facility of high risk in correspondence with the approved methodology. The results obtained in the implementation of the system have permitted the satisfactory performance of each one the expected stage, defining the most favorable sectors in order to continue the studies of the repository site for the disposal of low and intermedium. (author)

  18. High-quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Evgeniya H; Baraket, Mira; Laskoski, Matthew; Mulvaney, Shawn P; Lee, Woo K; Sheehan, Paul E; Hines, Daniel R; Robinson, Jeremy T; Tosado, Jacob; Fuhrer, Michael S; Hernández, Sandra C; Walton, Scott G

    2012-01-11

    In this paper we demonstrate high-quality, uniform dry transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil to polystyrene. The dry transfer exploits an azide linker molecule to establish a covalent bond to graphene and to generate greater graphene-polymer adhesion compared to that of the graphene-metal foil. Thus, this transfer approach provides a novel alternative route for graphene transfer, which allows for the metal foils to be reused. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Coupling of high-quality-factor optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Henriet, Rémi; Coillet, Aurélien; Chembo, Yanne K; Mortier, Michel; Sérier-Brault, Hélène; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    We improve theoretically and experimentally the problem of the coupling between a high Q-factor resonator and its external coupler. We have observed oscillations of ringing induced by the sweeping of the excitation frequency of an active microsphere. Thanks to this approach, the quality factor of an optical resonator was measured and we obtained Q = 5.8 × 10 8 . (paper)

  20. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhanguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome, and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. Results We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. Conclusion A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  1. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  2. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  3. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naga, Reem N.

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  4. Impact of contamination and pre-treatment on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of charred plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiglova, Petra; Snoeck, Christophe; Nitsch, Erika; Bogaard, Amy; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2014-12-15

    Stable isotope analysis of archaeological charred plants has become a useful tool for interpreting past agricultural practices and refining ancient dietary reconstruction. Charred material that lay buried in soil for millennia, however, is susceptible to various kinds of contamination, whose impact on the grain/seed isotopic composition is poorly understood. Pre-treatment protocols have been adapted in distinct forms from radiocarbon dating, but insufficient research has been carried out on evaluating their effectiveness and necessity for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. The effects of previously used pre-treatment protocols on the isotopic composition of archaeological and modern sets of samples were investigated. An archaeological sample was also artificially contaminated with carbonates, nitrates and humic acid and subjected to treatment aimed at removing the introduced contamination. The presence and removal of the contamination were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values. The results show a ca 1‰ decrease in the δ(15)N values of archaeological charred plant material caused by harsh acid treatments and ultra-sonication. This change is interpreted as being caused by mechanical distortion of the grains/seeds rather than by the removal of contamination. Furthermore, specific infrared peaks have been identified that can be used to detect the three types of contaminants studied. We argue that it is not necessary to try to remove humic acid contamination for stable isotope analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of crushing the grains/seeds before pre-treatment are discussed. We recommend the use of an acid-only procedure (0.5 M HCl for 30 min at 80 °C followed by three rinses in distilled water) for cleaning charred plant remains. This study fills an important gap in plant stable isotope research that will enable future researchers to evaluate potential sources of isotopic change and pre

  5. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naga, Reem N., E-mail: reemelnaga@hotmail.com

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  6. Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pui Wah

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

  7. Construction of High-Quality Camel Immune Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Ema; Poignavent, Vianney; Vincke, Cécile; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Muyldermans, Serge; Monsion, Baptiste

    2018-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies libraries of heavy-chain only immunoglobulins from camelids or shark are enriched for high-affinity antigen-specific binders by a short in vivo immunization. Thus, potent binders are readily retrieved from relatively small-sized libraries of 10 7 -10 8 individual transformants, mostly after phage display and panning on a purified target. However, the remaining drawback of this strategy arises from the need to generate a dedicated library, for nearly every envisaged target. Therefore, all the procedures that shorten and facilitate the construction of an immune library of best possible quality are definitely a step forward. In this chapter, we provide the protocol to generate a high-quality immune VHH library using the Golden Gate Cloning strategy employing an adapted phage display vector where a lethal ccdB gene has to be substituted by the VHH gene. With this procedure, the construction of the library can be shortened to less than a week starting from bleeding the animal. Our libraries exceed 10 8 individual transformants and close to 100% of the clones harbor a phage display vector having an insert with the length of a VHH gene. These libraries are also more economic to make than previous standard approaches using classical restriction enzymes and ligations. The quality of the Nanobodies that are retrieved from immune libraries obtained by Golden Gate Cloning is identical to those from immune libraries made according to the classical procedure.

  8. Effectiveness of a pre-treatment snack on the uptake of mass treatment for schistosomiasis in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Katahoire, Anne

    2014-01-01

    -treatment snack on uptake of mass treatment.Methods and Findings:In a cluster randomized trial carried out in Jinja district, Uganda, 12 primary schools were randomized into two groups; one received education messages for schistosomiasis prevention for two months prior to mass treatment, while the other......, in addition to the education messages, received a pre-treatment snack shortly before mass treatment. Four weeks after mass treatment, uptake of praziquantel was assessed among a random sample of 595 children in the snack schools and 689 children in the non-snack schools as the primary outcome. The occurrence...... of side effects and the prevalence and mean intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection were determined as the secondary outcomes. Uptake of praziquantel was higher in the snack schools, 93.9% (95% CI 91.7%-95.7%), compared to that in the non-snack schools, 78.7% (95% CI 75.4%-81.7%) (p = 0...

  9. STRUCTURAL CHANGES EVIDENCED BY FTIR SPECTROSCOPY IN CELLULOSE MATERIALS AFTER PRE-TREATMENT WITH IONIC LIQUID AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Spiridon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Attempts were made to enhance the hydrolysis of Asclepias syriaca (As seed floss and poplar seed floss (PSF by cellulase after pre-treatment with ionic liquids. Two ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroaluminate [EMIM]Cl-AlCl3, were used. In comparison with conventional cellulose pretreatment processes, the ionic liquids were used under a milder condition corresponding to the optimum activity of cellulase. Hydrolysis kinetics of the IL-treated cellulose materials was significantly enhanced. The initial hydrolysis rates for IL-treated cellulose materials were greater than those of non-treated ones. The structural modifications of hydrolyzed cellulose materials were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy.

  10. Separation of phenolic acids from monosaccharides by low-pressure nanofiltration integrated with laccase pre-treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Zeuner, Birgitte; Morthensen, Sofie Thage

    2015-01-01

    (e.g. dimers and trimers) were mainly responsible for the adsorption fouling. Free laccase treatment was preferred since it was prone to produce large polymeric products while the biocatalytic membrane with immobilized laccase was not suitable as it generated smaller polymers by in-situ product...... monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, glucose). Four commercial NF membranes (NF270, NP030, NTR7450 and NP010) were evaluated at different pH values and with various laccase pre-treatments (for polymerization of phenolic acids). The results showed that with increasing pH, the retentions of phenolic acids by NF...... could be polymerized by laccase and then completely retained by the NF membranes via size exclusion at pH 5.15. The formation of large polymeric products by laccase could alleviate the irreversible fouling in/on a NF membrane and decrease the monosaccharide retention, while the small polymeric products...

  11. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. Effect of pre-treatment at elevated temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Yenal, U.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an appropriate technique for the treatment of sludge before final disposal and it is employed worldwide as the oldest and most important process for sludge stabilization. In general, mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is more widely used compared to thermophilic...... digestion. Furthermore, thermal pre-treatment is suitable for the improvement of stabilization, enhancement of dewatering of the sludge, reduction of the numbers of pathogens and could be realized at relatively low cost especially at low temperatures. The present study investigates (a) the differences...... between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge and (b) the effect of the pretreatment at 70 degreesC on mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of primary and secondary sludge. The pretreatment step showed very positive effect on the methane potential and production rate upon...

  12. Three-dimensional pre-treatment verification for intensity modulated radiotherapy using the 3DVH™ software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Lais P.; Silveira, Thiago B.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Trindade, Cassia; Santos, Maira R.; Batista, Delano V.S.

    2013-01-01

    The IMRT quality assurance is normally analyzed punctual or bi-dimensionally. One difficult of this procedure is to evaluate the clinical impact of the QA result on treatment. The 3DVHTM software gives a 3D measured dose distribution, providing DVH analysis for organs at risk and target volumes. The aim of this work is to validate and implement the software 3DVH™ for IMRT treatments and to verify advantages over the QA 2D. The software uses two groups of data to generate the dose distribution: one from the treatment planning system and another from the irradiation for traditional QA 2D, measured with MapCHECK (Sun Nuclear) (MC). To validate the software, a small volume ionization chamber was used to check if both calculated 3DVHTM dose and measured dose by the chamber were equivalent. For QA analysis, ten IMRT cases planned in Eclipse 8.6 (Varian) and treated in Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA) were selected. For all cases, verification plans were created and irradiated in MC, and the analysis were made using the gamma index. Among the cases, five DVH comparisons between planned and measured data presented a deviation lower than 4% of the prescribed dose in 95% of the PTV and GTV's coverage. Other cases showed differences larger than 4%, presented in areas where the movements of the MLC leaves were more complex, mostly in the neighborhood of organs at risk. The 3DVH™ software provides several clinical advantages to IMRT QA, generating refined analysis of the cases evaluated, in comparison to conventional QA 2D. (author)

  13. Pre-treatment technologies, and their effect on international bioenergy supply chain logistics. Techno-economic evaluation of torrefaction, fast pyrolysis and pelletisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, Ayla; Faaij, Andre P.C.; Bergman, P.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The pre-treatment step has a significant influence on the performance of bioenergy chains, especially on logistics. Torrefaction, pelletisation and pyrolysis technologies can convert biomass at modest scales into dense energy carriers that ease transportation and handling. Torrefaction is a very promising technology due to its high process efficiency (94%) compared to pelletisation (84%) and pyrolysis (64%). When torrefaction is combined with pelletisation, the product (TOP) energy content is as high as 20.4-22.7 GJ/ton. The primary energy requirement for TOP delivery from Latin America to Rotterdam harbour can be as low as 0.05 GJ/GJ, in contrast to 0.12 GJ/GJ for pellets and 0.08 GJ/GJ HHV for pyrolysis oil. TOP can be delivered to Europe at over 74 EUR/ton (3.3 EUR/GJ) and electricity could be produced as cheap as 4.4 EURcent/kWh e from an existing co-firing plant. Fisher Tropisch fuel costs 6 EUR/GJ HHV for TOP, 7 EUR/GJ for conventional pellets and 9.5 EUR/GJ HHV for pyrolysis oil. Consequently, fuel production from TOP and conventional pellets is comparable to the current gasoline production cost ranging from 3 to 7 EUR/GJ HHV and diesel from 2 to 7 EUR/GJ HHV , depending on the oil market. Thus, well designed supply chains make international trade of biomass feasible from energy efficiency and economic perspective. (author)

  14. Pre-treatment inflammatory indexes as predictors of survival and cetuximab efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with wild-type RAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Guo, Xinli; Wang, Manni; Ma, Xuelei; Ye, Xiaoyang; Lin, Panpan

    2017-12-07

    This study aims at evaluating the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and systemic immune-inflammation indexes (SII) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with cetuximab. Ninety-five patients receiving cetuximab for mCRC were categorized into the high or low NLR, PLR, LMR, and SII groups based on their median index values. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis were performed to identify the indexes' correlation with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In the univariate analysis, ECOG performance status, neutrphil counts, lymphocyte counts, monocyte counts, NLR, PLR, and LDH were associated with survival. Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG performance status of 0 (hazard ratio [HR] 3.608, p < 0.001; HR 5.030, p < 0.001, respectively), high absolute neutrophil counts (HR 2.837, p < 0.001; HR 1.922, p = 0.026, respectively), low lymphocyte counts (HR 0.352, p < 0.001; HR 0.440, p = 0.001, respectively), elevated NLR (HR 3.837, p < 0.001; HR 2.467, p = 0.006) were independent predictors of shorter PFS and OS. In conclusion, pre-treatment inflammatory indexes, especially NLR were potential biomarkers to predict the survival of mCRC patients with cetuximab therapy.

  15. Pre-treatments applied to oxidized aluminum surfaces to modify the interfacial bonding with bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Teo, M.; Wong, P.C.; Wong, K.C.; Mitchell, K.A.R.

    2005-01-01

    The methods of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to investigate aspects of the bonding of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) onto anodized samples of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy that have been subjected to the various pre-treatments considered in Part I. The oxide layer thins when this sample is subjected to a Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) treatment; topographical changes are detected by SEM after only 5 min, and the 'scallop structures' increase in size for longer times of the FPL treatment. These 7075-Al surfaces adsorb more BTSE than the high-purity Al samples considered in Part I, although the interfacial bonding indicated by the [AlOSi] + /[Al 2 O] + SIMS ratios measured for the former samples are constant for different times of FPL treatment, unlike the situation for high-purity Al. Heating anodized 7075-Al samples, either before or after FPL treatment, has no significant effect on the subsequent BTSE adsorption, but a H 2 plasma treatment can enhance the interfacial Al-O-Si bonding with a decrease in the total BTSE polymerization

  16. Pre-treatments applied to oxidized aluminum surfaces to modify the interfacial bonding with bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Teo, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Wong, P.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Wong, K.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Mitchell, K.A.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)]. E-mail: karm@chem.ubc.ca

    2005-12-15

    The methods of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to investigate aspects of the bonding of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) onto anodized samples of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy that have been subjected to the various pre-treatments considered in Part I. The oxide layer thins when this sample is subjected to a Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) treatment; topographical changes are detected by SEM after only 5 min, and the 'scallop structures' increase in size for longer times of the FPL treatment. These 7075-Al surfaces adsorb more BTSE than the high-purity Al samples considered in Part I, although the interfacial bonding indicated by the [AlOSi]{sup +}/[Al{sub 2}O]{sup +} SIMS ratios measured for the former samples are constant for different times of FPL treatment, unlike the situation for high-purity Al. Heating anodized 7075-Al samples, either before or after FPL treatment, has no significant effect on the subsequent BTSE adsorption, but a H{sub 2} plasma treatment can enhance the interfacial Al-O-Si bonding with a decrease in the total BTSE polymerization.

  17. Ghrelin Pre-treatment Attenuates Local Oxidative Stress and End Organ Damage During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Anesthetized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Fujii, Yutaka; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Pearson, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induced systemic inflammation significantly contributes to the development of postoperative complications, including respiratory failure, myocardial, renal and neurological dysfunction and ultimately can lead to failure of multiple organs. Ghrelin is a small endogenous peptide with wide ranging physiological effects on metabolism and cardiovascular regulation. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of ghrelin against CPB-induced inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress and acute organ damage. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats randomly received vehicle (n = 5) or a bolus of ghrelin (150 μg/kg, sc, n = 5) and were subjected to CPB for 4 h (protocol 1). In separate rats, ghrelin pre-treatment (protocol 2) was compared to two doses of ghrelin (protocol 3) before and after CPB for 2 h followed by recovery for 2 h. Blood samples were taken prior to CPB, and following CPB at 2 h and 4 h. Organ nitrosative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) was measured by Western blotting. CPB induced leukocytosis with increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 indicating a potent inflammatory response. Ghrelin treatment significantly reduced plasma organ damage markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) and protein levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, particularly in the brain, lung and liver, but only partly suppressed inflammatory cell invasion and did not reduce proinflammatory cytokine production. Ghrelin partially attenuated the CPB-induced elevation of epinephrine and to a lesser extent norepinephrine when compared to the CPB saline group, while dopamine levels were completely suppressed. Ghrelin treatment sustained plasma levels of reduced glutathione and decreased glutathione disulphide when compared to CPB saline rats. These results suggest that even though ghrelin only partially inhibited the large CPB induced increase in catecholamines and organ macrophage infiltration, it reduced oxidative

  18. High beam quality and high energy short-pulse laser with MOPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quanwei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, JianFeng; Tan, Liang; Cui, Lingling; Wei, Bin; Sun, Yinhong; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    A high energy, high beam quality short-pulse diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with two amplifier stages is demonstrated. The two-rod birefringence compensation was used as beam quality controlling methods, which presents a short-pulse energy of 40 mJ with a beam quality value of M2 = 1.2 at a repetition rate of 400Hz. The MOPA system delivers a short-pulse energy of 712.5 mJ with a pulse width of 12.4 ns.The method of spherical aberration compensation is improved the beam quality, a M2 factor of 2.3 and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.7% is obtained at the maximum laser out power.The laser obtained 1.4J out energy with polarization integration.

