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Sample records for high quality nucleic

  1. Simple, rapid and cost-effective method for high quality nucleic acids extraction from different strains of Botryococcus braunii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hyuk Kim

    Full Text Available This study deals with an effective nucleic acids extraction method from various strains of Botryococcus braunii which possesses an extensive extracellular matrix. A method combining freeze/thaw and bead-beating with heterogeneous diameter of silica/zirconia beads was optimized to isolate DNA and RNA from microalgae, especially from B. braunii. Eukaryotic Microalgal Nucleic Acids Extraction (EMNE method developed in this study showed at least 300 times higher DNA yield in all strains of B. braunii with high integrity and 50 times reduced working volume compared to commercially available DNA extraction kits. High quality RNA was also extracted using this method and more than two times the yield compared to existing methods. Real-time experiments confirmed the quality and quantity of the input DNA and RNA extracted using EMNE method. The method was also applied to other eukaryotic microalgae, such as diatoms, Chlamydomonas sp., Chlorella sp., and Scenedesmus sp. resulting in higher efficiencies. Cost-effectiveness analysis of DNA extraction by various methods revealed that EMNE method was superior to commercial kits and other reported methods by >15%. This method would immensely contribute to area of microalgal genomics.

  2. Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles For Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery. PMID:21319839

  3. Evolution of sequence-defined highly functionalized nucleic acid polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Lichtor, Phillip A.; Berliner, Adrian P.; Chen, Jonathan C.; Liu, David R.

    2018-03-01

    The evolution of sequence-defined synthetic polymers made of building blocks beyond those compatible with polymerase enzymes or the ribosome has the potential to generate new classes of receptors, catalysts and materials. Here we describe a ligase-mediated DNA-templated polymerization and in vitro selection system to evolve highly functionalized nucleic acid polymers (HFNAPs) made from 32 building blocks that contain eight chemically diverse side chains on a DNA backbone. Through iterated cycles of polymer translation, selection and reverse translation, we discovered HFNAPs that bind proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and interleukin-6, two protein targets implicated in human diseases. Mutation and reselection of an active PCSK9-binding polymer yielded evolved polymers with high affinity (KD = 3 nM). This evolved polymer potently inhibited the binding between PCSK9 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that specific side chains at defined positions in the polymers are required for binding to their respective targets. Our findings expand the chemical space of evolvable polymers to include densely functionalized nucleic acids with diverse, researcher-defined chemical repertoires.

  4. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  5. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Robert B.

    2018-04-17

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  6. External quality assurance of malaria nucleic acid testing for clinical trials and eradication surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean C; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Douglas, Alexander D; Edwards, Nick J; Petersen, Ines; Fahle, Gary A; Adams, Matthew; Berry, Andrea A; Billman, Zachary P; Gilbert, Sarah C; Laurens, Matthew B; Leroy, Odile; Lyke, Kristen E; Plowe, Christopher V; Seilie, Annette M; Strauss, Kathleen A; Teelen, Karina; Hill, Adrian V S; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for malaria parasites is an increasingly recommended diagnostic endpoint in clinical trials of vaccine and drug candidates and is also important in surveillance of malaria control and elimination efforts. A variety of reported NAT assays have been described, yet no formal external quality assurance (EQA) program provides validation for the assays in use. Here, we report results of an EQA exercise for malaria NAT assays. Among five centers conducting controlled human malaria infection trials, all centers achieved 100% specificity and demonstrated limits of detection consistent with each laboratory's pre-stated expectations. Quantitative bias of reported results compared to expected results was generally Quality Assessment program that fulfills the need for EQA of malaria NAT assays worldwide.

  7. Filter Paper-based Nucleic Acid Storage in High-throughput Solid Tumor Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachler, Matthew; Jia, Yonghui; Sharaf, Nematullah; Wade, Jacqueline; Longtine, Janina; Garcia, Elizabeth; Sholl, Lynette M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular testing of tumors from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks is central to clinical practice; however, it requires histology support and increases test turnaround time. Prospective fresh frozen tissue collection requires special handling, additional storage space, and may not be feasible for small specimens. Filter paper-based collection of tumor DNA reduces the need for histology support, requires little storage space, and preserves high-quality nucleic acid. We investigated the performance of tumor smears on filter paper in solid tumor genotyping, as compared with paired FFPE samples. Whatman FTA Micro Card (FTA preps) smears were prepared from 21 fresh tumor samples. A corresponding cytology smear was used to assess tumor cellularity and necrosis. DNA was isolated from FTA preps and FFPE core samples using automated methods and quantified using SYBR green dsDNA detection. Samples were genotyped for 471 mutations on a mass spectrophotometry-based platform (Sequenom). DNA concentrations from FTA preps and FFPE correlated for untreated carcinomas but not for mesenchymal tumors (Spearman σ=0.39 and σ=-0.1, respectively). Average DNA concentrations were lower from FTA preps as compared with FFPE, but DNA quality was higher with less fragmentation. Seventy-six percent of FTA preps and 86% of FFPE samples generated adequate DNA for genotyping. FTA preps tended to perform poorly for collection of DNA from pretreated carcinomas and mesenchymal neoplasms. Of the 16 paired DNA samples that were genotyped, 15 (94%) gave entirely concordant results. Filter paper-based sample preservation is a feasible alternative to FFPE for use in automated, high-throughput genotyping of carcinomas.

  8. High-capacity composite adsorbents for nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, Peter; Rokebul Anower, M; Larsson, Per-Olof

    2011-08-05

    Cytopore™ is a bead-shaped, macroporous and easily compressible cellulose-based anion-exchange material intended for cultivation of anchor-dependent animal cells. Reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) is a strong, non-compressible, high voidage (97%) matrix material that can be cut to desired geometrical shapes. Cytopore and RVC were combined to cylindrical composites (25 mm × 10 mm) fitted inside chromatography columns. The composite combined the advantageous properties of both its constituents, making it suitable for column chromatography. The composite could withstand very high flow rates without compaction of the bed (>25 column volumes/min; 4000 cm h(-1)). Chromatography runs with tracers showed a low HETP value (0.3mm), suggesting that pore flow was in operation. The dynamic binding capacities (10% breakthrough) per gram of dry weight Cytopore were determined for several compounds including DNA and RNA and were found to be 240-370 mg/g. The composite was used to isolate pUC 18-type plasmids from a cleared alkaline lysate in a good yield. Confocal microscopy studies showed that plasmids were bound not only to the surface of the Cytopore material but also within the matrix walls, thus offering an explanation to the very high binding capacities observed. The concept of using a composite prepared from a mechanically weak, high-binding material and a strong scaffold material may be applied to other systems as well. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. External quality assurance of malaria nucleic acid testing for clinical trials and eradication surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C Murphy

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid testing (NAT for malaria parasites is an increasingly recommended diagnostic endpoint in clinical trials of vaccine and drug candidates and is also important in surveillance of malaria control and elimination efforts. A variety of reported NAT assays have been described, yet no formal external quality assurance (EQA program provides validation for the assays in use. Here, we report results of an EQA exercise for malaria NAT assays. Among five centers conducting controlled human malaria infection trials, all centers achieved 100% specificity and demonstrated limits of detection consistent with each laboratory's pre-stated expectations. Quantitative bias of reported results compared to expected results was generally <0.5 log10 parasites/mL except for one laboratory where the EQA effort identified likely reasons for a general quantitative shift. The within-laboratory variation for all assays was low at <10% coefficient of variation across a range of parasite densities. Based on this study, we propose to create a Molecular Malaria Quality Assessment program that fulfills the need for EQA of malaria NAT assays worldwide.

  10. Operating Cooperatively (OC sensor for highly specific recognition of nucleic acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan M Cornett

    Full Text Available Molecular Beacon (MB probes have been extensively used for nucleic acid analysis because of their ability to produce fluorescent signal in solution instantly after hybridization. The indirect binding of MB probe to a target analyte offers several advantages, including: improved genotyping accuracy and the possibility to analyse folded nucleic acids. Here we report on a new design for MB-based sensor, called 'Operating Cooperatively' (OC, which takes advantage of indirect binding of MB probe to a target analyte. The sensor consists of two unmodified DNA strands, which hybridize to a universal MB probe and a nucleic acid analyte to form a fluorescent complex. OC sensors were designed to analyze two human SNPs and E. coli 16S rRNA. High specificity of the approach was demonstrated by the detection of true analyte in over 100 times excess amount of single base substituted analytes. Taking into account the flexibility in the design and the simplicity in optimization, we conclude that OC sensors may become versatile and efficient tools for instant DNA and RNA analysis in homogeneous solution.

  11. External quality assurance of malaria nucleic acid testing for clinical trials and eradication surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, S.C.; Hermsen, C.C.; Douglas, A.D.; Edwards, N.J.; Petersen, I.; Fahle, G.A.; Adams, M.; Berry, A.A.; Billman, Z.P.; Gilbert, S.C.; Laurens, M.B.; Leroy, O.; Lyke, K.E.; Plowe, C.V.; Seilie, A.M.; Strauss, K.A.; Teelen, K.; Hill, A.V.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for malaria parasites is an increasingly recommended diagnostic endpoint in clinical trials of vaccine and drug candidates and is also important in surveillance of malaria control and elimination efforts. A variety of reported NAT assays have been described, yet no formal

  12. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  13. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E; Gardner, Andrew F

    2016-01-29

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Locked nucleic acid (LNA): High affinity targeting of RNA for diagnostics and therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauppinen, S.; Vester, Birte; Wengel, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a nucleic acid analogue containing one or more LNA nucleotide monomers with a bicyclic furanose unit locked in an RNA mimicking sugar conformation. This conformational restriction results in unprecedented hybridization affinity towards complementary single stranded RN...

  15. Quantum Dot-Fullerene Based Molecular Beacon Nanosensors for Rapid, Highly Sensitive Nucleic Acid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Kannegulla, Akash; Wu, Bo; Cheng, Li-Jing

    2018-05-15

    Spherical fullerene (C 60 ) can quench the fluorescence of a quantum dot (QD) through energy transfer and charge transfer processes, with the quenching efficiency regulated by the number of proximate C 60 on each QD. With the quenching property and its small size compared with other nanoparticle-based quenchers, it is advantageous to group a QD reporter and multiple C 60 -labeled oligonucleotide probes to construct a molecular beacon (MB) probe for sensitive, robust nucleic acid detection. We demonstrated a rapid, high-sensitivity DNA detection method using the nanosensors composed of QD-C 60 based MBs carried by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The assay was accelerated by first dispersing the nanosensors in analytes for highly efficient DNA capture resulting from short-distance 3-dimensional diffusion of targets to the sensor surface and then concentrating the nanosensors to a substrate by magnetic force to amplify the fluorescence signal for target quantification. The enhanced mass transport enabled a rapid detection (< 10 min) with a small sample volume (1-10 µl). The high signal-to-noise ratio produced by the QD-C 60 pairs and magnetic concentration yielded a detection limit of 100 fM (~106 target DNA copies for a 10 µl analyte). The rapid, sensitive, label-free detection method will benefit the applications in point-of-care molecular diagnostic technologies.

  16. Tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2 are high affinity nucleic acid binding proteins with residual nuclease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    Full Text Available Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2 display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with K(D values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents.

  17. Identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2005-02-08

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  18. [Establishment of Quality Control System of Nucleic Acid Detection for Ebola Virus in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Nie, Kai; Wang, Huanyu; Du, Haijun; Song, Jingdong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wenwen; Guo, Jianqiang; Wei, Hejiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yanhai; Wu, Jiang; Gerald, Bangura; Kamara, Idrissa Laybohr; Liang, Mifang; Wu, Guizhen; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    The quality control process throughout the Ebola virus nucleic acid detection in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab) was described in detail, in order to comprehensively display the scientific, rigorous, accurate and efficient practice in detection of Ebola virus of first batch detection team in SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab. Firstly, the key points of laboratory quality control system was described, including the managements and organizing, quality control documents and information management, instrument, reagents and supplies, assessment, facilities design and space allocation, laboratory maintenance and biosecurity. Secondly, the application of quality control methods in the whole process of the Ebola virus detection, including before the test, during the test and after the test, was analyzed. The excellent and professional laboratory staffs, the implementation of humanized management are the cornerstone of the success; High-level biological safety protection is the premise for effective quality control and completion of Ebola virus detection tasks. And professional logistics is prerequisite for launching the laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus. The establishment and running of SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab has landmark significance for the friendship between Sierra Leone and China, and the lab becomes the most important base for Ebola virus laboratory testing in Sierra Leone.

  19. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine: results of the first international collaborative quality control study among 96 laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); G.T. Noordhoek; P.E. Klapper; J. Reid; J. Schirm; G.M. Cleator; M. Ieven; G. Hoddevik

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples,

  20. Reverse-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Methylated and Non-Methylated Nucleic Acid Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Madyastha, Prema; Rao, Pratima; Deobagkar, DN; Madyastha, KM

    1983-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic sepration method is described for the detection of 5-methylcytosine and 6-methyladenine in nucleic acid ext. The bases were sepd. on a Waters $C18 \\mu$ Bondapak column with a water: methanol acetic acid system. Effluents were monitored by UV absorption at 254 nm. The bases were estd. by peak heights which are proportional to the amts. of the individual bases. The method is rapid, sensitive, easy to perform and reproducible.

  1. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Allopurinol Locked Nucleic Acid Monomer by C6 Deamination of 8-Aza-7-bromo-7-deazaadenine Locked Nucleic Acid Monomer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosbar, Tamer Reda El-Saeed; Sofan, M.; Abou-Zeid, L.

    2013-01-01

    An allopurinol locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomer was prepared by a novel strategy through C6 deamination of the corresponding 8-aza-7-bromo-7-deazaadenine LNA monomer with aqueous sodium hydroxide. An 8-aza-7-deazaadenine LNA monomer was also synthesized by a modification of the new synthetic...... the required LNA monomers....

  2. Nucleic acid-based approaches to investigate microbial-related cheese quality defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eO Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe microbial profile of cheese is a primary determinant of cheese quality. Microorganisms can contribute to aroma and taste defects, form biogenic amines, cause gas and secondary fermentation defects, and can contribute to cheese pinking and mineral deposition issues. These defects may be as a result of seasonality and the variability in the composition of the milk supplied, variations in cheese processing parameters, as well as the nature and number of the non-starter microorganisms which come from the milk or other environmental sources. Such defects can be responsible for production and product recall costs and thus represent a significant economic burden for the dairy industry worldwide. Traditional non-molecular approaches are often considered biased and have inherently slow turnaround times. Molecular techniques can provide early and rapid detection of defects that result from the presence of specific spoilage microbes and, ultimately, assist in enhancing cheese quality and reducing costs. Here we review the DNA-based methods that are available to detect/quantify spoilage bacteria, and relevant metabolic pathways, in cheeses and, in the process, highlight how these strategies can be employed to improve cheese quality and reduce the associated economic burden on cheese processors.

  3. High-throughput strategy for molecular identification of Vel- blood donors employing nucleic acids extracted from plasma pools used for viral nucleic acid test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezan, Marcia R; Dinardo, Carla L; Bosi, Silvia R A; Vega, Sileni; Salles, Nanci A; Mendrone-Júnior, Alfredo; Levi, José E

    2016-06-01

    Serologic methods to determine the Vel- phenotype require the use of rare human antisera and do not allow for many samples to be tested simultaneously, which limits their application as a tool to search for rare donors. This study developed a low-cost molecular screening strategy using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA, extracted from plasma pools for viral nucleic acid test (NAT) screening, to identify Vel- and Vel+(W) donors. A total of 4680 blood donors from the Brazilian southeast region were genotyped through real-time PCR targeting the 17-nucleotide (c.64_80del) deletion in the SMIM1 gene, which determines the Vel- phenotype, by using remaining nucleic acid from plasma pools of six donors, routinely discarded after the release of viral NAT results. Twenty pools tested reactive and individual testing of samples from reactive pools identified 19 heterozygous donors with the SMIM1*64_80del deletion (0.40%) and one homozygous donor (0.02%). Fourteen of the 19 donors were confirmed as Vel- or Vel+(W) using anti-Vel human antiserum. The DNA pool genotyping strategy using real-time PCR designed to detect the deletion in the SMIM1 gene proved effective and accurate in identifying donors with the Vel- and Vel+(W) phenotypes. The fact that remaining nucleic acid from routine viral NAT screening was used makes this technique economically attractive and definitely superior to the serologic techniques available to search for this rare phenotype. © 2016 AABB.

  4. Performance of different mono- and multiplex nucleic acid amplification tests on a multipathogen external quality assessment panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loens, K; van Loon, A M; Coenjaerts, F; van Aarle, Y; Goossens, H; Wallace, P; Claas, E J C; Ieven, M

    2012-03-01

    An external quality assessment (EQA) panel consisting of a total of 48 samples in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid or transport medium was prepared in collaboration with Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) (www.qcmd.org). The panel was used to assess the proficiency of the three laboratories that would be responsible for examining the 6,000 samples to be collected in the GRACE Network of Excellence (www.grace-lrti.org). The main objective was to decide on the best-performing testing approach for the detection of influenza viruses A and B, parainfluenza virus types 1 to 3, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, coronavirus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila by nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs). Two approaches were chosen: (i) laboratories testing samples using their in-house procedures for extraction and amplification and (ii) laboratories using their in-house amplification procedures on centrally extracted samples. Furthermore, three commercially available multiplex NAAT tests-the ResPlex (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany), RespiFinder plus (PathoFinder, Maastricht, The Netherlands), and RespiFinder Smart 21 (PathoFinder) tests-were evaluated by examination of the same EQA panel by the manufacturer. No large differences among the 3 laboratories were noticed when the performances of the assays developed in-house in combination with the in-house extraction procedures were compared. Also, the extraction procedure (central versus local) had little effect on performance. However, large differences in amplification efficacy were found between the commercially available tests; acceptable results were obtained by using the PathoFinder assays.

  5. Nucleic acid protocols: Extraction and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed El-Ashram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield and quality are fundamental features for any researchers during nucleic acid extraction. Here, we describe a simplified, semi-unified, effective, and toxic material free protocol for extracting DNA and RNA from different prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources exploiting the physical and chemical properties of nucleic acids. Furthermore, this protocol showed that DNA and RNA are under triple protection (i.e. EDTA, SDS and NaCl during lysis step, and this environment is improper for RNase to have DNA liberated of RNA and even for DNase to degrade the DNA. Therefore, the complete removal of RNA under RNase influence is achieved when RNase is added after DNA extraction, which gives optimal quality with any protocols. Similarly, DNA contamination in an isolated RNA is degraded by DNase to obtain high-quality RNA. Our protocol is the protocol of choice in terms of simplicity, recovery time, environmental safety, amount, purity, PCR and RT-PCR applicability.

  6. Does the high nucleic acid content of individual bacterial cells allow us to discriminate between active cells and inactive cells in aquatic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaron, P; Servais, P; Agogué, H; Courties, C; Joux, F

    2001-04-01

    The nucleic acid contents of individual bacterial cells as determined with three different nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes (SYBR I, SYBR II, and SYTO 13) and flow cytometry were compared for different seawater samples. Similar fluorescence patterns were observed, and bacteria with high apparent nucleic acid contents (HNA) could be discriminated from bacteria with low nucleic acid contents (LNA). The best discrimination between HNA and LNA cells was found when cells were stained with SYBR II. Bacteria in different water samples collected from seven freshwater, brackish water, and seawater ecosystems were prelabeled with tritiated leucine and then stained with SYBR II. After labeling and staining, HNA, LNA, and total cells were sorted by flow cytometry, and the specific activity of each cellular category was determined from leucine incorporation rates. The HNA cells were responsible for most of the total bacterial production, and the specific activities of cells in the HNA population varied between samples by a factor of seven. We suggest that nucleic acid content alone can be a better indicator of the fraction of growing cells than total counts and that this approach should be combined with other fluorescent physiological probes to improve detection of the most active cells in aquatic systems.

  7. RBscore&NBench: a high-level web server for nucleic acid binding residues prediction with a large-scale benchmarking database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2016-07-08

    RBscore&NBench combines a web server, RBscore and a database, NBench. RBscore predicts RNA-/DNA-binding residues in proteins and visualizes the prediction scores and features on protein structures. The scoring scheme of RBscore directly links feature values to nucleic acid binding probabilities and illustrates the nucleic acid binding energy funnel on the protein surface. To avoid dataset, binding site definition and assessment metric biases, we compared RBscore with 18 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets, which demonstrated the high and stable accuracy of RBscore. A comprehensive comparison led us to develop a benchmark database named NBench. The web server is available on: http://ahsoka.u-strasbg.fr/rbscorenbench/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Method of Identifying a Base in a Nucleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    1999-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  9. Hybridization and sequencing of nucleic acids using base pair mismatches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  10. Probe kit for identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  11. In vivo effects of high-dose steroids on nucleic acid content of immunocompetent cells of renal allograft recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, A.J.; Wong, G.Y.; Suthanthiran, M.; Rubin, A.L.; Stenzel, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    High-dose steroids administered to renal allograft recipients for treatment of acute graft rejection episodes may affect cell cycle progression of peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells. DNA synthesis and cellular DNA and RNA contents of PBM cells were measured in 8 patients during clinically stable periods, and in another 10 patients both during acute rejection episodes and during 7 days of administration of high-dose steroids. Improved renal function documented successful reversal of the rejection episodes in the 10 patients. Compared with the stable patients, the rejecting patients had higher numbers of cells undergoing clonal expansion--namely, higher proportions of G1-cells and of proliferating, or S, G2, and M (SG2M) cells. Steroid treatment had no acute effects on proportions of G1 or SG2M cells in vivo or on incorporation of 3 H thymidine by PBM cells in vitro. However, cells in the prereplicative compartment of the cell cycle (G0/1 cells) had significantly lower RNA content within 7 days of treatment with high doses of steroids. The results suggest that steroids do not acutely influence the posttranscriptional synthesis and the contents of nucleic acids of cells undergoing clonal expansion in vivo. The prereplicative phase of allogeneically stimulated PBM cells of renal allograft recipients may therefore be the cell cycle phase most sensitive to steroids in vivo

  12. High affinity γPNA sandwich hybridization assay for rapid detection of short nucleic acid targets with single mismatch discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Johnathan M; Zhang, Li Ang; Manna, Arunava; Armitage, Bruce A; Ly, Danith H; Schneider, James W

    2013-07-08

    Hybridization analysis of short DNA and RNA targets presents many challenges for detection. The commonly employed sandwich hybridization approach cannot be implemented for these short targets due to insufficient probe-target binding strengths for unmodified DNA probes. Here, we present a method capable of rapid and stable sandwich hybridization detection for 22 nucleotide DNA and RNA targets. Stable hybridization is achieved using an n-alkylated, polyethylene glycol γ-carbon modified peptide nucleic acid (γPNA) amphiphile. The γPNA's exceptionally high affinity enables stable hybridization of a second DNA-based probe to the remaining bases of the short target. Upon hybridization of both probes, an electrophoretic mobility shift is measured via interaction of the n-alkane modification on the γPNA with capillary electrophoresis running buffer containing nonionic surfactant micelles. We find that sandwich hybridization of both probes is stable under multiple binding configurations and demonstrate single base mismatch discrimination. The binding strength of both probes is also stabilized via coaxial stacking on adjacent hybridization to targets. We conclude with a discussion on the implementation of the proposed sandwich hybridization assay as a high-throughput microRNA detection method.

  13. Utility of lab-on-a-chip technology for high-throughput nucleic acid and protein analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawtin, Paul; Hardern, Ian; Wittig, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    On-chip electrophoresis can provide size separations of nucleic acids and proteins similar to more traditional slab gel electrophoresis. Lab-on-a-chip (LoaC) systems utilize on-chip electrophoresis in conjunction with sizing calibration, sensitive detection schemes, and sophisticated data analysi...

  14. BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AT SURFACES RELEVANT TO MICROARRAY PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Archana N; Grainger, David W

    2014-04-01

    Both clinical and analytical metrics produced by microarray-based assay technology have recognized problems in reproducibility, reliability and analytical sensitivity. These issues are often attributed to poor understanding and control of nucleic acid behaviors and properties at solid-liquid interfaces. Nucleic acid hybridization, central to DNA and RNA microarray formats, depends on the properties and behaviors of single strand (ss) nucleic acids (e.g., probe oligomeric DNA) bound to surfaces. ssDNA's persistence length, radius of gyration, electrostatics, conformations on different surfaces and under various assay conditions, its chain flexibility and curvature, charging effects in ionic solutions, and fluorescent labeling all influence its physical chemistry and hybridization under assay conditions. Nucleic acid (e.g., both RNA and DNA) target interactions with immobilized ssDNA strands are highly impacted by these biophysical states. Furthermore, the kinetics, thermodynamics, and enthalpic and entropic contributions to DNA hybridization reflect global probe/target structures and interaction dynamics. Here we review several biophysical issues relevant to oligomeric nucleic acid molecular behaviors at surfaces and their influences on duplex formation that influence microarray assay performance. Correlation of biophysical aspects of single and double-stranded nucleic acids with their complexes in bulk solution is common. Such analysis at surfaces is not commonly reported, despite its importance to microarray assays. We seek to provide further insight into nucleic acid-surface challenges facing microarray diagnostic formats that have hindered their clinical adoption and compromise their research quality and value as genomics tools.

  15. BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AT SURFACES RELEVANT TO MICROARRAY PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Archana N.; Grainger, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Both clinical and analytical metrics produced by microarray-based assay technology have recognized problems in reproducibility, reliability and analytical sensitivity. These issues are often attributed to poor understanding and control of nucleic acid behaviors and properties at solid-liquid interfaces. Nucleic acid hybridization, central to DNA and RNA microarray formats, depends on the properties and behaviors of single strand (ss) nucleic acids (e.g., probe oligomeric DNA) bound to surfaces. ssDNA’s persistence length, radius of gyration, electrostatics, conformations on different surfaces and under various assay conditions, its chain flexibility and curvature, charging effects in ionic solutions, and fluorescent labeling all influence its physical chemistry and hybridization under assay conditions. Nucleic acid (e.g., both RNA and DNA) target interactions with immobilized ssDNA strands are highly impacted by these biophysical states. Furthermore, the kinetics, thermodynamics, and enthalpic and entropic contributions to DNA hybridization reflect global probe/target structures and interaction dynamics. Here we review several biophysical issues relevant to oligomeric nucleic acid molecular behaviors at surfaces and their influences on duplex formation that influence microarray assay performance. Correlation of biophysical aspects of single and double-stranded nucleic acids with their complexes in bulk solution is common. Such analysis at surfaces is not commonly reported, despite its importance to microarray assays. We seek to provide further insight into nucleic acid-surface challenges facing microarray diagnostic formats that have hindered their clinical adoption and compromise their research quality and value as genomics tools. PMID:24765522

  16. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2012-02-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However, the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three-dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared with patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  2. Retention of nucleic acids in ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography depends not only on base composition but also on base sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun-Qin; Liang, Chao; Wei, Lan-Chun; Cao, Zhao-Ming; Lian, Hong-Zhen

    2016-12-01

    The study on nucleic acid retention in ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography mainly focuses on size-dependence, however, other factors influencing retention behaviors have not been comprehensively clarified up to date. In this present work, the retention behaviors of oligonucleotides and double-stranded DNAs were investigated on silica-based C 18 stationary phase by ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. It is found that the retention of oligonucleotides was influenced by base composition and base sequence as well as size, and oligonucleotides prone to self-dimerization have weaker retention than those not prone to self-dimerization but with the same base composition. However, homo-oligonucleotides are suitable for the size-dependent separation as a special case of oligonucleotides. For double-stranded DNAs, the retention is also influenced by base composition and base sequence, as well as size. This may be attributed to the interaction of exposed bases in major or minor grooves with the hydrophobic alky chains of stationary phase. In addition, no specific influence of guanine and cytosine content was confirmed on retention of double-stranded DNAs. Notably, the space effect resulted from the stereostructure of nucleic acids also influences the retention behavior in ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  4. Kinetics of membrane damage to high (HNA) and low (LNA) nucleic acid bacterial clusters in drinking water by ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseier, Maaike K; von Gunten, Urs; Freihofer, Pietro; Hammes, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Drinking water was treated with ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ferrate(VI), and permanganate to investigate the kinetics of membrane damage of native drinking water bacterial cells. Membrane damage was measured by flow cytometry using a combination of SYBR Green I and propidium iodide (SGI+PI) staining as indicator for cells with permeabilized membranes and SGI alone to measure total cell concentration. SGI+PI staining revealed that the cells were permeabilized upon relatively low oxidant exposures of all tested oxidants without a detectable lag phase. However, only ozonation resulted in a decrease of the total cell concentrations for the investigated reaction times. Rate constants for the membrane damage reaction varied over seven orders of magnitude in the following order: ozone > chlorine > chlorine dioxide ≈ ferrate > permanganate > chloramine. The rate constants were compared to literature data and were in general smaller than previously measured rate constants. This confirmed that membrane integrity is a conservative and therefore safe parameter for disinfection control. Interestingly, the cell membranes of high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria were damaged much faster than those of low nucleic acid (LNA) content bacteria during treatment with chlorine dioxide and permanganate. However, only small differences were observed during treatment with chlorine and chloramine, and no difference was observed for ferrate treatment. Based on the different reactivity of these oxidants it was suggested that HNA and LNA bacterial cell membranes have a different chemical constitution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fast High-Quality Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Wyvill, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    At the moment the noise functions available in a graphics programmer's toolbox are either slow to compute or they involve grid-line artifacts making them of lower quality. In this paper we present a real-time noise computation with no grid-line artifacts or other regularity problems. In other words......, we put a new tool in the box that computes fast high-quality noise. In addition to being free of artifacts, the noise we present does not rely on tabulated data (everything is computed on the fly) and it is easy to adjust quality vs. quantity for the noise. The noise is based on point rendering (like...... spot noise), but it extends to more than two dimensions. The fact that it is based on point rendering makes art direction of the noise much easier....

  6. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamfai Chan

    Full Text Available Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target's nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer's heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs. Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers.

  7. Low-Cost 3D Printers Enable High-Quality and Automated Sample Preparation and Molecular Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kamfai; Coen, Mauricio; Hardick, Justin; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Wong, Kah-Yat; Smith, Clayton; Wilson, Scott A.; Vayugundla, Siva Praneeth; Wong, Season

    2016-01-01

    Most molecular diagnostic assays require upfront sample preparation steps to isolate the target’s nucleic acids, followed by its amplification and detection using various nucleic acid amplification techniques. Because molecular diagnostic methods are generally rather difficult to perform manually without highly trained users, automated and integrated systems are highly desirable but too costly for use at point-of-care or low-resource settings. Here, we showcase the development of a low-cost and rapid nucleic acid isolation and amplification platform by modifying entry-level 3D printers that cost between $400 and $750. Our modifications consisted of replacing the extruder with a tip-comb attachment that houses magnets to conduct magnetic particle-based nucleic acid extraction. We then programmed the 3D printer to conduct motions that can perform high-quality extraction protocols. Up to 12 samples can be processed simultaneously in under 13 minutes and the efficiency of nucleic acid isolation matches well against gold-standard spin-column-based extraction technology. Additionally, we used the 3D printer’s heated bed to supply heat to perform water bath-based polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Using another attachment to hold PCR tubes, the 3D printer was programmed to automate the process of shuttling PCR tubes between water baths. By eliminating the temperature ramping needed in most commercial thermal cyclers, the run time of a 35-cycle PCR protocol was shortened by 33%. This article demonstrates that for applications in resource-limited settings, expensive nucleic acid extraction devices and thermal cyclers that are used in many central laboratories can be potentially replaced by a device modified from inexpensive entry-level 3D printers. PMID:27362424

  8. Activity and phylogenetic diversity of bacterial cells with high and low nucleic acid content and electron transport system activity in an upwelling ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longnecker, K; Sherr, B F; Sherr, E B

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated whether bacteria with higher cell-specific nucleic acid content (HNA) or an active electron transport system, i.e., positive for reduction of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), were responsible for the bulk of bacterioplankton metabolic activity. We also examined whether the phylogenetic diversity of HNA and CTC-positive cells differed from the diversity of Bacteria with low nucleic acid content (LNA). Bacterial assemblages were sampled both in eutrophic shelf waters and in mesotrophic offshore waters in the Oregon coastal upwelling region. Cytometrically sorted HNA, LNA, and CTC-positive cells were assayed for their cell-specific [3H]leucine incorporation rates. Phylogenetic diversity in sorted non-radioactively labeled samples was assayed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Cell-specific rates of leucine incorporation of HNA and CTC-positive cells were on average only slightly greater than the cell-specific rates of LNA cells. HNA cells accounted for most bacterioplankton substrate incorporation due to high abundances, while the low abundances of CTC-positive cells resulted in only a small contribution by these cells to total bacterial activity. The proportion of the total bacterial leucine incorporation attributable to LNA cells was higher in offshore regions than in shelf waters. Sequence data obtained from DGGE bands showed broadly similar phylogenetic diversity across HNA, LNA, and CTC-positive cells, with between-sample and between-region variability in the distribution of phylotypes. Our results suggest that LNA bacteria are not substantially different from HNA bacteria in either cell-specific rates of substrate incorporation or phylogenetic composition and that they can be significant contributors to bacterial metabolism in the sea.

  9. Nucleic acids in circulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders. In addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is ...

  10. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids. A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick. Medical Research Council Unit for the Study of the Molecular Structure of Biological. Systems, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. April 2. We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid ...

  11. Extraction of high quality DNA from seized Moroccan cannabis resin (Hashish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abdelaziz El Alaoui

    Full Text Available The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004 adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances.

  12. The role of immunostimulatory nucleic acids in septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiblo, Farag; Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Ramana, Chilakamarti V; Tai, TC; Saleh, Mazen; Parrillo, Joseph E; Kumar, Anand; Kumar, Aseem

    2012-01-01

    Sepsis and its associated syndromes represent the systemic host response to severe infection and is manifested by varying degrees of hypotension, coagulopathy, and multiorgan dysfunction. Despite great efforts being made to understand this condition and designing therapies to treat sepsis, mortality rates are still high in septic patients. Characterization of the complex molecular signaling networks between the various components of host-pathogen interactions, highlights the difficulty in identifying a single driving force responsible for sepsis. Although triggering the inflammatory response is generally considered as protective against pathogenic threats, the interplay between the signaling pathways that are induced or suppressed during sepsis may harm the host. Numerous surveillance mechanisms have evolved to discriminate self from foreign agents and accordingly provoke an effective cellular response to target the pathogens. Nucleic acids are not only an essential genetic component, but sensing their molecular signature is also an important quality control mechanism which has evolved to maintain the integrity of the human genome. Evidence that has accumulated recently indicated that distinct pattern recognition receptors sense nucleic acids released from infectious organisms or from damaged host cells, resulting in the modulation of intracellular signalling cascades. Immunoreceptor-mediated detection of these nucleic acids induces antigen-specific immunity, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and thus are implicated in a range of diseases including septic shock. PMID:22328944

  13. Activity and Phylogenetic Diversity of Bacterial Cells with High and Low Nucleic Acid Content and Electron Transport System Activity in an Upwelling Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Longnecker, K.; Sherr, B. F.; Sherr, E. B.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether bacteria with higher cell-specific nucleic acid content (HNA) or an active electron transport system, i.e., positive for reduction of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), were responsible for the bulk of bacterioplankton metabolic activity. We also examined whether the phylogenetic diversity of HNA and CTC-positive cells differed from the diversity of Bacteria with low nucleic acid content (LNA). Bacterial assemblages were sampled both in eutrophic shelf waters...

  14. Dual-cyclical nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization based signal amplification system for highly sensitive determination of p53 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianguo; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Li, Hongling; Wang, Zhenmeng; Le, Jingqing; Zheng, Tingting; Jia, Lee

    2016-12-15

    In the present study, we proposed a novel dual-cyclical nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization (dual-CNDP) based signal amplification system for highly sensitive determination of tumor suppressor genes. The system primarily consisted of a signaling hairpin probe (SHP), a label-free hairpin probe (LHP) and an initiating primer (IP). The presence of target DNA was able to induce one CNDP through continuous process of ligation, polymerization and nicking, leading to extensively accumulation of two nicked triggers (NT1 and NT2). Intriguingly, the NT1 could directly hybridize SHP, while the NT2 could act as the target analog to induce another CNDP. The resulting dual-CNDP contributed the striking signal amplification, and only a very weak blank noise existed since the ligation template of target was not involved. In this case, the target could be detected in a wide linear range (5 orders of magnitude), and a low detection limit (78 fM) was obtained, which is superior to most of the existing fluorescent methods. Moreover, the dual-CNDP sensing system provided a high selectivity towards target DNA against mismatched target and was successfully applied to analysis of target gene extracted from cancer cells or in human serum-contained samples, indicating its great potential for practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MEANS AND METHODS FOR CLONING NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric Robin; Poolman, Berend

    2008-01-01

    The invention provides means and methods for efficiently cloning nucleic acid sequences of interest in micro-organisms that are less amenable to conventional nucleic acid manipulations, as compared to, for instance, E.coli. The present invention enables high-throughput cloning (and, preferably,

  16. Synthetic LNA/DNA nano-scaffolds for highly efficient diagnostics of nucleic acids and autoimmune antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, Irina Kira

    2014-01-01

    ) strands and a series of fluorescent azides. The multiply labeled fluorescent LNA/DNA probes prepared herein generally display high binding affinity to complementary DNA/RNA, high quantum yields and, hence, high fluorescence brightness values. With the novel fluorescent probes, specific sensing...

  17. Novel Biochip Platform for Nucleic Acid Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Diaz-Mochon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the use of a novel biochip platform for the rapid analysis/identification of nucleic acids, including DNA and microRNAs, with very high specificity. This approach combines a unique dynamic chemistry approach for nucleic acid testing and analysis developed by DestiNA Genomics with the STMicroelectronics In-Check platform, which comprises two microfluidic optimized and independent PCR reaction chambers, and a sequential microarray area for nucleic acid capture and identification by fluorescence. With its compact bench-top “footprint” requiring only a single technician to operate, the biochip system promises to transform and expand routine clinical diagnostic testing and screening for genetic diseases, cancers, drug toxicology and heart disease, as well as employment in the emerging companion diagnostics market.

  18. FTA Cards for Preservation of Nucleic Acids for Molecular Assays: A Review on the Use of Cytologic/Tissue Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda

    2018-03-01

    - Traditional methods for storing histologic and cytologic specimens for future use in molecular assays have consisted of either snap-freezing with cryopreservation or formalin-fixing, paraffin-embedding the samples. Although snap-freezing with cryopreservation is recommended for better preservation of nucleic acids, the infrastructure and space required for archiving impose challenges for high-volume pathology laboratories. Cost-effective, long-term storage at room temperature; relatively easy shipment; and standardized handling can be achieved with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, but formalin fixation induces fragmentation and chemical modification of nucleic acids. Advances in next-generation sequencing platforms, coupled with an increase in diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive molecular biomarkers have created a demand for high-quality nucleic acids. To address issues of the quality of nucleic acid and logistics in sample acquisition, alternatives for specimen preservation and long-term storage have been described and include novel universal tissue fixatives, stabilizers, and technologies. - To collect, retrieve, and review information from studies describing the use of nucleic acids recovered from cytologic/tissue specimens stored on Flinders Technology Associates (FTA, GE Whatman, Maidstone, Kent, United Kingdom) cards for downstream molecular applications. - An electronic literature search in the PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, Maryland) database allowed the selection of manuscripts addressing the use of FTA cards for storage of cytologic samples for molecular analysis. Only articles published in English were retrieved. - The use of FTA cards is a versatile method for fostering multicenter, international collaborations and clinical trials that require centralized testing, long-distance shipment, and high-quality nucleic acids for molecular techniques. Studies with controlled temperature are required to test the

  19. HTSSIP: An R package for analysis of high throughput sequencing data from nucleic acid stable isotope probing (SIP experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Youngblut

    Full Text Available Combining high throughput sequencing with stable isotope probing (HTS-SIP is a powerful method for mapping in situ metabolic processes to thousands of microbial taxa. However, accurately mapping metabolic processes to taxa is complex and challenging. Multiple HTS-SIP data analysis methods have been developed, including high-resolution stable isotope probing (HR-SIP, multi-window high-resolution stable isotope probing (MW-HR-SIP, quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP, and ΔBD. Currently, there is no publicly available software designed specifically for analyzing HTS-SIP data. To address this shortfall, we have developed the HTSSIP R package, an open-source, cross-platform toolset for conducting HTS-SIP analyses in a straightforward and easily reproducible manner. The HTSSIP package, along with full documentation and examples, is available from CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/HTSSIP/index.html and Github at https://github.com/buckleylab/HTSSIP.

  20. Usefulness of nucleic acid testing to reduce risk of hepatitis B virus transfusion-transmitted infection in Argentina: high rate of recent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Sebastián; Balangero, Marcos César; Valle, Mildre Cledy; Montini, Oscar Luis; Carrizo, Luis Horacio; Gallego, Sandra Verónica

    2017-03-01

    Results from 10-year experience using nucleic acid test (NAT) screening in a blood bank of Córdoba are presented, showing the first data on prevalence of recent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and occult HBV infections (OBIs) in Argentina. Molecular screening was performed by COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) test Version 1.5 and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) test Version 2.0 and COBAS TaqScreen MPX and MPX Version 2.0 test (Roche Molecular Systems). To characterize OBI, additional molecular and serologic assays were performed. As results of NAT, 0.075% of the donors (155/205,388) tested positive for HIV, 0.05% (106/205,388) for HCV, and 0.045% (76/168,215) for HBV. Donors who tested positive for HIV or HCV by NAT were also positive by serology. There was one of 33,643 donors recently infected with HBV. At time of donation, six of 76 (7.9%) donors with confirmed HBV infection presented virologic and serologic profiles consistent with OBI. By additional studies three were OBI, two were window period infections, and one remained unclassified. NAT contributed significantly to the reduction of the potential risk of HBV transmission with a frequency of one in 56,072, detecting three in 168,215 donors without serologic evidence of infection. NAT also detected three in 168,215 OBIs. The finding of high frequency of recent infections (1/33,643), unexpected for this country, highlights the need of promoting unified effective regulations that enforce the use of NAT in all blood banks in Argentina and points out the importance of assessing the risk of HBV transmission in blood banks of other countries considered to be low-endemic. © 2016 AABB.