  19. Pre-treatments applied to oxidized aluminum surfaces to modify the interfacial bonding with bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kim, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Wong, P.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Wong, K.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Mitchell, K.A.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)]. E-mail: karm@chem.ubc.ca

    2005-12-15

    A remote microwave-generated H{sub 2} plasma and heating to 250 deg. C were separately used to modify high-purity oxidized aluminum surfaces and to assess whether these treatments can help enhance adhesion with bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) coatings. Different initial oxide surfaces were considered, corresponding to the native oxide and to surfaces formed by the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) treatment applied for either 15 or 60 min. BTSE is applied from solution at pH 4, and competing processes of etching, protonation (to form OH groups) and coupling (to form Al-O-Si interfacial bonds) occur at the solid-liquid interface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine how the topographies of the modified Al surfaces changed with the different pre-treatments and with exposure to a buffer solution of pH 4. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to determine the direct amount of Al-O-Si interfacial bonds by measuring the ratio of peak intensities 71-70 amu, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the overall strength of the silane coating adhesion by measuring the Si 2p signals before and after application of an ultrasonic rinse to the coated sample. Measured Al 2p and O 1s spectra helped assess how the different pre-treatments modified the various Al oxidized surfaces prior to BTSE coating. Pre-treated samples that showed increased Al-O-Si bonding after BTSE coating corresponded to surfaces, which did not show evidence of significant etching after exposure to a pH 4 environment. This suggests that such surfaces are more receptive to the coupling reaction during exposure to the BTSE coating solution. These surfaces include all H{sub 2} plasma-treated samples, the heated native oxide and the sample that only received the 15 min FPL treatment. In contrast, other surfaces that show evidence of etching in pH 4 environments are samples that received lower amounts of Al-O-Si interfacial bonding. Overall, heating

  20. Pre-treatment and recirculation of wood ashes; Forbehandling og recirkulering af flisaske

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, S.; Ingerslev, M.

    2011-07-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. A study was carried out to examine the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilize the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertilizer quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four-day period in spring 2005. Substantial amounts of nutrients were retained in the fly ash (P, Ca, Mg, Mn and Cu have a recovery higher than 60 % and K, S and Fe have a recovery higher than 30 %). The recovery of elements in the bottom ash was smaller. The added recovery of the usable fractions of ashes (both fly ash and bottom ash) exceeded 75 % for the nutrients P, Ca, Mn and Mg. Both these ash fractions should be considered for fertilization. To examine how ash application affects the forest and Christmas tree stand ecosystem and especially the element budget field experiments were established and monitored intensively. Wood ash is alkaline and by spreading ash in the forest ecosystem, the chemistry of soil water and soil is affected. This introduces a risk of scorching the organisms, eg. mosses but also of root damaging and thereby an impaired water and nutrient uptake as a result. The ash contains salts. Some of these salts, especially metal chlorides and metal sulfates can be dissolved quickly and causes a pH decrease in soil water. There may be a risk that the geochemical conditions in the soil changed dramatically within a relatively short period. These changes can affect nutrient concentrations in soil water and mineralization of organic matter in soil. This increases the risk of leaching and permanent loss of nutrients. These adverse effects of wood ash application

  1. Development of nuclear quality high pressure valve bellows in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzen, P.; Astill, C.J.

    1978-06-01

    Concurrent with the decision to use bellows stem sealed nuclear valves where feasible in commercial-scale CANDU plants, AECL undertook to develop an indigenous high pressure valve bellows technology. This program included developing the capability to fabricate improved high pressure valve bellows in conjunction with a Canadian manufacturer. This paper describes the evolution of a two-stage bellows fabrication process involving: (1) manufacture of discrete lengths of precision thin wall telescoping tubes - from preparation of strip blanks through edge grinding and edge forming to longitudinal welding; (2) forming of bellows from tube assemblies using a novel combination of mechanical inward forming followed by hydraulic outward forming. Bellows of Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 have been manufactured and evaluated. Test results indicate comparable to improved performance over alternative high quality bellows. (author)

  2. Enhancing the functionality of cotton fabric by physical and chemical pre-treatments: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargoubi, Sondes; Tolouei, Ranna; Chevallier, Pascale; Levesque, Lucie; Ladhari, Neji; Boudokhane, Chedly; Mantovani, Diego

    2016-08-20

    Recently, antimicrobial and decontaminating textiles, such as cotton a natural carbohydrate polymer, are generating more attention. Plant materials used for natural dyes are expected to impart biofunctional properties and high added valued functional textiles. In the current study, surface modification of cotton to maximize the dye amount on the surface has been investigated. Physical modification using nitrogen-hydrogen plasma, chemical modification using chitosan and chemical modification using dopamine as biopolymers imparting amino groups were explored. Furthermore, dye exhaustion of curcumin, as a natural functional dye has been studied. Dye stability tests were also performed after fabric washing using hospital washing protocol to predict the durability of the functionalizations. The results demonstrated that cotton surfaces treated with dopamine exhibit a high level of dye uptake (78%) and a good washing fastness. The use of non-toxic and natural additives during cotton finishing process could give the opportunity of cradle to cradle design for antimicrobial textile industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  4. High quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, S M; Issac, R C; Welsh, G H; Brunetti, E; Shanks, R P; Anania, M P; Cipiccia, S; Manahan, G G; Aniculaesei, C; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Burgess, R T L; Vieux, G; Jaroszynski, D A [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W A [SUPA, Division of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A M [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Van der Geer, S B; De Loos, M J, E-mail: m.wiggins@phys.strath.ac.u [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    High quality electron beams have been produced in a laser-plasma accelerator driven by femtosecond laser pulses with a peak power of 26 TW. Electrons are produced with an energy up to 150 MeV from the 2 mm gas jet accelerator and the measured rms relative energy spread is less than 1%. Shot-to-shot stability in the central energy is 3%. Pepper-pot measurements have shown that the normalized transverse emittance is {approx}1{pi} mm mrad while the beam charge is in the range 2-10 pC. The generation of high quality electron beams is understood from simulations accounting for beam loading of the wakefield accelerating structure. Experiments and self-consistent simulations indicate that the beam peak current is several kiloamperes. Efficient transportation of the beam through an undulator is simulated and progress is being made towards the realization of a compact, high peak brilliance free-electron laser operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength ranges.

  5. Sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women (gestational diabetes and hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Fatemeh; Sehhatiei Shafaei, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is one of the most basic human requirements. This research aims at determining the status of sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran, in 2015. This research was a sectional study done on 364 qualified women in 28-36 weeks of pregnancy suffering from mild preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The sampling was done as convenience. Personal-social-midwifery questionnaire, Pittsburg sleep quality, and quality of life in pregnancy (QOL-ORAV) were used for gathering data. Multivariate linear regression model was used for determining the relationship between sleep quality and its subsets with quality of life and controlling confounders. In the current study, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 96.4%. Mean (SD) of the total score of sleep quality was 10.1 (4.1) and the total score of quality of life was 61.7 (17.3). According to Pearson's correlation test, there was statistically significant relationship between quality of life and sleep quality and all its subsets except sleep duration and use of sleep medication (p quality of life. The findings of current research show that sleep quality is low among high-risk pregnant women and quality of life is medium. So, it is necessary that required training is given by health cares for improving sleep quality and quality of life to mothers.

  6. Present status of high quality beam facility at Waseda University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, M.; Kawai, H.; Hama, Y.; Kudo, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Kuribayasi, T.; Kawaguchi, M.; Kuroda, R.; Maeda, K.; Nagasawa, F.; Ueyama, D.; Hizume, K.; Wang, X.J.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.; Kashiwagi, S.

    2004-01-01

    A research project named High-Tech Research Center Project has been conducted at Waseda University. In this project, an RF gun system has been used for production of low emittance and short bunched electron beam. The experiments for the electron beam quality measurement have been carried out by slit scan techniques, etc. Short pulsed x-ray with the energy range of so-called water window has been generation by the inverse compton scattering. Further, the pulse radiolysis system has been constructed, and the stroboscopic pulse radiolysis has been applied for the detection of hydrated electron in picosecond time region. (author)

  7. Anti-Stokes Luminescence in High Quality Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinattieri, A.; Bogani, F.; Miotto, A.; Ceccherini, S.

    1997-11-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the anti-Stokes (AS) luminescence which originates from exciton recombination when below gap excitation is used, in a set of high quality quantum well structures. We observe strong excitonic resonances in the AS signal as measured from photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra. We demonstrate that neither the electromagnetic coupling between the wells nor the morphological disorder can explain this up-conversion effect. Time-resolved luminescence data after ps excitation and fs correlation spectroscopy results provide clear evidence of the occurrence of a two-step absorption which is assisted by the exciton population resonantly excited by the first photon.

  8. The quality of high-energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    Supplement 17 of the British Journal of Radiology is a survey of central-axis depth doses for radiotherapy machines, patterned largely on BJR Supplement 11 (1972). Inspection of high-energy X-ray depth doses for a 10 x 10 cm field at an SSD of 100 cm disclosed large differences between the two sets of data, especially for qualities above 8 MV, e.g. a depth dose of 80% at 10 cm is rated at about 19 MV according to BJR Supplement 11, and 23 MV according to BJR Supplement 17. It was found that Supplement 17 depth-dose data above 8 MV were erratic, but Supplement 11 data could be represented by an analytical expression, providing a unique means of assigning MV quality. It was also found that dose-weighted average energy of the filtered beam plotted smoothly against depth dose. For dosimetric purposes, it is suggested that this parameter be used as a true measure of beam quality, removing discrepancies introduced by the use of nominal MV for this purpose. (author)

  9. CCD Astrophotography High-Quality Imaging from the Suburbs

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This is a reference book for amateur astronomers who have become interested in CCD imaging. Those glorious astronomical images found in astronomy magazines might seem out of reach to newcomers to CCD imaging, but this is not the case. Great pictures are attainable with modest equipment. Adam Stuart’s many beautiful images, reproduced in this book, attest to the quality of – initially – a beginner’s efforts. Chilled-chip astronomical CCD-cameras and software are also wonderful tools for cutting through seemingly impenetrable light-pollution. CCD Astrophotography from the Suburbs describes one man’s successful approach to the problem of getting high-quality astronomical images under some of the most light-polluted conditions. Here is a complete and thoroughly tested program that will help every CCD-beginner to work towards digital imaging of the highest quality. It is equally useful to astronomers who have perfect observing conditions, as to those who have to observe from light-polluted city skies.

  10. Is administered radioiodine activity appropriate? The effects of pre- treatment antithyroid drugs on the therapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanayakkara, D.; Udugama, C.; Perera, K.; Herath, S.

    2007-01-01

    initiation of thyroxine replacement. Statistical analysis was done by chi -squared test. A total 297- thyrotoxic patients were treated with RAI during this period. There were 101 GD and 196 TMND patients in this study. Of the GD patients 90% had become hypothyroid, 10% had become euthyroid and none was persistently toxic at one year. On the other hand patient TMND, 30% had become hypothyroid, 66% had become euthyroid and 4% remained persistently toxic at one year. This result showed that GD received activity of 400mBq of RAI had a high frequency of hypothyroidism at one year. Patients with TMND received 550 mBq of RAI showed a high frequency of euthyroidism with less number of hypothyroidism and with few cases of persistent thyrotoxicosis. The rate of RAI induced hypothyroidism between GD and TMND was significant (P< 0.001) in spite of high activity received by the TMND patients than for GD. Table 1.0 Effects of ATD on the RAI Therapy out come at one year GD (n=101) TMND (n=196) 400mBq 550mBq RAI only RAI+ATD RAI only RAI+ATD (n=45) (n=56) (n=49) (n=147) Hypothyroid % 90 91 75 41 Euthyroid % 10 9 21 42 Toxic % 0 0 4 17 Table 1.0 shows effects of ATD on the RAI Therapy out come at one year. In GD patients there was no outcome difference between those who received RAI only and RAI and pre therapy ATD. However, TMND patients who received RAI and pre therapy ATD showed decreased response to the RAI therapy dose compared to the RAI only group. These data demonstrated; 1. 400mBq of RAI is ablative for majority of GD at one year. 2. 550mBq of RAI is nearly optimal for majority of TMND at one year at the expense of few persistent thyrotoxicosis. 3. Pre therapy ATD has no major effects on the RAI therapy outcome in patients with GD 4. Pre therapy ATD has reduced the outcome of RAI therapy dose in patients with TMND 5. Fixed dose RAI regimen recommended by the RCP guideline showed high rate of hypothyroidism in both GD and TMND at 1 year than expected. Close follow- up is important

  11. Application of anodizing as a pre-treatment for nickel plating on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, M.; Ahmad, J.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, M.; Akhtar, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of anodizing on subsequent electroplating of nickel on aluminum was investigated. Electroplated nickel did not exhibit any adhesion with un-anodized aluminum. Formation of a very thin anodized alumina film prior to nickel plating led to an excellent adhesion between the nickel film and the substrate. If the thickness of the alumina film increased, adhesion of electroplated nickel was significantly deteriorated and became similar to that of un-anodized bare aluminum. The study revealed that deposition proceeded through pores and defects in the insulator alumina film. These pores and defects also acted as nucleation and anchor points for nickel deposit. There was larger number of nucleation/ anchor points on thin alumina films. This provided better adhesion of nickel with the substrate as well as excellent coverage in relatively shorter times. On the other hand, very rough and poorly adherent nickel deposits formed on thick anodized films. Therefore, it may be used as precursor for producing nickel powder with controlled particle size as well as a catalyst with high specific surface area for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. (author)

  12. Selection of hydrothermal pre-treatment conditions of waste sludge destruction using multicriteria decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shiekh Khalil, Wael; Shanableh, Abdullah; Rigby, Portia; Kokot, Serge

    2005-04-01

    The effectiveness of hydrothermal treatment for the destruction of the organic content of sludge waste was investigated. The sludge sampled in this study contained approximately 2% solids. The experimental program consisted of hydrothermal treatment experiments conducted in a batch reactor at temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C, with the addition of an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) in the range of 0-150% with reference to TCOD, and reaction times of up to 60 min. The results suggested that the availability of oxidant, reaction temperature and reaction time were the determining factors for COD removal. A significant fraction of the COD remaining after treatment consisted of the dissolved COD. The results confirmed that hydrothermal treatment proceeds through hydrolysis resulting in the production of dissolved organic products followed by COD removal through oxidation. Two MCDM chemometrics methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, were applied to process the large data matrix so as to facilitate the selection of the most suitable hydrothermal conditions for sludge destruction. Two possible scenarios were produced from this analysis-one depended on the use of high temperatures and no oxidant, while the second offered a choice of compromise solutions at lower temperatures but with the use of at least some oxidant. Thus, for the final choice of operating conditions, the decision maker needs local knowledge of the costs and available infrastructure. In principle, such information could be added as further criteria to the data matrix and new rankings obtained.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H B; Heiske, S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species--harvested in Denmark--for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 degrees C) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids(-1) (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 mi gVS(-1) for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS(-1) for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS(-1) for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5-2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during 'green tides' in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor. A 48% increase in methane production rate of the reactor was observed when the concentration of U. lactuca in the feedstock was 40% (VS basis). Increasing the concentration to 50% had no further effect on the methane production, which limits the application of this algae at Danish centralized biogas plant.

  14. Effect of the pre-treatment and the aggregate content on the adhesion strength of repair mortars on Miocene porous limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemerey-Kiss, Balázs; Török, Ákos

    2016-04-01

    The adhesion between porous limestone and newly prepared repair mortars are crucial in the preservation of historic stone structures. Besides mechanical compatibility other matches such as chemical composition and porosity are also essential, but the current research focuses on the adhesion strength of repair mortars that are used in the restoration of Hungarian porous limestone. 8 mortars (4 commercial and 4 specially prepared) were selected for the tests. Mortars with different amount of aggregate were prepared and caste to stone surface. The stone substrate was highly porous Miocene limestone. The strength was tested by standardized pull-out tests which method is commonly used for concrete testing. The limestone surfaces were either used in their natural conditions or were pre-treated (pre-wetting). The strength of the stone/mortar bond was tested. The failure mechanism was documented and various failure modes were identified. Strength test results suggest that especially pre-treatment influences strongly the pull-out strength at mortar/stone interface. Increasing aggregate content also reduces pull out strength of tested repair mortars, but at various rates depending on the mortar type. The financial support of OTKA post-doctoral grant to BSZK (reference number is: PD 112-955) and National Research, Development and Innovation (NKFI) Fund to ÁT (ref. no. K 116532) are appreciated.

  15. Assessment of different pre-treatment methods for the removal of limonene in citrus waste and their effect on methane potential and methane production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Begoña; de Benito, Amparo; Rivera, José Daniel; Flotats, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the limonene removal efficiency of three pre-treatment methods when applied to citrus waste and to evaluate their effects on the biochemical methane potential and the methane production rate using batch anaerobic tests. The methods tested were based on removal (biological pretreatment by fungi) or recovery (steam distillation and ethanol extraction) of limonene. All the treatments decreased the concentration of limonene in orange peel, with average efficiencies of 22%, 44% and 100% for the biological treatment, steam distillation and ethanol extraction, respectively. By-products from limonene biodegradation by fungi exhibited an inhibitory effect also, not making interesting the biological pretreatment. The methane potential and production rate of the treated orange peel increased significantly after applying the recovery strategies, which separated and recovered simultaneously other inhibitory components of the citrus essential oil. Apart from the high recovery efficiency of the ethanol extraction process, it presented a favourable energy balance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M; Schutyser, M A I; Boom, R M; Janssen, A E M

    2018-02-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw) and yield of around 47%. The dry fractionation process only involves milling and sieving and keeps the protein in its natural, native state. The aim was to study the in vitro gastric digestibility of both protein. Attention was paid to thermal pre-treatment of QPI and QPC. QPC showed significantly higher (p < .05) digestibility than QPI samples. The results were interpreted with a simple double exponential model. The fraction of easily digested protein in QPC is higher than for QPI. The better digestibility of the QPC was explained by the prevention of the formation of large aggregates during pre-heating of the protein.

  17. Pre-treatment with dexamethasone attenuates experimental ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Fernando Fonseca Dos; Reboredo, Maycon de Moura; Lucinda, Leda Marília Fonseca; Bianchi, Aydra Mendes Almeida; Rabelo, Maria Aparecida Esteves; Fonseca, Lídia Maria Carneiro da; Oliveira, Júlio César Abreu de; Pinheiro, Bruno Valle

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects that administering dexamethasone before the induction of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) has on the temporal evolution of that injury. Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: pre-VILI administration of dexamethasone (dexamethasone group); pre-VILI administration of saline (control group); or ventilation only (sham group). The VILI was induced by ventilation at a high tidal volume. Animals in the dexamethasone and control groups were euthanized at 0, 4, 24, and 168 h after VILI induction. We analyzed arterial blood gases, lung edema, cell counts (total and differential) in the BAL fluid, and lung histology. At 0, 4, and 24 h after VILI induction, acute lung injury (ALI) scores were higher in the control group than in the sham group (p grupos: administração de dexametasona pré-LPIVM (grupo dexametasona); administração de salina pré-LPIVM (grupo controle); e somente ventilação (grupo sham). A LPIVM foi realizada por ventilação com volume corrente alto. Os animais dos grupos dexametasona e controle foram sacrificados em 0, 4, 24 e 168 h após LPIVM. Analisamos gasometria arterial, edema pulmonar, contagens de células (totais e diferenciais) no lavado broncoalveolar e histologia de tecido pulmonar. Em 0, 4 e 24 h após LPIVM, os escores de lesão pulmonar aguda (LPA) foram maiores no grupo controle que no grupo sham (p grupo dexametasona não foi significativamente diferente daquele observado no grupo sham e foi menor que o observado no grupo controle (p grupos controle e dexametasona, com pico em 4 h após LPIVM (p grupo dexametasona que no grupo controle em 4 e 24 h após LPIVM (p grupo controle. A administração de dexametasona antes de LPIVM atenua os efeitos da lesão em ratos Wistar. Os mecanismos moleculares dessa lesão e o possível papel clínico dos corticosteroides na LPIVM ainda precisam ser elucidados.

  18. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: apedicelli@rm.unicatt.it; Rollo, Massimo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mrollo@rm.unicatt.it; Piano, Mariangela [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mariangela.piano@gmail.com; Re, Thomas J. [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: tomjre@gmail.com; Cipriani, Maria C. [Department of Gerontology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: alexped@yahoo.com; Colosimo, Cesare [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: lbonomo@rm.unicatt.it

    2009-02-15

    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging.

  19. Computer-aided control of high-quality cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the possibility of control of the high-quality grey cast iron and ductile iron using the author’s genuine computer programs. The programs have been developed with the help of algorithms based on statistical relationships that are said to exist between the characteristic parameters of DTA curves and properties, like Rp0,2, Rm, A5 and HB. It has been proved that the spheroidisation and inoculation treatment of cast iron changes in an important way the characteristic parameters of DTA curves, thus enabling a control of these operations as regards their correctness and effectiveness, along with the related changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of cast iron. Moreover, some examples of statistical relationships existing between the typical properties of ductile iron and its control process were given for cases of the melts consistent and inconsistent with the adopted technology.A test stand for control of the high-quality cast iron and respective melts has been schematically depicted.

  20. Automated high speed volume computed tomography for inline quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, R.; Kugel, A.; Troup, P.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing complexity of innovative products as well as growing requirements on quality and reliability call for more detailed knowledge about internal structures of manufactured components rather by 100 % inspection than just by sampling test. A first-step solution, like radioscopic inline inspection machines, equipped with automated data evaluation software, have become state of the art in the production floor during the last years. However, these machines provide just ordinary two-dimensional information and deliver no volume data e.g. to evaluate exact position or shape of detected defects. One way to solve this problem is the application of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Compared to the performance of the first generation medical scanners (scanning times of many hours), today, modern Volume CT machines for industrial applications need about 5 minutes for a full object scan depending on the object size. Of course, this is still too long to introduce this powerful method into the inline production quality control. In order to gain acceptance, the scanning time including subsequent data evaluation must be decreased significantly and adapted to the manufacturing cycle times. This presentation demonstrates the new technical set up, reconstruction results and the methods for high-speed volume data evaluation of a new fully automated high-speed CT scanner with cycle times below one minute for an object size of less than 15 cm. This will directly create new opportunities in design and construction of more complex objects. (author)

  1. Production of high quality water for oil sands application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette-Hodsman, C.; Macleod, B. [Pall Corp., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Venkatadri, R. [Pall Corp., East Hills, NY (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a pressurized microfiltration membrane system installed at an oil sands extraction site in Alberta. The system was designed to complement a reverse osmosis (RO) system installed at the site to produce the high quality feed water required by the system's boilers. Groundwater in the region exhibited moderate total suspended solids and high alkalinity and hardness levels, and the RO system required feed water with a silt density index of 3 or less. The conventional pretreatment system used at the site was slowing down production due to the severe fouling of the RO membranes. The new microfiltration system contained an automated PVDF hollow fiber microfiltration membrane system contained in a trailer. Suspended particles and bacteria were captured within the filter, and permeate was sent to the RO unit. Within 6 hours of being installed, the unit was producing water with SDI values in the range of 1.0 to 2.5. It was concluded that the microfiltration system performed reliably regardless of wide variations in feed water quality and flow rates. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  2. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  3. Enhancing methane production from U. lactuca using combined anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) and rumen fluid pre-treatment and the effect on the solubilization of microbial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Xu, Xiaochen; Li, Liang; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen

    2018-04-01

    Methane production by the anaerobic digestion of seaweed is restricted by the slow degradation caused by the influence of the rigid algal cell wall. At the present time, there has been no study focusing on the anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca by co-fermentation and pre-treatment with rumen fluid. Rumen fluid can favor methane production from algal biomass by utilizing the diversity and quantity of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen fluid. This research presents a novel method based on combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment to improve the production of methane from seaweed. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed to investigate the biogas production using combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment at varied inoculum ratios on the performance of methane production from U. lactuca biomass. Compared to the control (no rumen fluid pre-treatment), the highest BMP yields of U. lactuca increased from 3%, 27.5% and 39.5% to 31.1%, 73% and 85.6%, respectively, for three different types of treatment. Microbial community analysis revealed that the Methanobrevibacter species, known to accept electrons to form methane, were only detected when rumen fluid was added. Together with the significant increase in species of Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta, rumen fluid improved the fermentation and degradation of the microalgae biomass not only by pre-treatment to foster cell-wall degradation but also by relying on methane production within itself during anaerobic processes. Batch experiments further indicated that rumen fluid applied to the co-fermentation and pre-treatment could increase the economic value and hold promise for enhancing biogas production from different seaweed species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on waste activated sludge rheology, hygienization and methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hernando, M; Martín-Díaz, J; Labanda, J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Llorens, J; Lucena, F; Astals, S

    2014-09-15

    Waste activated sludge is slower to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions than is primary sludge due to the glycan strands present in microbial cell walls. The use of pre-treatments may help to disrupt cell membranes and improve waste activated sludge biodegradability. In the present study, the effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on the rheology, hygienization and biodegradability of waste activated sludge was evaluated. The optimum condition of each pre-treatment was selected based on rheological criteria (reduction of steady state viscosity) and hygienization levels (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia). The three pre-treatments were able to reduce the viscosity of the sludge, and this reduction was greater with increasing treatment intensity. However, only the alkali and thermal conditioning allowed the hygienization of the sludge, whereas the ultrasonication did not exhibit any notorious effect on microbial indicators populations. The selected optimum conditions were as follows: 27,000 kJ/kg TS for the ultrasound, 80 °C during 15 min for the thermal and 157 g NaOH/kg TS for the alkali. Afterward, the specific methane production was evaluated through biomethane potential tests at the specified optimum conditions. The alkali pre-treatment exhibited the greatest methane production increase (34%) followed by the ultrasonication (13%), whereas the thermal pre-treatment presented a methane potential similar to the untreated sludge. Finally, an assessment of the different treatment scenarios was conducted considering the results together with an energy balance, which revealed that the ultrasound and alkali treatments entailed higher costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  6. Prediction of lung density changes after radiotherapy by cone beam computed tomography response markers and pre-treatment factors for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study investigates the ability of pre-treatment factors and response markers extracted from standard cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images to predict the lung density changes induced by radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS...... AND MATERIALS: Density changes in follow-up computed tomography scans were evaluated for 135 NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy. Early response markers were obtained by analysing changes in lung density in CBCT images acquired during the treatment course. The ability of pre-treatment factors and CBCT...

  7. Pilot scale digestion of source-sorted household waste as a tool for evaluation of different pre-sorting and pre-treatment strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svärd, Å; Gruvberger, C.; Aspegren, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot scale digestion of the organic fraction of source-sorted household waste from Sweden and Denmark was performed during one year. The study includes 17 waste types with differences in originating municipality, housing type, kitchen wrapping, sack type, pre-treatment method and season. The pilot...... scale digestion has been carried out in systems with a 35-litres digester connected to a 77-litres gas tank. Four rounds of digestion were performed including start-up periods, full operation periods for evaluation and post-digestion periods without feeding. Different pre-sorting and pre-treatment...

  8. Pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved with long-term survival of cirrhotic patients after embolization of gastric fundal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Okugawa, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yoshizumi, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved in the long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with gastric fundal varices (FV) after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Materials and methods: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with medium- or large-grade FV treated by B-RTO were enrolled in this retrospective study. Pre-treatment flow volume ratio between gastric vein and portal trunk (GP-R) was obtained by Doppler ultrasound. Results: The cumulative survival rate was 90% at 1 year, 74.8% at 3 years, 57.2% at 5 years, and 45.8% at 7 years without recurrence in a median period of 1148.5 days The survival was poorer in patients with HCC (47% at 3 years, 9.4% at 5 years, p < 0.0001) than without (89.2% at 3 years, 81.9% at 5 years, 67.5% at 7 years), in patients with Child B/C (57.7% at 3 years, 42.1% at 5 years, 28.1% at 7 years, p = 0.0016) than with Child A (91.8% at 3 years, 71.5% at 5 years, 62.1% at 7 years), and in patients with GP-R ≥ 1.0 (58.9% at 3 years, p = 0.0485) than with GP-R < 1.0 (76.3% at 3 years, 62% at 5 years, 49.6% at 7 years). Multivariate analysis identified the presence of HCC (hazard ratio, 12.486; 95% CI, 4.08-38.216; p < 0.0001), Child B/C (hazard ratio, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.594-7.15; p = 0.0051) and GP-R ≥ 1.0 (hazard ratio, 2.701; 95% CI, 1.07-6.15; p = 0.0221) as independent factors for poor prognosis. Conclusion: GP-R ≥ 1.0 on Doppler ultrasound before B-RTO may be a predictive indicator for poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients with FV after B-RTO, in addition to the presence of HCC and severe liver damage.

  9. Melatonin pre-treatment mitigates SHSY-5Y cells against oxaliplatin induced mitochondrial stress and apoptotic cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Arnab; Kar, Sudeshna; Tabassum, Heena

    2017-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (Oxa) treatment to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells has been shown by previous studies to induce oxidative stress, which in turn modulates intracellular signaling cascades resulting in cell death. While this phenomenon of Oxa-induced neurotoxicity is known, the underlying mechanisms involved in this cell death cascade must be clarified. Moreover, there is still little known regarding the roles of neuronal mitochondria and cytosolic compartments in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity. With a better grasp of the mechanisms driving neurotoxicity in Oxa-treated SH-SY5Y cells, we can then identify certain pathways to target in protecting against neurotoxic cell damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether one such agent, melatonin (Mel), could confer protection against Oxa-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Results from the present study found Oxa to significantly reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, we found Mel pre-treatment to SH-SY5Y cells to attenuate Oxa-induced toxicity, resulting in a markedly increased cell viability. Mel exerted its protective effects by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reducing superoxide radicals inside Oxa-exposed. In addition, we observed pre-treatment with Mel to rescue Oxa-treated cells by protecting mitochondria. As Oxa-treatment alone decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), resulting in an altered Bcl-2/Bax ratio and release of sequestered cytochrome c, so Mel was shown to inhibit these pathways. Mel was also found to inhibit proteolytic activation of caspase 3, inactivation of Poly (ADP Ribose) polymerase, and DNA damage, thereby allowing SH-SY5Y cells to resist apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest a role for melatonin in reducing Oxa induced neurotoxicity. Further studies exploring melatonin’s protective effects may prove successful in eliciting pathways to further alter the neurotoxic pathways of

  10. Melatonin pre-treatment mitigates SHSY-5Y cells against oxaliplatin induced mitochondrial stress and apoptotic cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Waseem

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin (Oxa treatment to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells has been shown by previous studies to induce oxidative stress, which in turn modulates intracellular signaling cascades resulting in cell death. While this phenomenon of Oxa-induced neurotoxicity is known, the underlying mechanisms involved in this cell death cascade must be clarified. Moreover, there is still little known regarding the roles of neuronal mitochondria and cytosolic compartments in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity. With a better grasp of the mechanisms driving neurotoxicity in Oxa-treated SH-SY5Y cells, we can then identify certain pathways to target in protecting against neurotoxic cell damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether one such agent, melatonin (Mel, could confer protection against Oxa-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Results from the present study found Oxa to significantly reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, we found Mel pre-treatment to SH-SY5Y cells to attenuate Oxa-induced toxicity, resulting in a markedly increased cell viability. Mel exerted its protective effects by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production and reducing superoxide radicals inside Oxa-exposed. In addition, we observed pre-treatment with Mel to rescue Oxa-treated cells by protecting mitochondria. As Oxa-treatment alone decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, resulting in an altered Bcl-2/Bax ratio and release of sequestered cytochrome c, so Mel was shown to inhibit these pathways. Mel was also found to inhibit proteolytic activation of caspase 3, inactivation of Poly (ADP Ribose polymerase, and DNA damage, thereby allowing SH-SY5Y cells to resist apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest a role for melatonin in reducing Oxa induced neurotoxicity. Further studies exploring melatonin's protective effects may prove successful in eliciting pathways to further alter the neurotoxic

  11. Pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved with long-term survival of cirrhotic patients after embolization of gastric fundal varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi, E-mail: maru-cib@umin.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Okugawa, Hidehiro, E-mail: hideun@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Kobayashi, Satoshi, E-mail: kobakobakopa@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yoshizumi, Hiroaki, E-mail: yossih04@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu, E-mail: yokosukao@faculty.chiba-u.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To clarify the pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved in the long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with gastric fundal varices (FV) after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Materials and methods: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with medium- or large-grade FV treated by B-RTO were enrolled in this retrospective study. Pre-treatment flow volume ratio between gastric vein and portal trunk (GP-R) was obtained by Doppler ultrasound. Results: The cumulative survival rate was 90% at 1 year, 74.8% at 3 years, 57.2% at 5 years, and 45.8% at 7 years without recurrence in a median period of 1148.5 days The survival was poorer in patients with HCC (47% at 3 years, 9.4% at 5 years, p < 0.0001) than without (89.2% at 3 years, 81.9% at 5 years, 67.5% at 7 years), in patients with Child B/C (57.7% at 3 years, 42.1% at 5 years, 28.1% at 7 years, p = 0.0016) than with Child A (91.8% at 3 years, 71.5% at 5 years, 62.1% at 7 years), and in patients with GP-R {>=} 1.0 (58.9% at 3 years, p = 0.0485) than with GP-R < 1.0 (76.3% at 3 years, 62% at 5 years, 49.6% at 7 years). Multivariate analysis identified the presence of HCC (hazard ratio, 12.486; 95% CI, 4.08-38.216; p < 0.0001), Child B/C (hazard ratio, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.594-7.15; p = 0.0051) and GP-R {>=} 1.0 (hazard ratio, 2.701; 95% CI, 1.07-6.15; p = 0.0221) as independent factors for poor prognosis. Conclusion: GP-R {>=} 1.0 on Doppler ultrasound before B-RTO may be a predictive indicator for poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients with FV after B-RTO, in addition to the presence of HCC and severe liver damage.

  12. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  13. Routine quality control of high dose rate brachytherapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Calcina, Carmen S.; Almeida, Adelaide de; Rocha, Jose R. Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A Quality Assurance program should be installed also for High Dose Rate brachytherapy, in the order to achieve a correct dose administration to the patient and for the safety to those involved directly with the treatment. The work presented here has the following purposes: Analyze the types of equipment tests presented by the official protocols (TG40, TG56 e ARCAL XXX), evaluate the brachytherapy routine tests of protocols from various national and international radiotherapy services and compare the latter with those presented in the official protocols. As a result, we conclude the following: TG56 presents a higher number of tests when compared to the other official protocols and most of the tests presented by the analyzed services are present in TG56. A suggestion for a basic protocol is presented, emphasizing the periodicity and tolerance level of each of the tests. (author)

  14. High quality diesel fuels by VO-LSGO hydrotreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanica-Ezeanu, Dorin; Juganaru, Traian [Petroleum and Gas Univ. of Ploiesti (Romania)

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to obtain a high quality Diesel fuel by hydro-deoxigenation of vegetable oils (VO) mixed with a low sulfur gasoil (LSGO). The process is possible by using a bi-functional catalyst Ni-Mo supported by an activated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing 2% Ultrastable Y-zeolite. The experimental conditions were: T =340 - 380 C, Pressure = 50 bar, LHSV = 1,5 h{sup -1}, H{sub 2}/Feed ratio = 15 mole H{sub 2} /mole liquid feed. The liquid product was separated in two fractions: a light distillate (similar to gasoline) and a heavy distillate (boiling point > 200 C) with very good characteristics for Diesel engines. The reaction chemistry is very complex, but the de-oxygenation process is decisive for the chemical structure of hydrocarbons from final product. Finally, a schema for the reaction mechanism is proposed. (orig.)