  1. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  2. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  3. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  4. Origin of nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of nucleic acids is the first event after the birth of membranes which made it possible to assure the perenniality of information. The complexity of these molecules has led some scientists to propose that they were not prebiotic but rather derived a more simple and achiral primitive ancestor. This hypothesis suggests that ribose possesses properties that allowed the formation of certain polysaccharides which evolved to RNA. The first step of the hypothesis is the selection and concentration of ribofuranose. This sugar has chelating properties and its alpha-ribofuranose is favoured in the chelating position. The density of the sugar with a heavy cation is greater than water and thus the complex can escape the UV radiation at the surface of the ocean. The particularity of ribose is to be able to form a homochiral regular array of these basic chelating structures with pyrophosphite. These arrays evolve towards the formation of polysaccharides (poly ribose phosphate) which have a very organized structure. These polysaccharides in turn evolve to RNA by binding of adenine and deoxyguanine which are HCN derivatives that can react with the polysaccharides. The primitive RNA is methylated and oxidized to form prebiotic RNA with adenosine, cytidine, 7methyl-guanosine and ribothymidine as nucleic bases. The pathway of biosynthesis of DNA form RNA will be studied. I suggest that the appearance of DNA results form the interaction between prebiotic double stranded RNA and proteins. DNA could be a product of RNA degradation by proteins. The catabolism of RNA to DNA requires a source of free radicals, protons and hydrides. RNA cannot produce free radicals, which are provided by the phenol group of the amino acid tyrosien. Protons are provided by the medium and hydrides are provided by 7-methyl-guanosine which can fix hydrides coming from hydrogen gas and donate them for the transformation of a riboside to a deoxyriboside. This pathway suggests that DNA appeared at

  5. Engineering high quality medical software

    CERN Document Server

    Coronato, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book focuses on high-confidence medical software in the growing field of e-health, telecare services and health technology. It covers the development of methodologies and engineering tasks together with standards and regulations for medical software.

  6. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focuses on the design, synthesis, characterization, and development of spherical nucleic acid constructs as effective nanotherapeutic, single-entity agents for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and prostate cancers.

  7. Isolation of high quality RNA from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) and other woody plants high in secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Rajaei, Saideh; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The quality and quantity of RNA are critical for successful downstream transcriptome-based studies such as microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA isolation from woody plants, such as Pistacia vera, with very high amounts of polyphenols and polysaccharides is an enormous challenge. Here, we describe a highly efficient protocol that overcomes the limitations posed by poor quality and low yield of isolated RNA from pistachio and various recalcitrant woody plants. The key factors that resulted in a yield of 150 μg of high quality RNA per 200 mg of plant tissue include the elimination of phenol from the extraction buffer, raising the concentration of β-mercaptoethanol, long time incubation at 65 °C, and nucleic acid precipitation with optimized volume of NaCl and isopropyl alcohol. Also, the A260/A280 and A260/A230 of extracted RNA were about 1.9-2.1and 2.2-2.3, respectively, revealing the high purity. Since the isolated RNA passed highly stringent quality control standards for sensitive reactions, including RNA sequencing and real-time PCR, it can be considered as a reliable and cost-effective method for RNA extraction from woody plants.

  8. Quality management manual for production of high quality cassava flour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziedzoave, Nanam Tay; Abass, Adebayo Busura; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom K.

    The high quality cassava flour (HQCF) industry has just started to evolve in Africa and elsewhere. The sustainability of the growing industry, the profitability of small- and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) that are active in the industry and good-health of consumers can best be guaranteed through...... the adoption of proper quality and food safety procedures. Cassava processing enterprises involved in the productionof HQCF must therefore be commited to the quality and food safety of the HQCF. They must have the right technology, appropriate processing machhinery, standard testing instruments...... and the necessary technical expertise. This quality manual was therefore developed to guide small- to medium-scale cassava in the design and implematation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and Good manufacturing Practices (GMP) plans for HQCF production. It describes the HQCF production...

  9. High quality-factor optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriet, Rémi; Salzenstein, Patrice; Coillet, Aurélien; Saleh, Khaldoun; Chembo, Yanne K; Ristic, Davor; Ferrari, Maurizio; Mortier, Michel; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice; Cibiel, Gilles; Llopis, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Various resonators are investigated for microwave photonic applications. Micro-sphere, disk and fiber ring resonators were designed, realized and characterized. Obtained quality factors are as high as Q = 10 10 . (paper)

  10. High-quality compressive ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heyan; Zhou, Cheng; Tian, Tian; Liu, Dongqi; Song, Lijun

    2018-04-01

    We propose a high-quality compressive ghost imaging method based on projected Landweber regularization and guided filter, which effectively reduce the undersampling noise and improve the resolution. In our scheme, the original object is reconstructed by decomposing of regularization and denoising steps instead of solving a minimization problem in compressive reconstruction process. The simulation and experimental results show that our method can obtain high ghost imaging quality in terms of PSNR and visual observation.

  11. Molecular radiobiology of nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuciarelli, A F

    1987-01-01

    In addition to radiolytic adenine release, radiolysis of adenosine 5'-monophosphate, in the absence of oxygen, can result in the formation of 8-hydroxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate and both the (R)- and (S)-epimer of 8,5'-cycloadenosine 5'-monophosphate. The mononucleoside derivatives of these modified nucleotides were also observed in irradiated solutions of adenosine and in the enzyme hydrolysates of irradiated solutions of polyadenylic acid (poly A) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In an effort to detect 8,5'-cyclo(deoxy) adenosine formation in irradiated nucleic acids, polyclonal antiserum were raised with specificity to the 8,5'-cycloadenosine 5'-monophosphate moiety and used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The 8,5'-cyclo(deoxy)adenosine moiety could be detected in nitrous oxide-saturated aqueous solutions containing unhydrolyzed poly A at 10 Gy and DNA at 200 Gy using the colorimetric ELISA. Correlation of product yield measured by ELISA with HPLC analysis of irradiated, enzyme-hydrolyzed solutions of poly A revealed that the ELISA was precisely reflecting changes in the combined yield of (R)- and (S)-8,5'-cycloadenosine.

  12. Fabrication of high-quality brazed joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.V.

    1980-01-01

    Problem of ensuring of joint high-quality when brazing different parts in power engineering is considered. To obtain high-quality joints it is necessary to correctly design brazed joint and to choose a gap width, overlap length and fillet radius; to clean up carefully the surfaces to be brazed and fix them properly one relative to another; to apply a solder so as to provide its flowing into the gap and sticking in it; to exactly regulate thermal conditions of brazing. High quality and reliability of brazed joints are ensured by the application of solders based on noble metals, and cheap solders based on nickel, manganese and copper. Joints brazed with nickel base solders may operate at temperatures as high as 888 deg C

  13. Nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Liuting; Li, Juan; Liu, Qiaoling; Qiu, Liping; Tan, Weihong

    2017-03-15

    In clinical diagnostics, as well as food and environmental safety practices, biosensors are powerful tools for monitoring biological or biochemical processes. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal nanomaterials, including transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) and transition metal oxides (TMOs), are receiving growing interest for their use in biosensing applications based on such unique properties as high surface area and fluorescence quenching abilities. Meanwhile, nucleic acid probes based on Watson-Crick base-pairing rules are also being widely applied in biosensing based on their excellent recognition capability. In particular, the emergence of functional nucleic acids in the 1980s, especially aptamers, has substantially extended the recognition capability of nucleic acids to various targets, ranging from small organic molecules and metal ions to proteins and cells. Based on π-π stacking interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids, biosensing systems can be easily assembled. Therefore, the combination of 2D transition metal nanomaterials and nucleic acids brings intriguing opportunities in bioanalysis and biomedicine. In this review, we summarize recent advances of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheets in biosensing applications. The structure and properties of 2D transition metal nanomaterials are first discussed, emphasizing the interaction between transition metal nanosheets and nucleic acids. Then, the applications of nucleic acid-functionalized transition metal nanosheet-based biosensors are discussed in the context of different signal transducing mechanisms, including optical and electrochemical approaches. Finally, we provide our perspectives on the current challenges and opportunities in this promising field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HIGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan SERİN, Alper AYTEKİN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of Total Quality Management (TQM has been even more common and most recently its use in high education has been discussed. Likewise the enterprises producing various products, universities have also inputs, processes, and outputs. Due to conditions of competition, universities have to improve the qualities of these inputs, processes, and outputs, according to satisfaction, demands, and expectations of internal and external customers. If the TQM has been implemented in the universities with a manner that aims for customer satisfaction (students, lecturers, public and private establishments, and families, supports constant development, ensures participatory approach, and encourages working in groups, it will provide universities with effectiveness, efficiency, dynamics, and economics. In this study, common problems of universities, definitions of quality and TQM in high education, customer concept at universities, and factors affecting the quality of education have been explained. Besides, in order TQM approach to be successfully implemented in the universities, various suggestions have been presented.

  15. Ultra-high-density 3D DNA arrays within nanoporous biocompatible membranes for single-molecule-level detection and purification of circulating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, M.; Shimoni, O.; Fox, K.; Karle, T. J.; Lohrmann, A.; Ostrikov, K.; Prawer, S.; Cervenka, J.

    2015-03-01

    Extracellular nucleic acids freely circulating in blood and other physiologic fluids are important biomarkers for non-invasive diagnostics and early detection of cancer and other diseases, yet difficult to detect because they exist in very low concentrations and large volumes. Here we demonstrate a new broad-range sensor platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of circulating DNA down to the single-molecule level. The biosensor is based on a chemically functionalized nanoporous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated alumina membrane. The few nanometer-thick, yet perfect and continuous DLC-coating confers the chemical stability and biocompatibility of the sensor, allowing its direct application in biological conditions. The selective detection is based on complementary hybridization of a fluorescently-tagged circulating cancer oncomarker (a 21-mer nucleic acid) with covalently immobilized DNA on the surface of the membrane. The captured DNAs are detected in the nanoporous structure of the sensor using confocal scanning laser microscopy. The flow-through membrane sensor demonstrates broad-range sensitivity, spanning from 1015 molecules per cm2 down to single molecules, which is several orders of magnitude improvement compared to the flat DNA microarrays. Our study suggests that these flow-through type nanoporous sensors represent a new powerful platform for large volume sampling and ultrasensitive detection of different chemical biomarkers.Extracellular nucleic acids freely circulating in blood and other physiologic fluids are important biomarkers for non-invasive diagnostics and early detection of cancer and other diseases, yet difficult to detect because they exist in very low concentrations and large volumes. Here we demonstrate a new broad-range sensor platform for ultrasensitive and selective detection of circulating DNA down to the single-molecule level. The biosensor is based on a chemically functionalized nanoporous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated

  16. Histidine-Containing Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics.......Peptide nucleic acids containing histidine moieties are provided. These compounds have applications including diagnostics, research and potential therapeutics....

  17. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  18. Assuring quality in high-consequence engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Marcey L.; Kolb, Rachel R.

    2014-03-01

    In high-consequence engineering organizations, such as Sandia, quality assurance may be heavily dependent on staff competency. Competency-dependent quality assurance models are at risk when the environment changes, as it has with increasing attrition rates, budget and schedule cuts, and competing program priorities. Risks in Sandia's competency-dependent culture can be mitigated through changes to hiring, training, and customer engagement approaches to manage people, partners, and products. Sandia's technical quality engineering organization has been able to mitigate corporate-level risks by driving changes that benefit all departments, and in doing so has assured Sandia's commitment to excellence in high-consequence engineering and national service.

  19. Producing high-quality slash pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Barnett; Sue Varela

    2003-01-01

    Slash pine is a desirable species. It serves many purposes and is well adapted to poorly drained flatwoods and seasonally flooded areas along the lower Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. The use of high-quality seeds has been shown to produce uniform seedlings for outplanting, which is key to silvicultural success along the Coastal Plain and elsewhere. We present...

  20. Endorectal high dose rate brachytherapy quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devic, S.; Vuong, T.; Evans, M.; Podgorsak, E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our quality assurance method for preoperative high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy of endorectal tumours. Reproduction of the treatment planning dose distribution on a daily basis is crucial for treatment success. Due to the cylindrical symmetry, two types of adjustments are necessary: applicator rotation and dose distribution shift along the applicator axis. (author)

  1. Cleaving Double-Stranded DNA with Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids and analogues of peptide nucleic acids are used to form duplex, triplex, and other structures with nucleic acids and to modify nucleic acids. The peptide nucleic acids and analogues thereof also are used to modulate protein activity through, for example, transcription arrest......, transcription initiation, and site specific cleavage of nucleic acids....

  2. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  3. An Improved Method for High Quality Metagenomics DNA Extraction from Human and Environmental Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bag, Satyabrata; Saha, Bipasa; Mehta, Ojasvi

    2016-01-01

    and human origin samples. We introduced a combination of physical, chemical and mechanical lysis methods for proper lysis of microbial inhabitants. The community microbial DNA was precipitated by using salt and organic solvent. Both the quality and quantity of isolated DNA was compared with the existing...... methodologies and the supremacy of our method was confirmed. Maximum recovery of genomic DNA in the absence of substantial amount of impurities made the method convenient for nucleic acid extraction. The nucleic acids obtained using this method are suitable for different downstream applications. This improved...

  4. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  5. Boiling curve in high quality flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralkar, B.S.; Hein, R.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1980-01-01

    The post dry-out heat transfer regime of the flow boiling curve was investigated experimentally for high pressure water at high qualities. The test section was a short round tube located downstream of a hot patch created by a temperature controlled segment of tubing. Results from the experiment showed that the distance from the dryout point has a significant effect on the downstream temperatures and there was no unique boiling curve. The heat transfer coefficients measured sufficiently downstream of the dryout point could be correlated using the Heineman correlation for superheated steam, indicating that the droplet deposition effects could be neglected in this region

  6. Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Conjugated Therapeutic Oligonucleotides: A High-Throughput Method Based Upon Serial Blood Microsampling Coupled to Peptide Nucleic Acid Hybridization Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Bruno M D C; Gilbert, James W; Haraszti, Reka A; Coles, Andrew H; Biscans, Annabelle; Roux, Loic; Nikan, Mehran; Echeverria, Dimas; Hassler, Matthew; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2017-12-01

    Therapeutic oligonucleotides, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), hold great promise for the treatment of incurable genetically defined disorders by targeting cognate toxic gene products for degradation. To achieve meaningful tissue distribution and efficacy in vivo, siRNAs must be conjugated or formulated. Clear understanding of the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic behavior of these compounds is necessary to optimize and characterize the performance of therapeutic oligonucleotides in vivo. In this study, we describe a simple and reproducible methodology for the evaluation of in vivo blood/plasma PK profiles and tissue distribution of oligonucleotides. The method is based on serial blood microsampling from the saphenous vein, coupled to peptide nucleic acid hybridization assay for quantification of guide strands. Performed with minimal number of animals, this method allowed unequivocal detection and sensitive quantification without the need for amplification, or further modification of the oligonucleotides. Using this methodology, we compared plasma clearances and tissue distribution profiles of two different hydrophobically modified siRNAs (hsiRNAs). Notably, cholesterol-hsiRNA presented slow plasma clearances and mainly accumulated in the liver, whereas, phosphocholine-docosahexaenoic acid-hsiRNA was rapidly cleared from the plasma and preferably accumulated in the kidney. These data suggest that the PK/biodistribution profiles of modified hsiRNAs are determined by the chemical nature of the conjugate. Importantly, the method described in this study constitutes a simple platform to conduct pilot assessments of the basic clearance and tissue distribution profiles, which can be broadly applied for evaluation of new chemical variants of siRNAs and micro-RNAs.

  7. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  8. Multiplexed microfluidic approach for nucleic acid enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Langevin, Stanley Alan; Bent, Zachary; Renzi, Ronald F.; Ferko, Scott M.; Van De Vreugde, James L.; Lane, Todd; Patel, Kamlesh; Branda, Steven

    2016-04-26

    A system for enhancing a nucleic acid sample may include a one pump, a denaturing chamber; a microfluidic hydroxyapatite chromatography device configured for performing hydroxyapatite chromatography on the nucleic acid sample, a sample collector, and tubing connecting the pump with the denaturing chamber, the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and the sample collector such that the pump may be used to move the nucleic acid sample from the denaturing chamber to the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and then to the sample collector.

  9. Scaffolding along Nucleic Acid Duplexes Using 2'-Amino-Locked Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    -LNA nucleotides. By application of different chemical reactions, modification of 2'-amino-LNA scaffolds can be efficiently performed in high yields and with various tags, postsynthetically or during the automated oligonucleotide synthesis. The choice of a synthetic method for scaffolding along 2'-amino-LNA mainly....../DNA probes bind nucleic acid targets with advantages of high affinity and specificity. Thus, molecular motion of nanodevices and programmable self-assembly of chemically modified LNA/DNA nanomaterials can be followed by bright fluorescence signaling from the functionalized LNA units. Another appealing aspect...

  10. Nucleic Acid Amplification as used in the Diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nucleic Acid Amplification as used in the Diagnosis and Management of Viral Diseases: A Review. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... are highly unculturable, fastidious or hazardous to the laboratory personnel and diagnosis depends on serological methods or culture in an expensive bio-safety level.

  11. Karyotype and nucleic acid content in Zantedeschia aethiopica Spr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-07-03

    Jul 3, 2012 ... Analysis of karyotype, nucleic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide ... base pairs) for Z. aethiopica and 1144.26 ± 0.05 picograms (equivalent to 1144.26 mega base pairs) for Z. elliottiana. ... ml ice-cold nuclei-isolation buffer A of the Partec high resolution. DNA kit ...

  12. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker.......A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  13. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  14. High quality data: An evaluation of AIM data quality and data quality procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of every monitoring program is to collect high-quality data which can then be used to provide information to decision makers. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) program is one such data set which provides rangeland status, condition, and trend in...

  15. High-picture quality industrial CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Takao; Nishide, Akihiko; Fujii, Masashi.

    1989-01-01

    Industrial X-ray-CT-scanners, which provide cross-sectional images of a tested sample without destroying it, are attracting attention as a new nondestructive inspection device. In 1982, Toshiba commenced the development of industrial CT scanners, and introduced the 'TOSCANER' -3000 and-4000 series. Now, the state of the art 'TOSCANER'-20000 series of CT systems has been developed incorporating the latest computer tomography and image processing technology, such as the T9506 image processor. One of the advantages of this system is its applicability to a wide range of X-ray energy . The 'TOSCANER'-20000 series can be utilized for inspecting castings and other materials with relatively low-transparency to X-rays, as well as ceramics, composite materials and other materials with high X-ray transparency. A further feature of the new system is its high-picture quality, with a high-spatial resolution resulting from a pixel size of 0.2x0.2(mm). (author)

  16. [Quality management is associated with high quality services in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Hassert; Riis, Allan; Mainz, Jan; Jensen, Anne-Louise Degn

    2013-12-09

    In these years, quality management has been the focus in order to meet high quality services for the patients in Danish health care. This article provides information on quality management and quality improvement and it evaluates its effectiveness in achieving better organizational structures, processes and results in Danish health-care organizations. Our findings generally support that quality management is associated with high quality services in health care.

  17. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  18. High Quality Data for Grid Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Draxl, Caroline; Sengupta, Manajit; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-01-22

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. The existing electric grid infrastructure in the US in particular poses significant limitations on wind power expansion. In this presentation we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets are presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. The need for high-resolution weather data pushes modeling towards finer scales and closer synchronization. We also present how we anticipate such datasets developing in the future, their benefits, and the challenges with using and disseminating such large amounts of data.

  19. Assessment for Melting Temperature Measurement of Nucleic Acid by HRM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Xiaoming; Liang, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High resolution melting (HRM), with a high sensitivity to distinguish the nucleic acid species with small variations, has been widely applied in the mutation scanning, methylation analysis, and genotyping. For the aim of extending HRM for the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid secondary structures on sequence dependence, we investigated effects of the dye of EvaGreen, metal ions, and impurities (such as dNTPs) on melting temperature ( T m ) measurement by HRM. The accuracy of HRM was assessed as compared with UV melting method, and little difference between the two methods was found when the DNA T m was higher than 40°C. Both insufficiency and excessiveness of EvaGreen were found to give rise to a little bit higher T m , showing that the proportion of dye should be considered for precise T m measurement of nucleic acids. Finally, HRM method was also successfully used to measure T m s of DNA triplex, hairpin, and RNA duplex. In conclusion, HRM can be applied in the evaluation of thermal stability of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or secondary structural elements (even when dNTPs are present).

  20. Delivery Systems for In Vivo use of Nucleic Acid Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende R.R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The notorious biotechnological advance of the last few decades has allowed the development of experimental methods for understanding molecular mechanisms of genes and new therapeutic approaches. Gene therapy is maturing into a viable, practical method with the potential to cure a variety of human illnesses. Some nucleic-acid-based drugs are now available for controlling the progression of genetic diseases by inhibiting gene expression or the activity of their gene products. New therapeutic strategies employ a wide range of molecular tools such as bacterial plasmids containing transgenic inserts, RNA interference aptamers. A nucleic-acid based constitution confers a lower immunogenic potential and as result of the high stringency selection of large molecular variety, these drugs have high affi nity and selectivity for their targets. However, nucleic acids have poor biostability thus requiring chemical modifications and delivery systems to maintain their activity and ease their cellular internalization. This review discusses some of the mechanisms of action and the application of therapies based on nucleic acids such as aptamers and RNA interference as well as platforms for cellular uptake and intracellular delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides and their trade-offs.

  1. Nucleic acid drugs: a novel approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Nucleic acid base sequence of proteins plays a crucial role in the expression of gene. The gene is responsible for the synthesis of proteins and these proteins, which are synthesized, are responsible for the biological process and also for dreadful diseases as well. Once if the nucleic acid sequence is altered, we would be ...

  2. Synthetic Procedures for Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  3. Geometric properties of nucleic acids with potential for autobuilding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruene, Tim; Sheldrick, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Algorithms and geometrical properties are described for the automated building of nucleic acids in experimental electron density. Medium- to high-resolution X-ray structures of DNA and RNA molecules were investigated to find geometric properties useful for automated model building in crystallographic electron-density maps. We describe a simple method, starting from a list of electron-density ‘blobs’, for identifying backbone phosphates and nucleic acid bases based on properties of the local electron-density distribution. This knowledge should be useful for the automated building of nucleic acid models into electron-density maps. We show that the distances and angles involving C1′ and the P atoms, using the pseudo-torsion angles η' and θ' that describe the …P—C1′—P—C1′… chain, provide a promising basis for building the nucleic acid polymer. These quantities show reasonably narrow distributions with asymmetry that should allow the direction of the phosphate backbone to be established

  4. Localization of Bovine Papillomavirus Nucleic Acid in Equine Sarcoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, A M; Zhu, K W; Dela Cruz, F N; Affolter, V K; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV1/BPV2) have long been associated with equine sarcoids; deciphering their contribution has been difficult due to their ubiquitous presence on skin and in the environment, as well as the lack of decent techniques to interrogate their role in pathogenesis. We have developed and characterized an in situ hybridization (ISH) assay that uses a pool of probes complementary to portions of the E5, E6, and E7 genes. This assay is highly sensitive for direct visualization of viral transcript and nucleic acid in routinely processed histopathologic samples. We demonstrate here the visualization of BPV nucleic acid in 18 of 18 equine sarcoids, whereas no detectable viral DNA was present in 15 of 15 nonsarcoid controls by this technique. In nearly 90% (16/18) of the sarcoids, 50% or more of the fibroblastic cell nuclei distributed throughout the neoplasm had detectable hybridization. In the remaining 2 cases, fewer than half of the fibroblastic cells contained detectable hybridization, but viral nucleic acid was also detected in epithelial cells of the sebaceous glands, hair follicles and epidermis. A sensitive ISH assay is an indispensable addition to the molecular methods used to detect viral nucleic acid in tissue. We have used this technique to determine the specific cellular localization and distribution of BPV in a subset of equine sarcoids. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, D M; Andersen, L M; Bøtkjær, Kenneth Alrø

    2011-01-01

    , directed against blood coagulation factors, are in clinical trials as anticoagulant drugs. Several of the studies on protease-binding aptamers have been pioneering and trend-setting in the field. The work with protease-binding aptamers also demonstrates many interesting examples of non-standard selection......Proteases are potential or realized therapeutic targets in a wide variety of pathological conditions. Moreover, proteases are classical subjects for studies of enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms. We here review the literature on nucleic acid aptamers selected with proteases as targets. Designing...... small molecule protease inhibitors of sufficient specificity has proved a daunting task. Aptamers seem to represent a promising alternative. In our review, we concentrate on biochemical mechanisms of aptamer selection, proteinaptamer recognition, protease inhibition, and advantages of aptamers...

  6. Circulating nucleic acids and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Philippe; Stroun, Maurice

    2012-06-01

    J.B. Lamarck in 1809 was the first to present a theory of evolution. He proposed it was due to the adaptation of species to environmental changes, this adaptation being acquired by the offspring. In 1868, Darwin suggested that cells excrete gemmules, which circulate through the body and reach the gonads where they are transmitted to the next generation. His main argument came from graft hybrids. In the fifties and sixties, Russian geneticists, rejecting neo-Darwinism, said that acquired characteristics were the basis of evolution. The main experiments on which they based their theory were the transmission of hereditary characteristics by a special technique of grafting between two varieties of plants. We repeated this kind of experiment and also succeeded in obtaining hereditary modifications of the pupil plants that acquired some characteristics of the mentor variety. Rather than adopting the views of the Russian scientists, we suggested that DNA was circulating between the mentor and pupil plants. Hirata's group have shown recently, by using molecular techniques such as cloning, RFLP PCR and sequencing some genes of their graft hybrids of pepper plants, that transfer of informative molecules from the mentor to the pupil plant does exist. Nucleic acids are actively released by cells; they circulate in the body. They can transform oncogenically or trigger antibody response but the only genetic transformation showing that DNA can go from the soma to the germen comes from graft hybrids. This suggests that circulating nucleic acids, in this case DNA, like Darwin's gemmules, play a role in the mechanism of evolution.

  7. Short Communication An efficient method for simultaneous extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from various plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R R; Viana, A J C; Reátegui, A C E; Vincentz, M G A

    2015-12-29

    Determination of gene expression is an important tool to study biological processes and relies on the quality of the extracted RNA. Changes in gene expression profiles may be directly related to mutations in regulatory DNA sequences or alterations in DNA cytosine methylation, which is an epigenetic mark. Correlation of gene expression with DNA sequence or epigenetic mark polymorphism is often desirable; for this, a robust protocol to isolate high-quality RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample is required. Although commercial kits and protocols are available, they are mainly optimized for animal tissues and, in general, restricted to RNA or DNA extraction, not both. In the present study, we describe an efficient and accessible method to extract both RNA and DNA simultaneously from the same sample of various plant tissues, using small amounts of starting material. The protocol was efficient in the extraction of high-quality nucleic acids from several Arabidopsis thaliana tissues (e.g., leaf, inflorescence stem, flower, fruit, cotyledon, seedlings, root, and embryo) and from other tissues of non-model plants, such as Avicennia schaueriana (Acanthaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), Paspalum notatum (Poaceae), and Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae). The obtained nucleic acids were used as templates for downstream analyses, such as mRNA sequencing, quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite treatment, and others; the results were comparable to those obtained with commercial kits. We believe that this protocol could be applied to a broad range of plant species, help avoid technical and sampling biases, and facilitate several RNA- and DNA-dependent analyses.

  8. Programming the Assembly of Unnatural Materials with Nucleic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Chad

    Nature directs the assembly of enormously complex and highly functional materials through an encoded class of biomolecules, nucleic acids. The establishment of a similarly programmable code for the construction of synthetic, unnatural materials would allow researchers to impart functionality by precisely positioning all material components. Although it is exceedingly difficult to control the complex interactions between atomic and molecular species in such a manner, interactions between nanoscale components can be directed through the ligands attached to their surface. Our group has shown that nucleic acids can be used as highly programmable surface ligands to control the spacing and symmetry of nanoparticle building blocks in structurally sophisticated and functional materials. These nucleic acids function as programmable ``bonds'' between nanoparticle ``atoms,'' analogous to a nanoscale genetic code for assembling materials. The sequence and length tunability of nucleic acid bonds has allowed us to define a powerful set of design rules for the construction of nanoparticle superlattices with more than 30 unique lattice symmetries, tunable defect structures and interparticle spacings, and several well-defined crystal habits. Further, the nature of the nucleic acid bond enables an additional level of structural control: temporal regulation of dynamic material response to external biomolecular and chemical stimuli. This control allows for the reversible transformation between thermodynamic states with different crystal symmetries, particle stoichiometries, thermal stabilities, and interparticle spacings on demand. Notably, our unique genetic approach affords functional nanoparticle architectures that, among many other applications, can be used to systematically explore and manipulate optoelectronic material properties, such as tunable interparticle plasmonic interactions, microstructure-directed energy emission, and coupled plasmonic and photonic modes.

  9. Intumescent features of nucleic acids and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alongi, Jenny; Cuttica, Fabio; Blasio, Alessandro Di; Carosio, Federico; Malucelli, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The combustion resistance of DNA and caseins to different heat fluxes was studied. • Upon heating, DNA and caseins exhibited an intumescent behaviour. • The char derived from DNA was more stable and coherent than that from caseins. - Abstract: Are nucleic acids and proteins intumescent molecules? In order to get an answer, in the present manuscript, powders of deoxyribose nucleic acids (DNA) and caseins have been exposed to different heat fluxes under a cone calorimeter source and to the direct application of a propane flame. Under these conditions, DNA and caseins exhibited a typical intumescent behaviour, generating a coherent expanded cellular carbonaceous residue (char), extremely resistant to heat exposure. The resulting volumetric expansion as well as the resistance of the formed char turned out to be dependent on (i) the chemical structure of the chosen biomacromolecule, (ii) the evolution of ammonia and (iii) the adopted heat flux in cone calorimetry tests (namely, 25, 35, 50 and 75 kW/m 2 ). The presence of ribose units within the DNA backbone determined the formation of highly expanded and coherent residues as compared to those obtained from caseins. Indeed, under a heat flux of 35 kW/m 2 , when a carbon source (i.e. common cane sugar) was added to caseins, the resulting char was similar to that formed by DNA. Furthermore, the char expansion was ascribed to the evolution of ammonia released by these biomacromolecules upon heating, as detected by thermogravimetry coupled to infrared spectroscopy, and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy experiments performed on the bubbles present in the residues of flammability tests

  10. Intumescent features of nucleic acids and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alongi, Jenny, E-mail: jenny.alongi@polito.it; Cuttica, Fabio; Blasio, Alessandro Di; Carosio, Federico; Malucelli, Giulio

    2014-09-10

    Highlights: • The combustion resistance of DNA and caseins to different heat fluxes was studied. • Upon heating, DNA and caseins exhibited an intumescent behaviour. • The char derived from DNA was more stable and coherent than that from caseins. - Abstract: Are nucleic acids and proteins intumescent molecules? In order to get an answer, in the present manuscript, powders of deoxyribose nucleic acids (DNA) and caseins have been exposed to different heat fluxes under a cone calorimeter source and to the direct application of a propane flame. Under these conditions, DNA and caseins exhibited a typical intumescent behaviour, generating a coherent expanded cellular carbonaceous residue (char), extremely resistant to heat exposure. The resulting volumetric expansion as well as the resistance of the formed char turned out to be dependent on (i) the chemical structure of the chosen biomacromolecule, (ii) the evolution of ammonia and (iii) the adopted heat flux in cone calorimetry tests (namely, 25, 35, 50 and 75 kW/m{sup 2}). The presence of ribose units within the DNA backbone determined the formation of highly expanded and coherent residues as compared to those obtained from caseins. Indeed, under a heat flux of 35 kW/m{sup 2}, when a carbon source (i.e. common cane sugar) was added to caseins, the resulting char was similar to that formed by DNA. Furthermore, the char expansion was ascribed to the evolution of ammonia released by these biomacromolecules upon heating, as detected by thermogravimetry coupled to infrared spectroscopy, and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy experiments performed on the bubbles present in the residues of flammability tests.

  11. Ensuring High-Quality Learning for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Elsa M.

    2018-01-01

    The Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) has embarked on a sustained program to enhance the quality of student learning on campuses, while also supporting AAC&U members' efforts to bring liberal education to all sectors of society. This commitment to quality and equity in service to democracy forms the basis for…

  12. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown

  13. Nanoparticulate systems for nucleic acid delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varkouhi, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Development of carrier systems with controllable physicochemical and delivery properties has opened up the possibility of nanomedicines containing nucleic acids. In the last decades, much effort has been dedicated to two exciting approaches in biomedicine, namely gene and RNA interference

  14. Nucleic acids, proteins, and chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, D. A.; Profy, A. T.; Walstrum, S. A.; Needels, M. C.; Bulack, S. C.; Lo, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with experimental results related, in one case, to the chirality of nucleotides, and, in another case, to the possibility of a link between the chirality of nucleic acids, and that of peptides. It has been found that aminoacylation of the 'internal' hydroxyl group of a dinucleoside monophosphate can occur stereoselectively. However, this reaction has not yet been made a part of a working peptide synthesis scheme. The formation and cleavage of oligonucleotides is considered. In the event of the formation of a helical complex between the oligonucleotide and the polymer, 1-prime,5-prime-bonds in the oligomer are found to become more resistant towards cleavage. The conditions required for peptide bond formation are examined, taking into account the known structures of RNA and possible mechanisms for prebiotic peptide bond formation. The possibility is considered that the 2-prime,5-prime-internucleotide linkage could have played an important part in the early days of biological peptide synthesis.

  15. Analysis of high-quality modes in open chaotic microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, W.; Yamilov, A.; Cao, H.

    2005-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the high-quality modes in two-dimensional dielectric stadium microcavities. Although the classical ray mechanics is fully chaotic in a stadium billiard, all of the high-quality modes show a 'strong scar' around unstable periodic orbits. When the deformation (ratio of the length of the straight segments over the diameter of the half circles) is small, the high-quality modes correspond to whispering-gallery-type trajectories and their quality factors decrease monotonically with increasing deformation. At large deformation, each high-quality mode is associated with multiple unstable periodic orbits. Its quality factor changes nonmonotonically with the deformation, and there exists an optimal deformation for each mode at which its quality factor reaches a local maximum. This unusual behavior is attributed to the interference of waves propagating along different constituent orbits that could minimize light leakage out of the cavity

  16. Long-stem shaped multifunctional molecular beacon for highly sensitive nucleic acids determination via intramolecular and intermolecular interactions based strand displacement amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianguo; Zheng, Tingting; Le, Jingqing; Jia, Lee

    2017-11-20

    Occurrence and application of oligonucleotide probes have promoted great progress in the biochemical analysis field due to their unique biological and chemical properties. In this work, a long-stem shaped multifunctional molecular beacon (LS-MMB) that is responsive to a cancer-related gene, p53, is well-prepared. By designing the probe with long-paired bases at its two ends and short-paired bases between the middle region and the 3' end, the LS-MMB is intelligently endowed with the ability to recognize the target analyte, serve as the polymerization primer/template, and signal the hybridization event synchronously, which is distinctly advantageous over the traditional molecular beacons (MBs). Moreover, it is excitingly found that the LS-MMB can be employed to exert intramolecular and intermolecular interactions for strand displacement amplification (SDA) without the involvement of any assistant probes; this therapy results in a really easy and rapid sensing system that provides an extremely low background noise and high target output signal. In this case, an excellent sensitivity and specificity to detect target gene down to picomolar level and resolution to even one nucleotide variation are achieved, respectively. In addition, the application potential for real genomic DNA analysis is realized. We envision that the probe of LS-MMB can act as a universal platform for biosensing and biomedical research.

  17. Intramolecular cyclization in irradiated nucleic acids: correlation between high-performance liquid chromatography and an immunochemical assay for 8,5'-cycloadenosine in irradiated poly(A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuciarelli, A.F.; Shum, F.Y.; Raleigh, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A correlation between high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis and an in situ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 8,5'-cycloadenosine formation in irradiated poly(A) has been established. The correlation shows that the ELISA precisely reflects changes in the combined yield of R- and S-8,5'-cycloadenosine but that a correction factor must be applied to the ELISA values for accuracy. The HPLC analysis reveals that the intramolecular cyclization proceeds stereoselectively in irradiated poly(A) to preferentially produce the R isomer at pH 7.0 which is similar to the result for irradiated adenosine but in contrast to the result for 5'-AMP where the S isomer predominates at neutral pH. The HPLC analysis shows that two events originating in hydroxyl radical attack at the sugar phosphate backbone in poly(A); that is, adenine release and 8,5'-cycloadenosine formation have somewhat different dose-yield responses. The formation of 8-hydroxyadenosine was detected in the HPLC chromatograms of poly(A) irradiated under N2O at neutral pH, and the yield of this compound was similar to the yield observed in 5'-AMP or adenosine irradiated under similar conditions

  18. Silicon Dioxide Thin Film Mediated Single Cell Nucleic Acid Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  19. Caged molecular beacons: controlling nucleic acid hybridization with light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunming; Zhu, Zhi; Song, Yanling; Lin, Hui; Yang, Chaoyong James; Tan, Weihong

    2011-05-28

    We have constructed a novel class of light-activatable caged molecular beacons (cMBs) that are caged by locking two stems with a photo-labile biomolecular interaction or covalent bond. With the cMBs, the nucleic acid hybridization process can be easily controlled with light, which offers the possibility for a high spatiotemporal resolution study of intracellular mRNAs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  20. High quality steel casting for energy technics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, F.; Koefler, G.

    1982-01-01

    The casting of several chromium-molybdenum steels for steam and hydraulic turbines is discussed. Non-destructive testing of the castings is performed demonstrating the safety for use in nuclear technology. The effect of metallurgical parameters on steel casting quality, the heat treatment, and the effect of construction design on costs for fettling and repair weldings are considered. (Auth.)

  1. The pattern recognition molecule deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) and synthetic mimics inhibit liposomal nucleic acid delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Hansen, Pernille; Blaich, Stephanie; End, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Liposomal nucleic acid delivery is a preferred option for therapeutic settings. The cellular pattern recognition molecule DMBT1, secreted at high levels in various diseases, and synthetic mimics efficiently inhibit liposomal nucleic acid delivery to human cells. These findings may have relevance...

  2. Developing nucleic acid-based electrical detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabig-Ciminska Magdalena

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of nucleic acid-based detection systems is the main focus of many research groups and high technology companies. The enormous work done in this field is particularly due to the broad versatility and variety of these sensing devices. From optical to electrical systems, from label-dependent to label-free approaches, from single to multi-analyte and array formats, this wide range of possibilities makes the research field very diversified and competitive. New challenges and requirements for an ideal detector suitable for nucleic acid analysis include high sensitivity and high specificity protocol that can be completed in a relatively short time offering at the same time low detection limit. Moreover, systems that can be miniaturized and automated present a significant advantage over conventional technology, especially if detection is needed in the field. Electrical system technology for nucleic acid-based detection is an enabling mode for making miniaturized to micro- and nanometer scale bio-monitoring devices via the fusion of modern micro- and nanofabrication technology and molecular biotechnology. The electrical biosensors that rely on the conversion of the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a useful electrical signal are advancing rapidly, and recently are receiving much attention as a valuable tool for microbial pathogen detection. Pathogens may pose a serious threat to humans, animal and plants, thus their detection and analysis is a significant element of public health. Although different conventional methods for detection of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins exist and are currently being applied, improvements of molecular-based detection methodologies have changed these traditional detection techniques and introduced a new era of rapid, miniaturized and automated electrical chip detection technologies into pathogen identification sector. In this review some developments and current directions in

  3. Triptycene: A Nucleic Acid Three-Way Junction Binder Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ina

    Nucleic acids play a critical role in many biological processes such as gene regulation and replication. The development of small molecules that modulate nucleic acids with sequence or structure specificity would provide new strategies for regulating disease states at the nucleic acid level. However, this remains challenging mainly because of the nonspecific interactions between nucleic acids and small molecules. Three-way junctions are critical structural elements of nucleic acids. They are present in many important targets such as trinucleotide repeat junctions related to Huntington's disease, a temperature sensor sigma32 in E. coli, Dengue virus, and HIV. Triptycene-derived small molecules have been shown to bind to nucleic acid three-way junctions, resulting from their shape complementary. To develop a better understanding of designing molecules for targeting different junctions, a rapid screening of triptycene-based small molecules is needed. We envisioned that the installation of a linker at C9 position of the bicyclic core would allow for a rapid solid phase diversification. To achieve this aim, we synthesized 9-substituted triptycene scaffolds by using two different synthetic routes. The first synthetic route installed the linker from the amidation reaction between carboxylic acid at C9 position of the triptycene and an amine linker, beta-alanine ethyl ester. This new 9-substituted triptycene scaffold was then attached to a 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin for solid-phase diversification. This enabled a rapid diversification and an easy purification of mono-, di-, and tri-peptide triptycene derivatives. The binding affinities of these compounds were investigated towards a (CAG)˙(CTG) trinucleotide repeat junction. In the modified second synthetic route, we utilized a combined Heck coupling/benzyne Diels-Alder strategy. This improved synthetic strategy reduced the number of steps and total reaction times, increased the overall yield, improved solubilities of

  4. Indoor Air Quality in High Performance Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    High performance schools are facilities that improve the learning environment while saving energy, resources, and money. The key is understanding the lifetime value of high performance schools and effectively managing priorities, time, and budget.

  5. A quantitative measure of chirality inside nucleic acid databank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietropaolo, Adriana; Parrinello, Michele

    2011-08-01

    We show the capability of a chirality index (Pietropaolo et al., Proteins 2008;70:667-677) to investigate nucleic acid structures because of its high sensitivity to helical conformations. By analyzing selected structures of DNA and RNA, we have found that sequences rich in cytosine and guanine have a tendency to left-handed chirality, in contrast to regions rich in adenine or thymine which show strong negative, right-handed, chirality values. We also analyze RNA structures, where specific loops and hairpin motifs are characterized by a well-defined chirality value. We find that in nucleosome the chirality is exalted, whereas in ribosome it is reduced. Our results illustrate the sensitivity of this descriptor for nucleic acid conformations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Gene Therapy for Advanced Melanoma: Selective Targeting and Therapeutic Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana R. Viola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances, the treatment of malignant melanoma still results in the relapse of the disease, and second line treatment mostly fails due to the occurrence of resistance. A wide range of mutations are known to prevent effective treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. Hence, approaches with biopharmaceuticals including proteins, like antibodies or cytokines, are applied. As an alternative, regimens with therapeutically active nucleic acids offer the possibility for highly selective cancer treatment whilst avoiding unwanted and toxic side effects. This paper gives a brief introduction into the mechanism of this devastating disease, discusses the shortcoming of current therapy approaches, and pinpoints anchor points which could be harnessed for therapeutic intervention with nucleic acids. We bring the delivery of nucleic acid nanopharmaceutics into perspective as a novel antimelanoma therapeutic approach and discuss the possibilities for melanoma specific targeting. The latest reports on preclinical and already clinical application of nucleic acids in melanoma are discussed.

  7. The association between low-grade inflammation, iron status and nucleic acid oxidation in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broedbaek, Kasper; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Andersen, Jon T

    2011-01-01

    This study applied a case-control approach to investigate the association between low-grade inflammation, defined by high values within the normal range of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation. No differences in excretion of urinary...... markers of nucleic acid oxidation between cases and controls were found and multivariable linear regression analysis showed no association between urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation and inflammatory markers. Post-hoc multivariable linear regression analysis showed significant associations between...... suggest that low-grade inflammation only has a negligible impact on whole body nucleic acid oxidation, whereas iron status seems to be of great importance....

  8. [Blood Test Patterns for Blood Donors after Nucleic Acid Detection in the Blood Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Shou-Shan; Lv, Lian-Zhi; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Han, Chun-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yan, Yan

    2017-12-01

    infective(OBI) by HBsAb, HBcAb test of ELISA; out of these 41 samples, 33 samples showed HBcAb + (91.66% of OBI), 5 might be HBV "window period" infective, moreover the HCV RNA and HIV RNA positive samples were not found. To avoid the missdiagnosis of donors with low level of virus, the nucleic acid test must be carried out after virus concentration of mixed samples when the blood test pattern of donors is nucleic acid test of mixed samples, otherwise the single nucleic acid test must be performed to obtain more high detected rate of virus nucleic acid. The HBcAb serologic test and physical examination of donors before blood donation must be enhanced on basis of serological test of HBsAg; for high risk people, the persuading no blood donation is simplest pattern.