  15. Supercapacitors based on high-quality graphene scrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanyan; Kuang, Yafei; Liu, Gaoqin; Liu, Rui; Huang, Zhongyuan; Fu, Chaopeng; Zhou, Haihui

    2012-06-01

    High-quality graphene scrolls (GSS) with a unique scrolled topography are designed using a microexplosion method. Their capacitance properties are investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Compared with the specific capacity of 110 F g-1 for graphene sheets, a remarkable capacity of 162.2 F g-1 is obtained at the current density of 1.0 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution owing to the unique scrolled structure of GSS. The capacity value is increased by about 50% only because of the topological change of graphene sheets. Meanwhile, GSS exhibit excellent long-term cycling stability along with 96.8% retained after 1000 cycles at 1.0 A g-1. These encouraging results indicate that GSS based on the topological structure of graphene sheets are a kind of promising material for supercapacitors.

  16. A roadmap to high quality chemically prepared graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gengler, Regis Y N; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Rudolf, Petra, E-mail: r.gengler@rug.n, E-mail: p.rudolf@rug.n [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-22

    Graphene was discovered half a decade ago and proved the existence of a two-dimensional system which becomes stable as a result of 3D corrugation. It appeared very quickly that this exceptional material had truly outstanding electronic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties. Consequently a broad range of applications appeared, as the graphene science speedily moved forward. Since then, a lot of effort has been devoted not only to the study of graphene but also to its fabrication. Here we review the chemical approaches to graphene production, their advantages as well as their downsides. Our aim is to draw a roadmap of today's most reliable path to high quality graphene via chemical preparation.

  17. High quality factor HTS Josephson junctions on low loss substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stornaiuolo, D; Longobardi, L; Massarotti, D; Barone, A; Tafuri, F [CNR-SPIN Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Papari, G; Carillo, F [NEST, CNR-NANO and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cennamo, N [Dipartimento Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    We have extended the off-axis biepitaxial technique to produce YBCO grain boundary junctions on low loss substrates. Excellent transport properties have been reproducibly found, with remarkable values of the quality factor I{sub c}R{sub n} (with I{sub c} the critical current and R{sub n} the normal state resistance) above 10 mV, far higher than the values commonly reported in the literature for high temperature superconductor (HTS) based Josephson junctions. The outcomes are consistent with a picture of a more uniform grain boundary region along the current path. This work supports a possible implementation of grain boundary junctions for various applications including terahertz sensors and HTS quantum circuits in the presence of microwaves.

  18. A roadmap to high quality chemically prepared graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengler, Regis Y N; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Rudolf, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Graphene was discovered half a decade ago and proved the existence of a two-dimensional system which becomes stable as a result of 3D corrugation. It appeared very quickly that this exceptional material had truly outstanding electronic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties. Consequently a broad range of applications appeared, as the graphene science speedily moved forward. Since then, a lot of effort has been devoted not only to the study of graphene but also to its fabrication. Here we review the chemical approaches to graphene production, their advantages as well as their downsides. Our aim is to draw a roadmap of today's most reliable path to high quality graphene via chemical preparation.

  19. CHOREOGRAPHIC METHODS FOR CREATING NOVEL, HIGH QUALITY DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kirsh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a detailed ethnographic study of the dance creation process of a noted choreographer and his distinguished troupe. All choreographer dancer interactions were videoed, the choreographer and dancers were interviewed extensively each day, as well as other observations and tests performed. The choreographer used three main methods to produce high quality and novel content: showing, making-on, and tasking. We present, analyze and evaluate these methods, and show how these approaches allow the choreographer to increase the creative output of the dancers and him. His methods, although designed for dance, apply more generally to other creative endeavors, especially where brainstorming is involved, and where the creative process is distributed over many individuals. His approach is also a case study in multi-modal direction, owing to the range of mechanisms he uses to communicate and direct.

  20. Biotransformation of Organic Waste into High Quality Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie

    Agriculture faces several challenges of future provision of nutrients such as limited P reserves and increasing prices of synthetic fertilizers and recycling of nutrients from organic waste can be an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of the agricultural systems. Organically...... and S, is often low; and (3) the unbalanced composition of nutrients rarely matches crop demands. Therefore the objective of this project was to investigate the potential for (1) recycling nutrients from agro-industrial wastes and (2) compost biotransformation into high-quality organic fertilizers...... other uses into fertilizer use would be unlikely. An estimated ~50 % of the total organic waste pool, primarily consisting of animal manure and waste from the processing of sugar cane, coffee, oil palm and oranges, is currently being re-used as “fertilizers”, meaning it is eventually returned...

  1. Production and characterization of enzymatic cocktail produced by Aspergillus niger using green macroalgae as nitrogen source and its application in the pre-treatment for biogas production from Ulva rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, Raida; Hamza, Manel; Sayadi, Sami

    2016-09-01

    Marine macroalgae are gaining more and more importance as a renewable feedstock for durable bioenergy production, but polysaccharides of this macroalgae are structurally complex in its chemical composition. The use of enzymatic hydrolysis may provide new pathways in the conversion of complex polysaccharides to fermentable sugars. In this study, an enzymatic cocktail with high specificity was first isolated from Aspergillus niger using the green macroalgae Ulva rigida as nitrogen source. The cocktail is rich on β-glucosidase, pectinase and carboxy-methyl-cellulase (CMCase). The highest activity was obtained with β-glucosidase (109IUmL(-1)) and pectinase (76IUmL(-1)), while CMCase present the lowest activity 4.6IUmL(-1). The U. rigida pre-treatment with this enzymatic cocktail showed high rate of reduced sugar release, and could bring promising prospects for enzymatic pre-treatment of the biogas production from U. rigida biomass which reached 1175mLgCODint(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of pregnancy rates in pre-treatment male infertility and low total motile sperm count at insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cheng Wei; Agbo, Chioma; Dahan, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    In intrauterine insemination (IUI), total motile sperm count (TMSC) is an important predictor of pregnancy. However, the clinical significance of a poor TMSC on the day of IUI in a patient with prior normal semen analysis (SA) is unclear. We performed this study to determine if these patients perform as poorly as those who had male factor infertility diagnosed prior to commencing treatment. 147 males with two abnormal SA based on the 2010 World Health Organization criteria underwent 356 IUI with controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation (COH). Their pregnancy rates were compared to 120 males who had abnormal TMSC at the time of 265 IUI with COH, in a retrospective university-based study. The two groups were comparable in female age (p = 0.11), duration of infertility (p = 0.17), previous pregnancies (p = 0.13), female basal serum FSH level (p = 0.54) and number of mature follicles on the day of ovulation trigger (p = 0.27). Despite better semen parameters on the day of IUI in the pre-treatment male factor infertility group (TMSC mean ± SD: 61 ± 30 million vs. 3.5 ± 2 million, p male factor infertility. More studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  3. Study on different pre-treatment procedures for metal determination in Orujo spirit samples by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barciela, Julia; Vilar, Manuela; Garcia-Martin, Sagrario; Pena, Rosa M.; Herrero, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    In this work several pre-treatment methods were studied for metal (Na, K, Mg, Cu and Ca) determination in Orujo spirit samples using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Dilution, digestion, evaporation, and cryogenic desolvatation techniques were comparatively evaluated. Because of their analytical characteristics, digestion and evaporation with nitrogen current were found to be appropriate procedures for the determination of metals in alcoholic spirit samples. Yet, if simplicity and application time are to be considered, the latter-evaporation in a water bath with a nitrogen current-stands out as the optimum procedure for any further determinations in Orujo samples by ICP-AES. Low detection levels and wide linear ranges (sufficient to determine these metals in the samples studied) were achieved for each metal. The recoveries (in the 97.5-100.5% range) and the precision (R.S.D. lower than 5.6%) obtained were also satisfactory. The selected procedure was applied to determine the content of metals in 80 representative Galician Orujo spirit samples with and without a Certified Brand of Origin (CBO) which had been produced using different distillation systems. The metal concentrations ranged between 0.37 and 79.7 mg L -1 for Na, -1 for K, 0.02-4.83 mg L -1 for Mg content, -1 for Cu and 0.03-13.10 mg L -1 for Ca

  4. Effect of low solids retention time and focused pulsed pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Su; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2011-02-01

    The interacting effects of Focused Pulsed (FP) treatment and solids retention time (SRT) were evaluated in laboratory-scale digesters operated at SRTs of 2-20 days. Anaerobic digestion and methanogenesis of waste activated sludge (WAS) were stable for SRT ≥ 5 days, but the effluent soluble organic compounds increased significantly for SRT=2 days due to a combination of faster hydrolysis kinetics and washout of methanogens. FP treatment increased the CH(4) production rate and TCOD removal efficiency by up to 33% and 18%, respectively, at a SRT of 20 days. These effects were the result of an increase in the hydrolysis rate, since the concentrations of soluble components remained low for SRT ≥ 5 days. Alternately, FP pre-treatment of WAS allowed the same conversion of TCOD to CH(4) with a smaller SRT and digester size: e.g., 40% size savings with a CH(4) conversion of 0.23 g CH(4)-COD/g COD(in). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-treatment of thermoduric spores in CO2 modified atmosphere and their survivability during food extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fraiha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to evaluate how susceptible spores become to mechanical damage during food extrusion after being submitted to CO2. B. stearothermophilus spores sowed to corn and soy mix were submitted to 99% CO2 for 10 days and extruded in a single-screw extruder. The treatments were: T1 - spore-containing samples, extruded at screw rotational speed of 65 rpm and barrel wall temperature of 80 °C; T2 - as T1, except for screw rotational speed of 150 rpm; and T3 - as T2, except that samples were submitted to the modified atmosphere. The results for cell viability, minimum and maximum residence times, and static pressure were T1 - 19.90 ± 3.24%, 123.3 ± 14.50 seconds; 203.3 ± 14.05 seconds; 2.217 ± 62 kPa; T2 - 21.42 ± 8.24%, 70.00 ± 5.77 seconds; 170.00 ± 4.67 seconds; 2.310 ± 107 kPa; and T3 - 11.06 ± 2.46%, 86.00 ± 7.23 seconds; 186.00 ± 7.50 seconds; 2.403 ± 93 kPa, respectively. It was concluded that the extrusion process did reduce the cell count. However, screw rotational speed variation or CO2 pre-treatment did not affect cell viability.

  6. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide pre-treatment on UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrikova, A.; Vladkova, R.; Stanoeva, D.; Popova, A.; Velitchkova, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the UV-B-induced changes in the pigment content of pea leaves were studied. Control (non-EBR-treated) and EBR-treated plants were irradiated with UV-B for 3 h and pigment analysis was performed after 24 and 48 h. The results show that EBR spraying of plants 48 h prior to UV-B exposure alleviates its detrimental effect on chlorophyll a and b (Chl a and Chl b) content in comparison with control pea leaves. An increase in carotenoids (Car) and UV-B absorbing compounds was also observed at low dose of UV-B radiation. For the first time, it is shown that UV-B damage effect on control leaves is accompanied by a significant (more than 50%) increase in their pheophytin a (Pheo a) content 48 h after the UV-B exposure and that the EBR pre-treatment prevents the increase of Pheo a content in UV-B irradiated leaves. In addition, it is demonstrated that EBR application modifies UV-B-induced alterations of energy distribution between the main pigment-protein complexes in pea thylakoid membranes

  7. Concurrent Lactic and Volatile Fatty Acid Analysis of Microbial Fermentation Samples by Gas Chromatography with Heat Pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwin; WipaCharles; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Organic acid analysis of fermentation samples can be readily achieved by gas chromatography (GC), which detects volatile organic acids. However, lactic acid, a key fermentation acid is non-volatile and can hence not be quantified by regular GC analysis. However the addition of periodic acid to organic acid samples has been shown to enable lactic acid analysis by GC, as periodic acid oxidizes lactic acid to the volatile acetaldehyde. Direct GC injection of lactic acid standards and periodic acid generated inconsistent and irreproducible peaks, possibly due to incomplete lactic acid oxidation to acetaldehyde. The described method is developed to improve lactic acid analysis by GC by using a heat treated derivatization pre-treatment, such that it becomes independent of the retention time and temperature selection of the GC injector. Samples containing lactic acid were amended by periodic acid and heated in a sealed test tube at 100°C for at least 45 min before injecting it to the GC. Reproducible and consistent peaks of acetaldehyde were obtained. Simultaneous determination of lactic acid, acetone, ethanol, butanol, volatile fatty acids could also be accomplished by applying this GC method, enabling precise and convenient organic acid analysis of biological samples such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation processes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Improvement of the T-peel Strength of Polypropylene Adhesion Joints by Surface Photografting Pre-Treatment with Methyl Methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balart, R.; Sánchez-Nácher, L.; Balart, J.; Fombuena, V.; España, J. M.

    2010-06-01

    Although polypropylene is one of the most used polymers at industrial level due to good balanced properties, it presents some restrictions in applications that require good adhesion properties as well as coating and painting. These restrictions are related to its non polar nature which leads to low wetting properties. So that, in most cases, it is necessary a previous surface pre-treatment in order to improve adhesion properties. These surface treatments could be physical or chemical. Among the wide variety of physical processes, plasma technologies are useful from both technical and environmental points of view. If we take into account economic considerations, chemical processes are interesting due to low cost equipment and procedures. In particular, we have used photografting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer on polypropylene substrates with UV radiation and initiators. This process is useful to promote chemical modification of polypropylene surface by grafting MMA monomers into polypropylene polymer chains. Due to polarity of some groups in MMA monomers, it is possible to increase surface wettability thus promoting a remarkable increase in adhesion properties of polypropylene. In this work, changes in wettability of polypropylene surfaces in terms of the exposure time to UV radiation in presence of MMA monomers and initiators has been investigated. Furthermore, chemical changes have been characterized by FTIR analysis and mechanical performance of adhesion joints has been evaluated by T-peel tests.

  9. Evaluation of Adsorption Capacity of Chitosan-Citral Schiff Base for Wastewater Pre-Treatment in Dairy Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desislava K. Tsaneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the Schiff base chitosan-citral for its application in dairy wastewater pre-treatment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD reduction was the factor used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. The maximum COD percentage reduction of 35.3% was obtained at 40.0 °C, pH 9.0, adsorbent dose 15 g L-1, contact time 180 min and agitation speed 100 rpm. It was found that the Langmuir isotherm fitted well the equilibrium data of COD uptake (R2 = 0.968, whereas the kinetic data were best fitted by the pseudo-second order model (R2=0.999. Enhancement of the adsorption efficiency up to 29.8% in dependence of the initial COD concentration of the dairy wastewater was observed by adsorption with the Schiff base chitosan-citral adsorbent compared to the non-modified chitosan at the same experimental conditions. The results indicated that the Schiff base chitosan-citral can be used for dairy wastewater physicochemical pretreatment by adsorption, which might be applied before the biological unit in the wastewater treatment plant to reduce the load.

  10. Novel pre-treatment of zeolite materials for the removal of sodium ions: potential materials for coal seam gas co-produced wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Oscar; Walsh, Kerry; Kele, Ben; Gardner, Edward; Chapman, James

    2016-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is the extraction of methane gas that is desorbed from the coal seam and brought to the surface using a dewatering and depressurisation process within the saturated coalbed. The extracted water is often referred to as co-produced CSG water. In this study, co-produced water from the coal seam of the Bowen Basin (QLD, Australia) was characterised by high concentration levels of Na(+) (1156 mg/L), low concentrations of Ca(2+) (28.3 mg/L) and Mg(2+) (5.6 mg/L), high levels of salinity, which are expected to cause various environmental problems if released to land or waters. The potential treatment of co-produced water using locally sourced natural ion exchange (zeolite) material was assessed. The zeolite material was characterized for elemental composition and crystal structure. Natural, untreated zeolite demonstrated a capacity to adsorb Na(+) ions of 16.16 mEq/100 g, while a treated zeolite using NH4 (+) using a 1.0 M ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) solution demonstrated an improved 136 % Na(+) capacity value of 38.28 mEq/100 g after 720 min of adsorption time. The theoretical exchange capacity of the natural zeolite was found to be 154 mEq/100 g. Reaction kinetics and diffusion models were used to determine the kinetic and diffusion parameters. Treated zeolite using a NH4 (+) pre-treatment represents an effective treatment to reduce Na(+) concentration in coal seam gas co-produced waters, supported by the measured and modelled kinetic rates and capacity.

  11. Pre-treatment functional MRI of breast cancer: T2* evaluation at 3 T and relationship to dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousi, Evanthia; O'Flynn, Elizabeth A M; Borri, Marco; Morgan, Veronica A; deSouza, Nandita M; Schmidt, Maria A

    2018-05-31

    Baseline T2* relaxation time has been proposed as an imaging biomarker in cancer, in addition to Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters. The purpose of the current work is to investigate sources of error in T2* measurements and the relationship between T2* and DCE and DWI functional parameters in breast cancer. Five female volunteers and thirty-two women with biopsy proven breast cancer were scanned at 3 T, with Research Ethics Committee approval. T2* values of the normal breast were acquired from high-resolution, low-resolution and fat-suppressed gradient-echo sequences in volunteers, and compared. In breast cancer patients, pre-treatment T2*, DCE MRI and DWI were performed at baseline. Pathologically complete responders at surgery and non-responders were identified and compared. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were performed. There were no significant differences between T2* values from high-resolution, low-resolution and fat-suppressed datasets (p > 0.05). There were not significant differences between baseline functional parameters in responders and non-responders (p > 0.05). However, there were differences in the relationship between T2* and contrast-agent uptake in responders and non-responders. Voxels of similar characteristics were grouped in 5 clusters, and large intra-tumoural variations of all parameters were demonstrated. Breast T2* measurements at 3 T are robust, but spatial resolution should be carefully considered. T2* of breast tumours at baseline is unrelated to DCE and DWI parameters and contribute towards describing functional heterogeneity of breast tumours. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  13. Impact of microwave pre-treatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive mill solid residue: a kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, B.; Gonzalez de Canales, M.; Martin, A.; Borja, R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a microwave (MW) pre-treatment on two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) or alperujo with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility was studied. The MW pre-treatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and at a targeted temperature of 50 °C using different heating rates and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW1), 4830 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW2), 7170 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW3) and 7660 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW4). The maximum methane yield, 395±1 mL CH4·g VSadded−1, was obtained for MW4. The effect of the pre-treatment on the kinetics of the process was also studied. The methane production curves generated during the batch tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage for all the cases studied. In the first stage, the kinetic constant for the pre-treatment MW1 was 54.8% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSR. [es

  14. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  15. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  16. High-quality remote interactive imaging in the operating theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstead, Ian J.; Avis, Nick J.; Evans, Peter L.; Bocca, Alan

    2009-02-01

    We present a high-quality display system that enables the remote access within an operating theatre of high-end medical imaging and surgical planning software. Currently, surgeons often use printouts from such software for reference during surgery; our system enables surgeons to access and review patient data in a sterile environment, viewing real-time renderings of MRI & CT data as required. Once calibrated, our system displays shades of grey in Operating Room lighting conditions (removing any gamma correction artefacts). Our system does not require any expensive display hardware, is unobtrusive to the remote workstation and works with any application without requiring additional software licenses. To extend the native 256 levels of grey supported by a standard LCD monitor, we have used the concept of "PseudoGrey" where slightly off-white shades of grey are used to extend the intensity range from 256 to 1,785 shades of grey. Remote access is facilitated by a customized version of UltraVNC, which corrects remote shades of grey for display in the Operating Room. The system is successfully deployed at Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK, and is in daily use during Maxillofacial surgery. More formal user trials and quantitative assessments are being planned for the future.

  17. Blueprint for action: steps toward a high-quality, high-value maternity care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angood, Peter B; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Ashton, Diane; Burstin, Helen; Corry, Maureen P; Delbanco, Suzanne F; Fildes, Barbara; Fox, Daniel M; Gluck, Paul A; Gullo, Sue Leavitt; Howes, Joanne; Jolivet, R Rima; Laube, Douglas W; Lynne, Donna; Main, Elliott; Markus, Anne Rossier; Mayberry, Linda; Mitchell, Lynn V; Ness, Debra L; Nuzum, Rachel; Quinlan, Jeffrey D; Sakala, Carol; Salganicoff, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Childbirth Connection hosted a 90th Anniversary national policy symposium, Transforming Maternity Care: A High Value Proposition, on April 3, 2009, in Washington, DC. Over 100 leaders from across the range of stakeholder perspectives were actively engaged in the symposium work to improve the quality and value of U.S. maternity care through broad system improvement. A multi-disciplinary symposium steering committee guided the strategy from its inception and contributed to every phase of the project. The "Blueprint for Action: Steps Toward a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", issued by the Transforming Maternity Care Symposium Steering Committee, answers the fundamental question, "Who needs to do what, to, for, and with whom to improve the quality of maternity care over the next five years?" Five stakeholder workgroups collaborated to propose actionable strategies in 11 critical focus areas for moving expeditiously toward the realization of the long term "2020 Vision for a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", also published in this issue. Following the symposium these workgroup reports and recommendations were synthesized into the current blueprint. For each critical focus area, the "Blueprint for Action" presents a brief problem statement, a set of system goals for improvement in that area, and major recommendations with proposed action steps to achieve them. This process created a clear sightline to action that if enacted could improve the structure, process, experiences of care, and outcomes of the maternity care system in ways that when anchored in the culture can indeed transform maternity care. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  18. Stress and sleep quality in high school brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Mesquita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of stress on sleep quality in a group of adolescents. METHOD: Two high schools in Alfenas, southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were chosen to participate in the study. The sample consisted of both genders (n=160 with 65.63% females. The age range of participants was 15 to18 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was applied for collection of data to quantify sleep quality. The Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms that objectively identifies symptoms of stress was applied. RESULTS: It was observed that 23.53% of stressed students and 45.33% of unstressed ones sleep well; 76.47% of stressed pupils and 54.67% of those unstressed do not sleep well. With regard to school performance, a mean of 0.65 was found for stressed students and 0.60 for those without stress, Mann-Whitney (p=0.0596. CONCLUSION: Stress contributed to raising the percentage of poor sleepers, as ell as increasing ean school performance.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência do stress sobre a qualidade do sono em um grupo de adolescentes. MÉTODO: Foram escolhidas duas instituições educacionais do ensino médio, na cidade de Alfenas, sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A amostra foi composta por ambos os sexos (n=160, com 65,63% do sexo feminino. A faixa etária dos participantes foi de 15 a 18 anos. Para a coleta de dados aplicou-se: Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh (IQSP utilizado para quantificar a qualidade do sono; o Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp (ISSL que identifica de modo objetivo a sintomatologia de stress foi aplicado. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 23,53% dos estressados dormem bem e 45,33% dos não estressados dormem bem; 76,47% dos estressados não dormem bem e 54,67% dos não estressados não dormem bem. Quanto ao rendimento escolar têm-se as médias 0,65 para os alunos estressados e 0,60 para aqueles que não sofrem de stress, Mann

  19. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristoforo, P; Kaltseis, J; Fritz, A; Edlinger, M; Posch, W; Wilflingseder, D; Lass-Flörl, C; Orth-Höller, D

    2018-02-24

    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes, have been described. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination varies dramatically in literature. The aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture-based and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3%-4.6% according to the national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene-relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples failing in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly Pseudomonas oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n = 9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n = 6, 11.5%) only on account of microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared with results from other European countries, possibly due to the high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An exploratory study of the effects of the dielectric-barrier-discharge surface pre-treatment on the self-assembly processes of a (3-Aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Naiyi; Liu Chaozong; Brown, Norman M.D.; Meenan, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), secondary-ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS) and contact angle measurement have been used in study of the enhancement effect of substrate pre-treatment by dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) for the self-assembly of a (3-Aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTS) on glass substrates. In results, the concentration of the APTS molecules self-assembled on the surfaces of both the acetone-washed and the DBD-treated substrates were more than three times of that on the as-supplied substrate. Meanwhile, the self-assembly (SA) layers grown on the DBD-treated substrates have the best quality compared to those grown on the substrates pre-treated in other ways in terms of the silane-substrate bonding and the order of arrangement of the silane molecules

  1. Economic advantages to optimising chemical products in pre-treatment in reverse osmosis desalination plants; Ventajas economicas al optimizar los productos quimicos en el pretratamiento de plantas desaladoras por osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Elguera, A.; Alday Ansola, J.; Perez Baez, S. O.

    2001-07-01

    This article reports the results of a process of optimising the dosage of Sodium hypochlorite and Metabisulphite, performed on sea water in the pre-treatment division of the Las Palmas III reverse osmosis desalination plant, currently operated by Empresa Mixta de Aguas de las Palmas (EMALSA), responsible for providing drinking water to more than 400.000 people in the city of Las Palmas, capital of Grand Canary Island. The results of this optimisation process, contrary to the opinion of the operators of the plant, after reducing the amount of Metabisulphite normally used in the plant by 70%, and Sodium hypochlorite by 30%, there were no adverse effects on the microbiological quality of the sea water. Moreover, the performance of the membranes was improved (bad odors disappeared, along with organic material sediments, etc.). (Author) 9 refs.

  2. 76 FR 45397 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...-AB18 Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers... permanent a waiver due to expire on July 31, 2012, for high quality specialty grain exported in containers... of high quality specialty grain exported in containers are small entities that up until recently...

  3. Free nitrous acid pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances volatile solids destruction and improves sludge dewaterability in continuous anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Liguo; Laloo, Andrew; Duan, Haoran; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2018-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that pre-treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) with free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO 2 ) enhances the biodegradability of WAS, identified by a 20-50% increase in specific methane production in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. This suggests that FNA pre-treatment would enhance the destruction of volatile solids (VS) in an anaerobic sludge digester, and reduce overall sludge disposal costs, provided that the dewaterability of the digested sludge is not negatively affected. This study experimentally evaluates the impact of FNA pre-treatment on the VS destruction in anaerobic sludge digestion and on the dewaterability of digested sludge, using continuously operated bench-scale anaerobic digesters. Pre-treatment of full-scale WAS for 24 h at an FNA concentration of 1.8 mg NN/L enhanced VS destruction by 17 ± 1% (from 29.2 ± 0.9% to 34.2 ± 1.1%) and increased dewaterability (centrifuge test) from 12.4 ± 0.4% to 14.1 ± 0.4%. Supporting the VS destruction data, methane production increased by 16 ± 1%. Biochemical methane potential tests indicated that the final digestate stability was also improved with a lower potential from FNA treated digestate. Further, a 2.1 ± 0.2 log improvement in pathogen reduction was also achieved. With inorganic solids representing 15-22% of the full-scale WAS used, FNA pre-treatment resulted in a 16-17% reduction in the volume of dewatered sludge for final disposal. This results in significantly reduced costs as assessed by economic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of PD-L1 and presence of CD8-positive T cells in pre-treatment specimens of locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwere, Emeka K; Kornaga, Elizabeth N; Dean, Michelle; Koulis, Theodora A; Phan, Tien; Kalantarian, Maria; Köbel, Martin; Ghatage, Prafull; Magliocco, Anthony M; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Doll, Corinne M

    2017-04-01

    Several of the cancer immunotherapies under investigation or in clinical use target the programmed death-ligand 1/programmed death-1 (PD-L1/PD-1) signaling axis. PD-L1 expression in tumor samples has been used as a predictive marker for response to these therapeutics, and may also have independent prognostic utility when assessed along with immune cell markers. Our objectives were to assess the expression of PD-L1 in tumor specimens from a uniformly treated patient cohort with locally advanced cervical cancer, and to determine its prognostic significance along with the density of tumor-infiltrating T cells. We identified 120 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with radical chemoradiotherapy, and built tissue microarrays from their formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pre-treatment biopsies. We used conventional brightfield and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to detect PD-L1, and quantified protein expression using both manual pathologist scoring and automated software analysis. We also evaluated the effect of PD-L1 expression in tumors, along with the presence and density of intra-tumoral CD8 + T cells, on patient survival outcomes. Approximately 96% of the tumor samples expressed PD-L1, as determined using quantitative software analysis. Neither expression of PD-L1 nor density of CD8 + T cells was associated with progression-free or overall survival. However, there was a trend towards worse progression-free survival in patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1 but lacked CD8 + T cells (hazard ratio=0.43 (0.18-1.01), P=0.053). Nevertheless, the high percentage of cervical cancer tumor samples expressing PD-L1 suggests that anti-PD-L1 or anti-PD-1 therapies are potential treatment options for this patient population.

  5. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Martin D.; Manton, David J.; Lowry, Martin; Turnbull, Lindsay W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  6. Prognostic value of pre-treatment DCE-MRI parameters in predicting disease free and overall survival for breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.pickles@hull.ac.uk; Manton, David J. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.j.manton@hull.ac.uk; Lowry, Martin [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.lowry@hull.ac.uk; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Division of Cancer, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.w.turnbull@hull.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data, both pharmacokinetic and empirical, can predict, prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which patients are likely to have a shorter disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) interval following surgery. Traditional prognostic parameters were also included in the survival analysis. Consequently, a comparison of the prognostic value could be made between all the parameters studied. MR examinations were conducted on a 1.5 T system in 68 patients prior to the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. DCE-MRI consisted of a fast spoiled gradient echo sequence acquired over 35 phases with a mean temporal resolution of 11.3 s. Both pharmacokinetic and empirical parameters were derived from the DCE-MRI data. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated for each parameter and group comparisons were made utilising logrank tests. The results from the 54 patients entered into the univariate survival analysis demonstrated that traditional prognostic parameters (tumour grade, hormonal status and size), empirical parameters (maximum enhancement index, enhancement index at 30 s, area under the curve and initial slope) and adjuvant therapies demonstrated significant differences in survival intervals. Further multivariate Cox regression survival analysis revealed that empirical enhancement parameters contributed the greatest prediction of both DFS and OS in the resulting models. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that in patients who exhibit high levels of perfusion and vessel permeability pre-treatment, evidenced by elevated empirical DCE-MRI parameters, a significantly lower disease free survival and overall survival can be expected.

  7. IMAA (Integrated Measurements of Aerosol in Agri valley) campaign: Multi-instrumental observations at the largest European oil/gas pre-treatment plant area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvello, Mariarosaria; Caggiano, Rosa; Esposito, Francesco; Lettino, Antonio; Sabia, Serena; Summa, Vito; Pavese, Giulia

    2017-11-01

    A short-term intensive multi-instrumental measurement campaign (Integrated Measurements of Aerosol in Agri valley - IMAA) was carried out near the largest European oil and gas pre-treatment plant (Centro Olio Val d'Agri - COVA) in a populated area, where, so far, ample characterization of aerosol loading is missing. As such, between the 2 and 17 July in 2013, using a number of instruments analyses were carried out on physical, chemical, morphological and optical properties of aerosol at this distinctive site, at both ground and over the atmospheric column, including the investigation of the mixing and transformation of particles. The observation of slag silicates with a rough surface texture is consistent with the presence of oil-related activities which represent the only industrial activity in the area. Desulfurization/sulfur liquefaction processes occurring at COVA can explain the peculiar morphology of calcium-sodium-aluminum particles. The common COVA source was associated with high concentrations of sulfur, nickel and zinc, and with significant correlations between zinc-sulfur and zinc-nickel. The Optical Particle Sizer (OPS) data, hygroscopicity and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol are consistent with the typical oil-derived gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide and methane) that strongly influence the mixing state of particles and their size distributions. Continuous combustion processes at COVA were found to be responsible for Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations from their relevant contribution to the total number of fine particles. The expected significant contribution of WS (water soluble) and BC (Black Carbon) components to the total Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) are consistent with the results from the radiometric model especially for July 3 and 16.

  8. Study on different pre-treatment procedures for metal determination in Orujo spirit samples by ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barciela, Julia; Vilar, Manuela; Garcia-Martin, Sagrario [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Pena, Rosa M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain)], E-mail: qarosa@lugo.usc.es; Herrero, Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, 27002 Lugo (Spain)], E-mail: cherrero@lugo.usc.es

    2008-10-17

    In this work several pre-treatment methods were studied for metal (Na, K, Mg, Cu and Ca) determination in Orujo spirit samples using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Dilution, digestion, evaporation, and cryogenic desolvatation techniques were comparatively evaluated. Because of their analytical characteristics, digestion and evaporation with nitrogen current were found to be appropriate procedures for the determination of metals in alcoholic spirit samples. Yet, if simplicity and application time are to be considered, the latter-evaporation in a water bath with a nitrogen current-stands out as the optimum procedure for any further determinations in Orujo samples by ICP-AES. Low detection levels and wide linear ranges (sufficient to determine these metals in the samples studied) were achieved for each metal. The recoveries (in the 97.5-100.5% range) and the precision (R.S.D. lower than 5.6%) obtained were also satisfactory. The selected procedure was applied to determine the content of metals in 80 representative Galician Orujo spirit samples with and without a Certified Brand of Origin (CBO) which had been produced using different distillation systems. The metal concentrations ranged between 0.37 and 79.7 mg L{sup -1} for Na,

  9. Butorphanol pre-treatment prevents myoclonus induced by etomidate: a randomised, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang; Ding, Ying; Chen, Huiyu; Qian, Yanning; Li, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Myoclonic movements are common problems during induction of anaesthesia with etomidate. The myoclonus occurring after etomidate administration may represent a form of seizure. Agonistic modulation of the κ opiate receptor may reduce seizures, and butorphanol acts in such a manner. The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was to test our hypothesis that pre-treatment with butorphanol might reduce the incidence and severity of myoclonus induced by etomidate. Patients (108) with American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status I or II were randomly assigned to one of two groups to receive either 0.015 mg/kg of butorphanol (n = 54) or saline (n = 54) intravenously. At two minutes after infusion of butorphanol or saline, 0.3 mg/kg etomidate was given. The occurrence and severity (observational score of 0-3) of myoclonus was assessed during 2 minutes after administration of etomidate. For each patient, blood pressure (BP), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO₂), and heart rate (HR) were measured. The incidence of myoclonus was significantly lower in Group Butorphanol than in Group Saline (13.0% vs 79.6%; RR = 0.163, 95%CI: 0.081-0.329; χ² = 48.265, p <0.0001). The severity levels of myoclonic movement were also significantly lower in Group Butorphanol than in Group Saline (p <0.0001). Throughout the procedure, changes of BP, SpO₂, and HR did not differ between the groups. There were no problems with bradycardia or hypotension. Infusion of 0.015 mg/kg butorphanol 2 minutes before etomidate administration is effective for suppressing myoclonus induced by etomidate during induction of general anaesthesia.