  9. System for portable nucleic acid testing in low resource settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I.; Carey, Thomas; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    Our overall goal is to enable timely diagnosis of infectious diseases through nucleic acid testing at the point-of-care and in low resource settings, via a compact system that integrates nucleic acid sample preparation, isothermal DNA amplification, and nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection. We herein present an interim milestone, the design of the amplification and detection subsystem, and the characterization of thermal and fluidic control and assay execution within this system. Using an earlier prototype of the amplification and detection unit, comprised of a disposable cartridge containing flexible pouches, passive valves, and electrolysis-driven pumps, in conjunction with a small heater, we have demonstrated successful execution of an established and clinically validated isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) reaction targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA, coupled to NALF detection. The refined design presented herein incorporates miniaturized and integrated electrolytic pumps, novel passive valves, overall design changes to facilitate integration with an upstream sample preparation unit, and a refined instrument design that automates pumping, heating, and timing. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that facilitates fluid handling and appropriate thermal control. The disposable cartridge is manufactured using low-cost and scalable techniques and forms a closed system to prevent workplace contamination by amplicons. In a parallel effort, we are developing a sample preparation unit based on similar design principles, which performs mechanical lysis of mycobacteria and DNA extraction from liquefied and disinfected sputum. Our next step is to combine sample preparation, amplification, and detection in a final integrated cartridge and device, to enable fully automated sample-in to answer-out diagnosis of active tuberculosis in primary care facilities of low-resource and high-burden countries.

  10. Recent Developments in Peptide-Based Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Restle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. Among these synthetic vectors are cationic polymers, branched dendrimers, cationic liposomes and cellpenetrating peptides (CPPs. The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisenseoligonucleotides, which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. Up to now, numerous sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to successfully transport a variety of different cargos into mammalian cells. In recent years, it has become apparent that endocytosis is a major route of internalisation even though the mechanisms underlying the cellular translocation of CPPs are poorly understood and still subject to controversial discussions. In this review, we will summarise the latest developments in peptide-based cellular delivery of nucleic acid cargos. We will discuss different mechanisms of entry, the intracellular fate of the cargo, correlation studies of uptake versus biological activity of the cargo as well as technical problems and pitfalls.

  11. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes: Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M.; Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wood, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) Teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  12. Quality Assurance Strategy for Existing Homes. Final Quality Management Primer for High Performing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This guide is designed to help Building America (BA) teams understand quality management and its role in transitioning from conventional to high performance home building and remodeling. It explains what quality means, the value of quality management systems, the unique need for QMS when building high performing homes, and the first steps to a implementing a comprehensive QMS. This document provides a framework and context for BA teams when they encounter builders and remodelers.

  13. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  14. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Mary Ann D.; Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen; Lyamichev, Victor; Olive, David Michael; Prudent, James Robert

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  15. Two efficient methods for isolation of high-quality genomic DNA from entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Domínguez, María G; Andrade-Michel, Gilda Y; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Gallou, Adrien

    2018-03-27

    Conventional and commercial methods for isolation of nucleic acids are available for fungal samples including entomopathogenic fungi (EPF). However, there is not a unique optimal method for all organisms. The cell wall structure and the wide range of secondary metabolites of EPF can broadly interfere with the efficiency of the DNA extraction protocol. This study compares three commercial protocols: DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen), Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega), and Axygen™ Multisource Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Axygen) and three conventional methods based on different buffers: SDS, CTAB/PVPP, and CTAB/β-mercaptoethanol versus three cell lysis procedures: liquid nitrogen homogenization and two bead-beating materials (i.e., tungsten-carbide and stainless-steel) for four representative species of EPF (i.e., Beauveria bassiana, Hirsutella citriformis, Isaria javanica, and Metarhizium anisopliae). Liquid nitrogen homogenization combined with DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit (i.e., QN) or SDS buffer (i.e., SN) significantly improved the yield with a good purity (~1.8) and high integrity (>20,000 bp) of genomic DNA in contrast with other methods, also, these results were better when compared with the two bead-beating materials. The purified DNA was evaluated by PCR-based techniques: amplification of translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF) and two highly sensitive molecular markers (i.e., ISSR and AFLP) with reliable and reproducible results. Despite a variation in yield, purity, and integrity of extracted DNA across the four species of EPF with the different DNA extraction methods, the SN and QN protocols maintained a high-quality of DNA which is required for downstream molecular applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nucleic acid purification from plants, animals and microbes in under 30 seconds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiping Zou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid amplification is a powerful molecular biology tool, although its use outside the modern laboratory environment is limited due to the relatively cumbersome methods required to extract nucleic acids from biological samples. To address this issue, we investigated a variety of materials for their suitability for nucleic acid capture and purification. We report here that untreated cellulose-based paper can rapidly capture nucleic acids within seconds and retain them during a single washing step, while contaminants present in complex biological samples are quickly removed. Building on this knowledge, we have successfully created an equipment-free nucleic acid extraction dipstick methodology that can obtain amplification-ready DNA and RNA from plants, animals, and microbes from difficult biological samples such as blood and leaves from adult trees in less than 30 seconds. The simplicity and speed of this method as well as the low cost and availability of suitable materials (e.g., common paper towelling, means that nucleic acid extraction is now more accessible and affordable for researchers and the broader community. Furthermore, when combined with recent advancements in isothermal amplification and naked eye DNA visualization techniques, the dipstick extraction technology makes performing molecular diagnostic assays achievable in limited resource settings including university and high school classrooms, field-based environments, and developing countries.

  17. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  18. Adoption and impact of high quality bambara flour (HQBF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption and impact of high quality bambara flour (HQBF) technology in the ... consumer acceptability/quality of products, credit, availability of raw materials, and ... as a result of 12.5 per cent increase in demand for bambara-based products.

  19. Quack: A quality assurance tool for high throughput sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, Adam; Arick, Mark; Peterson, Daniel G

    2018-05-01

    The quality of data generated by high-throughput DNA sequencing tools must be rapidly assessed in order to determine how useful the data may be in making biological discoveries; higher quality data leads to more confident results and conclusions. Due to the ever-increasing size of data sets and the importance of rapid quality assessment, tools that analyze sequencing data should quickly produce easily interpretable graphics. Quack addresses these issues by generating information-dense visualizations from FASTQ files at a speed far surpassing other publicly available quality assurance tools in a manner independent of sequencing technology. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER

    OpenAIRE

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Online presentation and webinar by Stracke, C. M. (2017, 18 December) on "Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER" for the Belt and Road Open Education Learning Week by the Beijing Normal University, China.

  1. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi (IMCHA) ... In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health initiative to improve ... Total funding.

  2. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  3. Chemical consequences of irradiating nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of literature data, a discussion is presented of the DNA damage which would be produced in a cellular environment and an attempt is made to place this damage in perspective as a potential hazard in food irradiation. The topics discussed are radiation damage mechanisms, OH reactions with DNA, base products, sugar products, and evaluation of damage from irradiated nucleic acids

  4. A locked nucleic Acid-based nanocrawler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, I Kira; Pasternak, Karol; Campbell, Meghan A

    2013-01-01

    Herein we introduce a novel fluorescent LNA/DNA machine, a nanocrawler, which reversibly moves along a directionally polar complementary road controlled by affinity-enhancing locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers and additional regulatory strands. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dyes attached to 2...

  5. Miniaturized isothermal nucleic acid amplification, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiello, Peter J; Baeumner, Antje J

    2011-04-21

    Micro-Total Analysis Systems (µTAS) for use in on-site rapid detection of DNA or RNA are increasingly being developed. Here, amplification of the target sequence is key to increasing sensitivity, enabling single-cell and few-copy nucleic acid detection. The several advantages to miniaturizing amplification reactions and coupling them with sample preparation and detection on the same chip are well known and include fewer manual steps, preventing contamination, and significantly reducing the volume of expensive reagents. To-date, the majority of miniaturized systems for nucleic acid analysis have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification and those systems are covered in previous reviews. This review provides a thorough overview of miniaturized analysis systems using alternatives to PCR, specifically isothermal amplification reactions. With no need for thermal cycling, isothermal microsystems can be designed to be simple and low-energy consuming and therefore may outperform PCR in portable, battery-operated detection systems in the future. The main isothermal methods as miniaturized systems reviewed here include nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), and strand displacement amplification (SDA). Also, important design criteria for the miniaturized devices are discussed. Finally, the potential of miniaturization of some new isothermal methods such as the exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR), isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICANs), signal-mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART) and others is presented.

  6. Recent progress in nucleic acids isotachophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Schlecht, U.; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2018), s. 236-247 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : isotachophoresis * nucleic acids * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  7. Nucleic acid secondary structure prediction and display.

    OpenAIRE

    Stüber, K

    1986-01-01

    A set of programs has been developed for the prediction and display of nucleic acid secondary structures. Information from experimental data can be used to restrict or enforce secondary structural elements. The predictions can be displayed either on normal line printers or on graphic devices like plotters or graphic terminals.

  8. Recent progress in nucleic acids isotachophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Schlecht, U.; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2018), s. 236-247 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : isotachophoresis * nucleic acid s * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  9. Emblems of Quality in Higher Education. Developing and Sustaining High-Quality Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Jennifer Grant; Conrad, Clifton F.

    This book proposes an "engagement" theory of program quality to evaluate and improve higher education programs at all degree levels. Based on interviews with 781 participants in a national study of Masters degree programs, it focuses on the interactive roles of students, faculty, and administrators in developing high-quality programs…

  10. High quality, high efficiency welding technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeyuki; Nagura, Yasumi

    1996-01-01

    For nuclear power plants, it is required to ensure the safety under the high reliability and to attain the high rate of operation. In the manufacture and installation of the machinery and equipment, the welding techniques which become the basis exert large influence to them. For the purpose of improving joint performance and excluding human errors, welding heat input and the number of passes have been reduced, the automation of welding has been advanced, and at present, narrow gap arc welding and high energy density welding such as electron beam welding and laser welding have been put to practical use. Also in the welding of pipings, automatic gas metal arc welding is employed. As for the welding of main machinery and equipment, there are the welding of the joints that constitute pressure boundaries, the build-up welding on the internal surfaces of pressure vessels for separating primary water from them, and the sealing welding of heating tubes and tube plates in steam generators. These weldings are explained. The welding of pipings and the state of development and application of new welding methods are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  12. Spectrofluorometric study on photochemical interaction between chlorpromazine and nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Hayashi, H.; Suzuki, K.

    1981-01-01

    Near-UV irradiation of a mixture of chlorpromazine and single-stranded nucleic acids produced a non-dialyzable photoproduct which emitted characteristic fluorescence at around 520 nm. The same fluorescent species was also formed by the photoreaction with purine nucleotides but not with pyrimidine nucleotide. The highest photoreactivity was observed with GMP. Smaller amounts of the species were formed in a solution with a high salt concentration than in that with a low salt concentration. A higher rate was observed under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions. (author)

  13. High-quality planar high-Tc Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeal, N.; Grison, X.; Lesueur, J.; Faini, G.; Aprili, M.; Contour, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Reproducible high-T c Josephson junctions have been made in a rather simple two-step process using ion irradiation. A microbridge (1 to 5 μm wide) is firstly designed by ion irradiating a c-axis-oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ film through a gold mask such as the nonprotected part becomes insulating. A lower T c part is then defined within the bridge by irradiating with a much lower fluence through a narrow slit (20 nm) opened in a standard electronic photoresist. These planar junctions, whose settings can be finely tuned, exhibit reproducible and nearly ideal Josephson characteristics. This process can be used to produce complex Josephson circuits

  14. Optimizing scoring function of protein-nucleic acid interactions with both affinity and specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yan

    Full Text Available Protein-nucleic acid (protein-DNA and protein-RNA recognition is fundamental to the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the structures of the protein-nucleic acid recognition and insight into their interactions at molecular level are vital to understanding the regulation function. Recently, quantitative computational approach has been becoming an alternative of experimental technique for predicting the structures and interactions of biomolecular recognition. However, the progress of protein-nucleic acid structure prediction, especially protein-RNA, is far behind that of the protein-ligand and protein-protein structure predictions due to the lack of reliable and accurate scoring function for quantifying the protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this work, we developed an accurate scoring function (named as SPA-PN, SPecificity and Affinity of the Protein-Nucleic acid interactions for protein-nucleic acid interactions by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. Specificity and affinity are two requirements of highly efficient and specific biomolecular recognition. Previous quantitative descriptions of the biomolecular interactions considered the affinity, but often ignored the specificity owing to the challenge of specificity quantification. We applied our concept of intrinsic specificity to connect the conventional specificity, which circumvents the challenge of specificity quantification. In addition to the affinity optimization, we incorporated the quantified intrinsic specificity into the optimization strategy of SPA-PN. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions validated that SPA-PN performs well on both the prediction of binding affinity and identification of native conformation. In terms of its performance, SPA-PN can be widely used to predict the protein-nucleic acid structures and quantify their interactions.

  15. Key factors for a high-quality VR experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Doré, Renaud; Mollet, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    For many years, Virtual Reality has been presented as a promising technology that could deliver a truly new experience to users. The media and entertainment industry is now investigating the possibility to offer a video-based VR 360 experience. Nevertheless, there is a substantial risk that VR 360 could have the same fate as 3DTV if it cannot offer more than just being the next fad. The present paper aims at presenting the various quality factors required for a high-quality VR experience. More specifically, this paper will focus on the main three VR quality pillars: visual, audio and immersion.

  16. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  17. Polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic beads for rapid and efficient separation of specific or unspecific nucleic acid sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, J.; Parker, Jeffrey; Brassard, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    The versatile application of polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic M-PVA beads is demonstrated in the separation of genomic DNA, sequence specific nucleic acid purification, and binding of bacteria for subsequent DNA extraction and detection. It is shown that nucleic acids can be obtained in high yield and purity using M-PVA beads, making sample preparation efficient, fast and highly adaptable for automation processes

  18. High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation: current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Benjamin S

    2016-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represents the cornerstone of cardiac arrest resuscitation care. Prompt delivery of high-quality CPR can dramatically improve survival outcomes; however, the definitions of optimal CPR have evolved over several decades. The present review will discuss the metrics of CPR delivery, and the evidence supporting the importance of CPR quality to improve clinical outcomes. The introduction of new technologies to quantify metrics of CPR delivery has yielded important insights into CPR quality. Investigations using CPR recording devices have allowed the assessment of specific CPR performance parameters and their relative importance regarding return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge. Additional work has suggested new opportunities to measure physiologic markers during CPR and potentially tailor CPR delivery to patient requirements. Through recent laboratory and clinical investigations, a more evidence-based definition of high-quality CPR continues to emerge. Exciting opportunities now exist to study quantitative metrics of CPR and potentially guide resuscitation care in a goal-directed fashion. Concepts of high-quality CPR have also informed new approaches to training and quality improvement efforts for cardiac arrest care.

  19. Spherical Nucleic Acids as Intracellular Agents for Nucleic Acid Based Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liangliang

    Recent functional discoveries on the noncoding sequences of human genome and transcriptome could lead to revolutionary treatment modalities because the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can be applied as therapeutic agents to manipulate disease-causing genes. To date few nucleic acid-based therapeutics have been translated into the clinic due to challenges in the delivery of the oligonucleotide agents in an effective, cell specific, and non-toxic fashion. Unmodified oligonucleotide agents are destroyed rapidly in biological fluids by enzymatic degradation and have difficulty crossing the plasma membrane without the aid of transfection reagents, which often cause inflammatory, cytotoxic, or immunogenic side effects. Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), nanoparticles consisting of densely organized and highly oriented oligonucleotides, pose one possible solution to circumventing these problems in both the antisense and RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. The unique three dimensional architecture of SNAs protects the bioactive oligonucleotides from unspecific degradation during delivery and supports their targeting of class A scavenger receptors and endocytosis via a lipid-raft-dependent, caveolae-mediated pathway. Owing to their unique structure, SNAs are able to cross cell membranes and regulate target genes expression as a single entity, without triggering the cellular innate immune response. Herein, my thesis has focused on understanding the interactions between SNAs and cellular components and developing SNA-based nanostructures to improve therapeutic capabilities. Specifically, I developed a novel SNA-based, nanoscale agent for delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides to manipulate microRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous post-transcriptional gene regulators. I investigated the role of SNAs involving miRNAs in anti-cancer or anti-inflammation responses in cells and in in vivo murine disease models via systemic injection. Furthermore, I explored using different strategies to construct

  20. Next Generation High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, we have witnessed an explosion of video initiatives in the industry worldwide. Several advancements in video technology are currently improving the way we interact and collaborate. These advancements are forcing tendencies and overall experiences: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To cope with this technology progresses, CERN IT Department has taken the leading role to establish strategies and directions to improve the user experience in remote dispersed meetings and remote collaboration at large in the worldwide LHC communities. Due to the high rate of dispersion in the LHC user communities, these are critically dependent of videoconferencing technology, with a need of robustness and high quality for the best possible user experience. We will present an analysis of the factors that influenced the technical and strategic choices to improve the reliability, efficiency and overall quality of the LHC remote sessions. In particular, ...

  1. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Microfluidics (DMF has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  2. Rapid hybridization of nucleic acids using isotachophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovici, Moran; Han, Crystal M.; Liao, Joseph C.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2012-01-01

    We use isotachophoresis (ITP) to control and increase the rate of nucleic acid hybridization reactions in free solution. We present a new physical model, validation experiments, and demonstrations of this assay. We studied the coupled physicochemical processes of preconcentration, mixing, and chemical reaction kinetics under ITP. Our experimentally validated model enables a closed form solution for ITP-aided reaction kinetics, and reveals a new characteristic time scale which correctly predicts order 10,000-fold speed-up of chemical reaction rate for order 100 pM reactants, and greater enhancement at lower concentrations. At 500 pM concentration, we measured a reaction time which is 14,000-fold lower than that predicted for standard second-order hybridization. The model and method are generally applicable to acceleration of reactions involving nucleic acids, and may be applicable to a wide range of reactions involving ionic reactants. PMID:22733732

  3. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  4. Nucleic Acid Templated Reactions for Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-06-21

    Nucleic acid directed bioorthogonal reactions offer the fascinating opportunity to unveil and redirect a plethora of intracellular mechanisms. Nano- to picomolar amounts of specific RNA molecules serve as templates and catalyze the selective formation of molecules that 1) exert biological effects, or 2) provide measurable signals for RNA detection. Turnover of reactants on the template is a valuable asset when concentrations of RNA templates are low. The idea is to use RNA-templated reactions to fully control the biodistribution of drugs and to push the detection limits of DNA or RNA analytes to extraordinary sensitivities. Herein we review recent and instructive examples of conditional synthesis or release of compounds for in cellulo protein interference and intracellular nucleic acid imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Nucleic acid helix structure determination from NMR proton chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werf, Ramon M. van der; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S., E-mail: S.Wijmenga@science.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Institute of Molecules and Materials (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    We present a method for de novo derivation of the three-dimensional helix structure of nucleic acids using non-exchangeable proton chemical shifts as sole source of experimental restraints. The method is called chemical shift de novo structure derivation protocol employing singular value decomposition (CHEOPS) and uses iterative singular value decomposition to optimize the structure in helix parameter space. The correct performance of CHEOPS and its range of application are established via an extensive set of structure derivations using either simulated or experimental chemical shifts as input. The simulated input data are used to assess in a defined manner the effect of errors or limitations in the input data on the derived structures. We find that the RNA helix parameters can be determined with high accuracy. We finally demonstrate via three deposited RNA structures that experimental proton chemical shifts suffice to derive RNA helix structures with high precision and accuracy. CHEOPS provides, subject to further development, new directions for high-resolution NMR structure determination of nucleic acids.

  6. Nucleic acid binding and other biomedical properties of artificial oligolysines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roviello GN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni N Roviello,1 Caterina Vicidomini,1 Vincenzo Costanzo,1 Valentina Roviello2 1CNR Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Via Mezzocannone site and Headquarters, 2Centro Regionale di Competenza (CRdC Tecnologie, Via Nuova Agnano, Napoli, Italy Abstract: In the present study, we report the interaction of an artificial oligolysine (referred to as AOL realized in our laboratory with targets of biomedical importance. These included polyinosinic acid (poly rI and its complex with polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, RNAs with well-known interferon-inducing ability, and double-stranded (ds DNA. The ability of the peptide to bind both single-stranded poly rI and ds poly I:C RNAs emerged from our circular dichroism (CD and ultraviolet (UV studies. In addition, we found that AOL forms complexes with dsDNA, as shown by spectroscopic binding assays and UV thermal denaturation experiments. These findings are encouraging for the possible use of AOL in biomedicine for nucleic acid targeting and oligonucleotide condensation, with the latter being a key step preceding their clinical application. Moreover, we tested the ability of AOL to bind to proteins, using serum albumin as a model protein. We demonstrated the oligolysine–protein binding by CD experiments which suggested that AOL, positively charged under physiological conditions, binds to the protein regions rich in anionic residues. Finally, the morphology characterization of the solid oligolysine, performed by scanning electron microscopy, showed different crystal forms including cubic-shaped crystals confirming the high purity of AOL. Keywords: nucleic acid binding, polyinosinic acid, double-stranded nucleic acids, oligolysine, circular dichroism

  7. Construction of tunable peptide nucleic acid junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Tanghui; He, Liu; Tokura, Yu; Liu, Xin; Wu, Yuzhou; Shi, Zhengshuang

    2018-03-15

    We report here the construction of 3-way and 4-way peptide nucleic acid (PNA) junctions as basic structural units for PNA nanostructuring. The incorporation of amino acid residues into PNA chains makes PNA nanostructures with more structural complexity and architectural flexibility possible, as exemplified by building 3-way PNA junctions with tunable nanopores. Given that PNA nanostructures have good thermal and enzymatic stabilities, they are expected to have broad potential applications in biosensing, drug delivery and bioengineering.

  8. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chain, that is, after 34 A. The distance of a phosphorus atom from the fibre axis is 10. A. As the phosphates are on the outside, cations have easy access to them. The structure is an open one, and its water content is rather high. At lower water contents we would expect the bases to tilt so that the structure could become more.

  9. IMPACT OF RESILIENCE, ICT SUPPORT AND QUALITY OF STUDENT'S LIFE ON QUALITY OF HIGH EDUCATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Lazic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Answers to the questions of how and in what way the quality of life of students, resilience and ICT support affects the quality of high education we will get through this work where main objective is to define a network of processes and process management ensuring more quality and more innovative managing and service provision, therefore satisfying the needs of service users - in this case the students of the university. To collect the relevant data in the thematic analysis of this paper, the method of interviewing by questionnaires was applied. The sample survey was conducted among undergraduate students, teachers and staff of the Teacher Training Faculty in Uzice.

  10. Optimizing the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Chen, Sherry Xi; Yin, Peng

    2012-01-22

    The specific hybridization of complementary sequences is an essential property of nucleic acids, enabling diverse biological and biotechnological reactions and functions. However, the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization is compromised for long strands, except near the melting temperature. Here, we analytically derived the thermodynamic properties of a hybridization probe that would enable near-optimal single-base discrimination and perform robustly across diverse temperature, salt and concentration conditions. We rationally designed 'toehold exchange' probes that approximate these properties, and comprehensively tested them against five different DNA targets and 55 spurious analogues with energetically representative single-base changes (replacements, deletions and insertions). These probes produced discrimination factors between 3 and 100+ (median, 26). Without retuning, our probes function robustly from 10 °C to 37 °C, from 1 mM Mg(2+) to 47 mM Mg(2+), and with nucleic acid concentrations from 1 nM to 5 µM. Experiments with RNA also showed effective single-base change discrimination.

  11. Recent advances in delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu; Oupický, David

    2013-12-10

    Cancer treatment that uses a combination of approaches with the ability to affect multiple disease pathways has been proven highly effective in the treatment of many cancers. Combination therapy can include multiple chemotherapeutics or combinations of chemotherapeutics with other treatment modalities like surgery or radiation. However, despite the widespread clinical use of combination therapies, relatively little attention has been given to the potential of modern nanocarrier delivery methods, like liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles, to enhance the efficacy of combination treatments. This lack of knowledge is particularly notable in the limited success of vectors for the delivery of combinations of nucleic acids with traditional small molecule drugs. The delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations is particularly challenging due to differences in the physicochemical properties of the two types of agents. This review discusses recent advances in the development of delivery methods using combinations of small molecule drugs and nucleic acid therapeutics to treat cancer. This review primarily focuses on the rationale used for selecting appropriate drug-nucleic acid combinations as well as progress in the development of nanocarriers suitable for simultaneous delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nucleic Acid-Based Approaches for Detection of Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Results: Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensitivity, and high specificity. Nonetheless, the application of each diagnostic method is completely dependent on viral agent. Conclusions: Despite rapidity, automation, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, high sensitivity, and high specificity of molecular techniques, each type of molecular technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25789132

  13. Use of Nucleic Acid Analogs for the Study of Nucleic Acid Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Unnatural nucleosides have been explored to expand the properties and the applications of oligonucleotides. This paper briefly summarizes nucleic acid analogs in which the base is modified or replaced by an unnatural stacking group for the study of nucleic acid interactions. We also describe the nucleoside analogs of a base pair-mimic structure that we have examined. Although the base pair-mimic nucleosides possess a simplified stacking moiety of a phenyl or naphthyl group, they can be used as a structural analog of Watson-Crick base pairs. Remarkably, they can adopt two different conformations responding to their interaction energies, and one of them is the stacking conformation of the nonpolar aromatic group causing the site-selective flipping of the opposite base in a DNA double helix. The base pair-mimic nucleosides can be used to study the mechanism responsible for the base stacking and the flipping of bases out of a nucleic acid duplex.

  14. Labelling of nucleic acid components with tritium by hydrogenolysis of corresponding precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, V.F.; Kvyatkovskij, Yu.G.; Sidorov, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    To desalt the luates of liquid column chromatography containing components of the nucleic acids different types of activated carbons are used: AG-5, Ou-4, KAD, BAU (SU), Norit (GB) and Carboafin (CS). The Carborafin (CS) carbon proved to be the most efficient for the purpose. Dependences of the adsorption degree on pH, the time of the phases contact, temperature, concentration of the salt background (ammonium formite, lithium chloride) as well as adsorption isotherm are determined for the activated carbon. Desorption conditions of the nucleic acids components from the carbon are studied. It is shown that quantitative desorption is achieved when 1n solution of ammonia is used in 50% ethanole for 50-60 min. Data on practical application of the method to desalt the eluates containing tritiated nucleic acid components with a high activity are presented [ru

  15. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  16. extraction of high quality dna from polysaccharides-secreting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    A DNA extraction method using CTAB was used for the isolation of genomic DNA from ten. Xanthomonas campestris pathovars, ten isolates of Xanthomonas albilineans and one isolate of. Pseudomonas rubrisubalbicans. High quality DNA was obtained that was ideal for molecular analy- ses. Extracellular polysaccharides ...

  17. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  18. Synthesis and spectroscopic study of high quality alloy Cdx S ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    In the present study, we report the synthesis of high quality CdxZn1–xS nanocrystals alloy at. 150°C with .... (XRD) using a Siemens model D 500, powder X-ray ... decays were analysed using IBH DAS6 software. 3. ... This alloying process is.

  19. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  20. Managing quality inside a high-technology project organization

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, T. (Tauno)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This action research addresses the deployment of Total Quality Management (TQM) principles in a high-technology new product development organisation. During the period of study, the organisation grew fast. High-technology product development and hypergrowth provided a unique combination of extreme conditions for the study. The existing concepts of TQM are presented as an organised map enabling strategic analysis for an implementation plan. The history of TQM dates back to the ...

  1. [Quality of sleep and academic performance in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugueño, Maithe; Curihual, Carolina; Olivares, Paulina; Wallace, Josefa; López-AlegrÍa, Fanny; Rivera-López, Gonzalo; Oyanedel, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.

  2. Novel (Phenylethynyl)pyrene-LNA Constructs for Fluorescence SNP Sensing in Polymorphic Nucleic Acid Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astakhova, Irina Kira; Samokhina, Evgeniya; Babu, B Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    We describe fluorescent oligonucleotide probes labeled with novel (phenylethynyl)pyrene dyes attached to locked nucleic acids. Furthermore, we prove the utility of these probes for the effective detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in natural nucleic acids. High-affinity hybridization......DNA and RNA gene fragments. Target sequences were obtained by analysis of 200 clinical samples from patients currently receiving anti-HIV/AIDS combination therapy at the Russian Federal AIDS Center. Using these fluorescent oligonucleotides, we were able to detect the target mutation despite all the challenges...

  3. Highly qualified does not equal high quality: A study of urban stakeholders' perceptions of quality in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel Joseph

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions that urban stakeholders hold about what characteristics should distinguish a high school science teacher whom they would consider to demonstrate high quality in science teaching. A maximum variation sample of six science teachers, three school administrators, six parents and six students from a large urban public school district were interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, a list of observable characteristics which urban stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching was generated. Observational techniques were utilized to determine the extent to which six urban high school science teachers, who meet the NCLB Act criteria for being "highly qualified", actually possessed the characteristics which these stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set. The findings suggest that urban stakeholders perceive that a high school science teacher who demonstrates high quality in science teaching should be knowledgeable about their subject matter, their student population, and should be resourceful; should possess an academic background in science and professional experience in science teaching; should exhibit professionalism, a passion for science and teaching, and a dedication to teaching and student learning; should be skillful in planning and preparing science lessons and in organizing the classroom, in presenting the subject matter to students, in conducting a variety of hands-on activities, and in managing a classroom; and should assess whether students complete class goals and objectives, and provide feedback about grades for students promptly. The findings further reveal that some of the urban high school science teachers who were deemed to be "highly qualified", as defined by the NCLB Act, engaged in practices that threatened quality in science

  4. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  5. Long quantum channels for high-quality entanglement transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchi, L; Apollaro, T J G; Cuccoli, A; Verrucchi, P; Vaia, R

    2011-01-01

    High-quality quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be achieved in an unmodulated spin bus operating in the ballistic regime, which occurs when the endpoint qubits A and B are nonperturbatively coupled to the chain by a suitable exchange interaction j 0 . Indeed, the transition amplitude characterizing the transfer quality exhibits a maximum for a finite optimal value j opt 0 (N), where N is the channel length. We show that j opt 0 (N) scales as N -1/6 for large N and that it ensures a high-quality entanglement transfer even in the limit of arbitrarily long channels, almost independently of the channel initialization. For instance, for any chain length the average quantum-state transmission fidelity exceeds 90% and decreases very little in a broad neighbourhood of j opt 0 (N). We emphasize that, taking the reverse point of view, should j 0 be experimentally constrained, high-quality transfer can still be obtained by adjusting the channel length to its optimal value. (paper)

  6. Integration study of high quality teaching resources in universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglu Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development level and quality of education depend on the merits and efficiency in the use of teaching resources, especially in the case of obvious contradiction between the demand and supply of teaching resources. So to integrate teaching resources, improve the efficiency in the use of high quality teaching resources, and take the road of content development to enhance the competitiveness of education has become very important and urgent.Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of analysis on the teaching resources of universities and the problems they faced, this paper introduced the basic concepts of cloud storage, and built the integration architecture of high quality teaching resources in universities based on the cloud storage.Findings and Originality/value: The HDFS-based cloud storage proposed in this paper is a dynamically adjustable and Internet-based storage solution, and the users can access storage targets using the network through a common and easy-to-use protocol and application programming interfaces. This new technology is useful for end users benefits. With the continuous development and improvement of cloud storage, it will necessarily result in more and more applications in the institutions of higher learning and education network.Originality/value: This paper introduced the cloud storage into the integration of high quality teaching resources in universities first and as a new form of service, it can be a good solution.

  7. Examination of Operation Quality for High-frequent Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2009-01-01

    take the first train in their direction. The article examines four different approaches to examine operation quality for high-frequent operation that are based on the experiences of the passengers. These approaches are the service frequency of the operation, travel time extension, a combination......The examination of operation quality for high-frequent operation requires other approaches than the typical evaluation of punctuality (trains on time) and reliability (operated trains). This is because passengers in high-frequent railway systems do not necessarily notice train delays as they just...... of the service frequency and travel time approaches, and passenger delays. The service frequency and travel time approaches are simple measurements with low complexity and complement each other. Therefore, the article recommends combining the service frequency and travel time approaches to get a more accurate...

  8. Soybean phytase and nucleic acid encoding the same

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Isolated soybean phytase polypeptides and isolated nucleic acids encoding soybean phytases are provided. The invention is also directed to nucleic acid expression constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the isolated soybean phytase nucleic acids, as well as methods for producing recombinant and non-recombinant purified soybean phytase. The invention also relates to transgenic plants expressing the soybean phytase, particularly expression under seed-specific expression control elements.

  9. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional Nearest neighbor search

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei; Yi, Ke; Sheng, Cheng; Kalnis, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The existing LSH implementations are either rigorous or adhoc. Rigorous-LSH ensures good quality of query results, but requires expensive space and query cost. Although adhoc-LSH is more efficient, it abandons quality control, i.e., the neighbor it outputs can be arbitrarily bad. As a result, currently no method is able to ensure both quality and efficiency simultaneously in practice. Motivated by this, we propose a new access method called the locality sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) that enables fast highdimensional NN search with excellent quality. The combination of several LSB-trees leads to a structure called the LSB-forest that ensures the same result quality as rigorous-LSH, but reduces its space and query cost dramatically. The LSB-forest also outperforms adhoc-LSH, even though the latter has no quality guarantee. Besides its appealing theoretical properties, the LSB-tree itself also serves as an effective index that consumes linear space, and supports efficient updates. Our extensive experiments confirm that the LSB-tree is faster than (i) the state of the art of exact NN search by two orders of magnitude, and (ii) the best (linear-space) method of approximate retrieval by an order of magnitude, and at the same time, returns neighbors with much better quality. © 2009 ACM.

  10. High quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelbloom, A.M.; Hadley, P.; van der Marel, D.; Mooij, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a high quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation developed and tested for the MBE growth of high temperature superconductors. The system can be applied to any electron gun without altering the electron gun itself. Essential elements of the system are a high bandwidth mass spectrometer, control electronics and a high voltage modulator to sweep the electron beam over the melt at high frequencies. the sweep amplitude of the electron beam is used to control the evaporation flux at high frequencies. The feedback loop of the system has a bandwidth of over 100 Hz, which makes it possible to grow superlattices and layered structures in a fast and precisely controlled manner

  11. Synthetic Nucleic Acid Analogues in Gene Therapy: An Update for Peptide–Oligonucleotide Conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Maria; Mantsiou, Anna; Astakhova, Kira

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to provide an update on synthetic nucleic acid analogues and nanoassemblies as tools in gene therapy. In particular, the synthesis and properties of peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs), which have high potential in research and as therapeutics, are described...

  12. Modification of nucleic acids by azobenzene derivatives and their applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Xingyu; Liang, Xingguo

    2014-12-01

    Azobenzene has been widely used as a photoregulator due to its reversible photoisomerization, large structural change between E and Z isomers, high photoisomerization yield, and high chemical stability. On the other hand, some azobenzene derivatives can be used as universal quenchers for many fluorophores. Nucleic acid is a good candidate to be modified because it is not only the template of gene expression but also widely used for building well-organized nanostructures and nanodevices. Because the size and polarity distribution of the azobenzene molecule is similar to a nucleobase pair, the introduction of azobenzene into nucleic acids has been shown to be an ingenious molecular design for constructing light-switching biosystems or light-driven nanomachines. Here we review recent advances in azobenzene-modified nucleic acids and their applications for artificial regulation of gene expression and enzymatic reactions, construction of photoresponsive nanostructures and nanodevices, molecular beacons, as well as obtaining structural information using the introduced azobenzene as an internal probe. In particular, nucleic acids bearing multiple azobenzenes can be used as a novel artificial nanomaterial with merits of high sequence specificity, regular duplex structure, and high photoregulation efficiency. The combination of functional groups with biomolecules may further advance the development of chemical biotechnology and biomolecular engineering. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Safety and quality management at the high flux reactor Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita, A.; Ahlf, J.

    1995-01-01

    The High Flux Reactor (HFR) is one high power multi-purpose materials testing research reactor of the tank-in-pool type, cooled and moderated by light-water. It is operated at 45 MW at a prescribed schedule of 11 cycles per year, each comprising 25 operation days and three shut-down days. Since the licence for the operation of HFR was granted in 1962, a total of 14 amendments to the original licence have been made following different modifications in the installations. In the meantime, international nuclear standards were developed, especially in the framework of the NUSS programme of the IAEA, which were adopted by the Dutch Licensing Authorities. In order to implement the new standards, the situation at the HFR was comprehensively reviewed in the course of an audit performed by the Dutch Licensing Authorities in 1988. This also resulted in formulating the task of setting-up an 'HFR - Integral Quality Assurance Handbook' (HFR-IQAD) involving both organizations JRCIAM and ECN, which had the unique framework and basic guideline to assure the safe and efficient operation and exploitation of the HFR and to promote safety and quality in all aspects of HFR related activities. The assurance of safe and efficient operation and exploitation of the HFR is condensed together under the concepts of safety and quality of services and is achieved through the safety and quality management. (orig.)

  14. Wellbeing Understanding in High Quality Healthcare Informatics and Telepractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The proper use of healthcare informatics technology and multidimensional conceptual clarity are fundamental to create and boost outstanding clinical and telepractice results. Avoiding even terminology ambiguities is mandatory for high quality of care service. For instance, well-being or wellbeing is a different way to write the same concept only, or there is a good deal of ambiguity around the meanings of these terms the way they are written. In personal health, healthcare and healthcare informatics, this kind of ambiguity and lack of conceptual clarity has been called out repeatedly over the past 50 years. It is time to get the right, terse scenario. We present a brief review to develop and achieve ultimate wellbeing understanding for practical high quality healthcare informatics and telepractice application. This article presents an innovative point of view on deeper wellbeing understanding towards its increased clinical effective application.

  15. Quality assurance system for sitting high risk facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Aymee; Peralta, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    The paper shows how we have conceived and designed the quality assurance system for the site selection process of an area for sitting the facility of high risk in correspondence with the approved methodology. The results obtained in the implementation of the system have permitted the satisfactory performance of each one the expected stage, defining the most favorable sectors in order to continue the studies of the repository site for the disposal of low and intermedium. (author)

  16. High-quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Evgeniya H; Baraket, Mira; Laskoski, Matthew; Mulvaney, Shawn P; Lee, Woo K; Sheehan, Paul E; Hines, Daniel R; Robinson, Jeremy T; Tosado, Jacob; Fuhrer, Michael S; Hernández, Sandra C; Walton, Scott G

    2012-01-11

    In this paper we demonstrate high-quality, uniform dry transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil to polystyrene. The dry transfer exploits an azide linker molecule to establish a covalent bond to graphene and to generate greater graphene-polymer adhesion compared to that of the graphene-metal foil. Thus, this transfer approach provides a novel alternative route for graphene transfer, which allows for the metal foils to be reused. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Coupling of high-quality-factor optical resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Henriet, Rémi; Coillet, Aurélien; Chembo, Yanne K; Mortier, Michel; Sérier-Brault, Hélène; Rasoloniaina, Alphonse; Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    We improve theoretically and experimentally the problem of the coupling between a high Q-factor resonator and its external coupler. We have observed oscillations of ringing induced by the sweeping of the excitation frequency of an active microsphere. Thanks to this approach, the quality factor of an optical resonator was measured and we obtained Q = 5.8 × 10 8 . (paper)

  18. A high throughput DNA extraction method with high yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhanguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preparation of large quantity and high quality genomic DNA from a large number of plant samples is a major bottleneck for most genetic and genomic analyses, such as, genetic mapping, TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome, and next-generation sequencing directly from sheared genomic DNA. A variety of DNA preparation methods and commercial kits are available. However, they are either low throughput, low yield, or costly. Here, we describe a method for high throughput genomic DNA isolation from sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] leaves and dry seeds with high yield, high quality, and affordable cost. Results We developed a high throughput DNA isolation method by combining a high yield CTAB extraction method with an improved cleanup procedure based on MagAttract kit. The method yielded large quantity and high quality DNA from both lyophilized sorghum leaves and dry seeds. The DNA yield was improved by nearly 30 fold with 4 times less consumption of MagAttract beads. The method can also be used in other plant species, including cotton leaves and pine needles. Conclusion A high throughput system for DNA extraction from sorghum leaves and seeds was developed and validated. The main advantages of the method are low cost, high yield, high quality, and high throughput. One person can process two 96-well plates in a working day at a cost of $0.10 per sample of magnetic beads plus other consumables that other methods will also need.

  19. Optical nano-biosensing interface via nucleic acid amplification strategy: construction and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Jing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-03-21

    Modern optical detection technology plays a critical role in current clinical detection due to its high sensitivity and accuracy. However, higher requirements such as extremely high detection sensitivity have been put forward due to the clinical needs for the early finding and diagnosing of malignant tumors which are significant for tumor therapy. The technology of isothermal amplification with nucleic acids opens up avenues for meeting this requirement. Recent reports have shown that a nucleic acid amplification-assisted modern optical sensing interface has achieved satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy, high speed and specificity. Compared with isothermal amplification technology designed to work completely in a solution system, solid biosensing interfaces demonstrated better performances in stability and sensitivity due to their ease of separation from the reaction mixture and the better signal transduction on these optical nano-biosensing interfaces. Also the flexibility and designability during the construction of these nano-biosensing interfaces provided a promising research topic for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer diseases. In this review, we describe the construction of the burgeoning number of optical nano-biosensing interfaces assisted by a nucleic acid amplification strategy, and provide insightful views on: (1) approaches to the smart fabrication of an optical nano-biosensing interface, (2) biosensing mechanisms via the nucleic acid amplification method, (3) the newest strategies and future perspectives.