  10. Fast Bragg Grating Inscription in PMMA Polymer Optical Fibres: Impact of Thermal Pre-Treatment of Preforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. F. Marques

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs were inscribed in two different undoped poly- (methyl methacrylate (PMMA polymer optical fibres (POFs using different types of UV lasers and their inscription times, temperature and strain sensitivities are investigated. The POF Bragg gratings (POFBGs were inscribed using two UV lasers: a continuous UV HeCd @325 nm laser and a pulsed UV KrF @248 nm laser. Two PMMA POFs are used in which the primary and secondary preforms (during the two-step drawing process have a different thermal treatment. The PMMA POFs drawn in which the primary or secondary preform is not specifically pre-treated need longer inscription time than the fibres drawn where both preforms have been pre-annealed at 80 °C for 2 weeks. Using both UV lasers, for the latter fibre much less inscription time is needed compared to another homemade POF. The properties of a POF fabricated with both preforms thermally well annealed are different from those in which just one preform step process is thermally treated, with the first POFs being much less sensitive to thermal treatment. The influence of annealing on the strain and temperature sensitivities of the fibres prior to FBG inscription is also discussed, where it is observed that the fibre produced from a two-step drawing process with well-defined pre-annealing of both preforms did not produce any significant difference in sensitivity. The results indicate the impact of preform thermal pre-treatment before the PMMA POFs drawing, which can be an essential characteristic in the view of developing POF sensors technology.

  11. Tight ceramic UF membrane as RO pre-treatment: the role of electrostatic interactions on phosphate rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ran; Verliefde, Arne R D; Hu, Jingyi; Zeng, Zheyi; Lu, Jie; Kemperman, Antoine J B; Deng, Huiping; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate limitation has been reported as an effective approach to inhibit biofouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems for water purification. The rejection of dissolved phosphate by negatively charged TiO2 tight ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (1 kDa and 3 kDa) was observed. These membranes can potentially be adopted as an effective process for RO pre-treatment in order to constrain biofouling by phosphate limitation. This paper focuses on electrostatic interactions during tight UF filtration. Despite the larger pore size, the 3 kDa ceramic membrane exhibited greater phosphate rejection than the 1 kDa membrane, because the 3 kDa membrane has a greater negative surface charge and thus greater electrostatic repulsion against phosphate. The increase of pH from 6 to 8.5 led to a substantial increase in phosphate rejection by both membranes due to increased electrostatic repulsion. At pH 8.5, the maximum phosphate rejections achieved by the 1 kDa and 3 kDa membrane were 75% and 86%, respectively. A Debye ratio (ratio of the Debye length to the pore radius) is introduced in order to evaluate double layer overlapping in tight UF membranes. Threshold Debye ratios were determined as 2 and 1 for the 1 kDa and 3 kDa membranes, respectively. A Debye ratio below the threshold Debye ratio leads to dramatically decreased phosphate rejection by tight UF membranes. The phosphate rejection by the tight UF, in combination with chemical phosphate removal by coagulation, might accomplish phosphate-limited conditions for biological growth and thus prevent biofouling in the RO systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute effect of insulin on guinea pig airways and its amelioration by pre-treatment with salbutamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Khan, B. T.; Anwar, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the magnitude of insulin-mediated airway hyper-reactivity and to explore the protective effects of salbutamol in inhibiting the insulin-induced airway hyper-responsiveness on tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pigs in vitro. Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department of Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration with the Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine from December 2011 to July 2012. It used 18 healthy Dunkin Hartely guinea pigs of either gender. Effects of increasing concentrations of histamine (10-8-10-3M), insulin (10-8-10-3 M) and insulin pre-treated with salbutamol (10-6 M) were observed on isolated tracheal strip of guinea pig in vitro by constructing cumulative concentration response curves. The tracheal smooth muscle contractions were recorded with Transducer on Four Channel Oscillograph. Mean and standard error of mean were calculated. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Histamine and insulin produced a concentration-dependent reversible contraction of isolated tracheal muscle of guinea pig. The mean of maximum amplitudes of contraction with histamine, insulin and insulin pre-treated with salbutamol were 92. 1.20 mm, 35+-1.13 mm and 14.55+-0.62 mm respectively. Salbutamol shifted the concentration response curve of insulin to the right and downwards. Conclusions: Salbutamol significantly reduced the insulin mediated airway hyper-reactivity in guinea pigs, suggesting that pre-treatment of inhaled insulin with salbutamol may have clinical implication in the amelioration of its potential respiratory adverse effects such as bronchoconstriction. (author)

  13. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Preschooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of preschool quality for children's school performance at the end of primary school. We construct five structural quality indicators based on unique Danish administrative register data. 30,444 children finishing primary school's 9th grade in 2008 and who attended ...... in children's test results in Danish. Boys benefit more from preschool quality than girls. Ethnic minority children benefit from higher staff stability....

  14. Low-quality birds do not display high-quality signals: The cysteine-pheomelanin mechanism of honesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that make that the costs of producing high-quality signals are unaffordable to low-quality signalers are a current issue in animal communication. The size of the melanin-based bib of male house sparrows Passer domesticus honestly signals quality. We induced the development of new bibs while treating males with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a substance that depletes the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the amino acid cysteine, two elements that switch melanogenesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Final bib size is negatively related to pheomelanin levels in the bib feathers. BSO reduced cysteine and GSH levels in all birds, but improved phenotypes (bibs larger than controls) were only expressed by high-quality birds (BSO birds with largest bibs initially). Negative associations between final bib size and cysteine levels in erythrocytes, and between pheomelanin and cysteine levels, were observed in high-quality birds only. These findings suggest that a mechanism uncoupling pheomelanin and cysteine levels may have evolved in low-quality birds to avoid producing bibs of size not corresponding to their quality and greater relative costs. Indeed, greater oxidative stress in cells was not observed in low-quality birds. This may represent the first mechanism maintaining signal honesty without producing greater relative costs on low-quality signalers. PMID:25330349

  15. Systems and processes that ensure high quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn

    2012-10-01

    This is the second in a series of articles examining the components of good corporate governance. It considers how the structures and processes for quality governance can affect an organisation's ability to be assured about the quality of care. Complex information systems and procedures can lead to poor quality care, but sound structures and processes alone are insufficient to ensure good governance, and behavioural factors play a significant part in making sure that staff are enabled to provide good quality care. The next article in this series looks at how the information reporting of an organisation can affect its governance.

  16. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness

  17. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  18. Image Quality in High-resolution and High-cadence Solar Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, C.; Dineva, E.; Balthasar, H.; Verma, M.; Kuckein, C.; Diercke, A.; González Manrique, S. J.

    2018-03-01

    Broad-band imaging and even imaging with a moderate bandpass (about 1 nm) provides a photon-rich environment, where frame selection (lucky imaging) becomes a helpful tool in image restoration, allowing us to perform a cost-benefit analysis on how to design observing sequences for imaging with high spatial resolution in combination with real-time correction provided by an adaptive optics (AO) system. This study presents high-cadence (160 Hz) G-band and blue continuum image sequences obtained with the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI) at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope, where the speckle-masking technique is used to restore images with nearly diffraction-limited resolution. The HiFI employs two synchronized large-format and high-cadence sCMOS detectors. The median filter gradient similarity (MFGS) image-quality metric is applied, among others, to AO-corrected image sequences of a pore and a small sunspot observed on 2017 June 4 and 5. A small region of interest, which was selected for fast-imaging performance, covered these contrast-rich features and their neighborhood, which were part of Active Region NOAA 12661. Modifications of the MFGS algorithm uncover the field- and structure-dependency of this image-quality metric. However, MFGS still remains a good choice for determining image quality without a priori knowledge, which is an important characteristic when classifying the huge number of high-resolution images contained in data archives. In addition, this investigation demonstrates that a fast cadence and millisecond exposure times are still insufficient to reach the coherence time of daytime seeing. Nonetheless, the analysis shows that data acquisition rates exceeding 50 Hz are required to capture a substantial fraction of the best seeing moments, significantly boosting the performance of post-facto image restoration.

  19. Quality Assurance Roadmap for High Performance Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-05

    This report outlines the approach to quality assurance in the construction process for new residential construction, including seven process steps from the assessment of current construction practice, through design and documentation changes, to training and quality control for on-site personnel.

  20. Paying for High- and Low-Quality Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, John; Thum, Yeow Meng

    2004-01-01

    The extensive research on teacher quality has led to two conclusions. First, there are large and significant differences among teachers in terms of their capacity to improve student achievement. Second, these differences are not captured by common measures of teacher qualifications (E.A. Hanushek, Teacher quality, in: L.T. Izumi, W.M. Evers…

  1. Teaching quality: High school students' autonomy and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jaime; Medina-Garrido, Elena; Ortega, Miriam

    2018-05-01

    How teachers manage class learning and interact with students affects students’ motivation and engagement. However, it could be that the effect of students’ representation of teaching quality on the students’ motivation varies between classes. Students from 90 classes participated in the study. We used multilevel random structural equation modeling to analyze whether the relationship of the students’ perception of teaching quality (as an indicator of the students’ mental representation) and students’ motivation varies between classes, and if this variability depends on the class assessment of teaching quality (as an indicator of teaching quality). The effect of teachers’ structure on the regression slope of student perception of student competence was .127. The effect of teachers’ autonomy support on the regression slope of student perception of student autonomy was .066. With this study we contribute a more detailed description of the relationship between teaching quality, competence and autonomy.

  2. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  3. A high yielding, better quality chickpea mutant variety 'NIFA-95'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Javed, M.A.; Khattak, S.U.K.; Iqbal, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Chickpea or gram (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop of Pakistan, grown on over one million hectares annually. The national average yield of the crop is very low (0.5 t/ha) and thus the country had to spent about 2 billion rupees ($ 50 million) on import of pulses. The main causes of low yield are non-availability of genetic sources for resistance to various diseases especially gram blight Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., insect pest (Pod borer) and non-adoption of proper production technology by the farmers. This calls for earnest efforts of breeders to evolve high yielding and disease resistant varieties of chickpea for provision of quality seeds to the farming community to increase production of this important crop. Seeds of a highly blight susceptible variety '6153' were irradiated at 200 Gy dose of gamma radiation in 1985 and the promising mutant line CMN-446-4 was selected in M3 generation on the basis of disease resistance, greater number of pods and better plant type. After confirmation of its resistance to blight in M 4 and M 5 , the mutant line was evaluated in various trials at different locations. In the advanced and zonal yield trials during 1993-95, the line CMN-446-4 produced the highest grain yield of 2,600 kg/ha as compared to the rest of the mutants and varieties. The line was also evaluated in the chickpea national uniform yield trial, conducted on over 11 locations in the country during 1993-94. In this trial, the mutant line ranked 3rd by producing an average yield of 1,528 kg/ha as compared to the two check varieties 'Punjab-91' (1,316 kg/ha) and 'Paidar-91' (1,391 kg/ha). The mutant line CMN-446-4 is moderately resistant to gram blight, highly resistant to stored pest (pulse beetle), contains 25.3% more protein as compared to the parental variety 6153 and is also better in nitrogen fixing capacity.The proposal for release of the mutant line CMN-446-4 as a new variety under the name 'NIFA-95' for general cultivation in the rainfed

  4. Physics and quality assurance for high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lowell L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To review the physical aspects of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, including commissioning and quality assurance, source calibration and dose distribution measurements, and treatment planning methods. Following the introduction of afterloading in brachytherapy, development efforts to make it 'remote' culminated in 1964 with the near-simultaneous appearance of remote afterloaders in five major medical centers. Four of these machines were 'high dose rate', three employing 60Co and one (the GammaMed) using a single, cable-mounted 192Ir source. Stepping-motor source control was added to the GammaMed in 1974, making it the precursor of modern remote afterloaders, which are now suitable for interstitial as well as intracavitary brachytherapy by virtue of small source-diameter and indexer-accessed multiple channels. Because the 192Ir sources currently used in HDR remote afterloaders are supplied at a nominal air-kerma strength of 11.4 cGy cm2 s-1 (10 Ci), are not collimated in clinical use, and emit a significant fraction (15%) of photons at energies greater than 600 keV, shielding and facility design must be undertaken as carefully and thoroughly as for external beam installations. Licensing requirements of regulatory agencies must be met with respect both to maximum permissible dose limits and to the existence and functionality of safety devices (door interlocks, radiation monitors, etc.). Commissioning and quality assurance procedures that must be documented for HDR remote afterloading relate to (1) machine, applicator, guide-tube, and facility functionality checks, (2) source calibration, (3) emergency response readiness, (4) planning software evaluation, and (5) independent checks of clinical dose calculations. Source calibration checks must be performed locally, either by in-air measurement of air kerma strength or with a well ionization chamber calibrated (by an accredited standards laboratory) against an in-air measurement of air kerma strength for the

  5. Twin pregnancy possibly associated with high semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, Camilla; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies found an association between a long waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and reduced probability of twinning and a reduced dizygotic (DZ) twinning rate in subfertile men. However, it remains unsolved whether semen quality is associated with twin offspring. We therefore studied...... the semen quality in a group of fathers of naturally conceived twins. METHODS: In this study, 37 fathers of DZ twins and 15 fathers of monozygotic (MZ) twins participated, and 349 normal fertile men served as a reference group. All men delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination and completed...... points higher than the reference group (P semen quality than the reference group, which supports...

  6. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  7. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  8. Effects of pre-treatment, freezing and frozen storage on the texture of Boletus edulis (Bull: Fr.) mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworska, Grazyna; Bernas, Emilia [Department of Raw Material and Processing of Fruit and Vegetables, Agricultural University of Krakow, 122 Balicka Street, 30-149 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of the present work was to determine changes in the texture of Boletus edulis resulting from blanching or soaking and blanching, freezing and twelve months' frozen storage. The texture was examined using instrumental as well as sensory profiling methods. Instrumental textural profile analysis (TPA) showed that, there was a reduction in hardness, chewiness and gumminess of 77-100% and an increase in cohesiveness of 121-521% after frozen storage, when compared to the raw material. Measurements using a Kramer shear cell revealed that the changes occurring at all stages of the investigation were similar. The end, the work required to cut strips of mushroom decreased by 3-32%, while the force increased by 27-110%. In the evaluation of texture through sensory profiling, the greatest changes in the characteristics listed occurred as a result of pre-treatment and frozen storage. There was a decrease in hardness, brittleness, crispiness and firmness of 0.7-3.5 points, accompanied by an increase in wateriness of 1.8-4.0 points. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail a ete de determiner les changements dans la texture de Boletus edulis, sous l'effet du blanchiment ou bien du trempage avec blanchiment, de la congelation et de l'emmagasinage gele pendant douze mois. La texture des champignons a ete examinee par des methodes instrumentales et le profilage sensoriel. Apres l'emmmagasinage gele l'analyse TPA a demontre il y a une diminution de la durete, de la mastiquabilite et de la gommalite de l'ordre de 77-100% et l'augmentation de la cohesivite de l'ordre de 121-521%, qu'en comparaison avec le materiau premier. Le mesurage dans la cellule detachee de Kramer a demontre que les changements apparaissant a toutes les etapes de la recherche etaient similaires. En resultat, le travail necessaire pour couper les cossettes du champignon a diminue de 3-32% et la valeur de la force a augmente de 27-110%. Dans l'evaluation de la

  9. High throughput electrospinning of high-quality nanofibers via an aluminum disk spinneret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guokuo

    In this work, a simple and efficient needleless high throughput electrospinning process using an aluminum disk spinneret with 24 holes is described. Electrospun mats produced by this setup consisted of fine fibers (nano-sized) of the highest quality while the productivity (yield) was many times that obtained from conventional single-needle electrospinning. The goal was to produce scaled-up amounts of the same or better quality nanofibers under variable concentration, voltage, and the working distance than those produced with the single needle lab setting. The fiber mats produced were either polymer or ceramic (such as molybdenum trioxide nanofibers). Through experimentation the optimum process conditions were defined to be: 24 kilovolt, a distance to collector of 15cm. More diluted solutions resulted in smaller diameter fibers. Comparing the morphologies of the nanofibers of MoO3 produced by both the traditional and the high throughput set up it was found that they were very similar. Moreover, the nanofibers production rate is nearly 10 times than that of traditional needle electrospinning. Thus, the high throughput process has the potential to become an industrial nanomanufacturing process and the materials processed by it may be used as filtration devices, in tissue engineering, and as sensors.

  10. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  11. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  12. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant by means of mechanical and thermal pre-treatments: Performance, energy and economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Campo, Giuseppe; Genon, Giuseppe; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Novarino, Daniel; Scibilia, Gerardo; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-01-01

    Performances of mechanical and low-temperature (disintegration rates of one order of magnitude higher than mechanical ones (about 25% vs. 1.5%). The methane specific production increased by 21% and 31%, with respect to untreated samples, for treatment conditions of respectively 70 and 90°C, 3h. Thermal pre-treatments also decreased WAS viscosity. Preliminary energy and economic assessments demonstrated that a WAS final total solid content of 5% was enough to avoid the employment of auxiliary methane for the pre-treatment at 90°C and the subsequent AD process, provided that all the heat generated was transferred to WAS through heat exchangers. Moreover, the total revenues from sale of the electricity produced from biogas increased by 10% with respect to the present scenario. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of chemical pre-treatment based chromic acid; Uso de pre-tratamento quimico a base de acido cromico. Beneficios versus desvantagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Leite [TENARIS CONFAB S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Bibiano, Paulo de Tarso [SOCO-RIL do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Koebsch, Andre; Mollica, Eduardo de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In this work were going compared the polyethylene and FBE coatings performances in triple layer for tubes done with and without the presence of the pre-treatment chemist with chromic acid of the tube surface. The performance test chosen for accomplishes the comparison was the cathodic disbondment and hot water soak, for being this the test that has objective to improve the performance with the chromic acid application. The obtained results were going extracted of a factory database of TENARIS CONFAB S.A. in Pindamonhangaba - Sao Paulo. The adopted technical specification like reference for the tried coatings belonged to PETROBRAS S.A. Were compared also tests results of jobs using chromate and jobs that were not used pre-treatment. (author)

  14. Leaching of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste printed circuit boards of mobile phone by iodide lixiviant after supercritical water pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2015-07-01

    Precious metals are the most attractive resources in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) of mobile phones. In this work, an alternative process for recovering Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) pre-treatment combined with iodine-iodide leaching process was developed. In the process, the waste PCBs of mobile phones were pre-treated in supercritical water, then a diluted hydrochloric acid leaching (HL) process was used to recovery the Cu, whose leaching efficiency was approximately 100%, finally the resulting residue was subjected to the iodine-iodide leaching process for recovering the Au, Ag, and Pd. Experimental results indicated that SCWO pre-treatment temperature, time, and pressure had significant influence on the Au, Ag, and Pd leaching from (SCWO+HL)-treated waste PCBs. The optimal SCWO pre-treatment conditions were 420°C and 60min for Au and Pd, and 410°C and 30min for Ag. The optimum dissolution parameters for Au, Pd, and Ag in (SCWO+HL)-treated PCBs with iodine-iodide system were leaching time of 120min (90min for Ag), iodine/iodide mole ratio of 1:5 (1:6 for Ag), solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) of 1:10g/mL (1:8g/mL for Ag), and pH of 9, respectively. It is believed that the process developed in this study is environment friendly for the recovery of Au, Ag, and Pd from waste PCBs of mobile phones by SCWO pre-treatment combined with iodine-iodide leaching process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on anaerobic granular sludge performance and microbial community for the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chengyuan, E-mail: suchengyuan2008@126.com [School of Environment and Resources, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004 (China); School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Li, Weiguang [School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 73 Huanghe Road, Harbin 150090 (China); Lu, Yuxiang; Chen, Menglin; Huang, Zhi [School of Environment and Resources, Guangxi Normal University, 15 Yucai Road, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Rhein has metabolic or physiological toxicity on methanogens in anaerobic granular sludge. • TCM wastewater containing rhein can be successfully treated by the combined treatment. • The productions of the EPS of granular sludge increased after pre-treatment. • Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula were predominant in the DC reactor after pre-treatment. - Abstract: The effect of a heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on the anaerobic processes, characteristics and microbial community of sludge was investigated for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater containing rhein. When the concentrations of rhein were 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L, the toxic effect was physiological toxicity for anaerobic granular sludge. Using a single double circle (DC) reactor for the treatment of TCM wastewater containing rhein at concentrations of 15–20 mg/L, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 69%, and coenzyme F{sub 420} was nearly undetectable in the 3D-excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of soluble microbial products (SMP). The abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula were only 5.57%, 2.39% and 1.08% in the DC reactor, respectively. TCM wastewater containing rhein could be successfully treated by the combination of the heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment and the DC reactor processes, and the COD removal rate reached 95%. Meanwhile, the abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula increased to 22.5%, 18.5%, and 13.87%, respectively. For the bacterial community, the abundance of Acidobacteria-Gp6 decreased from 6.99% to 1.07%, while the abundances of Acidobacteria-Gp1 and Acidobacteria-Gp2 increased from 1.61% to 6.55% and from 1.28% to 5.87%, respectively.

  16. Consumers' expected quality and intention to purchase high quality pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagiotou, P; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I; Melfou, K

    2013-03-01

    Expected quality is believed to be one of the most important factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase food. The present study seeks to explore the concept of pork meat expected quality and compare it with self-stated consumer intention to purchase pork meat. The aim is attempted by means of a field research conducted in Greece, following a conjoint analytic procedure. Results show that quality expectations comply with intention to buy pork, in many aspects. However, several differences have been identified. More specifically, country of origin and marbling appear to be more important for respondents' purchase decisions than they are for their quality evaluations, while the opposite appears to be true for price. Finally, socio-demographic factors such as gender, level of education, place of purchase and consumption habits seem to influence perceptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    : the safety and quality of food products, and the increasing competition for clean freshwater. SAFIR is funded for the period 2005-2009 under the Food Quality and Safety thematic area of the EU 6th Framework Research Programme. The challenge for the next years will be to produce safe and high quality foods...... a multi-disciplinary team, with food safety and quality experts, engineers, agronomists and economists from17 research institutes and private companies in Europe, Israel and China working together. The project assesses potential risks to farmers. Coupled with farm management and economic models, a new...... intelligent tool for efficient and safe use and re-use of low-quality water are being developed. Already published results indicate water saving in the order of 25-30% in agricultural crops as potatoes and tomatoes are possible without yield reduction. Slightly treated waste water can be used safely when...

  18. Pre-treatment predictors and in-treatment factors associated with change in avoidant and dependent personality disorder traits among patients with social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Finn-Magnus; Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold; Martinsen, Egil; Gude, Tore; Hedley, Liv Margaret; Abrahamsen, Gun

    2010-01-01

    We examined changes in avoidant and dependent personality disorder dimensions, and pre-treatment and in-treatment factors associated with such changes in 77 patients, randomized to medication-free residential cognitive (CT) or residential interpersonal therapy for social phobia. Personality disorders and personality dimensions according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were assessed at pre-treatment and at one-year post-treatment. Both treatments were associated with a decrease in avoidant and dependent personality dimensions; dependent dimension decreased more in CT. Changes in cognitive factors predicted changes in both personality dimensions, whereas changes in symptoms or interpersonal factors did not. Change in the cognitive factor estimated cost was the most powerful predictor in the avoidant dimension, as it was the only predictor that remained significant in the forward regression analyses. Change in the cognitive factor estimated cost, and treatment were the most powerful predictors of change in the dependent dimension. Pre-treatment use of anxiolytics predicted larger changes in both PD dimensions.

  19. Effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment on biogas yield and specific energy in anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wholesale market wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Zeynali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic pre-treatment has been considered as an environmentally friendly process for enhancing the biodegradability of organic matter in anaerobic digestion. However the consumed energy during the pre-treatment is a matter of challenge especially where energy generation is the main purpose of a biogas plant. The aim of the present work was to study the efficiency of ultrasonic pre-treatment in enhancement of biogas production from fruits and vegetable wholesale market waste. Three sonication times (9, 18, 27 min operating at 20 kHz and amplitude of 80 μm were used on the substrate. The highest methane yield was obtained at 18 min sonication (2380 kJ kg−1 total solids while longer exposure to sonication led to lower methane yield. This amount of biogas was obtained in 12 d of batch time. The energy content of the biogas obtained from this reactor was two times of the input energy for sonication.

  20. Facile preparation of nitrogen-doped porous carbon from waste tobacco by a simple pre-treatment process and their application in electrochemical capacitor and CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha, Yunfei; Lou, Jiaying; Bai, Shizhe; Wu, Da; Liu, Baizhan; Ling, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A pre-treatment process is used to prepared N-doped carbon from waste biomass. • Waste tobaccos, which are limited for the disposal, are used as the raw materials. • The product shows a specific surface area and nitrogen content. • Its electrochemical performance is better than commercial activated carbon. • Its CO 2 sorption performance is also better than commercial activated carbon. - Abstract: Preparing nitrogen-doped porous carbons directly from waste biomass has received considerable interest for the purpose of realizing the atomic economy. In this study, N-doped porous carbons have been successfully prepared from waste tobaccos (WT) by a simple pre-treatment process. The sample calcinated at 700 °C (WT-700) shows a micro/meso-porous structures with a BET surface area of 1104 m 2 g −1 and a nitrogen content of ca. 19.08 wt.% (EDS). Performance studies demonstrate that WT-700 displays 170 F g −1 electrocapacitivity at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 (in 6 M KOH), and a CO 2 capacity of 3.6 mmol g −1 at 0 °C and 1 bar, and a selectivity of ca. 32 for CO 2 over N 2 at 25 °C. Our studies indicate that it is feasible to prepare N-enriched porous carbons from waste natural crops by a pre-treatment process for potential industrial application

  1. Microplate-Based Evaluation of the Sugar Yield from Giant Reed, Giant Miscanthus and Switchgrass after Mild Chemical Pre-Treatments and Hydrolysis with Tailored Trichoderma Enzymatic Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchetta, Stefano; Bregoli, Luca; Galletti, Stefania

    2017-11-01

    Giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass are considered prominent lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain fermentable sugars for biofuel production. The bioconversion into sugars requires a delignifying pre-treatment step followed by hydrolysis with cellulase and other accessory enzymes like xylanase, especially in the case of alkali pre-treatments, which retain the hemicellulose fraction. Blends richer in accessory enzymes than commercial mix can be obtained growing fungi on feedstock-based substrates, thus ten selected Trichoderma isolates, including the hypercellulolytic strain Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30, were grown on giant reed, miscanthus, or switchgrass-based substrates. The produced enzymes were used to saccharify the corresponding feedstocks, compared to a commercial enzymatic mix (6 FPU/g). Feedstocks were acid (H 2 SO 4 0.2-2%, w/v) or alkali (NaOH 0.02-0.2%, w/v) pre-treated. A microplate-based approach was chosen for most of the experimental steps due to the large number of samples. The highest bioconversion was generally obtained with Trichoderma harzianum Or4/99 enzymes (78, 89, and 94% final sugar yields at 48 h for giant reed, miscanthus, and switchgrass, respectively), with significant increases compared to the commercial mix, especially with alkaline pre-treatments. The differences in bioconversion yields were only partially caused by xylanases (maximum R 2  = 0.5), indicating a role for other accessory enzymes.

  2. Radioprotection by caffeine pre-treatment and post-treatment in the bone marrow chromosomes of mice given whole-body [gamma]-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, Z.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1992-10-01

    The effect of caffeine given as pre- and post-treatment in mice exposed to whole-body [gamma]-irradiation (1.5 Gy [sup 60]Co [gamma]-rays) was studied. The pre-treatment was either acute or chronic. The acute dose (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was in the form of an injection given intraperitoneally, 30 min before irradiation. The chronic administration was in the form of caffeine solution (4.208x10[sup -3] M and 7.72x10[sup -4] M) contained in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to radiation exposure. The acute pre-treatment with caffeine reduced the radiation-induced frequency of chromosomal aberrations discernibly, whereas chronic pre-treatment afforded a much more significant degree of radioprotection. The caffeine post-treatment (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was given in the form of an intraperitoneal injection to the mice immediately following whole-body [gamma]-irradiation. It is noted that both post-treatment concentrations of caffeine also significantly reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by [gamma]-rays. These data are briefly discussed in terms of possible mechanistic considerations. (author). 33 refs.; 3 tabs.

  3. Radioprotection by caffeine pre-treatment and post-treatment in the bone marrow chromosomes of mice given whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of caffeine given as pre- and post-treatment in mice exposed to whole-body γ-irradiation (1.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays) was studied. The pre-treatment was either acute or chronic. The acute dose (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was in the form of an injection given intraperitoneally, 30 min before irradiation. The chronic administration was in the form of caffeine solution (4.208x10 -3 M and 7.72x10 -4 M) contained in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to radiation exposure. The acute pre-treatment with caffeine reduced the radiation-induced frequency of chromosomal aberrations discernibly, whereas chronic pre-treatment afforded a much more significant degree of radioprotection. The caffeine post-treatment (5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg body weight) was given in the form of an intraperitoneal injection to the mice immediately following whole-body γ-irradiation. It is noted that both post-treatment concentrations of caffeine also significantly reduced the frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by γ-rays. These data are briefly discussed in terms of possible mechanistic considerations. (author). 33 refs.; 3 tabs

  4. Pre-Treatment effects of peripheral tumors on brain and behavior: Neuroinflammatory mechanisms in humans and rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrepf, Andrew; Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Pyter, Leah M.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients suffer high levels of affective and cognitive disturbances, which have been attributed to diagnosis-related distress, impairment of quality of life, and side effects of primary treatment. An inflammatory microenvironment is also a feature of the vast majority of solid tumors. However, the ability of tumor-associated biological processes to affect the central nervous system (CNS) has only recently been explored in the context of symptoms of depression and cognitive disturbances. In this review, we summarize the burgeoning evidence from rodent cancer models that solid tumors alter neurobiological pathways and subsequent behavioral processes with relevance to affective and cognitive disturbances reported in human cancer populations. We consider, in parallel, the evidence from human clinical cancer research demonstrating that affective and cognitive disturbances are common in some malignancies prior to diagnosis and treatment. We further consider the underlying neurobiological pathways, including altered neuroinflammation, tryptophan metabolism, prostaglandin synthesis and associated neuroanatomical changes, that are most strongly implicated in the rodent literature and supported by analogous evidence from human cancer populations. We focus on the implications of these findings for behavioral researchers and clinicians, with particular emphasis on methodological issues and areas of future research. PMID:25958011

  5. Quality assessment and potential utilization of high amylolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... This study was carried out to compare the qualities of two acclaimed Nigerian amylolytic maize cultivars; SPMAT ... growing demand for usage as a gluten-free cereal. (Sweeny ... The grain was malted and the malting loss was calculated using the .... also confirmed that there was no significant difference in.

  6. Quality Alternative Certification Programs in Special Education Ensure High Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda D.; McCabe, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Market driven alternative routes to teaching have evolved into a quality program option and not just an answer to the teacher shortage. Alternative certification is a viable means of recruiting, training, and certifying those who have a bachelor's degree and a strong desire to enter the field of teaching. California has been a leader in the…

  7. Innovation in Business Education: Developing a High Quality Online MBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C. William; Toma, Alfred G.; Yallapragada, RamMohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Online degree programs were probably pioneered by for-profit universities such as University of Phoenix. Many online degree programs were initially considered low quality academic programs compared to traditional programs. Therefore, many public and private universities were slow to adopt the online programs. However, gradually more and more…

  8. Improving technology and setting-up a production line for high quality zinc oxide (99.5%) with a capacity of 150 ton/year by evaporation-oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Dinh Thinh; Pham Minh Tuan; Luong Manh Hung; Tran Ngoc Vuong

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the technology improvement and a production line to produce high quality zinc oxide of purity upper than 99.5% ZnO by evaporation-oxidation method. Secondary zinc metal recovered from galvanizing industrial will undergo a pre-treatment to meet all requirements of standardized feed material for evaporation-oxidation process. Zinc metal is melted at a temperature of about 650"oC, some impurities and metallic oxides are separated preliminary, then zinc metal is converted into liquid in evaporation pot. Here the temperature is maintained around 1050"oC, zinc liquid is evaporated, zinc vapor is oxidized by air in the oxidation chamber naturally by oxygen in the air and then zinc vapor is converted to zinc oxide. Zinc oxide is passed through a product classification systems and then go to a product collection of filtering bag design. The whole process of melting, evaporation, oxidation, particles classification and product collection is a continuous process. The efficiency of the transformation of zinc metal into zinc oxide can reach the value of 1.1 to 1.2. ZnO product quality is higher than 99.5%. (author)

  9. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ... the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was used to measure quality of life among patients on ... instrument for use in Ethiopia to assess the quality of life of people living with ...

  10. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  11. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  12. Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile

  13. 'Radiooncology 2007: High quality of life, the ultimate goal'. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 13th annual congress of Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie e.V. discussed clinical radiotherapy, medical physics and radiation biology, as well as an extensive programme of working groups on radiology in medical technology, care, and office. The focus was on new equipment (from image-supported to image-guided radiotherapy) and new approaches of targeted tumour therapy. Aspects of life quality are coming to the fore and will get even more important in the future. (orig.)