  20. Helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yun; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Li, Ying; Kong, Huimin; Lemieux, Bertrand

    2013-10-11

    Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) is a novel method for the isothermal in vitro amplification of nucleic acids. The HDA reaction selectively amplifies a target sequence by extension of two oligonucleotide primers. Unlike the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HDA uses a helicase enzyme to separate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands, rather than heat denaturation. This allows DNA amplification without the need for thermal cycling. The helicase used in HDA is a helicase super family II protein obtained from a thermophilic organism, Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TteUvrD). This thermostable helicase is capable of unwinding blunt-end nucleic acid substrates at elevated temperatures (60° to 65°C). The HDA reaction can also be coupled with reverse transcription for ribonucleic acid (RNA) amplification. The products of this reaction can be detected during the reaction using fluorescent probes when incubations are conducted in a fluorimeter. Alternatively, products can be detected after amplification using a disposable amplicon containment device that contains an embedded lateral flow strip. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Nucleic acid interactions with pyrite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo-Marti, E.; Briones, C.; Rogero, C.; Gomez-Navarro, C.; Methivier, Ch.; Pradier, C.M.; Martin-Gago, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The study of the interaction of nucleic acid molecules with mineral surfaces is a field of growing interest in organic chemistry, origin of life, material science and biotechnology. We have characterized the adsorption of single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (ssPNA) on a natural pyrite surface, as well as the further adsorption of ssDNA on a PNA-modified pyrite surface. The characterization has been performed by means of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The N(1s) and S(2p) XPS core level peaks of PNA and PNA + DNA have been decomposed in curve-components that we have assigned to different chemical species. RAIRS spectra recorded for different concentrations show the presence of positive and negative adsorption bands, related to the semiconducting nature of the surface. The combination of the information gathered by these techniques confirms that PNA adsorbs on pyrite surface, interacting through nitrogen-containing groups of the nucleobases and the iron atoms of the surface, instead of the thiol group of the molecule. The strong PNA/pyrite interaction inhibits further hybridization of PNA with complementary ssDNA, contrary to the behavior reported on gold surfaces

  2. Nucleic acid interactions with pyrite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850-Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mateome@inta.es; Briones, C.; Rogero, C. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850-Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Navarro, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain); Methivier, Ch.; Pradier, C.M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface, UMR CNRS 7609. Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4, Pl Jussieu, 75005-Paris (France); Martin-Gago, J.A. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Ajalvir, Km. 4, 28850-Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-03

    The study of the interaction of nucleic acid molecules with mineral surfaces is a field of growing interest in organic chemistry, origin of life, material science and biotechnology. We have characterized the adsorption of single-stranded peptide nucleic acid (ssPNA) on a natural pyrite surface, as well as the further adsorption of ssDNA on a PNA-modified pyrite surface. The characterization has been performed by means of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The N(1s) and S(2p) XPS core level peaks of PNA and PNA + DNA have been decomposed in curve-components that we have assigned to different chemical species. RAIRS spectra recorded for different concentrations show the presence of positive and negative adsorption bands, related to the semiconducting nature of the surface. The combination of the information gathered by these techniques confirms that PNA adsorbs on pyrite surface, interacting through nitrogen-containing groups of the nucleobases and the iron atoms of the surface, instead of the thiol group of the molecule. The strong PNA/pyrite interaction inhibits further hybridization of PNA with complementary ssDNA, contrary to the behavior reported on gold surfaces.

  3. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  4. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  5. Construction of High-Quality Camel Immune Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Ema; Poignavent, Vianney; Vincke, Cécile; Ritzenthaler, Christophe; Muyldermans, Serge; Monsion, Baptiste

    2018-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies libraries of heavy-chain only immunoglobulins from camelids or shark are enriched for high-affinity antigen-specific binders by a short in vivo immunization. Thus, potent binders are readily retrieved from relatively small-sized libraries of 10 7 -10 8 individual transformants, mostly after phage display and panning on a purified target. However, the remaining drawback of this strategy arises from the need to generate a dedicated library, for nearly every envisaged target. Therefore, all the procedures that shorten and facilitate the construction of an immune library of best possible quality are definitely a step forward. In this chapter, we provide the protocol to generate a high-quality immune VHH library using the Golden Gate Cloning strategy employing an adapted phage display vector where a lethal ccdB gene has to be substituted by the VHH gene. With this procedure, the construction of the library can be shortened to less than a week starting from bleeding the animal. Our libraries exceed 10 8 individual transformants and close to 100% of the clones harbor a phage display vector having an insert with the length of a VHH gene. These libraries are also more economic to make than previous standard approaches using classical restriction enzymes and ligations. The quality of the Nanobodies that are retrieved from immune libraries obtained by Golden Gate Cloning is identical to those from immune libraries made according to the classical procedure.

  6. Nucleic Acid Therapy: from humble beginnings a dynamic technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Millroy, L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “nucleic acid therapy” encompasses a wide range of technologies for the treatment of a range of plant and animal ailments. As the name implies, it makes use of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) as a therapeutic agent. There are six branches...

  7. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having 2,6-Diaminopurine Nucleobases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and binding affinity. The peptide nucleic acids of the invention comprise ligands selected from a group...

  8. Gene Targeting and Expression Modulation by Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNA) are artificial structural mimics of nucleic acids capable of sequence specific hybridization to both RNA and DNA. Thus they have obvious potential as gene targeting agents for drug discovery approaches. An overview with emphasis on recent progress on RNA "interference...

  9. Non-enzymatic Polymerization of Nucleic Acids from Monomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörr, Mark; Löffler, Philipp M. G.; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2012-01-01

    synthesis of long nucleic acid polymers or to sequence-specifically amplify nucleic acid polymers, respectively. Starting from molecular requirements, details of the polymerization mechanisms and strategies are first presented and then compared. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these strategies...

  10. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian [Sunnyvale, CA

    2009-05-05

    The present invention provides an endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  11. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting...

  12. Biological activity and biotechnological aspects of locked nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Karin E; Højland, Torben; Hansen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is one of the most promising new nucleic acid analogues that has been produced under the past two decades. In this chapter, we have tried to cover many of the different areas, where this molecule has been used to improve the function of synthetic oligonucleotides (ONs). ...

  13. High beam quality and high energy short-pulse laser with MOPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quanwei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, JianFeng; Tan, Liang; Cui, Lingling; Wei, Bin; Sun, Yinhong; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    A high energy, high beam quality short-pulse diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with two amplifier stages is demonstrated. The two-rod birefringence compensation was used as beam quality controlling methods, which presents a short-pulse energy of 40 mJ with a beam quality value of M2 = 1.2 at a repetition rate of 400Hz. The MOPA system delivers a short-pulse energy of 712.5 mJ with a pulse width of 12.4 ns.The method of spherical aberration compensation is improved the beam quality, a M2 factor of 2.3 and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.7% is obtained at the maximum laser out power.The laser obtained 1.4J out energy with polarization integration.

  14. Effects of nucleic acid local structure and magnesium ions on minus-strand transfer mediated by the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tiyun; Heilman-Miller, Susan L.; Levin, Judith G.

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a nucleic acid chaperone, which is required for highly specific and efficient reverse transcription. Here, we demonstrate that local structure of acceptor RNA at a potential nucleation site, rather than overall thermodynamic stability, is a critical determinant for the minus-strand transfer step (annealing of acceptor RNA to (−) strong-stop DNA followed by reverse transcriptase (RT)-catalyzed DNA extension). In our system, destabilization of a stem-loop stru...

  15. Development of nuclear quality high pressure valve bellows in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzen, P.; Astill, C.J.

    1978-06-01

    Concurrent with the decision to use bellows stem sealed nuclear valves where feasible in commercial-scale CANDU plants, AECL undertook to develop an indigenous high pressure valve bellows technology. This program included developing the capability to fabricate improved high pressure valve bellows in conjunction with a Canadian manufacturer. This paper describes the evolution of a two-stage bellows fabrication process involving: (1) manufacture of discrete lengths of precision thin wall telescoping tubes - from preparation of strip blanks through edge grinding and edge forming to longitudinal welding; (2) forming of bellows from tube assemblies using a novel combination of mechanical inward forming followed by hydraulic outward forming. Bellows of Inconel 600 and Inconel 625 have been manufactured and evaluated. Test results indicate comparable to improved performance over alternative high quality bellows. (author)

  16. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. High quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, S M; Issac, R C; Welsh, G H; Brunetti, E; Shanks, R P; Anania, M P; Cipiccia, S; Manahan, G G; Aniculaesei, C; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Burgess, R T L; Vieux, G; Jaroszynski, D A [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W A [SUPA, Division of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A M [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Van der Geer, S B; De Loos, M J, E-mail: m.wiggins@phys.strath.ac.u [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    High quality electron beams have been produced in a laser-plasma accelerator driven by femtosecond laser pulses with a peak power of 26 TW. Electrons are produced with an energy up to 150 MeV from the 2 mm gas jet accelerator and the measured rms relative energy spread is less than 1%. Shot-to-shot stability in the central energy is 3%. Pepper-pot measurements have shown that the normalized transverse emittance is {approx}1{pi} mm mrad while the beam charge is in the range 2-10 pC. The generation of high quality electron beams is understood from simulations accounting for beam loading of the wakefield accelerating structure. Experiments and self-consistent simulations indicate that the beam peak current is several kiloamperes. Efficient transportation of the beam through an undulator is simulated and progress is being made towards the realization of a compact, high peak brilliance free-electron laser operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength ranges.

  18. Sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women (gestational diabetes and hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Fatemeh; Sehhatiei Shafaei, Fahimeh; Mirghafourvand, Mozhgan

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is one of the most basic human requirements. This research aims at determining the status of sleep quality and its relationship with quality of life among high-risk pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran, in 2015. This research was a sectional study done on 364 qualified women in 28-36 weeks of pregnancy suffering from mild preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. The sampling was done as convenience. Personal-social-midwifery questionnaire, Pittsburg sleep quality, and quality of life in pregnancy (QOL-ORAV) were used for gathering data. Multivariate linear regression model was used for determining the relationship between sleep quality and its subsets with quality of life and controlling confounders. In the current study, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 96.4%. Mean (SD) of the total score of sleep quality was 10.1 (4.1) and the total score of quality of life was 61.7 (17.3). According to Pearson's correlation test, there was statistically significant relationship between quality of life and sleep quality and all its subsets except sleep duration and use of sleep medication (p quality of life. The findings of current research show that sleep quality is low among high-risk pregnant women and quality of life is medium. So, it is necessary that required training is given by health cares for improving sleep quality and quality of life to mothers.

  19. Present status of high quality beam facility at Waseda University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, M.; Kawai, H.; Hama, Y.; Kudo, N.; Kobayashi, M.; Kuribayasi, T.; Kawaguchi, M.; Kuroda, R.; Maeda, K.; Nagasawa, F.; Ueyama, D.; Hizume, K.; Wang, X.J.; Hayano, H.; Urakawa, J.; Kashiwagi, S.

    2004-01-01

    A research project named High-Tech Research Center Project has been conducted at Waseda University. In this project, an RF gun system has been used for production of low emittance and short bunched electron beam. The experiments for the electron beam quality measurement have been carried out by slit scan techniques, etc. Short pulsed x-ray with the energy range of so-called water window has been generation by the inverse compton scattering. Further, the pulse radiolysis system has been constructed, and the stroboscopic pulse radiolysis has been applied for the detection of hydrated electron in picosecond time region. (author)

  20. Anti-Stokes Luminescence in High Quality Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinattieri, A.; Bogani, F.; Miotto, A.; Ceccherini, S.

    1997-11-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the anti-Stokes (AS) luminescence which originates from exciton recombination when below gap excitation is used, in a set of high quality quantum well structures. We observe strong excitonic resonances in the AS signal as measured from photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra. We demonstrate that neither the electromagnetic coupling between the wells nor the morphological disorder can explain this up-conversion effect. Time-resolved luminescence data after ps excitation and fs correlation spectroscopy results provide clear evidence of the occurrence of a two-step absorption which is assisted by the exciton population resonantly excited by the first photon.

  1. Quantitative thermodynamic predication of interactions between nucleic acid and non-nucleic acid species using Microsoft excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiaqi; Li, Na

    2013-09-01

    Proper design of nucleic acid sequences is crucial for many applications. We have previously established a thermodynamics-based quantitative model to help design aptamer-based nucleic acid probes by predicting equilibrium concentrations of all interacting species. To facilitate customization of this thermodynamic model for different applications, here we present a generic and easy-to-use platform to implement the algorithm of the model with Microsoft(®) Excel formulas and VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) macros. Two Excel spreadsheets have been developed: one for the applications involving only nucleic acid species, the other for the applications involving both nucleic acid and non-nucleic acid species. The spreadsheets take the nucleic acid sequences and the initial concentrations of all species as input, guide the user to retrieve the necessary thermodynamic constants, and finally calculate equilibrium concentrations for all species in various bound and unbound conformations. The validity of both spreadsheets has been verified by comparing the modeling results with the experimental results on nucleic acid sequences reported in the literature. This Excel-based platform described here will allow biomedical researchers to rationalize the sequence design of nucleic acid probes using the thermodynamics-based modeling even without relevant theoretical and computational skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The quality of high-energy X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    Supplement 17 of the British Journal of Radiology is a survey of central-axis depth doses for radiotherapy machines, patterned largely on BJR Supplement 11 (1972). Inspection of high-energy X-ray depth doses for a 10 x 10 cm field at an SSD of 100 cm disclosed large differences between the two sets of data, especially for qualities above 8 MV, e.g. a depth dose of 80% at 10 cm is rated at about 19 MV according to BJR Supplement 11, and 23 MV according to BJR Supplement 17. It was found that Supplement 17 depth-dose data above 8 MV were erratic, but Supplement 11 data could be represented by an analytical expression, providing a unique means of assigning MV quality. It was also found that dose-weighted average energy of the filtered beam plotted smoothly against depth dose. For dosimetric purposes, it is suggested that this parameter be used as a true measure of beam quality, removing discrepancies introduced by the use of nominal MV for this purpose. (author)

  3. CCD Astrophotography High-Quality Imaging from the Suburbs

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This is a reference book for amateur astronomers who have become interested in CCD imaging. Those glorious astronomical images found in astronomy magazines might seem out of reach to newcomers to CCD imaging, but this is not the case. Great pictures are attainable with modest equipment. Adam Stuart’s many beautiful images, reproduced in this book, attest to the quality of – initially – a beginner’s efforts. Chilled-chip astronomical CCD-cameras and software are also wonderful tools for cutting through seemingly impenetrable light-pollution. CCD Astrophotography from the Suburbs describes one man’s successful approach to the problem of getting high-quality astronomical images under some of the most light-polluted conditions. Here is a complete and thoroughly tested program that will help every CCD-beginner to work towards digital imaging of the highest quality. It is equally useful to astronomers who have perfect observing conditions, as to those who have to observe from light-polluted city skies.

  4. Multiplexed Detection of Attomoles of Nucleic Acids Using Fluorescent Nanoparticle Counting Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaojing; Yin, Haoyan; Lai, Tiancheng; Zhang, Junlong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xiao; Li, Na

    2018-01-16

    The sensitive multiplexed detection of nucleic acids in a single sample by a simple manner is of pivotal importance for the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. Herein, we constructed an automatic fluorescent nanoparticle (FNP) counting platform with a common fluorescence microscopic imaging setup for nonamplification multiplexed detection of attomoles of nucleic acids. Taking the advantages of the highly bright, multicolor emitting FNPs and magnetic separation, the platform enables sensitive multiplexed detection without the need for extra fluorescent labels. Quantification for multiplex DNAs, multiplex microRNAs (miRNA), as well as a DNA and miRNA mixture was achieved with a similar dynamic range, a limit of detection down to 5 amol (5 μL detection volume), and a 81-115% spike recovery from different biological sample matrices. In particular, the sensitivity for multiplex miRNA is by far among the highest without using amplification or the lock nucleic acid hybridization enhancement strategy. Results regarding miRNA-141 from four different cell lines were agreeable with those of the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Simultaneous detection of miRNA-141 and miRNA-21 in four different cell lines yielded consistent results with publications, indicating the potential for monitoring multiplex miRNA expression associated with the collaborative regulation of important cellular events. This work expands the rule set of multiplex nucleic acid detection strategies and shows promising potential application in clinical diagnosis.

  5. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlehan, Francine; Mavré, François; Talini, Luc; Limoges, Benoît; Marchal, Damien

    2011-09-21

    We described an electrochemical method to monitor in real-time the isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids. The principle of detection is simple and well-adapted to the development of portable, easy-to-use and inexpensive nucleic acids detection technologies. It consists of monitoring a decrease in the electrochemical current response of a reporter DNA intercalating redox probe during the isothermal DNA amplification. The method offers the possibility to quantitatively analyze target nucleic acids in less than one hour at a single constant temperature, and to perform at the end of the isothermal amplification a DNA melt curve analysis for differentiating between specific and non-specific amplifications. To illustrate the potentialities of this approach for the development of a simple, robust and low-cost instrument with high throughput capability, the method was validated with an electrochemical system capable of monitoring up to 48 real-time isothermal HDA reactions simultaneously in a disposable microplate consisting of 48-electrochemical microwells. Results obtained with this approach are comparable to that obtained with a well-established but more sophisticated and expensive fluorescence-based method. This makes for a promising alternative detection method not only for real-time isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acid, but also for other isothermal DNA amplification strategies.

  6. Nucleic acid probes as a diagnostic method for tick-borne hemoparasites of veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, J V; Buening, G M

    1995-03-01

    An increased number of articles on the use of nucleic acid-based hybridization techniques for diagnostic purposes have been recently published. This article reviews nucleic acid-based hybridization as an assay to detect hemoparasite infections of economic relevance in veterinary medicine. By using recombinant DNA techniques, selected clones containing inserts of Anaplasma, Babesia, Cowdria or Theileria genomic DNA sequences have been obtained, and they are now available to be utilized as specific, highly sensitive DNA or RNA probes to detect the presence of the hemoparasite DNA in an infected animal. Either in an isotopic or non-isotopic detection system, probes have allowed scientists to test for--originally in samples collected from experimentally infected animals and later in samples collected in the field--the presence of hemoparasites during the prepatent, patent, convalescent, and chronic periods of the infection in the host. Nucleic acid probes have given researchers the opportunity to carry out genomic analysis of parasite DNA to differentiate hemoparasite species and to identify genetically distinct populations among and within isolates, strains and clonal populations. Prevalence of parasite infection in the tick vector can now be accomplished more specifically with the nucleic acid probes. Lately, with the advent of the polymerase chain reaction technique, small numbers of hemoparasites can be positively identified in the vertebrate host and tick vector. These techniques can be used to assess the veterinary epidemiological situation in a particular geographical region for the planning of control measures.

  7. Label-free direct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of nucleic acids (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Luca; Morla-Folch, Judit; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Xie, Hainan; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Recently, plasmonic-based biosensing has experienced an unprecedented level of attention, with a particular focus on the nucleic acid detection, offering efficient solutions to engineer simple, fast, highly sensitive sensing platforms while overcoming important limitations of PCR and microarray techniques. In the broad field of plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has arisen as a powerful analytical tool for detection and structural characterization of biomolecules. Today applications of SERS to nucleic acid analysis largely rely on indirect strategies, which have been demonstrated very effective for pure sensing purposes but completely dismiss the exquisite structural information provided by the direct acquisition of the biomolecular vibrational fingerprint. Contrarily, direct label-free SERS of nucleic acid shows an outstanding potential in terms of chemical-specific information which, however, remained largely unexpressed mainly because of the inherent poor spectral reproducibility and/or limited sensitivity. To address these limitations, we developed a fast and affordable high-throughput screening direct SERS method for gaining detailed genomic information on nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and for the characterization and quantitative recognition of DNA interactions with exogenous agents. The simple strategy relies on the electrostatic adhesion of DNA/RNA onto positively-charged silver colloids that promotes the nanoparticle aggregation into stable clusters yielding intense and reproducible SERS spectra at picogram level (i.e. the analysis can be performed without the necessity of amplification steps thus providing realistic direct information of the nucleic acid in its native state). We anticipate this method to gain a vast impact and set of applications in different fields, including medical diagnostics, genomic screening, drug discovery, forensic science and even molecular electronics.

  8. Sensitive determination of nucleic acids using organic nanoparticle fluorescence probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunyou; Bian, Guirong; Wang, Leyu; Dong, Ling; Wang, Lun; Kan, Jian

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of organic nanoparticles by reprecipitation method under sonication and vigorous stirring. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the size and size distribution of the luminescent nanoparticles. Their average diameter was about 25 nm with a size variation of ±18%. The fluorescence decay lifetime of the nanoparticles also was determined on a self-equipped fluorospectrometer with laser light source. The lifetime (˜0.09 μs) of nanoparticles is about three times long as that of the monomer. The nanoparticles were in abundant of hydrophilic groups, which increased their miscibility in aqueous solution. These organic nanoparticles have high photochemical stability, excellent resistance to chemical degradation and photodegradation, and a good fluorescence quantum yield (25%). The fluorescence can be efficiently quenched by nucleic acids. Based on the fluorescence quenching of nanoparticles, a fluorescence quenching method was developed for determination of microamounts of nucleic acids by using the nanoparticles as a new fluorescent probe. Under optimal conditions, maximum fluorescence quenching is produced, with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 345 and 402 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, the calibration graphs are linear over the range 0.4-19.0 μg ml -1 for calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) and 0.3-19.0 μg ml -1 for fish sperm DNA (fs-DNA). The corresponding detection limits are 0.25 μg ml -1 for ct-DNA and 0.17 μg ml -1 for fs-DNA. The relative standard deviation of six replicate measurements is 1.3-2.1%. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive with wide linear range. The recovery and relative standard deviation are very satisfactory.

  9. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicelli, Alessandro [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: apedicelli@rm.unicatt.it; Rollo, Massimo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mrollo@rm.unicatt.it; Piano, Mariangela [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: mariangela.piano@gmail.com; Re, Thomas J. [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: tomjre@gmail.com; Cipriani, Maria C. [Department of Gerontology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: alexped@yahoo.com; Colosimo, Cesare [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: colosimo@rm.unicatt.it; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Policl. A.Gemelli, l.go Gemelli 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: lbonomo@rm.unicatt.it

    2009-02-15

    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging.

  10. Computer-aided control of high-quality cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the possibility of control of the high-quality grey cast iron and ductile iron using the author’s genuine computer programs. The programs have been developed with the help of algorithms based on statistical relationships that are said to exist between the characteristic parameters of DTA curves and properties, like Rp0,2, Rm, A5 and HB. It has been proved that the spheroidisation and inoculation treatment of cast iron changes in an important way the characteristic parameters of DTA curves, thus enabling a control of these operations as regards their correctness and effectiveness, along with the related changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of cast iron. Moreover, some examples of statistical relationships existing between the typical properties of ductile iron and its control process were given for cases of the melts consistent and inconsistent with the adopted technology.A test stand for control of the high-quality cast iron and respective melts has been schematically depicted.

  11. Automated high speed volume computed tomography for inline quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, R.; Kugel, A.; Troup, P.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing complexity of innovative products as well as growing requirements on quality and reliability call for more detailed knowledge about internal structures of manufactured components rather by 100 % inspection than just by sampling test. A first-step solution, like radioscopic inline inspection machines, equipped with automated data evaluation software, have become state of the art in the production floor during the last years. However, these machines provide just ordinary two-dimensional information and deliver no volume data e.g. to evaluate exact position or shape of detected defects. One way to solve this problem is the application of X-ray computed tomography (CT). Compared to the performance of the first generation medical scanners (scanning times of many hours), today, modern Volume CT machines for industrial applications need about 5 minutes for a full object scan depending on the object size. Of course, this is still too long to introduce this powerful method into the inline production quality control. In order to gain acceptance, the scanning time including subsequent data evaluation must be decreased significantly and adapted to the manufacturing cycle times. This presentation demonstrates the new technical set up, reconstruction results and the methods for high-speed volume data evaluation of a new fully automated high-speed CT scanner with cycle times below one minute for an object size of less than 15 cm. This will directly create new opportunities in design and construction of more complex objects. (author)

  12. Production of high quality water for oil sands application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudette-Hodsman, C.; Macleod, B. [Pall Corp., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Venkatadri, R. [Pall Corp., East Hills, NY (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a pressurized microfiltration membrane system installed at an oil sands extraction site in Alberta. The system was designed to complement a reverse osmosis (RO) system installed at the site to produce the high quality feed water required by the system's boilers. Groundwater in the region exhibited moderate total suspended solids and high alkalinity and hardness levels, and the RO system required feed water with a silt density index of 3 or less. The conventional pretreatment system used at the site was slowing down production due to the severe fouling of the RO membranes. The new microfiltration system contained an automated PVDF hollow fiber microfiltration membrane system contained in a trailer. Suspended particles and bacteria were captured within the filter, and permeate was sent to the RO unit. Within 6 hours of being installed, the unit was producing water with SDI values in the range of 1.0 to 2.5. It was concluded that the microfiltration system performed reliably regardless of wide variations in feed water quality and flow rates. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  13. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  14. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  15. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  16. Accuracy assessment of the linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation and reparametrization of the OBC generalized Born model for nucleic acids and nucleic acid-protein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2015-04-05

    The generalized Born model in the Onufriev, Bashford, and Case (Onufriev et al., Proteins: Struct Funct Genet 2004, 55, 383) implementation has emerged as one of the best compromises between accuracy and speed of computation. For simulations of nucleic acids, however, a number of issues should be addressed: (1) the generalized Born model is based on a linear model and the linearization of the reference Poisson-Boltmann equation may be questioned for highly charged systems as nucleic acids; (2) although much attention has been given to potentials, solvation forces could be much less sensitive to linearization than the potentials; and (3) the accuracy of the Onufriev-Bashford-Case (OBC) model for nucleic acids depends on fine tuning of parameters. Here, we show that the linearization of the Poisson Boltzmann equation has mild effects on computed forces, and that with optimal choice of the OBC model parameters, solvation forces, essential for molecular dynamics simulations, agree well with those computed using the reference Poisson-Boltzmann model. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Nucleic Acid Aptamers Against Biotoxins: A New Paradigm Toward the Treatment and Diagnostic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Veedu, Rakesh N.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can bind to their targets with very high affinity and specificity, and are generally selected by a process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Conventional antibody-based therape......Nucleic acid aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can bind to their targets with very high affinity and specificity, and are generally selected by a process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Conventional antibody......-based therapeutic and diagnostic approach currently employed against biotoxins pose major limitations such as the requirement of a live animal for the in vivo enrichment of the antibody species, decreased stability, high production cost, and side effects. Aptamer technology is a viable alternative that can be used...

  18. Recent developments in nucleic acid based techniques for use in rumen manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McSweeney

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid-based techniques which can be used to characterise complex microbial communities without incubation are now being employed regularly in ruminant nutrition studies. Conventional culture-based methods for enumerating rumen microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi have been superseded and are now used mainly to obtain pure isolates of novel organisms and reference strains that are required for the development and validation of the nucleic acid approaches. These reference strains are also essential for physiological studies of the lifestyle of the organisms as well as sources of genomic DNA and RNA that can be analysed for functional gene activity. The foundation of the molecular ecology techniques is 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis which has provided a phylogenetically based classification scheme for enumeration and identification of microbial community members. The use of this marker gene in assays involving the use of single nucleic acid probes or primer sets is rapidly evolving to high throughput approaches such as microarray analysis and new generation sequencing technologies. While these analyses are very informative for determining the composition of the microbial community and monitoring changes in population size, they can only infer function based on these observations. The focus of nucleic acid research is now shifting to the functional analysis of the ecosystem which involves the measurement of functional genes and their expression in the predominant or specific members of the rumen microbial community. Functional gene studies are less developed than 16S rDNA-based analysis of community structure. Also for gene expression studies there are inherent problems involved in extracting high quality RNA from digesta, and priming cDNA synthesis from bacterial mRNA. This paper reviews nucleic acid based molecular methods which have recently been developed for studying the structure and function of rumen microbial

  19. Routine quality control of high dose rate brachytherapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Calcina, Carmen S.; Almeida, Adelaide de; Rocha, Jose R. Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A Quality Assurance program should be installed also for High Dose Rate brachytherapy, in the order to achieve a correct dose administration to the patient and for the safety to those involved directly with the treatment. The work presented here has the following purposes: Analyze the types of equipment tests presented by the official protocols (TG40, TG56 e ARCAL XXX), evaluate the brachytherapy routine tests of protocols from various national and international radiotherapy services and compare the latter with those presented in the official protocols. As a result, we conclude the following: TG56 presents a higher number of tests when compared to the other official protocols and most of the tests presented by the analyzed services are present in TG56. A suggestion for a basic protocol is presented, emphasizing the periodicity and tolerance level of each of the tests. (author)

  20. High quality diesel fuels by VO-LSGO hydrotreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanica-Ezeanu, Dorin; Juganaru, Traian [Petroleum and Gas Univ. of Ploiesti (Romania)

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to obtain a high quality Diesel fuel by hydro-deoxigenation of vegetable oils (VO) mixed with a low sulfur gasoil (LSGO). The process is possible by using a bi-functional catalyst Ni-Mo supported by an activated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing 2% Ultrastable Y-zeolite. The experimental conditions were: T =340 - 380 C, Pressure = 50 bar, LHSV = 1,5 h{sup -1}, H{sub 2}/Feed ratio = 15 mole H{sub 2} /mole liquid feed. The liquid product was separated in two fractions: a light distillate (similar to gasoline) and a heavy distillate (boiling point > 200 C) with very good characteristics for Diesel engines. The reaction chemistry is very complex, but the de-oxygenation process is decisive for the chemical structure of hydrocarbons from final product. Finally, a schema for the reaction mechanism is proposed. (orig.)

  1. Supercapacitors based on high-quality graphene scrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanyan; Kuang, Yafei; Liu, Gaoqin; Liu, Rui; Huang, Zhongyuan; Fu, Chaopeng; Zhou, Haihui

    2012-06-01

    High-quality graphene scrolls (GSS) with a unique scrolled topography are designed using a microexplosion method. Their capacitance properties are investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Compared with the specific capacity of 110 F g-1 for graphene sheets, a remarkable capacity of 162.2 F g-1 is obtained at the current density of 1.0 A g-1 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution owing to the unique scrolled structure of GSS. The capacity value is increased by about 50% only because of the topological change of graphene sheets. Meanwhile, GSS exhibit excellent long-term cycling stability along with 96.8% retained after 1000 cycles at 1.0 A g-1. These encouraging results indicate that GSS based on the topological structure of graphene sheets are a kind of promising material for supercapacitors.

  2. A roadmap to high quality chemically prepared graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gengler, Regis Y N; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Rudolf, Petra, E-mail: r.gengler@rug.n, E-mail: p.rudolf@rug.n [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2010-09-22

    Graphene was discovered half a decade ago and proved the existence of a two-dimensional system which becomes stable as a result of 3D corrugation. It appeared very quickly that this exceptional material had truly outstanding electronic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties. Consequently a broad range of applications appeared, as the graphene science speedily moved forward. Since then, a lot of effort has been devoted not only to the study of graphene but also to its fabrication. Here we review the chemical approaches to graphene production, their advantages as well as their downsides. Our aim is to draw a roadmap of today's most reliable path to high quality graphene via chemical preparation.

  3. High quality factor HTS Josephson junctions on low loss substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stornaiuolo, D; Longobardi, L; Massarotti, D; Barone, A; Tafuri, F [CNR-SPIN Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Papari, G; Carillo, F [NEST, CNR-NANO and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cennamo, N [Dipartimento Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    We have extended the off-axis biepitaxial technique to produce YBCO grain boundary junctions on low loss substrates. Excellent transport properties have been reproducibly found, with remarkable values of the quality factor I{sub c}R{sub n} (with I{sub c} the critical current and R{sub n} the normal state resistance) above 10 mV, far higher than the values commonly reported in the literature for high temperature superconductor (HTS) based Josephson junctions. The outcomes are consistent with a picture of a more uniform grain boundary region along the current path. This work supports a possible implementation of grain boundary junctions for various applications including terahertz sensors and HTS quantum circuits in the presence of microwaves.

  4. A roadmap to high quality chemically prepared graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gengler, Regis Y N; Spyrou, Konstantinos; Rudolf, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Graphene was discovered half a decade ago and proved the existence of a two-dimensional system which becomes stable as a result of 3D corrugation. It appeared very quickly that this exceptional material had truly outstanding electronic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties. Consequently a broad range of applications appeared, as the graphene science speedily moved forward. Since then, a lot of effort has been devoted not only to the study of graphene but also to its fabrication. Here we review the chemical approaches to graphene production, their advantages as well as their downsides. Our aim is to draw a roadmap of today's most reliable path to high quality graphene via chemical preparation.

  5. CHOREOGRAPHIC METHODS FOR CREATING NOVEL, HIGH QUALITY DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kirsh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a detailed ethnographic study of the dance creation process of a noted choreographer and his distinguished troupe. All choreographer dancer interactions were videoed, the choreographer and dancers were interviewed extensively each day, as well as other observations and tests performed. The choreographer used three main methods to produce high quality and novel content: showing, making-on, and tasking. We present, analyze and evaluate these methods, and show how these approaches allow the choreographer to increase the creative output of the dancers and him. His methods, although designed for dance, apply more generally to other creative endeavors, especially where brainstorming is involved, and where the creative process is distributed over many individuals. His approach is also a case study in multi-modal direction, owing to the range of mechanisms he uses to communicate and direct.

  6. Biotransformation of Organic Waste into High Quality Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie

    Agriculture faces several challenges of future provision of nutrients such as limited P reserves and increasing prices of synthetic fertilizers and recycling of nutrients from organic waste can be an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of the agricultural systems. Organically...... and S, is often low; and (3) the unbalanced composition of nutrients rarely matches crop demands. Therefore the objective of this project was to investigate the potential for (1) recycling nutrients from agro-industrial wastes and (2) compost biotransformation into high-quality organic fertilizers...... other uses into fertilizer use would be unlikely. An estimated ~50 % of the total organic waste pool, primarily consisting of animal manure and waste from the processing of sugar cane, coffee, oil palm and oranges, is currently being re-used as “fertilizers”, meaning it is eventually returned...

  7. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of an ‘all-locked’ nucleic acid duplex derived from a tRNASer microhelix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, Katja; Eichert, André; Fürste, Jens P.; Betzel, Christian; Erdmann, Volker A.; Förster, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    A completely ‘all-locked’ nucleic acid duplex was designed from an E. coli tRNA Ser microhelix. The helix consists exclusively of LNA building blocks and was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution. Modified nucleic acids are of great interest with respect to their nuclease resistance and enhanced thermostability. In therapeutical and diagnostic applications, such molecules can substitute for labile natural nucleic acids that are targeted against particular diseases or applied in gene therapy. The so-called ‘locked nucleic acids’ contain modified sugar moieties such as 2′-O,4′-C-methylene-bridged β-d-ribofuranose and are known to be very stable nucleic acid derivatives. The structure of locked nucleic acids in single or multiple LNA-substituted natural nucleic acids and in LNA–DNA or LNA–RNA heteroduplexes has been well investigated, but the X-ray structure of an ‘all-locked’ nucleic acid double helix has not been described to date. Here, the crystallization and X-ray diffraction data analysis of an ‘all-locked’ nucleic acid helix, which was designed as an LNA originating from a tRNA Ser microhelix RNA structure, is presented. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.91, b = 40.74, c = 30.06 Å, β = 91.02°. A high-resolution and a low-resolution data set were recorded, with the high-resolution data showing diffraction to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystals contained two double helices per asymmetric unit, with a Matthews coefficient of 2.48 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 66.49% for the merged data

  8. Nucleic acids-based tools for ballast water surveillance, monitoring, and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, John A.; Frederick, Raymond M.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the risks of biological invasion posed by ballast water-whether in the context of compliance testing, routine monitoring, or basic research-is fundamentally an exercise in biodiversity assessment, and as such should take advantage of the best tools available for tackling that problem. The past several decades have seen growing application of genetic methods for the study of biodiversity, driven in large part by dramatic technological advances in nucleic acids analysis. Monitoring approaches based on such methods have the potential to increase dramatically sampling throughput for biodiversity assessments, and to improve on the sensitivity, specificity, and taxonomic accuracy of traditional approaches. The application of targeted detection tools (largely focused on PCR but increasingly incorporating novel probe-based methodologies) has led to a paradigm shift in rare species monitoring, and such tools have already been applied for early detection in the context of ballast water surveillance. Rapid improvements in community profiling approaches based on high throughput sequencing (HTS) could similarly impact broader efforts to catalogue biodiversity present in ballast tanks, and could provide novel opportunities to better understand the risks of biotic exchange posed by ballast water transport-and the effectiveness of attempts to mitigate those risks. These various approaches still face considerable challenges to effective implementation, depending on particular management or research needs. Compliance testing, for instance, remains dependent on accurate quantification of viable target organisms; while tools based on RNA detection show promise in this context, the demands of such testing require considerable additional investment in methods development. In general surveillance and research contexts, both targeted and community-based approaches are still limited by various factors: quantification remains a challenge (especially for taxa in larger size

  9. Sequence quality analysis tool for HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Allison K; Wu, Mingham; Bennett, Diane; Parkin, Neil; Wu, Zhijin; Hogan, Joseph W; Kantor, Rami

    2012-08-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy is increasing globally and drug resistance evolution is anticipated. Currently, protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence generation is increasing, including the use of in-house sequencing assays, and quality assessment prior to sequence analysis is essential. We created a computational HIV PR/RT Sequence Quality Analysis Tool (SQUAT) that runs in the R statistical environment. Sequence quality thresholds are calculated from a large dataset (46,802 PR and 44,432 RT sequences) from the published literature ( http://hivdb.Stanford.edu ). Nucleic acid sequences are read into SQUAT, identified, aligned, and translated. Nucleic acid sequences are flagged if with >five 1-2-base insertions; >one 3-base insertion; >one deletion; >six PR or >18 RT ambiguous bases; >three consecutive PR or >four RT nucleic acid mutations; >zero stop codons; >three PR or >six RT ambiguous amino acids; >three consecutive PR or >four RT amino acid mutations; >zero unique amino acids; or 15% genetic distance from another submitted sequence. Thresholds are user modifiable. SQUAT output includes a summary report with detailed comments for troubleshooting of flagged sequences, histograms of pairwise genetic distances, neighbor joining phylogenetic trees, and aligned nucleic and amino acid sequences. SQUAT is a stand-alone, free, web-independent tool to ensure use of high-quality HIV PR/RT sequences in interpretation and reporting of drug resistance, while increasing awareness and expertise and facilitating troubleshooting of potentially problematic sequences.

  10. Enhanced anti-HIV-1 activity of G-quadruplexes comprising locked nucleic acids and intercalating nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Nielsen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Two G-quadruplex forming sequences, 50-TGGGAG and the 17-mer sequence T30177, which exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity on cell lines, were modified using either locked nucleic acids (LNA) or via insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (intercalating nucleic acid, INA) or (R)-1-O-[4-(1......-pyrenylethynyl)phenylmethyl]glycerol (twisted intercalating nucleic acid, TINA). Incorporation of LNA or INA/TINA monomers provide as much as 8-fold improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. We demonstrate for the first time a detailed analysis of the effect the incorporation of INA/TINA monomers in quadruplex forming...

  11. Assays for urinary biomarkers of oxidatively damaged nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weimann, Allan; Broedbaek, Kasper; Henriksen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The analysis of oxidized nucleic acid metabolites can be performed by a variety of methodologies: liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical or mass-spectrometry detection, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis and ELISA (Enzyme-linked immun...

  12. Nanopore biosensors for detection of proteins and nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Soskine, Mikhael

    2014-01-01

    Described herein are nanopore biosensors based on a modified cytolysin protein. The nanopore biosensors accommodate macromoiecules including proteins and nucleic acids, and may additionally comprise ligands with selective binding properties.

  13. Nucleic acid and nucleotide-mediated synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Lorenzo; Burley, Glenn A.

    2008-02-01

    Since the advent of practical methods for achieving DNA metallization, the use of nucleic acids as templates for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) has become an active area of study. It is now widely recognized that nucleic acids have the ability to control the growth and morphology of inorganic NPs. These biopolymers are particularly appealing as templating agents as their ease of synthesis in conjunction with the possibility of screening nucleotide composition, sequence and length, provides the means to modulate the physico-chemical properties of the resulting NPs. Several synthetic procedures leading to NPs with interesting photophysical properties as well as studies aimed at rationalizing the mechanism of nucleic acid-templated NP synthesis are now being reported. This progress article will outline the current understanding of the nucleic acid-templated process and provides an up to date reference in this nascent field.

  14. Computational Approaches to Nucleic Acid Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Hosna; Aminpour, Maral; Montemagno, Carlo

    2015-10-12

    Recent advances in experimental DNA origami have dramatically expanded the horizon of DNA nanotechnology. Complex 3D suprastructures have been designed and developed using DNA origami with applications in biomaterial science, nanomedicine, nanorobotics, and molecular computation. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) origami has recently been realized as a new approach. Similar to DNA, RNA molecules can be designed to form complex 3D structures through complementary base pairings. RNA origami structures are, however, more compact and more thermodynamically stable due to RNA's non-canonical base pairing and tertiary interactions. With all these advantages, the development of RNA origami lags behind DNA origami by a large gap. Furthermore, although computational methods have proven to be effective in designing DNA and RNA origami structures and in their evaluation, advances in computational nucleic acid origami is even more limited. In this paper, we review major milestones in experimental and computational DNA and RNA origami and present current challenges in these fields. We believe collaboration between experimental nanotechnologists and computer scientists are critical for advancing these new research paradigms.

  15. Continuously tunable nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lucia R; Wang, Juexiao Sherry; Fang, John Z; Evans, Emily R; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-12-01

    In silico-designed nucleic acid probes and primers often do not achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. We present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity by adjusting the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, which allows for independent and decoupled adjustment of the hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieved near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy. To demonstrate our approach, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content, 0-100%), maximized the signal difference for 11 pairs of single-nucleotide variants and performed tunable hybrid capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples.

  16. Dioxaphosphorinane-constrained nucleic Acid dinucleotides as tools for structural tuning of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Dan-Andrei; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Maturano, Marie; Payrastre, Corinne; Tarrat, Nathalie; Escudier, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    We describe a rational approach devoted to modulate the sugar-phosphate backbone geometry of nucleic acids. Constraints were generated by connecting one oxygen of the phosphate group to a carbon of the sugar moiety. The so-called dioxaphosphorinane rings were introduced at key positions along the sugar-phosphate backbone allowing the control of the six-torsion angles α to ζ defining the polymer structure. The syntheses of all the members of the D-CNA family are described, and we emphasize the effect on secondary structure stabilization of a couple of diastereoisomers of α,β-D-CNA exhibiting wether B-type canonical values or not.

  17. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischmann Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC. This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents

  18. Assembly of barcode-like nucleic acid nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Tian, Cheng; Li, Xiang; Mao, Chengde

    2014-10-15

    Barcode-like (BC) nanopatterns from programmed self-assembly of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are reported. BC nanostructures are generated by the introduction of open spaces at selected sites to an otherwise closely packed, plain, rectangle nucleic acid nanostructure. This strategy is applied to nanostructures assembled from both origami approach and single stranded tile approach. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  20. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  1. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  2. High-quality remote interactive imaging in the operating theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstead, Ian J.; Avis, Nick J.; Evans, Peter L.; Bocca, Alan

    2009-02-01

    We present a high-quality display system that enables the remote access within an operating theatre of high-end medical imaging and surgical planning software. Currently, surgeons often use printouts from such software for reference during surgery; our system enables surgeons to access and review patient data in a sterile environment, viewing real-time renderings of MRI & CT data as required. Once calibrated, our system displays shades of grey in Operating Room lighting conditions (removing any gamma correction artefacts). Our system does not require any expensive display hardware, is unobtrusive to the remote workstation and works with any application without requiring additional software licenses. To extend the native 256 levels of grey supported by a standard LCD monitor, we have used the concept of "PseudoGrey" where slightly off-white shades of grey are used to extend the intensity range from 256 to 1,785 shades of grey. Remote access is facilitated by a customized version of UltraVNC, which corrects remote shades of grey for display in the Operating Room. The system is successfully deployed at Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK, and is in daily use during Maxillofacial surgery. More formal user trials and quantitative assessments are being planned for the future.

  3. Blueprint for action: steps toward a high-quality, high-value maternity care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angood, Peter B; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Ashton, Diane; Burstin, Helen; Corry, Maureen P; Delbanco, Suzanne F; Fildes, Barbara; Fox, Daniel M; Gluck, Paul A; Gullo, Sue Leavitt; Howes, Joanne; Jolivet, R Rima; Laube, Douglas W; Lynne, Donna; Main, Elliott; Markus, Anne Rossier; Mayberry, Linda; Mitchell, Lynn V; Ness, Debra L; Nuzum, Rachel; Quinlan, Jeffrey D; Sakala, Carol; Salganicoff, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Childbirth Connection hosted a 90th Anniversary national policy symposium, Transforming Maternity Care: A High Value Proposition, on April 3, 2009, in Washington, DC. Over 100 leaders from across the range of stakeholder perspectives were actively engaged in the symposium work to improve the quality and value of U.S. maternity care through broad system improvement. A multi-disciplinary symposium steering committee guided the strategy from its inception and contributed to every phase of the project. The "Blueprint for Action: Steps Toward a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", issued by the Transforming Maternity Care Symposium Steering Committee, answers the fundamental question, "Who needs to do what, to, for, and with whom to improve the quality of maternity care over the next five years?" Five stakeholder workgroups collaborated to propose actionable strategies in 11 critical focus areas for moving expeditiously toward the realization of the long term "2020 Vision for a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", also published in this issue. Following the symposium these workgroup reports and recommendations were synthesized into the current blueprint. For each critical focus area, the "Blueprint for Action" presents a brief problem statement, a set of system goals for improvement in that area, and major recommendations with proposed action steps to achieve them. This process created a clear sightline to action that if enacted could improve the structure, process, experiences of care, and outcomes of the maternity care system in ways that when anchored in the culture can indeed transform maternity care. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  4. Stress and sleep quality in high school brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Mesquita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of stress on sleep quality in a group of adolescents. METHOD: Two high schools in Alfenas, southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were chosen to participate in the study. The sample consisted of both genders (n=160 with 65.63% females. The age range of participants was 15 to18 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was applied for collection of data to quantify sleep quality. The Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms that objectively identifies symptoms of stress was applied. RESULTS: It was observed that 23.53% of stressed students and 45.33% of unstressed ones sleep well; 76.47% of stressed pupils and 54.67% of those unstressed do not sleep well. With regard to school performance, a mean of 0.65 was found for stressed students and 0.60 for those without stress, Mann-Whitney (p=0.0596. CONCLUSION: Stress contributed to raising the percentage of poor sleepers, as ell as increasing ean school performance.OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a influência do stress sobre a qualidade do sono em um grupo de adolescentes. MÉTODO: Foram escolhidas duas instituições educacionais do ensino médio, na cidade de Alfenas, sul de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A amostra foi composta por ambos os sexos (n=160, com 65,63% do sexo feminino. A faixa etária dos participantes foi de 15 a 18 anos. Para a coleta de dados aplicou-se: Índice de Qualidade de Sono de Pittsburgh (IQSP utilizado para quantificar a qualidade do sono; o Inventário de Sintomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp (ISSL que identifica de modo objetivo a sintomatologia de stress foi aplicado. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 23,53% dos estressados dormem bem e 45,33% dos não estressados dormem bem; 76,47% dos estressados não dormem bem e 54,67% dos não estressados não dormem bem. Quanto ao rendimento escolar têm-se as médias 0,65 para os alunos estressados e 0,60 para aqueles que não sofrem de stress, Mann

  5. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristoforo, P; Kaltseis, J; Fritz, A; Edlinger, M; Posch, W; Wilflingseder, D; Lass-Flörl, C; Orth-Höller, D

    2018-02-24

    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes, have been described. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination varies dramatically in literature. The aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture-based and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3%-4.6% according to the national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene-relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples failing in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly Pseudomonas oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n = 9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n = 6, 11.5%) only on account of microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared with results from other European countries, possibly due to the high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 45397 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...-AB18 Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers... permanent a waiver due to expire on July 31, 2012, for high quality specialty grain exported in containers... of high quality specialty grain exported in containers are small entities that up until recently...

  7. Single-stranded nucleic acids promote SAMHD1 complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüngler, Victoria; Staroske, Wolfgang; Kind, Barbara; Dobrick, Manuela; Kretschmer, Stefanie; Schmidt, Franziska; Krug, Claudia; Lorenz, Mike; Chara, Osvaldo; Schwille, Petra; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae

    2013-06-01

    SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a dGTP-dependent triphosphohydrolase that degrades deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) thereby limiting the intracellular dNTP pool. Mutations in SAMHD1 cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an inflammatory encephalopathy that mimics congenital viral infection and that phenotypically overlaps with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus. Both disorders are characterized by activation of the antiviral cytokine interferon-α initiated by immune recognition of self nucleic acids. Here we provide first direct evidence that SAMHD1 associates with endogenous nucleic acids in situ. Using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrate that SAMHD1 specifically interacts with ssRNA and ssDNA and establish that nucleic acid-binding and formation of SAMHD1 complexes are mutually dependent. Interaction with nucleic acids and complex formation do not require the SAM domain, but are dependent on the HD domain and the C-terminal region of SAMHD1. We finally demonstrate that mutations associated with AGS exhibit both impaired nucleic acid-binding and complex formation implicating that interaction with nucleic acids is an integral aspect of SAMHD1 function.

  8. Nucleic acid detection based on the use of microbeads: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rödiger, Stefan; Liebsch, Claudia; Schmidt, Carsten; Schierack, Peter; Lehmann, Werner; Resch-Genger, Ute; Schedler, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Microbead-based technologies represent elegant and versatile approaches for highly parallelized quantitative multiparameter assays. They also form the basis of various techniques for detection and quantification of nucleic acids and proteins. Nucleic acid-based methods include hybridization assays, solid-phase PCR, sequencing, and trapping assays. Microbead assays have been improved in the past decades and are now important tools in routine and point-of-care diagnostics as well as in life science. Its advances include low costs, low workload, high speed and high-throughput automation. The potential of microbead-based assays therefore is apparent, and commercial applications can be found in the detection and discrimination of single nucleotide polymorphism, of pathogens, and in trapping assays. This review provides an overview on microbead-based platforms for biosensing with a main focus on nucleic acid detection (including amplification strategies and on selected probe systems using fluorescent labeling). Specific sections cover chemical properties of microbeads, the coupling of targets onto solid surfaces, microbead probe systems (mainly oligonucleotide probes), microbead detection schemes (with subsections on suspension arrays, microfluidic devices, and immobilized microbeads), quantification of nucleic acids, PCR in solution and the detection of amplicons, and methods for solid-phase amplification. We discuss selected trends such as microbead-coupled amplification, heterogeneous and homogenous DNA hybridization assays, real-time assays, melting curve analysis, and digital microbead assays. We finally discuss the relevance and trends of the methods in terms of high-level multiplexed analysis and their potential in diagnosis and personalized medicine. (author)

  9. Extraction of nucleic acids from yeast cells and plant tissues using ethanol as medium for sample preservation and cell disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Bettina; Schröder, Kersten; Arter, Juliane; Gasperazzo, Tatiana; Woehlecke, Holger; Ehwald, Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Here we report that dehydrated ethanol is an excellent medium for both in situ preservation of nucleic acids and cell disruption of plant and yeast cells. Cell disruption was strongly facilitated by prior dehydration of the ethanol using dehydrated zeolite. Following removal of ethanol, nucleic acids were extracted from the homogenate pellet using denaturing buffers. The method provided DNA and RNA of high yield and integrity. Whereas cell wall disruption was essential for extraction of DNA and large RNA molecules, smaller molecules such as tRNAs could be selectively extracted from undisrupted, ethanol-treated yeast cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of absolute ethanol for sample fixation, cell membrane and cell wall disruption, as well as preservation of nucleic acids during sample storage.

  10. A survey of advancements in nucleic acid-based logic gates and computing for applications in biotechnology and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuichen; Wan, Shuo; Hou, Weijia; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Jiehua; Cui, Cheng; Wang, Yanyue; Hu, Jun; Tan, Weihong

    2015-03-04

    Nucleic acid-based logic devices were first introduced in 1994. Since then, science has seen the emergence of new logic systems for mimicking mathematical functions, diagnosing disease and even imitating biological systems. The unique features of nucleic acids, such as facile and high-throughput synthesis, Watson-Crick complementary base pairing, and predictable structures, together with the aid of programming design, have led to the widespread applications of nucleic acids (NA) for logic gate and computing in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this feature article, the development of in vitro NA logic systems will be discussed, as well as the expansion of such systems using various input molecules for potential cellular, or even in vivo, applications.

  11. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Preschooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of preschool quality for children's school performance at the end of primary school. We construct five structural quality indicators based on unique Danish administrative register data. 30,444 children finishing primary school's 9th grade in 2008 and who attended ...... in children's test results in Danish. Boys benefit more from preschool quality than girls. Ethnic minority children benefit from higher staff stability....

  12. Low-quality birds do not display high-quality signals: The cysteine-pheomelanin mechanism of honesty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that make that the costs of producing high-quality signals are unaffordable to low-quality signalers are a current issue in animal communication. The size of the melanin-based bib of male house sparrows Passer domesticus honestly signals quality. We induced the development of new bibs while treating males with buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a substance that depletes the levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and the amino acid cysteine, two elements that switch melanogenesis from eumelanin to pheomelanin. Final bib size is negatively related to pheomelanin levels in the bib feathers. BSO reduced cysteine and GSH levels in all birds, but improved phenotypes (bibs larger than controls) were only expressed by high-quality birds (BSO birds with largest bibs initially). Negative associations between final bib size and cysteine levels in erythrocytes, and between pheomelanin and cysteine levels, were observed in high-quality birds only. These findings suggest that a mechanism uncoupling pheomelanin and cysteine levels may have evolved in low-quality birds to avoid producing bibs of size not corresponding to their quality and greater relative costs. Indeed, greater oxidative stress in cells was not observed in low-quality birds. This may represent the first mechanism maintaining signal honesty without producing greater relative costs on low-quality signalers. PMID:25330349

  13. Systems and processes that ensure high quality care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sally; Westmore, Kathryn

    2012-10-01

    This is the second in a series of articles examining the components of good corporate governance. It considers how the structures and processes for quality governance can affect an organisation's ability to be assured about the quality of care. Complex information systems and procedures can lead to poor quality care, but sound structures and processes alone are insufficient to ensure good governance, and behavioural factors play a significant part in making sure that staff are enabled to provide good quality care. The next article in this series looks at how the information reporting of an organisation can affect its governance.

  14. The nucleic acids as early indicators of the recovery of patients subjected to total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera Carrillo, L.M.; Garcia Lima, O.; Carnot, J.; Cardenas, J.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility to use the concentration of nucleic acids as an early indicator for the recovery of individuals exposed to high radiation was valued in 30 patients subjected to a dose of 10 Gy (cobalt 60) in two or three sessions of total body irradiation for bone marrow transplants. The determination of the concentration of the nucleic acids was carried out prior to the irradiation, and later in different periods until the patients discharge. The behaviour of indicate such as alpha amylase serics transaminases, glicemics, alkaline phosphatase and others was also studied

  15. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness

  16. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  17. Rapid Bedside Inactivation of Ebola Virus for Safe Nucleic Acid Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken Worsøe; Karlberg, Helen; Bragstad, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Rapid bedside inactivation of Ebola virus would be a solution for the safety of medical and technical staff, risk containment, sample transport, and high-throughput or rapid diagnostic testing during an outbreak. We show that the commercially available Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer used...... for nucleic acid extraction inactivates Ebola virus. A rapid bedside inactivation method for nucleic acid tests is obtained by simply adding Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer directly into vacuum blood collection EDTA tubes using a thin needle and syringe prior to sampling. The ready-to-use inactivation vacuum...... tubes are stable for more than 4 months, and Ebola virus RNA is preserved in the Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer for at least 5 weeks independent of the storage temperature. We also show that Ebola virus RNA can be manually extracted from Magna Pure lysis/binding buffer-inactivated samples using...

  18. The Use of Atomic Force Microscopy for 3D Analysis of Nucleic Acid Hybridization on Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovin, E V; Presnova, G V; Rubtsova, M Yu; Egorov, A M; Grigorenko, V G; Yaminsky, I V

    2015-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are considered today to be one of the most efficient methods of gene diagnostics. The capability of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the three-dimensional morphology of single molecules on a surface allows one to use it as an effective tool for the 3D analysis of a microarray for the detection of nucleic acids. The high resolution of AFM offers ways to decrease the detection threshold of target DNA and increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, we suggest an approach to the evaluation of the results of hybridization of gold nanoparticle-labeled nucleic acids on silicon microarrays based on an AFM analysis of the surface both in air and in liquid which takes into account of their three-dimensional structure. We suggest a quantitative measure of the hybridization results which is based on the fraction of the surface area occupied by the nanoparticles.

  19. Locked vs. unlocked nucleic acids (LNA vs. UNA): contrasting structures work towards common therapeutic goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Meghan A; Wengel, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Oligonucleotide chemistry has been developed greatly over the past three decades, with many advances in increasing nuclease resistance, enhancing duplex stability and assisting with cellular uptake. Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a structurally rigid modification that increases the binding affinity...... of a modified-oligonucleotide. In contrast, unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) is a highly flexible modification, which can be used to modulate duplex characteristics. In this tutorial review, we will compare the synthetic routes to both of these modifications, contrast the structural features, examine...... the hybridization properties of LNA and UNA modified duplexes, and discuss how they have been applied within biotechnology and drug research. LNA has found widespread use in antisense oligonucleotide technology, where it can stabilize interactions with target RNA and protect from cellular nucleases. The newly...

  20. Cell number and transfection volume dependent peptide nucleic acid antisense activity by cationic delivery methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovera Nadal, Laia; Berthold, Peter; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    have now quantitatively compared the cellular activity (in the pLuc705 HeLa cell splice correction system) of PNA antisense oligomers using lipoplex delivery of cholesterol- and bisphosphonate-PNA conjugates, polyplex delivery via a PNA-polyethyleneimine conjugate and CPP delivery via a PNA......Efficient intracellular delivery is essential for high activity of nucleic acids based therapeutics, including antisense agents. Several strategies have been developed and practically all rely on auxiliary transfection reagents such as cationic lipids, cationic polymers and cell penetrating...... peptides as complexing agents and carriers of the nucleic acids. However, uptake mechanisms remain rather poorly understood, and protocols always require optimization of transfection parameters. Considering that cationic transfection complexes bind to and thus may up-concentrate on the cell surface, we...

  1. Image Quality in High-resolution and High-cadence Solar Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, C.; Dineva, E.; Balthasar, H.; Verma, M.; Kuckein, C.; Diercke, A.; González Manrique, S. J.

    2018-03-01

    Broad-band imaging and even imaging with a moderate bandpass (about 1 nm) provides a photon-rich environment, where frame selection (lucky imaging) becomes a helpful tool in image restoration, allowing us to perform a cost-benefit analysis on how to design observing sequences for imaging with high spatial resolution in combination with real-time correction provided by an adaptive optics (AO) system. This study presents high-cadence (160 Hz) G-band and blue continuum image sequences obtained with the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI) at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope, where the speckle-masking technique is used to restore images with nearly diffraction-limited resolution. The HiFI employs two synchronized large-format and high-cadence sCMOS detectors. The median filter gradient similarity (MFGS) image-quality metric is applied, among others, to AO-corrected image sequences of a pore and a small sunspot observed on 2017 June 4 and 5. A small region of interest, which was selected for fast-imaging performance, covered these contrast-rich features and their neighborhood, which were part of Active Region NOAA 12661. Modifications of the MFGS algorithm uncover the field- and structure-dependency of this image-quality metric. However, MFGS still remains a good choice for determining image quality without a priori knowledge, which is an important characteristic when classifying the huge number of high-resolution images contained in data archives. In addition, this investigation demonstrates that a fast cadence and millisecond exposure times are still insufficient to reach the coherence time of daytime seeing. Nonetheless, the analysis shows that data acquisition rates exceeding 50 Hz are required to capture a substantial fraction of the best seeing moments, significantly boosting the performance of post-facto image restoration.

  2. Quality Assurance Roadmap for High Performance Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-05

    This report outlines the approach to quality assurance in the construction process for new residential construction, including seven process steps from the assessment of current construction practice, through design and documentation changes, to training and quality control for on-site personnel.

  3. Paying for High- and Low-Quality Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, John; Thum, Yeow Meng

    2004-01-01

    The extensive research on teacher quality has led to two conclusions. First, there are large and significant differences among teachers in terms of their capacity to improve student achievement. Second, these differences are not captured by common measures of teacher qualifications (E.A. Hanushek, Teacher quality, in: L.T. Izumi, W.M. Evers…

  4. Teaching quality: High school students' autonomy and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Jaime; Medina-Garrido, Elena; Ortega, Miriam

    2018-05-01

    How teachers manage class learning and interact with students affects students’ motivation and engagement. However, it could be that the effect of students’ representation of teaching quality on the students’ motivation varies between classes. Students from 90 classes participated in the study. We used multilevel random structural equation modeling to analyze whether the relationship of the students’ perception of teaching quality (as an indicator of the students’ mental representation) and students’ motivation varies between classes, and if this variability depends on the class assessment of teaching quality (as an indicator of teaching quality). The effect of teachers’ structure on the regression slope of student perception of student competence was .127. The effect of teachers’ autonomy support on the regression slope of student perception of student autonomy was .066. With this study we contribute a more detailed description of the relationship between teaching quality, competence and autonomy.

  5. Development of Temperature Control Solutions for Non-Instrumented Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NINAAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Pardy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification tests (NINAAT are a novel paradigm in portable molecular diagnostics. They offer the high detection accuracy characteristic of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT in a self-contained device, without the need for any external instrumentation. These Point-of-Care tests typically employ a Lab-on-a-Chip for liquid handling functionality, and perform isothermal nucleic acid amplification protocols that require low power but high accuracy temperature control in a single well-defined temperature range. We propose temperature control solutions based on commercially available heating elements capable of meeting these challenges, as well as demonstrate the process by which such elements can be fitted to a NINAAT system. Self-regulated and thermostat-controlled resistive heating elements were evaluated through experimental characterization as well as thermal analysis using the finite element method (FEM. We demonstrate that the proposed solutions can support various NAAT protocols, as well as demonstrate an optimal solution for the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP protocol. Furthermore, we present an Arduino-compatible open-source thermostat developed for NINAAT applications.

  6. Prediction of molecular alignment of nucleic acids in aligned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Petersen, Michael; Girard, Frederic; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate - using the data base of all deposited DNA and RNA structures aligned in Pf1-medium and RDC refined - that for nucleic acids in a Pf1-medium the electrostatic alignment tensor can be predicted reliably and accurately via a simple and fast calculation based on the gyration tensor spanned out by the phosphodiester atoms. The rhombicity is well predicted over its full range from 0 to 0.66, while the alignment tensor orientation is predicted correctly for rhombicities up to ca. 0.4, for larger rhombicities it appears to deviate somewhat more than expected based on structural noise and measurement error. This simple analytical approach is based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for the electrostatic interaction potential, valid at distances sufficiently far away from a poly-ionic charged surface, a condition naturally enforced when the charge of alignment medium and solute are of equal sign, as for nucleic acids in a Pf1-phage medium. For the usual salt strengths and nucleic acid sizes, the Debye-Huckel screening length is smaller than the nucleic acid size, but large enough for the collective of Debye-Huckel spheres to encompass the whole molecule. The molecular alignment is then purely electrostatic, but it's functional form is under these conditions similar to that for steric alignment. The proposed analytical expression allows for very fast calculation of the alignment tensor and hence RDCs from the conformation of the nucleic acid molecule. This information provides opportunities for improved structure determination of nucleic acids, including better assessment of dynamics in (multi-domain) nucleic acids and the possibility to incorporate alignment tensor prediction from shape directly into the structure calculation process. The procedures are incorporated into MATLAB scripts, which are available on request

  7. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  8. A high yielding, better quality chickpea mutant variety 'NIFA-95'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Javed, M.A.; Khattak, S.U.K.; Iqbal, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Chickpea or gram (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop of Pakistan, grown on over one million hectares annually. The national average yield of the crop is very low (0.5 t/ha) and thus the country had to spent about 2 billion rupees ($ 50 million) on import of pulses. The main causes of low yield are non-availability of genetic sources for resistance to various diseases especially gram blight Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., insect pest (Pod borer) and non-adoption of proper production technology by the farmers. This calls for earnest efforts of breeders to evolve high yielding and disease resistant varieties of chickpea for provision of quality seeds to the farming community to increase production of this important crop. Seeds of a highly blight susceptible variety '6153' were irradiated at 200 Gy dose of gamma radiation in 1985 and the promising mutant line CMN-446-4 was selected in M3 generation on the basis of disease resistance, greater number of pods and better plant type. After confirmation of its resistance to blight in M 4 and M 5 , the mutant line was evaluated in various trials at different locations. In the advanced and zonal yield trials during 1993-95, the line CMN-446-4 produced the highest grain yield of 2,600 kg/ha as compared to the rest of the mutants and varieties. The line was also evaluated in the chickpea national uniform yield trial, conducted on over 11 locations in the country during 1993-94. In this trial, the mutant line ranked 3rd by producing an average yield of 1,528 kg/ha as compared to the two check varieties 'Punjab-91' (1,316 kg/ha) and 'Paidar-91' (1,391 kg/ha). The mutant line CMN-446-4 is moderately resistant to gram blight, highly resistant to stored pest (pulse beetle), contains 25.3% more protein as compared to the parental variety 6153 and is also better in nitrogen fixing capacity.The proposal for release of the mutant line CMN-446-4 as a new variety under the name 'NIFA-95' for general cultivation in the rainfed

  9. Hybridization of Environmental Microbial Community Nucleic Acids by GeoChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, Joy D; Yin, Huaqin; Wu, Liyou; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    Functional gene arrays, like the GeoChip, allow for the study of tens of thousands of genes in a single assay. The GeoChip array (5.0) contains probes for genes involved in geochemical cycling (N, C, S, and P), metal homeostasis, stress response, organic contaminant degradation, antibiotic resistance, secondary metabolism, and virulence factors as well as genes specific for fungi, protists, and viruses. Here, we briefly describe GeoChip design strategies (gene selection and probe design) and discuss minimum quantity and quality requirements for nucleic acids. We then provide detailed protocols for amplification, labeling, and hybridization of samples to the GeoChip.

  10. Physics and quality assurance for high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lowell L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To review the physical aspects of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, including commissioning and quality assurance, source calibration and dose distribution measurements, and treatment planning methods. Following the introduction of afterloading in brachytherapy, development efforts to make it 'remote' culminated in 1964 with the near-simultaneous appearance of remote afterloaders in five major medical centers. Four of these machines were 'high dose rate', three employing 60Co and one (the GammaMed) using a single, cable-mounted 192Ir source. Stepping-motor source control was added to the GammaMed in 1974, making it the precursor of modern remote afterloaders, which are now suitable for interstitial as well as intracavitary brachytherapy by virtue of small source-diameter and indexer-accessed multiple channels. Because the 192Ir sources currently used in HDR remote afterloaders are supplied at a nominal air-kerma strength of 11.4 cGy cm2 s-1 (10 Ci), are not collimated in clinical use, and emit a significant fraction (15%) of photons at energies greater than 600 keV, shielding and facility design must be undertaken as carefully and thoroughly as for external beam installations. Licensing requirements of regulatory agencies must be met with respect both to maximum permissible dose limits and to the existence and functionality of safety devices (door interlocks, radiation monitors, etc.). Commissioning and quality assurance procedures that must be documented for HDR remote afterloading relate to (1) machine, applicator, guide-tube, and facility functionality checks, (2) source calibration, (3) emergency response readiness, (4) planning software evaluation, and (5) independent checks of clinical dose calculations. Source calibration checks must be performed locally, either by in-air measurement of air kerma strength or with a well ionization chamber calibrated (by an accredited standards laboratory) against an in-air measurement of air kerma strength for the

  11. Twin pregnancy possibly associated with high semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asklund, Camilla; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies found an association between a long waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and reduced probability of twinning and a reduced dizygotic (DZ) twinning rate in subfertile men. However, it remains unsolved whether semen quality is associated with twin offspring. We therefore studied...... the semen quality in a group of fathers of naturally conceived twins. METHODS: In this study, 37 fathers of DZ twins and 15 fathers of monozygotic (MZ) twins participated, and 349 normal fertile men served as a reference group. All men delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination and completed...... points higher than the reference group (P semen quality than the reference group, which supports...

  12. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  13. Synthesis of DNA block copolymers with extended nucleic acid segments by enzymatic ligation : cut and paste large hybrid architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayaz, Meryem S.; Kwak, Minseok; Alemdaroglu, Fikri E.; Wang, Jie; Berger, Ruediger; Herrmann, Andreas; Berger, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight DNA/polymer hybrid materials were prepared employing molecular biology techniques. Nucleic acid restriction and ligation enzymes were used to generate linear DNA di- and triblock copolymers that contain up to thousands of base pairs in the DNA segments.

  14. Evaluation and optimization of nucleic acid extraction methods for the molecular analysis of bacterial communities associated with corrored steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marty, F.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Païsse, S.; Gueuné, H.; Quillet, L.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Different DNA and RNA extraction approaches were evaluated and protocols optimized on in situ corrosion products from carbon steel in marine environments. Protocols adapted from the PowerSoil DNA/RNA Isolation methods resulted in the best nucleic acid (NA) extraction performances (ie combining high

  15. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  16. High throughput electrospinning of high-quality nanofibers via an aluminum disk spinneret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guokuo

    In this work, a simple and efficient needleless high throughput electrospinning process using an aluminum disk spinneret with 24 holes is described. Electrospun mats produced by this setup consisted of fine fibers (nano-sized) of the highest quality while the productivity (yield) was many times that obtained from conventional single-needle electrospinning. The goal was to produce scaled-up amounts of the same or better quality nanofibers under variable concentration, voltage, and the working distance than those produced with the single needle lab setting. The fiber mats produced were either polymer or ceramic (such as molybdenum trioxide nanofibers). Through experimentation the optimum process conditions were defined to be: 24 kilovolt, a distance to collector of 15cm. More diluted solutions resulted in smaller diameter fibers. Comparing the morphologies of the nanofibers of MoO3 produced by both the traditional and the high throughput set up it was found that they were very similar. Moreover, the nanofibers production rate is nearly 10 times than that of traditional needle electrospinning. Thus, the high throughput process has the potential to become an industrial nanomanufacturing process and the materials processed by it may be used as filtration devices, in tissue engineering, and as sensors.

  17. Dioxaphosphorinane-Constrained Nucleic Acid Dinucleotides as Tools for Structural Tuning of Nucleic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Andrei Catana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rational approach devoted to modulate the sugar-phosphate backbone geometry of nucleic acids. Constraints were generated by connecting one oxygen of the phosphate group to a carbon of the sugar moiety. The so-called dioxaphosphorinane rings were introduced at key positions along the sugar-phosphate backbone allowing the control of the six-torsion angles α to ζ defining the polymer structure. The syntheses of all the members of the D-CNA family are described, and we emphasize the effect on secondary structure stabilization of a couple of diastereoisomers of α,β-D-CNA exhibiting wether B-type canonical values or not.

  18. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  19. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sá ez, Laura; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  20. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    KAUST Repository

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.

    2016-05-23

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  1. Production of extracellular nucleic acids by genetically altered bacteria in aquatic-environment microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.H.; David, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The factors which affect the production of extracellular DNA by genetically altered strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum in aquatic environments were investigated. Cellular nucleic acids were labeled in vivo by incubation with [ 3 H]thymidine or [ 3 H]adenine, and production of extracellular DNA in marine waters, artificial seawater, or minimal salts media was determined by detecting radiolabeled macromolecules in incubation filtrates. The presence or absence of the ambient microbial community had little effect on the production of extracellular DNA. Three of four organisms produced the greatest amounts of extracellular nucleic acids when incubated in low-salinity media (2% artificial seawater) rather than high-salinity media (10 to 50% artificial seawater). The greatest production of extracellular nucleic acids by P. cepacia occurred at pH 7 and 37 degree C, suggesting that extracellular-DNA production may be a normal physiologic function of the cell. Incubation of labeled P. cepacia cells in water from Bimini Harbor, Bahamas, resulted in labeling of macromolecules of the ambient microbial population. Collectively these results indicate that (i) extracellular-DNA production by genetically altered bacteria released into aquatic environments is more strongly influenced by physicochemical factors than biotic factors, (ii) extracellular-DNA production rates are usually greater for organisms released in freshwater than marine environments, and (iii) ambient microbial populations can readily utilize materials released by these organisms

  2. Rapid amplification/detection of nucleic acid targets utilizing a HDA/thin film biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenison, Robert; Jaeckel, Heidi; Klonoski, Joshua; Latorra, David; Wiens, Jacinta

    2014-08-07

    Thin film biosensors exploit a flat, optically coated silicon-based surface whereupon formation of nucleic acid hybrids are enzymatically transduced in a molecular thin film that can be detected by the unaided human eye under white light. While the limit of sensitivity for detection of nucleic acid targets is at sub-attomole levels (60 000 copies) many clinical specimens containing bacterial pathogens have much lower levels of analyte present. Herein, we describe a platform, termed HDA/thin film biosensor, which performs helicase-dependant nucleic acid amplification on a thin film biosensor surface to improve the limit of sensitivity to 10 copies of the mecA gene present in methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus. As double-stranded DNA is unwound by helicase it was either bound by solution-phase DNA primers to be copied by DNA polymerase or hybridized to surface immobilized probe on the thin film biosensor surface to be detected. Herein, we show that amplification reactions on the thin film biosensor are equivalent to in standard thin wall tubes, with detection at the limit of sensitivity of the assay occurring after 30 minutes of incubation time. Further we validate the approach by detecting the presence of the mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from positive blood culture aliquots with high specificity (signal/noise ratio of 105).

  3. Comparison of femtosecond laser and continuous wave UV sources for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecko, Christopher J; Munson, Katherine M; Saunders, Abbie; Sun, Guangxing; Begley, Tadhg P; Lis, John T; Webb, Watt W

    2007-01-01

    Crosslinking proteins to the nucleic acids they bind affords stable access to otherwise transient regulatory interactions. Photochemical crosslinking provides an attractive alternative to formaldehyde-based protocols, but irradiation with conventional UV sources typically yields inadequate product amounts. Crosslinking with pulsed UV lasers has been heralded as a revolutionary technique to increase photochemical yield, but this method had only been tested on a few protein-nucleic acid complexes. To test the generality of the yield enhancement, we have investigated the benefits of using approximately 150 fs UV pulses to crosslink TATA-binding protein, glucocorticoid receptor and heat shock factor to oligonucleotides in vitro. For these proteins, we find that the quantum yields (and saturating yields) for forming crosslinks using the high-peak intensity femtosecond laser do not improve on those obtained with low-intensity continuous wave (CW) UV sources. The photodamage to the oligonucleotides and proteins also has comparable quantum yields. Measurements of the photochemical reaction yields of several small molecules selected to model the crosslinking reactions also exhibit nearly linear dependences on UV intensity instead of the previously predicted quadratic dependence. Unfortunately, these results disprove earlier assertions that femtosecond pulsed laser sources provide significant advantages over CW radiation for protein-nucleic acid crosslinking.

  4. Colorimetric Nucleic Acid Detection on Paper Microchip Using Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Crystal Violet Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sharmili; Mohd-Naim, Noor Faizah; Safavieh, Mohammadali; Ahmed, Minhaz Uddin

    2017-11-22

    Nucleic acid detection is of paramount importance in monitoring of microbial pathogens in food safety and infectious disease diagnostic applications. To address these challenges, a rapid, cost-effective label-free technique for nucleic acid detection with minimal instrumentations is highly desired. Here, we present paper microchip to detect and quantify nucleic acid using colorimetric sensing modality. The extracted DNA from food samples of meat as well as microbial pathogens was amplified utilizing loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). LAMP amplicon was then detected and quantified on a paper microchip fabricated in a cellulose paper and a small wax chamber utilizing crystal violet dye. The affinity of crystal violet dye toward dsDNA and positive signal were identified by changing the color from colorless to purple. Using this method, detection of Sus scrofa (porcine) and Bacillus subtilis (bacteria) DNA was possible at concentrations as low as 1 pg/μL (3.43 × 10 -1 copies/μL) and 10 pg/μL (2.2 × 10 3 copies/μL), respectively. This strategy can be adapted for detection of other DNA samples, with potential for development of a new breed of simple and inexpensive paper microchip at the point-of-need.

  5. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  6. Peptide nucleic acid probe for protein affinity purification based on biotin-streptavidin interaction and peptide nucleic acid strand hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Jenny; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zengeya, Thomas; Rozners, Eriks; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new method for protein affinity purification that capitalizes on the high affinity of streptavidin for biotin but does not require dissociation of the biotin-streptavidin complex for protein retrieval. Conventional reagents place both the selectively reacting group (the "warhead") and the biotin on the same molecule. We place the warhead and the biotin on separate molecules, each linked to a short strand of peptide nucleic acid (PNA), synthetic polymers that use the same bases as DNA but attached to a backbone that is resistant to attack by proteases and nucleases. As in DNA, PNA strands with complementary base sequences hybridize. In conditions that favor PNA duplex formation, the warhead strand (carrying the tagged protein) and the biotin strand form a complex that is held onto immobilized streptavidin. As in DNA, the PNA duplex dissociates at moderately elevated temperature; therefore, retrieval of the tagged protein is accomplished by a brief exposure to heat. Using iodoacetate as the warhead, 8-base PNA strands, biotin, and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, we demonstrate retrieval of the cysteine protease papain. We were also able to use our iodoacetyl-PNA:PNA-biotin probe for retrieval and identification of a thiol reductase and a glutathione transferase from soybean seedling cotyledons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preservation of Biospecimens at Ambient Temperature: Special Focus on Nucleic Acids and Opportunities for the Biobanking Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Rolf; Betsou, Fay; Barnes, Michael G; Harding, Keith; Bonnet, Jacques; Kofanova, Olga; Crowe, John H

    2016-04-01

    Several approaches to the preservation of biological materials at ambient temperature and the relative impact on sample stability and degradation are reviewed, with a focus on nucleic acids. This appraisal is undertaken within the framework of biobank risk, quality management systems, and accreditation, with a view to assessing how best to apply ambient temperature sample storage to ensure stability, reduce costs, improve handling logistics, and increase the efficiency of biobank procedures.

  8. Soni-removal of nucleic acids from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Mysore, Sumukh; Gandham, Sai Hari A

    2014-05-23

    Inclusion bodies (IBs) are commonly formed in Escherichia coli due to over expression of recombinant proteins in non-native state. Isolation, denaturation and refolding of these IBs is generally performed to obtain functional protein. However, during this process IBs tend to form non-specific interactions with sheared nucleic acids from the genome, thus getting carried over into downstream processes. This may hinder the refolding of IBs into their native state. To circumvent this, we demonstrate a methodology termed soni-removal which involves disruption of nucleic acid-inclusion body interaction using sonication; followed by solvent based separation. As opposed to conventional techniques that use enzymes and column-based separations, soni-removal is a cost effective alternative for complete elimination of buried and/or strongly bound short nucleic acid contaminants from IBs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nucleic acids for the rational design of reaction circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padirac, Adrien; Fujii, Teruo; Rondelez, Yannick

    2013-08-01

    Nucleic acid-based circuits are rationally designed in vitro assemblies that can perform complex preencoded programs. They can be used to mimic in silico computations. Recent works emphasized the modularity and robustness of these circuits, which allow their scaling-up. Another new development has led to dynamic, time-responsive systems that can display emergent behaviors like oscillations. These are closely related to biological architectures and provide an in vitro model of in vivo information processing. Nucleic acid circuits have already been used to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. Future applications of these chemical smart systems will benefit from the rapidly growing ability to design, construct, and model nucleic acid circuits of increasing size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumers' expected quality and intention to purchase high quality pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagiotou, P; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I; Melfou, K

    2013-03-01

    Expected quality is believed to be one of the most important factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase food. The present study seeks to explore the concept of pork meat expected quality and compare it with self-stated consumer intention to purchase pork meat. The aim is attempted by means of a field research conducted in Greece, following a conjoint analytic procedure. Results show that quality expectations comply with intention to buy pork, in many aspects. However, several differences have been identified. More specifically, country of origin and marbling appear to be more important for respondents' purchase decisions than they are for their quality evaluations, while the opposite appears to be true for price. Finally, socio-demographic factors such as gender, level of education, place of purchase and consumption habits seem to influence perceptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    : the safety and quality of food products, and the increasing competition for clean freshwater. SAFIR is funded for the period 2005-2009 under the Food Quality and Safety thematic area of the EU 6th Framework Research Programme. The challenge for the next years will be to produce safe and high quality foods...... a multi-disciplinary team, with food safety and quality experts, engineers, agronomists and economists from17 research institutes and private companies in Europe, Israel and China working together. The project assesses potential risks to farmers. Coupled with farm management and economic models, a new...... intelligent tool for efficient and safe use and re-use of low-quality water are being developed. Already published results indicate water saving in the order of 25-30% in agricultural crops as potatoes and tomatoes are possible without yield reduction. Slightly treated waste water can be used safely when...

  12. Nucleic acid aptamers: an emerging frontier in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guizhi; Ye, Mao; Donovan, Michael J; Song, Erqun; Zhao, Zilong; Tan, Weihong

    2012-11-04

    The last two decades have witnessed the development and application of nucleic acid aptamers in a variety of fields, including target analysis, disease therapy, and molecular and cellular engineering. The efficient and widely applicable aptamer selection, reproducible chemical synthesis and modification, generally impressive target binding selectivity and affinity, relatively rapid tissue penetration, low immunogenicity, and rapid systemic clearance make aptamers ideal recognition elements for use as therapeutics or for in vivo delivery of therapeutics. In this feature article, we discuss the development and biomedical application of nucleic acid aptamers, with emphasis on cancer cell aptamer isolation, targeted cancer therapy, oncology biomarker identification and drug discovery.

  13. Methods of introducing nucleic acids into cellular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, Marc J.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Mosberg, Joshua A.; Church, George M.

    2017-06-27

    A method of introducing a nucleic acid sequence into a cell is provided where the cell has impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaG primase activity or impaired or inhibited or disrupted DnaB helicase activity, or larger or increased gaps or distance between Okazaki fragments or lowered or reduced frequency of Okazaki fragment initiation, or the cell has increased single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on the lagging strand of the replication fork including transforming the cell through recombination with a nucleic acid oligomer.

  14. Bio-Orthogonal Mediated Nucleic Acid Transfection of Cells via Cell Surface Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Paul J; Elahipanah, Sina; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-24

    The efficient delivery of foreign nucleic acids (transfection) into cells is a critical tool for fundamental biomedical research and a pillar of several biotechnology industries. There are currently three main strategies for transfection including reagent, instrument, and viral based methods. Each technology has significantly advanced cell transfection; however, reagent based methods have captured the majority of the transfection market due to their relatively low cost and ease of use. This general method relies on the efficient packaging of a reagent with nucleic acids to form a stable complex that is subsequently associated and delivered to cells via nonspecific electrostatic targeting. Reagent transfection methods generally use various polyamine cationic type molecules to condense with negatively charged nucleic acids into a highly positively charged complex, which is subsequently delivered to negatively charged cells in culture for association, internalization, release, and expression. Although this appears to be a straightforward procedure, there are several major issues including toxicity, low efficiency, sorting of viable transfected from nontransfected cells, and limited scope of transfectable cell types. Herein, we report a new strategy (SnapFect) for nucleic acid transfection to cells that does not rely on electrostatic interactions but instead uses an integrated approach combining bio-orthogonal liposome fusion, click chemistry, and cell surface engineering. We show that a target cell population is rapidly and efficiently engineered to present a bio-orthogonal functional group on its cell surface through nanoparticle liposome delivery and fusion. A complementary bio-orthogonal nucleic acid complex is then formed and delivered to which chemoselective click chemistry induced transfection occurs to the primed cell. This new strategy requires minimal time, steps, and reagents and leads to superior transfection results for a broad range of cell types

  15. Quality assessment and potential utilization of high amylolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... This study was carried out to compare the qualities of two acclaimed Nigerian amylolytic maize cultivars; SPMAT ... growing demand for usage as a gluten-free cereal. (Sweeny ... The grain was malted and the malting loss was calculated using the .... also confirmed that there was no significant difference in.

  16. Quality Alternative Certification Programs in Special Education Ensure High Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda D.; McCabe, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Market driven alternative routes to teaching have evolved into a quality program option and not just an answer to the teacher shortage. Alternative certification is a viable means of recruiting, training, and certifying those who have a bachelor's degree and a strong desire to enter the field of teaching. California has been a leader in the…

  17. Innovation in Business Education: Developing a High Quality Online MBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, C. William; Toma, Alfred G.; Yallapragada, RamMohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Online degree programs were probably pioneered by for-profit universities such as University of Phoenix. Many online degree programs were initially considered low quality academic programs compared to traditional programs. Therefore, many public and private universities were slow to adopt the online programs. However, gradually more and more…

  18. Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS and on highly active ... the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was used to measure quality of life among patients on ... instrument for use in Ethiopia to assess the quality of life of people living with ...

  19. Does High School Facility Quality Affect Student Achievement? A Two-Level Hierarchical Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…

  20. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  1. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  2. Numerical determination of injector design for high beam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of a free electron laser strongly depends on the electron beam quality or brightness. The electron beam is transported into the free electron laser after it has been accelerated to the desired energy. Typically the maximum beam brightness produced by an accelerator is constrained by the beam brightness deliverd by the accelerator injector. Thus it is important to design the accelerator injector to yield the required electron beam brightness. The DPC (Darwin Particle Code) computer code has been written to numerically model accelerator injectors. DPC solves for the transport of a beam from emission through acceleration up to the full energy of the injector. The relativistic force equation is solved to determine particle orbits. Field equations are solved for self consistent electric and magnetic fields in the Darwin approximation. DPC has been used to investigate the beam quality consequences of A-K gap, accelerating stress, electrode configuration and axial magnetic field profile

  3. 'Radiooncology 2007: High quality of life, the ultimate goal'. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The 13th annual congress of Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie e.V. discussed clinical radiotherapy, medical physics and radiation biology, as well as an extensive programme of working groups on radiology in medical technology, care, and office. The focus was on new equipment (from image-supported to image-guided radiotherapy) and new approaches of targeted tumour therapy. Aspects of life quality are coming to the fore and will get even more important in the future. (orig.)

  4. High image quality sub 100 picosecond gated framing camera development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A major challenge for laser fusion is the study of the symmetry and hydrodynamic stability of imploding fuel capsules. Framed x-radiographs of 10-100 ps duration, excellent image quality, minimum geometrical distortion (< 1%), dynamic range greater than 1000, and more than 200 x 200 pixels are required for this application. Recent progress on a gated proximity focused intensifier which meets these requirements is presented

  5. The High Flying Leadership Qualities: What Matters the Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    operational and functional background of its personnel steeped in both DoD and industry experience. Research Methodology Based on their experiences...DeLorean Motors, Levitz Furniture , Enron, and many other corporations like these learned what happens when key leadership qualities lose all lift...graduate of the Canadian Force Command and Staff College in Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and the U.S. Army War College in Carlisle Barracks

  6. DimaSense™: A Novel Nucleic Acid Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, A.

    2011-05-18

    Recently, we developed a suite of methods for the rational design and fabrication of well-defined nanoparticle architectures, including clusters using bio-encoded nanoscale building blocks and layer-by-layer stepwise assembly on a solid support. In particular, the Nano-Assembly platform using Encoded Solid Supports (NAESS) allows for controlled interactions, purification of side products, modularity of design, and the construction of complex nanoparticle architectures. This approach offers several advantages over the current art of designing nanoparticle clusters, which include the high-yield synthesis of desired architectures, a 'plug-and-play' design allowing for the introduction of a variety of sensing modalities, and ease of scalability in high-throughput and synthesis yield. As a utility proof of concept, we implemented our unique cluster fabrication platform to design gold nanoparticle dimers which are linked via a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide recognition motif. The design of this motif is such that binding of complementary nucleic acids results in specific, selective and rapid dimer dissociation, which can be monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS). We demonstrated single level mismatch selectivity using this approach. The limit of detection was determined to be 1011 molecules of synthetic target RNA or DNA within 30 minutes of incubation at 33 C. This detection limit is determined by the dimer's concentration which can be probed by currently used standard DLS instruments. We also demonstrated a specific detection of target RNA in a solution containing competing 1,000-fold excess of non-complementary DNA fragments, 10% BSA, and endonucleases. Molecular diagnostic companies, RNA-based technology developers, and personalized medicine companies have applications that could benefit from using DimaSense{trademark}. The technology represents a platform which enables the simple and reasonably inexpensive design and fabrication of highly

  7. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz [Livermore, CA

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  8. Water Quality: A Field-Based Quality Testing Program for Middle Schools and High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This manual contains background information, lesson ideas, procedures, data collection and reporting forms, suggestions for interpreting results, and extension activities to complement a water quality field testing program. Information on testing water temperature, water pH, dissolved oxygen content, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrates, total…

  9. Mapping photothermally induced gene expression in living cells and tissues by nanorod-locked nucleic acid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Reza; Wang, Shue; Long, Min; Li, Na; Chiou, Pei-Yu; Zhang, Donna D; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-04-22

    The photothermal effect of plasmonic nanostructures has numerous applications, such as cancer therapy, photonic gene circuit, large cargo delivery, and nanostructure-enhanced laser tweezers. The photothermal operation can also induce unwanted physical and biochemical effects, which potentially alter the cell behaviors. However, there is a lack of techniques for characterizing the dynamic cell responses near the site of photothermal operation with high spatiotemporal resolution. In this work, we show that the incorporation of locked nucleic acid probes with gold nanorods allows photothermal manipulation and real-time monitoring of gene expression near the area of irradiation in living cells and animal tissues. The multimodal gold nanorod serves as an endocytic delivery reagent to transport the probes into the cells, a fluorescence quencher and a binding competitor to detect intracellular mRNA, and a plasmonic photothermal transducer to induce cell ablation. We demonstrate the ability of the gold nanorod-locked nucleic acid complex for detecting the spatiotemporal gene expression in viable cells and tissues and inducing photothermal ablation of single cells. Using the gold nanorod-locked nucleic acid complex, we systematically characterize the dynamic cellular heat shock responses near the site of photothermal operation. The gold nanorod-locked nucleic acid complex enables mapping of intracellular gene expressions and analyzes the photothermal effects of nanostructures toward various biomedical applications.

  10. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9 Triggered Isothermal Amplification for Site-Specific Nucleic Acid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengqi; Zhou, Xiaoming; Wang, Huiying; Xing, Da

    2018-02-06

    A novel CRISPR/Cas9 triggered isothermal exponential amplification reaction (CAS-EXPAR) strategy based on CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage and nicking endonuclease (NEase) mediated nucleic acids amplification was developed for rapid and site-specific nucleic acid detection. CAS-EXPAR was primed by the target DNA fragment produced by cleavage of CRISPR/Cas9, and the amplification reaction performed cyclically to generate a large number of DNA replicates which were detected using a real-time fluorescence monitoring method. This strategy that combines the advantages of CRISPR/Cas9 and exponential amplification showed high specificity as well as rapid amplification kinetics. Unlike conventional nucleic acids amplification reactions, CAS-EXPAR does not require exogenous primers, which often cause target-independent amplification. Instead, primers are first generated by Cas9/sgRNA directed site-specific cleavage of target and accumulated during the reaction. It was demonstrated this strategy gave a detection limit of 0.82 amol and showed excellent specificity in discriminating single-base mismatch. Moreover, the applicability of this method to detect DNA methylation and L. monocytogenes total RNA was also verified. Therefore, CAS-EXPAR may provide a new paradigm for efficient nucleic acid amplification and hold the potential for molecular diagnostic applications.

  11. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keyuan; Hao, Xiaoyan; Li, Yang; Luo, Guobin; Zhang, Yonggen; Xin, Hangshu

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs) and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C). The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (pacids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (pacid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  12. "Clickable" LNA/DNA probes for fluorescence sensing of nucleic acids and autoimmune antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna S; Gupta, Pankaj; Wengel, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Herein we describe fluorescent oligonucleotides prepared by click chemistry between novel alkyne-modified locked nucleic acid (LNA) strands and a series of fluorescent azides for homogeneous (all-in-solution) detection of nucleic acids and autoimmune antibodies.......Herein we describe fluorescent oligonucleotides prepared by click chemistry between novel alkyne-modified locked nucleic acid (LNA) strands and a series of fluorescent azides for homogeneous (all-in-solution) detection of nucleic acids and autoimmune antibodies....

  13. A nucleic acid dependent chemical photocatalysis in live human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arian, Dumitru; Cló, Emiliano; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2010-01-01

    Only two nucleic acid directed chemical reactions that are compatible with live cells have been reported to date. Neither of these processes generate toxic species from nontoxic starting materials. Reactions of the latter type could be applied as gene-specific drugs, for example, in the treatment...

  14. Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding of unlocked nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Niels; Wengel, Jesper; Pasternak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We herein describe the synthesis of two new unlocked nucleic acid building blocks containing hypoxanthine and 2,6-diaminopurine as nucleobase moieties and their incorporation into oligonucleotides. The modified oligonucleotides were used to examine the thermodynamic properties of UNA against unmo...... unmodified oligonucleotides and the resulting thermodynamic data support that the hydrogen bonding face of UNA is Watson-Crick like....

  15. Structure, stability and behaviour of nucleic acids in ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acids have become a powerful tool in nanotechnology because of their conformational polymorphism. However, lack of a medium in which nucleic acid structures exhibit long-term stability has been a bottleneck. Ionic liquids (ILs) are potential solvents in the nanotechnology field. Hydrated ILs, such as choline dihydrogen phosphate (choline dhp) and deep eutectic solvent (DES) prepared from choline chloride and urea, are ‘green’ solvents that ensure long-term stability of biomolecules. An understanding of the behaviour of nucleic acids in hydrated ILs is necessary for developing DNA materials. We here review current knowledge about the structures and stabilities of nucleic acids in choline dhp and DES. Interestingly, in choline dhp, A–T base pairs are more stable than G–C base pairs, the reverse of the situation in buffered NaCl solution. Moreover, DNA triplex formation is markedly stabilized in hydrated ILs compared with aqueous solution. In choline dhp, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs is comparable to that of Watson–Crick base pairs. Moreover, the parallel form of the G-quadruplex is stabilized in DES compared with aqueous solution. The behaviours of various DNA molecules in ILs detailed here should be useful for designing oligonucleotides for the development of nanomaterials and nanodevices. PMID:25013178

  16. Circulating nucleic acids as a new diagnostic tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Markéta; Plzák, J.; Strnad, Hynek; Betka, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2010), s. 242-259 ISSN 1425-8153 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : circulating nucleic acids * diagnostics * cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2010

  17. Mosaic protein and nucleic acid vaccines against hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusim, Karina; Korber, Bette T. M.; Kuiken, Carla L.; Fischer, William M.

    2013-06-11

    The invention relates to immunogenic compositions useful as HCV vaccines. Provided are HCV mosaic polypeptide and nucleic acid compositions which provide higher levels of T-cell epitope coverage while minimizing the occurrence of unnatural and rare epitopes compared to natural HCV polypeptides and consensus HCV sequences.

  18. DNA-like double helix formed by peptide nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittung, P; Nielsen, Peter E.; Buchardt, O

    1994-01-01

    Although the importance of the nucleobases in the DNA double helix is well understood, the evolutionary significance of the deoxyribose phosphate backbone and the contribution of this chemical entity to the overall helical structure and stability of the double helix is not so clear. Peptide nucleic...

  19. A DNA origami nanorobot controlled by nucleic acid hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Torelli, Emanuela

    2014-03-20

    A prototype for a DNA origami nanorobot is designed, produced, and tested. The cylindrical nanorobot (diameter of 14 nm and length of 48 nm) with a switchable flap, is able to respond to an external stimulus and reacts by a physical switch from a disarmed to an armed configuration able to deliver a cellular compatible message. In the tested design the robot weapon is a nucleic acid fully contained in the inner of the tube and linked to a single point of the internal face of the flap. Upon actuation the nanorobot moves the flap extracting the nucleic acid that assembles into a hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme catalyzing a colorimetric reaction or chemiluminescence generation. The actuation switch is triggered by an external nucleic acid (target) that interacts with a complementary nucleic acid that is beard externally by the nanorobot (probe). Hybridization of probe and target produces a localized structural change that results in flap opening. The flap movement is studied on a two-dimensional prototype origami using Förster resonance energy transfer and is shown to be triggered by a variety of targets, including natural RNAs. The nanorobot has potential for in vivo biosensing and intelligent delivery of biological activators. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A DNA origami nanorobot controlled by nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Emanuela; Marini, Monica; Palmano, Sabrina; Piantanida, Luca; Polano, Cesare; Scarpellini, Alice; Lazzarino, Marco; Firrao, Giuseppe

    2014-07-23

    A prototype for a DNA origami nanorobot is designed, produced, and tested. The cylindrical nanorobot (diameter of 14 nm and length of 48 nm) with a switchable flap, is able to respond to an external stimulus and reacts by a physical switch from a disarmed to an armed configuration able to deliver a cellular compatible message. In the tested design the robot weapon is a nucleic acid fully contained in the inner of the tube and linked to a single point of the internal face of the flap. Upon actuation the nanorobot moves the flap extracting the nucleic acid that assembles into a hemin/G-quadruplex horseradish peroxidase mimicking DNAzyme catalyzing a colorimetric reaction or chemiluminescence generation. The actuation switch is triggered by an external nucleic acid (target) that interacts with a complementary nucleic acid that is beard externally by the nanorobot (probe). Hybridization of probe and target produces a localized structural change that results in flap opening. The flap movement is studied on a two-dimensional prototype origami using Förster resonance energy transfer and is shown to be triggered by a variety of targets, including natural RNAs. The nanorobot has potential for in vivo biosensing and intelligent delivery of biological activators. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Surface plasmon resonance sensing of nucleic acids: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípová, Hana; Homola, Jiří

    -, č. 773 (2013), s. 9-23 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11102 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Surface plasmon resonance * Nucleic acid * Biosensor Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 4.517, year: 2013

  2. Peptide nucleic acids and their potential applications in biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, O.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are novel DNA mimics in which the sugar-phosphate backbone has been replaced with a backbone based on amino acids1-3. PNAs exhibit sequence-specific binding to DNA and RNA with higher affinities and specificities than unmodified DNA. They,are resistant to nuclease...

  3. Boronic acid-based autoligation of nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbeyron, R.; Vasseur, J.-J.; Smietana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The development of synthetic systems displaying dynamic and adaptive characteristics is a formidable challenge with wide applications from biotechnology to therapeutics. Recently, we described a dynamic and programmable nucleic acid-based system relying on the formation of reversible bo....... Evidence suggests that geometric and steric factors are key features for controlling the equilibria. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]...

  4. PYRENE INTERCALATING NUCLEIC ACIDS WITH A CARBON LINKER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Michael E.; Wamberg, Michael Chr.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard

    2011-01-01

    geminally attached. Fluorescence studies of this intercalating nucleic acid with the pyrene moieties inserted as a bulge showed formation of an excimer band. When a mismatch was introduced at the site of the intercalator, an excimer band was formed for the destabilized duplexes whereas an exciplex band...

  5. Nucleic acid detection with surface plasmon resonance using cationic latex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.F.A.; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.; van der Plas, J.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    An affinity sensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) was used to detect nucleic acids. SPR is an optical technique that is able to detect small changes in the refractive index of the immediate vicinity of a metal surface. After a specific amplification of DNA, achieved using the polymerase

  6. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  7. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?

  8. High-quality PWO crystals for the PANDA-EMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R W; Bremer, D; Dormenev, V; Drexler, P; Eissner, T; Kuske, T; Moritz, M

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides a status report on the crystal production and quality control of a major part of the PbWO 4 crystals for the PANDA-EMC. The results confirm the excellent performance of the new generation of PWO-II. The mechanism of stimulated recovery provides an additional tool to recover radiation damage at room and low temperatures by applying an external infrared light source. Even on-line recovery can be considered if the photo sensor is insensitive in that particular wavelength region.

  9. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%.

  10. Rehosting of Bacterial Chaperones for High-Quality Protein Production▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Noad, Rob; Unzueta, Ugutz; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Roy, Polly; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Coproduction of DnaK/DnaJ in Escherichia coli enhances solubility but promotes proteolytic degradation of their substrates, minimizing the yield of unstable polypeptides. Higher eukaryotes have orthologs of DnaK/DnaJ but lack the linked bacterial proteolytic system. By coexpression of DnaK and DnaJ in insect cells with inherently misfolding-prone recombinant proteins, we demonstrate simultaneous improvement of soluble protein yield and quality and proteolytic stability. Thus, undesired side effects of bacterial folding modulators can be avoided by appropriate rehosting in heterologous cell expression systems. PMID:19820142

  11. Similarities and differences in the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-2 and HIV-1 nucleocapsid proteins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulska-Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Stefaniak, Agnieszka K; Purzycka, Katarzyna J

    2014-07-03

    The nucleocapsid domain of Gag and mature nucleocapsid protein (NC) act as nucleic acid chaperones and facilitate folding of nucleic acids at critical steps of retroviral replication cycle. The basic N-terminus of HIV-1 NC protein was shown most important for the chaperone activity. The HIV-2 NC (NCp8) and HIV-1 NC (NCp7) proteins possess two highly conserved zinc fingers, flanked by basic residues. However, the NCp8 N-terminal domain is significantly shorter and contains less positively charged residues. This study characterizes previously unknown, nucleic acid chaperone activity of the HIV-2 NC protein. We have comparatively investigated the in vitro nucleic acid chaperone properties of the HIV-2 and HIV-1 NC proteins. Using substrates derived from the HIV-1 and HIV-2 genomes, we determined the ability of both proteins to chaperone nucleic acid aggregation, annealing and strand exchange in duplex structures. Both NC proteins displayed comparable, high annealing activity of HIV-1 TAR DNA and its complementary nucleic acid. Interesting differences between the two NC proteins were discovered when longer HIV substrates, particularly those derived from the HIV-2 genome, were used in chaperone assays. In contrast to NCp7, NCp8 weakly facilitates annealing of HIV-2 TAR RNA to its complementary TAR (-) DNA. NCp8 is also unable to efficiently stimulate tRNALys3 annealing to its respective HIV-2 PBS motif. Using truncated NCp8 peptide, we demonstrated that despite the fact that the N-terminus of NCp8 differs from that of NCp7, this domain is essential for NCp8 activity. Our data demonstrate that the HIV-2 NC protein displays reduced nucleic acid chaperone activity compared to that of HIV-1 NC. We found that NCp8 activity is limited by substrate length and stability to a greater degree than that of NCp7. This is especially interesting in light of the fact that the HIV-2 5'UTR is more structured than that of HIV-1. The reduced chaperone activity observed with NCp8 may

  12. Electricity-free, sequential nucleic acid and protein isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, David R; Karalus, Richard J

    2012-05-15

    Traditional and emerging pathogens such as Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Yersinia pestis, or prion-based diseases are of significant concern for governments, industries and medical professionals worldwide. For example, EHECs, combined with Shigella, are responsible for the deaths of approximately 325,000 children each year and are particularly prevalent in the developing world where laboratory-based identification, common in the United States, is unavailable (1). The development and distribution of low cost, field-based, point-of-care tools to aid in the rapid identification and/or diagnosis of pathogens or disease markers could dramatically alter disease progression and patient prognosis. We have developed a tool to isolate nucleic acids and proteins from a sample by solid-phase extraction (SPE) without electricity or associated laboratory equipment (2). The isolated macromolecules can be used for diagnosis either in a forward lab or using field-based point-of-care platforms. Importantly, this method provides for the direct comparison of nucleic acid and protein data from an un-split sample, offering a confidence through corroboration of genomic and proteomic analysis. Our isolation tool utilizes the industry standard for solid-phase nucleic acid isolation, the BOOM technology, which isolates nucleic acids from a chaotropic salt solution, usually guanidine isothiocyanate, through binding to silica-based particles or filters (3). CUBRC's proprietary solid-phase extraction chemistry is used to purify protein from chaotropic salt solutions, in this case, from the waste or flow-thru following nucleic acid isolation(4). By packaging well-characterized chemistries into a small, inexpensive and simple platform, we have generated a portable system for nucleic acid and protein extraction that can be performed under a variety of conditions. The isolated nucleic acids are stable and can be transported to a position where power is available for PCR amplification

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  14. Publishing high-quality climate data on the semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Andrew; Haller, Armin; Lefort, Laurent; Taylor, Kerry

    2013-04-01

    The effort over more than a decade to establish the semantic web [Berners-Lee et. al., 2001] has received a major boost in recent years through the Open Government movement. Governments around the world are seeking technical solutions to enable more open and transparent access to Public Sector Information (PSI) they hold. Existing technical protocols and data standards tend to be domain specific, and so limit the ability to publish and integrate data across domains (health, environment, statistics, education, etc.). The web provides a domain-neutral platform for information publishing, and has proven itself beyond expectations for publishing and linking human-readable electronic documents. Extending the web pattern to data (often called Web 3.0) offers enormous potential. The semantic web applies the basic web principles to data [Berners-Lee, 2006]: using URIs as identifiers (for data objects and real-world 'things', instead of documents) making the URIs actionable by providing useful information via HTTP using a common exchange standard (serialised RDF for data instead of HTML for documents) establishing typed links between information objects to enable linking and integration Leading examples of 'linked data' for publishing PSI may be found in both the UK (http://data.gov.uk/linked-data) and US (http://www.data.gov/page/semantic-web). The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) is Australia's national meteorological agency, and has a new mandate to establish a national environmental information infrastructure (under the National Plan for Environmental Information, NPEI [BoM, 2012a]). While the initial approach is based on the existing best practice Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) architecture, linked-data is being explored as a technological alternative that shows great promise for the future. We report here the first trial of government linked-data in Australia under data.gov.au. In this initial pilot study, we have taken BoM's new high-quality reference surface

  15. A modern mode of activation for nucleic acid enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lévesque

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Through evolution, enzymes have developed subtle modes of activation in order to ensure the sufficiently high substrate specificity required by modern cellular metabolism. One of these modes is the use of a target-dependent module (i.e. a docking domain such as those found in signalling kinases. Upon the binding of the target to a docking domain, the substrate is positioned within the catalytic site. The prodomain acts as a target-dependent module switching the kinase from an off state to an on state. As compared to the allosteric mode of activation, there is no need for the presence of a third partner. None of the ribozymes discovered to date have such a mode of activation, nor does any other known RNA. Starting from a specific on/off adaptor for the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme, that differs but has a mechanism reminiscent of this signalling kinase, we have adapted this mode of activation, using the techniques of molecular engineering, to both catalytic RNAs and DNAs exhibiting various activities. Specifically, we adapted three cleaving ribozymes (hepatitis delta virus, hammerhead and hairpin ribozymes, a cleaving 10-23 deoxyribozyme, a ligating hairpin ribozyme and an artificially selected capping ribozyme. In each case, there was a significant gain in terms of substrate specificity. Even if this mode of control is unreported for natural catalytic nucleic acids, its use needs not be limited to proteinous enzymes. We suggest that the complexity of the modern cellular metabolism might have been an important selective pressure in this evolutionary process.

  16. Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-Mix Manufacturing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and... Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering on January 13, 2017, in

  17. Optimization of nitridation conditions for high quality inter-polysilicon dielectric layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Bergveld, H.J.; van Kranenburg, H.; Woerlee, P.H.; Wallinga, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Nitridation of deposited high temperature oxides (HTO) was studied to form high quality inter-polysilicon dielectric layers for embedded non volatile memories. Good quality dielectric layers were obtained earlier by using an optimized deposition of polysilicon and by performing a post-dielectric

  18. Bridges to Excellence--recognizing high-quality care: analysis of physician quality and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; de Brantes, Francois S; Sinaiko, Anna D; Frankel, Matthew; Robbins, Russell D; Young, Sara

    2008-10-01

    To examine whether physicians who sought and received Bridges to Excellence (BTE) recognition performed better than similar physicians on a standardized set of population-based performance measures. Cross-sectional comparison of performance data. Using a claims dataset of all commercially insured members from 6 health plans in Massachusetts, we examined population-based measures of quality and resource use for physicians recognized by the BTE programs Physician Office Link and Diabetes Care Link, compared with nonrecognized physicians in the same specialties. Differences in performance were tested using generalized linear models. Physician Office Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better than their nonrecognized peers on measures of cervical cancer screening, mammography, and glycosylated hemoglobin testing. Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better on all 4 diabetes process measures of quality, with the largest differences observed in microalbumin screening (17.7%). Patients of Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had a significantly greater percentage of their resource use accounted for by evaluation and management services (3.4%), and a smaller percentage accounted for by facility (-1.6%), inpatient ancillary (-0.1%), and nonmanagement outpatient services (-1.0%). After adjustment for patient age and sex, and case mix, Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had significantly fewer episodes per patient (0.13) and lower resource use per episode (dollars 130), but findings were mixed for Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians. Our findings suggest that the BTE approach to ascertaining physician quality identifies physicians who perform better on claims-based quality measures and primary care physicians who use a less resource-intensive practice style.

  19. Academic coordination at university: Strategies for high quality education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Durán Bellonch

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Most lecturers and professors involved in teaching School Management and Education Management courses have been engaged in developing some innovative actions to improve the training quality that we offer to students in the Pedagogy degree at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. These actions are aimed at increasing co-ordination among the teaching staff when designing and implementing the course curricula. Co-ordination meetings, exchanges of teaching experiences, discussions about what, how and when to teach the different contents, in which courses and at what level, methodological issues pointed out through technical description cards or the elaboration of study cases to be solved have become the basis of relevant actions during the last academic years. This paper explains each one of them, and provides useful information about the theoretical background, the process carried out, some of the results obtained, the output and the tools created.

  20. Possibilities of obtaining and controlling high-quality pressure castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the type of furnace charging melting, refining and modification silumins 226 and 231 on the porosity and microstructure of castings. It was shown that in order to reduce or eliminate the porosity of the castings is necessary to the refining ECOSAL-AL113 of liquid silumin both in the melting furnace, and in the ladle and an additional nitrogen, in the heat furnace modified and refining with nitrogen. To control the effects of refining and modifying the TDA method was used. It was found that based on crystal- lization curve can be qualitatively assess the gas porosity of the castings. In order to control and quality control silumins author developed a computer program using the method of TDA, which sets out: Rm, A5, HB and casting porosity P and the concentration of hydrogen in them. The program also informs the technological procedures to be performed for liquid silumin improper preparation.

  1. Terbium fluorescence as a sensitive, inexpensive probe for UV-induced damage in nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Yazbi, Amira F.; Loppnow, Glen R.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simple, inexpensive, mix-and-read assay for positive detection of DNA damage. •Recognition of undamaged DNA via hybridization to a hairpin probe. •Terbium(III) fluorescence reports the amount of damage by binding to ssDNA. •Tb/hairpin is a highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe for DNA damage. -- Abstract: Much effort has been focused on developing methods for detecting damaged nucleic acids. However, almost all of the proposed methods consist of multi-step procedures, are limited, require expensive instruments, or suffer from a high level of interferences. In this paper, we present a novel simple, inexpensive, mix-and-read assay that is generally applicable to nucleic acid damage and uses the enhanced luminescence due to energy transfer from nucleic acids to terbium(III) (Tb 3+ ). Single-stranded oligonucleotides greatly enhance the Tb 3+ emission, but duplex DNA does not. With the use of a DNA hairpin probe complementary to the oligonucleotide of interest, the Tb 3+ /hairpin probe is applied to detect ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage. The hairpin probe hybridizes only with the undamaged DNA. However, the damaged DNA remains single-stranded and enhances the intrinsic fluorescence of Tb 3+ , producing a detectable signal directly proportional to the amount of DNA damage. This allows the Tb 3+ /hairpin probe to be used for sensitive quantification of UV-induced DNA damage. The Tb 3+ /hairpin probe showed superior selectivity to DNA damage compared to conventional molecular beacons probes (MBs) and its sensitivity is more than 2.5 times higher than MBs with a limit of detection of 4.36 ± 1.2 nM. In addition, this probe is easier to synthesize and more than eight times cheaper than MBs, which makes its use recommended for high-throughput, quantitative analysis of DNA damage

  2. prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences ... with high G/G ratios in SDS-insoluble protein fraction were Sceptre x Nata and Kariega x Sceptre. ...... Molecular characterisation and dynamic.

  3. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    studies and our collaborative research projects with other UK and international groups will be discussed. Keywords. Crystal growth; floating zone method; neutron scattering. ... of single crystals of new materials is a highly competitive business.

  4. Recent applications of the combination of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with nucleic acids: development of bioresponsive devices, carriers and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rafael R; Baeza, Alejandro; Vallet-Regí, María

    2017-02-28

    The discovery and control of the biological roles mediated by nucleic acids have turned them into a powerful tool for the development of advanced biotechnological materials. Such is the importance of these gene-keeping biomacromolecules that even nanomaterials have succumbed to the claimed benefits of DNA and RNA. Currently, there could be found in the literature a practically intractable number of examples reporting the use of combination of nanoparticles with nucleic acids, so boundaries are demanded. Following this premise, this review will only cover the most recent and powerful strategies developed to exploit the possibilities of nucleic acids as biotechnological materials when in combination with mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The extensive research done on nucleic acids has significantly incremented the technological possibilities for those biomacromolecules, which could be employed in many different applications, where substrate or sequence recognition or modulation of biological pathways due to its coding role in living cells are the most promising. In the present review, the chosen counterpart, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, also with unique properties, became a reference material for drug delivery and biomedical applications due to their high biocompatibility and porous structure suitable for hosting and delivering small molecules. Although most of the reviews dealt with significant advances in the use of nucleic acid and mesoporous silica nanoparticles in biotechnological applications, a rational classification of these new generation hybrid materials is still uncovered. In this review, there will be covered promising strategies for the development of living cell and biological sensors, DNA-based molecular gates with targeting, transfection or silencing properties, which could provide a significant advance in current nanomedicine.

  5. Experimental approaches to the interaction of the prion protein with nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans: Modulators of the pathogenic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jerson L; Vieira, Tuane C R G; Gomes, Mariana P B; Rangel, Luciana P; Scapin, Sandra M N; Cordeiro, Yraima

    2011-03-01

    The concept that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are caused only by proteins has changed the traditional paradigm that disease transmission is due solely to an agent that carries genetic information. The central hypothesis for prion diseases proposes that the conversion of a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a misfolded, β-sheet-rich isoform (PrP(Sc)) accounts for the development of (TSE). There is substantial evidence that the infectious material consists chiefly of a protein, PrP(Sc), with no genomic coding material, unlike a virus particle, which has both. However, prions seem to have other partners that chaperone their activities in converting the PrP(C) into the disease-causing isoform. Nucleic acids (NAs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are the most probable accomplices of prion conversion. Here, we review the recent experimental approaches that have been employed to characterize the interaction of prion proteins with nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans. A PrP recognizes many nucleic acids and GAGs with high affinities, and this seems to be related to a pathophysiological role for this interaction. A PrP binds nucleic acids and GAGs with structural selectivity, and some PrP:NA complexes can become proteinase K-resistant, undergoing amyloid oligomerization and conversion to a β-sheet-rich structure. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that endogenous polyanions (such as NAs and GAGs) may accelerate the rate of prion disease progression by acting as scaffolds or lattices that mediate the interaction between PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) molecules. In addition to a still-possible hypothesis that nucleic acids and GAGs, especially those from the host, may modulate the conversion, the recent structural characterization of the complexes has raised the possibility of developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and microbial nucleic acid bases in rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyuan Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to identify the relationship between odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFAs and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen, and to establish a model to accurately predict microbial protein flow by using OBCFA. Methods To develop the regression equations, data on the rumen contents of individual cows were obtained from 2 feeding experiments. In the first experiment, 3 rumen-fistulated dry dairy cows arranged in a 3×3 Latin square were fed diets of differing forage to concentration ratios (F:C. The second experiment consisted of 9 lactating Holstein dairy cows of similar body weights at the same stage of pregnancy. For each lactation stage, 3 cows with similar milk production were selected. The rumen contents were sampled at 4 time points of every two hours after morning feeding 6 h, and then to analyse the concentrations of OBCFA and microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen samples. Results The ruminal bacteria nucleic acid bases were significantly influenced by feeding diets of differing forge to concentration ratios and lactation stages of dairy cows (p<0.05. The concentrations of OBCFAs, especially odd-chain fatty acids and C15:0 isomers, strongly correlated with the microbial nucleic acid bases in the rumen (p<0.05. The equations of ruminal microbial nucleic acid bases established by ruminal OBCFAs contents showed a good predictive capacity, as indicated by reasonably low standard errors and high R-squared values. Conclusion This finding suggests that the rumen OBCFA composition could be used as an internal marker of rumen microbial matter.

  7. Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, N.; Jeffries, J.; Mach, J.; Robson, M.; Pajot, D.; Harrigan, J.; Lebsack, T.; Mullen, D.; Rat, F.; Theys, P.

    1993-01-01

    What is quality? How do you achieve it? How do you keep it once you have got it. The answer for industry at large is the three-step hierarchy of quality control, quality assurance and Total quality Management. An overview is given of the history of quality movement, illustrated with examples from Schlumberger operations, as well as the oil industry's approach to quality. An introduction of the Schlumberger's quality-associated ClientLink program is presented. 15 figs., 4 ills., 16 refs

  8. High quality actively cooled plasma-facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) for future fusion devices, with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL). This actively cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long-pulse operation, has been operated under essentially thermally steady state conditions. Testing to identify braze flaws, analysis of the impact of joining flaws on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the OPL, and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed. This experience suggests that, for PFCs in future fusion devices, flaw-tolerant designs are possible; analyses of the impacts of flaws on performance can provide criteria for quality assurance; and validating appropriate methods of inspection for such flaws early in the design development of PFCs is prudent. The need for in-service monitoring is also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Health care in small prisons: incorporating high-quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Casillas, Alejandra; Mary, Gérard; Secretan, Anne-Dominique; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the past, health management in Geneva's six post-trial prisons had been variable and inconsistent. In 2008, the unit of penitentiary medicine of the Geneva University Hospitals was mandated to re-organize and provide health care at all six prison facilities. The specific aim of this paper is to outline the example as a practical solution to some of the common challenges in unifying the structure and process of health services across multiple small facilities, while meeting European prison health and local quality standards. Geneva's post-trial prisons are small and close to one another in geographical proximity - ideal conditions for the construction of a health mobile team (HMT). This multidisciplinary mobile team operated like a community ambulatory care model; it was progressively launched in all prison facilities in Geneva. The authors incorporated an implementation strategy where health providers partnered with prison and community stakeholders in the health delivery model's development and adaption process. The model's strategic initiatives are described along the following areas, in light of other international prison health activity and prior care models: access to a health care professional, equivalence of care, patient consent, confidentiality, humanitarian interventions, and professional competence and independence. From the perspective of the HMT members, the authors provide the "lessons learned" through this experience, especially to providers who are working on prison health services reform and coordination improvement. The paper particularly stresses the importance of partnering with community health stakeholders and prison staff, a key component to the approach.

  10. Selected topics in photochemistry of nucleic acids. Recent results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeber, G.; Kittler, L.

    1977-01-01

    Recent results on the following photoreactions of nucleic acids are reported: photochemistry of aza-bases and minor bases, formation of photoproducts of the non-cyclobutane type, formations of furocoumarin-pyrimidine photoadducts, fluorescence of dye-nucleic acid complexes and their role in chromosomal fluorescence staining, and mechanisms of the photochemical reaction. Results are discussed with respect to: (i) photobiological relevance of light-induced defects in nucleic acids; (ii) possibilities of achieving higher selectivity of light-induced defects in nucleic acids; (iii) the use of nucleic acid photochemistry to analyze genetic material. An extensive bibliography is included. (author)

  11. A high-quality catalog of the Drosophila melanogaster proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Erich; Ahrens, Christian H.; Mohanty, Sonaly

    2007-01-01

    % of the predicted Drosophila melanogaster proteome by detecting 9,124 proteins from 498,000 redundant and 72,281 distinct peptide identifications. This unprecedented high proteome coverage for a complex eukaryote was achieved by combining sample diversity, multidimensional biochemical fractionation and analysis...

  12. Bust economics: foragers choose high quality habitats in lean times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny S. Bleicher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In environments where food resources are spatially variable and temporarily impoverished, consumers that encounter habitat patches with different food density should focus their foraging initially where food density is highest before they move to patches where food density is lower. Increasing missed opportunity costs should drive individuals progressively to patches with lower food density as resources in the initially high food density patches deplete. To test these expectations, we assessed the foraging decisions of two species of dasyurid marsupials (dunnarts: Sminthopsis hirtipes and S. youngsoni during a deep drought, or bust period, in the Simpson Desert of central Australia. Dunnarts were allowed access to three patches containing different food densities using an interview chamber experiment. Both species exhibited clear preference for the high density over the lower food density patches as measured in total harvested resources. Similarly, when measuring the proportion of resources harvested within the patches, we observed a marginal preference for patches with initially high densities. Models analyzing behavioral choices at the population level found no differences in behavior between the two species, but models analyzing choices at the individual level uncovered some variation. We conclude that dunnarts can distinguish between habitat patches with different densities of food and preferentially exploit the most valuable. As our observations were made during bust conditions, experiments should be repeated during boom times to assess the foraging economics of dunnarts when environmental resources are high.

  13. Whole high-quality light environment for humans and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharakshane, Anton

    2017-11-01

    Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases. It has been revealed that yield photon flux is proportional to luminous efficacy and increases as the color temperature decreases, general color rendering index Ra and the special color rendering index R14 (green leaf) increase. General-purpose white LED lamps with a color temperature of 2700 K, Ra > 90 and luminous efficacy of 100 lm/W are as efficient as the best high-pressure sodium lamps, and at a higher luminous efficacy their yield photon flux per joule is even bigger in proportion. Here we show that demand for high color rendering white LED light is not contradictory to the agro-technical objectives.

  14. The influence of knowledge management implementation toward the quality of high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Ainissyifa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of knowledge management implementation toward the quality of high schools. This study was conducted among five high schools under an education foundation. The analysis models used in the study were correlation analysis and t-test. The respondents were used as the profession references are 86 teachers. The result of the study shows that knowledge management implementation has a positive and significant influence toward the quality of high schools.

  15. Achieving high-quality care: a view from NICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Gillian; Partridge, Gemma

    2018-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) was established in 1999 to provide evidence-based guidance. The task of producing guidance by reviewing primary research data and using an advisory committee to develop evidence-based recommendations, is not straightforward. Guidance production is, however, less challenging than the task of putting evidence-based recommendations into practice.NICE is very sensitive to this challenge as, since 1999, over 1500 pieces of NICE guidance have been published. A number of pieces of guidance relate to heart disease, including pharmaceutical agents, new medical technologies and clinical guidelines. Examples include guidelines on acute heart failure and atrial fibrillation, and advice on technologies including edoxaban and implantable cardioverter defibrillators.The research evidence is clear that a change in practice rarely comes about as a result of simply disseminating guidance on best practice. Simple dissemination is particularly ineffective if the guidance has not been produced by a well-respected, credible organisation. It is also clear from the literature that implementation is more successful when more than one approach is taken, and when there is alignment between efforts at organisational, local and national levels.At an organisational level, there should be support from the Board for quality improvement, with ongoing measurement of progress. Resources should be provided for targeted change programmes, particularly where new guidance suggests improvements are required. A systematic process for putting change in place should include identifying barriers to change, agreeing interventions to overcome the barriers and drive forward improvement and planning for implementation and evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Modern High Technology Solutions for Quality and Longterm Vegetable Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.; Todorov, Y.; Loginovska, K.; Tsvetkov, Ts.

    2012-01-01

    In the publication the authors present the results of the applying of two modern technologies for long term and safe vegetable preservation – freeze-drying and gamma sterilization. The freeze-dried vegetables feature minimum moisture – from 2 – 5% and taste-aroma complex preserved to the highest degree. The carried out gamma sterilization ensures a high microbial purity of the vegetables and guarantees for their long term preservation - up to 5 years in polymer packing, under usual conditions

  17. High quality factor gigahertz frequencies in nanomechanical diamond resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidarzhy, Alexei; Imboden, Matthias; Mohanty, Pritiraj; Rankin, Janet; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    We report actuation and detection of gigahertz-range resonance frequencies in nano-crystalline diamond mechanical resonators. High order transverse vibration modes are measured in coupled-beam resonators exhibiting frequencies up to 1.441 GHz. The cantilever-array design of the resonators translates the gigahertz-range resonant motion of micron-long cantilever elements to the displacement of the central supporting structure. Use of nano-crystalline diamond further increases the frequency comp...

  18. Universal nucleic acids sample preparation method for cells, spores and their mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavykin, Sergei [Darien, IL

    2011-01-18

    The present invention relates to a method for extracting nucleic acids from biological samples. More specifically the invention relates to a universal method for extracting nucleic acids from unidentified biological samples. An advantage of the presently invented method is its ability to effectively and efficiently extract nucleic acids from a variety of different cell types including but not limited to prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and/or recalcitrant organisms (i.e. spores). Unlike prior art methods which are focused on extracting nucleic acids from vegetative cell or spores, the present invention effectively extracts nucleic acids from spores, multiple cell types or mixtures thereof using a single method. Important that the invented method has demonstrated an ability to extract nucleic acids from spores and vegetative bacterial cells with similar levels effectiveness. The invented method employs a multi-step protocol which erodes the cell structure of the biological sample, isolates, labels, fragments nucleic acids and purifies labeled samples from the excess of dye.

  19. Health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p children and parental scores suggested variance in points of view. This study specifically investigated health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Devices, systems, and methods for detecting nucleic acids using sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.

    2017-10-24

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and method for conducting nucleic acid purification and quantification using sedimentation. In one example, a method includes generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample, individual ones of the complexes comprising a nucleic acid molecule such as DNA or RNA and a labeling agent. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  1. Microfluidic "Pouch" Chips for Immunoassays and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Michael G; Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Chen, Dafeng; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim H

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic cassettes ("chips") for processing and analysis of clinical specimens and other sample types facilitate point-of-care (POC) immunoassays and nucleic acid based amplification tests. These single-use test chips can be self-contained and made amenable to autonomous operation-reducing or eliminating supporting instrumentation-by incorporating laminated, pliable "pouch" and membrane structures for fluid storage, pumping, mixing, and flow control. Materials and methods for integrating flexible pouch compartments and diaphragm valves into hard plastic (e.g., acrylic and polycarbonate) microfluidic "chips" for reagent storage, fluid actuation, and flow control are described. We review several versions of these pouch chips for immunoassay and nucleic acid amplification tests, and describe related fabrication techniques. These protocols thus offer a "toolbox" of methods for storage, pumping, and flow control functions in microfluidic devices.

  2. Neutron nuclear data evaluation for actinide nucleic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guochang; Yu Baosheng; Duan Junfeng; Ge Zhigang; Cao Wentian; Tang Guoyou; Shi Zhaomin; Zou Yubin

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear data with high accuracy for minor actinides are playing an important role in nuclear technology applications, including reactor design and operation, fuel cycle concepts, estimation of the amount of minor actinides in high burn-up reactors and the minor actinides transmutation. Through describe the class of nuclear data and nuclear date library, and introduce the procedure of neutron nuclear data evaluation. 234 U(n, f) and 237 Np(n, 2n) reaction experimental data evaluation was evaluated. The fission nuclear data are updated and improved. (authors)

  3. High oleic sunflower biodiesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of biodiesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25º to 110ºC and expeller rotation (85 to 119rpm on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25º to 30ºC and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the biodiesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified biodiesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for biodiesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la producción de biodiesel usando etanol y aceite de girasol. La extracción del aceite de girasol fue evaluada primero. Un diseño experimental fue usado para estimar la influencia de las variables independientes: temperatura del grano (25º a 110ºC y rotación del expeller (85 a 119 rpm en la obtención del aceite crudo. El mejor resultado obtenido fue un 68,38%, conseguido con una rotación de 100 a 115 rpm, una temperatura del grano de 25º a 30ºC y un contenido de humedad de alrededor del 7%. El siguiente estudio mediante transesterificación, evaluó la influencia de la relación molar etanol: aceite y concentración de catalizador (metilato sódico en el rendimiento de la fase rica en esteres. El rendimiento más alto fue 98,39% obtenido con una relación molar de 9.1 y 3% de

  4. A safe inexpensive method to isolate high quality plant and fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... quality DNA from plant and fungal species. This method uses potassium acetate to remove proteins and polysaccharides in an SDS extraction buffer. Further DNA purification is achieved using a low salt. CTAB treatment. This SDS/CTAB protocol was used to isolate high quality genomic DNA subject to.

  5. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    During the past seven years, the DREAM collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development ${(dual}$ ${readout}$), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contirbutions of nuclear evaporation neutrons to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in "invisible energy". We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrat...

  6. Export is necessary to maintain high quality supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirugue, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear industry achieves about 20% of its turnover with the export of equipment and services but nuclear trade is submitted to specific constrains like non-proliferation policies. According to IAEA the world capacity of nuclear power is expected to double allowing the development of emerging countries while reducing CO_2 emissions. The French commercial offer focuses on the high-end market with the EPR reactor and an intermediate power range reactor ATMEA-1 designed with MHI (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries). AREVA is the unique world operator able to master the entire chain of spent fuel reprocessing thanks to the La Hague plant. In the framework of the rebuilding of the French nuclear industry, discussions are ongoing to achieve partnerships with foreign partners in exchange of shares in AREVA and AREVA NP. Today's main challenges of AREVA are to reduce EPR cost, to speed EPR construction and to benefit fully of the move into the digital age. (A.C.)

  7. Access High Quality Imagery from the NOAA View Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisut, D.; Powell, A. M.; Loomis, T.; Goel, V.; Mills, B.; Cowan, D.

    2013-12-01

    NOAA curates a vast treasure trove of environmental data, but one that is sometimes not easily accessed, especially for education, outreach, and media purposes. Traditional data portals in NOAA require extensive knowledge of the specific names of observation platforms, models, and analyses, along with nomenclature for variable outputs. A new website and web mapping service (WMS) from NOAA attempts to remedy such issues. The NOAA View data imagery portal provides a seamless entry point into data from across the agency: satellite, models, in-situ analysis, etc. The system provides the user with ability to browse, animate, and download high resolution (e.g., 4,000 x 2,000 pixel) imagery, Google Earth, and even proxy data files. The WMS architecture also allows the resources to be ingested into other software systems or applications.

  8. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    in plants of the order Brassicales (former known as Capparales), which include rapeseed, rype (Brassica campestris L.) Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.var. italica) and many other plants. Glucosinolates have been studied widely for their biologic effects ranging from...... by xenobiotica enzymes in the liver. The last study (manuscript IV) deals with the novel processing techniques, pulsed electric field (PEF) and high pressure treatment (HPT) and the processing effects on glucosinolates in broccoli. The largest effects were observed to be a result of the different handling...... of the plant materials prior to the process treatment. It was thus found that a great amount of the glucosinolate loss has occurred in the broccoli juice and purée prior to PEF processing. Only a minor loss was observed in broccoli flowers prior to processing, and HP treatment at 700 MPa for 10 min. was found...

  9. Cathepsin B-sensitive polymers for compartment-specific degradation and nucleic acid release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, David S H; Johnson, Russell N; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-02-10

    Degradable cationic polymers are desirable for in vivo nucleic acid delivery because they offer significantly decreased toxicity over non-degradable counterparts. Peptide linkers provide chemical stability and high specificity for particular endopeptidases but have not been extensively studied for nucleic acid delivery applications. In this work, enzymatically degradable peptide-HPMA copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization of HPMA with methacrylamido-terminated peptide macromonomers, resulting in polymers with low polydispersity and near quantitative incorporation of peptides. Three peptide-HPMA copolymers were evaluated: (i) pHCathK(10), containing peptides composed of the linker phe-lys-phe-leu (FKFL), a substrate of the endosomal/lysosomal endopeptidase cathepsin B, connected to oligo-(L)-lysine for nucleic acid binding, (ii) pHCath(D)K(10), containing the FKFL linker with oligo-(D)-lysine, and (iii) pH(D)Cath(D)K(10), containing all (D) amino acids. Cathepsin B degraded copolymers pHCathK(10) and pHCath(D)K(10) within 1 h while no degradation of pH(D)Cath(D)K(10) was observed. Polyplexes formed with pHCathK(10) copolymers show DNA release by 4 h of treatment with cathepsin B; comparatively, polyplexes formed with pHCath(D)K(10) and pH(D)Cath(D)K(10) show no DNA release within 8 h. Transfection efficiency in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells were comparable between the copolymers but pHCathK(10) was less toxic. This work demonstrates the successful application of peptide linkers for degradable cationic polymers and DNA release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Poly(alkylene oxide) Copolymers for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    Poly(alkylene oxide) Copolymers for Nucleic Acid Delivery Swati Mishra1,#, Lavanya Y. Peddada1,#, David I. Devore3,4, and Charles M. Roth1,2...Neil Raju for assistance with figures. Biographies Swati Mishra received her Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology from the University of...Kleiman N, Anderson RD, Gottlieb D, Karlsberg R, Snell J, Rocha- Singh K. Results from a phase II multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled study of Del

  11. Preparative concentration of nucleic acids fragments by capillary isotachophoretic analyzer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1548 (2018), s. 100-103 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) 8F17003 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : DNA * isotachophoresis * nucleic acids * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  12. Histidine-lysine peptides as carriers of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Qixin; Goldgeier, Lisa; Zhu, Jingsong; Cambell, Patricia; Ambulos, Nicholas; Mixson, A James

    2007-03-01

    With their biodegradability and diversity of permutations, peptides have significant potential as carriers of nucleic acids. This review will focus on the sequence and branching patterns of peptide carriers composed primarily of histidines and lysines. While lysines within peptides are important for binding to the negatively charged phosphates, histidines are critical for endosomal lysis enabling nucleic acids to reach the cytosol. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymers by either covalent or ionic bonds with liposomes augment transfection compared to liposome carriers alone. More recently, we have examined peptides as sole carriers of nucleic acids because of their intrinsic advantages compared to the bipartite HK/liposome carriers. With a protocol change and addition of a histidine-rich tail, HK peptides as sole carriers were more effective than liposomes alone in several cell lines. While four-branched polymers with a primary repeating sequence pattern of -HHK- were more effective as carriers of plasmids, eight-branched polymers with a sequence pattern of -HHHK- were more effective as carriers of siRNA. Compared to polyethylenimine, HK carriers of siRNA and plasmids had reduced toxicity. When injected intravenously, HK polymers in complex with plasmids encoding antiangiogenic proteins significantly decreased tumor growth. Furthermore, modification of HK polymers with polyethylene glycol and vascular-specific ligands increased specificity of the polyplex to the tumor by more than 40-fold. Together with further development and insight on the structure of HK polyplexes, HK peptides may prove to be useful as carriers of different forms of nucleic acids both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Solid-state NMR studies of nucleic acid components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2015), s. 12300-12310 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * nucleic acid s * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ra/c4ra14404j

  14. Preparative concentration of nucleic acids fragments by capillary isotachophoretic analyzer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Datinská, Vladimíra; Voráčová, Ivona; Berka, J.; Foret, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1548, MAY (2018), s. 100-103 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014; GA MŠk(CZ) 8F17003 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : DNA * isotachophoresis * nucleic acids * sample preparation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  15. Nucleic acid components from strontium-90 exposed miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase associated with porcine type C virus particles was used to generate a tritium-labeled DNA product complementary to the viral RNA template. Results of nucleic acid hybridization experiments indicate this 3 H-DNA (probe) was copied from heteropolymeric regions of the procine viral RNA. Probe prepared from this porcine type C virus contains sequences that possess some homology in sequence to RNA isolated from viruses known to cause similar diseases in other animals

  16. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. Recycle food wastes into high quality fish feeds for safe and quality fish production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming-Hung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Choi, Wai-Ming; Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu-Bon

    2016-12-01

    The amount of food waste generated from modern societies is increasing, which has imposed a tremendous pressure on its treatment and disposal. Food waste should be treated as a valuable resource rather than waste, and turning it into fish feeds would be a viable alternative. This paper attempts to review the feasibility of using food waste to formulate feed pellets to culture a few freshwater fish species, such as grass carp, grey mullet, and tilapia, under polyculture mode (growing different species in the same pond). These species occupy different ecological niches, with different feeding modes (i.e., herbivorous, filter feeding, etc.), and therefore all the nutrients derived from the food waste could be efficiently recycled within the ecosystem. The problems facing environmental pollution and fish contamination; the past and present situation of inland fish culture (focusing on South China); upgrade of food waste based feed pellets by adding enzymes, vitamin-mineral premix, probiotics (yeast), prebiotics, and Chinese medicinal herbs into feeds; and potential health risks of fish cultivated by food waste based pellets are discussed, citing some local examples. It can be concluded that appropriate portions of different types of food waste could satisfy basic nutritional requirements of lower trophic level fish species such as grass carp and tilapia. Upgrading the fish pellets by adding different supplements mentioned above could further elevated the quality of feeds, leading to higher growth rates, and enhanced immunity of fish. Health risk assessments based on the major environmental contaminants (mercury, PAHs and DDTs) in fish flesh showed that fish fed food waste based pellets are safer for consumption, when compared with those fed commercial feed pellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ion-pair chromatography of nucleic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, P.A.; Brown, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Little work has been done on the ion-pair chromatography of nucleic acid constituents, although there is a great potential for the use of this technique in the field. Since the classic work in 1949, nucleotides, as well as nucleosides and bases, have been separated by ion-exchange chromatography. However, ion exchange is a difficult mode and most researchers prefer the use of reversed-phase whenever possible. Although reversed-phase is now the method of choice, ionic compounds like nucleotides and some of the more polar bases are not adequately retained by many systems of this type. In addition, it is difficult to analyze simultaneously members of all three classes of nucleic acid compounds (bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides) using a reversed-phase system, even with gradient elution. Ion pairing can be a useful technique because, theoretically, the separation of nonionic bases and nucleosides along with the ionic nucleotides can be achieved. Additionally, each group of compounds may be separated isocratically. In this chapter, they will discuss ion-pair chromatography as applied to nucleic acid constituents. The current theories, advantages and disadvantages, a limited number of applications, and potential for future work are presented

  19. Immune activation by nucleic acids: A role in pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, B; Lauková, L; Vlková, B

    2018-04-01

    Cell-free self-DNA or RNA may induce an immune response by activating specific sensing receptors. During pregnancy, placental nucleic acids present in the maternal circulation further activate these receptors due to the presence of unmethylated CpG islands. A higher concentration of cell-free foetal DNA is associated with pregnancy complications and a higher risk for foetal rejection. Cell-free foetal DNA originates from placental trophoblasts. It appears in different forms: free, bound to histones in nucleosomes, in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and in extracellular vesicles (EVs). In several pregnancy complications, cell-free foetal DNA triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines, and this production results in a cellular and humoral immune response. This review discusses preeclampsia, systemic lupus erythematosus, foetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and obesity in pregnancy from an immunological point of view and closely examines the different pathways that result in maternal inflammation. Understanding the role of cell-free nucleic acids, as well as the biogenesis of NETs and EVs, will help us to specify their functions or targets, which seem to be important in pregnancy complications. It is still not clear whether higher concentrations of cell-free nucleic acids in the maternal circulation are the cause or consequence of various complications. Therefore, further clinical studies and, even more importantly, animal experiments that focus on the involved immunological pathways are needed. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  20. Molecular modeling of nucleic Acid structure: electrostatics and solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonzo, Christina; Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Cheatham, Thomas E

    2014-12-19

    This unit presents an overview of computer simulation techniques as applied to nucleic acid systems, ranging from simple in vacuo molecular modeling techniques to more complete all-atom molecular dynamics treatments that include an explicit representation of the environment. The third in a series of four units, this unit focuses on critical issues in solvation and the treatment of electrostatics. UNITS 7.5 & 7.8 introduced the modeling of nucleic acid structure at the molecular level. This included a discussion of how to generate an initial model, how to evaluate the utility or reliability of a given model, and ultimately how to manipulate this model to better understand its structure, dynamics, and interactions. Subject to an appropriate representation of the energy, such as a specifically parameterized empirical force field, the techniques of minimization and Monte Carlo simulation, as well as molecular dynamics (MD) methods, were introduced as a way of sampling conformational space for a better understanding of the relevance of a given model. This discussion highlighted the major limitations with modeling in general. When sampling conformational space effectively, difficult issues are encountered, such as multiple minima or conformational sampling problems, and accurately representing the underlying energy of interaction. In order to provide a realistic model of the underlying energetics for nucleic acids in their native environments, it is crucial to include some representation of solvation (by water) and also to properly treat the electrostatic interactions. These subjects are discussed in detail in this unit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. High-quality thorium TRISO fuel performance in HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Nabielek, Heinz; Kania, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    Thorium as a nuclear fuel has received renewed interest, because of its widespread availability and the good irradiation performance of Th and mixed (Th,U) oxide compounds as fuels in nuclear power systems. Early HTGR development employed thorium together with high-enriched uranium (HEU). After 1980, HTGR fuel systems switched to low-enriched uranium (LEU). After completing fuel development for the AVR and the THTR with BISO coated particles, the German program expanded its efforts utilizing thorium and HEU TRISO coated particles in advanced HTGR concepts for process heat applications (PNP) and direct-cycle electricity production (HHT). The combination of a low-temperature isotropic (LTI) inner and outer pyrocarbon layers surrounding a strong, stable SiC layer greatly improved manufacturing conditions and the subsequent contamination and defective particle fractions in production fuel elements. In addition, this combination provided improved mechanical strength and a higher degree of solid fission product retention, not known previously with high-temperature isotropic (HTI) BISO coatings. The improved performance of the HEU (Th, U)O{sub 2} TRISO fuel system was successfully demonstrated in three primary areas of development: manufacturing, irradiation testing under normal operating conditions, and accident simulation testing. In terms of demonstrating performance for advanced HTGR applications, the experimental failure statistic from manufacture and irradiation testing are significantly below the coated particle requirements specified for PNP and HHT designs at the time. Covering a range to 1300 C in normal operations and 1600 C in accidents, with burnups to 13% FIMA and fast fluences to 8 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E> 16 fJ), the performance results exceed the design limits on manufacturing and operational requirements for the German HTR-Modul concept, which are 6.5 x 10{sup -5} for manufacturing, 2 x 10{sup -4} for normal operating conditions, and 5 x 10{sup -4

  2. High-quality thorium TRISO fuel performance in HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Nabielek, Heinz; Kania, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Thorium as a nuclear fuel has received renewed interest, because of its widespread availability and the good irradiation performance of Th and mixed (Th,U) oxide compounds as fuels in nuclear power systems. Early HTGR development employed thorium together with high-enriched uranium (HEU). After 1980, HTGR fuel systems switched to low-enriched uranium (LEU). After completing fuel development for the AVR and the THTR with BISO coated particles, the German program expanded its efforts utilizing thorium and HEU TRISO coated particles in advanced HTGR concepts for process heat applications (PNP) and direct-cycle electricity production (HHT). The combination of a low-temperature isotropic (LTI) inner and outer pyrocarbon layers surrounding a strong, stable SiC layer greatly improved manufacturing conditions and the subsequent contamination and defective particle fractions in production fuel elements. In addition, this combination provided improved mechanical strength and a higher degree of solid fission product retention, not known previously with high-temperature isotropic (HTI) BISO coatings. The improved performance of the HEU (Th, U)O 2 TRISO fuel system was successfully demonstrated in three primary areas of development: manufacturing, irradiation testing under normal operating conditions, and accident simulation testing. In terms of demonstrating performance for advanced HTGR applications, the experimental failure statistic from manufacture and irradiation testing are significantly below the coated particle requirements specified for PNP and HHT designs at the time. Covering a range to 1300 C in normal operations and 1600 C in accidents, with burnups to 13% FIMA and fast fluences to 8 x 10 25 n/m 2 (E> 16 fJ), the performance results exceed the design limits on manufacturing and operational requirements for the German HTR-Modul concept, which are 6.5 x 10 -5 for manufacturing, 2 x 10 -4 for normal operating conditions, and 5 x 10 -4 for accident conditions. These

  3. Towards a high quality high school workforce: A longitudinal, demographic analysis of U.S. public school physics teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory T. Rushton; David Rosengrant; Andrew Dewar; Lisa Shah; Herman E. Ray; Keith Sheppard; Lynn Watanabe

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to improve the number and quality of the high school physics teaching workforce have taken several forms, including those sponsored by professional organizations. Using a series of large-scale teacher demographic data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), this study sought to investigate trends in teacher quality at the national level in the two and a half decades between 1987 and 2012. Specifically, we investigated (i) details about the degree backgrounds, ma...

  4. EXPERT-ANALITICAL MONITORING OF LEARNING PROCESS QUALITY IN HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Korotun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The technological model is proposed for monitoring process of learning process quality in high school compliant with current European and home standards. The mathematical methods are elaborated for diverse activities as to learning process objects quality determination unified support. They self-consistently combine: automatic expert evaluation with Bayesian net and Value tree models; Delphi technique enhancement; best practices for education quality assessment. Quality estimates’ consistency index is introduced for their choice and acceptability analysis. Its permanent increasing over monitoring stages is guaranteed. The tools for these stages’ automatic support are described.

  5. Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

    2013-08-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were highest among children who experienced high-quality care in both the infant-toddler and preschool periods, somewhat lower among children who experienced high-quality child care during only 1 of these periods, and lowest among children who experienced low-quality care during both periods. Irrespective of the care received during infancy-toddlerhood, high-quality preschool care was related to better language and preacademic outcomes at the end of the preschool period; high-quality infant-toddler care, irrespective of preschool care, was related to better memory skills at the end of the preschool period. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. An approach to high speed ship ride quality simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, W. L.; Vickery, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The high speeds attained by certain advanced surface ships result in a spectrum of motion which is higher in frequency than that of conventional ships. This fact along with the inclusion of advanced ride control features in the design of these ships resulted in an increased awareness of the need for ride criteria. Such criteria can be developed using data from actual ship operations in varied sea states or from clinical laboratory experiments. A third approach is to simulate ship conditions using measured or calculated ship motion data. Recent simulations have used data derived from a math model of Surface Effect Ship (SES) motion. The model in turn is based on equations of motion which have been refined with data from scale models and SES of up to 101 600-kg (100-ton) displacement. Employment of broad band motion emphasizes the use of the simulators as a design tool to evaluate a given ship configuration in several operational situations and also serves to provide data as to the overall effect of a given motion on crew performance and physiological status.

  7. Identifying suitable substrates for high-quality graphene-based heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banszerus, L.; Janssen, H.; Otto, M.; Epping, A.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Beschoten, B.; Neumaier, D.; Stampfer, C.

    2017-06-01

    We report on a scanning confocal Raman spectroscopy study investigating the strain-uniformity and the overall strain and doping of high-quality chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene-based heterostuctures on a large number of different substrate materials, including hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), transition metal dichalcogenides, silicon, different oxides and nitrides, as well as polymers. By applying a hBN-assisted, contamination free, dry transfer process for CVD graphene, high-quality heterostructures with low doping densities and low strain variations are assembled. The Raman spectra of these pristine heterostructures are sensitive to substrate-induced doping and strain variations and are thus used to probe the suitability of the substrate material for potential high-quality graphene devices. We find that the flatness of the substrate material is a key figure for gaining, or preserving high-quality graphene.

  8. Production of high quality sodium iodide preparations labelled with carrier free iodine-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, M.N.; Chistyakov, P.G.; Shilin, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Work is related to the problem of high-quality Sodium Iodide preparation production and to the choice of the peptids iodination methods with the purpose of control test developing to determine the Biological activity of the above mentioned preparation

  9. The Role of Dosimetry in High-Quality EMI Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for The role of EMF dosimetry in high quality risk assessment 13 September 2006 - 15 September 2006 In the last three decades the use of devices that emit electromagnetic fields (EMF...

  10. Diode pumped 1kHz high power Nd:YAG laser with excellent beam quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godfried, Herman; Godfried, H.P; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    1997-01-01

    The design and operation of a one kilohertz diode pumped all solid-state Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier system with a phase conjugate mirror is presented. The setup allows high power scaling without reduction in beam quality.

  11. Universal and rapid salt-extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Aljanabi, S M; Martinez, I

    1997-01-01

    A very simple, fast, universally applicable and reproducible method to extract high quality megabase genomic DNA from different organisms is described. We applied the same method to extract high quality complex genomic DNA from different tissues (wheat, barley, potato, beans, pear and almond leaves as well as fungi, insects and shrimps' fresh tissue) without any modification. The method does not require expensive and environmentally hazardous reagents and equipment. It can be performed even i...

  12. Diagnostic Devices for Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Chang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal approaches can eliminate many complications associated with thermocycling. The application of diagnostic devices for isothermal DNA amplification has recently been studied extensively. In this paper, we describe the basic concepts of several isothermal amplification approaches and review recent progress in diagnostic device development.

  13. Diagnostic devices for isothermal nucleic acid amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Wei, Shih-Chung; Lu, Hui-Hsin; Liang, Yang-Hung; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2012-01-01

    Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal approaches can eliminate many complications associated with thermocycling. The application of diagnostic devices for isothermal DNA amplification has recently been studied extensively. In this paper, we describe the basic concepts of several isothermal amplification approaches and review recent progress in diagnostic device development.

  14. A Single Electrochemical Probe Used for Analysis of Multiple Nucleic Acid Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dawn M.; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Pinzon, Jeffer M.; Armas, Stephanie; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M.; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y.

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical hybridization sensors have been explored extensively for analysis of specific nucleic acids. However, commercialization of the platform is hindered by the need for attachment of separate oligonucleotide probes complementary to a RNA or DNA target to an electrode’s surface. Here we demonstrate that a single probe can be used to analyze several nucleic acid targets with high selectivity and low cost. The universal electrochemical four-way junction (4J)-forming (UE4J) sensor consists of a universal DNA stem-loop (USL) probe attached to the electrode’s surface and two adaptor strands (m and f) which hybridize to the USL probe and the analyte to form a 4J associate. The m adaptor strand was conjugated with a methylene blue redox marker for signal ON sensing and monitored using square wave voltammetry. We demonstrated that a single sensor can be used for detection of several different DNA/RNA sequences and can be regenerated in 30 seconds by a simple water rinse. The UE4J sensor enables a high selectivity by recognition of a single base substitution, even at room temperature. The UE4J sensor opens a venue for a re-useable universal platform that can be adopted at low cost for the analysis of DNA or RNA targets. PMID:29371782

  15. Ability of Polyphosphate and Nucleic Acids to Trigger Blood Clotting: Some Observations and Caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A.; Gajsiewicz, Joshua M.; Morrissey, James H.

    2018-01-01

    Polyphosphate plays several roles in coagulation and inflammation, while extracellular DNA and RNA are implicated in thrombosis and as disease biomarkers. We sought to compare the procoagulant activities of polyphosphate versus DNA or RNA isolated from mammalian cells. In a recent study, we found that much of the procoagulant activity of DNA isolated from mammalian cells using Qiagen kits resisted digestion with nuclease or polyphosphatase, and even resisted boiling in acid. These kits employ spin columns packed with silica, which is highly procoagulant. Indeed, much of the apparent procoagulant activity of cellular DNA isolated with such kits was attributable to silica particles shed by the spin columns. Therefore, silica-based methods for isolating nucleic acids or polyphosphate from mammalian cells are not suitable for studying their procoagulant activities. We now report that polyphosphate readily co-purified with DNA and RNA using several popular isolation methods, including phenol/chloroform extraction. Thus, cell-derived nucleic acids are also subject to contamination with traces of cellular polyphosphate, which can be eliminated by alkaline phosphatase digestion. We further report that long-chain polyphosphate was orders of magnitude more potent than cell-derived DNA (purified via phenol/chloroform extraction) or RNA at triggering clotting. Additional experiments using RNA homopolymers found that polyG and polyI have procoagulant activity similar to polyphosphate, while polyA and polyC are not procoagulant. Thus, the procoagulant activity of RNA is rather highly dependent on base composition. PMID:29719836

  16. Localization of proteins and nucleic acids using soft x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larabell, Carolyn A.; Yager, Deborah; Meyer-Ilse, Werner

    2000-01-01

    The high-resolution soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) at the Advanced Light Source was used to examine whole, hydrated mammalian cells, both chemically fixed and rapidly frozen and viewed in a cryostage. Using x-ray microscopy, high contrast information about the organization of the cytoplasm and nucleus of these cells was revealed at unsurpassed resolution. It is important to note that cryo-fixed cells have been examined in a state that most closely resembles their natural environment in that the cells were not exposed to chemical fixatives or chemical contrast enhancement reagents. We also used the power of soft x-ray microscopy to examine the localization of proteins and nucleic acids in whole, hydrated cells using silver-enhanced, immunogold labeling techniques. With this approach, we have obtained information about the distribution of such molecules with respect to cellular ultrastructure at five times better resolution than light microscopy. The power of soft x-ray microscopy to provide superb resolution information about the subcellular localization of proteins and nucleic acids places it in a commanding position to contribute to our understanding of the numerous molecules being identified through modern molecular biology techniques

  17. lncRNATargets: A platform for lncRNA target prediction based on nucleic acid thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruifeng; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have supported that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform various functions in various critical biological processes. Advanced experimental and computational technologies allow access to more information on lncRNAs. Determining the functions and action mechanisms of these RNAs on a large scale is urgently needed. We provided lncRNATargets, which is a web-based platform for lncRNA target prediction based on nucleic acid thermodynamics. The nearest-neighbor (NN) model was used to calculate binging-free energy. The main principle of NN model for nucleic acid assumes that identity and orientation of neighbor base pairs determine stability of a given base pair. lncRNATargets features the following options: setting of a specific temperature that allow use not only for human but also for other animals or plants; processing all lncRNAs in high throughput without RNA size limitation that is superior to any other existing tool; and web-based, user-friendly interface, and colored result displays that allow easy access for nonskilled computer operators and provide better understanding of results. This technique could provide accurate calculation on the binding-free energy of lncRNA-target dimers to predict if these structures are well targeted together. lncRNATargets provides high accuracy calculations, and this user-friendly program is available for free at http://www.herbbol.org:8001/lrt/ .

  18. Autoradiographic studies on nucleic acid synthesis of human gastric cancer cells, 2. Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on nucleic acid synthesis of cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, K [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    Changes in nucleic acid synthesis of gastric cancer cells by oral administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were evaluated autoradiographically. 1) Average /sup 3/H-thymidine labeling index (TLI) in the administered group (31.8%, n = 13) was a significantly high value compared with that of the control group (22.4%, n = 21). This result is considered to show that the pharmacological effects of 5-FU appeared on the cancer cells by the clinical administration of 5-FU. 2) Increase in TLI of the administered group was also found in the advanced stages. However, the degree of its increase seemed to be higher in the early stages. 3) Average /sup 3/H-uridine labeling index (89.9%) was not different from that (92.7%) of control group.

  19. Evaluation of cost-effective total nucleic acids extraction protocols for cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis; a comparison by PCR amplification of genes associated with drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyamfi Oti K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has made the management of tuberculosis difficult. Also, Mycobacterium species has a peculiar cell wall, made of an impermeable complex structure rich in mycolate, making the lyses of its cell difficult. In order to apply a radio-labelled-probe based detection of mutations in selected genes leading to drug resistance, we concede that the evaluation and modifications of nucleic acid extraction protocols that are less sophisticated and less prone to contamination would be useful in the management of tuberculosis in a resource-constrained setting. Findings The average amount of nucleic acids was determined for different extraction treatments. High temperature treatment only, yielded the lowest amount of nucleic acids, i.e. 15.7 ± 3.2 μg. The average amount of nucleic acids obtained with the addition of TE and triton-X100, was 133.7 ± 8.9 μg, while that obtained with the addition of TE only, and TE and SDS were 68.4 ± 22.7 μg and 70.4 ± 20.3 μg respectively. Other treatments yielded 28.8 ± 6.7 μg, 32.5 ± 2.4 μg and 36.9 ± 15.5 μg. The average amount of nucleic acids obtained with high temperature treatment in TE, and that obtained by freezing prior to high temperature treatment, successfully amplified for the genes of interest (rpoB, KatG, rrs. Conclusion We strongly recommend the use of 1× TE buffer, and freezing and heating for improved lysis of cultured M. tuberculosis, and therefore, as an effective method for the preparation of M. tuberculosis nucleic acid useful for PCR.

  20. The use of citation indicators to identify and support high-quality research in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilc, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    In large, mostly English-speaking countries, where the "critical mass" of scientists working in different subfields of science is achieved, the peer review system may be sufficient to assess the quality of scientific research. However, in smaller countries, outside the Anglo-American circle, it is important to introduce different systems to identify research of high quality. In Poland, a parametric system for assessing the quality of research has been introduced. It was largely based on the impact factor of scientific journals. While the use of this indicator to assess research quality is highly questionable, the implementation of the system in the Polish reality is even worse. Therefore it is important to change and improve the system currently used by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education to both evaluate and, more importantly, finance science in Poland. Here, a system based on three factors, i.e. the impact factor, the institutional h-index, and the institutional number of citations, is proposed. The scientific quality of institutions in Division VI: Medical Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences were evaluated and the results were compared with the existing system. Moreover, a method to identify high-quality researchers and institutions at the national level based on the quantity of highly cited papers is shown. Additionally, an attempt to identify the highest quality Polish research on an international level is proposed. This is based on the number of individual citations, the individual h-index, the number of publications, and the priority of the discovery.

  1. Selenium Derivatization of Nucleic Acids for Phase and Structure Determination in Nucleic Acid X-ray Crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Huang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Selenium derivatization (via selenomethionine of proteins for crystal structure determination via MAD phasing has revolutionized protein X-ray crystallography. It is estimated that over two thirds of all new crystal structures of proteins have been determined via Se-Met derivatization. Similarly, selenium functionalities have also been successfully incorporated into nucleic acids to facilitate their structure studies and it has been proved that this Se-derivatization has advantages over halogen strategy, which was usually used as a traditional method in this field. This review reports the development of site-specific selenium derivatization of nucleic acids for phase determination since the year of 2001 (mainly focus on the 2’-position of the ribose. All the synthesis of 2’-SeMe modified phosphoramidite building blocks (U, C, T, A, G and the according oligonucleotides are included. In addition, several structures of selenium contained nucleic acid are also described in this paper.

  2. Selection of process parameters for producing high quality defatted sesame flour at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, M R; Sharma, Rajiv; Yadav, D N; Gupta, R K

    2015-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of pearling duration, soaking time, steaming duration and drying temperature on the quality of sesame seeds and mechanically extracted partially defatted sesame cake. On the basis of quality attributes i.e. high protein, low crude fibre, low residual oil and low oxalic acid, the optimum process parameters were selected. The combination of 20 min of pearling duration, 15 min of soaking, 15 min of steaming at 100 kPa pressure and drying at 50 °C yielded high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour as compared to untreated defatted sesame flour. The developed high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour may be used in various food applications as a vital ingredient to increase the nutritional significance of the prepared foodstuffs.

  3. Quantifying quality in DNA self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenbauer, Klaus F.; Wachauf, Christian H.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly with DNA is an attractive route for building nanoscale devices. The development of sophisticated and precise objects with this technique requires detailed experimental feedback on the structure and composition of assembled objects. Here we report a sensitive assay for the quality of assembly. The method relies on measuring the content of unpaired DNA bases in self-assembled DNA objects using a fluorescent de-Bruijn probe for three-base ‘codons’, which enables a comparison with the designed content of unpaired DNA. We use the assay to measure the quality of assembly of several multilayer DNA origami objects and illustrate the use of the assay for the rational refinement of assembly protocols. Our data suggests that large and complex objects like multilayer DNA origami can be made with high strand integration quality up to 99%. Beyond DNA nanotechnology, we speculate that the ability to discriminate unpaired from paired nucleic acids in the same macromolecule may also be useful for analysing cellular nucleic acids. PMID:24751596

  4. High Quality RNA Isolation from Leaf, Shell, Root Tissues and Callus of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khosravi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of high quality RNA is a critical step in molecular genetics studies. Hazelnut is one of the most important nuts plants in the world. The presence of the taxol and other taxanes in hazelnut plant necessitates explaining their biosynthesis pathway and identifying the candidate genes. Therefore, an easy and practical method is necessary for RNA extraction from hazelnuts. Hazelnut has high levels of phenolic compounds. High amounts of polyphenolic and polysaccharide compounds in plants could be causing problems in RNA extraction procedures.  To avoid these problems, a simple and efficient method can be used based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB extraction buffer and lithium chloride for extraction of high quality RNA from different parts of hazelnut plant. Using this method, a high-quality RNA sample (light absorbed in the A260/A280 was 2.04

  5. Analysis of apple beverages treated with high-power ultrasound: a quality function deployment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Režek Jambrak, Anet; Šimunek, Marina; Grbeš, Franjo; Mandura, Ana; Djekic, Ilija

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to demonstrate application of quality function deployment in analysing effects of high power ultrasound on quality properties of apple juices and nectars. In order to develop a quality function deployment model, joint with instrumental analysis of treated samples, a field survey was performed to identify consumer preferences towards quality characteristics of juices/nectar. Based on field research, the three most important characteristics were 'taste' and 'aroma' with 28.5% of relative absolute weight importance, followed by 'odour' (16.9%). The quality function deployment model showed that the top three 'quality scores' for apple juice were treatments with amplitude 90 µm, 9 min treatment time and sample temperature 40 °C; 60 µm, 9 min, 60 °C; and 90 µm, 6 min, 40 °C. For nectars, the top three were treatments 120 µm, 9 min, 20 °C; 60 µm, 9 min, 60 °C; and A2.16 60 µm, 9 min, 20 °C. This type of quality model enables a more complex measure of large scale of different quality parameters. Its simplicity should be understood as its practical advantage and, as such, this tool can be a part of design quality when using novel preservation technologies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Bullying as a risk for poor sleep quality among high school students in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    Full Text Available To determine whether involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, or bully-victim was associated with a higher risk of poor sleep quality among high school students in China.A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 23,877 high school students were surveyed in six cities in Guangdong Province. All students were asked to complete the adolescent health status questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and bullying involvement. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sleep quality and the prevalence of school bullying. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between being victimized and bullying others with sleep quality.Among the 23,877 students, 6,127 (25.66% reported having poor sleep quality, and 10.89% reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 1,410 (5.91% were pure victims of bullying, 401 (1.68% were bullies and 784 (3.28% were bully-victims. Frequently being involved in bullying behaviors (being bullied or bullying others was related to increased risks of poor sleep quality compared with adolescents who were not involved in bullying behaviors. After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding factors, the students who were being bullied (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.81-2.32, bullied others (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.85-2.86 or both (OR=2.58, 95%CI=2.20-3.03 were at a higher risk for poor sleep quality.Poor sleep quality among high school students is highly prevalent, and school bullying is prevalent among adolescents in China. The present results suggested that being involved in school bullying might be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among adolescents.

  7. Bullying as a risk for poor sleep quality among high school students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ci-yong; Deng, Jian-xiong; He, Yuan; Huang, Jing-hui; Huang, Guo-liang; Deng, Xue-qing; Gao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, or bully-victim was associated with a higher risk of poor sleep quality among high school students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 23,877 high school students were surveyed in six cities in Guangdong Province. All students were asked to complete the adolescent health status questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and bullying involvement. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sleep quality and the prevalence of school bullying. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between being victimized and bullying others with sleep quality. Among the 23,877 students, 6,127 (25.66%) reported having poor sleep quality, and 10.89% reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 1,410 (5.91%) were pure victims of bullying, 401 (1.68%) were bullies and 784 (3.28%) were bully-victims. Frequently being involved in bullying behaviors (being bullied or bullying others) was related to increased risks of poor sleep quality compared with adolescents who were not involved in bullying behaviors. After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding factors, the students who were being bullied (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.81-2.32), bullied others (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.85-2.86) or both (OR=2.58, 95%CI=2.20-3.03) were at a higher risk for poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality among high school students is highly prevalent, and school bullying is prevalent among adolescents in China. The present results suggested that being involved in school bullying might be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among adolescents.

  8. Label-Free Potentiometry for Detecting DNA Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid and DNA Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Miyahara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry.

  9. Injury-induced inhibition of small intestinal protein and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.A.; Hatz, R.A.; Yarmush, M.L.; Tompkins, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Small intestinal mucosal weight and nutrient absorption are significantly diminished early after cutaneous thermal injuries. Because these intestinal properties are highly dependent on rates of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, in vivo incorporation of thymidine, uridine, and leucine into small intestinal deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and proteins were measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was markedly decreased with the lowest thymidine incorporation in the jejunum (p less than 0.01); these findings were confirmed by autoradiographic identification of radiolabeled nuclei in the intestinal crypts. Protein synthesis was decreased by 6 h postinjury (p less than 0.01) but had returned to normal by 48 h. Consistent with a decreased rate of protein synthesis, ribonucleic acid synthesis was also decreased 18 h postinjury (p less than 0.01). These decreased deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis rates are not likely a result of ischemia because in other studies of this injury model, intestinal blood flow was not significantly changed by the burn injury. Potentially, factors initiating the acute inflammatory reaction may directly inhibit nucleic acid and protein synthesis and lead to alterations in nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function after injury

  10. Label-Free Potentiometry for Detecting DNA Hybridization Using Peptide Nucleic Acid and DNA Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Singi, Ankit Balram; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Akira; Torimura, Masaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) has outstanding affinity over DNA for complementary nucleic acid sequences by forming a PNA-DNA heterodimer upon hybridization via Watson-Crick base-pairing. To verify whether PNA probes on an electrode surface enhance sensitivity for potentiometric DNA detection or not, we conducted a comparative study on the hybridization of PNA and DNA probes on the surface of a 10-channel gold electrodes microarray. Changes in the charge density as a result of hybridization at the solution/electrode interface on the self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-formed microelectrodes were directly transformed into potentiometric signals using a high input impedance electrometer. The charge readout allows label-free, reagent-less, and multi-parallel detection of target oligonucleotides without any optical assistance. The differences in the probe lengths between 15- to 22-mer dramatically influenced on the sensitivity of the PNA and DNA sensors. Molecular type of the capturing probe did not affect the degree of potential shift. Theoretical model for charged rod-like duplex using the Gouy-Chapman equation indicates the dominant effect of electrostatic attractive forces between anionic DNA and underlying electrode at the electrolyte/electrode interface in the potentiometry. PMID:23435052

  11. Nucleic acid-based vaccines targeting respiratory syncytial virus: Delivering the goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor R F; Schultheis, Katherine; Broderick, Kate E

    2017-11-02

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a massive medical burden on a global scale. Infants, children and the elderly represent the vulnerable populations. Currently there is no approved vaccine to protect against the disease. Vaccine development has been hindered by several factors including vaccine enhanced disease (VED) associated with formalin-inactivated RSV vaccines, inability of target populations to raise protective immune responses after vaccination or natural viral infection, and a lack of consensus concerning the most appropriate virus-associated target antigen. However, with recent advances in the molecular understanding of the virus, and design of highly characterized vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity there is new belief a RSV vaccine is possible. One promising approach is nucleic acid-based vaccinology. Both DNA and mRNA RSV vaccines are showing promising results in clinically relevant animal models, supporting their transition into humans. Here we will discuss this strategy to target RSV, and the ongoing studies to advance the nucleic acid vaccine platform as a viable option to protect vulnerable populations from this important disease.

  12. Exponential isothermal amplification of nucleic acids and amplified assays for proteins, cells, and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael S; Le, X Chris; Zhang, Hongquan

    2018-04-27

    Isothermal exponential amplification techniques, such as strand-displacement amplification (SDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), have great potential for on-site, point-of-care, and in-situ assay applications. These amplification techniques eliminate the need for temperature cycling required for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while achieving comparable amplification yield. We highlight here recent advances in exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR) for the detection of nucleic acids, proteins, enzyme activities, cells, and metal ions. We discuss design strategies, enzyme reactions, detection techniques, and key features. Incorporation of fluorescence, colorimetric, chemiluminescence, Raman, and electrochemical approaches enables highly sensitive detection of a variety of targets. Remaining issues, such as undesirable background amplification resulting from non-specific template interactions, must be addressed to further improve isothermal and exponential amplification techniques. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A universal and label-free impedimetric biosensing platform for discrimination of single nucleotide substitutions in long nucleic acid strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dawn M; Martin, Christopher P; Armas, Stephanie M; Calvo-Marzal, Percy; Kolpashchikov, Dmitry M; Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y

    2018-06-30

    We report a label-free universal biosensing platform for highly selective detection of long nucleic acid strands. The sensor consists of an electrode-immobilized universal stem-loop (USL) probe and two adaptor strands that form a 4J structure in the presence of a specific DNA/RNA analyte. The sensor was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]/K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] redox couple in solution. An increase in charge transfer resistance (R CT ) was observed upon 4J structure formation, the value of which depends on the analyte length. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to further characterize the sensor and monitor the electrochemical reaction in conjunction with thickness measurements of the mixed DNA monolayer obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry. In addition, the electron transfer was calculated at the electrode/electrolyte interface using a rotating disk electrode. Limits of detection in the femtomolar range were achieved for nucleic acid targets of different lengths (22 nt, 60 nt, 200 nt). The sensor produced only a background signal in the presence of single base mismatched analytes, even in hundred times excess in concentration. This label-free and highly selective biosensing platform is versatile and can be used for universal detection of nucleic acids of varied lengths which could revolutionize point of care diagnostics for applications such as bacterial or cancer screening. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel universal real-time PCR system using the attached universal duplex probes for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Zoe A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR techniques are being widely used for nucleic acids analysis, but one limitation of current frequently employed real-time PCR is the high cost of the labeled probe for each target molecule. Results We describe a real-time PCR technique employing attached universal duplex probes (AUDP, which has the advantage of generating fluorescence by probe hydrolysis and strand displacement over current real-time PCR methods. AUDP involves one set of universal duplex probes in which the 5' end of the fluorescent probe (FP and a complementary quenching probe (QP lie in close proximity so that fluorescence can be quenched. The PCR primer pair with attached universal template (UT and the FP are identical to the UT sequence. We have shown that the AUDP technique can be used for detecting multiple target DNA sequences in both simplex and duplex real-time PCR assays for gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and genetically modified organism (GMO quantification with comparable sensitivity, reproducibility, and repeatability with other real-time PCR methods. Conclusion The results from GMO quantification, gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and GMO quantification using AUDP real-time PCR assays indicate that the AUDP real-time PCR technique has been successfully applied in nucleic acids analysis, and the developed AUDP real-time PCR technique will offer an alternative way for nucleic acid analysis with high efficiency, reliability, and flexibility at low cost.

  15. Solving nucleic acid structures by molecular replacement: examples from group II intron studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcia, Marco; Humphris-Narayanan, Elisabeth; Keating, Kevin S.; Somarowthu, Srinivas; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for phasing nucleic acid structures by molecular replacement, using both experimental and de novo designed models, are discussed. Structured RNA molecules are key players in ensuring cellular viability. It is now emerging that, like proteins, the functions of many nucleic acids are dictated by their tertiary folds. At the same time, the number of known crystal structures of nucleic acids is also increasing rapidly. In this context, molecular replacement will become an increasingly useful technique for phasing nucleic acid crystallographic data in the near future. Here, strategies to select, create and refine molecular-replacement search models for nucleic acids are discussed. Using examples taken primarily from research on group II introns, it is shown that nucleic acids are amenable to different and potentially more flexible and sophisticated molecular-replacement searches than proteins. These observations specifically aim to encourage future crystallographic studies on the newly discovered repertoire of noncoding transcripts

  16. When high-volume PCI operators in high-volume hospitals move to lower volume hospitals-Do they still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Li, Sheng-Tun; Liang, Fu-Wen; Lee, Jo-Chi; Yin, Wei-Hsian

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to examine whether high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) operators still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes when they moved to lower volume hospitals. Systematic reviews have indicated that high-volume PCI operators and hospitals have higher quality outcomes. However, little is known on whether high PCI volume and high quality outcomes are mainly due to operator characteristics (i.e., skill and experience) and is portable across organizations or whether it is due to hospital characteristics (i.e., equipment, team, and management system) and is less portable. We used Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data 2000-2012 to identify 98 high-volume PCI operators, 10 of whom moved from one hospital to another during the study period. We compared the PCI volume, risk-adjusted mortality ratio, and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) ratio before and after moving. Of the 10 high-volume operators who moved, 6 moved from high- to moderate- or low-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 130 (117-165) in prior hospitals and 54 (46-84) in subsequent hospitals (the hospital the operator moved to), and the remaining 4 moved from high to high-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 151 (133-162) in prior hospitals and 193 (178-239) in subsequent hospitals. No significant differences were observed in the risk-adjusted mortality ratios and MACE ratios between high-volume operators and matched controls before and after moving. High-volume operators cannot maintain high volume when they moved from high to moderate or low-volume hospitals; however, the quality of care is maintained. High PCI volume and high-quality outcomes are less portable and more hospital bound. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Narrative Review of High-Quality Literature on the Effects of Resident Duty Hours Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Henry; Lin, Emery; Auditore, Stephanie; Fanning, Jon

    2016-01-01

    To summarize current high-quality studies evaluating the effect and efficacy of resident duty hours reforms (DHRs) on patient safety and resident education and well-being. The authors searched PubMed and Medline in August 2012 and again in May 2013 for literature (1987-2013) about the effects of DHRs. They assessed the quality of articles using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) scoring system. They considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs), partial RCTs, and all studies with a MERSQI score ≥ 14 to be "high-quality" methodology studies. A total of 72 high-quality studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies showed no change or slight improvement in mortality and complication rates after DHRs. Resident well-being was generally improved, but there was a perceived negative impact on education (knowledge acquisition, skills, and cognitive performance) following DHRs. Eleven high-quality studies assessed the impact of DHR interventions; all reported a neutral to positive impact. Seven high-quality studies assessed costs associated with DHRs and demonstrated an increase in hospital costs. The results of most studies that allow enough time for DHR interventions to take effect suggest a benefit to patient safety and resident well-being, but the effect on the quality of training remains unknown. Additional methodologically sound studies on the impact of DHRs are necessary. Priorities for future research include approaches to optimizing education and clinical proficiency and studies on the effect of intervention strategies on both education and patient safety. Such studies will provide additional information to help improve duty hours policies.

  18. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Diego

    2016-08-05

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach.

  19. Modeling the Subjective Quality of Highly Contrasted Videos Displayed on LCD With Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated...... signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight......-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage...

  20. The effect of the amiodarone-warfarin interaction on anticoagulation quality in a single, high-quality anticoagulation center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ryan D; Riggs, Kyle W; Ege, Ed J; Petroski, Gregory F; Koerber, Scott M; Flaker, Greg

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trials have reported a low time in therapeutic range (TTR) in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with both warfarin andamiodarone. These trials included centers and countries with both high and low TTRs. What is the impact of amiodarone on the TTR in a single, high-quality anticoagulation clinic? TTR was assessed in amiodarone and nonamiodarone-treated patients from a University anticoagulation clinic. Baseline characteristics between patients ever-taking or never-taking amiodarone were similar, except more amiodarone patients were smokers (19.5 vs. 6.1%, P = 0.0031). The TTR calculated from 8901international normalized ratios (INRs) in 249 nonamiodarone patients with a mean follow-up of 34 ± 20 months (mean INR 36 ± 18) was 66 ± 16.6% compared with 61.3 ± 16.2% (P = 0.111) from 1455 INRs in 41 amiodarone-treated patients with a mean follow-up of 28 ± 20 months (mean INR 35 ± 22). Factors associated with a low TTR were male sex (P = 0.0013), smoker (P = 0.0048), and amiodarone use (P = 0.0374). A second on-treatment analysis, in which the TTR was calculated only during amiodarone therapy, resulted in similar findings; however, amiodarone did not emerge as a predictor of a low TTR. In 11 patients, the TTR prior to amiodarone (54.5 ± 22.2%) was not significantly different in the first 3 months (54.6 ± 33.4%) or after 3 months (67.2 ± 33.7%) of amiodarone. In a single high-quality anticoagulation center, anticoagulation quality, as measured by the TTR, can be comparable in amiodarone and nonamiodarone-treated patients.

  1. Combined microfluidization and ultrasonication: a synergistic protocol for high-efficient processing of SWCNT dispersions with high quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sida, E-mail: s.luo@buaa.edu.cn [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Liu, Tao, E-mail: tliu@fsu.edu [Florida State University, High-Performance Materials Institute (United States); Wang, Yong; Li, Liuhe [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Wang, Guantao; Luo, Yun [China University of Geosciences, Center of Safety Research, School of Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-08-15

    High-efficient and large-scale production of high-quality CNT dispersions is necessary for meeting the future needs to develop various CNT-based electronic devices. Herein, we have designed novel processing protocols by combining conventional ultrasonication process with a new microfluidization technique to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with improved processing efficiency. To judge the quality of SWCNT dispersions, one critical factor is the degree of exfoliation, which could be quantified by both geometrical dimension of the exfoliated nanotubes and percentage of individual tubes in a given dispersion. In this paper, the synergistic effect of the combined protocols was systematically investigated through evaluating SWCNT dispersions with newly developed characterization techniques, namely preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy (SRSPL). The results of both techniques draw similar conclusions that as compared with either of the processes operated separately, a low-pass microfluidization followed by a reasonable duration of ultrasonication could substantially improve the processing efficiency to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with averaged particle length and diameter as small as ~600 and ~2 nm, respectively.Graphical abstract.

  2. Towards a High Quality High School Workforce: A Longitudinal, Demographic Analysis of U.S. Public School Physics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Rosengrant, David; Dewar, Andrew; Shah, Lisa; Ray, Herman E.; Sheppard, Keith; Watanabe, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to improve the number and quality of the high school physics teaching workforce have taken several forms, including those sponsored by professional organizations. Using a series of large-scale teacher demographic data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), this study sought to investigate trends in teacher quality…

  3. Examining Relational Engagement across the Transition to High Schools in Three US High Schools Reformed to Improve Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in students' relational engagement across the transition to high school in three schools reformed to improve the quality of student-teacher relationships. In order to analyze this data we employed latent growth curve (LGC) modeling techniques (n = 637). We ran three LGC models on three…

  4. Development of a high-quality cut-off wall using electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, T.; Murahashi, H.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques to build a high-quality cut-off wall have been developed for storage facilities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) as an emergency measures to prevent leakages. The cut-off wall is highly impermeable, nucleid-adsorptive and have long-term durability. Electrophoresis is used to form impermeable membrane of bentonite as main features of the cut-off wall. First of all, laboratory tests have been conducted to study ways of building barriers on site and to collect data on the barriers properties. Afterwards, on-site construction tests of a high-quality cut-off wall have been carried out. In this paper, we describe the process and results on the studies of the high-quality cut-off wall using electrophoresis

  5. Photochemical reactions of nucleic acids and their constituents of photobiological relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, I.; Sugiyama, H.; Matsuura, T.

    1983-01-01

    A review is given of the papers published from 1977 to May 1983 on the UV-induced photochemical reactions of nucleic acids and their constituents of photobiological relevance where the structures of photoproducts have been fully characterized. Among the topics discussed are photoadditions relevant to nucleic acid-protein photocrosslinking, photoreactions with psoralens and nucleic acids and photochemical reactions of polynucleotides. (U.K.)

  6. BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AT SURFACES RELEVANT TO MICROARRAY PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Archana N.; Grainger, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Both clinical and analytical metrics produced by microarray-based assay technology have recognized problems in reproducibility, reliability and analytical sensitivity. These issues are often attributed to poor understanding and control of nucleic acid behaviors and properties at solid-liquid interfaces. Nucleic acid hybridization, central to DNA and RNA microarray formats, depends on the properties and behaviors of single strand (ss) nucleic acids (e.g., probe oligomeric DNA) bound to surface...

  7. Analytical method for high resolution liquid chromatography for quality control French Macaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Penna, Caridad M; Torres Amaro, Leonid; Menendez Castillo, Rosa; Sanchez, Esther; Martinez Espinosa, Vivian; Gonzalez, Maria Lidia; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Was developed and validated an analytical method for high resolution liquid chromatography applicable to quality control of drugs dry French Macaw (Senna alata L. Roxb.) With ultraviolet detection at 340 nm. The method for high resolution liquid chromatography used to quantify the sennosides A and B, main components, was validated and proved to be specific, linear, precise and accurate. (Author)

  8. High quality factor GaAs microcavity with buried bullseye defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, K.; Gregersen, Niels; Hayrynen, T.

    2018-01-01

    The development of high quality factor solid-state microcavities with low mode volumes has paved the way towards on-chip cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and the development of high-performance nanophotonic devices. Here, we report on the implementation of a new kind of solid...

  9. Quality and performance of laser cutting with a high power SM fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Morten; Selchau, Jacob; Olsen, F. O.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of high power single mode fiber lasers allows for a beam of high power and a good beam quality factor (M2 ” 1.2), compared to the multimode fiber lasers often utilised in macro laser metal cutting. This paper describes fundamental studies of macro laser metal cutting with a singl...

  10. Effects of High School Students' Perceptions of School Life Quality on Their Academic Motivation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Kösterelioglu, Meltem; Kösterelioglu, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of high school students' perceptions of school life quality on their academic motivation levels. The study was conducted on a sample of high school students (n = 2371) in Amasya Province in the fall semester of 2013-2014 academic year. Study sample was selected with the help of cluster sampling method. Data…

  11. High dose-rate brachytherapy source position quality assurance using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.D.C.; Devic, S.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, radiographic film has been used to verify high-dose-rate brachytherapy source position accuracy by co-registering autoradiographic and diagnostic images of the associated applicator. Filmless PACS-based clinics that do not have access to radiographic film and wet developers may have trouble performing this quality assurance test in a simple and practical manner. We describe an alternative method for quality assurance using radiochromic-type film. In addition to being easy and practical to use, radiochromic film has some advantages in comparison with traditional radiographic film when used for HDR brachytherapy quality assurance

  12. Production of high-quality polydisperse construction mixes for additive 3D technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, M. D.; Brazhnik, Yu V.; Gorshkov, P. S.; Latyshev, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes a new design of a mixer allowing production of high quality polydisperse powders, used in additive 3D technologies. A new principle of dry powder particle mixing is considered, implementing a possibility of a close-to-ideal distribution of such particles in common space. A mathematical model of the mixer is presented, allowing evaluating quality indicators of the produced mixture. Experimental results are shown and rational values of process parameters of the mixer are obtained.

  13. Teaching Surgical Procedures with Movies: Tips for High-quality Video Clips

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemart, Mathieu; Bouletreau, Pierre; Breton, Pierre; Mojallal, Ali; Sigaux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Video must now be considered as a precious tool for learning surgery. However, the medium does present production challenges, and currently, quality movies are not always accessible. We developed a series of 7 surgical videos and made them available on a publicly accessible internet website. Our videos have been viewed by thousands of people worldwide. High-quality educational movies must respect strategic and technical points to be reliable.

  14. Teaching Surgical Procedures with Movies: Tips for High-quality Video Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemart, Mathieu; Bouletreau, Pierre; Breton, Pierre; Mojallal, Ali; Sigaux, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Video must now be considered as a precious tool for learning surgery. However, the medium does present production challenges, and currently, quality movies are not always accessible. We developed a series of 7 surgical videos and made them available on a publicly accessible internet website. Our videos have been viewed by thousands of people worldwide. High-quality educational movies must respect strategic and technical points to be reliable.

  15. Timing of high-quality child care and cognitive, language, and preacademic development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W; Farkas, G; Duncan, GJ; Burchinal, MR; Vandell, DL

    2013-01-01

    The effects of high- versus low-quality child care during 2 developmental periods (infant-toddlerhood and preschool) were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in families who used different combinations of child care quality during the 2 developmental periods. Findings indicated that cognitive, language, and preacademic skills prior to school entry were hig...

  16. High-quality poly-dispersed mixtures applied in additive 3D technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, M. D.; Brazhnik, Yu V.; Gorshkov, P. S.; Latyshev, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes the new mixer design to obtain high-quality poly-dispersed powders applied in additive 3D technologies. It also considers a new mixing principle of dry powder particles ensuring the distribution of such particles in the total volume, which is close to ideal. The paper presents the mathematical model of mixer operation providing for the quality assessment of the ready mixtures. Besides, it demonstrates experimental results and obtained rational values of mixer process parameters.

  17. Synthesis of a new intercalating nucleic acid 6H-INDOLO[2,3-b] quinoxaline oligonucleotides to improve thermal stability of Hoogsteen-type triplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Amany M A; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard; Bergman, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A new intercalating nucleic acid monomer X was obtained in high yield starting from alkylation of 4-iodophenol with (S)-(+)-2-(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)ethanol under Mitsunobu conditions followed by hydrolysis with 80% aqueous acetic acid to give a diol which was coupled under Sonogashira c...

  18. Accelerated digestion of nucleic acids by pepsin from the stomach of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhang, Y; Guo, H; Wu, W; Dong, P; Liang, X

    2016-10-01

    Nucleic acids have become an important nutritional supplement in poultry feed; however, the digestion of nucleic acids in poultry is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the digestion of nucleic acids by chicken pepsin in vitro. The extracted pepsinogen from the stomach of the chicken was purified to homogeneity. Upon activation at pH 2.0, chicken pepsinogen was converted to its active form. Nucleic acids, including λ-DNA, salmon sperm DNA and single-strand DNA (ssDNA), can be used as substrates and digested into short-chain oligonucleotides by pepsin. Interestingly, the digestion of the nucleic acids was inhibited when pepsin was treated by alkaline solution (pH 8.0) or pepstatin A. Also, the digestion of the nucleic acids was not affected by the addition of haemoglobin or bovine serum albumin. The results suggested that nucleic acids could be digested by chicken pepsin. Thus pepsin may have a role in digesting nucleic acids in vivo. Nucleic acids added to poultry fed may be digested, starting from the stomach.

  19. Ionizing radiation induced attachment reactions of nucleic acids and their components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.S. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive bibliographic review is given of experimental and theoretical data on radiation-induced attachment reactions of nucleic acids and their components. Mechanisms of these reactions are reviewed. The reactions with water, formate, and alcohols, with amines and other small molecules, and with radiation sensitizers and nucleic acid-nucleic acid reactions are discussed. Studies of the reaction mechanisms show that many of the reactions occur by radical-molecule reactions, but radical-radical reactions also occur. Radiation modifiers become attached to nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo and there are indications that attachment may be necessary for the action of some sensitizers. (U.S.)

  20. Advances in nucleic acid-based diagnostics of bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Kim Bundvig; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Methods for rapid detection of infectious bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have evolved significantly over the last decade. Many of the new procedures are nucleic acid-based and replace conventional diagnostic methods like culturing which is time consuming especially with fastidious...... of these pathogens is important to isolate patients and prevent further spreading of the diseases. Newly developed diagnostic procedures are superior with respect to turnaround time, sensitivity and specificity. Methods like multiplex real time PCR and different array-based technologies offer the possibility...

  1. Fluorescently labeled bionanotransporters of nucleic acid based on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novopashina, D.S.; Apartsin, E.K.; Venyaminova, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to the design of a new type of hybrids of oligonucleotides with fluorescein-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes. The approach is based on stacking interactions of functionalized nanotubes with pyrene residues in conjugates of oligonucleotides. The amino- and fluorescein-modified single walled carbon nanotubes are obtained, and their physico-chemical properties are investigated. The effect of the functionalization type of carbon nanotubes on the efficacy of the sorption of pyrene conjugates of oligonucleotides was examined. The proposed noncovalent hybrids of fluorescein-labeled carbon nanotubes with oligonucleotides may be used for the intracellular transport of functional nucleic acids.

  2. Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).

  3. Isolation of high-quality total RNA from leaves of Myrciaria dubia "CAMU CAMU".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan Carlos Castro; Reátegui, Alina Del Carmen Egoavil; Flores, Julián Torres; Saavedra, Roberson Ramírez; Ruiz, Marianela Cobos; Correa, Sixto Alfredo Imán

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia is a main source of vitamin C for people in the Amazon region. Molecular studies of M. dubia require high-quality total RNA from different tissues. So far, no protocols have been reported for total RNA isolation from leaves of this species. The objective of this research was to develop protocols for extracting high-quality total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. Total RNA was purified following two modified protocols developed for leaves of other species (by Zeng and Yang, and by Reid et al.) and one modified protocol developed for fruits of the studied species (by Silva). Quantity and quality of purified total RNA were assessed by spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analysis. Additionally, quality of total RNA was evaluated with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With these three modified protocols we were able to isolate high-quality RNA (A260nm/A280nm >1.9 and A260nm/A230nm >2.0). Highest yield was produced with the Zeng and Yang modified protocol (384±46µg ARN/g fresh weight). Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis showed the integrity of isolated RNA and the absence of DNA. Another proof of the high quality of our purified RNA was the successful cDNA synthesis and amplification of a segment of the M. dubia actin 1 gene. We report three modified protocols for isolation total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. The modified protocols are easy, rapid, low in cost, and effective for high-quality and quantity total RNA isolation suitable for cDNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction.

  4. Assessment Sleep Quality and its Relationship with Test Anxiety among High School Students in Qom- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman barmeh ziyar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Test anxiety is a special case of a general anxiety which is of particular importance in students, because students will be the future of the country and the society activists. On the other hand, sleep quality and sleep disorders, have correlation with ailments, poor performance, decreased quality of life and increase of associated costs; This study aimed to determine the quality of sleep and its relationship with test anxiety among students in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study, which was performed among 250 students who were going to pass the exam preparation classes. In order to collect data Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaires and Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 with descriptive statistics and statistical methods, independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results In this study, 50% of participants were boys (n=125 and 50 percent were girls (n=125. 81.4% of subjects had poor sleep quality and 69.6% had average to high score for test anxiety. Based on the results of anxiety test and sleep quality index there was a significant correlation between anxiety and sleep quality with gender (P=0.003, r=0.447. Conclusion School children had poor sleep quality and high test anxiety, and due to their direct and significant correlation, attention to this category of students, especially for girls, is important. Therefore, anxiety and promoting sleep quality control programs are recommended in this group.

  5. Soft X-ray generation via inverse compton scattering between high quality electron beam and high power laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masakazu Washio; Kazuyuki Sakaue; Yoshimasa Hama; Yoshio Kamiya; Tomoko Gowa; Akihiko Masuda; Aki Murata; Ryo Moriyama; Shigeru Kashiwagi; Junji Urakawa

    2007-01-01

    High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emmitance was about 3 m.mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft x-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called water window, by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emmitance electron beams. (Author)

  6. The Barriers to High-Quality Inpatient Pain Management: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richard J; Reid, M Carrington; Liu, Lydia L; Chused, Amy E; Evans, Arthur T

    2015-09-01

    The current literature suggests deficiencies in the quality of acute pain management among general medical inpatients. The aim of this qualitative study is to identify potential barriers to high-quality acute pain management among general medical inpatients at an urban academic medical center during a 2-year period. Data are collected using retrospective chart reviews, survey questionnaires, and semistructured, open-ended interviews of 40 general medical inpatients who have experienced pain during their hospitalization. Our results confirm high prevalence and disabling impacts of pain and significant patient- and provider-related barriers to high-quality acute pain management. We also identify unique system-related barriers such as time delay and pain management culture. Efforts to improve the pain management experience of general medical inpatients will need to address all these barriers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Quality Evaluation of Potentilla fruticosa L. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprinting Associated with Chemometric Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Yin, Dongxue

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the quality of Potentilla fruticosa L. sampled from distinct regions of China using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting coupled with a suite of chemometric methods. For this quantitative analysis, the main active phytochemical compositions and the antioxidant activity in P. fruticosa were also investigated. Considering the high percentages and antioxidant activities of phytochemicals, P. fruticosa samples from Kangding, Sichuan were selected as the most valuable raw materials. Similarity analysis (SA) of HPLC fingerprints, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principle component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) were further employed to provide accurate classification and quality estimates of P. fruticosa. Two principal components (PCs) were collected by PCA. PC1 separated samples from Kangding, Sichuan, capturing 57.64% of the variance, whereas PC2 contributed to further separation, capturing 18.97% of the variance. Two kinds of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. The results strongly supported the conclusion that the eight samples from different regions were clustered into three major groups, corresponding with their morphological classification, for which HPLC analysis confirmed the considerable variation in phytochemical compositions and that P. fruticosa samples from Kangding, Sichuan were of high quality. The results of SA, HCA, PCA, and DA were in agreement and performed well for the quality assessment of P. fruticosa. Consequently, HPLC fingerprinting coupled with chemometric techniques provides a highly flexible and reliable method for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines.

  8. Quality Evaluation of Potentilla fruticosa L. by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Fingerprinting Associated with Chemometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Yin, Dongxue

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to assess the quality of Potentilla fruticosa L. sampled from distinct regions of China using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting coupled with a suite of chemometric methods. For this quantitative analysis, the main active phytochemical compositions and the antioxidant activity in P. fruticosa were also investigated. Considering the high percentages and antioxidant activities of phytochemicals, P. fruticosa samples from Kangding, Sichuan were selected as the most valuable raw materials. Similarity analysis (SA) of HPLC fingerprints, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principle component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA) were further employed to provide accurate classification and quality estimates of P. fruticosa. Two principal components (PCs) were collected by PCA. PC1 separated samples from Kangding, Sichuan, capturing 57.64% of the variance, whereas PC2 contributed to further separation, capturing 18.97% of the variance. Two kinds of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. The results strongly supported the conclusion that the eight samples from different regions were clustered into three major groups, corresponding with their morphological classification, for which HPLC analysis confirmed the considerable variation in phytochemical compositions and that P. fruticosa samples from Kangding, Sichuan were of high quality. The results of SA, HCA, PCA, and DA were in agreement and performed well for the quality assessment of P. fruticosa. Consequently, HPLC fingerprinting coupled with chemometric techniques provides a highly flexible and reliable method for the quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26890416

  9. Integrated Pathology Informatics Enables High-Quality Personalized and Precision Medicine: Digital Pathology and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynskaya, Zoya; Chow, Hung; Evans, Andrew; Wolff, Alan; Lagmay-Traya, Cecilia; Asa, Sylvia L

    2018-03-01

    - The critical role of pathology in diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction demands high-quality subspecialty diagnostics that integrates information from multiple laboratories. - To identify key requirements and to establish a systematic approach to providing high-quality pathology in a health care system that is responsible for services across a large geographic area. - This report focuses on the development of a multisite pathology informatics platform to support high-quality surgical pathology and hematopathology using a sophisticated laboratory information system and whole slide imaging for histology and immunohistochemistry, integrated with ancillary tools, including electron microscopy, flow cytometry, cytogenetics, and molecular diagnostics. - These tools enable patients in numerous geographic locations access to a model of subspecialty pathology that allows reporting of every specimen by the right pathologist at the right time. The use of whole slide imaging for multidisciplinary case conferences enables better communication among members of patient care teams. The system encourages data collection using a discrete data synoptic reporting module, has implemented documentation of quality assurance activities, and allows workload measurement, providing examples of additional benefits that can be gained by this electronic approach to pathology. - This approach builds the foundation for accurate big data collection and high-quality personalized and precision medicine.

  10. Ultramild protein-mediated click chemistry creates efficient oligonucleotide probes for targeting and detecting nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J.; Madsen, Charlotte S.; Jensen, Knud J.

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized synthetic oligonucleotides are finding growing applications in research, clinical studies, and therapy. However, it is not easy to prepare them in a biocompatible and highly efficient manner. We report a new strategy to synthesize oligonucleotides with promising nucleic acid...... targeting and detection properties. We focus in particular on the pH sensitivity of these new probes and their high target specificity. For the first time, human copper(I)-binding chaperon Cox17 was applied to effectively catalyze click labeling of oligonucleotides. This was performed under ultramild...... conditions with fluorophore, peptide, and carbohydrate azide derivatives. In thermal denaturation studies, the modified probes showed specific binding to complementary DNA and RNA targets. Finally, we demonstrated the pH sensitivity of the new rhodamine-based fluorescent probes in vitro and rationalize our...

  11. Nucleic acid programmable protein array a just-in-time multiplexed protein expression and purification platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Systematic study of proteins requires the availability of thousands of proteins in functional format. However, traditional recombinant protein expression and purification methods have many drawbacks for such study at the proteome level. We have developed an innovative in situ protein expression and capture system, namely NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array), where C-terminal tagged proteins are expressed using an in vitro expression system and efficiently captured/purified by antitag antibodies coprinted at each spot. The NAPPA technology presented in this chapter enable researchers to produce and display fresh proteins just in time in a multiplexed high-throughput fashion and utilize them for various downstream biochemical researches of interest. This platform could revolutionize the field of functional proteomics with it ability to produce thousands of spatially separated proteins in high density with narrow dynamic rand of protein concentrations, reproducibly and functionally. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. RNA preservation agents and nucleic acid extraction method bias perceived bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McCarthy

    Full Text Available Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA

  13. Developing Quality Control Procedures to Sustain a Supply of High Quality Blood for Mass Rearing Tsetse Flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, C J; Venter, G J; Potgieter, F T [ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Old Soutpans Road, Private Bag X05, 0110 Onderstepoort (South Africa)

    2012-07-15

    Mass rearing tsetse flies Glossina spp. is dependent on the sustained availability of a high quality blood diet. In any mass rearing facility, the logistics for obtaining sterile, high quality fresh blood is challenging. An added complication is the influence of potential chemical, physical and microbiological elements present in the blood of donors, as well as contamination during collection, handling and storage. Research at the Agricultural Research Council - Onderstepoort Veterinary institute (ARC-OVI) is directed towards the development of quality control procedures for the supply of the in vitro diet used to maintain productive colonies of Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead. Factors that may influence the blood diet, e.g. defibrination, feeding times, collection of blood in anticoagulants, treatment of blood with taste stimuli, repeated freezing and thawing of blood, effect of bovine growth hormones, and also a preference for bovine or porcine blood were tested. A 25 day bioassay was used to determine the effects of these factors on tsetse survival and reproduction. Defibrination of the blood for 10 to 15 minutes gave the best results for both species. It was found that G. brevipalpis should be fed three times per week for 5 minutes each time, and G. austeni three times per week for 10 minutes. Heparin, acid citrate dextrose (ACD), citric acid, citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA) and a combination of sodium citrate and citric acid were effective anticoagulants in the blood diets of G. brevipalpis and G. austeni. Blood treated with inosine triphosphate (ITP) gave the highest quality factor (QFC) values for both G. austeni and G. brevipalpis. Repeated freezing and thawing of blood definitely affects pupal production negatively; G. brevipalpis especially produced significantly smaller pupae. A premixed diet of equal amounts of bovine and porcine blood was found to be best suited for G. brevipalpis, and for G. austeni a mixture of

  14. Development of High Quality 4H-SiC Thick Epitaxy for Reliable High Power Electronics Using Halogenated Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    defects :=()llowed by a second buffer epilayer gro\\\\ th with ~: urn thickness with high n-type dopi:1g (- 5£17 cm-3) for the same C/Si ratio of ~1.4 at...gradient, pressure , etc.) can further reduce the parasitic deposition, especially in TFS-growth. • Thick epitaxy on-axis 4H-SiC Growth at High Growth...From - To) 08/02/2016 Final Technical Report 01-Apr-10 Through 31-Mar-14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Development of High Quality 4H

  15. Study on quality assurance for high-level radioactive waste disposal project (2). Quality assurance system for the site characterization phase in the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Susumu

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assist related organizations in the development of quality assurance systems for a high-level radioactive waste disposal system. This report presents detail information with which related organizations can begin the development of quality assurance systems at an initial phase of repository development for a high-level radioactive waste disposal program, including data qualification, model validation, systems and facilities for quality assurance (e.g., technical data management system, sample management facility, etc.), and QA program applicability (items and activities). These descriptions are based on information in QA program for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD), DOE/RW-0333P, quality implementing procedures, and reports implemented by the procedures. Additionally, this report includes some brief recommendations for developing of quality assurance systems, such as establishment of quality assurance requirements, measures for establishment of QA system. (author)

  16. Highly purified water production technology. The influence of water purity on steam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, J.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental question related to high-pressure steam generation, intended for powering steam turbines, concerns steam production conditions based on constant quality standards. The characteristics of water (salinity, silica concentration) are indicated for a given steam quality as a function of the pressure. Two processes for the purification of feedwater for high pressure boilers are described: a treatment using precoated cellulose or resin filters and a treatment using mixed-bed ion exchangers. When ultrapure water is required, the demineralized water is filtred using microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes [fr

  17. Stainless steel fabrication for high quality requirements in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the author explains the welding procedures and practices adopted within the nuclear industry to achieve the high quality and standards of welds required. The changeover to mechanised welding, orbital TIG welding and synergic MIG welding, has resulted in consistent achievement of high quality standards as well as optimising the productivity. However, the use of mechanised welding machines does require the welder operating them to be fully trained and qualified. The formally organised training courses are described and the cost savings and production rates achieved by utilising the mechanised method are discussed. (author)

  18. Radiation-induced electron migration in nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuciarelli, A.F.; Sisk, E.C.; Miller, J.H.; Zimbrick, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA is a mechanism by which randomly produced stochastic energy deposition events can lead to non-random types of damage along DNA manifested distal to the sites of the initial energy deposition. Radiation-induced electron migration in nucleic acids has been examined using oligonucleotides containing 5-bromouracil (5-BrU). Interaction of 5-BrU with solvated electrons results in release of bromide ions and formation of uracil-5-yl radicals. Monitoring either bromide ion release or uracil formation provides an opportunity to study electron migration processes in model nucleic acid systems. Using this approach we have discovered that electron migration along oligonucleotides is significantly influenced by the base sequence and strandedness. Migration along 7 base pairs in oligonucleotides containing guanine bases was observed for oligonucleotides irradiated in solution, which compares with mean migration distances of 6-10 bp for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in solution and 5.5 bp for E. coli DNA irradiated in cells. Evidence also suggests that electron migration can occur preferentially in the 5' to 3' direction along a double-stranded oligonucleotide containing a region of purine bases adjacent to the 5-BrU moiety. Our continued efforts will provide information regarding the contribution of electron transfer along DNA to formation of locally multiply damaged sites created in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation. (Author)

  19. Molecular polarization potential maps of the nucleic acid bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkorta, I.; Perez, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ab initio calculations at the SCF level were carried out to compute the polarization potential map NM of the nucleic acid bases: cytosine, thymine, uracil, adedine, and guanine. For this purpose, the Dunning's 9s5p basis set contracted to a split-valence, was selected to perform the calculations. The molecular polarization potential (MPP) at each point was evaluated by the difference between the interaction energy of the molecule with a unit point charge and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) at that point. MEPS and MPPS for the different molecules were computed with a density of 5 points/Angstrom 2 on the van der Waals surface of each molecule, defined using the van der Waals radii. Due to the symmetry of the molecules, only half the points were computed. The total number of points calculated was 558 for cytosine, 621 for thymine, 526 for uracil, 666 for adenine, and 699 for guanine. The results of these calculations are analyzed in terms of their implications on the molecular interactions between pairs of nucleic acid bases. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Different Polar Metabolites and Protein Profiles between High- and Low-Quality Japanese Ginjo Sake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Takahashi

    Full Text Available Japanese ginjo sake is a premium refined sake characterized by a pleasant fruity apple-like flavor and a sophisticated taste. Because of technical difficulties inherent in brewing ginjo sake, off-flavors sometimes occur. However, the metabolites responsible for off-flavors as well as those present or absent in higher quality ginjo sake remain uncertain. Here, the relationship between 202 polar chemical compounds in sake identified using capillary electrophoresis coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and its organoleptic properties, such as quality and off-flavor, was examined. First, we found that some off-flavored sakes contained higher total amounts of metabolites than other sake samples. The results also identified that levels of 2-oxoglutaric acid and fumaric acid, metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, were highly but oppositely correlated with ginjo sake quality. Similarly, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine, co-enzymes for amino transferase, were also highly but oppositely correlated with ginjo sake quality. Additionally, pyruvic acid levels were associated with good quality as well. Compounds involved in the methionine salvage cycle, oxidative glutathione derivatives, and amino acid catabolites were correlated with low quality. Among off-flavors, an inharmonious bitter taste appeared attributable to polyamines. Furthermore, protein analysis displayed that a diversity of protein components and yeast protein (triosephosphate isomerase, TPI leakage was linked to the overall metabolite intensity in ginjo sake. This research provides insight into the relationship between sake components and organoleptic properties.

  1. Effect of high-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide atmospheres on strawberry flavor and other quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A G; Sanz, C

    2001-05-01

    The effect of high-oxygen atmospheres on strawberry flavor was studied. Strawberry fruits (Fragariax ananassa Duch. cv. Camarosa) were stored at 8 degrees C in four different atmospheres: air, 5% O(2)/20% CO(2), 80% O(2)/20% CO(2), and 90% O(2)/10% CO(2). Changes in several quality parameters were evaluated. Atmospheres combining high O(2) and high CO(2) were the most effective in preventing fungal growth and enhancing strawberry firmness. Other quality parameters such as color, titrable acidity, sugars and organic acids distribution, off-flavor development, and aroma were only mildly affected by superatmospheric O(2) levels. After one week of storage, unexpected high contents of off-flavor related compounds were found in the 80% O(2)/20% CO(2) and 90% O(2)/10% CO(2) atmospheres. Evidence of an altered ester biosynthesis was also found in fruits stored under these high-O(2) atmospheres. Data obtained suggest that stress induced by high CO(2) and stress induced by high O(2) have an additive effect on strawberry flavor alteration.

  2. Exome sequencing generates high quality data in non-target regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exome sequencing using next-generation sequencing technologies is a cost efficient approach to selectively sequencing coding regions of human genome for detection of disease variants. A significant amount of DNA fragments from the capture process fall outside target regions, and sequence data for positions outside target regions have been mostly ignored after alignment. Result We performed whole exome sequencing on 22 subjects using Agilent SureSelect capture reagent and 6 subjects using Illumina TrueSeq capture reagent. We also downloaded sequencing data for 6 subjects from the 1000 Genomes Project Pilot 3 study. Using these data, we examined the quality of SNPs detected outside target regions by computing consistency rate with genotypes obtained from SNP chips or the Hapmap database, transition-transversion (Ti/Tv ratio, and percentage of SNPs inside dbSNP. For all three platforms, we obtained high-quality SNPs outside target regions, and some far from target regions. In our Agilent SureSelect data, we obtained 84,049 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 65,231 SNPs inside target regions (a 129% increase. For our Illumina TrueSeq data, we obtained 222,171 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 95,818 SNPs inside target regions (a 232% increase. For the data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we obtained 7,139 high-quality SNPs outside target regions compared to 1,548 SNPs inside target regions (a 461% increase. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a significant amount of high quality genotypes outside target regions can be obtained from exome sequencing data. These data should not be ignored in genetic epidemiology studies.

  3. Providing high-quality care in primary care settings: how to make trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Del Grande, Claudio; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Eveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William

    2014-05-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Three regions of Quebec. Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Irrespective of their models, PC practices' pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  4. Methods for slow axis beam quality improvement of high power broad area diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Haiyan; Xiong, Yihan; Jiang, Ching-Long J.; Schmidt, Berthold; Treusch, Georg

    2014-03-01

    For high brightness direct diode laser systems, it is of fundamental importance to improve the slow axis beam quality of the incorporated laser diodes regardless what beam combining technology is applied. To further advance our products in terms of increased brightness at a high power level, we must optimize the slow axis beam quality despite the far field blooming at high current levels. The later is caused predominantly by the built-in index step in combination with the thermal lens effect. Most of the methods for beam quality improvements reported in publications sacrifice the device efficiency and reliable output power. In order to improve the beam quality as well as maintain the efficiency and reliable output power, we investigated methods of influencing local heat generation to reduce the thermal gradient across the slow axis direction, optimizing the built-in index step and discriminating high order modes. Based on our findings, we have combined different methods in our new device design. Subsequently, the beam parameter product (BPP) of a 10% fill factor bar has improved by approximately 30% at 7 W/emitter without efficiency penalty. This technology has enabled fiber coupled high brightness multi-kilowatt direct diode laser systems. In this paper, we will elaborate on the methods used as well as the results achieved.

  5. Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Thomas, Fransua; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    Rolling element bearings made from highly-elastic intermetallic materials (HIM)s, such as 60NiTi, are under development for applications that require superior corrosion and shock resistance. Compared to steel, intermetallics have been shown to have much lower rolling contact fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod (ASTM STP 771) fatigue tests. In the 3-ball tests, poor material quality and microstructural flaws negatively affect fatigue life but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not fail even in long-term tests. Though the full-scale bearing test data is yet preliminary, the results suggest that the simplified RCF test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance. These results provide guidance for materials development and to establish minimum quality levels required for successful bearing operation and life.

  6. Unraveling Prion Protein Interactions with Aptamers and Other PrP-Binding Nucleic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Bruno; Cordeiro, Yraima

    2017-05-17

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and other mammals. The etiologic agents common to these diseases are misfolded conformations of the prion protein (PrP). The molecular mechanisms that trigger the structural conversion of the normal cellular PrP (PrP C ) into the pathogenic conformer (PrP Sc ) are still poorly understood. It is proposed that a molecular cofactor would act as a catalyst, lowering the activation energy of the conversion process, therefore favoring the transition of PrP C to PrP Sc . Several in vitro studies have described physical interactions between PrP and different classes of molecules, which might play a role in either PrP physiology or pathology. Among these molecules, nucleic acids (NAs) are highlighted as potential PrP molecular partners. In this context, the SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) methodology has proven extremely valuable to investigate PrP-NA interactions, due to its ability to select small nucleic acids, also termed aptamers, that bind PrP with high affinity and specificity. Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that can be folded into a wide range of structures (from harpins to G-quadruplexes). They are selected from a nucleic acid pool containing a large number (10 14 -10 16 ) of random sequences of the same size (~20-100 bases). Aptamers stand out because of their potential ability to bind with different affinities to distinct conformations of the same protein target. Therefore, the identification of high-affinity and selective PrP ligands may aid the development of new therapies and diagnostic tools for TSEs. This review will focus on the selection of aptamers targeted against either full-length or truncated forms of PrP, discussing the implications that result from interactions of PrP with NAs, and their potential advances in the studies of prions. We will also provide a critical evaluation

  7. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P  0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  8. Characteristics of primary care practices associated with high quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Haggerty, Jeannie; Tousignant, Pierre; Barnsley, Janet; Hogg, William; Geneau, Robert; Hudon, Éveline; Duplain, Réjean; Denis, Jean-Louis; Bonin, Lucie; Del Grande, Claudio; Dragieva, Natalyia

    2013-09-03

    No primary practice care model has been shown to be superior in achieving high-quality primary care. We aimed to identify the organizational characteristics of primary care practices that provide high-quality primary care. We performed a cross-sectional observational study involving a stratified random sample of 37 primary care practices from 3 regions of Quebec. We recruited 1457 patients who had 1 of 2 chronic care conditions or 1 of 6 episodic care conditions. The main outcome was the overall technical quality score. We measured organizational characteristics by use of a validated questionnaire and the Team Climate Inventory. Statistical analyses were based on multilevel regression modelling. The following characteristics were strongly associated with overall technical quality of care score: physician remuneration method (27.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.0-35.0), extent of sharing of administrative resources (7.6; 95% CI 0.8-14.4), presence of allied health professionals (15.3; 95% CI 5.4-25.2) and/or specialist physicians (19.6; 95% CI 8.3-30.9), the presence of mechanisms for maintaining or evaluating competence (7.7; 95% CI 3.0-12.4) and average organizational access to the practice (4.9; 95% CI 2.6-7.2). The number of physicians (1.2; 95% CI 0.6-1.8) and the average Team Climate Inventory score (1.3; 95% CI 0.1-2.5) were modestly associated with high-quality care. We identified a common set of organizational characteristics associated with high-quality primary care. Many of these characteristics are amenable to change through practice-level organizational changes.

  9. Covering all the bases : Coarse-grained model design and application for nucleic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uusitalo, Jaakko Juhani

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acids play a crucial role in the storage, transportation and expression of our genetic information. They have also become an interesting tool for many applications in nanotechnology. Studying biomolecular systems containing nucleic acids using experimental and imaging techniques has its

  10. Cleavage and protection of locked nucleic acid-modified DNA by restriction endonucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzier, Lucile; Dubois, Camille; Wengel, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is one of the most prominent nucleic acid analogues reported so far. We herein for the first time report cleavage by restriction endonuclease of LNA-modified DNA oligonucleotides. The experiments revealed that RsaI is an efficient enzyme capable of recognizing and cleaving...

  11. Novel fluorescent nanoparticles for ultrasensitive identification of nucleic acids by optical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulberg, Mads Westergaard; Taskova, Maria; Thomsen, Rasmus P.

    2017-01-01

    For decades, the detection of nucleic acids and their interactions at low abundances has been a challenging task. Present nucleic acid diagnostics are primarily based on enzymatic reactions including sequencing, polymerase-chain reaction and microarrays. However, the use of enzymatic amplificatio...

  12. Bis-Pyrene-Modified Unlocked Nucleic Acids: Synthesis, Hybridization Studies, and Fluorescent Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perlíková, Pavla; Ejlersen, M.; Langkjaer, N.; Wengel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2014), s. 2120-2127 ISSN 1860-7179 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) FP7-268776 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorescence * nucleic acid hybridization * oligonucleotides * pyrenes * unlocked nucleic acids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.968, year: 2014

  13. BGL6 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel [Los Gatos, CA; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2009-09-01

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl6, and the corresponding BGL6 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL6, recombinant BGL6 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  14. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  15. Formation of a high quality electron beam using photo cathode RF electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu

    2000-01-01

    Formation of a high quality electron beam using photo cathode RF electron gun is expected for formation of a next generation high brilliant X-ray beam and a source for electron and positron collider. And, on a field of material science, as is possible to carry out an experiment under ultra short pulse and extremely high precision in time, it collects large expectation. Recently, formation of high quality beam possible to develop for multi directions and to use by everyone in future has been able to realize. Here were explained on electron beam source, principle and component on RF electron gun, working features on RF gun, features and simulation of RF gun under operation, and some views in near future. (G.K.)

  16. Health-related quality of life of long-term high-grade glioma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Ingeborg; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Douw, Linda; Vos, Maaike J.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Muller, Martin; Vandertop, W. Peter; Slotman, Ben J.; Taphoorn, Martin J. B.; Heimans, Jan J.; Klein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of long-term to short-term high-grade glioma (HGG) survivors, determine the prognostic value of HRQOL for overall survival, and determine the effect of tumor recurrence on HRQOL for long-term survivors. Following

  17. Water quality monitoring for high-priority water bodies in the Sonoran Desert network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry W. Sprouse; Robert M. Emanuel; Sara A. Strorrer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a network monitoring program for “high priority” water bodies in the Sonoran Desert Network of the National Park Service. Protocols were developed for monitoring selected waters for ten of the eleven parks in the Network. Park and network staff assisted in identifying potential locations of testing sites, local priorities, and how water quality...

  18. Producing high-quality negatives from ERTS black-and-white transparancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Myhre

    1973-01-01

    A method has been devised for producing high-quality black-and-white negatives quickly and efficiently from dense transparencies orgininating from Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery. Transparencies are evaluated on a standard light source to determine exposure and processing information needed for making negatives. A “System ASA Rating” was developed by...

  19. Determining the Measurement Quality of a Montessori High School Teacher Evaluation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setari, Anthony Philip; Bradley, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a psychometric validation of a course evaluation instrument, known as a student evaluation of teaching (SET), implemented in a Montessori high school. The authors demonstrate to the Montessori community how to rigorously examine the measurement and assessment quality of instruments used within Montessori…

  20. High quality ZnO layers with adjustable refractive indices for integrated optics applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Thin (approx. 1 μm) crystalline ZnO films with a good optical quality and a good (0002) texture are grown under two considerably different process parameter sets using a r.f. planar magnetron sputtering unit. The optical parameters of the two corresponding ZnO layers are distinctly different: high