  14. High image quality sub 100 picosecond gated framing camera development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A major challenge for laser fusion is the study of the symmetry and hydrodynamic stability of imploding fuel capsules. Framed x-radiographs of 10-100 ps duration, excellent image quality, minimum geometrical distortion (< 1%), dynamic range greater than 1000, and more than 200 x 200 pixels are required for this application. Recent progress on a gated proximity focused intensifier which meets these requirements is presented

  15. The High Flying Leadership Qualities: What Matters the Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    operational and functional background of its personnel steeped in both DoD and industry experience. Research Methodology Based on their experiences...DeLorean Motors, Levitz Furniture , Enron, and many other corporations like these learned what happens when key leadership qualities lose all lift...graduate of the Canadian Force Command and Staff College in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and the U.S. Army War College in Carlisle Barracks

  16. Water Quality: A Field-Based Quality Testing Program for Middle Schools and High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This manual contains background information, lesson ideas, procedures, data collection and reporting forms, suggestions for interpreting results, and extension activities to complement a water quality field testing program. Information on testing water temperature, water pH, dissolved oxygen content, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrates, total…

  17. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  18. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?

  19. High-quality PWO crystals for the PANDA-EMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R W; Bremer, D; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Eissner, T; Kuske, T; Moritz, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides a status report on the crystal production and quality control of a major part of the PbWO 4 crystals for the PANDA-EMC. The results confirm the excellent performance of the new generation of PWO-II. The mechanism of stimulated recovery provides an additional tool to recover radiation damage at room and low temperatures by applying an external infrared light source. Even on-line recovery can be considered if the photo sensor is insensitive in that particular wavelength region.

  20. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%.

  1. Rehosting of Bacterial Chaperones for High-Quality Protein Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Noad, Rob; Unzueta, Ugutz; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Roy, Polly; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Coproduction of DnaK/DnaJ in Escherichia coli enhances solubility but promotes proteolytic degradation of their substrates, minimizing the yield of unstable polypeptides. Higher eukaryotes have orthologs of DnaK/DnaJ but lack the linked bacterial proteolytic system. By coexpression of DnaK and DnaJ in insect cells with inherently misfolding-prone recombinant proteins, we demonstrate simultaneous improvement of soluble protein yield and quality and proteolytic stability. Thus, undesired side effects of bacterial folding modulators can be avoided by appropriate rehosting in heterologous cell expression systems. PMID:19820142

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  3. Publishing high-quality climate data on the semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Andrew; Haller, Armin; Lefort, Laurent; Taylor, Kerry

    2013-04-01

    The effort over more than a decade to establish the semantic web [Berners-Lee et. al., 2001] has received a major boost in recent years through the Open Government movement. Governments around the world are seeking technical solutions to enable more open and transparent access to Public Sector Information (PSI) they hold. Existing technical protocols and data standards tend to be domain specific, and so limit the ability to publish and integrate data across domains (health, environment, statistics, education, etc.). The web provides a domain-neutral platform for information publishing, and has proven itself beyond expectations for publishing and linking human-readable electronic documents. Extending the web pattern to data (often called Web 3.0) offers enormous potential. The semantic web applies the basic web principles to data [Berners-Lee, 2006]: using URIs as identifiers (for data objects and real-world 'things', instead of documents) making the URIs actionable by providing useful information via HTTP using a common exchange standard (serialised RDF for data instead of HTML for documents) establishing typed links between information objects to enable linking and integration Leading examples of 'linked data' for publishing PSI may be found in both the UK (http://data.gov.uk/linked-data) and US (http://www.data.gov/page/semantic-web). The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) is Australia's national meteorological agency, and has a new mandate to establish a national environmental information infrastructure (under the National Plan for Environmental Information, NPEI [BoM, 2012a]). While the initial approach is based on the existing best practice Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) architecture, linked-data is being explored as a technological alternative that shows great promise for the future. We report here the first trial of government linked-data in Australia under data.gov.au. In this initial pilot study, we have taken BoM's new high-quality reference surface

  4. Effects of ultrasonic and thermo-chemical pre-treatments on methane production from fat, oil and grease (FOG) and synthetic kitchen waste (KW) in anaerobic co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2013-02-01

    The effects of ultrasonic and thermo-chemical pre-treatments on the methane production potential of anaerobic co-digestion with synthetic kitchen waste (KW) or fat, oil and grease (FOG) were investigated. Non-linear regressions were fitted to accurately assess and compare the methane production from co-digestion under the various pre-treatment conditions and to achieve representative simulations and predictions. Ultrasonic pre-treatment was not found to improve methane production effectively from either FOG co-digestion or KW co-digestions. Thermo-chemical pre-treatment could increase methane production yields from both FOG and KW co-digestions. COD solubilization was found to effectively represent the effects of pre-treatment. A comprehensive evaluation indicated that the thermo-chemical pre-treatments of pH=10, 55°C and pH=8, 55°C provided the best conditions to increase methane production from FOG and KW co-digestions, respectively. The most effective enhancement of biogas production (288±0.85mLCH(4)/g TVS) was achieved from thermo-chemically pre-treated FOG co-digestion, which was 9.9±1.5% higher than FOG co-digestion without thermo-chemical pre-treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-Mix Manufacturing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and... Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering on January 13, 2017, in

  6. Optimization of nitridation conditions for high quality inter-polysilicon dielectric layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Bergveld, H.J.; van Kranenburg, H.; Woerlee, P.H.; Wallinga, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Nitridation of deposited high temperature oxides (HTO) was studied to form high quality inter-polysilicon dielectric layers for embedded non volatile memories. Good quality dielectric layers were obtained earlier by using an optimized deposition of polysilicon and by performing a post-dielectric

  7. Bridges to Excellence--recognizing high-quality care: analysis of physician quality and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; de Brantes, Francois S; Sinaiko, Anna D; Frankel, Matthew; Robbins, Russell D; Young, Sara

    2008-10-01

    To examine whether physicians who sought and received Bridges to Excellence (BTE) recognition performed better than similar physicians on a standardized set of population-based performance measures. Cross-sectional comparison of performance data. Using a claims dataset of all commercially insured members from 6 health plans in Massachusetts, we examined population-based measures of quality and resource use for physicians recognized by the BTE programs Physician Office Link and Diabetes Care Link, compared with nonrecognized physicians in the same specialties. Differences in performance were tested using generalized linear models. Physician Office Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better than their nonrecognized peers on measures of cervical cancer screening, mammography, and glycosylated hemoglobin testing. Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better on all 4 diabetes process measures of quality, with the largest differences observed in microalbumin screening (17.7%). Patients of Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had a significantly greater percentage of their resource use accounted for by evaluation and management services (3.4%), and a smaller percentage accounted for by facility (-1.6%), inpatient ancillary (-0.1%), and nonmanagement outpatient services (-1.0%). After adjustment for patient age and sex, and case mix, Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had significantly fewer episodes per patient (0.13) and lower resource use per episode (dollars 130), but findings were mixed for Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians. Our findings suggest that the BTE approach to ascertaining physician quality identifies physicians who perform better on claims-based quality measures and primary care physicians who use a less resource-intensive practice style.

  8. Academic coordination at university: Strategies for high quality education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Durán Bellonch

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Most lecturers and professors involved in teaching School Management and Education Management courses have been engaged in developing some innovative actions to improve the training quality that we offer to students in the Pedagogy degree at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. These actions are aimed at increasing co-ordination among the teaching staff when designing and implementing the course curricula. Co-ordination meetings, exchanges of teaching experiences, discussions about what, how and when to teach the different contents, in which courses and at what level, methodological issues pointed out through technical description cards or the elaboration of study cases to be solved have become the basis of relevant actions during the last academic years. This paper explains each one of them, and provides useful information about the theoretical background, the process carried out, some of the results obtained, the output and the tools created.

  9. Possibilities of obtaining and controlling high-quality pressure castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the type of furnace charging melting, refining and modification silumins 226 and 231 on the porosity and microstructure of castings. It was shown that in order to reduce or eliminate the porosity of the castings is necessary to the refining ECOSAL-AL113 of liquid silumin both in the melting furnace, and in the ladle and an additional nitrogen, in the heat furnace modified and refining with nitrogen. To control the effects of refining and modifying the TDA method was used. It was found that based on crystal- lization curve can be qualitatively assess the gas porosity of the castings. In order to control and quality control silumins author developed a computer program using the method of TDA, which sets out: Rm, A5, HB and casting porosity P and the concentration of hydrogen in them. The program also informs the technological procedures to be performed for liquid silumin improper preparation.

  10. prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences ... with high G/G ratios in SDS-insoluble protein fraction were Sceptre x Nata and Kariega x Sceptre. ...... Molecular characterisation and dynamic.

  11. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    studies and our collaborative research projects with other UK and international groups will be discussed. Keywords. Crystal growth; floating zone method; neutron scattering. ... of single crystals of new materials is a highly competitive business.

  12. Analysis of covariance with pre-treatment measurements in randomized trials under the cases that covariances and post-treatment variances differ between groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatogawa, Takashi; Funatogawa, Ikuko; Shyr, Yu

    2011-05-01

    When primary endpoints of randomized trials are continuous variables, the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with pre-treatment measurements as a covariate is often used to compare two treatment groups. In the ANCOVA, equal slopes (coefficients of pre-treatment measurements) and equal residual variances are commonly assumed. However, random allocation guarantees only equal variances of pre-treatment measurements. Unequal covariances and variances of post-treatment measurements indicate unequal slopes and, usually, unequal residual variances. For non-normal data with unequal covariances and variances of post-treatment measurements, it is known that the ANCOVA with equal slopes and equal variances using an ordinary least-squares method provides an asymptotically normal estimator for the treatment effect. However, the asymptotic variance of the estimator differs from the variance estimated from a standard formula, and its property is unclear. Furthermore, the asymptotic properties of the ANCOVA with equal slopes and unequal variances using a generalized least-squares method are unclear. In this paper, we consider non-normal data with unequal covariances and variances of post-treatment measurements, and examine the asymptotic properties of the ANCOVA with equal slopes using the variance estimated from a standard formula. Analytically, we show that the actual type I error rate, thus the coverage, of the ANCOVA with equal variances is asymptotically at a nominal level under equal sample sizes. That of the ANCOVA with unequal variances using a generalized least-squares method is asymptotically at a nominal level, even under unequal sample sizes. In conclusion, the ANCOVA with equal slopes can be asymptotically justified under random allocation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dry-air drying at room temperature - a practical pre-treatment method of tree leaves for quantitative analyses of phenolics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelberg, Riitta; Virjamo, Virpi; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2018-03-09

    In ecological experiments, storage of plant material is often needed between harvesting and laboratory analyses when the number of samples is too large for immediate, fresh analyses. Thus, accuracy and comparability of the results call for pre-treatment methods where the chemical composition remains unaltered and large number of samples can be treated efficiently. To study if a fast dry-air drying provides an efficient pre-treatment method for quantitative analyses of phenolics. Dry-air drying of mature leaves was done in a drying room equipped with dehumifier (10% relative humidity, room temperature) and results were compared to freeze-drying or freeze-drying after pre-freezing in liquid nitrogen. The quantities of methanol-soluble phenolics of Betula pendula Roth, Betula pubescens Ehrh., Salix myrsinifolia Salisb., Picea abies L. Karsten and Pinus sylvestris L. were analysed with HPLC and condensed tannins were analysed using the acid-butanol test. In deciduous tree leaves (Betula, Salix), the yield of most of the phenolic compounds was equal or higher in samples dried in dry-air room than the yield from freeze-dried samples. In Picea abies needles, however, dry-air drying caused severe reductions in picein, stilbenes, condensed tannin and (+)-catechin concentrations compared to freeze-drying. In Pinus sylvestris highest yields of neolignans but lowest yields of acetylated flavonoids were obtained from samples freeze-dried after pre-freezing. Results show that dry-air drying provides effective pre-treatment method for quantifying the soluble phenolics for deciduous tree leaves, but when analysing coniferous species, the different responses between structural classes of phenolics should be taken into account. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Pre-treatment attachment anxiety predicts change in depressive symptoms in women who complete day hospital treatment for anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Bissada, Hany

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with eating disorders are prone to depressive symptoms. This study examines whether depressive symptoms can change in women who complete intensive day treatment for anorexia and bulimia nervosa (BN), and whether these changes are associated with pre-treatment attachment insecurity. Participants were 141 women with anorexia nervosa restricting type (n = 24), anorexia nervosa binge purge type (n = 30), and BN (n = 87) who completed a day hospital treatment programme for eating disorders. They completed a pre-treatment self-report measure of attachment, and a pre-treatment and post-treatment self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Participants experienced significant reductions in depressive symptoms at post-treatment. Eating disorder diagnosis was not related to these improvements. However, participants lower in attachment anxiety experienced significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms than those who were higher in attachment anxiety. These results suggest that clinicians may tailor eating disorders treatments to patients' attachment patterns and focus on their pre-occupation with relationships and affect regulation to improve depressive symptoms. That depressive symptoms can decrease in women who complete day hospital treatment for anorexia and BN. That improvements in depressive symptoms do not vary according to eating disorder diagnosis in these women. That patients who complete treatment and who have higher attachment anxiety experience less improvements in depressive symptoms compared to those lower in attachment anxiety. That clinicians may attend to aspects of attachment anxiety, such as need for approval and up-regulation of emotions, to improve depressive symptoms in female patients with eating disorders. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Correlation of 18F-FDG uptake on PET/CT with Ki67 immunohistochemistry in pre-treatment epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, M; Paredes, P; Saco, A; Fusté, P; Perlaza, P; Tapias, A; Fernandez-Martinez, A; Vidal, L; Ordi, J; Pavia, J; Martinez-Roman, S; Lomeña, F

    Standardised uptake value (SUV) and volumetric parameters such as metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from 18 F-FDG PET/CT are useful criteria for disease prognosis in pre-operative and post-treatment epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Ki67 is another prognostic biomarker in EOC, associated with tumour aggressiveness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between 18 F-FDG PET/CT measurements and Ki67 in pre-treatment EOC to determine if PET/CT parameters could non-invasively predict tumour aggressiveness. A pre-treatment PET/CT was performed on 18 patients with suspected or newly diagnosed EOC. Maximum SUV (SUVmax), mean SUV (SUVmean), whole-body MTV (wbMTV), and whole-body TLG (wbTLG) with a threshold of 30% and 40% of the SUVmax were obtained. Furthermore, Ki67 index (mean and hotspot) was estimated in tumour tissue specimens. Immunohistochemical findings were correlated with PET parameters. The mean age was 57.0 years old (standard deviation 13.6 years). A moderate correlation was observed between mean Ki67 index and SUVmax (r=0.392), SUVmean 30% (r=0.437), and SUVmean 40% (r=0.443), and also between hotspot Ki67 index and SUVmax (r=0.360), SUVmean 30% (r=0.362) and SUVmean 40% (r=0.319). There was a weaker correlation, which was inversely negative, between mean and hotspot Ki67 and volumetric PET parameters. However, no statistical significant differences were found for any correlations. SUVmax and SUVmean were moderately correlated with Ki67 index, whereas volumetric PET parameters overall, showed a weaker correlation. Thus, SUVmax and SUVmean could be used to assess tumour aggressiveness in pre-treatment EOC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  17. Multivariate Correlation between Analysis Data on Dissolved Organic Material from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris Chips and their Autohydrolysis Pre-Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Lehto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemometric techniques were used to establish the relationship between the autohydrolysis conditions prior to pulping and the chemical compositions of the soluble organic materials removed from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris wood chips. The aqueous chip pre-treatments (autohydrolysis were administered at 130 °C and 150 °C for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, and the hydrolysates obtained were characterized in terms of total carbohydrates (various mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides together with uronic acid side groups, volatile acids (acetic and formic acids, lignin, and furans (furfural and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural. Based on the analytical data gathered, a relatively accurate model for pine chip autohydrolysis was developed.

  18. Pre-treatment with mild whole-body heating prevents gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y H; Noguchi, R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the preventive effect of pre-mild whole-body heating (WBH) on gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress. The ulcer index and ulcer area ratio in rats exposed to restraint and water-immersion stress were significantly decreased (p immersion stress alone (p immersion, thereby preventing gastric ulcer formation. Pre-treatment with mild WBH is the safest cytoprotective method through the accumulation of HSP 70f. The concentration of HSP 70f in peripheral lymphocytes may be a useful clinical laboratory indicator for assessing the level of HSP 70f as having cytoprotective activity.

  19. High quality actively cooled plasma-facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) for future fusion devices, with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL). This actively cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long-pulse operation, has been operated under essentially thermally steady state conditions. Testing to identify braze flaws, analysis of the impact of joining flaws on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the OPL, and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed. This experience suggests that, for PFCs in future fusion devices, flaw-tolerant designs are possible; analyses of the impacts of flaws on performance can provide criteria for quality assurance; and validating appropriate methods of inspection for such flaws early in the design development of PFCs is prudent. The need for in-service monitoring is also discussed. (orig.)

  20. Health care in small prisons: incorporating high-quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Casillas, Alejandra; Mary, Gérard; Secretan, Anne-Dominique; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans