WorldWideScience

Sample records for high power x-ray

  1. High power bremsstrahlung X-ray source for radiation processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsumoto, K.; Sunaga, H.; Tanaka, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Agematsu, T.; Tanaka, R.; Yoshida, K.; Taniguchi, S.; Sakamoto, I.; Tamura, N.

    The high power X-ray irradiation facility designed for the sterilization of medical appliances is described. The X-ray source consists of the 5 MeV, 300 kW Cockcroft Walton type of electron accelerator and the water cooled tantalum target. Conditions necessary for designing the X-ray target are conversion efficiency from electron beam to X-ray, thermal conductivity, readiness for machining and cost of the material. The conversion efficiency was determined through the Monte Carlo type calculation and obtained as 10.8 % for 3.667 g/cm 2 thickness (1 csda range) of tantalum target. In order to obtain the data on the source design, experiments have been carried out at the JAERI TAKASAKI 2 MeV, 60 kW Cockcroft-Walton type of electron accelerator equipped with a tantalum target. The size of package and the speed of conveyor was determined through the calculation of the absorbed dose distribution in the irradiated medium and the utilization efficiency.

  2. High-pressure-low-temperature x-ray power diffractometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syassen, K; Holzapfel, W B

    1978-08-01

    A high-pressure technique for x-ray diffraction studies at low temperatures is described. The system consists of a Bridgman anvil type high-pressure device with either tungsten carbide or boron carbide anvils, a liquid He cryostat, and x-ray diffractometer operating in Debye-Scherrer geometry. The newly developed boron carbide anvil cell is capable of containing a liquid pressure transmitting medium. The precision of the lattice parameter determination is discussed and the effect of nonisostatic stress components on the diffraction pattern is examined.

  3. Soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer for X-ray Surveyor and smaller missions with high resolving power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander; Schattenburg, Mark; Kolodziejczak, jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    A number of high priority subjects in astrophysics are addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, e.g. the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the WHIM and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (A > 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology, even for telescopes with angular resolution of 5-10 arcsec. Significantly higher performance could be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission (A > 4,000 cm2, R > 5,000). CAT gratings combine advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher orders) with those of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth silicon grating bar sidewalls. Silicon is well matched to the soft x-ray band, and 30% absolute diffraction efficiency has been acheived with clear paths for further improvement. CAT gratings with sidewalls made of high-Z elements allow extension of blazing to higher energies and larger dispersion angles, enabling higher resolving power at shorter wavelengths. X-ray data from CAT gratings coated with a thin layer of platinum using atomic layer deposition demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and much larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. Measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing optic from GSFC and CAT gratings, taken at the MSFC Stray Light Facility, have demonstrated resolving power > 10,000. Thus currently fabricated CAT gratings are compatible

  4. A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer for the OMEGA EP Laser (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, P. M.; Ehrne, F.; Mileham, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Jungquist, R. K.; Taylor, C.; Stillman, C. R.; Ivancic, S. T.; Boni, R.; Hassett, J.; Lonobile, D. J.; Kidder, R. W.; Shoup, M. J.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Froula, D. H.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2016-11-01

    A high-resolving-power x-ray spectrometer has been developed for the OMEGA EP Laser System based on a spherically bent Si [220] crystal with a radius of curvature of 330 mm and a Spectral Instruments (SI) 800 Series charge-coupled device. The instrument measures time-integrated x-ray emission spectra in the 7.97- to 8.11-keV range, centered on the Cu Kα1 line. To demonstrate the performance of the spectrometer under high-power conditions, Kα1,2 emission spectra were measured from Cu foils irradiated by the OMEGA EP laser with 100-J, 1-ps pulses at focused intensities above 1018 W/cm2. The ultimate goal is to couple the spectrometer to a picosecond x-ray streak camera and measure temperature-equilibration dynamics inside rapidly heated materials. The plan for these ultrafast streaked x-ray spectroscopy studies is discussed.

  5. Constraining High Redshift X-ray Sources with Next Generation 21 cm Power Spectrum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Mesinger, Andrei; Dillon, Joshua S; Liu, Adrian; Pober, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    We use the Fisher matrix formalism and semi-numerical simulations to derive quantitative predictions of the constraints that power spectrum measurements on next-generation interferometers, such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will place on the characteristics of the X-ray sources that heated the high redshift intergalactic medium. Incorporating observations between $z=5$ and $z=25$, we find that the proposed 331 element HERA and SKA phase 1 will be capable of placing $\\lesssim 10\\%$ constraints on the spectral properties of these first X-ray sources, even if one is unable to perform measurements within the foreground contaminated "wedge" or the FM band. When accounting for the enhancement in power spectrum amplitude from spin temperature fluctuations, we find that the observable signatures of reionization extend well beyond the peak in the power spectrum usually associated with it. We also find that lower redshift degeneracies between the signatures of ...

  6. Soft x-ray blazed transmission grating spectrometer with high resolving power and extended bandpass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert; Schattenburg, Mark

    2016-04-01

    A number of high priority questions in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, such as the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, as well as stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R = λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology. Still significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using advanced anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth grating bar sidewalls. The reflection properties of silicon are well matched to the soft x-ray band. Nevertheless, CAT gratings with sidewalls made of higher atomic number elements allow extension of the CAT grating principle to higher energies and larger dispersion angles. We show x-ray data from metal-coated CAT gratings and demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. We also report on measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing mirror pair from Goddard Space Flight Center and CAT gratings, to be

  7. Constraining high-redshift X-ray sources with next generation 21-cm power spectrum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Mesinger, Andrei; Dillon, Joshua S.; Liu, Adrian; Pober, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We use the Fisher matrix formalism and seminumerical simulations to derive quantitative predictions of the constraints that power spectrum measurements on next-generation interferometers, such as the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will place on the characteristics of the X-ray sources that heated the high-redshift intergalactic medium. Incorporating observations between z = 5 and 25, we find that the proposed 331 element HERA and SKA phase 1 will be capable of placing ≲ 10 per cent constraints on the spectral properties of these first X-ray sources, even if one is unable to perform measurements within the foreground contaminated `wedge' or the FM band. When accounting for the enhancement in power spectrum amplitude from spin temperature fluctuations, we find that the observable signatures of reionization extend well beyond the peak in the power spectrum usually associated with it. We also find that lower redshift degeneracies between the signatures of heating and reionization physics lead to errors on reionization parameters that are significantly greater than previously predicted. Observations over the heating epoch are able to break these degeneracies and improve our constraints considerably. For these two reasons, 21-cm observations during the heating epoch significantly enhance our understanding of reionization as well.

  8. High-Resolving-Power, Streaked X-Ray Spectroscopy on the OMEGA EP Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, P. M.; Ehrne, F.; Mileham, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Jungquist, R. K.; Taylor, C.; Boni, R.; Hassett, J.; Stillman, C. R.; Ivancic, S. T.; Lonobile, D. J.; Kidder, R. W.; Shoup, M. J., III; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Froula, D. H.; Hill, K. W.; Gao, L.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2016-10-01

    A high-resolving-power, streaked x-ray spectrometer is being developed and tested on the OMEGA EP Laser System to study temperature-equilibration dynamics in rapidly heated solid matter. Temporal spectral shifts of the Cu Kα line in isochorically heated solid targets provide a fairly simple system where the spectrometer performance will be validated. The goal is to achieve a resolving power of several thousand and 2-ps temporal resolution. A time-integrating survey spectrometer has been developed and deployed on OMEGA EP to evaluate the throughput, focusing fidelity, and spectral resolution of two different crystal geometries. The results from these measurements will be presented and used to justify the down-selected time-resolved spectrometer design. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  9. X-Ray-powered Macronovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after the short gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B. Although the r-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires a huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose a new model in which the X-ray excess gives rise to the simultaneously observed infrared excess via thermal re-emission, and explore what constraints this would place on the mass and velocity of the ejecta. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source such as the central engine like a black hole, and allows for a broader parameter region than the previous models, in particular a smaller ejecta mass ˜ {10}-3{--}{10}-2{M}⊙ and higher iron abundance mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and the implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  10. State analysis of high power laser induced hot electrons by simulation of x-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Ichirou; Utsumi, Takayuki; Sasaki, Akira; Zhidkov, A. [Neyagawa Office, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    X-ray generation due to hot electrons induced by ultra-short pulse laser irradiation is simulated using a Monte Carlo Method. Mass attenuation coefficients of photons by scatter, photoelectric effect, or pair production, and stopping powers of hot electrons due to collisions and radiation are shown. The initial distribution of hot electrons is assumed to be Maxwellian, and the x-ray spectrum due to bremsstrahlung and the number of K{sub {alpha}} photons are calculated. As a result, the temperature of hot electrons could be estimated by comparing with the simulation results and the measurements. (author)

  11. Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite: Power of High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Aff001

    2017-01-01

    Hitomi (ASTRO-H) is an X-ray observatory developed by an international collaboration led by JAXA. An X-ray microcalorimeter onboard this satellite has opened a new window of high-resolution spectroscopy with an unprecedented energy resolution of 5 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV. The spacecraft was launched on February 17, 2016 from Tanegashima Island, Japan, and we completed initial operations including deployment of the hard X-ray imagers on the extensible optical bench. All scientific instruments had successfully worked until the sudden loss of the mission on March 26. We have obtained a spectrum showing fully resolved emission lines through the first-light observation of the Perseus Cluster. The line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 +/- 10 km s-1 reveals the quiescent environment of intracluster medium at the cluster core, implying that measured cluster mass requires little correction for the turbulent pressure. We also discuss observations to the Galactic Center which could be performed with Hitomi.

  12. Fast plasma discharge capillary design as a high power throughput soft x-ray emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndham, E S; Favre, M; Valdivia, M P; Valenzuela, J C; Chuaqui, H; Bhuyan, H

    2010-09-01

    We present the experimental details and results from a low energy but high repetition rate compact plasma capillary source for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray research and applications. Two lengths of capillary are mounted in two versions of a closely related design. The discharge operates in 1.6 and 3.2 mm inner diameter alumina capillaries of lengths 21 and 36 mm. The use of water both as dielectric and as coolant simplifies the compact low inductance design with nanosecond discharge periods. The stored electrical energy of the discharge is approximately 0.5 J and is provided by directly charging the capacitor plates from an inexpensive insulated-gate bipolar transistor in 1 μs or less. We present characteristic argon spectra from plasma between 30 and 300 Å as well as temporally resolved x-ray energy fluence in discrete bands on axis. The spectra also allow the level of ablated wall material to be gauged and associated with useful capillary lifetime according to the chosen configuration and energy storage. The connection between the electron beams associated with the transient hollow cathode mechanism, soft x-ray output, capillary geometry, and capillary lifetime is reported. The role of these e-beams and the plasma as measured on-axis is discussed. The relation of the electron temperature and the ionization stages observed is discussed in the context of some model results of ionization in a non-Maxwellian plasma.

  13. Energy spectrum measurement of high power and high energy(6 and 9 MeV) pulsed x-ray source for industrial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki [Hitachi, Ltd. Power Systems Company, Ibaraki (Japan); Murata, Isao [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Industrial X-ray CT system is normally applied to non-destructive testing (NDT) for industrial product made from metal. Furthermore there are some special CT systems, which have an ability to inspect nuclear fuel assemblies or rocket motors, using high power and high energy (more than 6 MeV) pulsed X-ray source. In these case, pulsed X-ray are produced by the electron linear accelerator, and a huge number of photons with a wide energy spectrum are produced within a very short period. Consequently, it is difficult to measure the X-ray energy spectrum for such accelerator-based X-ray sources using simple spectrometry. Due to this difficulty, unexpected images and artifacts which lead to incorrect density information and dimensions of specimens cannot be avoided in CT images. For getting highly precise CT images, it is important to know the precise energy spectrum of emitted X-rays. In order to realize it we investigated a new approach utilizing the Bayesian estimation method combined with an attenuation curve measurement using step shaped attenuation material. This method was validated by precise measurement of energy spectrum from a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In this study, to extend the applicable X-ray energy range we tried to measure energy spectra of X-ray sources from 6 and 9 MeV linear accelerators by using the recently developed method. In this study, an attenuation curves are measured by using a step-shaped attenuation materials of aluminum and steel individually, and the each X-ray spectrum is reconstructed from the measured attenuation curve by the spectrum type Bayesian estimation method. The obtained result shows good agreement with simulated spectra, and the presently developed technique is adaptable for high energy X-ray source more than 6 MeV.

  14. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  15. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, F. M. F.

    2001-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption process. Section II discusses 1s X-ray absorption, i.e., the K edges, and section III deals with 2p X-ray absorption, the L edges. X-ray emission is discussed in, respectively, the L edges. X-ray emis...

  16. Detection of a high frequency break in the X-ray power spectrum of Ark 564

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, I E; Negoro, H; Gliozzi, M

    2001-01-01

    We present a power spectrum analysis of the long ASCA observation of Ark 564 in June/July 2001. The observed power spectrum covers a frequency range of ~ 3.5 decades. We detect a high frequency break at ~ 0.002 Hz. The power spectrum has an rms of ~30% and a slope of ~ -1 and ~ -2 below and above the break frequency. When combined with the results from a long RXTE observation (Pounds et al. 2001), the observed power spectra of Ark 564 and Cyg X-1 (in the low/hard state) are almost identical, showing a similar shape and rms amplitude. However, the ratio of the high frequency breaks is very small (~ 10e{3-4}), implying that these characteristic frequencies are not indicative of the black hole mass. This result supports the idea of a small black hole mass/high accretion rate in Ark 564.

  17. The source of X-rays and high-charged ions based on moderate power vacuum discharge with laser triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhimova Mariya A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The source of X-ray radiation with the energy of quanta that may vary in the range hν = 1÷12 keV was developed for studies in X-ray interaction with matter and modification of solid surfaces. It was based on a vacuum spark discharge with the laser triggering. It was shown in our experiments that there is a possibility to adjust X-ray radiation spectrum by changing the configuration of the electrode system when the energy stored in the capacitor is varied within the range of 1÷17 J. A comprehensive study of X-ray imaging and quanta energy was carried out. These experiments were carried out for the case of both direct and reverse polarity of the voltage on the electrodes. Additionally, ion composition of plasma created in a laser-triggered vacuum discharge was analyzed. Highly charged ions Zn(+21, Cu(+20 and Fe(+18 were observed.

  18. High Energy Vision: Processing X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    DePasquale, Joseph; Edmonds, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy is by nature a visual science. The high quality imagery produced by the world's observatories can be a key to effectively engaging with the public and helping to inspire the next generation of scientists. Creating compelling astronomical imagery can, however, be particularly challenging in the non-optical wavelength regimes. In the case of X-ray astronomy, where the amount of light available to create an image is severely limited, it is necessary to employ sophisticated image processing algorithms to translate light beyond human vision into imagery that is aesthetically pleasing while still being scientifically accurate. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of X-ray astronomy leading to the deployment of NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, followed by an examination of the specific challenges posed by processing X-ray imagery. The authors then explore image processing techniques used to mitigate such processing challenges in order to create effective public imagery for X-ray astronomy. ...

  19. High Power Experiment of X-Band Thermionic Cathode RF Gun for Compton Scattering X-ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Meng, De; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Matsuo, Kenichi; Sakae, Hisaharu; Yamamoto, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    We are currently developing a compact monochromatic X-ray source based on laser-electron collision. To realize remarkably compact-, high-intensity- and highly-stable-system, we adopt an X-band multi-bunch liner accelerator (linac) and reliable Q-switch laser. The X-ray yields by the multi-bunch electron beam and Q-switch Nd: YAG laser of 1.4 J/10 ns (FWHM) (532 nm, second harmonic) is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec for 10 Hz operation). The injector of the system consists of a 3.5-cell X-band thermionic cathode RF gun and an alpha magnet. So far we have achieved beam generation from the X-band thermionic cathode RF gun. The peak beam energy is 2 MeV. This experimental high energy (˜2 MeV) beam generation from the X-band thermionic cathode RF gun is the first in the world. In this paper, we describe the system of the Compton scattering X-ray source based on the X-band linac, experimental results of X-band thermionic cathode RF gun and the details of the experimental setup for Compton scattering X-ray generation that are under construction.

  20. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobrauschek, P., E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at; Prost, J.; Ingerle, D.; Kregsamer, P.; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Misra, N. L. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2015-08-15

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm{sup 2} active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  1. A novel vacuum spectrometer for total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis with two exchangeable low power x-ray sources for the analysis of low, medium, and high Z elements in sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobrauschek, P; Prost, J; Ingerle, D; Kregsamer, P; Misra, N L; Streli, C

    2015-08-01

    The extension of the detectable elemental range with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is a challenging task. In this paper, it is demonstrated how a TXRF spectrometer is modified to analyze elements from carbon to uranium. Based on the existing design of a vacuum TXRF spectrometer with a 12 specimen sample changer, the following components were renewed: the silicon drift detector with 20 mm(2) active area and having a special ultra-thin polymer window allowing the detection of elements from carbon upwards. Two exchangeable X-ray sources guarantee the efficient excitation of both low and high Z elements. These X-ray sources were two light-weighted easily mountable 35 W air-cooled low-power tubes with Cr and Rh anodes, respectively. The air cooled tubes and the Peltier-cooled detector allowed to construct a transportable tabletop spectrometer with compact dimensions, as neither liquid nitrogen cooling for the detector nor a water cooling circuit and a bulky high voltage generator for the X-ray tubes are required. Due to the excellent background conditions as a result of the TXRF geometry, detection limits of 150 ng for C, 12 ng for F, and 3.3 ng for Na have been obtained using Cr excitation in vacuum. For Rh excitation, the detection limits of 90 pg could be achieved for Sr. Taking 10 to 20 μl of sample volume, extrapolated detection limits in the ng/g (ppb) range are resulting in terms of concentration.

  2. High photon flux XUV and soft x-ray sources enabled by high harmonic generation of high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Krebs, Manuel; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    This contribution reports on the recent advances in high harmonic generation (HHG) with high power femtosecond fiber lasers at high repetition rates. The capabilities of high power fiber lasers, the challenges of phase matching in the tight-focusing regime and recent experimental results will be discussed. In particular, post compressed pules as short as 30 fs, with ~150 μJ pulse energy at 0.6 MHz repetition rate have been used for efficient HHG into the XUV. Despite the tight focusing phase matching is ensured by providing the target gas with adequately high density. A conversion efficiency in excess of 10-6 at ~30 eV has been achieved in xenon gas. This resulted in more than 100μW of average power (>1013 photons per second), which represents the highest photon flux achieved by any HHG source in this spectral region so far. In addition, further pulse compression yielded few-cycle pulses at high average power that have enabled efficient soft Xray generation in neon and helium. HHG in neon provided more than 3·109 photons/s within a 1% bandwidth at 120 eV and helium allowed for HHG up to the water window spectral region beyond 283 eV. These compact sources provide highest photon flux on a table-top and will enable exciting applications such as nanometer-resolution imaging or coincidence spectroscopy in the near future.

  3. Dante Soft X-ray Power Diagnostic for NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, E; Campbell, K; Turner, R; Holder, J; Landen, O; Glenzer, S; Kauffman, R; Suter, L; Landon, M; Rhodes, M; Lee, D

    2004-04-15

    Soft x-ray power diagnostics are essential for measuring spectrally resolved the total x-ray flux, radiation temperature, conversion efficiency and albedo that are important quantities for the energetics of indirect drive hohlraums. At the Nova or Omega Laser Facilities, these measurements are performed mainly with Dante, but also with DMX and photo-conductive detectors (PCD's). The Dante broadband spectrometer is a collection of absolute calibrated vacuum x-ray diodes, thin filters and x-ray mirrors used to measure the soft x-ray emission for photon energies above 50 eV.

  4. High-power laser-driven source of ultra-short X-ray and gamma-ray pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Bulanov, S.V.; Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto (Japan); Zhidkov, A.G. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa-Ken (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    A novel ultra-bright high-intensity source of X-ray and gamma radiation is suggested. It is based on the double Doppler effect, where a relativistic flying mirror reflects a counter-propagating electromagnetic radiation causing its frequency multiplication and intensification, and on the inverse double Doppler effect, where the mirror acquires energy from an ultra-intense co-propagating electromagnetic wave. The role of the flying mirror is played by a high-density thin plasma slab accelerating in the radiation pressure dominant regime. Frequencies of high harmonics generated at the flying mirror by a relativistically strong counter-propagating radiation undergo multiplication with the same factor as the fundamental frequency of the reflected radiation, approximately equal to the quadruple of the square of the mirror Lorentz factor. (authors)

  5. High-power laser-driven source of ultra-short X-ray and gamma-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.

    2009-11-01

    A novel ultra-bright high-intensity source of X-ray and gamma radiation is suggested. It is based on the double Doppler effect, where a relativistic flying mirror reflects a counter-propagating electromagnetic radiation causing its frequency multiplication and intensification, and on the inverse double Doppler effect, where the mirror acquires energy from an ultra-intense co-propagating electromagnetic wave. The role of the flying mirror is played by a high-density thin plasma slab accelerating in the radiation pressure dominant regime. Frequencies of high harmonics generated at the flying mirror by a relativistically strong counter-propagating radiation udergo multiplication with the same factor as the fundamental frequency of the reflected radiation, approximately equal to the quadruple of the square of the mirror Lorentz factor.

  6. Treatment of foods with high-energy X rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, M. R.; Meissner, J.; Herer, A. S.; Beers, E. W.

    2001-07-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, accelerated electrons, and X rays can produce beneficial effects, such as inhibiting the sprouting in potatoes, onions, and garlic, controlling insects in fruits, vegetables, and grains, inhibiting the growth of fungi, pasteurizing fresh meat, poultry, and seafood, and sterilizing spices and food additives. After many years of research, these processes have been approved by regulatory authorities in many countries and commercial applications have been increasing. High-energy X rays are especially useful for treating large packages of food. The most attractive features are product penetration, absorbed dose uniformity, high utilization efficiency and short processing time. The ability to energize the X-ray source only when needed enhances the safety and convenience of this technique. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron accelerators, which can be used as X-ray generators, makes it feasible to process large quantities of food economically. Several industrial accelerator facilities already have X-ray conversion equipment and several more will soon be built with product conveying systems designed to take advantage of the unique characteristics of high-energy X rays. These concepts will be reviewed briefly in this paper.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstedt, Marie; Abraham, Daniel P.; Kerr, John B.

    2004-02-28

    High-power lithium-ion cells for transportation applications are being developed and studied at Argonne National Laboratory. The current generation of cells containing LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, and LiPF6-based electrolytes show loss of capacity and power during accelerated testing at elevated temperatures. Negative electrode samples harvested from some cells that showed varying degrees of power and capacity fade were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples exhibited a surface film on the graphite, which was thicker on samples from cells that showed higher fade. Furthermore, solvent-based compounds were dominant on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF{sub 6}-based products were dominant on samples from high power fade cells. The effect of sample rinsing and air exposure is discussed. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of compounds suggested by the XPS data.

  8. Optimization of X-ray sources from a high-average-power ND:Glass laser-produced plasma for proximity lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celliers, P.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The concept of a laser-based proximity lithography system for electronic microcircuit production has advanced to the point where a detailed design of a prototype system capable of exposing wafers at 40 wafer levels per hr is technically feasible with high-average-power laser technology. In proximity x-ray lithography, a photoresist composed of polymethyl- methacrylate (PMMA) or similar material is exposed to x rays transmitted through a mask placed near the photoresist, a procedure which is similar to making a photographic contact print. The mask contains a pattern of opaque metal features, with line widths as small as 0.12 {mu}m, placed on a thin (1-{mu}m thick) Si membrane. During the exposure, the shadow of the mask projected onto the resist produces in the physical and chemical properties of the resist a pattern of variation with the same size and shape as the features contained in the metal mask. This pattern can be further processed to produce microscopic structures in the Si substrate. The main application envisioned for this technology is the production of electronic microcircuits with spatial features significantly smaller than currently achievable with conventional optical lithographic techniques (0.12 {micro}m vs 0.25 {micro}m). This article describes work on optimizing a laser-produced plasma x-ray source intended for microcircuit production by proximity lithography.

  9. X-ray Polarization from High Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kallman, T; Blondin, J

    2015-01-01

    X-ray astronomy allows study of objects which may be associated with compact objects, i.e. neutron stars or black holes, and also may contain strong magnetic fields. Such objects are categorically non-spherical, and likely non-circular when projected on the sky. Polarization allows study of such geoemetric effects, and X-ray polarimetry is likely to become feasible for a significant number of sources in the future. A class of potential targets for future X-ray polarization observations is the high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which consist of a compact object in orbit with an early type star. In this paper ws show that X-ray polarization from HMXBs has a distinct signature which depends on the source inclination and orbital phase. The presence of the X-ray source displaced from the star creates linear polarization even if the primary wind is spherically symmetric whenever the system is viewed away from conjunction. Direct X-rays dilute this polarization whenever the X-ray source is not eclipsed; at mid-eclips...

  10. Anode microstructures from high-energy and high-power lithium-ion cylindrical cells obtained by X-ray nano-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Moses; Joos, Jochen; Weber, André; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Graphite negative electrodes from a high-power and a high-energy cylindrical lithium-ion cell are reconstructed using X-ray nano-tomography. Large volumes and high resolution are required for an in-depth comparison of the design aspects for high-power and high-energy anode. Hence, quite big volumes of 2.37·106 μm3 and 1.27·106 μm3 have to be analyzed to cover the entire thickness of both anode layers. High resolutions of 273 nm and 233 nm voxel size are chosen for assessing volume specific graphite surface area, among other parameters, precisely. A hysteresis segmentation method is adapted for segmentation, featuring a symmetrical growing of both graphite and pore phase. Surface areas are calculated using the marching cube algorithm, particle sizes are calculated based on the Euclidean distance transform (EDT) and tortuosity values are calculated by solving the transport equation using a finite volume scheme in MATLAB. Analysis of these parameters leads to the assumption, that the electrolyte transport is limited by the pore structure of the high-energy graphite anode.

  11. Time- and space-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy of aluminum irradiated by a subpicosecond high-power laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakis, S.; Audebert, P.; Renaudin, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Geindre, J. P.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Nagels, V.; Gary, S.; Shepherd, R.; Girard, F.; Matsushima, I.; Peyrusse, O.; Gauthier, J.-C.

    2006-05-01

    The ionization and recombination dynamics of transient aluminum plasmas was measured using point projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy. An aluminum plasma was produced with a subpicosecond beam of the 100-TW laser at the LULI facility and probed at different times with a picosecond X-ray backlighter created with a synchronized subpicosecond laser beam. Fourier-Domain-Interferometry (FDI) was used to measure the electron temperature at the peak of the heating laser pulse. Absorption X-ray spectra at early times are characteristic of a dense and rather homogeneous plasma, with limited longitudinal gradients as shown by hydrodynamic simulations. The shift of the Al K-edge was measured in the cold dense plasma located at the edge of the heated plasma. From the 1s 2p absorption spectra, the average ionization was measured as a function of time and was also modeled with a collisional-radiative atomic physics code coupled with hydrodynamic simulations.

  12. The High Energy X-ray Imager Technology (HEXITEC) for Solar Hard X-ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Excessively over-sampling the PSF will increase readout noise and require more processing with no appreciable increase in image quality. An appropriate level of over-sampling is to have 3 pixels within the HPD. For current high resolution X-ray mirrors, the HPD is about 25 arcsec. Over a 6-m focal length this converts to 750 µm, the optimum pixel size is around 250 µm. Annother requirement are that the detectors must also have high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power requirements, and low sensitivity to radiation damage. For solar observations, the ability to handle high counting rates is also extremely desirable. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK has been developing the electronics for such a detector. Dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology, this Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), to create a fine (250 µm pitch) HXR detector. The NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterMSFC and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working with RAL over the past few years to develop these detectors to be used with HXR focusing telescopes. We present on recent results and capabilities as applied to solar observations.

  13. Prospects for a soft x-ray FEL powered by a relativistic-klystron high-gradient accelerator (RK-HGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shay, H.D.; Barletta, W.A.; Yu, S.S.; Schlueter, R.; Deis, G.A.

    1989-09-28

    We present here the concept of x-ray FELs using high gain, single-pass amplifiers with electron beams accelerated in high gradient structures powered by relativistic klystrons. Other authors have also considered x-ray FELs; the unique aspect of this paper is the use of high gradient acceleration. One of the authors has previously presented preliminary studies on this concept. The intent in this paper is to display the results of a top level design study on a high gain FEL, to present its sensitivity to a variety of fabrication and tuning errors, to discuss several mechanisms for increasing gain yet more, and to present explicitly the output characteristics of such an FEL. The philosophy of the design study is to find a plausible operating point which employs existing or nearly existing state-of-the-art technologies while minimizing the accelerator and wiggler lengths. The notion is to distribute the technical risk as evenly as possible over the several technologies so that each must advance only slightly in order to make this design feasible. This study entailed no systematic investigation of possible costs so that, for example, the sole criterion for balancing the trade-off between beam energy and wiggler length is that the two components have comparable lengths. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. X-Ray Emission from Rotation-Powered Pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gui-Fang; ZHANG Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study the properties of pulsed component of hard (2-10keV) x-ray emission from pulsars based on the new version of outer gap model we proposed previously [Astrophys.J.604 (2004) 317].On the frame of this outer gap model, we derive an expression of non-thermal pulsed x-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars, and then apply it to the pulsars whose pulsed x-rays are detected by ASCA.Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test,we determine the model parameter.The present results indicate LX ∝ L1.15sd for these x-ray pulsars, which is consistent with the observed data.

  15. X-RAY POLARIZATION FROM HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallman, T. [NASA/GSFC, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dorodnitsyn, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Blondin, J. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    X-ray astronomy allows study of objects that may be associated with compact objects, i.e., neutron stars or black holes, and also may contain strong magnetic fields. Such objects are categorically nonspherical, and likely noncircular when projected on the sky. Polarization allows study of such geometric effects, and X-ray polarimetry is likely to become feasible for a significant number of sources in the future. Potential targets for future X-ray polarization observations are the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which consist of a compact object in orbit with an early-type star. In this paper we show that X-ray polarization from HMXBs has a distinct signature that depends on the source inclination and orbital phase. The presence of the X-ray source displaced from the star creates linear polarization even if the primary wind is spherically symmetric whenever the system is viewed away from conjunction. Direct X-rays dilute this polarization whenever the X-ray source is not eclipsed; at mid-eclipse the net polarization is expected to be small or zero if the wind is circularly symmetric around the line of centers. Resonance line scattering increases the scattering fraction, often by large factors, over the energy band spanned by resonance lines. Real winds are not expected to be spherically symmetric, or circularly symmetric around the line of centers, owing to the combined effects of the compact object gravity and ionization on the wind hydrodynamics. A sample calculation shows that this creates polarization fractions ranging up to tens of percent at mid-eclipse.

  16. The x ray variability of NGC6814: Power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Mushotsky, R. F.; Turner, T. J.; Koyama, K.; Kunieda, H.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation techniques are used to obtain the X-ray variability power spectrum of unevenly sampled GINGA data from NGC6814. A simple power law is not an adequate description of the power spectrum, with the residuals showing excess power on timescales consistent with the periodicity seen in EXOSAT observations of this object. However the shape of the folded lightcurve is very different, with 3 main peaks, two of which are separated by an extremely sharp dip instead of the single peak and small harmonic structure observed by EXOSAT. Using the dip as a fiducial mark, a second GINGA observation of this source taken one year later is found to be consistent with being completely periodic and phase coherent with this first GINGA observation. Thus the period is consistent with being constant over a period of 6 years, but phase coherence is only maintained on timescales of approximately 1 year. Over 75 percent of the total source variability is due to the periodic component (r.m.s. amplitude of 36 percent). The residual variability can be described as the more usual 'flicker noise' f(exp -1.1) powerlaw. This shows no apparent high frequency break on timescales greater than 300 seconds. Subtle differences in the shape of the folded light curve with energy, and the very large amount of power in the periodic component suggest occultation as its origin, though amplification of variability from an X-ray emitting 'hot spot' at the disk inner radius through gravitational lensing is also possible. The former suffers from the very arbitrary nature of the periodic timescale, while the latter is unattractive as it cannot simply explain the lack of high frequency break in the residual power. That these models probably fail to provide an adequate explanation may be due to the added complexity of anisotropy of the X-ray emission, suggested by the discrepancy between the lack of soft photons implied by the flat spectrum and the copious source of soft photons available from reprocessing in

  17. High-Energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (SGR A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, Will

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E (is) greater than 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to approximately 50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index gamma approximately equals 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F(sub X) = (2.0 +/- 0.1) × 10(exp -12)erg cm(-2) s(-1) , corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L(sub X) = (2.6+/-0.8)×10(exp 34) erg s(-1) assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to (is) approximately 100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to (is) approximately 30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  18. Optimization of x-ray sources for proximity lithography produced by a high average power Nd:glass laser{sup a}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celliers, P.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.; Mrowka, S.; Norton, M.; Harder, J.; Hackel, L.; Matthews, D.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A. [Laser Plasma Interaction Section, Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics, 01-489 Warsaw 49 (Poland); Maldonado, J.R. [IBM Microelectronics, Hopewell Junction, New York 12533 (United States); Abate, J.A. [AT& T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    We measured the conversion efficiency of laser pulse energy into keV x rays from a variety of solid planar targets and a Xe gas puff target irradiated using a high average power Nd:glass slab laser capable of delivering 13 ns full width at half-maximum pulses at up to 20 J at 1.053 {mu}m and 12 J at 0.53 {mu}m. Targets were chosen to optimize emission in the 10{endash}15 A wavelength band, including {ital L}-shell emission from materials with atomic numbers in the range {ital Z}=24{endash}30 and {ital M}-shell emission from Xe ({ital Z}=54). With 1.053 {mu}m a maximum conversion of 11{percent} into 2{pi} sr was measured from solid Xe targets. At 0.527 {mu}m efficiencies of 12{percent}{endash}18{percent}/(2{pi} sr) were measured for all of the solid targets in the same wavelength band. The x-ray conversion efficiency from the Xe gas puff target was considerably lower, at about 3{percent}/(2{pi} sr) when irradiated with 1.053 {mu}m. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. High-resolution x-ray analysis with multilayer gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Jonnard, Philippe; André, Jean-Michel; 10.1002/xrs.1128

    2013-01-01

    Periodic multilayers are nowadays widely used to perform x-ray analysis in the soft x-ray range (photon energy lower than 1 keV). However, they do not permit to obtain high-resolution spectra like natural or synthetic crystals. Thus, multilayers cannot resolve interferences between close x-ray lines. It has been shown and demonstrated experimentally that patterning a grating profile within a multilayer structure leads to a diffractive optics with improved resolving power. We illustrate the use of a Mo/B4C multilayer grating in the Fe L and C K spectral ranges, around 700 eV and 280 eV respectively. First, in the Fe L range, the improved spectral resolution enables us to distinguish the Fe L\\alpha and L\\beta emissions (separated by 13 eV). In addition, using a sample made of a mix of LiF and an iron ore, we show that it is possible to easily resolve the F K and Fe L emissions. These examples demonstrate that an improved x-ray analysis can be obtained with multilayer gratings when there is the need to study sam...

  20. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with

  1. Development of a kilowatt-class, joule-level ultrafast laser for driving compact high average power coherent EUV/soft x-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Brendan A.; Baumgarten, Cory M.; Pedicone, Michael A.; Bravo, Herman; Yin, Liang; Woolston, Mark; Wang, Hanchen; Menoni, Carmen S.; Rocca, Jorge J.

    2016-03-01

    Our recent progress in the development of high energy / high average power, chirped pulse amplification laser systems based on diode-pumped, cryogenically-cooled Yb:YAG amplifiers is discussed, including the demonstration of a laser that produces 1 Joule, sub-10 picosecond duration, λ = 1.03μm pulses at 500 Hz repetition rate. This compact, all-diodepumped laser combines a mode-locked Yb:KYW oscillator and a water-cooled Yb:YAG preamplifer with two cryogenic power amplification stages to produce 1.5 Joule pulses with high beam quality which are subsequently compressed. This laser system occupies an optical table area of less than 1.5x3m2. This laser was employed to pump plasma-based soft x-ray lasers at λ = 10-20nm at repetition rates >=100 Hz. To accomplish this, temporally-shaped pulses were focused at grazing incidence into a high aspect ratio line focus using cylindrical optics on a high shot capacity rotating metal target. This results in an elongated plasma amplifier that produces microjoule pulses at several narrow-linewidth EUV wavelengths between λ = 109Å and 189Å. The resulting fraction of a milliwatt average powers are the highest reported to date for a compact, coherent source operating at these wavelengths, to the best of our knowledge.

  2. Advances toward high spectral resolution quantum X-ray calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, S. H.; Kelley, R. L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Mccammon, D.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal detectors for X-ray spectroscopy combining high spectral resolution and quantum efficiency have been developed. These microcalorimeters measure the energy released in the absorption of a single photon by sensing the rise in temperature of a small absorbing structure. The ultimate energy resolution of such a device is limited by the thermodynamic power fluctuations in the thermal link between the calorimeter and isothermal bath and can in principle be made as low as 1 eV. The performance of a real device is degraded due to noise contributions such as excess 1/f noise in the thermistor and incomplete conversion of energy into phonons. The authors report some recent advances in thermometry, X-ray absorption and thermalization, fabrication techniques, and detector optimization in the presence of noise. These improvements have resulted in a device with a spectral resolution of 17 eV FWHM, measured at 6 keV.

  3. First X-ray observations of Low-Power Compact Steep Spectrum Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, M; Siemiginowska, A; Guainazzi, M

    2013-01-01

    We report first X-ray Chandra observations of a sample of seven low luminosity compact (LLC) sources. They belong to a class of young compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio sources. Four of them have been detected, the other three have upper limit estimations for X-ray flux, one CSS galaxy is associated with an X-ray cluster. We have used the new observations together with the observational data for known strong CSS and gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) objects and large scale FRIs and FRIIs to study the relation between morphology, X-ray properties and excitation modes in radio-loud AGNs. We found that: (1) The low power objects fit well to the already established X-ray - radio luminosity correlation for AGNs and occupy the space among, weaker in the X-rays, FRI objects. (2) The high excitation galaxies (HEG) and low excitation galaxies (LEG) occupy distinct locus in the radio/X-ray luminosity plane, notwithstanding their evolutionary stage. This is in agreement with the postulated different origin of the X-ray em...

  4. High-energy X-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): Magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: shuo@astro.columbia.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89–0.08 (Sgr A–E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ∼50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F{sub X} = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L{sub X} = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A–E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ∼100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ∼30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  5. High-resolution detectors for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Soman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a modern soft X-ray spectroscopy technique used to investigate the structure of and excitations in materials. It requires high resolution spectrometers and a brilliant, tunable, X-ray source and therefore is carried out at spectrometers such as SAXES at the Swiss Light Source Light, a synchrotron at the Paul Scherrer Institut.\\ud \\ud SAXES uses a grating to disperse X-rays scattered from a sample across a position sensitive detector, a Charge-Coup...

  6. Focusing high-energy x-rays by a PMMA compound x-ray lens on Beijing synchrotron radiation facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Zi-Chun; Liang Jing-Qiu; Dong Wen; Zhu Pei-Ping; Peng Liang-Qiang; Wang Wei-Biao; Huang Wan-Xia; Yuan Qing-Xi; Wang Jun-Yue

    2007-01-01

    The x-ray compound lens is a novel refractive x-ray optical device. This paper reports the authors' recent research on a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) compound x-ray lens. Firstly the designing and LIGA fabrication process for the PMMA compound x-ray lens are briefly described. Then, a method for theoretical analysis, as well as the experimental system for measurement is also introduced. Finally, the focusing spots for 8keV monochromatic x-rays by the PMMA compound x-ray lens are measured and analysed. According to the experimental results, it is concluded that the PMMA compound x-ray lens promises a good focusing performance under the high-energy x-rays.

  7. Normal incidence X-ray telescope power spectra of X-ray emission from solar active regions. I - Observations. II - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Daniel O.; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Golub, Leon

    1993-01-01

    Fourier analysis is applied to very high resolution image of coronal active regions obtained by the Normal Incidence X-Ray Telescope is used to find a broad isotropic power-law spectrum of the spatial distribution of soft X-ray intensities. Magnetic structures of all sizes are present down to the resolution limit of the instrument. Power spectra for the X-ray intensities of a sample of topologically different active regions are found which fall off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. A model is presented that relates the basic features of coronal magnetic fluctuations to the subphotospheric hydrodynamic turbulence that generates them. The model is used to find a theoretical power spectrum for the X-ray intensity which falls off with increasing wavenumber as 1/k-cubed. The implications of a turbulent regime in active regions are discussed.

  8. High Precision Assembly of Thin Mirror X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    Lightweight high resolution x-ray telescope optics are one of the key technologies under development for next-generation x-ray telescopes. The ultimate goal of this effort is to realize optics with spatial resolution rivaling Chandra (spindle structure. While very light weight, this process resulted in ~1 arc min resolution. We want to achieve ~100 times better with similar mass. A group at NASA GSFC has recently demonstrated an alternative thin-glass assembly procedure that has achieved ~7 arc sec resolution with x-ray tests. Further progress towards 1 arc-sec will require mirrors with improved figure, lower stress coatings, improved alignment, better metrology, and low stress bonding. Many of the difficulties with current mirror assembly practice stem from the use of epoxy as a bonding agent. Epoxy has many disadvantages, including high shrinkage, large CTE and creep, resin aging effects, water absorption, outgassing, low tensile strength, exothermicity, and requiring large amounts of time and/or heat to cure. These effects can cause errors that become â€oefrozen in― to the bond with no possibility of correction. We propose to investigate replacing epoxy with low temperature, low shrinkage solder alloys. We use these solders in conjunction with high power, millisec-long pulses from a fiber IR laser to deliver controlled amounts of heat into the bond area. We have demonstrated that laser pulses can be used to actuate carefully designed bonds by permanently compressing or expanding a very thin and brief surface melt in the solder by amounts controlled in the nanoscale range, allowing post assembly correction of the mirror mount points. We believe this technology will be one of the keys to realize a sub-1 arc-sec thin-glass x-ray telescope.

  9. X-ray Observations of High-B Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Olausen, S A; Vogel, J K; Kaspi, V M; Lyne, A G; Espinoza, C M; Stappers, B W; Manchester, R N; McLaughlin, M A

    2013-01-01

    The study of high-magnetic-field pulsars is important for examining the relationships between radio pulsars, magnetars, and X-ray-isolated neutron stars (XINSs). Here we report on X-ray observations of three such high-magnetic-field radio pulsars. We first present the results of a deep XMM-Newton observation of PSR J1734-3333, taken to follow up on its initial detection in 2009. The pulsar's spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a temperature of 300 +/- 60 eV, with bolometric luminosity L_bb = 2.0(+2.2 -0.7)e+32 erg/s = 0.0036E_dot for a distance of 6.1 kpc. We detect no X-ray pulsations from the source, setting a 1 sigma upper limit on the pulsed fraction of 60% in the 0.5-3 keV band. We compare PSR J1734-3333 to other rotation-powered pulsars of similar age and find that it is significantly hotter, supporting the hypothesis that the magnetic field affects the observed thermal properties of pulsars. We also report on XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of PSRs B1845-19 and J1001-5939. We do not detect eit...

  10. Optical and X-ray emission spectroscopy of high-power laser-induced dielectric breakdown in molecular gases and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babankova, Dagmar; Civis, Svatopluk; Juha, Libor; Bittner, Michal; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skala, Jirí; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Mikolajczyk, Janusz; Ryć, Leszek; Sedivcova, Tereza

    2006-11-09

    Large-scale plasma was created in molecular gases (CO, CO2, N2, H2O) and their mixtures by high-power laser-induced dielectric breakdown (LIDB). Compositions of the mixtures used are those suggested for the early earth's atmosphere of neutral and/or mildly reducing character. Time-integrated optical spectra emitted from the laser spark have been measured and analyzed. The spectra of the plasma generated in the CO-containing mixtures are dominated by emission of both C2 and CN radicals. A vibrational temperature of approximately 10(4) K was determined according to an intensity distribution in a vibronic structure of the CN (B2Sigma(+)u-X2Sigma(+)g) violet band. For comparison, the NH3-CH4-H2-H2O mixture has been irradiated as a model of the strongly reducing version of the early earth's atmosphere. In this mixture, excited CN seems to be significantly less abundant than C2. The LIDB experiments were in the molecular gases carried out not only in the static cell but also using a large, double stream pulse jet (gas puff target) placed in the vacuum interaction chamber. The obtained soft X-ray emission spectra indicate the presence of highly charged atomic ions in the hot core of high-power laser sparks.

  11. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hogle, Craig W.; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992

  12. Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C

    2015-11-17

    We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.

  13. High efficiency, multiterawatt x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present undulator magnet tapering methods for obtaining high efficiency and multiterawatt peak powers in x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, a key requirement for enabling 3D atomic resolution single molecule imaging and nonlinear x-ray science. The peak power and efficiency of tapered XFELs is sensitive to time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. To analyze this dependence in detail we perform a comparative numerical optimization for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile including and intentionally disabling these effects. We show that the solution for the magnetic field taper profile obtained from time independent optimization does not yield the highest extraction efficiency when time dependent effects are included. Our comparative optimization is performed for a novel undulator designed specifically to obtain TW power x-ray pulses in the shortest distance: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. We determine that after a fully time dependent optimization of a 100 m long Linac coherent light source-like XFEL we can obtain a maximum efficiency of 7%, corresponding to 3.7 TW peak radiation power. Possible methods to suppress the synchrotron sidebands, and further enhance the FEL peak power, up to about 6 TW by increasing the seed power and reducing the electron beam energy spread, are also discussed.

  14. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  15. High-precision x-ray polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, B; Schulze, K S; Uschmann, I; Kämpfer, T; Lötzsch, R; Wehrhan, O; Wagner, W; Detlefs, C; Roth, T; Härtwig, J; Förster, E; Stöhlker, T; Paulus, G G

    2013-06-21

    The polarization purity of 6.457- and 12.914-keV x rays has been improved to the level of 2.4×10(-10) and 5.7×10(-10). The polarizers are channel-cut silicon crystals using six 90° reflections. Their performance and possible applications are demonstrated in the measurement of the optical activity of a sucrose solution.

  16. A High Resolution X-ray Image of the Jet in M 87

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, H L; Davis, D S; Perlman, E S; Wise, M; Canizares, C R; Harris, D E

    2001-01-01

    We present the first high resolution X-ray image of the jet in M 87 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. There is clear structure in the jet and almost all of the optically bright knots are detected individually. The unresolved core is the brightest X-ray feature but is only 2-3 times brighter than knot A (12.3" from the core) and the inner knot HST-1 (1.0" from the core). The X-ray and optical positions of the knots are consistent at the 0.1" level but the X-ray emission from the brightest knot (A) is marginally upstream of the optical emission peak. Detailed Gaussian fits to the X-ray jet one-dimensional profile show distinct X-ray emission that is not associated with specific optical features. The X-ray/optical flux ratio decreases systematically from the core and X-ray emission is not clearly detected beyond 20" from the core. The X-ray spectra of the core and the two brightest knots, HST-1 and A1, are consistent with a simple power law with alpha = 1.46 +/- 0.05, practically ruling out inverse Compton mo...

  17. Ultraprecision motion control technique for high-resolution x-ray instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.

    2000-07-17

    With the availability of third-generation hard x-ray synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, x-ray inelastic scattering and x-ray nuclear resonant scattering provide powerful means for investigating the vibrational dynamics of a variety of materials and condensed matter systems. Novel high-resolution hard x-ray optics with meV energy resolution requires a compact positioning mechanism with 20--50-nrad angular resolution and stability. In this paper, the authors technical approach to this design challenge is presented. Sensitivity and stability test results are also discussed.

  18. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.

  19. High Resolution X-ray-Induced Acoustic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Tang, Shanshan; Ahmad, Moiz; Xing, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Absorption based CT imaging has been an invaluable tool in medical diagnosis, biology, and materials science. However, CT requires a large set of projection data and high radiation dose to achieve superior image quality. In this letter, we report a new imaging modality, X-ray Induced Acoustic Tomography (XACT), which takes advantages of high sensitivity to X-ray absorption and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality. A single projection X-ray exposure is sufficient to generate acoustic signals in 3D space because the X-ray generated acoustic waves are of a spherical nature and propagate in all directions from their point of generation. We demonstrate the successful reconstruction of gold fiducial markers with a spatial resolution of about 350 μm. XACT reveals a new imaging mechanism and provides uncharted opportunities for structural determination with X-ray.

  20. Effects of characteristic x rays on the noise power spectra and detective quantum efficiency of photoconductive x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W; Ji, W G; Rowlands, J A

    2001-10-01

    The effects of K fluorescence on the imaging performance of photoconductor-based x-ray imaging systems are investigated. A cascaded linear systems model was developed, where a parallel cascaded process was implemented to take into account the effect of K-fluorescence reabsorption on the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and the spatial frequency dependent detective quantum efficiency [DQE(f)] of an imaging system. The investigation was focused on amorphous selenium (a-Se), which is the most highly developed photoconductor material for x-ray imaging. The results were compared to those obtained with Monte Carlo simulation using the same imaging condition and detector parameters, so that the validity of the cascaded linear system model could be confirmed. Our results revealed that K-fluorescence reabsorption in a-Se is responsible for a 18% drop in NPS at high spatial frequencies with an incident x-ray photon energy of E=20 keV (which is just above the K edge of 12.5 keV). When E increases to 60 keV, the effects of K-fluorescence reabsorption on NPS decrease to approximately 12% at high spatial frequencies. Because the high frequency drop is present in both MTF and NPS, the effect of K fluorescence on DQE(f) is minimal, especially for E that is much higher than the K edge. We also applied the cascaded linear system model to a newly developed compound photoconductor, lead iodide (PbI2), and found that at 60 keV there is a high frequency drop in NPS of 19%. The calculated NPS were compared to previously published measurements of PbI2 detectors.

  1. Enhanced x-ray resolving power achieved behind the focal circles of Cauchois spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, John F; Hudson, Lawrence T; Holland, Glenn E; Henins, Albert

    2008-05-20

    Maintaining high resolving power is a primary challenge in hard x-ray spectroscopy of newly developed bright and transient x-ray sources such as laser-produced plasmas. To address this challenge, the line widths in x-ray spectra with energies in the 17 keV to 70 keV range were recorded by positioning the detectors on and behind the focal circles of Cauchois type transmission-crystal spectrometers. To analyze and understand the observed line widths, we developed a geometrical model that accounts for source broadening and various instrumental broadening mechanisms. The x-ray sources were laboratory Mo or W electron-bombarded anodes, and the spectra were recorded on photostimulable phosphor image plates. For these relatively small x-ray sources, it was found that when the detector was placed on or near the focal circle, the line widths were dominated by the effective spatial resolution of the detector. When the detector was positioned beyond the focal circle, the line widths were determined primarily by source-size broadening. Moreover, the separation between the spectral lines increased with distance behind the focal circle faster than the line widths, resulting in increased resolving power with distance. Contributions to line broadenings caused by the crystal thickness, crystal rocking curve width, geometrical aberrations, and natural widths of the x-ray transitions were in all cases smaller than detector and source broadening, but were significant for some spectrometer geometries. The various contributions to the line widths, calculated using simple analytical expressions, were in good agreement with the measured line widths for a variety of spectrometer and source conditions. These modeling and experimental results enable the design of hard x-ray spectrometers that are optimized for high resolving power and for the measurement of the x-ray source size from the line widths recorded behind the focal circle.

  2. High-Definition X-Ray Fluorescence: Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Walter M.; Chen, Z W; Li, Danhong

    2008-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a well-established and powerful tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of virtually any material. It is widely used for environmental, industrial, pharmaceutical, forensic, and scientific research applications to measure the concentration of elemental constituents or contaminants. The fluorescing atoms can be excited by energetic electrons, ions, or photons. A particular EDXRF method, monochromatic microbeam X-ray fluorescence (MμEDXRF), has...

  3. High Definition X-Ray Fluorescence: Principles and Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z W; Gibson, Walter M.; Huang, Huapeng

    2008-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a well-established and powerful tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of virtually any material. It is widely used for environmental, industrial, pharmaceutical, forensic, and scientific research applications to measure the concentration of elemental constituents or contaminants. The fluorescing atoms can be excited by energetic electrons, ions, or photons. A particular EDXRF method, monochromatic microfocus X-ray fluorescence (MμEDXRF), ha...

  4. A Compact X-Ray System for Support of High Throughput Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Gubarev, Mikhail; Gibson, Walter M.; Joy, Marshall K.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Standard x-ray systems for crystallography rely on massive generators coupled with optics that guide X-ray beams onto the crystal sample. Optics for single-crystal diffractometry include total reflection mirrors, polycapillary optics or graded multilayer monochromators. The benefit of using polycapillary optic is that it can collect x-rays over tile greatest solid angle, and thus most efficiently, utilize the greatest portion of X-rays emitted from the Source, The x-ray generator has to have a small anode spot, and thus its size and power requirements can be substantially reduced We present the design and results from the first high flux x-ray system for crystallography that combine's a microfocus X-ray generator (40microns FWHM Spot size at a power of 45 W) and a collimating, polycapillary optic. Diffraction data collected from small test crystals with cell dimensions up to 160A (lysozyme and thaumatin) are of high quality. For example, diffraction data collected from a lysozyme crystal at RT yielded R=5.0% for data extending to 1.70A. We compare these results with measurements taken from standard crystallographic systems. Our current microfocus X-ray diffraction system is attractive for supporting crystal growth research in the standard crystallography laboratory as well as in remote, automated crystal growth laboratory. Its small volume, light-weight, and low power requirements are sufficient to have it installed in unique environments, i.e.. on-board International Space Station.

  5. High-energy x-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89–0.08 (Sgr A–E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ∼50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center...

  6. A new X-ray pinhole camera for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A new X-ray pinhole camera for the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution, was designed and developed. It consists of a back-illuminated and deep depleted CCD detector (composed of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a lateral size of 13 μm) coupled to a 70 μm laser-drilled pinhole-collimator, positioned between the sample under analysis and the CCD. The X-ray pinhole camera works in a coaxial geometry allowing a wide range of magnification values. The characteristic X-ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube working at a maximum power of 100 W (50 kV and 2 mA operating conditions). The spectroscopic capabilities of the X-ray pinhole camera were accurately investigated. Energy response and energy calibration of the CCD detector were determined by irradiating pure target-materials emitting characteristic X-rays in the energy working-domain of the system (between 3 keV and 30 keV). Measurements were performed by using a multi-frame acquisition in single-photon counting. The characteristic X-ray spectra were obtained by an automated processing of the acquired images. The energy resolution measured at the Fe–Kα line is 157 eV. The use of the X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D resolved elemental analysis was investigated by using reference-patterns of different materials and geometries. The possibility of the elemental mapping of samples up to an area of 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. Finally, the spatial resolution of the pinhole camera was measured by analyzing the profile function of a sharp-edge. The spatial resolution determined at the magnification values of 3.2 × and 0.8 × (used as testing values) is about 90 μm and 190 μm respectively. - Highlights: • We developed an X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D X-ray fluorescence imaging. • X-ray spectra are obtained by a multi-frame acquisition in single photon mode. • The energy resolution in the X-ray

  7. Talbot-Lau x-ray deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Muñoz-Cordovez, G.; Vescovi, M.; Valenzuela-Villaseca, V.; Veloso, F.

    2016-11-01

    Talbot-Lau X-ray deflectometry (TXD) has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density (HED) plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping were demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moiré pattern formation and grating survival were also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ˜1 kA/ns. These results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  8. Talbot-Lau x-ray deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia, M. P., E-mail: mpvaldivia@pha.jhu.edu; Stutman, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Klein, S. R. [Center for Laser Experimental Astrophysical Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States); Muñoz-Cordovez, G.; Vescovi, M.; Valenzuela-Villaseca, V.; Veloso, F. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-11-15

    Talbot-Lau X-ray deflectometry (TXD) has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density (HED) plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping were demonstrated for 25–29 J, 8–30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moiré pattern formation and grating survival were also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ∼1 kA/ns. These results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  9. A High-Resolution X-Ray Image of the Jet in M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H. L.; Miller, B. P.; Davis, D. S.; Perlman, E. S.; Wise, M.; Canizares, C. R.; Harris, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first high-resolution X-ray image of the jet in M87 using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. There is clear structure in the jet and almost all of the optically bright knots are detected individually. The unresolved core is the brightest X-ray feature but is only 2-3 times brighter than knot A (12.3" from the core) and the inner knot HST-1 (1.0" from the core). The X-ray and optical positions of the knots are consistent at the 0.1" level, but the X-ray emission from the brightest knot (A) is marginally upstream of the optical emission peak. Detailed Gaussian fits to the X-ray jet one-dimensional profile show distinct X-ray emission that is not associated with specific optical features. The X-ray/optical flux ratio decreases systematically from the core, and X-ray emission is not clearly detected beyond 20" from the core. The X-ray spectra of the core and the two brightest knots, HST-1 and A, are consistent with a simple power law (Sν~ν-α) with α=1.46+/-0.05, practically ruling out inverse Compton models as the dominant X-ray emission mechanism. The core flux is significantly larger than expected from an advective accretion flow, and the spectrum is much steeper, indicating that the core emission may be due to synchrotron emission from a small-scale jet. The spectral energy distributions of the knots are well fitted by synchrotron models. The spectral indices in the X-ray band, however, are comparable to that expected in the Kardashev-Pacholczyk synchrotron model but are much flatter than expected in the pitch-angle isotropization model of Jaffe and Perola. The break frequencies derived from both models drop by factors of 10-100 with distance from the core.

  10. A High Resolution X-ray Image of the Jet in M 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. P.; Marshall, H. L.; Davis, D. S.; Perlman, E. S.; Wise, M.; Canizares, C. R.; Harris, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    We present the first high resolution X-ray image of the jet in M 87 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. There is clear structure in the jet and almost all of the optically bright knots are detected individually. The unresolved core is the brightest X-ray feature but is only 2-3 times brighter than knot A (12.3" from the core) and the inner knot HST-1 (1.0" from the core). The X-ray and optical positions of the knots are consistent at the 0.1" level but the X-ray emission from the brightest knot (A) is marginally upstream of the optical emission peak. Detailed Gaussian fits to the X-ray jet one-dimensional profile show distinct X-ray emission that is not associated with specific optical features. The X-ray/optical flux ratio decreases systematically from the core and X-ray emission is not clearly detected beyond 20" from the core. The X-ray spectra of the core and the two brightest knots, HST-1 and A1, are consistent with a simple power law with alpha = 1.46 +/- 0.05, practically ruling out inverse Compton models as the dominant X-ray emission mechanism. The core flux is significantly larger than expected from an advective accretion flow and the spectrum is much steeper, indicating that the core emission may be due to synchrotron emission from a small scale jet. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the knots are well fit by synchrotron models. The spectral indices in the X-ray band, however are comparable to that expected in the Kardashev-Pacholczyk synchrotron model but are much flatter than expected in the pitch angle isotropization model of Jaffe and Perola. The break frequencies derived from both models drop by factors of 10-100 with distance from the core.

  11. Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Geffert, Otfried; Santra, Robin

    2017-03-01

    Compton scattering is the nonresonant inelastic scattering of an x-ray photon by an electron and has been used to probe the electron momentum distribution in gas-phase and condensed-matter samples. In the low x-ray intensity regime, Compton scattering from atoms dominantly comes from bound electrons in neutral atoms, neglecting contributions from bound electrons in ions and free (ionized) electrons. In contrast, in the high x-ray intensity regime, the sample experiences severe ionization via x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics. Thus, it becomes necessary to take into account all the contributions to the Compton scattering signal when atoms are exposed to high-intensity x-ray pulses provided by x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). In this paper, we investigate the Compton spectra of atoms at high x-ray intensity, using an extension of the integrated x-ray atomic physics toolkit, xatom. As the x-ray fluence increases, there is a significant contribution from ionized electrons to the Compton spectra, which gives rise to strong deviations from the Compton spectra of neutral atoms. The present study provides not only understanding of the fundamental XFEL-matter interaction but also crucial information for single-particle imaging experiments, where Compton scattering is no longer negligible. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. B. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Sang-Kil Son was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. B as an Emerging Leader.

  12. High-harmonic generation: Ultrafast lasers yield X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinnie, Iain; Kapteyn, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Table-top sources that generate both extreme ultraviolet light and soft X-rays through high-harmonic generation of ultrafast infrared laser pulses look set to perform tasks previously accessible using only large-scale synchrotrons.

  13. High spectral and spatial resolution X-ray transmission radiography and tomography using a Color X-ray Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Matthieu; Garrevoet, Jan; Tack, Pieter; Scharf, Oliver; Cormode, David P.; Van Loo, Denis; Pauwels, Elin; Dierick, Manuel; Vincze, Laszlo; Van Hoorebeke, Luc

    2013-01-01

    High resolution X-ray radiography and computed tomography are excellent techniques for non-destructive characterization of an object under investigation at a spatial resolution in the micrometer range. However, as the image contrast depends on both chemical composition and material density, no chemical information is obtained from this data. Furthermore, lab-based measurements are affected by the polychromatic X-ray beam, which results in beam hardening effects. New types of X-ray detectors w...

  14. A search for X-ray reprocessing echoes in the power spectral density functions of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Papadakis, I. E.; Epitropakis, A.; Pecháček, T.; Dovčiak, M.; McHardy, I. M.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of a detailed study of the X-ray power spectral density (PSD) functions of 12 X-ray bright AGN, using almost all the archival XMM-Newton data. The total net exposure of the EPIC-pn light curves is larger than 350 ks in all cases (and exceeds 1 Ms in the case of 1H 0707-497). In a physical scenario in which X-ray reflection occurs in the inner part of the accretion disc of AGN, the X-ray reflection component should be a filtered echo of the X-ray continuum signal and should be equal to the convolution of the primary emission with the response function of the disc. Our primary objective is to search for these reflection features in the 5-7 keV (iron line) and 0.5-1 keV (soft) bands, where the X-ray reflection fraction is expected to be dominant. We fit to the observed periodograms two models: a simple bending power-law model (BPL) and a BPL model convolved with the transfer function of the accretion disc assuming the lamp-post geometry and X-ray reflection from a homogeneous disc. We do not find any significant features in the best-fitting BPL model residuals either in individual PSDs in the iron band, soft and full band (0.3-10 keV) or in the average PSD residuals of the brightest and more variable sources (with similar black hole mass estimates). The typical amplitude of the soft and full-band residuals is around 3-5 per cent. It is possible that the expected general relativistic effects are not detected because they are intrinsically lower than the uncertainty of the current PSDs, even in the strong relativistic case in which X-ray reflection occurs on a disc around a fast rotating black hole having an X-ray source very close above it. However, we could place strong constrains to the X-ray reflection geometry with the current data sets if we knew in advance the intrinsic shape of the X-ray PSDs, particularly its high-frequency slope.

  15. An accretion disk swept up by a powerful thermonuclear X-ray burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenaar, Nathalie

    Type-I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions occurring in the surface layers of accreting neutron stars. These events are powerful probes of the physics of neutron stars and their surrounding accretion flow. Swift recently caught a very energetic type-I X-ray burst from the neutron star IGR J17062-6143 that displayed exceptional features. Firstly, the light curve of the 18 minute long X-ray burst tail shows an episode of 10 minutes with wild X-ray intensity fluctuations. Secondly, X-ray spectral analysis revealed a highly significant emission line around 1 keV, which can be interpreted as an Fe-L shell line caused by the irradiation of cold gas. Finally, the detection of significant absorption lines and edges in the Fe-K band are strongly suggestive of the presence of hot, highly ionized gas along the line of sight. None of these features are present in the persistent emission of the source. The X-ray burst of IGR J17062-6143 shows the first unambiguous detection of atomic features at CCD resolution. The timescale of the strong intensity variations, the velocity width of the Fe-L emission line, and photo-ionization modeling of the Fe-K absorption features each independently point to swept-up gas at a radius of ~1000 km from the neutron star. The unusual X-ray light curve and spectral properties could have plausibly been caused by a disruption of the accretion disk due to the super-Eddington fluxes reached during the X-ray burst.

  16. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...

  17. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  18. The Soft X-ray Spectrum of the High Mass X-Ray Binary V0332+53 in Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Elshamouty, K; Chouinard, R

    2016-01-01

    The propeller effect should cut off accretion in fast-spinning neutron star high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) at low mass transfer rates. However, accretion continues in some HMXBs at $L_{x} < 10^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$, as evidenced by continuing pulsations. Indications of spectral softening in systems in the propeller regime suggest that some HMXBs are undergoing fundamental changes in their accretion regime. A 39 ks \\textit{XMM-Newton} observation of the transient HMXB V0332+53 found it at a very low X-ray luminosity ($L_{x} \\sim 4\\times 10^{32}$ erg s${^{-1}}$). A power-law spectral fit requires an unusually soft spectral index ($4.4^{+0.9}_{-0.6}$), while a magnetized neutron star atmosphere model, with temperature \\lt\\ 6.7$\\pm 0.2$ K and inferred emitting radius of $\\sim0.2-0.3$ km, gives a good fit. We suggest that the quiescent X-ray emission from V0332+53 is mainly from a hot spot on the surface of the neutron star. We could not detect pulsations from V0332+53, due to the low count rate. Due to the high...

  19. Origin of power-law X-ray emission in the steep power-law state of X-ray binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hong Yan; Jian-Cheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    We present a new explanation for the origin of the steep power-law (SPL) state of X-ray binaries.The power-law component of X-ray emission is the synchrotron radiation of relativistic electrons in highly magnetized compact spots orbiting near the inner stable circular orbit of a black hole.It has a hard spectrum that extends to above MeV energies, which is determined by the electron acceleration rate.These photons are then down-scattered by the surrounding plasma to form an observed steep spectrum.We discuss the relevance of the model to high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and the extremely high luminosity of the SPL state.

  20. Development of a pump-probe facility with sub-picosecond time resolution combining a high-power ultraviolet regenerative FEL amplifier and a soft X-ray SASE FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Faatz, B; Feldhaus, J; Krzywinski, J; Pflüger, J; Rossbach, J; Saldin, E L; Schneidmiller, E A; Yurkov, M V

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design of a high power radiation source with laser-like characteristics in the ultraviolet spectral range at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF). The concept is based on the generation of radiation in a regenerative FEL amplifier (RAFEL). The RAFEL described in this paper covers a wavelength range of 200-400 nm and provides 200 fs pulses with 2 mJ of optical energy per pulse. The linac operates at 1% duty factor and the average output radiation power exceeds 100 W. The RAFEL will be driven by the spent electron beam leaving the soft X-ray FEL, thus providing minimal interference between these two devices. The RAFEL output radiation has the same time structure as the X-ray FEL and the UV pulses are naturally synchronized with the soft X-ray pulses from the TTF FEL. Therefore, it should be possible to achieve synchronization close to the duration of the radiation pulses (200 fs) for pump-probe techniques using either an UV pulse as a pump and soft X-ray pulse as a probe, or vice ver...

  1. Development toward high-resolution X-ray phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    Since the 1990s, the use of X-ray phase contrast has been extensively studied for imaging weakly absorbing objects consisting of low-Z elements such as biological soft tissues and polymers. The development of X-ray microscopy was also progressing during this time, although absorption contrast was only available. It was straightforward and important to develop phase-contrast X-ray microscopy. One characteristic in the development is that quantitative phase measurement is possible through the acquisition of phase-contrast images under a specific procedure, thanks to digital X-ray image detectors. Therefore, such a technique is called 'phase imaging' rather than phase-contrast imaging in this review. Highly sensitive three-dimensional phase imaging is feasible in combination with tomography. This article reviews the progress in X-ray phase imaging, especially with regards to X-ray microscopy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction of Macromolecules with Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanoff, Vivian; Boggon, Titus; Helliwell, John R.; Judge, Russell; Olczak, Alex; Snell, Edward H.; Siddons, D. Peter; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We recently combined synchrotron-based monochromatic X-ray diffraction topography methods with triple axis diffractometry and rocking curve measurements: high resolution X-ray diffraction imaging techniques, to better understand the quality of protein crystals. We discuss these methods in the light of results obtained on crystals grown under different conditions. These non destructive techniques are powerful tools in the characterization of the protein crystals and ultimately will allow to improve, develop, and understand protein crystal growth. High resolution X-ray diffraction imaging methods will be discussed in detail in light of recent results obtained on Hen Egg White Lysozyme crystals and other proteins.

  3. Total x-ray power improvement on recent wire array experiments on the Z machine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Savage, Mark Edward; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Lopez, Mike R.; Jones, Brent Manley; Jones, Michael C.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments on the refurbished Z-machine were conducted using large diameter stainless steel arrays which produced x-ray powers of 260 TW. Follow-up experiments were then conducted utilizing tungsten wires with approximately the same total mass with the hypothesis that the total x-ray power would increase. On the large diameter tungsten experiments, the x-ray power averaged over 300 TW and the total x-ray energy was greater than 2MJ. Different analysis techniques for inferring the x-ray power will be described in detail.

  4. Focal construct geometry for high intensity energy dispersive x-ray diffraction based on x-ray capillary optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Jiang, Bowen; Zhu, Yu

    2016-03-14

    We presented a focal construct geometry (FCG) method for high intensity energy dispersive X-ray diffraction by utilizing a home-made ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL). The ESBC was employed to focus the X-rays from a conventional laboratory source into a small focal spot and to produce an annular X-ray beam in the far-field. Additionally, diffracted polychromatic X-rays were confocally collected by the PPXRL attached to a stationary energy-resolved detector. Our FCG method based on ESBC and PPXRL had achieved relatively high intensity diffraction peaks and effectively narrowed the diffraction peak width which was helpful in improving the potential d-spacing resolution for material phase analysis.

  5. High-resolution accelerator alignment using x-ray optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Yang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel alignment technique utilizing the x-ray beam of an undulator in conjunction with pinholes and position-sensitive detectors for positioning components of the accelerator, undulator, and beam line in an x-ray free-electron laser. Two retractable pinholes at each end of the undulator define a stable and reproducible x-ray beam axis (XBA. Targets are precisely positioned on the XBA using a pinhole camera technique. Position-sensitive detectors responding to both x-ray and electron beams enable direct transfer of the position setting from the XBA to the electron beam. This system has the potential to deliver superior alignment accuracy (1–3   μm for target pinholes in the transverse directions over a long distance (200 m or longer. It can be used to define the beam axis of the electron-beam–based alignment, enabling high reproducibility of the latter. This x-ray–based concept should complement the electron-beam–based alignment and the existing survey methods to raise the alignment accuracy of long accelerators to an unprecedented level. Further improvement of the transverse accuracy using x-ray zone plates will be discussed. We also propose a concurrent measurement scheme during accelerator operation to allow real-time feedback for transverse position correction.

  6. Highly porous nanoberyllium for X-ray beam speckle suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goikhman, Alexander, E-mail: agoikhman@ymail.com; Lyatun, Ivan; Ershov, Petr [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Snigireva, Irina [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Wojda, Pawel [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza, Gdańsk 80-233 (Poland); Gorlevsky, Vladimir; Semenov, Alexander; Sheverdyaev, Maksim; Koletskiy, Viktor [A. A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova str. 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Snigirev, Anatoly [Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, Nevskogo str. 14, Kaliningrad 236041 (Russian Federation); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-09

    A speckle suppression device containing highly porous nanoberyllium is proposed for manipulating the spatial coherence length and removing undesirable speckle structure during imaging experiments. This paper reports a special device called a ‘speckle suppressor’, which contains a highly porous nanoberyllium plate squeezed between two beryllium windows. The insertion of the speckle suppressor in an X-ray beam allows manipulation of the spatial coherence length, thus changing the effective source size and removing the undesirable speckle structure in X-ray imaging experiments almost without beam attenuation. The absorption of the nanoberyllium plate is below 1% for 1 mm thickness at 12 keV. The speckle suppressor was tested on the ID06 ESRF beamline with X-rays in the energy range from 9 to 15 keV. It was applied for the transformation of the phase–amplitude contrast to the pure amplitude contrast in full-field microscopy.

  7. A MEMS-based high frequency x-ray chopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, A; Dhez, O; Schwartz, W; Torricelli, G; Comin, F; Chevrier, J

    2009-04-29

    Time-resolved x-ray experiments require intensity modulation at high frequencies (advanced rotating choppers have nowadays reached the kHz range). We here demonstrate that a silicon microlever oscillating at 13 kHz with nanometric amplitude can be used as a high frequency x-ray chopper. We claim that using micro-and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), it will be possible to achieve higher frequencies in excess of hundreds of megahertz. Working at such a frequency can open a wealth of possibilities in chemistry, biology and physics time-resolved experiments.

  8. A MEMS-based high frequency x-ray chopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siria, A; Schwartz, W; Chevrier, J [Institut Neel, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dhez, O; Comin, F [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Torricelli, G [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-29

    Time-resolved x-ray experiments require intensity modulation at high frequencies (advanced rotating choppers have nowadays reached the kHz range). We here demonstrate that a silicon microlever oscillating at 13 kHz with nanometric amplitude can be used as a high frequency x-ray chopper. We claim that using micro-and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), it will be possible to achieve higher frequencies in excess of hundreds of megahertz. Working at such a frequency can open a wealth of possibilities in chemistry, biology and physics time-resolved experiments.

  9. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  10. Clumpy wind accretion in supergiant neutron star high mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, E.; Oskinova, L.; Feldmeier, A.; Falanga, M.

    2016-05-01

    The accretion of the stellar wind material by a compact object represents the main mechanism powering the X-ray emission in classical supergiant high mass X-ray binaries and supergiant fast X-ray transients. In this work we present the first attempt to simulate the accretion process of a fast and dense massive star wind onto a neutron star, taking into account the effects of the centrifugal and magnetic inhibition of accretion ("gating") due to the spin and magnetic field of the compact object. We made use of a radiative hydrodynamical code to model the nonstationary radiatively driven wind of an O-B supergiant star and then place a neutron star characterized by a fixed magnetic field and spin period at a certain distance from the massive companion. Our calculations follow, as a function of time (on a total timescale of several hours), the transitions of the system through all different accretion regimes that are triggered by the intrinsic variations in the density and velocity of the nonstationary wind. The X-ray luminosity released by the system is computed at each time step by taking into account the relevant physical processes occurring in the different accretion regimes. Synthetic lightcurves are derived and qualitatively compared with those observed from classical supergiant high mass X-ray binaries and supergiant fast X-ray transients. Although a number of simplifications are assumed in these calculations, we show that taking into account the effects of the centrifugal and magnetic inhibition of accretion significantly reduces the average X-ray luminosity expected for any neutron star wind-fed binary. The present model calculations suggest that long spin periods and stronger magnetic fields are favored in order to reproduce the peculiar behavior of supergiant fast X-ray transients in the X-ray domain.

  11. Calculation of x-ray scattering patterns from nanocrystals at high x-ray intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Malik Muhammad; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We present a generalized method to describe the x-ray scattering intensity of the Bragg spots in a diffraction pattern from nanocrystals exposed to intense x-ray pulses. Our method involves the subdivision of a crystal into smaller units. In order to calculate the dynamics within every unit we employ a Monte-Carlo (MC)-molecular dynamics (MD)-ab-initio hybrid framework using real space periodic boundary conditions. By combining all the units we simulate the diffraction pattern of a crystal larger than the transverse x-ray beam profile, a situation commonly encountered in femtosecond nanocrystallography experiments with focused x-ray free-electron laser radiation. Radiation damage is not spatially uniform and depends on the fluence associated with each specific region inside the crystal. To investigate the effects of uniform and non-uniform fluence distribution we have used two different spatial beam profiles, gaussian and flattop.

  12. Editorial: Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon

    2010-03-01

    This editorial serves as the preface to a special issue of New Journal of Physics, which collects together solicited papers on a common subject, x-ray beams with high coherence. We summarize the issue's content, and explain why there is so much current interest both in the sources themselves and in the applications to the study of the structure of matter and its fluctuations (both spontaneous and driven). As this collection demonstrates, the field brings together accelerator physics in the design of new sources, particle physics in the design of detectors, and chemical and materials scientists who make use of the coherent beams produced. Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence Contents Femtosecond pulse x-ray imaging with a large field of view B Pfau, C M Günther, S Schaffert, R Mitzner, B Siemer, S Roling, H Zacharias, O Kutz, I Rudolph, R Treusch and S Eisebitt The FERMI@Elettra free-electron-laser source for coherent x-ray physics: photon properties, beam transport system and applications E Allaria, C Callegari, D Cocco, W M Fawley, M Kiskinova, C Masciovecchio and F Parmigiani Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Anders Madsen, Robert L Leheny, Hongyu Guo, Michael Sprung and Orsolya Czakkel The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Sébastien Boutet and Garth J Williams Dynamics and rheology under continuous shear flow studied by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Andrei Fluerasu, Pawel Kwasniewski, Chiara Caronna, Fanny Destremaut, Jean-Baptiste Salmon and Anders Madsen Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction Wonsuk Cha, Sanghoon Song, Nak Cheon Jeong, Ross Harder, Kyung Byung Yoon, Ian K Robinson and Hyunjung Kim Coherence properties of the European XFEL G Geloni, E Saldin, L Samoylova, E Schneidmiller, H Sinn, Th Tschentscher and M Yurkov Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data G J

  13. High spectral and spatial resolution X-ray transmission radiography and tomography using a Color X-ray Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Matthieu N., E-mail: matthieu.boone@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Garrevoet, Jan; Tack, Pieter [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281/S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Scharf, Oliver [IfG-Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Cormode, David P. [University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Radiology, Cardiology and Bioengineering, O3400 Spruce St, 1 Silverstein, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Van Loo, Denis; Pauwels, Elin; Dierick, Manuel [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Vincze, Laszlo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281/S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Van Hoorebeke, Luc [Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-01-21

    High resolution X-ray radiography and computed tomography are excellent techniques for non-destructive characterization of an object under investigation at a spatial resolution in the micrometer range. However, as the image contrast depends on both chemical composition and material density, no chemical information is obtained from this data. Furthermore, lab-based measurements are affected by the polychromatic X-ray beam, which results in beam hardening effects. New types of X-ray detectors which provide spectral information on the measured X-ray beam can help to overcome these limitations. In this paper, an energy dispersive CCD detector with high spectral resolution is characterized for use in high resolution radiography and tomography, where a focus is put on the experimental conditions and requirements of both measurement techniques.

  14. High Efficiency, Multi-Terawatt X-ray free electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Emma, Claudio; Wu, Juhao; Pellegrini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We study high efficiency, multi-terawatt peak power, few angstrom wavelength, X-ray Free Electron Lasers (X-ray FELs). To obtain these characteristics we consider an optimized undulator design: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. The peak power and efficiency depend on the transverse electron beam distribution and on time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. The last effect is identified as the main cause for reduction of electron beam microbunching and FEL peak power. We show that the optimal functional form for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile, yielding the maximum output power, depends significantly on these effects. The output power achieved when neglecting time dependent effects for an LCLS-like X-ray FEL with a 100 m lo...

  15. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Theta Car

    CERN Document Server

    Naze, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Context : The peculiar hot star Theta Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary of short period (2.2d). Aims : Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X-rays can provide useful constraints on the energetic processes at work in binaries as well as in peculiar, single objects. Methods : We present the analysis of a 50ks exposure taken with the XMM-Newton observatory. It provides medium as well as high-resolution spectroscopy. Results : Our high-resolution spectroscopy analysis reveals a very soft spectrum with multiple temperature components (1--6MK) and an X-ray flux slightly below the `canonical' value (log[L_X(0.1-10.)/L_{BOL}] ~ -7). The X-ray lines appear surprisingly narrow and unshifted, reminiscent of those of beta Cru and tau Sco. Their relative intensities confirm the anomalous abundances detected in the optical domain (C strongly depleted, N strongly enriched, O slightly depleted). In addition, the X-ray data favor a slight depletion in neon and ...

  16. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snigireva, I. [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  17. X-Ray Line Measurements with High Efficiency Bragg Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, A; Gregori, G; Knight, J; Campbell, K; Landen, O; Glenzer, S

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the focusing properties of two highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) spectrometers, which differ in the degree of the mosaic spread: ZYA with a low mosaic spread ({gamma}=0.4 degrees) and ZYH with a large mosaic spread ({gamma}=3.5 degrees). In order to assess the crystal performance for a variety of different experiments, various K{alpha} and K{beta} x-ray lines have been produced using a high-intensity ({approx}>10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) short-pulse ({approx} 100 fs) laser beam focused onto Ti, V, Zn, and Cu foils. The measured spectral resolution of the HOPG crystals in both first and second order diffraction has been compared with theoretical predictions. Using known values for the peak reflectivity of HOPG crystals, we have also computed K{alpha} x-ray conversion efficiencies of Ti, V, Zn, and Cu. These results are important to estimate the optimal conditions under which different types of HOPG monochromators can be used for the detection of weak x-ray signals as the one encountered in x-ray Thomson/Compton scattering experiments.

  18. High spatial resolution hard X-ray microscope using X-ray refractive lens and phase contrast imaging experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kohmura, Y; Takeuchi, A; Takano, H; Suzuki, Y; Ishikawa, T; Ohigashi, T; Yokosuka, H

    2001-01-01

    A high spatial resolution X-ray microscope was constructed using an X-ray refractive lens as an objective. The spatial resolution was tested using 18 keV X-ray. A 0.4 mu m line and 0.4 mu m space tantalum test pattern was successfully resolved. Using the similar setup with the addition of a phase plate, a Zernike type phase-contrast microscopy experiment was carried out for the phase retrieval of the samples. Two-dimensional phase-contrast images were successfully taken for the first time in the hard X-ray region. Images of a gold mesh sample were analyzed and the validity of this method was indicated. An improvement of the lens, however, is required for the precise phase retrieval of the samples.

  19. Laser and Pulsed Power Electron Density Imaging Through Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Leiva, Maria Pia; Stutman, Dan; Stoeckl, Christian; Mileham, Chad; Begischev, Ildar; Theobald, Wolfgang; Bromage, Jake; Regan, Sean; Klein, Salee; Muñoz-Cordovez, Gonzalo; Vescovi, Milenko; Valenzuela-Villaseca, Vicente; Veloso, Felipe

    2016-10-01

    A Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer was deployed using laser driven and x-pinch x-ray backlighters. The Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer is an ideal electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas with the potential to simultaneously deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single image with source limited resolution. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 10-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using Cu foil targets at the Multi-TeraWatt facility. An areal electron density of 0.050 g/cm2 was obtained at the center of a fluoro-nylon fiber of 300 mm diameter with a source FWHM of 80 µm and resolution of 50 µm. Grating survival and Moiré pattern formation was demonstrated using a Cu x-pinch plasma of FWHM 27 µm, driven by the 350 kA, 350 ns Llampudken pulsed power generator. These results closely match simulations and laboratory results. It was demonstrated that the technique can detect both sharp and smooth density gradients in the range of 2x1023 to 2x1025 cm-3, thus allowing implementation of the electron density technique as a HED plasma diagnostic in both laser and pulsed power experiments U.S. DoE/NNSA and DE-NA0002955.

  20. The First High Resolution X-ray Spectrum of Cyg X-1 Soft X-Ray Ionization and Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, N S; Canizares, C R; Marshall, H L; Lee, J C; Miller, J M; Lewin, W H G

    2002-01-01

    We observed the black hole candidate Cyg X-1 for 15 ks with the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer aboard the CHANDRA X-ray Observatory. The source was observed during a period of intense flaring activity, so it was about a factor of 2.5 brighter than usual, with a 0.5-10 keV (1-24 A) luminosity of 1.6x10^37 erg/s (at a distance of 2.5 kpc). The spectrum of the source shows prominent absorption edges, some of which have complicated substructure. We use the most recent results from laboratory measurements and and calculations to model the observed substructure of the edges. From the model, we derive a total absorption column of 6.21+/-0.22 10^21 cm^-2. Furthermore, the results indicate that there are ~ 10 - 25% abundance variations relative to solar values for neon, oxygen and iron. The X-ray continuuum is described well by a two-component model that is often adopted for black hole candidates: a soft multicolor disk component (with kT = 203 eV) and a hard power law component (with a photon index of ...

  1. Low Power X-Ray Photon Resolving Imaging Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Instruments employing X-ray detection are countless, in different sectors from medicine to industry and from basic to applied science. Given this importance, and...

  2. Discovery of a Highly Energetic X-Ray Pulsar Powering HESS J1813-178 in the Young Supernova Remnant G12.82-0.02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.

    2009-08-01

    We report the discovery of 44.7 ms pulsations from the X-ray source CXOU J181335.1-174957 using data obtained with the XMM-Newton Observatory. PSR J1813-1749 lies near the center of the young radio supernova remnant G12.82-0.02, which overlaps the compact TeV source HESS J1813-178. This rotation-powered pulsar is the second most energetic in the Galaxy, with a spin-down luminosity of \\dot{E} = (6.8± 2.7) × 10^{37} erg s-1. In the rotating dipole model, the surface dipole magnetic field strength is Bs = (2.7 ± 0.6) × 1012 G and the spin-down age τ_c ≡ P/2\\dot{P} = 3.3-7.5 kyr, consistent with the location in the small, shell-type radio remnant. At an assumed distance of 4.7 kpc by association with an adjacent young stellar cluster, the efficiency of PSR J1813-1749 in converting spin-down luminosity to radiation is ≈0.03% for its 2-10 keV flux, ≈0.1% for its 20-100 keV INTEGRAL flux, and ≈0.07% for the >200 GeV emission of HESS J1813-178, making it a likely power source for the latter. The nearby young stellar cluster is possibly the birthplace of the pulsar progenitor, as well as an additional source of seed photons for inverse Compton scattering to TeV energies.

  3. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin, E-mail: caephxb2003@aliyun.com; Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power Technology, IFP, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  4. Numerical design of X-ray tabletop Talbot interferometer using polycapillary optics as two-dimensional gratings with high aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen; Ding, Xunliang

    2015-12-01

    The polycapillary optics was proposed to be used as two-dimensional X-ray gratings with high aspect ratios for high energy X-rays. The X-ray Talbot interferometer was designed numerically using the polycapillary X-ray gratings and a conventional X-ray source. The simulation showed that it was available to get a high-aspect-ratio pattern of the polycapillary X-ray gratings for higher energies than 60 keV. Moreover, this design of polycapillary gratings decreased the requirement for high power of the X-ray source. The polycapillary X-ray gratings had potential applications in X-ray imaging technology for medical fields, industrial nondestructive tests, public security, physical science, chemical analysis, life science, nanoscience biology and energy science.

  5. Macro and micro full field x-ray fluorescence with an X-ray pinhole camera presenting high energy and high spatial resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Francesco Paolo; Caliri, Claudia; Cosentino, Luigi; Gammino, Santo; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Pappalardo, Lighea; Rizzo, Francesca; Taccetti, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    This work describes a tabletop (50 cm × 25 cm × 25 cm) full field X-ray pinhole camera (FF-XPC) presenting high energy- and high spatial-resolution. The FF-XPC consists of a conventional charge-coupled device (CCD) detector coupled, in a coaxial geometry, to a pinhole collimator of small diameter. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is induced on the samples with an external low-power X-ray tube. The use of the CCD as an energy dispersive X-ray detector was obtained by adopting a multi-image acquisition in single photon counting and by developing a processing algorithm to be applied in real-time to each of the acquired image-frames. This approach allowed the measurement of X-ray spectra with an energy resolution down to 133 eV at the reference value of 5.9 keV. The detection of the X-ray fluorescence through the pinhole-collimator allowed the two-dimensional elemental mapping of the irradiated samples. Two magnifications (M), determined by the relative sample-pinhole-CCD distances, are used in the present setup. A low value of M (equal to 0.35×) allows the macro-FF-XRF of large area samples (up to 4 × 4 cm(2)) with a spatial resolution down to 140 μm; a large magnification (M equal to 6×) is used for the micro-FF-XRF of small area samples (2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) with a spatial resolution down to 30 μm.

  6. X-ray polarimetry: A new window on the high energy sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, R.; Muleri, F.

    2010-11-01

    Polarimetry is widely considered a powerful observational technique in X-ray astronomy, useful to enhance our understanding of the emission mechanisms, geometry and magnetic field arrangement of many compact objects. However, the lack of suitable sensitive instrumentation in the X-ray energy band has been the limiting factor for its development in the last three decades. Up to now, polarization measurements have been made exclusively with Bragg diffraction at 45∘ or Compton scattering at 90∘ and the only unambiguous detection of X-ray polarization has been obtained for one of the brightest object in the X-ray sky, the Crab Nebula. Only recently, with the development of a new class of high sensitivity imaging detectors, the possibility to exploit the photoemission process to measure the photon polarization has become a reality. We will report on the performance of an imaging X-ray polarimeter based on photoelectric effect. The device derives the polarization information from the track of the photoelectrons imaged by a finely subdivided Gas Pixel Detector. It has a great sensitivity even with telescopes of modest area and can perform simultaneously good imaging, moderate spectroscopy and high rate timing. Being truly 2D it is non-dispersive and does not require any rotation. This device is included in the scientific payload of many proposals of satellite mission which have the potential to unveil polarimetry also in X-rays in a few years.

  7. Calculation of x-ray scattering patterns from nanocrystals at high x-ray intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Muhammad Abdullah; Zoltan Jurek; Sang-Kil Son; Robin Santra

    2016-01-01

    We present a generalized method to describe the x-ray scattering intensity of the Bragg spots in a diffraction pattern from nanocrystals exposed to intense x-ray pulses. Our method involves the subdivision of a crystal into smaller units. In order to calculate the dynamics within every unit we employ a Monte-Carlo (MC)-molecular dynamics (MD)-ab-initio hybrid framework using real space periodic boundary conditions. By combining all the units we simulate the diffraction pattern of a crystal la...

  8. Propagation and scattering of high-intensity X-ray pulses in dense atomic gases and plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weninger, Clemens

    2015-10-15

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the X-ray domain is a promising technique to explore the dynamics of elementary excitations in matter. X-rays provide an element specificity that allows them to target individual chemical elements, making them a great tool to study complex molecules. The recent advancement of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) allows to investigate non-linear processes in the X-ray domain for the first time. XFELs provide short femtosecond X-ray pulses with peak powers that exceed previous generation synchrotron X-ray sources by more than nine orders of magnitude. This thesis focuses on the theoretical description of stimulated emission processes in the X-ray regime in atomic gases. These processes form the basis for more complex schemes in molecules and provide a proof of principle for nonlinear X-ray spectroscopy. The thesis also includes results from two experimental campaigns at the Linac Coherent Light Source and presents the first experimental demonstration of stimulated X-ray Raman scattering. Focusing an X-ray free electron laser beam into an elongated neon gas target generates an intense stimulated X-ray emission beam in forward direction. If the incoming X-rays have a photon energy above the neon K edge, they can efficiently photo-ionize 1s electrons and generate short-lived core excited states. The core-excited states decay mostly via Auger decay but have a small probability to emit a spontaneous X-ray photon. The spontaneous emission emitted in forward direction can stimulate X-ray emission along the medium and generate a highly directional and intense X-ray laser pulse. If the photon energy of the incoming X-rays however is below the ionization edge in the region of the pre-edge resonance the incoming X-rays can be inelastically scattered. This spontaneous X-ray Raman scattering process has a very low probability, but the spontaneously scattered photons in the beginning of the medium can stimulate Raman scattering along the medium. The

  9. High duty cycle inverse Compton scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovodenko, A.; Agustsson, R.; Babzien, M.; Campese, T.; Fedurin, M.; Murokh, A.; Pogorelsky, I.; Polyanskiy, M.; Rosenzweig, J.; Sakai, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Swinson, C.

    2016-12-01

    Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) is an emerging compact X-ray source technology, where the small source size and high spectral brightness are of interest for multitude of applications. However, to satisfy the practical flux requirements, a high-repetition-rate ICS system needs to be developed. To this end, this paper reports the experimental demonstration of a high peak brightness ICS source operating in a burst mode at 40 MHz. A pulse train interaction has been achieved by recirculating a picosecond CO2 laser pulse inside an active optical cavity synchronized to the electron beam. The pulse train ICS performance has been characterized at 5- and 15- pulses per train and compared to a single pulse operation under the same operating conditions. With the observed near-linear X-ray photon yield gain due to recirculation, as well as noticeably higher operational reliability, the burst-mode ICS offers a great potential for practical scalability towards high duty cycles.

  10. Focusing Optics for High-Energy X-ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinert, U.; Schulze, C.; Honkimäki, V.;

    1998-01-01

    of the different set-ups are described and potential applications are discussed. First experiments were performed, investigating with high spatial resolution the residual strain gradients in layered polycrystalline materials. The results underline that focused high-energy synchrotron radiation can provide unique...... information on the mesoscopic scale to the materials scientist, complementary to existing techniques based on conventional X-ray sources, neutron scattering or electron microscopy....

  11. NASA's High Energy Vision: Chandra and the X-Ray Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, D. E.; Stencel, R. E.; Richards, D.

    2004-05-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is the most sophisticated X-ray observatory launched by NASA. Chandra is designed to observe X-rays from high-energy regions of the universe, such as the remnants of supernovae explosions, col- liding galaxies, black holes, pulsars, neutron stars, quasars, and X-ray bi- nary stars. The spectacular results from the first five years of Chandra ob- servations are changing and redefining theories with each observation. Every exciting new image shows glimpses of such exotic phenomena as super-massive black holes, surprising black hole activity in old galaxies, rivers of grav- ity that define the cosmic landscape, unexpected x-ray activity in proto- stars and failed stars, puzzling distributions of elements in supernovae remnants, the sound waves from a super-massive black hole, and the even the tantalizing possibility of an entirely new form of matter - the strange quark star. On September 14, 2000, triggered by alerts from amateur astron- omers worldwide, Chandra observed the outburst of the brightest northern dwarf nova SS Cygni. The cooperation of hundreds of amateur variable star astronomers and the Chandra X-Ray scientists and spacecraft specialists pro- vided proof that the collaboration of amateur and professional astronomers is a powerful tool to study cosmic phenomena.

  12. High-gain X-ray free electron laser by beat-wave terahertz undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chao; Hei, DongWei [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an City 710024 (China); Institute of Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Pellegrin, Claudio; Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The THz undulator has a higher gain to realize a much brighter X-ray at saturation, compared with the optical undulator under the same undulator strength and beam quality. In order to fill the high-power THz gap and realize the THz undulator, two superimposed laser pulses at normal incidence to the electron-beam moving direction form an equivalent high-field THz undulator by the frequency difference to realize the high-gain X-ray Free electron laser. The pulse front tilt of lateral fed lasers is used to realize the electron-laser synchronic interaction. By PIC simulation, a higher gain and a larger X-ray radiation power by the beat wave THz undulator could be realized, compared with the optical undulator for the same electron beam parameters.

  13. High resolution X-ray CT for advanced electronics packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, M.; Zerna, T.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced electronics packaging is a challenge for non-destructive Testing (NDT). More, smaller and mostly hidden interconnects dominate modern electronics components and systems. To solve the demands of customers to get products with a high functionality by low volume, weight and price (e.g. mobile phones, personal medical monitoring systems) often the designers use System-in-Package solutions (SiP). The non-destructive testing of such devices is a big challenge. So our paper will impart fundamentals and applications for non-destructive evaluation of inner structures of electronics packaging for quality assurance and reliability investigations with a focus on X-ray methods, especially on high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  14. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  15. X-ray diffraction properties of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, A.K.; Munkholm, A.; Brennan, S. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The x-ray diffraction properties of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were studied for x-ray energies ranging from 4 to 60 keV. In particular, the secondary extinction thickness was determined by recording the peak and integrated reflectivity as a function of depth below the surface. The results showed that for the high quality material investigated a thickness of 200 to 300 {micro}m was sufficient to get 80% of the maximum reflectivity that is obtained for a very thick plate. Primary extinction was important for low energy and still persisted at higher energies. Inhomogeneities of the mosaic structure were observed, too, that make this material not a truly ideal mosaic monochromator crystal. However, quite high peak reflectivities between 35% and 58% were measured at FWHM of 0.25 to 0.45 degrees. A 200 {micro}m thick plate was then prepared and glued on a bending device to manufacture a monochromator or analyzer with variable curvature that works from flat down to a minimum bending radius of 10 cm. The successful tests of this device confirmed that HOPG plates much thinner than those commonly used as x-ray monochromators and analyzers still have high efficiency and can be curved to achieve dynamical focusing.

  16. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fei; WANG Huan-Yu; PENG Wen-Xi; LIANG Xiao-Hua; ZHANG Chun-Lei; CAO Xue-Lei; JIANG Wei-Chun; ZHANG Jia-Yu; CUI Xing-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed.A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer.The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics,a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit.A ground test system is also developed to test SOX.The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved.

  17. Femtosecond laser-generated high-energy-density states studied by x-ray FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsutsumi, M.; Appel, K.; Baehtz, C.; Chen, B.; Cowan, T. E.; Göde, S.; Konopkova, Z.; Pelka, A.; Priebe, G.; Schmidt, A.; Sukharnikov, K.; Thorpe, I.; Tschentscher, Th; Zastrau, U.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of powerful optical lasers and an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) provides unique capabilities to study the transient behaviour of matter in extreme conditions. The high energy density science instrument (HED instrument) at the European XFEL will provide the experimental platform on which an unique x-ray source can be combined with various types of high-power optical lasers. In this paper, we highlight selected scientific examples together with the associated x-ray techniques, with particular emphasis on femtosecond (fs)-timescale pump-probe experiments. Subsequently, we present the current design status of the HED instrument, outlining how the experiments could be performed. First user experiments will start at the beginning of 2018, after which various optical lasers will be commissioned and made available to the international scientific community.

  18. Measurement of the energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Ives

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a diagnostic system that measures the spectrally integrated (i.e. the total energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source. The total-energy-and-power (TEP diagnostic system is optimized for blackbody temperatures between 50 and 350 eV. The system can view apertured sources that radiate energies and powers as high as 2 MJ and 200 TW, respectively, and has been successfully tested at 0.84 MJ and 73 TW on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The TEP system consists of two pinhole arrays, two silicon-diode detectors, and two thin-film nickel bolometers. Each of the two pinhole arrays is paired with a single silicon diode. Each array consists of a 38×38 square array of 10-μm-diameter pinholes in a 50-μm-thick tantalum plate. The arrays achromatically attenuate the x-ray flux by a factor of ∼1800. The use of such arrays for the attenuation of soft x rays was first proposed by Turner and co-workers [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 656 (1999RSINAK0034-674810.1063/1.1149385]. The attenuated flux from each array illuminates its associated diode; the diode’s output current is recorded by a data-acquisition system with 0.6-ns time resolution. The arrays and diodes are located 19 and 24 m from the source, respectively. Because the diodes are designed to have an approximately flat spectral sensitivity, the output current from each diode is proportional to the x-ray power. The nickel bolometers are fielded at a slightly different angle from the array-diode combinations, and view (without pinhole attenuation the same x-ray source. The bolometers measure the total x-ray energy radiated by the source and—on every shot—provide an in situ calibration of the array-diode combinations. Two array-diode pairs and two bolometers are fielded to reduce random uncertainties. An analytic model (which accounts for pinhole-diffraction effects of the sensitivity of an array-diode combination is presented.

  19. Bendable X-ray Optics for High Resolution Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Broadway, D.

    2014-01-01

    Current state-of the-art for x-ray optics fabrication calls for either the polishing of massive substrates into high-angular-resolution mirrors or the replication of thin, lower-resolution, mirrors from perfectly figured mandrels. Future X-ray Missions will require a change in this optics fabrication paradigm in order to achieve sub-arcsecond resolution in light-weight optics. One possible approach to this is to start with perfectly flat, light-weight surface, bend it into a perfect cone, form the desired mirror figure by material deposition, and insert the resulting mirror into a telescope structure. Such an approach is currently being investigated at MSFC, and a status report will be presented detailing the results of finite element analyses, bending tests and differential deposition experiments.

  20. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10(13) photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO2 converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  1. High-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer (HEXIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, James L.; Gruber, Duane E.; Heindl, William A.; Pelling, Michael R.; Peterson, Laurence E.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Skelton, Robert E.; Hink, Paul L.; Slavis, Kimberly R.; Binns, W. Robert

    1998-11-01

    HEXIS is a MIDEX-class mission concept for x-ray astronomy. Its objectives are to improve our knowledge of the high energy x-ray sky by increasing the number of sources above 20 keV to > 2,000, discovering transient sources such as x-ray novae and gamma-ray bursts, and making spectral and temporal studies of the sources. With mission life > 3 years, a 1-year all-sky survey sensitivity of approximately 0.3 mCrab, and continuous monitoring of the entire visible sky, HEXIS will provide unprecedented capabilities. Source positions will be determined to accuracies of a few arcmin or better. Spectra will be determined with an energy resolution of a few keV and source variability will be studied on time scales from CZT detectors operating from approximately 5 keV to 200 keV. Detector planes are built with 41 cm(superscript 2) CZT detector modules which employ crossed-strip readout to obtain a pixel size of 0.5 mm. Nine modules are grouped in a 369 cm(superscript 2) array for each imager. In the past 2 years significant progress has been made on techniques requires for HEXIS: position-sensitive CZT detectors and ASIC readout, coded mask imaging, and background properties at balloon altitudes. Scientific and technical details of HEXIS are presented together with result form tests of detectors and a coded mask imager.

  2. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystalsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, M. J.; Wu, M.; Jacoby, K. D.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  3. Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, M. J. [NSTec; Wu, M. [SNL; Jacoby, K. D. [NSTec; Loisel, G. P. [SNL

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a dual goniometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  4. A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unkno...

  5. High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy with a Microcalorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrell, J.; Anderson, I.

    2005-01-01

    of spectral artifacts. It was found that the detector is capable of distinguishing many Lα and Lβ spectral lines, with a resolution between 13 and 17 eV. It was also observed that the background has an unusual shape, and this is largely being attributed to the variable transmission coefficient of the X-ray optic. These preliminary results suggest that the microcalorimeter has a high potential for use in microanalysis, but more work to quantify its capabilities must still be done.

  6. Thermal X-ray emission from massive, fast rotating, highly magnetized white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, D L; Coelho, J G; de Lima, R C R; Rueda, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    There is solid observational evidence on the existence of massive, $M\\sim 1~M_\\odot$, highly magnetized white dwarfs (WDs) with surface magnetic fields up to $B\\sim 10^9$ G. We show that, if in addition to these features, the star is fast rotating, it can become a rotation-powered pulsar-like WD and emit detectable high-energy radiation. We infer the values of the structure parameters (mass, radius, moment of inertia), magnetic field, rotation period and spin-down rates of a WD pulsar death-line. We show that WDs above the death-line emit blackbody radiation in the soft X-ray band via the magnetic polar cap heating by back flowing pair-created particle bombardment and discuss as an example the X-ray emission of soft gamma-repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars within the WD model.

  7. Correlated optical/X-ray variability in the high-mass X-ray binary SAX J2103.5+4545

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, P; Zezas, A; Blay, P

    2009-01-01

    SAX J2103.5+4545 is the Be/X-ray binary with the shortest orbital period. It shows extended bright and faint X-ray states that last for a few hundred days. The main objective of this work is to investigate the relationship between the X-ray and optical variability and to characterise the spectral and timing properties of the bright and faint states. We have found a correlation between the spectral and temporal parameters that fit the energy and power spectra. Softer energy spectra correspond to softer power spectra. That is to say, when the energy spectrum is soft the power at high frequencies is suppressed. We also present the results of our monitoring of the Halpha line of the optical counterpart since its discovery in 2003. There is a correlation between the strength and shape of the Halpha line, originated in the circumstellar envelope of the massive companion and the X-ray emission from the vicinity of the neutron star. Halpha emission, indicative of an equatorial disc around the B-type star, is detected...

  8. Bismuth Passivation Technique for High-Resolution X-Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Hess, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The Athena-plus team requires X-ray sensors with energy resolution of better than one part in 3,000 at 6 keV X-rays. While bismuth is an excellent material for high X-ray stopping power and low heat capacity (for large signal when an X-ray is stopped by the absorber), oxidation of the bismuth surface can lead to electron traps and other effects that degrade the energy resolution. Bismuth oxide reduction and nitride passivation techniques analogous to those used in indium passivation are being applied in a new technique. The technique will enable improved energy resolution and resistance to aging in bismuth-absorber-coupled X-ray sensors. Elemental bismuth is lithographically integrated into X-ray detector circuits. It encounters several steps where the Bi oxidizes. The technology discussed here will remove oxide from the surface of the Bi and replace it with nitridized surface. Removal of the native oxide and passivating to prevent the growth of the oxide will improve detector performance and insulate the detector against future degradation from oxide growth. Placing the Bi coated sensor in a vacuum system, a reduction chemistry in a plasma (nitrogen/hydrogen (N2/H2) + argon) is used to remove the oxide and promote nitridization of the cleaned Bi surface. Once passivated, the Bi will perform as a better X-ray thermalizer since energy will not be trapped in the bismuth oxides on the surface. A simple additional step, which can be added at various stages of the current fabrication process, can then be applied to encapsulate the Bi film. After plasma passivation, the Bi can be capped with a non-diffusive layer of metal or dielectric. A non-superconducting layer is required such as tungsten or tungsten nitride (WNx).

  9. High-energy neutrino emission from X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Christiansen, H R; Romero, G E; Christiansen, Hugo R.; Orellana, Mariana; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2006-01-01

    We show that high-energy neutrinos can be efficiently produced in X-ray binaries with relativistic jets and high-mass primary stars. We consider a system where the star presents a dense equatorial wind and the jet has a small content of relativistic protons. In this scenario, neutrinos and correlated gamma-rays result from pp interactions and the subsequent pion decays. As a particular example we consider the microquasar LSI +61 303. Above 1 TeV, we obtain a mean-orbital $\

  10. The X-ray Power Spectral Density Function of the Seyfert Active Galactic Nucleus NGC 7469

    CERN Document Server

    Markowitz, Alex

    2010-01-01

    We present the broadband X-ray power spectral density function (PSD) of the X-ray-luminous Seyfert 1.2 NGC 7469, measured from Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring data and two XMM-Newton observations. We find significant evidence for a turnover in the 2-10 keV PSD at a temporal frequency of 2.0(+3.0,-0.8)e-6 Hz or 1.0(+3.0,-0.6)e-6 Hz, depending on the exact form of the break (sharply-broken or slowly-bending power-law, respectively). The ``surrogate'' Monte Carlo method of Press et al. (1992) was used to map out the probability distributions of PSD model parameters and obtain reliable uncertainties (68 per cent confidence limits quoted here). The corresponding break time scale of 5.8 (+/- 3.5) days or 11.6(+17.5,-8.7) days, respectively, is consistent with the empirical relation between PSD break time scale, black hole mass and bolometric luminosity of McHardy et al. Compared to the 2-10 keV PSD, the 10-20 keV PSD has a much flatter shape at high temporal frequencies, and no PSD break is significantly det...

  11. The High Throughput X-ray Spectroscopy (HTXS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, N. E.; Tananbaum, H.; Kahn, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    The HTXS mission concept combines large effective area (approximately 15,000 sq cm at 1 keV), high spectral resolution (E/Delta(E) approximately 300-3000), and broad energy bandpass (0.25-40 keV and possibly up to 100 keV) by using replicated optics together with a complement of spectroscopic instrumentation including reflection gratings readout by charge-coupled device detectors (CCDs), quantum micro-calorimeters, and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) or comparable high energy detectors. An essential feature of this concept involves minimization of cost (approximately $350M for development and approximately $500-600M including launches) and risk by building six identical modest satellites to achieve the large area. Current mission and technology studies are targeted towards a new start in the 2002 timeframe, with first launch around 2005-2006. The HTXS mission represents a major advance, providing as much as a factor of 100 increase in sensitivity over currently planned high resolution X ray spectroscopy missions. HTXS will mark the start of a new era when high quality X ray spectra will be obtained for all classes of X ray sources, over a wide range of luminosity and distance. With its increased capabilities, HTXS will address many fundamental astrophysics questions such as the origin and distribution of the elements from carbon to zinc, the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies, the validity of general relativity in the strong gravity limit, the evolution of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei, the details of supernova explosions and their aftermath, and the mechanisms involved in the heating of stellar coronae and driving of stellar winds.

  12. High resolution energy-angle correlation measurement of hard x rays from laser-Thomson backscattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmann, A; Irman, A; Bussmann, M; Couperus, J P; Cowan, T E; Debus, A D; Kuntzsch, M; Ledingham, K W D; Lehnert, U; Sauerbrey, R; Schlenvoigt, H P; Seipt, D; Stöhlker, Th; Thorn, D B; Trotsenko, S; Wagner, A; Schramm, U

    2013-09-13

    Thomson backscattering of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons not only allows for the generation of bright x-ray pulses but also for the investigation of the complex particle dynamics at the interaction point. For this purpose a complete spectral characterization of a Thomson source powered by a compact linear electron accelerator is performed with unprecedented angular and energy resolution. A rigorous statistical analysis comparing experimental data to 3D simulations enables, e.g., the extraction of the angular distribution of electrons with 1.5% accuracy and, in total, provides predictive capability for the future high brightness hard x-ray source PHOENIX (photon electron collider for narrow bandwidth intense x rays) and potential gamma-ray sources.

  13. X-ray Polarimetry: a new window on the high energy sky

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, Ronaldo; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.04.006

    2010-01-01

    Polarimetry is widely considered a powerful observational technique in X-ray astronomy, useful to enhance our understanding of the emission mechanisms, geometry and magnetic field arrangement of many compact objects. However, the lack of suitable sensitive instrumentation in the X-ray energy band has been the limiting factor for its development in the last three decades. Up to now, polarization measurements have been made exclusively with Bragg diffraction at 45 degrees or Compton scattering at 90 degrees and the only unambiguous detection of X-ray polarization has been obtained for one of the brightest object in the X-ray sky, the Crab Nebula. Only recently, with the development of a new class of high sensitivity imaging detectors, the possibility to exploit the photoemission process to measure the photon polarization has become a reality. We will report on the performance of an imaging X-ray polarimeter based on photoelectric effect. The device derives the polarization information from the track of the phot...

  14. The Astro-H high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Azzarello, Phillipp; Bialas, Tom; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Canavan, Edgar; Chiao, Meng P.; Costantini, Elisa; DiPirro, Michael J.; Eckart, Megan E.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Haas, Daniel; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Hoshino, Akio; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kimball, Mark O.; Kitamoto, Shunji; Konami, Saori; Koyama, Shu; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Moseley, Harvey; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Masahide; Noda, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Mina; Ohashi, Takaya; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ota, Naomi; Paltani, Stéphane; Porter, F. S.; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Yohichi; Sawada, Makoto; Seta, Hiromi; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Shirron, Peter J.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tashiro, Makoto; Terada, Yukikatsu; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; de Vries, Cor P.; Yamada, Shinya; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Yatsu, Yoichi

    2016-07-01

    We present the overall design and performance of the Astro-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS). The instrument uses a 36-pixel array of x-ray microcalorimeters at the focus of a grazing-incidence x-ray mirror Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) for high-resolution spectroscopy of celestial x-ray sources. The instrument was designed to achieve an energy resolution better than 7 eV over the 0.3-12 keV energy range and operate for more than 3 years in orbit. The actual energy resolution of the instrument is 4-5 eV as demonstrated during extensive ground testing prior to launch and in orbit. The measured mass flow rate of the liquid helium cryogen and initial fill level at launch predict a lifetime of more than 4 years assuming steady mechanical cooler performance. Cryogen-free operation was successfully demonstrated prior to launch. The successful operation of the SXS in orbit, including the first observations of the velocity structure of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, demonstrates the viability and power of this technology as a tool for astrophysics.

  15. Population synthesis of high mass X-ray binaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Liang Lü; Chun-Hua Zhu; Zhao-Jun Wang

    2011-01-01

    By simulating the evolution of spin periods of magnetized neutron stars which interact with their environment in binary systems, we investigate the Galactic population of high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). The number of HMXBs in the Galaxy is between 190 and 240, and their birthrate is from 5.9 × 10-5 yr-1 to 6.3 ×10-5 yr-1. Comparing the Corbet diagram (the positions of the spin periods vs. the orbital periods of HMXBs ) in our model with the associated observations, we find that the stellar wind structure and the process of matter transfer are very important for understanding HMXBs.

  16. Dissecting the Accretion Environments of X-ray Binaries with High Speed Coordinated Optical and X-ray Timing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Durant, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Malzac, J.; Miller, J. M.; Shahbaz, T.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Spruit, H. C.; Makishima, K.

    2010-03-01

    We are uncovering significant optical variability in low/hard state observations of several X-ray binaries on the fastest time-scales of just tens of milliseconds typically probed with modern rapid imaging cameras. The optical light curves are remarkable in that they display properties very characteristic of X-ray variations: 1) power spectra with band-limited, red noise over broad time ranges of 10 ms - 1000 s, and in some cases, a low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation; 2) an instantaneous variability amplitude linearly scaling with source flux; and, 3) log-normal distributions of fluxes. Aperiodic optical variability components can dominate over simple linear X-ray reprocessing expectations, and are much faster than viscous time-scales of the outer accretion disk or flow. Cross-correlated optical vs. X-ray time delays not only constrain emission mechanisms, but can also be used to probe characteristic size scales of the physical components (jet, corona), and to understand how they are coupled. Rapid, multiwavelength timing studies are thus opening a new window on the hearts of accreting sources, though the broad-band spectral plus timing properties remain to be unified consistently. I will briefly review recent results on rapid optical variability, including our new data on black hole and neutron star binary systems. The fact that the sources were all in typical low/hard states (with relatively-bright optical counterparts) suggests that correlated optical/X-ray activity may be a general feature, waiting to be uncovered in more systems. The continuance of RXTE is vital for such work.

  17. 21 CFR 892.1700 - Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator. 892.1700... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1700 Diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator. (a) Identification. A diagnostic x-ray high voltage generator is a device that is intended...

  18. L X-ray intensity ratios for high Z elements induced with X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Xu, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Limin

    2015-07-01

    We have studied the intensity ratios I(Lα1,2)/I(Lβ1,2), I(Lα1,2)/I(Lγ) and I(Lβ1,2)/I(Lγ) for elements Ta, W, Au and Pb by 13.1 keV bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, experimental values were compared with the theoretical results and other experimental results. Theoretical results of the intensity ratios were calculated with theoretical subshell photoionization cross sections, fractional X-ray emission rates, fluorescence yields, and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. Good agreement can be observed between experimental values and theoretical results. Comparing with L1 and L2 subshells, the ionization cross section of L3 subshell shows a large increase for Ta and W with the variation of excitation energy from 59.5 keV to 13.1 keV.

  19. Active X-ray Optics for Generation-X, the Next High Resolution X-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, M; Fabbiano, G; Schwartz, D A; Reid, P; Podgorski, W; Eisenhower, M; Juda, M; Phillips, J; Cohen, L; Wolk, S; Elvis, Martin

    2006-01-01

    X-rays provide one of the few bands through which we can study the epoch of reionization, when the first galaxies, black holes and stars were born. To reach the sensitivity required to image these first discrete objects in the universe needs a major advance in X-ray optics. Generation-X (Gen-X) is currently the only X-ray astronomy mission concept that addresses this goal. Gen-X aims to improve substantially on the Chandra angular resolution and to do so with substantially larger effective area. These two goals can only be met if a mirror technology can be developed that yields high angular resolution at much lower mass/unit area than the Chandra optics, matching that of Constellation-X (Con-X). We describe an approach to this goal based on active X-ray optics that correct the mid-frequency departures from an ideal Wolter optic on-orbit. We concentrate on the problems of sensing figure errors, calculating the corrections required, and applying those corrections. The time needed to make this in-flight calibrat...

  20. Signatures of X-ray reverberation in the power spectra of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, I; Dovciak, M; Epitropakis, A; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Karas, V

    2016-01-01

    We compute fully relativistic disc response functions in the case of the "lamp-post" geometry using the full observed reflection spectrum for various X-ray source heights, disc inclination, and spin values of the central black hole. Since the observed PSD is equal to the product of the intrinsic power spectrum with the "transfer function" (i.e. the Fourier transform of the disc response function), we are able to predict the observed PSDs in the case of X-ray illumination of the inner disc. The observed PSD should show a prominent dip at high frequencies and an oscillatory behaviour, with a decreasing amplitude, at higher frequencies. The reverberation "echo" features should be more prominent in energy bands where the reflection component is more pronounced. The frequency of the dip is independent of energy, and it is mainly determined by the black hole mass and the X-ray source height. The amplitude of the dip increases with increasing black hole spin and inclination angle, as long as the height of the "lamp"...

  1. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya, E-mail: alecastro@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  2. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed finite element'' and finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance.

  3. Comparison of hard x-ray production from various targets in air using a short pulse kHz laser with photon production from a high power multifilament laser beam from the same targets in air

    CERN Document Server

    Ledingham, K W D; McCanny, T; Melone, J J; Spohr, K; Schramm, U; Kraft, S D; Wagner, A; Jochmann, A

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been much interest in the production of hard X-rays from various targets using a kHz short pulse laser at intensities above 1014Wcm-2 (A). Most of these studies have been carried out in vacuum and very many fewer studies have been carried out in air. Recently this lack has been partially addressed with the development of femtosecond laser micromachining. Another similar although apparently unconnected field (B) deals with the channelling of high power laser beam in filaments after passage through long distances in air. This has been largely driven by the construction of a mobile terawatt laser beam (Teramobile) for atmospheric studies. The laser beams in these two cases (A and B) have very different pulse energies (mJ against J) although the filaments in (B) have similar energies to (A) and are clamped at intensities less than 1014 Wcm-2. This paper has been written to compare the production of hard X-rays in these two cases. The conclusion is interesting that a focused sub T...

  4. Very High Resolution Solar X-ray Imaging Using Diffractive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, B. R.; Skinner, G. K.; Li, M. J.; Shih, A. Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of X-ray diffractive optics for imaging solar flares with better than 0.1 arcsec angular resolution. X-ray images with this resolution of the greater than or equal to 10 MK plasma in solar active regions and solar flares would allow the cross-sectional area of magnetic loops to be resolved and the coronal flare energy release region itself to be probed. The objective of this work is to obtain X-ray images in the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV observed during solar flares with an angular resolution as fine as 0.1 arcsec - over an order of magnitude finer than is now possible. This line emission is from highly ionized iron atoms, primarily Fe xxv, in the hottest flare plasma at temperatures in excess of approximately equal to 10 MK. It provides information on the flare morphology, the iron abundance, and the distribution of the hot plasma. Studying how this plasma is heated to such high temperatures in such short times during solar flares is of critical importance in understanding these powerful transient events, one of the major objectives of solar physics.We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of phase zone plate X-ray lenses with focal lengths of approximately equal to 100 m at these energies that would be capable of achieving these objectives. We show how such lenses could be included on a two-spacecraft formation-flying mission with the lenses on the spacecraft closest to the Sun and an X-ray imaging array on the second spacecraft in the focal plane approximately equal to 100 m away. High resolution X-ray images could be obtained when the two spacecraft are aligned with the region of interest on the Sun. Requirements and constraints for the control of the two spacecraft are discussed together with the overall feasibility of such a formation-flying mission.

  5. The soft X-ray spectrum of the high-mass X-ray binary V0332+53 in quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshamouty, Khaled G.; Heinke, Craig O.; Chouinard, Rhys

    2016-11-01

    The behaviour of neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) during periods of low mass transfer is of great interest. Indications of spectral softening in systems at low mass-transfer rates suggest that some HMXBs are undergoing fundamental changes in their accretion regime, but the nature of the quiescent X-ray emission is not clear. We performed a 39 ks XMM-Newton observation of the transient HMXB V0332+53, finding it at a very low X-ray luminosity (Lx ˜ 4 × 1032 erg s-1). A power-law spectral fit requires an unusually soft spectral index (4.4^{+0.9}_{-0.6}), while a magnetized neutron star atmosphere model, with temperature LogTeff 6.7 ± 0.2 K and inferred emitting radius of ˜0.2-0.3 km, gives a good fit. We suggest that the quiescent X-ray emission from V0332+53 is mainly from a hotspot on the surface of the neutron star. No conclusions on the presence of pulsations could be drawn due to the low count rate. Due to the high absorption column, thermal emission from the rest of the neutron star could be only weakly constrained, to LogTeff <6.14^{+0.05}_{-6.14} K, or <3 × 1033 erg s-1.

  6. Miniature, low-power X-ray tube using a microchannel electron generator electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Wm. Timothy (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Hershyn, William (Inventor); DeLong, David P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a novel, low-power X-ray tube and X-ray generating system. Embodiments of the invention use a multichannel electron generator as the electron source, thereby increasing reliability and decreasing power consumption of the X-ray tube. Unlike tubes using a conventional filament that must be heated by a current power source, embodiments of the invention require only a voltage power source, use very little current, and have no cooling requirements. The microchannel electron generator comprises one or more microchannel plates (MCPs), Each MCP comprises a honeycomb assembly of a plurality of annular components, which may be stacked to increase electron intensity. The multichannel electron generator used enables directional control of electron flow. In addition, the multichannel electron generator used is more robust than conventional filaments, making the resulting X-ray tube very shock and vibration resistant.

  7. High-Energy Density science with an ultra-bright x-ray laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    This talk will review recent progress in high-energy density physics using the world's brightest x-ray source, the Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC's free electron x-ray laser. These experiments investigate laser-driven matter in extreme conditions where powerful x-ray scattering and imaging techniques have been applied to resolve ionic interactions at atomic (Ångstrom) scale lengths and to visualize the formation of dense plasma states. Major research areas include dynamic compression experiments of solid targets to determine structural properties and to discover and characterize phase transitions at mega-bar pressures. A second area studies extreme fields produced by high-intensity radiation where fundamental questions of laboratory plasmas can be related to cosmological phenomena. Each of these areas takes advantage of the unique properties of the LCLS x-ray beam. They include small foci for achieving high intensity or high spatial resolution, high photon flux for dynamic structure factor measurements in single shots, and high spectral bandwidth to resolve plasmon (Langmuir) waves or ion acoustic waves in dense plasmas. We will further describe new developments of ultrafast pump-probe technique at high repetition rates. These include studies on dense cryogenic hydrogen that have begun providing fundamental insights into the physical properties of matter in extreme conditions that are important for astrophysics, fusion experiments and generation of radiation sources. This work was supported by DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science under FWP 100182.

  8. High-intensity X-rays interaction with matter processes in plasmas, clusters, molecules and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2012-01-01

    Filling the need for a book bridging the effect of matter on X-ray radiation and the interaction of x-rays with plasmas, this monograph provides comprehensive coverage of the topic. As such, it presents and explains such powerful new X-ray sources as X-ray free-electron lasers, as well as short pulse interactions with solids, clusters, molecules, and plasmas, and X-ray matter interactions as a diagnostic tool. Equally useful for researchers and practitioners working in the field.

  9. Accretion in supergiant High Mass X-ray Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manousakis Antonios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supergiant High Mass X-ray Binary systems (sgHMXBs consist of a massive, late type, star and a neutron star. The massive stars exhibits strong, radiatively driven, stellar winds. Wind accretion onto compact object triggers X-ray emission, which alters the stellar wind significantly. Hydrodynamic simulation has been used to study the neutron star - stellar wind interaction it two sgHMXBs: i A heavily obscured sgHMXB (IGR J17252–3616 discovered by INTEGRAL. To account for observable quantities (i.e., absorbing column density we have to assume a very slow wind terminal velocity of about 500 km/s and a rather massive neutron star. If confirmed in other obscured systems, this could provide a completely new stellar wind diagnostics. ii A classical sgHMXB (Vela X-1 has been studied in depth to understand the origin of the off-states observed in this system. Among many models used to account for this observed behavior (clumpy wind, gating mechanism we propose that self-organized criticality of the accretion stream is the likely reason for the observed behavior. In conclusion, the neutron star, in these two examples, acts very effciently as a probe to study stellar winds.

  10. HIGH-Z X-RAY AGN CLUSTERING & COSMOLOGICAL INFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Plionis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the angular clustering of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN in di erent ux-limited sub- samples of the Chandra Deep Field North (CDF-N and South (CDF-S surveys. We nd a strong dependence of the clustering strength on the sub-sample ux-limit, a fact which explains most of the disparate clustering results of di erent XMM and Chandra surveys. At high ux-limits the clustering length increases considerably; for example, at fx;limit 1015 erg s-1 cm-2, we obtain r0 ' 17 5 and 18 3 h-1 Mpc, for the CDF-N and CDF-S, respectively. The ux-limit dependence translates into a luminosity dependent X-ray AGN clustering. Applying the standard formalism relating the theoretical CDM model clustering to the data in a at cosmology (for w =-1 and h = 0:72, we nd: m ' 0:28 0:03 and 8 ' 0:75 0:03; while utilizing also the SN Ia Hubble relation (for 8 = 0:75 and h = 0:72, we nd: m ' 0:26 0:04 and w = 0:9 0:1

  11. X-ray Diffraction Study of Arsenopyrite at High Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D Fan; M Ma; W Zhou; S Wei; Z Chen; H Xie

    2011-12-31

    The high-pressure X-ray diffraction study of a natural arsenopyrite was investigated up to 28.2 GPa using in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and a diamond anvil cell at National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The 16:3:1 methanol-ethanol-water mixture was used as a pressure-transmitting medium. Pressures were measured using the ruby-fluorescence method. No phase change has been observed up to 28.2 GPa. The isothermal equation of state (EOS) was determined. The values of K{sub 0}, and K'{sub 0} refined with a third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS are K{sub 0} = 123(9) GPa, and K'{sub 0} = 5.2(8). Furthermore, we confirm that the linear compressibilities ({beta}) along a, b and c directions of arsenopyrite is elastically isotropic ({beta}{sub a} = 6.82 x 10{sup -4}, {beta}{sub b} = 6.17 x 10{sup -4} and {beta}{sub c} = 6.57 x 10{sup -4} GPa{sup -1}).

  12. X-ray diffraction study of arsenopyrite at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, D. W.; Ma, M. N.; Zhou, W. G.; Wei, S. Y.; Chen, Z. Q.; Xie, H. S.

    2011-02-01

    The high-pressure X-ray diffraction study of a natural arsenopyrite was investigated up to 28.2 GPa using in situ angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction and a diamond anvil cell at National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The 16:3:1 methanol-ethanol-water mixture was used as a pressure-transmitting medium. Pressures were measured using the ruby-fluorescence method. No phase change has been observed up to 28.2 GPa. The isothermal equation of state (EOS) was determined. The values of K 0, and K' 0 refined with a third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS are K 0 = 123(9) GPa, and K' 0 = 5.2(8). Furthermore, we confirm that the linear compressibilities (β) along a, b and c directions of arsenopyrite is elastically isotropic (β a = 6.82 × 10-4, β b = 6.17 × 10-4 and β c = 6.57 × 10-4 GPa-1).

  13. Chandra Discovers the X-ray Signature of a Powerful Wind from a Galactic Microquasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has detected, for the first time in X rays, a stellar fingerprint known as a P Cygni profile--the distinctive spectral signature of a powerful wind produced by an object in space. The discovery reveals a 4.5-million-mile-per-hour wind coming from a highly compact pair of stars in our galaxy, report researchers from Penn State and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in a paper they will present on 8 November 2000 during a meeting of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society in Honolulu, Hawaii. The paper also has been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "To our knowledge, these are the first P Cygni profiles reported in X rays," say researchers Niel Brandt, assistant professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State, and Norbert S. Schulz, research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The team made the discovery during their first observation of a binary-star system with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which was launched into space in July 1999. The system, known as Circinus X-1, is located about 20,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Circinus near the Southern Cross. It contains a super-dense neutron star in orbit around a normal fusion-burning star like our Sun. Although Circinus X-1 was discovered in 1971, many properties of this system remain mysterious because Circinus X-1 lies in the galactic plane where obscuring dust and gas have blocked its effective study in many wavelengths. The P Cygni spectral profile, previously detected primarily at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths but never before in X rays, is the textbook tool astronomers rely on for probing stellar winds. The profile looks like the outline of a roller coaster, with one really big hill and valley in the middle, on a data plot with velocity on one axis and the flow rate of photons per second on the other. It is named after the famous star P Cygni, in which such

  14. X-ray emission simulation from hollow atoms produced by high intensity laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, Kengo; Sasaki, Akira; Zhidkov, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan); Suto, Keiko [Nara Women' s Univ., Graduate School of Human Culture, Nara (Japan); Kagawa, Takashi [Nara Women' s Univ., Department of Physics, Nara (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    We theoretically study the x-ray emission from hollow atoms produced by collisions of multiply charged ions accelerated by a short pulse laser with a solid or foil. By using the multistep-capture-and-loss (MSCL) model a high conversion efficiency to x-rays in an ultrafast atomic process is obtained. It is also proposed to apply this x-ray emission process to the x-ray source. For a few keV x-rays this x-ray source has a clear advantage. The number of x-ray photons increases as the laser energy becomes larger. For a laser energy of 10 J, the number of x-ray photons of 3x10{sup 11} is estimated. (author)

  15. Affordable and Lightweight High-Resolution X-ray Optics for Astronomical Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Bly, V. T.; Carter, J. M.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M.; Hohl, B. R.; Jones, W. D.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray astronomical missions require x-ray mirror assemblies that provide both high angular resolution and large photon collecting area. In addition, as x-ray astronomy undertakes more sensitive sky surveys, a large field of view is becoming increasingly important as well. Since implementation of these requirements must be carried out in broad political and economical contexts, any technology that meets these performance requirements must also be financially affordable and can be implemented on a reasonable schedule. In this paper we report on progress of an x-ray optics development program that has been designed to address all of these requirements. The program adopts the segmented optical design, thereby is capable of making both small and large mirror assemblies for missions of any size. This program has five technical elements: (1) fabrication of mirror substrates, (2) coating, (3) alignment, (4) bonding, and (5) mirror module systems engineering and testing. In the past year we have made progress in each of these five areas, advancing the angular resolution of mirror modules from 10.8 arc-seconds half-power diameter reported (HPD) a year ago to 8.3 arc-seconds now. These mirror modules have been subjected to and passed all environmental tests, including vibration, acoustic, and thermal vacuum. As such this technology is ready for implementing a mission that requires a 10-arc-second mirror assembly. Further development in the next two years would make it ready for a mission requiring a 5-arc-second mirror assembly. We expect that, by the end of this decade, this technology would enable the x-ray astrophysical community to compete effectively for a major x-ray mission in the 2020s that would require one or more 1-arc-second mirror assemblies for imaging, spectroscopic, timing, and survey studies.

  16. LASERIX: An open facility for developments of EUV and soft X-ray lasers and applications-Developments of XUV sources using high power laser facilities: ILE, ELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, D., E-mail: david.ros@u-psud.fr [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Cassou, K.; Cros, B.; Daboussi, S. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Demailly, J. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); Guilbaud, O.; Kazamias, S.; Lagron, J.-C. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Maynard, G. [LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Neveu, O.; Pittman, M. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Zielbauer, B. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); LPGP, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Zimmer, D. [CLUPS-LUMAT, Universite Paris Sud 11-CNRS (France); GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kuhl, T. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Lacombe, S.; Porcel, E. [ISMO, CNRS-Universite Paris Sud 11 (France); Penhoat, M.-A. du [IMCP, Paris VI (France); Zeitoun, P. [LOA, ENSTA-Ecole Polytechnique-CNRS (France); Mourou, G. [ILE (France)

    2011-10-11

    LASERIX is a high-power laser facility leading to High-repetition-rate XUV laser pumped by Titanium:Sapphire laser. The aim of this laser facility is to offer Soft XRLs in the 30-7 nm range and auxiliary IR beam, which could also be used to produce synchronized XUV sources. In this contribution, the main results concerning both the development of XUV sources and their use for applications (irradiation of DNA samples) are presented, as well the present status and some perspectives for LASERIX.

  17. A search for X-ray reprocessing echoes in the power spectral density functions of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanoulopoulos, D; Epitropakis, A; Pecháček, T; Dovčiak, M; McHardy, I M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed study of the X-ray power spectra density (PSD) functions of twelve X-ray bright AGN, using almost all the archival XMM-Newton data. The total net exposure of the EPIC-pn light curves is larger than 350 ks in all cases (and exceeds 1 Ms in the case of 1H 0707-497). In a physical scenario in which X-ray reflection occurs in the inner part of the accretion disc of AGN, the X-ray reflection component should be a filtered echo of the X-ray continuum signal and should be equal to the convolution of the primary emission with the response function of the disc. Our primary objective is to search for these reflection features in the 5-7 keV (iron line) and 0.5-1 keV (soft) bands, where the X-ray reflection fraction is expected to be dominant. We fit to the observed periodograms two models: a simple bending power law model (BPL) and a BPL model convolved with the transfer function of the accretion disc assuming the lamp-post geometry and X-ray reflection from a homogeneous disc. We d...

  18. Parsec-scale X-ray Flows in High-mass Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P

    2005-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is providing remarkable new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycle of high-mass stars and their effects on their surroundings. We present a Chandra tour of several high-mass star-forming regions, highlighting physical processes that characterize the life of a cluster of high-mass stars, from deeply-embedded cores too young to have established an HII region to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies. Along the way we see that X-ray observations reveal hundreds of stellar sources powering great HII region complexes, suffused by both hard and soft diffuse X-ray structures caused by fast O-star winds thermalized in wind-wind collisions or by termination shocks against the surrounding media. Finally, we examine the effects of the deaths of high-mass stars that remained close to their birthplaces, exploding as supernovae within the superbubbles that these clusters created. We present new X-ray results on W51 IRS2E and 30 Doradu...

  19. Design and Implementation of High-speed X-ray Nondestructive Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xian-yi; MIAO Chang-yun; WANG Wei; SUN Xue

    2008-01-01

    A high-speed X-ray nondestructive detector is designed in this paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive detection is analyzed, and a general system scheme of the high-speed X-ray nondestructive detector is proposed. The Virtex-4 series Fx12 FPGA chip is used to design its hardware circuit, the PowerPC405 embedded system is developed, the high-speed image processing algorithm is applied to compile its processing software, and TCP/IP protocol is employed to compile the correspondence software, to realize high-speed X-ray signal gathering, processing and transmission. The experimental result indicated that the detector can be applied to the long-distance and on-line nondestructive detection of product line with Steel Wire Ropes in correlative industry field, such as mines, ports and wharfs. The running rate of the conveyer belt could achieve 6m/s when the survey width of the detector is 1.6 m.

  20. High resolution x-ray lensless imaging by differential holographic encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D.; Guizar-Sicairos, M.; Wu, B.; Scherz, A.; Acremann, Y.; Tylisczcak, T.; Fischer, P.; Friedenberger, N.; Ollefs, K.; Farle, M.; Fienup, J. R.; Stohr, J.

    2009-11-02

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL{sub s}) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by splitand-delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with stateof- the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  1. High-Resolution X-Ray Lensless Imaging by Differential Holographic Encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Diling [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Inst. of Optics; Wu, Benny [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Scherz, Andreas [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Inst. for Material and Energy Science; Acremann, Yves [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering Inst. (PULSE); Tyliszczak, Tolek [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Fischer, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for X-ray Optics; Friedenberger, Nina [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Ollefs, Katharina [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Farle, Michael [Universitat Duisburg-Essen (Germany). Dept. of Physics and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE); Fienup, James R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Inst. of Optics; Stöhr, Joachim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    2010-07-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) will soon offer femtosecond pulses of laterally coherent x-rays with sufficient intensity to record single-shot coherent scattering patterns for nanoscale imaging. Pulse trains created by split and- delay techniques even open the door for cinematography on unprecedented nanometer length and femtosecond time scales. A key to real space ultrafast motion pictures is fast and reliable inversion of the recorded reciprocal space scattering patterns. Here we for the first time demonstrate in the x-ray regime the power of a novel technique for lensless high resolution imaging, previously suggested by Guizar-Sicairos and Fienup termed holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation, HERALD0. We have achieved superior resolution over conventional x-ray Fourier transform holography (FTH) without sacrifices in SNR or significant increase in algorithmic complexity. By combining images obtained from individual sharp features on an extended reference, we further show that the resolution can be even extended beyond the reference fabrication limits. Direct comparison to iterative phase retrieval image reconstruction and images recorded with state of-the-art zone plate microscopes is presented. Our results demonstrate the power of HERALDO as a favorable candidate for robust inversion of single-shot coherent scattering patterns.

  2. Fabricating High-Resolution X-Ray Collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Michael; Atkinson, James E.; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2008-01-01

    A process and method for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution rotating modulation collimators for arcsecond and sub-arcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging involves photochemical machining and precision stack lamination. The special fixturing and etching techniques that have been developed are used for the fabrication of multiple high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. This technology has application in solar and astrophysics and in a number of medical imaging applications including mammography, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras used in nuclear medicine. This collimator improvement can also be used in non-destructive testing, hydrodynamic weapons testing, and microbeam radiation therapy.

  3. High pressure x-ray diffraction techniques with synchrotron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the developments of experimental techniques for high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond anvil cells (DACs) using synchrotron radiation. Basic principles and experimental methods for various diffraction geometry are described, including powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, radial diffraction, as well as coupling with laser heating system. Resolution in d-spacing of different diffraction modes is discussed. More recent progress, such as extended application of single crystal diffraction for measurements of multigrain and electron density distribution, time-resolved diffraction with dynamic DAC and development of modulated heating techniques are briefl y introduced. The current status of the high pressure beamline at BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility) and some results are also presented.

  4. Omega Dante Soft X-Ray Power Diagnostic Component Calibration at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K; Weber, F; Dewald, E; Glenzer, S; Landen, O; Turner, R; Waide, P

    2004-04-15

    The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer installed on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester is a twelve-channel filter-edge defined x-ray power diagnostic. It is used to measure the absolute flux from direct drive, indirect drive (hohlraums) and other plasma sources. Calibration efforts using two beam lines, U3C (50eV-1keV) and X8A (1keV-6keV) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) have been implemented to insure the accuracy of these measurements. We have calibrated vacuum x-ray diodes, mirrors and filters.

  5. Omega Dante soft x-ray power diagnostic component calibration at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K. M.; Weber, F. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O. L.; Turner, R. E.; Waide, P. A.

    2004-10-01

    The Dante soft x-ray spectrometer, installed on the Omega laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, is a 12-channel filter-edge defined soft x-ray power diagnostic. It is used to measure the spectrally resolved, absolute flux from direct drive, indirect drive (hohlraums) and other plasma sources. Dante component calibration efforts using two beam lines, U3C (50 eV-1 keV) and X8A (1-6 keV) at the National Synchrotron Light Source have been implemented to improve the accuracy of these measurements. We have calibrated metallic vacuum x-ray diodes, mirrors and filters.

  6. X-ray Conversion Efficiency of high-Z hohlraum wall materials for indirect drive ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewald, E; Rosen, M; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; Girard, F; Jadaud, J P; Schein, J; Constantin, C G; Neumayer, P; Landen, O

    2008-02-22

    We measure the conversion efficiency of 351 nm laser light to soft x-rays (0.1-5 keV) for Au, U and high Z mixtures 'cocktails' used for hohlraum wall materials in indirect drive ICF. We use spherical targets in a direct drive geometry, flattop laser pulses and laser smoothing with phase plates to achieve constant and uniform laser intensities of 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} over the target surface that are relevant for the future ignition experiments on NIF. The absolute time and spectrally-resolved radiation flux is measured with a multichannel soft x-ray power diagnostic. The conversion efficiency is then calculated by dividing the measured x-ray power by the incident laser power from which the measured laser backscattering losses is subtracted. After {approx}0.5 ns, the time resolved x-ray conversion efficiency reaches a slowly increasing plateau of 95% at 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} laser intensity and of 80% at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The M-band flux (2-5 keV) is negligible at 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} reaching {approx}1% of the total x-ray flux for all target materials. In contrast, the M-band flux is significant and depends on the target material at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} laser intensity, reaching values between 10% of the total flux for U and 27% for Au. Our LASNEX simulations show good agreement in conversion efficiency and radiated spectra with data when using XSN atomic physics model and a flux limiter of 0.15, but they underestimate the generated M-band flux.

  7. X-ray lithography source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  8. Structural studies of BSCCO/Ag-tapes by high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.F.; Frello, T.; Andersen, N.H.

    1998-01-01

    High-energy (100 keV) synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been identified as a powerful tool for characterizing texture and structural phases,within Ag clad high T-c, superconducting tapes of the (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BSSCO) type during synthesis of (Bi,Pb)(2)Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) from (Bi,Pb)(2)Sr2CaCu...

  9. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-01

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  10. High temperature x-ray micro-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDowell, Alastair A., E-mail: aamacdowell@lbl.gov; Barnard, Harold; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Gludovatz, Bernd [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Haboub, Abdel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); current –Lincoln Univ., Jefferson City, Missouri, 65101 (United States); Larson, Natalie; Zok, Frank [University California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara CA 93106 (United States); Panerai, Francesco; Mansour, Nagi N. [NASA Ames Research Centre, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Bale, Hrishikesh [University California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); current - Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, 4385 Hopyard Rd #100, Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Acevedo, Claire [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Liu, Dong [University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TH (United Kingdom); Ritchie, Robert O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    There is increasing demand for 3D micro-scale time-resolved imaging of samples in realistic - and in many cases extreme environments. The data is used to understand material response, validate and refine computational models which, in turn, can be used to reduce development time for new materials and processes. Here we present the results of high temperature experiments carried out at the x-ray micro-tomography beamline 8.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The themes involve material failure and processing at temperatures up to 1750°C. The experimental configurations required to achieve the requisite conditions for imaging are described, with examples of ceramic matrix composites, spacecraft ablative heat shields and nuclear reactor core Gilsocarbon graphite.

  11. High temperature x-ray micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Alastair A.; Barnard, Harold; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; Haboub, Abdel; Larson, Natalie; Zok, Frank; Panerai, Francesco; Mansour, Nagi N.; Bale, Hrishikesh; Gludovatz, Bernd; Acevedo, Claire; Liu, Dong; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing demand for 3D micro-scale time-resolved imaging of samples in realistic - and in many cases extreme environments. The data is used to understand material response, validate and refine computational models which, in turn, can be used to reduce development time for new materials and processes. Here we present the results of high temperature experiments carried out at the x-ray micro-tomography beamline 8.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source. The themes involve material failure and processing at temperatures up to 1750°C. The experimental configurations required to achieve the requisite conditions for imaging are described, with examples of ceramic matrix composites, spacecraft ablative heat shields and nuclear reactor core Gilsocarbon graphite.

  12. Copper L X-ray spectra measured by a high resolution ion-induced X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Hamaguchi, Dai; Kageyama, Hiroyoshi [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    High resolution L X-ray emission spectra of Cu have been measured by 0.75 MeV/u H, He, and F, 0.73 MeV/u Ar, 0.64 MeV/u Si, and 0.073 MeV/u Si ion impacts with a crystal spectrometer. The X-ray transition energies in the Cu target for L{iota}, L{eta}, L{alpha}{sub 1,2}, L{beta}{sub 1}, and L{beta}{sub 3,4} diagram lines induced by light ion impacts are determined, which are in good agreement with those given in the reference. The difference in L X-ray emission spectra produced by H, He, F, Si, and Ar ions are considered and the L{alpha}{sub 1,2} and L{beta}{sub 1} emission spectra are compared with the calculated ones based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. (author)

  13. Wind-jet interaction in high-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Jets in high-mass X-ray binaries can strongly interact with the stellar wind from the donor. The interaction leads, in particular, to formation of recollimation shocks. The shocks can then accelerate electrons in the jet and lead to enhanced emission, observable in the radio and gamma-ray bands. DooSoo, Zdziarski & Heinz (2016) have formulated a condition on the maximum jet power (as a function of the jet velocity and wind rate and velocity) at which such shocks form. This criterion can explain the large difference in the radio and gamma-ray loudness between Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3. The orbital modulation of radio emission observed in Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 allows a measurement of the location of the height along the jet where the bulk of emission at a given frequency occurs. Strong absorption of X-rays in the wind of Cyg X-3 is required to account for properties of the correlation of the radio emission with soft and hard X-rays. That absorption can also account for the unusual spectral and timing X-ray properties of this source.

  14. High-resolution x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammler, T.; Anders, S.; Padmore, H.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Stoehr, J. [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States); Scheinfein, M. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ade, H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1998-12-31

    X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscopy (X-PEEM) is a full-field imaging technique where the sample is illuminated by an x-ray beam and the photoemitted electrons are imaged on a screen by means of an electron optics. It therefore combines two well-established materials analysis techniques--photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and x-ray spectroscopy such as near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. This combination opens a wide field of new applications in materials research and has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate simultaneously topological, elemental, chemical state, and magnetic properties of surfaces, thin films, and multilayers at high spatial resolution. A new X-PEEM installed at the bend magnet beamline 7.3.1.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is designed for a spatial resolution of 20 nm and is currently under commissioning. An overview of the ongoing experimental program using X-PEEM in the field of materials research at the ALS is given by elemental and chemical bonding contrast imaging of hard disk coatings and sliders, field emission studies on diamond films as possible candidates for field-emission flat-panel displays, and the study of dewetting and decomposition phenomena of thin polymer blends and bilayers.

  15. High-energy Neutrino Flares from X-Ray Bright and Dark Tidal Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter

    2017-03-01

    X-ray and γ-ray observations by the Swift satellite revealed that a fraction of tidal disruption events (TDEs) have relativistic jets. Jetted TDEs have been considered to be potential sources of very-high-energy cosmic-rays and neutrinos. In this work, using semi-analytical methods, we calculate neutrino spectra of X-ray bright TDEs with powerful jets and dark TDEs with possible choked jets, respectively. We estimate their neutrino fluxes and find that non-detection would give us an upper limit on the baryon loading of the jet luminosity contained in cosmic-rays ξ cr ≲ 20–50 for Sw J1644+57. We show that X-ray bright TDEs make a sub-dominant (≲5%–10%) contribution to IceCube’s diffuse neutrino flux, and study possible contributions of X-ray dark TDEs given that particles are accelerated in choked jets or disk winds. We discuss future prospects for multi-messenger searches of the brightest TDEs.

  16. Current and Future X-ray Studies of High-Redshift AGNs and the First Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Niel

    2016-01-01

    X-ray observations of high-redshift AGNs at z = 4-7 have played a critical role in understanding the physical processes at work inthese objects as well as their basic demographics. Since 2000, Chandra and XMM-Newton have provided new X-ray detections for more than 120 such objects, and well-defined samples of z > 4 AGNs now allow reliable X-ray population studies. Once luminosity effectsare considered, the basic X-ray continuum properties of most high-redshift AGNs appear remarkably similar to those of local AGNs, although there are some notable apparent exceptions (e.g., highly radio-loud quasars). Furthermore, the X-ray absorption found in some objects has been used as a diagnostic of outflowing winds and circumnuclear material. Demographically, the X-ray data now support an exponential decline in the number density of luminous AGNs above z ~ 3, and quantitative space-density comparisons for optically selected and X-ray selected quasars indicate basic statistical agreement.The current X-ray discoveries point the way toward the future breakthroughs that will be possible with, e.g., Athena and the X-raySurveyor. These missions will execute powerful blank-field surveys to elucidate the demographics of the first growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs), including highly obscured systems, up to z ~ 10. They will also carry out complementary X-ray spectroscopic and variability investigations of high-redshift AGNs by targeting the most-luminous z = 7-10 quasars found in wide-field surveys by, e.g., Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST. X-ray spectroscopic and variability studies of the X-ray continuum and reflection signatures will help determine Eddington ratios and disk/corona properties; measuring these will clarify how the first quasars grew so quickly. Furthermore, absorption line/edge studies will reveal how outflows from the first SMBHs influenced the growth of the first galaxies. I will suggest some efficient observational strategies for Athena and the X-ray Surveyor.

  17. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions using energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence with a low power X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Py, J. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Groetz, J.-E., E-mail: jegroetz@univ-fcomte.fr [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Hubinois, J.-C.; Cardona, D. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2015-04-21

    This work presents the development of an in-line energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence spectrometer set-up, with a low power X-ray generator and a secondary target, for the determination of plutonium concentration in nitric acid solutions. The intensity of the L X-rays from the internal conversion and gamma rays emitted by the daughter nuclei from plutonium is minimized and corrected, in order to eliminate the interferences with the L X-ray fluorescence spectrum. The matrix effects are then corrected by the Compton peak method. A calibration plot for plutonium solutions within the range 0.1–20 g L{sup −1} is given.

  18. Extremum Seeking X-ray Position Feedback Using Power Line Harmonic Leakage as the Perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, S.; Kissick, D. J.; Venugopalan, N.; Ogata, C. M.; Makarov, O.; Stepanov, S.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2016-09-12

    Small X-ray beam sizes necessary for probing nanoscale phenomena require exquisite stability to prevent data corruption by noise. One source of instability at synchrotron radiation X-ray beamlines is the slow detuning of X-ray optics to marginal alignment where the onset of clipping increases the beam’s susceptibility to higher frequency position oscillations. In this article, we show that a 1 µm amplitude horizontal X-ray beam oscillation driven by power line harmonic leakage into the electron storage ring can be used as perturbation for horizontal position extremum seeking feedback. Feedback performance is characterized by convergence to 1.5% away from maximum intensity at optimal alignment.

  19. Extremum Seeking X-Ray Position Feedback Using Power Line Harmonic Leakage as the Perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, S.; Kissick, D. J.; Makarov, O.; Ogata, C. M.; Stepanov, S.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2016-09-12

    Small x-ray beam sizes necessary for probing nanoscale phenomena require exquisite stability to prevent data corruption by noise. One source of instability at synchrotron radiation x-ray beamlines is the slow detuning of x-ray optics to marginal alignment where the onset of clipping increases the beam's susceptibility to higher frequency position oscillations. In this article, we show that a 1 mu m amplitude horizontal x-ray beam oscillation driven by power line harmonic leakage into the electron storage ring can be used as perturbation for horizontal position extremum seeking feedback. Feedback performance is characterized by convergence to 1.5% away from maximum intensity at optimal alignment.

  20. Extremum seeking x-ray position feedback using power line harmonic leakage as the perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zohar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Small x-ray beam sizes necessary for probing nanoscale phenomena require exquisite stability to prevent data corruption by noise. One source of instability at synchrotron radiation x-ray beamlines is the slow detuning of x-ray optics to marginal alignment where the onset of clipping increases the beam’s susceptibility to higher frequency position oscillations. In this article, we show that a 1  μm amplitude horizontal x-ray beam oscillation driven by power line harmonic leakage into the electron storage ring can be used as perturbation for horizontal position extremum seeking feedback. Feedback performance is characterized by convergence to 1.5% away from maximum intensity at optimal alignment.

  1. High Resolution Adjustable Mirror Control for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    The goal of the proposed program is to enable increased angular resolution and collection areas for future major X-ray observatories by incorporating control of the mirror surfaces after fab-rication and mounting. We propose to develop and implement a method for preparing adjustable optics with integrated control elements on curved mirror segments for future X-ray space telescopes. Development of such mirror elements will provide a major advance to the field of X-ray astronomy, by enabling mirrors with half an arcsecond angular resolution using thin, lightweight glass to significantly increase the collection area. This is an enabling technology for mission concepts such as the X-ray Surveyor. This proposal supports NASA's goals of technical advancement of technologies suitable for future missions, and training of graduate students.

  2. Design and performance of a soft-x-ray interferometer for ultra-high-resolution fourier transform spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution (theoretical resolving power E/{delta}E{approximately}10{sup 6}) spectroscopy in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  3. Design and image-quality performance of high resolution CMOS-based X-ray imaging detectors for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, B. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Yun, S.; Cho, G.; Kim, H. K.; Seo, C.-W.; Jeon, S.; Huh, Y.

    2012-04-01

    In digital X-ray imaging systems, X-ray imaging detectors based on scintillating screens with electronic devices such as charge-coupled devices (CCDs), thin-film transistors (TFT), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) flat panel imagers have been introduced for general radiography, dental, mammography and non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. Recently, a large-area CMOS active-pixel sensor (APS) in combination with scintillation films has been widely used in a variety of digital X-ray imaging applications. We employed a scintillator-based CMOS APS image sensor for high-resolution mammography. In this work, both powder-type Gd2O2S:Tb and a columnar structured CsI:Tl scintillation screens with various thicknesses were fabricated and used as materials to convert X-ray into visible light. These scintillating screens were directly coupled to a CMOS flat panel imager with a 25 × 50 mm2 active area and a 48 μm pixel pitch for high spatial resolution acquisition. We used a W/Al mammographic X-ray source with a 30 kVp energy condition. The imaging characterization of the X-ray detector was measured and analyzed in terms of linearity in incident X-ray dose, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE).

  4. 53 W average power few-cycle fiber laser system generating soft x rays up to the water window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Klenke, Arno; Demmler, Stefan; Hoffmann, Armin; Gotschall, Thomas; Eidam, Tino; Krebs, Manuel; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    We report on a few-cycle laser system delivering sub-8-fs pulses with 353 μJ pulse energy and 25 GW of peak power at up to 150 kHz repetition rate. The corresponding average output power is as high as 53 W, which represents the highest average power obtained from any few-cycle laser architecture so far. The combination of both high average and high peak power provides unique opportunities for applications. We demonstrate high harmonic generation up to the water window and record-high photon flux in the soft x-ray spectral region. This tabletop source of high-photon flux soft x rays will, for example, enable coherent diffractive imaging with sub-10-nm resolution in the near future.

  5. The First Hard X-Ray Power Spectral Density Functions of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, T Taro

    2013-01-01

    We present results of our Power Spectral Density (PSD) analysis of 30 AGN using the 58 month light curves from Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in the 14-150 keV band. PSDs were fit using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to take into account windowing effects and measurement error. All but one source were found to be fit very well using an unbroken power law with a slope of ~-1, consistent at low frequencies with previous studies in the 2-10 keV band, with no evidence of a break in the PSD. For 5 of the highest S/N sources we tested the energy dependence of the PSD and found no significant difference in the PSD at different energies. Unlike previous studies of X-ray variability in AGN, we do not find any significant correlations between the hard X-ray variability and different properties of the AGN including luminosity and black hole mass. The lack of break frequencies and correlations seem to indicate that AGN are similar to the high state of Galactic Black Holes.

  6. Detectability of rotation-powered pulsars in future hard X-ray surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang

    2009-01-01

    Recent INTEGRAL/IBIS hard X-ray surveys have detected about 10 young pulsars.We show hard X-ray properties of these 10 young pulsars,which have a luminosity of 10~(33)-10~(37) erg s~(-1) and a photon index of 1.6-2.1 in the energy range of 20-100 keV.The correlation between X-ray luminosity and spin-down power of L_X∝ L_(sd)~(1.31) suggests that the hard X-ray emission in rotation-powered pulsars is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) component.Assuming spectral properties are similar in 20-100keV and 2-10 keV for both the pulsar and PWN components,the hard X-ray luminosity and flux of 39 known young X-ray pulsars and 8 millisecond pulsars are obtained,and a correlation of L_X ∝ L_(sd)~(1.5) is derived.About 20 known young X-ray pulsars and 1 millisecond pulsars could be detected with future INTEGRAL and HXMT surveys.We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations of hard X-ray pulsars in the Galaxy and the Gould Belt,assuming values for the pulsar birth rate,initial position,proper motion velocity,period,and magnetic field distribution and evolution based on observational statistics and the L_X - L_(sd) relations: L_X∝ L_(sd)~(1.31) and L_X∝ L_(sd)~(1.5).More than 40 young pulsars (mostly in the Galactic plane) could be detected after ten years of INTEGRAL surveys and the launch of HXMT.So,the young pulsars would be a significant part of the hard X-ray source population in the sky,and will contribute to unidentified hard X-ray sources in present and future hard X-ray surveys by INTEGRAL and HXMT.

  7. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K W; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparacio, L; Efthimion, P; Pablant, N A; Lu, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Chen, H; Magee, E

    2014-11-01

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10,000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  8. The BeppoSAX High Energy Large Area Survey. IV. On the soft X-ray properties of the hard X-ray-selected HELLAS sources

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Fiore, F; La Franca, F

    2001-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the soft X-ray properties of the BeppoSAX High-Energy Large Area Survey (HELLAS) sources. A large fraction (about 2/3) of the hard X-ray selected sources is detected by ROSAT. The soft X-ray colors for many of these objects, along with the 0.5-2 keV flux upper limits for those undetected in the ROSAT band, do imply the presence of absorption. The comparison with the ROSAT Deep Survey sources indicates that a larger fraction of absorbed objects among the HELLAS sources is present, in agreement with their hard X-ray selection and the predictions of the X-ray background synthesis models. Another striking result is the presence of a soft (additional) X-ray component in a significant fraction of absorbed objects.

  9. Performance Optimization of a High-Repetition-Rate KrF Laser Plasma X-Ray Source for Microlithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukerk, F; Louis, E; Turcu, E C; Tallents, G J; Batani, D

    1992-01-01

    In order to develop a high-intensity laser plasma x-ray source appropriate for industrial application of x-ray lithography, experiments have been carried out using a high-repetition-rate (up to 40 Hz) excimer laser (249 nm, 300 mJ) with a power density of 2 × 1013 W/ cm2 in the laser focus. In this study emphasis is given to remedying specific problems inherent in operating the laser plasma x-ray source at high repetition rates and in its prolonged operation. Two different methods of minimizing the production of target debris are investigated. First, the use of helium as a quenching gas results in a reduction of the amount of atomic debris particles by more than two orders of magnitude with negligible x-ray absorption. Second, a tape target as opposed to a solid target reduces the production of larger debris particles by a further factor of 100. Remaining debris is stopped by an aluminized plastic or beryllium filter used to avoid exposure of the resist by plasma ultraviolet radiation. The x-ray source has been used to image x-ray transmission mask structures down to 0.3 μm onto general purpose x-ray photo-resist. Results have been analyzed with SEM. The x-ray emission spectrum of the repetitive laser plasmas created from an iron target has been recorded and the conversion efficiency of the laser light into x-rays that contribute to exposure of the resist was measured to be 0.3% over 2π sr.

  10. Review - X-ray diffraction measurements in high magnetic fields and at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifuru Mitsui, Keiichi Koyama and Kazuo Watanabe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A system was developed measuring x-ray powder diffraction in high magnetic fields up to 5 T and at temperatures from 283 to 473 K. The stability of the temperature is within 1 K over 6 h. In order to examine the ability of the system, the high-field x-ray diffraction measurements were carried out for Si and a Ni-based ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy. The results show that the x-ray powder diffraction measurements in high magnetic fields and at high temperatures are useful for materials research.

  11. X-ray Flashes Powered by the Spindown of Long-lived Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolfi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a class of high-energy transients whose nature is still open to question. Similar in many aspects to common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), their strong X-ray emission is accompanied by very low or absent emission in the gamma-ray band. Despite this key difference, a number of indications have consolidated the idea that XRFs and GRBs share a common origin, including a number of potential XRF/supernova associations and the consistency of some XRFs with the Amati relation for long GRBs. However, the difficulties in explaining XRFs as off-axis or intrinsically weak GRBs still cast doubts on this interpretation. Here we explore the possibility that some XRFs are instead powered by the spindown of a long-lived neutron star (NS) formed in a binary NS (BNS) merger or, possibly, in a core-collapse supernova. Focusing on XRF 020903 and a few other cases observed by HETE-2, we show that their lack of gamma-ray emission, spectral properties, duration and X-ray luminosity find a natural explanation within our hypothesis. Moreover, we point out that the agreement of XRF 020903 with the Amati and Ghirlanda relations for long GRBs is respectively only marginal and problematic. Assuming a BNS merger origin for the long-lived NS, we use XRF observations to estimate a lower limit on the rate of BNS mergers accompanied by a potentially observable XRF signal. Within the reach of the advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors, we find \\gt 0.02{--}0.05 {{yr}}-1. Finally, we discuss the implications of a supernova association for the XRF events considered.

  12. FEEDBACK FROM HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES ON THE HIGH-REDSHIFT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: MODEL SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Chris [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); James, Gillian; Wynn, Graham [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Combet, Celine, E-mail: chris.power@icrar.org [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1/CNRS/IN2P3/INPG, 53 avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2013-02-10

    Massive stars at redshifts z {approx}> 6 are predicted to have played a pivotal role in cosmological reionization as luminous sources of ultraviolet (UV) photons. However, the remnants of these massive stars could be equally important as X-ray-luminous (L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}) high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). Because the absorption cross section of neutral hydrogen decreases sharply with photon energy ({sigma}{proportional_to}E {sup -3}), X-rays can escape more freely than UV photons from the star-forming regions in which they are produced, allowing HMXBs to make a potentially significant contribution to the ionizing X-ray background during reionization. In this paper, we explore the ionizing power of HMXBs at redshifts z {approx}> 6 using a Monte Carlo model for a coeval stellar population of main-sequence stars and HMXBs. Using the archetypal Galactic HMXB Cygnus X-1 as our template, we propose a composite HMXB spectral energy distribution consisting of blackbody and power-law components, whose contributions depend on the accretion state of the system. We determine the time-dependent ionizing power of a combined population of UV-luminous stars and X-ray-luminous HMXBs and deduce fitting formulae for the boost in the population's ionizing power arising from HMXBs; these fits allow for simple implementation of HMXB feedback in numerical simulations. Based on this analysis, we estimate the contribution of high-redshift HMXBs to the present-day soft X-ray background, and we show that it is a factor of {approx}100-1000 smaller than the observed limit. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the role of HMXBs in reionization and in high-redshift galaxy formation.

  13. Obtaining high degree of circular polarization at X-ray FELs via a reverse undulator taper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    Baseline design of a typical X-ray FEL undulator assumes a planar configuration which results in a linear polarization of the FEL radiation. However, many experiments at X-ray FEL user facilities would profit from using a circularly polarized radiation. As a cheap upgrade one can consider an installation of a short helical (or cross-planar) afterburner, but then one should have an efficient method to suppress powerful linearly polarized background from the main undulator. In this paper we propose a new method for such a suppression: an application of the reverse taper in the main undulator. We discover that in a certain range of the taper strength, the density modulation (bunching) at saturation is practically the same as in the case of non-tapered undulator while the power of linearly polarized radiation is suppressed by orders of magnitude. Then strongly modulated electron beam radiates at full power in the afterburner. Considering SASE3 undulator of the European XFEL as a practical example, we demonstrate that soft X-ray radiation pulses with peak power in excess of 100 GW and an ultimately high degree of circular polarization can be produced. The proposed method is rather universal, i.e. it can be used at SASE FELs and seeded (self-seeded) FELs, with any wavelength of interest, in a wide range of electron beam parameters, and with any repetition rate. It can be used at different X-ray FEL facilities, in particular at LCLS after installation of the helical afterburner in the near future.

  14. A compact high-resolution X-ray ion mobility spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T.; Kirk, A. T.; Heptner, A.; Niebuhr, D.; Böttger, S.; Zimmermann, S. [Department of Sensors and Measurement Technology, Institute of Electrical Engineering and Measurement Technology, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 9A, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    For the ionization of gaseous samples, most ion mobility spectrometers employ radioactive ionization sources, e.g., containing {sup 63}Ni or {sup 3}H. Besides legal restrictions, radioactive materials have the disadvantage of a constant radiation with predetermined intensity. In this work, we replaced the {sup 3}H source of our previously described high-resolution ion mobility spectrometer with 75 mm drift tube length with a commercially available X-ray source. It is shown that the current configuration maintains the resolving power of R = 100 which was reported for the original setup containing a {sup 3}H source. The main advantage of an X-ray source is that the intensity of the radiation can be adjusted by varying its operating parameters, i.e., filament current and acceleration voltage. At the expense of reduced resolving power, the sensitivity of the setup can be increased by increasing the activity of the source. Therefore, the performance of the setup can be adjusted to the specific requirements of any application. To investigate the relation between operating parameters of the X-Ray source and the performance of the ion mobility spectrometer, parametric studies of filament current and acceleration voltage are performed and the influence on resolving power, peak height, and noise is analyzed.

  15. High pressure x-ray diffraction techniques with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Liu

    2016-07-01

    This article summarizes the developments of experimental techniques for high pressure x-ray diffraction (XRD) in diamond anvil cells (DACs) using synchrotron radiation. Basic principles and experimental methods for various diffraction geometry are described, including powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, radial diffraction, as well as coupling with laser heating system. Resolution in d-spacing of different diffraction modes is discussed. More recent progress, such as extended application of single crystal diffraction for measurements of multigrain and electron density distribution, time-resolved diffraction with dynamic DAC and development of modulated heating techniques are briefly introduced. The current status of the high pressure beamline at BSRF (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility) and some results are also presented. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10875142, 11079040, and 11075175). The 4W2 beamline of BSRF was supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. KJCX2-SW-N20, KJCX2-SW-N03, and SYGNS04).

  16. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics - Phase 2 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcalorimeter x-ray instruments are non-dispersive, high spectral resolution, broad-band, high cadence imaging spectrometers. We have been developing these...

  17. Fundamental properties of High-Mass X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    González-Galán, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this PhD Thesis is to characterize a representative sample of Supergiant X-ray Binaries (SGXBs) formed by 4 sources: XTE J1855-026, a classical SGXB with long-term stable X-ray flux; AX J1841.0-0535 and AX J1845.0-0433, two supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) with the X-ray emission mostly dominated by flaring; and IGR J00370+6122, something in between these 2 sub-groups. The physical processes that produce these observable differences are still a matter of debate. In this PhD Thesis I performed a study of these 4 different systems to provide new data to constrain the models. This study consists of:(i) the determination of the orbital solution,(ii) a systematic study of the wind behavior along the orbit by the measure of Halpha variations,(iii) a model of stellar atmospheres of the donor star,(iv) establish whether there are X-ray flux variations modulated by the orbital period. The study of the wind shows that Halpha variations are dominated by intrinsic wind processes. The stellar atmosphere...

  18. Detection of the Second Eclipsing High-Mass X-Ray Binary in M 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Wolfgang; Haberl, Frank; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Hartman, Joel D.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Tüllmann, Ralph; Williams, Benjamin F.; Shporer, Avi; Mazeh, Tsevi; Pannuti, Thomas G.

    2009-03-01

    Chandra data of the X-ray source [PMH2004] 47 were obtained in the ACIS Survey of M 33 (ChASeM33) in 2006. During one of the observations, the source varied from a high state to a low state and back, in two other observations it varied from a low state to respectively intermediate states. These transitions are interpreted as eclipse ingresses and egresses of a compact object in a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) system. The phase of mideclipse is given by HJD 245 3997.476 ± 0.006, the eclipse half angle is 30fdg6 ± 1fdg2. Adding XMM-Newton observations of [PMH2004] 47 in 2001 we determine the binary period to be 1.732479 ± 0.000027 days. This period is also consistent with ROSAT HRI observations of the source in 1994. No short-term periodicity compatible with a rotation period of the compact object is detected. There are indications for a long-term variability similar to that detected for Her X-1. During the high state the spectrum of the source is hard (power-law spectrum with photon index ~0.85) with an unabsorbed luminosity of 2 ×1037 erg s-1 (0.2-4.5 keV). We identify as an optical counterpart a V ~ 21.0 mag star with T eff>19000 K, log(g)>2.5. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope optical light curves for this star show an ellipsoidal variation with the same period as the X-ray light curve. The optical light curve together with the X-ray eclipse can be modeled by a compact object with a mass consistent with a neutron star or a black hole in an HMXB. However, the hard power-law X-ray spectrum favors a neutron star as the compact object in this second eclipsing X-ray binary in M 33. Assuming a neutron star with a canonical mass of 1.4 M sun and the best-fit companion temperature of 33,000 K, a system inclination i = 72° and a companion mass of 10.9 M sun are implied.

  19. K(alpha) x-ray emission characterization of 100 Hz, 15 mJ femtosecond laser system with high contrast ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmaux, S; Serbanescu, C; Kincaid, R E; Krol, A; Kieffer, J C

    2008-12-12

    We report K(alpha) x-ray production with a high energy (110 mJ per pulse at 800 nm before compression/15 mJ at 400 nm after compression), high repetition rate (100 Hz), and high pulse contrast (better than 10(-9) at 400 nm) laser system. To develop laser-based x-ray sources for biomedical imaging requires to use high-energy and high-power ultra-fast laser system where compression is achieved under vacuum. Using this type of laser system, we demonstrate long-term stability of the x-ray yield, conversion efficiency higher than 1.5 x 10(-5) with a Mo target, and the x-ray spot size close to the optical focal spot. This high-repetition K(alpha) x-ray source can be very useful for x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

  20. The X-ray variability of NGC 6814 - Power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, C.; Madejski, G. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Turner, T. J.; Koyama, K.; Kunieda, H.

    1992-01-01

    The existence of the periodic component seen in NGC 6814 with Exosat at 12,000 +/- 100 s is confirmed by a power spectrum and folded light curve analysis of unevenly sampled Ginga data. A comparison of the power spectra produced from simulated light curves with that observed enables the intrinsic shape of the power spectrum of the source to be determined despite the distortions introduced by the window function. The best estimate for the period is 12,132 +/- 3 s, where the error is that derived from simulations. An upper limit to the rate of change of period of about 10 exp -9 is inferred if the light curves are truly phase-coherent, but as this is not required by the data, the conservative upper limit is not greater than 5 x 10 exp -7. The large amount of power in the periodic component and its stability both suggest occultation of the source as its origin.

  1. The Highly Perturbed X-ray Bright Group NGC 5044

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Laurence

    2014-09-01

    The NGC 5044 group is the X-ray brightest group in the sky and hosts many small X-ray cavities that were inflated by weak AGN outbursts. The cumulative effect of many weak AGN outbursts may be the dominant reheating mechanism in cooling flows. While AGN feedback probably prevents the bulk of gas from cooling in NGC 5044, the presence of molecular structures, Halpha filaments, [CII] emission and star formation indicates that at least some gas is able to condense out of the hot phase. The near by 5044 group is the best target for detecting small X-ray cavities with Chandra and investigating the cumulative effect of repeated weak AGN outbursts. The wealth of multi-frequency data also makes NGC 5044 an ideal target for studying gas over a broad range of temperatures in a cooling flow.

  2. High-resolution spectroscopy and high-density monitoring in X-rays of Novae

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, Jan-Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century X-ray observatories XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift gave us completely new insights into the X-ray behaviour of nova outbursts. These new-generation X-ray observatories provide particularly high spectral resolution and high density in monitoring campaigns, simultaneously in X-rays and UV/optical. The entire evolution of several nova outbursts has been observed with the Swift XRT and UVOT instruments, allowing studies of the gradual shift of the peak of the SED from UV to X-rays, time scales to the onset and duration of the X-ray brightest supersoft source (SSS) phase, and pre- and post-SSS X-ray emission. In addition, XMM-Newton and Chandra observations can efficiently be scheduled, allowing deeper studies of strategically chosen evolutionary stages. Before Swift joined in 2005, Chandra and XMM-Newton blind shots in search of SSS emission unavoidably led to some underexposed observations taken before and/or after the SSS phase. More systematic Swift studies reduced this number while increasing...

  3. Note: High-pressure in situ x-ray laminography using diamond anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Ryuichi, E-mail: nomura@sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    A high-pressure in situ X-ray laminography technique was developed using a newly designed, laterally open diamond anvil cell. A low X-ray beam of 8 keV energy was used, aiming at future application to dual energy X-ray chemical imaging techniques. The effects of the inclination angle and the imaging angle range were evaluated at ambient pressure using the apparatus. Sectional images of ruby ball samples were successfully reconstructed at high pressures, up to approximately 50 GPa. The high-pressure in situ X-ray laminography technique is expected to provide new insights into the deep Earth sciences.

  4. Note: High-pressure in situ x-ray laminography using diamond anvil cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryuichi; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2016-04-01

    A high-pressure in situ X-ray laminography technique was developed using a newly designed, laterally open diamond anvil cell. A low X-ray beam of 8 keV energy was used, aiming at future application to dual energy X-ray chemical imaging techniques. The effects of the inclination angle and the imaging angle range were evaluated at ambient pressure using the apparatus. Sectional images of ruby ball samples were successfully reconstructed at high pressures, up to approximately 50 GPa. The high-pressure in situ X-ray laminography technique is expected to provide new insights into the deep Earth sciences.

  5. X-Ray Spectra of The High-Mass X-RAY Binary 4U~1700-37 using BeppoSAX, Suzaku and RXTE Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Seifina, Elena; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of the high-mass binary 4U~1700-37 during its hard-soft state evolution. We use the BeppoSAX, Suzaku and RXTE (Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer), Suzaku and BeppoSAX observations for this investigation. We argue that the X-ray broad-band spectra during all spectral states can be adequately reproduced by a model, consisting of a low-temperature Blackbody component, two Comptonized components both due to the presence of a Compton cloud (CC) that up-scatters seed photons of $T_{s1}$~< 1.4 keV, and $T_{s2}<$1 keV, and an iron-line component. We find using this model that the photon power-law index is almost constant, $\\Gamma_{1}\\sim 2$ for all spectral states. However, $\\Gamma_{2}$ shows a behavior depending on the spectral state. Namely, $\\Gamma_{2}$ is quasi-constant at the level of $\\Gamma_{2}\\sim 2$ while the CC plasma temperature $kT^{(2)}_e$ is less than 40 keV; on the other hand, $\\Gamma_{2}$ is in the range of $1.3<\\Gamma_{2}<2$, when $kT^{(2)}_e$ is greater th...

  6. Advanced ceramic matrix composites for high energy x-ray generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir Azam; Labbe, Jean Claude

    2011-12-01

    High energy x-ray targets are the anodes used in high performance tubes, designed to work for long operating times and at high power. Such tubes are used in computed tomography (CT) scan machines. Usually the tubes used in CT scanners have to continuously work at high temperatures and for longer scan durations in order to get maximum information during a single scan. These anodes are composed of a refractory substrate which supports a refractory metallic coating. The present work is a review of the development of a ceramic metal composite based on aluminium nitride (AlN) and molybdenum for potential application as the substrate. This composite is surface engineered by coating with tungsten, the most popular material for high energy x-ray targets. To spray metallic coatings on the surface of ceramic matrix composites dc blown arc plasma is employed. The objective is to increase the performance and the life of an x-ray tube. Aluminium nitride-molybdenum ceramic matrix composites were produced by uniaxial hotpressing mixtures of AlN and Mo powders. These composites were characterized for their mechanical, thermal, electrical and micro-structural properties. An optimized composition was selected which contained 25 vol.% of metallic phase dispersed in the AlN matrix. These composites were produced in the actual size of an anode and coated with tungsten through dc blown arc plasma spraying. The results have shown that sintering of large size anodes is possible through uniaxial pressing, using a modified sintering cycle.

  7. The X-Ray to Mid-Infrared Relation of AGN at High Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray and mid-IR emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) are strongly correlated. However, while various published parameterizations of this correlation are consistent with the low-redshift, local Seyfert galaxy population, extrapolations of these relations to high luminosity differ by an order of magnitude at nuL(nu)(6um) = 1e47 erg/s. Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we determine the mid-IR luminosities of the most luminous quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present a revised formulation of the X-ray to mid-IR relation of AGN which is appropriate from the Seyfert regime to the powerful quasar regime.

  8. Amorphous silica studied by high energy x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.F.; Neuefeind, J.; Neumann, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    The use of hard X-rays (60-300 keV) for diffraction studies of disordered materials has several advantages: higher resolution in direct space, smaller correction terms, removal of truncation effects, the possibility for operating in extreme environments and for direct comparison between X-ray.......3(3)degrees with a rms value of 4.2(3)degrees. For the Si-O-Si bond angle, several types of distribution V(alpha) = V-1(alpha) sin(alpha) were investigated. Best fits were obtained for rather broad distributions with V having its maximum at 147 degrees and V-1 at 180 degrees....

  9. Next Generation Astronomical X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; O'Dell, S. L.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.

  10. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiuzbăian, Sorin G., E-mail: gheorghe.chiuzbaian@upmc.fr; Hague, Coryn F.; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, B.P. 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Mariot, Jean-Michel [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Jaouen, Nicolas; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, B.P. 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sacchi, Maurizio [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, B.P. 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-04-15

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm{sup 2} focal spot source with full polarization control.

  11. Total x-ray power measurements in the Sandia LIGA program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Michael E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ting, Aili (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-08-01

    Total X-ray power measurements using aluminum block calorimetry and other techniques were made at LIGA X-ray scanner synchrotron beamlines located at both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This block calorimetry work was initially performed on the LIGA beamline 3.3.1 of the ALS to provide experimental checks of predictions of the LEX-D (LIGA Exposure- Development) code for LIGA X-ray exposures, version 7.56, the version of the code in use at the time calorimetry was done. These experiments showed that it was necessary to use bend magnet field strengths and electron storage ring energies different from the default values originally in the code in order to obtain good agreement between experiment and theory. The results indicated that agreement between LEX-D predictions and experiment could be as good as 5% only if (1) more accurate values of the ring energies, (2) local values of the magnet field at the beamline source point, and (3) the NIST database for X-ray/materials interactions were used as code inputs. These local magnetic field value and accurate ring energies, together with NIST database, are now defaults in the newest release of LEX-D, version 7.61. Three dimensional simulations of the temperature distributions in the aluminum calorimeter block for a typical ALS power measurement were made with the ABAQUS code and found to be in good agreement with the experimental temperature data. As an application of the block calorimetry technique, the X-ray power exiting the mirror in place at a LIGA scanner located at the APS beamline 10 BM was measured with a calorimeter similar to the one used at the ALS. The overall results at the APS demonstrated the utility of calorimetry in helping to characterize the total X-ray power in LIGA beamlines. In addition to the block calorimetry work at the ALS and APS, a preliminary comparison of the use of heat flux sensors, photodiodes and modified beam calorimeters as total X-ray power

  12. Intense high repetition rate Mo Kα x-ray source generated from laser solid interaction for imaging application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.; Li, M. H.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Li, Y. F.; Chen, L. M., E-mail: lmchen@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Guo, X. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Optoelectronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, D. Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, J. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We report an efficient Mo Kα x-ray source produced by interaction of femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser pulses with a solid Molybdenum target working at 1 kHz repetition rate. The generated Mo Kα x-ray intensity reaches to 4.7 × 10{sup 10} photons sr{sup −1} s{sup −1}, corresponding to an average power of 0.8 mW into 2π solid angle. The spatial resolution of this x-ray source is measured to be 26 lp/mm. With the high flux and high spatial resolution characteristics, high resolving in-line x-ray radiography was realized on test objects and large size biological samples within merely half a minute. This experiment shows the possibility of laser plasma hard x-ray source as a new low cost and high resolution system for radiography and its ability of ultrafast x-ray pump-probe study of matter.

  13. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a laser-pla

  14. High-resolution X-ray imaging in fast ignition experiment using Gekko and LFEX lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koga M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We improved diagnostic instruments to measure X-ray images in a hard X-ray harsh environment and succeeded in obtaining clear images with X-ray framing camera and X-ray streak camera in fast ignition experiment conducted in 2011 (FG-02 Experimental Campaign. We found that high-energy X-ray signals could be used as an indicator of the LFEX laser injection time relative to the imploded core. The LFEX laser injection time was estimated with better than 10 ps accuracy. Time-resolved 2D X-ray images suggested that shapes and motions of imploded core plasmas were improved by changing the configuration of the implosion lasers.

  15. A new cell for X-ray absorption spectroscopy study under high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Li-Rong; CHE Rong-Zheng; LIU Jing; DU Yong-Hua; ZHOU Ying-Li; HU Tian-Dou

    2009-01-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the investigation of the local environment around selected atoms in condensed matter. XAFS under pressure is an important method for the synchrotron source. We design a cell for a high pressure XAFS experiment. Sintered boron carbide is used as the anvils of this high pressure cell in order to obtain a full XAFS spectrum free from diffraction peaks. In addition, a hydraulic pump was adopted to make in-suit pressure modulation. High quality XAFS spectra of ZrH2 under high pressure (up to 13 Gpa) were obtained by this cell.

  16. Modelling the energy dependencies of high-frequency QPO in black hole X-ray binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Zycki, P. T.; A. Niedzwiecki(University of Lodz, Poland); Sobolewska, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    We model energy dependencies of the quasi periodic oscillations (QPO) in the model of disc epicyclic motions, with X-ray modulation caused by varying relativistic effects. The model was proposed to explain the high frequency QPO observed in X-ray binaries. We consider two specific scenarios for the geometry of accretion flow and spectral formation. Firstly, a standard cold accretion disc with an active X-ray emitting corona is assumed to oscillate. Secondly, only a hot X-ray emitting accretio...

  17. X-ray spectra induced in highly charged 40Arq+ interacting with Au surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By use of optical spectrum technology, the spectra of X-ray induced by highly charged 40Arq+ ions interacting with Au surface have been studied. The results show that the argon Kα X-ray were emitted from the hollow atoms formed below the surface. There is a process of multi-electron exciting in neutralization of the Ar16+ion, with electronic configuration 1s2 in its ground state below the solid surface. The yield of the projectile Kα X-ray is related to its initial electronic configuration, and the yield of the target X-ray is related to the projectile kinetic energy.

  18. Optomechanical design of a high-precision detector robot arm system for x-ray nano-diffraction with x-ray nanoprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, D.; Kalbfleisch, S.; Kearney, S.; Anton, J.; Chu, Y. S.

    2014-03-01

    Collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory has created a design for the high-precision detector robot arm system that will be used in the x-ray nano-diffraction experimental station at the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN) beamline for the NSLS-II project. The robot arm system is designed for positioning and manipulating an x-ray detector in three-dimensional space for nano-diffraction data acquisition with the HXN x-ray microscope. It consists of the following major component groups: a granite base with air-bearing support, a 2-D horizontal base stage, a vertical axis goniometer, a 2-D vertical plane robot arm, a 3-D fast scanning stages group, and a 2-D x-ray pixel detector. The design specifications and unique optomechanical structure of this novel high-precision detector robot arm system will be presented in this paper.

  19. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2003-06-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. The polycapillary optic will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site. This will effectively screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. This dual-capillary design is essentially a confocal (having the same foci) design, i.e. the detected X-rays are only emitted from the overlap of the two focal spots. This increases spatial resolution and reduce s background. The integration of the X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites.

  20. Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2004-06-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. The polycapillary optic will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site. This will effectively screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. This dual-capillary design is essentially a confocal (having the same foci) design, i.e. the detected X-rays are only emitted from the overlap of the two focal spots. This increases spatial resolution and reduces background. The integration of the X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites.

  1. High-resolution x-ray studies of an AXAF high-energy transmission grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, S.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    A triple axis X-ray diffractometer, designed and built at the Danish Space Research Institute, was used to make a high resolution study of the performance of a 2000 angstroms period, high energy X-ray transmission grating developed at MIT for one of the grating spectrometers on the Advanced X-ray...... Astrophysics Facility. Data was obtained at CuK(alpha )1 (8.048 keV) and, using single reflection asymmetric Si(044) crystals for both the monochromator and analyzer, an angular resolution of 1.5 arcsec FWHM was achieved. The efficiency of the grating in all orders up to the 15th was measured using a 12 k......W rotating anode X-ray generator. These data provided the basis for a modelling of the grating structure....

  2. High-resolution x-ray studies of an AXAF high-energy transmission grating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, S.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    A triple axis X-ray diffractometer, designed and built at the Danish Space Research Institute, was used to make a high resolution study of the performance of a 2000 angstroms period, high energy X-ray transmission grating developed at MIT for one of the grating spectrometers on the Advanced X-ray...... Astrophysics Facility. Data was obtained at CuK(alpha )1 (8.048 keV) and, using single reflection asymmetric Si(044) crystals for both the monochromator and analyzer, an angular resolution of 1.5 arcsec FWHM was achieved. The efficiency of the grating in all orders up to the 15th was measured using a 12 k......W rotating anode X-ray generator. These data provided the basis for a modelling of the grating structure....

  3. High-Frequency X-ray Variability Detection in A Black Hole Transient with USA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabad, Gayane

    2000-10-16

    Studies of high-frequency variability (above {approx}100 Hz) in X-ray binaries provide a unique opportunity to explore the fundamental physics of spacetime and matter, since the orbital timescale on the order of several milliseconds is a timescale of the motion of matter through the region located in close proximity to a compact stellar object. The detection of weak high-frequency signals in X-ray binaries depends on how well we understand the level of Poisson noise due to the photon counting statistics, i.e. how well we can understand and model the detector deadtime and other instrumental systematic effects. We describe the preflight timing calibration work performed on the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) X-ray detector to study deadtime and timing issues. We developed a Monte Carlo deadtime model and deadtime correction methods for the USA experiment. The instrumental noise power spectrum can be estimated within {approx}0.1% accuracy in the case when no energy-dependent instrumental effect is present. We also developed correction techniques to account for an energy-dependent instrumental effect. The developed methods were successfully tested on USA Cas A and Cygnus X-1 data. This work allowed us to make a detection of a weak signal in a black hole candidate (BHC) transient.

  4. Design of High Resolution Soft X-Ray Microcalorimeters Using Magnetic Penetration Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch. Sarah; Balvin, Manuel; Bandler, Simon; Denis, Kevin; Finkbeiner, Fred; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Sadlier, Jack; Smith, Stephen; Stevenson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We have designed high-resolution soft x-ray microcalorimeters using magnetic penetration thermometers (MPTs) in an array of pixels covering a total of 2 square centimeters to have a resolving power of 300 at energies around 300 eV. This performance is desirable for studying the soft x-ray background from the warm hot intergalactic medium. MPT devices have small sensor heat capacity and high responsivities, which makes them excellent detector technology for attempting to attain sub-eV resolution. We are investigating the feasibility of pixels with absorbers that are 625 x 625 square micrometers, up to 1 x 1 square millimeters in area and 0.35 micrometer thick and thinner. Our tests have shown that suspended gold absorbers 0.35 micrometers thick (RRR = 6.7) are feasible to fabricate. We modeled the thermal diffusion from such thin gold over the size of a 625 x 625 square micrometer absorber, and conclude that the effect of the thermalization on the resolution of a 300 eV photon is an additional approximately 0.2 eV FWHM of broadening. We discuss the thermal effects of small absorber attachment sterns on solid substrate, as well as considerations for multiplexed readout. We will present the progress we have made towards building and testing this soft x-ray detector.

  5. A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Grefenstette, Brian W; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Fuerst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Kaspi, Victoria A; Miller, Jon M; Nowak, Michael A; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Wik, Daniel R; Wilms, Joern; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1 x 10^(33) erg/s (for D=1kpc), with around 60 percent in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with an 18 keV electron temperature, which can be understood as...

  6. High intensity compact Compton X-ray sources: Challenges and potential of applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, M., E-mail: mjacquet@lal.in2p3.fr

    2014-07-15

    Thanks to the exceptional development of high power femtosecond lasers in the last 15 years, Compton based X-ray sources are in full development over the world in the recent years. Compact Compton sources are able to combine the compactness of the instrument with a beam of high intensity, high quality, tunable in energy. In various fields of applications such as biomedical science, cultural heritage preservation and material science researches, these sources should provide an easy working environment and the methods currently used at synchrotrons could be largely developed in a lab-size environment as hospitals, labs, or museums.

  7. Low Power X-Ray Photon Resolving Imaging Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The solid-state detector array is the primary technology to implement the current generation of space borne high-energy astronomy missions that are managed by NASA...

  8. X-ray characterization of CMOS imaging detector with high resolution for fluoroscopic imaging application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Bo Kyung; Kim, Cho Rong; Jeon, Seongchae; Kim, Ryun Kyung; Seo, Chang-Woo; Yang, Keedong; Heo, Duchang; Lee, Tae-Bum; Shin, Min-Seok; Kim, Jong-Boo; Kwon, Oh-Kyung

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS)-based X-ray imaging detectors with high spatial resolution for medical imaging application. In this study, our proposed X-ray CMOS imaging sensor has been fabricated by using a 0.35 μm 1 Poly 4 Metal CMOS process. The pixel size is 100 μm×100 μm and the pixel array format is 24×96 pixels, which provide a field-of-view (FOV) of 9.6 mm×2.4 mm. The 14.3-bit extend counting analog-to digital converter (ADC) with built-in binning mode was used to reduce the area and simultaneously improve the image resolution. Both thallium-doped CsI (CsI:Tl) and Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator screens were used as converters for incident X-rays to visible light photons. The optical property and X-ray imaging characterization such as X-ray to light response as a function of incident X-ray exposure dose, spatial resolution and X-ray images of objects were measured under different X-ray energy conditions. The measured results suggest that our developed CMOS-based X-ray imaging detector has the potential for fluoroscopic imaging and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging applications.

  9. Research of x-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Miao, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Lu, Xiaocui

    2008-03-01

    An X-ray nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. The principle of X-ray nondestructive testing (NDT) is analyzed, the general scheme of the X-ray nondestructive testing system is proposed, and the nondestructive detector for high-speed running conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is developed. The hardware of system is designed with Xilinx's VIRTEX-4 FPGA that embeds PowerPC and MAC IP core, and its network communication software based on TCP/IP protocol is programmed by loading LwIP to PowerPC. The nondestructive testing of high-speed conveyor belt with steel wire ropes and network transfer function are implemented. It is a strong real-time system with rapid scanning speed, high reliability and remotely nondestructive testing function. The nondestructive detector can be applied to the detection of product line in industry.

  10. The Radiative X-ray and Gamma-ray Efficiencies of Rotation-powered Pulsars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.; Bamba, A.; Yamazaki, R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars and their surrounding nebulae using the sample of Kargaltsev & Pavlov, and we complement this with an analysis of the γ -ray emission of Fermi-detected pulsars. We report a strong trend in the efficiency with which

  11. The influence of spin on jet power in neutron star X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migliari, S.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Russell, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role of the compact object in the production of jets from neutron star X-ray binaries. The goal is to quantify the effect of the neutron star spin, if any, in powering the jet. We compile all the available measures or estimates of the neutron star spin frequency in jet-detected ne

  12. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [Division of Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  13. Clumpy wind accretion in supergiant neutron star high mass X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Feldmeier, A; Falanga, M

    2016-01-01

    The accretion of the stellar wind material by a compact object represents the main mechanism powering the X-ray emission in classical supergiant high mass X-ray binaries and supergiant fast X-ray transients. In this work we present the first attempt to simulate the accretion process of a fast and dense massive star wind onto a neutron star, taking into account the effects of the centrifugal and magnetic inhibition of accretion ("gating") due to the spin and magnetic field of the compact object. We made use of a radiative hydrodynamical code to model the non-stationary radiatively driven wind of an O-B supergiant star and then place a neutron star characterized by a fixed magnetic field and spin period at a certain distance from the massive companion. Our calculations follow, as a function of time (on a total time scale of several hours), the transition of the system through all different accretion regimes that are triggered by the intrinsic variations in the density and velocity of the non-stationary wind. Th...

  14. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. A pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  15. High quality multilayer mirrors for soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimmer, H.; Boeni, P.; Breitmeier, U.; Clemens, D.; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Mertins, H.C.; Schaefers, F. [BESSY, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In an effort to develop optical components for X-rays with wavelengths in the water window (2.3 -4.4 nm) multilayer structures have been designed for the following applications: in transmission as phase shifters to change linear into circular polarization, in reflection as mirrors close to normal incidence and as linear polarizers at an angle of incidence of 45{sup o}. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  16. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scatteri...

  17. Soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars as highly magnetized white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2016-01-01

    We show that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) can be explained as recently proposed highly magnetized white dwarfs (B-WDs). The radius and magnetic field of B-WDs are perfectly adequate to explain energies in SGRs/AXPs as the rotationally powered energy. While the highly magnetized neutron stars require an extra, observationally not well established yet, source of energy, the magnetized white dwarfs, yet following Chandrasekhar's theory (C-WDs), exhibit large ultra-violet luminosity which is observationally constrained from a strict upper limit.

  18. Stellar wind variations during the X-ray high and low states of Cygnus X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gies, D.R.; Bolton, C.T.; Blake, R.M.; Caballero-Nieves, S.M.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Hadrava, P.; Herrero, A.; Hillwig, T.C.; Howell, S.B.; Huang, W.; Kaper, L.; Koubský, P.; McSwain, M.V.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectroscopy of the massive X-ray and black hole binary system, HD 226868 = Cyg X-1. The spectra were obtained at both orbital conjunction phases in 2002 and 2003, when the system was in the X-ray high/soft state. The UV stellar wind lines s

  19. The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR) high-energy X-ray mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hongjun An

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission was launched on 2012 June 13 and is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit operating above ~10 keV. NuSTAR flies two co-aligned Wolter-I conical approximation X-ray optics, coated with Pt/C and W/Si multilayers...

  20. Discovery of extended X-ray emission around the highly magnetic RRAT J1819-1458

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, N.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Gaensler, B.M.; Slane, P.O.; Stella, L.; Reynolds, S.P.; Burgay, M.; Israel, G.L.; Possenti, A.; Chatterjee, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of extended X-ray emission around the high magnetic field rotating radio transient J1819-1458. Using a 30 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation, we found significant evidence for extended X-ray emission with a peculiar shape: a compact region out to similar to 5.'' 5, and more dif

  1. High energy x-ray reflectivity and scattering study from spectrum-x-gamma flight mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Frederiksen, P. Kk

    1993-01-01

    Line radiation from Fe K-alpha(1), Cu K-alpha(1), and Ag K-alpha(1) is used to study the high energy X-ray reflectivity and scattering behavior of flight-quality X-ray mirrors having various Al substrates. When both the specular and the scattered radiation are integrated, near theoretical...

  2. High energy x-ray reflectivity and scattering study from spectrum-x-gamma flight mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Frederiksen, P. Kk

    1993-01-01

    Line radiation from Fe K-alpha(1), Cu K-alpha(1), and Ag K-alpha(1) is used to study the high energy X-ray reflectivity and scattering behavior of flight-quality X-ray mirrors having various Al substrates. When both the specular and the scattered radiation are integrated, near theoretical...

  3. The High Time Resolution Spectrometer (HTRS) aboard the International X-ray Observatory (IXO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barret, Didier; Ravera, Laurent; Bodin, Pierre; Amoros, Carine; Boutelier, Martin; Glorian, Jean-Michel; Godet, Olivier; Orttner, Guillaume; Lacombe, Karine; Pons, Roger; Rambaud, Damien; Ramon, Pascale; Ramchoun, Souad; Biffi, Jean-Marc; Belasic, Marielle; Clédassou, Rodolphe; Faye, Delphine; Pouilloux, Benjamin; Motch, Christian; Michel, Laurent; Lechner, Peter H.; Niculae, Adrian; Strueder, Lothar W.; Distratis, Giuseppe; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Santangelo, Andréa; Tenzer, Christoph; Wende, Henning; Wilms, Joern; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Schmid, Christian; Paltani, Stéphane; Cadoux, Franck; Fiorini, Carlo; Bombelli, Luca; Méndez, Mariano; Mereghetti, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The High Time Resolution Spectrometer (HTRS) is one of the five focal plane instruments of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). The HTRS is the only instrument matching the top level mission requirement of handling a one Crab X-ray source with an efficiency greater than 10%. It will provide IX

  4. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strocov, V. N., E-mail: vladimir.strocov@psi.ch; Schmitt, T.; Flechsig, U.; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A.; Chen, Q.; Raabe, J. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Wang, X. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Institut de Physique de la Matiére Condensé, Ecole Polytechnique Fédéderale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Grioni, M. [Institut de Physique de la Matiére Condensé, Ecole Polytechnique Fédéderale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Piazzalunga, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Patthey, L. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-09-01

    Concepts and technical realization of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source are described. Optimization of the optical scheme for high resolution and photon flux as well as diagnostics tools and alignment strategies are discussed. The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0–180° rotatable linear polarizations) but also the energy without changing the gap. The beamline optics is based on the well established scheme of plane-grating monochromator operating in collimated light. The ultimate resolving power E/ΔE is above 33000 at 1 keV photon energy. The choice of blazed versus lamellar gratings and optimization of their profile parameters is described. Owing to glancing angles on the mirrors as well as optimized groove densities and profiles of the gratings, the beamline is capable of delivering high photon flux up to 1 × 10{sup 13} photons s{sup −1} (0.01% BW){sup −1} at 1 keV. Ellipsoidal refocusing optics used for the RIXS endstation demagnifies the vertical spot size down to 4 µm, which allows slitless operation and thus maximal transmission of the high-resolution RIXS spectrometer delivering E/ΔE > 11000 at 1 keV photon energy. Apart from the beamline optics, an overview of the control system is given, the diagnostics and software tools are described, and strategies used for the optical alignment are discussed. An introduction to the concepts and instrumental realisation of the ARPES and RIXS endstations is given.

  5. Critical-angle x-ray transmission grating spectrometer with extended bandpass and resolving power > 10,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica A.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Bhatia, Ritwik; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2016-07-01

    A number of high priority subjects in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, such as the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and the missing baryon problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, as well as stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, largearea (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R =λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology, even for telescopes with angular resolution of 5-10 arcsec. Still, significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray- Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (lowmass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimalmission resource requirements. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using advanced anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth grating bar sidewalls. The reflection properties of silicon are well matched to the soft x-ray band, and existing silicon CAT gratings can exceed 30% absolute diffraction efficiency, with clear paths for further improvement. Nevertheless, CAT gratings with sidewalls made of higher atomic number elements allow extension of the CAT grating principle to higher energies and larger dispersion angles, thus enabling higher resolving power at shorter wavelengths. We show x-ray data from CAT gratings coated with a thin layer of platinum using atomic layer deposition, and demonstrate efficient

  6. X-ray phase microtomography with a single grating for high-throughput investigations of biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdora, Marie-Christine; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Schulz, Georg; Khimchenko, Anna; Hipp, Alexander; Cook, Andrew C; Dilg, Daniel; David, Christian; Grünzweig, Christian; Rau, Christoph; Thibault, Pierre; Zanette, Irene

    2017-02-01

    The high-throughput 3D visualisation of biological specimens is essential for studying diseases and developmental disorders. It requires imaging methods that deliver high-contrast, high-resolution volumetric information at short sample preparation and acquisition times. Here we show that X-ray phase-contrast tomography using a single grating can provide a powerful alternative to commonly employed techniques, such as high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM). We present the phase tomography of a mouse embryo in paraffin obtained with an X-ray single-grating interferometer at I13-2 Beamline at Diamond Light Source and discuss the results in comparison with HREM measurements. The excellent contrast and quantitative density information achieved non-destructively and without staining using a simple, robust setup make X-ray single-grating interferometry an optimum candidate for high-throughput imaging of biological specimens as an alternative for existing methods like HREM.

  7. Combinatorial Screening of Advanced Scintillators for High Resolution X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shifan; Tao, Dejie; Lynch, Michael; Yuan, Xianglong; Li, Yiqun

    2008-05-12

    The lack of efficient scintillators is a major problem for developing powerful x-ray detectors that are widely used in homeland security, industrial and scientific research. Intematix has developed and applied a high throughput screening process and corresponding crystal growth technology to significantly speed up the discovery process for new efficient scintillators. As a result, Intematix has invented and fabricated three new scintillators both in powder and bulk forms, which possess promising properties such as better radiation hardness and better matching for silicon diode.

  8. DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, F. D. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Charles, P. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Foster, D. L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Dickel, J. R.; Romero, P. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 1919 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Z. I.; Perry, M.; Williams, R. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Columbus State University, Coca Cola Space Science Center, 701 Front Avenue, Columbus, GA 31901 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M {sub Sun}.

  9. Characterisation of flash X-ray source generated by Kali-1000 Pulse Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, N.; Durga Prasada Rao, A.; Mittal, K. C.

    2016-02-01

    The electron beam-driven Rod Pinch Diode (RPD) is presently fielded on KALI-1000 Pulse Power System at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam and is a leading candidate for future flash X-ray radiographic sources. The diode is capable of producing less than 2-mm radiation spot sizes and greater than 350 milli rads of dose measured at 1 m from the X-ray source. KALI-1000 Pulse Power Source is capable of delivering up to 600 kV using a Tesla Transformer with Demineralized Insulated Transmission Line (DITL), the diode typically operates between 250-330 kV . Since the radiation dose has a power-law dependence on diode voltage, this limits the dose production on KALI-1000 system. Radiation dose with angular variation is measured using thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) and the X-ray spot size is measured using pin hole arrangement with image plate (IP) to obtain the time-integrated source profile as well as a time-resolved spot diagnostic. An X-ray pinhole camera was used to pick out where the energetic e-beam connects to the anode. Ideally the diode should function such that the radiation is emitted from the tip. The camera was mounted perpendicular to the machine's axis to view the radiation from the tip. Comparison of the spot sizes of the X-ray sources obtained by the pin hole and rolled edge arrangements was carried and results obtained by both the techniques are with in ± 10% of the average values.

  10. Stereoscopic observations of a solar flare hard X-ray source in the high corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, S. R.; Mctiernan, J.; Loran, J.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The vertical structure of the impulsive and gradual hard X-ray sources in high coronae and the characteristics of the impulsive soft X-ray emission are investigated on the basis of PVE, ICE, and GOES observations of the energetic flare on February 16, 1984. The average photon spectra observed by these instruments during the impulsive and gradual hard X-ray bursts are summarized. A comparison of these unocculted and partially occulted spectra shows that the sources of the impulsive hard X-ray (greater than about 25 keV) and impulsive soft X-ray (2-5 keV) emissions in this flare extended to coronal altitudes greater than about 200,000 km above the photosphere. At about 100 keV, the ratio of the coronal source brightness to the total source brightness was 0.001 during the impulsive phase and less than about 0.01 during the gradual hard X-ray burst. The sources of the gradual hard X-ray burst and gradual soft X-ray burst were almost completely occulted, indicating that these sources were located at heights less than 200,000 km above the photosphere.

  11. High-Resolution X-ray Imaging of the Colliding Wind Shock in WR147

    CERN Document Server

    Pittard, J M; Williams, P M; Pollock, A M T; Skinner, S L; Corcoran, M F; Moffat, A F J

    2002-01-01

    We analyze new high-resolution Chandra X-ray images of the Wolf-Rayet binary system WR147. This system contains a WN8 star with an early-type companion located 0.6'' to its north, and is the only known early-type binary with a separation on the sky large enough for the wind-wind collision between the stars to currently be resolved at X-ray energies. The 5 ksec Chandra HRC-I image provides the first direct evidence for spatially extended X-ray emission in an early-type binary system. The X-ray emission peaks close to the position of the radio bow shock and north of the WN8 star. A deeper X-ray image is needed to accurately determine the degree of spatial extension, to exactly align the X-ray and optical/radio frames, and to determine whether part of the detected X-ray emission arises in the individual stellar winds. Simulated X-ray images of the wind-wind collision have a FWHM consistent with the data, and maximum likelihood fits suggest that a deeper observation may also constrain the inclination and wind mom...

  12. X-ray spectra induced by slow highly charged Arq+ ions in collision with Nb surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of Nb surface induced by Arq+ (q =16,17) ions with the energy range from 10 to 20 keV/q were studied by the optical spectrum technology. The experimental results indicate that the multi-electron excitation occurred as a highly charged Ar16+ ion was neutralized below the metal surface. The K shell electron of Ar16+ was excited and then de-excited cascadly to emit K X-ray. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from K shell of the hollow Ar atom decreased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from L shell of the target atom Nb increased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The X-ray yield of Ar17+ is three magnitude orders larger than that of Ar16+.

  13. Development of online quasimonochromatic X-ray backlighter for high energy density physics studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chaurasia; P Leshma; D S Munda

    2013-11-01

    Monochromatic X-ray backlighting has been employed with great success in various laser plasma experiments including inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. However, implementation of a monochromatic backlighting system typically requires extremely high quality spherically bent crystals which are difficult to manufacture and are also expensive. In this paper, we present a quasimonochromatic X-ray backlighting system using flat thallium acid pthalate (TAP) crystal. The detailed characterization of the system is discussed. The X-ray backlighter spectral range is caliberated using Cu spectrum in the spectral range 7–9 Å (1.38–1.77 keV). Gold plasma produces continuous X-ray spectrum (M band) in this range. The spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions of the system measured are 30 mÅ, 50 m and 1.5 ns respectively. The spectral width of the X-ray pulse is 2 Å ( = 0.39 keV).

  14. X-ray spectra induced by slow highly charged Arq+ ions in collision with Nb surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ZhiHu; GAO ZhiMing; ZHANG XiaoAn; ZHU KeXin; YU DeYang; CAI XiaoHong; CUI Ying; CHEN XiMeng; SONG ZhangYong; SHAO JianXiong; RUAN FangFang; ZHANG HongQiang; DU Juan; LIU YuWen

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of Nb surface induced by Arq+ (q = 16,17) ions with the energy range from 10 to 20 keV/q were studied by the optical spectrum technology. The experimental results indicate that the multi-electron excitation occurred as a highly charged Ar16+ ion was neutralized below the metal surface. The K shell electron of Ar16+ was excited and then de-excited cascadly to emit K X-ray. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from K shell of the hollow Ar atom decreased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from L shell of the target atom Nb increased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The X-ray yield of Ar17+ is three magnitude orders larger than that of Ar16+.

  15. Compact pnCCD-based X-ray camera with high spatial and energy resolution: a color X-ray camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, O; Ihle, S; Ordavo, I; Arkadiev, V; Bjeoumikhov, A; Bjeoumikhova, S; Buzanich, G; Gubzhokov, R; Günther, A; Hartmann, R; Kühbacher, M; Lang, M; Langhoff, N; Liebel, A; Radtke, M; Reinholz, U; Riesemeier, H; Soltau, H; Strüder, L; Thünemann, A F; Wedell, R

    2011-04-01

    For many applications there is a requirement for nondestructive analytical investigation of the elemental distribution in a sample. With the improvement of X-ray optics and spectroscopic X-ray imagers, full field X-ray fluorescence (FF-XRF) methods are feasible. A new device for high-resolution X-ray imaging, an energy and spatial resolving X-ray camera, is presented. The basic idea behind this so-called "color X-ray camera" (CXC) is to combine an energy dispersive array detector for X-rays, in this case a pnCCD, with polycapillary optics. Imaging is achieved using multiframe recording of the energy and the point of impact of single photons. The camera was tested using a laboratory 30 μm microfocus X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation from BESSY II at the BAMline facility. These experiments demonstrate the suitability of the camera for X-ray fluorescence analytics. The camera simultaneously records 69,696 spectra with an energy resolution of 152 eV for manganese K(α) with a spatial resolution of 50 μm over an imaging area of 12.7 × 12.7 mm(2). It is sensitive to photons in the energy region between 3 and 40 keV, limited by a 50 μm beryllium window, and the sensitive thickness of 450 μm of the chip. Online preview of the sample is possible as the software updates the sums of the counts for certain energy channel ranges during the measurement and displays 2-D false-color maps as well as spectra of selected regions. The complete data cube of 264 × 264 spectra is saved for further qualitative and quantitative processing.

  16. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2002-06-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites.

  17. High-pressure studies with x-rays using diamond anvil cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guoyin; Mao, Ho Kwang

    2017-01-01

    Pressure profoundly alters all states of matter. The symbiotic development of ultrahigh-pressure diamond anvil cells, to compress samples to sustainable multi-megabar pressures; and synchrotron x-ray techniques, to probe materials’ properties in situ, has enabled the exploration of rich high-pressure (HP) science. In this article, we first introduce the essential concept of diamond anvil cell technology, together with recent developments and its integration with other extreme environments. We then provide an overview of the latest developments in HP synchrotron techniques, their applications, and current problems, followed by a discussion of HP scientific studies using x-rays in the key multidisciplinary fields. These HP studies include: HP x-ray emission spectroscopy, which provides information on the filled electronic states of HP samples; HP x-ray Raman spectroscopy, which probes the HP chemical bonding changes of light elements; HP electronic inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy, which accesses high energy electronic phenomena, including electronic band structure, Fermi surface, excitons, plasmons, and their dispersions; HP resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy, which probes shallow core excitations, multiplet structures, and spin-resolved electronic structure; HP nuclear resonant x-ray spectroscopy, which provides phonon densities of state and time-resolved Mössbauer information; HP x-ray imaging, which provides information on hierarchical structures, dynamic processes, and internal strains; HP x-ray diffraction, which determines the fundamental structures and densities of single-crystal, polycrystalline, nanocrystalline, and non-crystalline materials; and HP radial x-ray diffraction, which yields deviatoric, elastic and rheological information. Integrating these tools with hydrostatic or uniaxial pressure media, laser and resistive heating, and cryogenic cooling, has enabled investigations of the structural, vibrational, electronic, and

  18. High-pressure studies with x-rays using diamond anvil cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guoyin; Mao, Ho Kwang

    2016-11-22

    Pressure profoundly alters all states of matter. The symbiotic development of ultrahigh-pressure diamond anvil cells, to compress samples to sustainable multi-megabar pressures; and synchrotron x-ray techniques, to probe materials' properties in situ, has enabled the exploration of rich high-pressure (HP) science. In this article, we first introduce the essential concept of diamond anvil cell technology, together with recent developments and its integration with other extreme environments. We then provide an overview of the latest developments in HP synchrotron techniques, their applications, and current problems, followed by a discussion of HP scientific studies using x-rays in the key multidisciplinary fields. These HP studies include: HP x-ray emission spectroscopy, which provides information on the filled electronic states of HP samples; HP x-ray Raman spectroscopy, which probes the HP chemical bonding changes of light elements; HP electronic inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy, which accesses high energy electronic phenomena, including electronic band structure, Fermi surface, excitons, plasmons, and their dispersions; HP resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectroscopy, which probes shallow core excitations, multiplet structures, and spin-resolved electronic structure; HP nuclear resonant x-ray spectroscopy, which provides phonon densities of state and time-resolved Mössbauer information; HP x-ray imaging, which provides information on hierarchical structures, dynamic processes, and internal strains; HP x-ray diffraction, which determines the fundamental structures and densities of single-crystal, polycrystalline, nanocrystalline, and non-crystalline materials; and HP radial x-ray diffraction, which yields deviatoric, elastic and rheological information. Integrating these tools with hydrostatic or uniaxial pressure media, laser and resistive heating, and cryogenic cooling, has enabled investigations of the structural, vibrational, electronic, and

  19. An Ultraluminous X-ray Source Powered by An Accreting Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Bachetti, M; Walton, D J; Grefenstette, B W; Chakrabarty, D; Fürst, F; Barret, D; Beloborodov, A; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Hailey, C J; Hornschemeier, A; Kaspi, V; Kulkarni, S R; Maccarone, T; Miller, J M; Rana, V; Stern, D; Tendulkar, S P; Tomsick, J; Webb, N A; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULX) are off-nuclear point sources in nearby galaxies whose X-ray luminosity exceeds the theoretical maximum for spherical infall (the Eddington limit) onto stellar-mass black holes. Their luminosity ranges from $10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1} $10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$), which require black hole masses MBH >50 solar masses and/or significant departures from the standard thin disk accretion that powers bright Galactic X-ray binaries. Here we report broadband X-ray observations of the nuclear region of the galaxy M82, which contains two bright ULXs. The observations reveal pulsations of average period 1.37 s with a 2.5-day sinusoidal modulation. The pulsations result from the rotation of a magnetized neutron star, and the modulation arises from its binary orbit. The pulsed flux alone corresponds to $L_X$(3 - 30 keV) = $4.9 \\times 10^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The pulsating source is spatially coincident with a variable ULX which can reach $L_X$ (0.3 - 10 keV) = $1.8 \\times 10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This ...

  20. Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Hosokawa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.

  1. The high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments at ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, K.; Fondacaro, A.; Jimenez, E.; Velez-Fort, E.; Amorese, A.; Aspbury, M.; Yakhou-Harris, F.; van der Linden, P.; Brookes, N. B.

    2016-01-01

    A new high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments has been installed and commissioned at the ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32. The magnet consists of two split-pairs of superconducting coils which can generate up to 9 T along the beam and up to 4 T orthogonal to the beam. It is connected to a cluster of ultra-high-vacuum chambers that offer a comprehensive set of surface preparation and characterization techniques. The endstation and the beam properties have been designed to provide optimum experimental conditions for X-ray magnetic linear and circular dichroism experiments in the soft X-ray range between 400 and 1600 eV photon energy. User operation started in November 2014. PMID:26917134

  2. Superiority of Low Energy 160 KV X-Rays Compared to High Energy 6 MV X-Rays in Heavy Element Radiosensitization for Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sara N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.; Barth, Rolf F.; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Palmer, Alycia; Turro, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    High energy X-rays in the MeV range are generally employed in conventional radiation therapy from linear accelerators (LINAC) to ensure sufficient penetration depths. However, lower energy X-rays in the keV range may be more effective when coupled with heavy element (high-Z or HZ) radiosensitizers. Numerical simulations of X-ray energy deposition for tumor phantoms sensitized with HZ radiosensitizers were performed using the Monte Carlo code Geant4. The results showed enhancement in energy deposition to radiosensitized phantoms relative to unsensitized phantoms for low energy X-rays in the keV range. In contrast, minimal enhancement was seen using high energy X-rays in the MeV range. Dose enhancement factors (DEFs) were computed and showed radiosensitization only in the low energy range rat glioma cells following irradiation with both low energy 160 kV and high energy 6 MV X-ray sources. The platinum compound, pyridine terpyridine Pt(II) nitrate, was initially used because it was 7x less toxic that an equivalent amount of carboplatin in vitro studies. This would allow us to separate the radiotoxic and the chemotoxic effects of HZ sensitizers. Results from this study showed a 10-fold dose dependent reduction in surviving fractions (SF) of radiosensitized cells treated with low energy 160 kV X-rays compared to those treated with 6 MV X-rays. This is in agreement with our simulations that show an increase in dose deposition in radiosensitized tumors for low energy X-rays. Due to unforeen in vivo toxicity, however, another in vitro study was performed using the commonly used, Pt-based chemotherapeutic drug carboplatin which confirmed earlier results. This lays the ground work for a planned in vivo study using F98 glioma bearing rats. This study demonstrates that while high energy X-rays are commonly used in cancer radiotherapy, low energy keV X-rays might be much more effective with HZ radiosensitization.

  3. Focused beam total reflection X-ray fluorescence with low power sources coupled to doubly curved crystal optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z.W. [X-ray Optical Systems, Inc. East Greenbush, NY 12061 (United States)]. E-mail: zchen@xos.com; Mail, N. [Center For X-ray Optics, State University of New York, University at Albany (United States); Wei, F.Z. [X-ray Optical Systems, Inc. East Greenbush, NY 12061 (United States); MacDonald, C.A. [Center For X-ray Optics, State University of New York, University at Albany (United States); Gibson, W.M. [X-ray Optical Systems, Inc. East Greenbush, NY 12061 (United States)

    2005-04-30

    A focused beam total X-ray fluorescence technique was developed based on doubly curved crystal optics. This technique provides good detection sensitivity and spatial resolution for localized detection of surface deposits. Compact low power X-ray sources were used to demonstrate the benefit of the X-ray optics for focusing Cr K{alpha}, Cu K{alpha} and Mo K{alpha} radiation. The detection capability of the focused beam Total reflection X-ray fluorescence system was investigated with dried droplets of calibrated low concentration solutions. Detection limits at the femtogram level were demonstrated.

  4. Developments of compact pulsed-power system toward X-ray sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Takuya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate X-rays from X-pinch, the peak current and current-rising time required are estimated to be 100 kA and 100 ns, respectively. To obtain these parameters, we developed a pulsed-power system, which consists of a parallelized pulse-forming network (PFN. The 20 PFN modules of the system were driven at a charging voltage of 20 kV by a thin copper wire of load resistance. The results showed that the current and current-rising time are 18 kA and 107 ns, respectively. The wire/plasma temperature is 6.9 eV. The pulsed-power system is expected to generate X-rays from X-pinch by the proposed system. This can be achieved by raising the voltage and increasing the number of PFN modules.

  5. A Hard X-Ray Power-law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fürst, Felix; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Miller, Jon M.; Nowak, Michael A.; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Wik, Daniel R.; Wilms, Jörn; Zhang, William W.

    2014-12-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1× 1033 D^2_kpc erg s-1, with sime60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kTe = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245-2452, and XSS J12270-4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  6. High-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopy of high-temperature plasmas using an array of quantum microcalorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Daniel B; Gu, Ming F; Brown, Greg V; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Porter, F Scott; Kilbourne, Caroline A; Kelley, Richard L

    2008-10-01

    Quantum microcalorimeters show promise in being able to fully resolve x-ray spectra from heavy highly charged ions, such as would be found in hot plasmas with temperatures in excess of 50 keV. Quantum microcalorimeter arrays are able to achieve this as they have a high-resolving power and good effective quantum efficiency for hard x-ray photons up to 60 keV. To demonstrate this, we present a measurement using an array of thin HgTe quantum microcalorimeters to measure the K-shell spectrum of hydrogenlike through carbonlike praseodymium (Z=57). With this device we are able to attain a resolving power, E/DeltaE, of 1000 at a photon energy of 37 keV.

  7. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Oliver; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Weigand, M.; Umbach, E.; Bar, M.; Heske, Clemens; Denlinger, Jonathan; Chuang, Y.-D.; McKinney, Wayne; Hussain, Zahid; Gullikson, Eric; Jones, M.; Batson, Phil; Nelles, B.; Follath, R.

    2009-03-09

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft x-rays that covers the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite its slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved for a source spot as large as 30x3000 mu m2, which is important for keeping beam damage effects in radiation-sensitive samples low. The high spectrometer efficiency allows recording of comprehensive two-dimensional resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) maps with good statistics within several minutes. This is exemplarily demonstrated for a RIXS map of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which was taken within 10 min.

  8. X-ray resonant photoexcitation: linewidths and energies of Kα transitions in highly charged Fe ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, J K; Bernitt, S; Epp, S W; Steinbrügge, R; Beilmann, C; Brown, G V; Eberle, S; Graf, A; Harman, Z; Hell, N; Leutenegger, M; Müller, A; Schlage, K; Wille, H-C; Yavaş, H; Ullrich, J; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R

    2013-09-06

    Photoabsorption by and fluorescence of the Kα transitions in highly charged iron ions are essential mechanisms for x-ray radiation transfer in astrophysical environments. We study photoabsorption due to the main Kα transitions in highly charged iron ions from heliumlike to fluorinelike (Fe24+ to Fe17+) using monochromatic x rays around 6.6 keV at the PETRA III synchrotron photon source. Natural linewidths were determined with hitherto unattained accuracy. The observed transitions are of particular interest for the understanding of photoexcited plasmas found in x-ray binary stars and active galactic nuclei.

  9. Single-shot phase retrieval in high-energy X-ray grating interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhili, Wang

    2016-01-01

    In X-ray phase contrast imaging, phase retrieval from intensity measurements is the key for further quantitative analysis and tomographic reconstructions. In this letter, we present a single-shot approach for quantitative phase retrieval in high-energy X-ray grating interferometry. The proposed approach makes use of the phase-attenuation duality of soft tissues when being imaged with high-energy X-rays. The phase retrieval formula is derived and presented, and tested by numerical experiments including photon shot noise. The good agreement between retrieval results and theoretical values confirms the feasibility of the presented approach.

  10. [Design of a high-voltage insulation testing system of X-ray high frequency generators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Mo, Guo-Ming; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hong-Zhi; Yu, Jie-Ying; Dai, Shu-Guang

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze the transformer of X-ray high-voltage high-frequency generators and, have designed and implemented a high-voltage insulation testing system for its oil tank using full-bridge series resonant soft switching PFM DC-DC converter.

  11. Critical-angle x-ray transmission grating spectrometer with extended bandpass and resolving power > 10,000

    CERN Document Server

    Heilmann, Ralf K; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica A; O'Dell, Stephen L; Bhatia, Ritwik; Schattenburg, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Several high priority subjects in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer (XGS). An Explorer-scale, large-area (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R > 3,000) XGS is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) gratings, even for telescopes with angular resolution of 5-10 arcsec. Significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT XGS on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment and temperature requirements, transparent at high energies) with minimal mission resource demands. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars made from SOI wafers using anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through reflection off grating bar sidewalls. Silicon is well matched to the soft x-ray band, and...

  12. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paolillo, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II di Napoli, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kaspi, Shai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Gibson, Robert R., E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  13. BeppoSAX observations of the accretion-powered X-ray pulsar SMC X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, S

    2004-01-01

    We present here results obtained from three BeppoSAX observations of the accretion-powered X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 carried out during the declining phases of its 40--60 days long super-orbital period. Timing analysis of the data clearly shows a continuing spin-up of the neutron star. Energy-resolved timing analysis shows that the pulse-profile of SMC X-1 is single peaked at energies less than 1.0 keV whereas an additional peak, the amplitude of which increases with energy within the MECS range, is present at higher energies. Broad-band pulse-phase-averaged spectroscopy of the BeppoSAX data, which is done for the first time since its discovery, shows that the energy spectrum in the 0.1--80 keV energy band has three components, a soft excess that can be modeled as a thermal black-body, a hard power-law component with a high-energy exponential cutoff and a narrow and weak iron emission line at 6.4 keV. Pulse-phase resolved spectroscopy indicates a pulsating nature of the soft spectral component, as seen in a few ot...

  14. High-resolution X-ray focusing concave (elliptical) curved crystal spectrograph for laser-produced plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shali xiao(肖沙里); Yingjun Pan(潘英俊); Xianxin Zhong(钟先信); Xiancai Xiong(熊先才); Guohong Yang(杨国洪); Zongli Liu(刘宗礼); Yongkun Ding(丁永坤)

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray spectrum emitted from laser-produced plasma contains plentiful information.X-ray spectrometer is a powerful tool for plasma diagnosis and studying the information and evolution of the plasma.X-ray concave(elliptical)curved crystals analyzer was designed and manufactured to investigate the properties of laser-produced plasma.The experiment was carried out on Mianyang Xingguang-ⅡFacility and aimed at investigating the characteristics of a high density iron plasma.Experimental results using KAP,LIF,PET,and MICA curved crystal analyzers are described,and the spectra of Au,Ti laser-produced plasma are shown.The focusing crystal analyzer clearly gave an increase in sensitivity over a flat crystal.

  15. Efficient electronic structure calculation for molecular ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajiang Hao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the implementation of an electronic-structure approach dedicated to ionization dynamics of molecules interacting with x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL pulses. In our scheme, molecular orbitals for molecular core-hole states are represented by linear combination of numerical atomic orbitals that are solutions of corresponding atomic core-hole states. We demonstrate that our scheme efficiently calculates all possible multiple-hole configurations of molecules formed during XFEL pulses. The present method is suitable to investigate x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics and accompanying nuclear dynamics, providing essential information on the chemical dynamics relevant for high-intensity x-ray imaging.

  16. First results from the high-brightness x-ray spectroscopy beamline at ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Ng, W.; Jones, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goal of high brightness at the sample for use in the X-ray Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (XAMS) science, surface and interface science, biology and x-ray optical development programs at ALS. X-ray absorption and time of flight photo emission measurements in 2 - 5 keV photon energy in argon along with the flux, resolution, spot size and stability of the beamline will be discussed. Prospects for future XAMS measurements will also be presented.

  17. Efficient electronic structure calculation for molecular ionization dynamics at high x-ray intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Yajiang; Hanasaki, Kota; Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin

    2015-01-01

    We present the implementation of an electronic-structure approach dedicated to ionization dynamics of molecules interacting with x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses. In our scheme, molecular orbitals for molecular core-hole states are represented by linear combination of numerical atomic orbitals that are solutions of corresponding atomic core-hole states. We demonstrate that our scheme efficiently calculates all possible multiple-hole configurations of molecules formed during XFEL pulses. The present method is suitable to investigate x-ray multiphoton multiple ionization dynamics and accompanying nuclear dynamics, providing essential information on the chemical dynamics relevant for high-intensity x-ray imaging.

  18. Deposition and characterization of multilayers on thin foil x-ray mirrors for high-throughput x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Ahsen M.; Joensen, Karsten D.; Hoeghoej, P.;

    1996-01-01

    W/Si and Co/C multilayers have been deposited on epoxy- replicated Au mirrors from the ASTRO-E telescope project, SPectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) flight mirrors, DURAN glass substrates and Si witness wafers. A characterization of the multilayers with both hard x-rays and soft x-rays is presented....... This clearly indicates the effectiveness of the epoxy-replication process for the production of smooth substrates for multilayer deposition to be used in future x-ray telescopes........ The roughness value obtained from the Si wafers and the DURAN glass are in the range 3.0-4.2 angstrom and 4.4-4.6 angstrom, respectively. For the epoxy-replicated Au mirrors roughnesses of 5.0-5.8 angstrom are achieved, while the roughness of the SRG flight mirrors are in the range of 8.5-11.0 angstrom...

  19. Optimizing the Search for High-z GRBs: The JANUS X-ray Coded Aperture Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, D N; Palmer, D; Romano, P; Mangano, V; La Parola, V; Falcone, A D; Roming, P W A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the optimization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors with a goal of maximizing the detected number of bright high-redshift GRBs, in the context of design studies conducted for the X-ray transient detector on the JANUS mission. We conclude that the optimal energy band for detection of high-z GRBs is below about 30 keV. We considered both lobster-eye and coded aperture designs operating in this energy band. Within the available mass and power constraints, we found that the coded aperture mask was preferred for the detection of high-z bursts with bright enough afterglows to probe galaxies in the era of the Cosmic Dawn. This initial conclusion was confirmed through detailed mission simulations that found that the selected design (an X-ray Coded Aperture Telescope) would detect four times as many bright, high-z GRBs as the lobster-eye design we considered. The JANUS XCAT instrument will detect 48 GRBs with z > 5 and fluence Sx > 3 {\\times} 10-7 erg cm-2 in a two year mission.

  20. Compact X-ray Source using a High Repetition Rate Laser and Copper Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Graves, W S; Brown, P; Carbajo, S; Dolgashev, V; Hong, K -H; Ihloff, E; Khaykovich, B; Lin, H; Murari, K; Nanni, E A; Resta, G; Tantawi, S; Zapata, L E; Kärtner, F X; Moncton, D E

    2014-01-01

    A design for a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) with flux and brilliance orders of magnitude beyond existing laboratory scale sources is presented. The source is based on inverse Compton scattering of a high brightness electron bunch on a picosecond laser pulse. The accelerator is a novel high-efficiency standing-wave linac and RF photoinjector powered by a single ultrastable RF transmitter at x-band RF frequency. The high efficiency permits operation at repetition rates up to 1 kHz, which is further boosted to 100 kHz by operating with trains of 100 bunches of 100 pC charge, each separated by 5 ns. The 100 kHz repetition rate is orders of magnitude beyond existing high brightness copper linacs. The entire accelerator is approximately 1 meter long and produces hard x-rays tunable over a wide range of photon energies. The colliding laser is a Yb:YAG solid-state amplifier producing 1030 nm, 100 mJ pulses at the same 1 kHz repetition rate as the accelerator. The laser pulse is frequency-doubled and stored for m...

  1. Magnetar-like X-Ray Bursts from a Rotation-powered Pulsar, PSR J1119-6127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göğüş, Ersin; Lin, Lin; Kaneko, Yuki; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Watts, Anna L.; Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Alpar, M. Ali; Huppenkothen, Daniela; Roberts, Oliver J.; Younes, George; van der Horst, Alexander J.

    2016-10-01

    Two energetic hard X-ray bursts from the rotation-powered pulsar PSR J1119-6127 recently triggered the Fermi and Swift space observatories. We have performed in-depth spectral and temporal analyses of these two events. Our extensive searches in both observatories’ data for lower luminosity bursts uncovered 10 additional events from the source. We report here on the timing and energetics of the 12 bursts from PSR J1119-6127 during its burst active phase on 2016 July 26 and 28. We also found a spectral softer X-ray flux enhancement in a post-burst episode, which shows evidence of cooling. Here we discuss the implications of these results on the nature of this unusual high-field radio pulsar, which firmly place it within the typical magnetar population.

  2. X-ray Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  3. High resolution X-ray detector for synchrotron-based microtomography

    CERN Document Server

    Stampanoni, M; Wyss, P; Abela, R; Patterson, B; Hunt, S; Vermeulen, D; Rueegsegger, P

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron-based microtomographic devices are powerful, non-destructive, high-resolution research tools. Highly brilliant and coherent X-rays extend the traditional absorption imaging techniques and enable edge-enhanced and phase-sensitive measurements. At the Materials Science Beamline MS of the Swiss Light Source (SLS), the X-ray microtomographic device is now operative. A high performance detector based on a scintillating screen optically coupled to a CCD camera has been developed and tested. Different configurations are available, covering a field of view ranging from 715x715 mu m sup 2 to 7.15x7.15 mm sup 2 with magnifications from 4x to 40x. With the highest magnification 480 lp/mm had been achieved at 10% modulation transfer function which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 1.04 mu m. A low-noise fast-readout CCD camera transfers 2048x2048 pixels within 100-250 ms at a dynamic range of 12-14 bit to the file server. A user-friendly graphical interface gives access to the main parameters needed for ...

  4. A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for a kaon mass measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Kevin; Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann; Tortorella, Daniele; Bühler, Matthias; Hertrich, Theo

    2017-02-01

    The ASPECT consortium (Adaptable Spectrometer Enabled by Cryogenic Technology) is currently constructing a generalised cryogenic platform for cryogenic detector work which will be able to accommodate a wide range of sensors. The cryogenics system is based on a small mechanical cooler with a further adiabatic demagnetisation stage and will work with cryogenic detectors at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The commercial aim of the consortium is to produce a compact, user-friendly device with an emphasis on reliability and portability which can easily be transported for specialised on-site work, such as beam-lines or telescope facilities. The cryogenic detector platform will accommodate a specially developed cryogenic sensor, either a metallic magnetic calorimeter or a magnetic penetration-depth thermometer. The detectors will be designed to work in various temperatures regions with an emphasis on optimising the various detector resolutions for specific temperatures. One resolution target is of about 10 eV at the energies range typically created in kaonic atoms experiments (soft x-ray energies). A following step will see the introduction of continuous, high-power, sub-Kelvin cooling which will bring the cryogenic basis for a high resolution spectrometer system to the market. The scientific goal of the project will produce an experimental set-up optimised for kaon-mass measurements performing high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on a beam-line provided foreseeably by the J-PARC (Tokai, Japan) or DAΦNE (Frascati, Italy) facilities.

  5. Detection of the second eclipsing high mass X-ray binary in M 33

    CERN Document Server

    Pietsch, W; Gaetz, T J; Hartman, J D; Plucinsky, P P; Tüllmann, R; Williams, B F; Shporer, A; Mazeh, T; Pannuti, T G

    2008-01-01

    Chandra data of the X-ray source [PMH2004] 47 were obtained in the ACIS Survey of M 33 (ChASeM33) in 2006. During one of the observations, the source varied from a high state to a low state and back, in two other observations it varied from a low state to respectively intermediate states. These transitions are interpreted as eclipse ingress and egresses of a compact object in a high mass X-ray binary system. The phase of mid eclipse is given by HJD 2453997.476+-0.006, the eclipse half angle is 30.6+-1.2 degree. Adding XMM-Newton observations of [PMH2004] 47 in 2001 we determine the binary period to be 1.732479+-0.000027 d. This period is also consistent with ROSAT HRI observations of the source in 1994. No short term periodicity compatible with a rotation period of the compact object is detected. There are indications for a long term variability similar to that detected for Her X-1. During the high state the spectrum of the source is hard (power law spectrum with photon index ~0.85) with an unabsorbed luminos...

  6. Thin Mirror Shaping Technology for High-Throughput X-ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattenburg, Mark

    This proposal is submitted to the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences program (ROSES-2012) in response to NASA Research Announcement NNH12ZDA001N- APRA. It is targeted to the Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Analysis (APRA) program element under the Supporting Technology category. Powerful x-ray telescope mirrors are critical components of a raft of small-to-large mission concepts under consideration by NASA. The science questions addressed by these missions have certainly never been more compelling and the need to fulfill NASA s core missions of exploring the universe and strengthening our nation s technology base has never been greater. Unfortunately, budgetary constraints are driving NASA to consider the cost/benefit and risk factors of new missions more carefully than ever. New technology for producing x-ray telescopes with increased resolution and collecting area, while holding down cost, are key to meeting these goals and sustaining a thriving high-energy astrophysics enterprise in the US. We propose to develop advanced technology which will lead to thin-shell x-ray telescope mirrors rivaling the Chandra x-ray telescope in spatial resolution but with 10-100X larger area all at significantly reduced weight, risk and cost. The proposed effort builds on previous research at MIT and complements NASA-supported research at other institutions. We are currently pursuing two thin-mirror technology development tracks which we propose to extend and accelerate with NASA support. The first research track utilizes rapidly-maturing thermal glass slumping technology which uses porous ceramic air-bearing mandrels to shape glass mirrors without touching, thus avoiding surface-induced mid-range spatial frequency ripples. A second research track seeks to remove any remaining mid- to long-range errors in mirrors by using scanning ion-beam implant to impart small, highly deterministic and very stable amounts of stress into thin glass, utilizing local

  7. A new high-definition microfocal X-ray unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland-Wright, J C

    1989-03-01

    A new microfocal unit is described with an operating range up to 170 kVp (limited to 125 kVp for medical use), 0-1 mA and a maximum output of 75-80 W. The unit comprises a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) cathode, a single electromagnetic lens and a stationary oil-cooled multifaced tungsten target. The estimated source size ranges from 6 to 20 microns between 14 and 77 W. The tube's output is x 3 to x 3.5 greater than that of a conventional X-ray unit. The use of fast rare-earth film-screen systems permits exposures of most views of the patient within 1 s. The spatial resolution within these film-screen systems is 40-30 microns diameter at magnifications of x 5-10. The tube is fixed so as to project a horizontal beam and the patient table is designed to position the patient close to the source (20-30 cm) with the film placed at a focus-film distance of 1-3 m. Stereopair macroradiographs permit greater accuracy in the identification and location of radiographic features. The large magnification and resolution of macroradiographs allow direct and accurate measurement of radiographic features.

  8. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Geloni, Gianluca [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Madsen, Anders [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd’ko, Yuri, E-mail: shvydko@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-12

    This article explores novel opportunities for ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) at high-repetition-rate self-seeded XFELs. These next-generation light sources are promising a more than three orders of magnitude increase in average spectral flux compared with what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. In combination with the advanced IXS spectrometer described here, this may become a real game-changer for ultra-high-resolution X-ray spectroscopies, and hence for the studies of dynamics in condensed matter systems. Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup −1} spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup −1} are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10{sup 12} photons s{sup −1} in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  9. High-resolution ab initio Three-dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Rosen, R; He, H; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Shapiro, D

    2005-08-19

    Coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging non-periodic isolated objects at resolutions only limited, in principle, by the largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate X-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the 3D diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a non-periodic object. We also construct 2D images of thick objects with infinite depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution using X-ray undulator radiation, and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at X-ray free-electron laser sources.

  10. A CCD area detector for X-ray diffraction under high pressure for rotating anode source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amar Sinha; Alka B Garg; V Vijayakumar; B K Godwal; S K Sikka

    2000-04-01

    Details of a two-dimensional X-ray area detector developed using a charge coupled device, a image intensifier and a fibre optic taper are given. The detector system is especially optimized for angle dispersive X-ray diffraction set up using rotating anode generator as X-ray source. The performance of this detector was tested by successfully carrying out powder X-ray diffraction measurements on various materials such as intermetallics AuIn2, AuGa2, high material Pd and low scatterer adamantane (C10H16) at ambient conditions. Its utility for quick detection of phase transitions at high pressures with diamond anvil cell is demonstrated by reproducing the known pressure induced structural transitions in RbI, KI and a new structural phase transition in AuGa2 above 10 GPa. Various softwares have also been developed to analyze data from this detector.

  11. X-ray Absorption Imaging of High-Intensity Discharge Lamps Using Monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J.; Sansonetti, Craig J.; Hechtfischer, Ulrich; Adler, Helmar G.

    2002-10-01

    We will report results from the imaging of Hg vapor in high-intensity discharge lamps using synchrotron radiation and digital detectors. These measurements extend previous work on x-ray absorption imaging in arc lamps using an x-ray tube and a passive phosphor image plate detector^i. The large x-ray flux obtained from the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory) combined with the electronic gating capabilities of an intensified charge-coupled device detector have allowed us to obtain time-resolved Hg distributions with high spatial resolution. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation improves the accuracy over what can be obtained with quasi-continuum radiation from an x-ray tube source. ^iJ. J. Curry, M. Sakai, and J. E. Lawler, Journal of Applied Physics 84, 3066 (1998).

  12. Full polar cap cascade scenario $\\gamma$-ray and X-ray luminosities from spin-powered pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B; Zhang, Bing; Harding, Alice K.

    2000-01-01

    We modify polar cap cascade picture to include the ICS of the higher generation pairs. In such a ``full-cascade'' scenario, not only the perpendicular portion of the energy of the pairs goes to high energy radiation via SR, but the parallel portion of the energy of the pairs can also contribute to high energy emission via ICS with the soft thermal photons from either the full neutron star surface or the hot polar cap. An important output of such a scenario is that the soft tail of the ICS spectrum can naturally result in a non-thermal X-ray component which can contribute to the luminosities observed by ROSAT and ASCA. Here we present an analytic description of such a full polar cap cascade scenario within the framework of Harding & Muslimov acceleration model. We present the theoretical predictions of the $\\gamma$-ray luminosities, the thermal and non-thermal X-ray luminosities for the known spin-powered X-ray pulsars. Our results show that the observed different dependences of the high energy luminositie...

  13. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  14. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yan; Lin, Xiaojie; Yuan, Falei; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Zhao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  15. The High Resolution Microcalorimeter Soft X-ray Spectrometer for the Astro-H Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Mitsuda, K.; International SXS Team

    2013-04-01

    We are developing the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) for the JAXA Astro-H mission. The instrument is based on a 36-pixel array of semiconductor micro calorimeters that provides high spectral resolution over the 0.3-12 keV energy band at the focus of a high throughput, grazing-incidence x-ray mirror, giving a 3 x 3 arcmin field of view and more than 200 cm2 of collecting area at 6 keV. The instrument is a collaboration between the JAXA Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and their partners in Japan, the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, the University of Wisconsin, the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands, and Geneva University. The principal components of the spectrometer are the microcalorimeter detector system, low-temperature anticoincidence detector, 3-stage ADR and dewar. The dewar is a long-life, hybrid design with a superfluid helium cryostat, Joule-Thomson cooler, and Stirling coolers. The instrument is capable of achieving 4-5 eV resolution across the array and is designed to operate for at least three years in orbit, and can operate either without liquid helium or the cooling power of the Joule-Thomson cooler. In this presentation we describe the design and status of the Astro-H/SXS instrument.

  16. Crystal optics for hard-X-ray spectroscopy of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, H. F.; Attia, D.; Banas, D; Bigot, E. -O. Le; Bosch, F.; Dousse, Jean-Claude; Förster, E.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Heß, S.; J. Hoszowska; Indelicato, P.; Jagodzinski, P.; Kozhuharov, Chr.; Krings, Th.

    2009-01-01

    A twin crystal-spectrometer assembly, operated in the focusing compensated asymmetric Laue geometry has been developed for accurate spectroscopy of fast highly charged heavy ions in the hard-X-ray region. Coupled to the focusing crystal optics is a specially developed two-dimensional position-sensitive X-ray detector which is necessary for retaining spectral resolution also for fast moving sources. We summarize the crystal optics and demonstrate the usefulness of the instrument for spectrosco...

  17. Thermal expansion in UO2 determined by high-energy X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, M.; Benmore, C. J.; Skinner, L. B.; Alderman, O. L. G.; Weber, J. K. R.; Parise, J. B.; Williamson, M.

    2016-10-01

    Here we present crystallographic analyses of high-energy X-ray diffraction data on polycrystalline UO2 up to the melting temperature. The Rietveld refinements of our X-ray data are in agreement with previous measurements, but are systematically located around the upper bound of their uncertainty, indicating a slightly steeper trend of thermal expansion compared to established values. This observation is consistent with recent first principles calculations.

  18. Experimental study of conversion from atomic high-order harmonics to x-ray emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骐; 陈建新; 夏元钦; 陈德应

    2003-01-01

    There are two physical phenomena in a strong laser intensity. One is the high-order harmonic emission; the other is x-ray emission from optical-field ionized plasmas. The experiment of conversion from high-order harmonics to x-ray emissions was given with a 105fs Ti:sapphire laser by adjusting laser intensities. The ingredient in plasma was investigated by the numerical simulations. Our experimental results suggested that the free electrons have detrimental effects on harmonic generation but are favourable for x-ray emission from optical-field ionized plasmas. If we want to obtain more intense harmonic signals as a coherent light source in the soft x-ray region, we must avoid the production of free electrons in plasmas. At the same time, if we want to observe x-rays for the development of high-repetition-rate table-top soft x-ray lasers, we should strip all atoms in the plasmas to a necessary ionized stage by the optical-fieldionization in the field of a high-intensity laser pulse.

  19. The diagnostic power of X-ray emission lines in GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Böttcher, M

    2003-01-01

    Absorption and reprocessing of Gamma-ray burst radiation in the environment of cosmological GRBs can be used as a powerful probe of the elusive nature of their progenitors. Although it is widely accepted that long-duration GRBs are associated with the deaths of massive stars, at least two fundamentally different scenarios concerning the final collapse are currently being considered. Delayed reddened excesses in the optical afterglows of several GRBs indicate that a supernova, possibly of Type Ic, takes place within a few days of a GRB. This supports the collapsar model, where the core of a massive star collapses promptly to a black hole. Variable X-ray features observed in the prompt and afterglow spectra of several GRBs, suggest that a highly metal enriched and dense shell of material surrounds the sources of GRBs. In some cases, evidence for expansion of these shells with velocities of a substantial fraction of the speed of light has been claimed. These observations have been interpreted as support for the ...

  20. High-Sensitivity X-ray Polarimetry with Amorphous Silicon Active-Matrix Pixel Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Ready, S. E.; Street, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Photoelectric X-ray polarimeters based on pixel micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) offer order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity over more traditional techniques based on X-ray scattering. This new technique places some of the most interesting astronomical observations within reach of even a small, dedicated mission. The most sensitive instrument would be a photoelectric polarimeter at the focus of 2 a very large mirror, such as the planned XEUS. Our efforts are focused on a smaller pathfinder mission, which would achieve its greatest sensitivity with large-area, low-background, collimated polarimeters. We have recently demonstrated a MPGD polarimeter using amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (TFT) readout suitable for the focal plane of an X-ray telescope. All the technologies used in the demonstration polarimeter are scalable to the areas required for a high-sensitivity collimated polarimeter. Leywords: X-ray polarimetry, particle tracking, proportional counter, GEM, pixel readout

  1. Retrograde accretion discs in high-mass Be/X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Laycock, S. G. T.; Kazanas, D.

    2017-09-01

    We have compiled a comprehensive library of all X-ray observations of Magellanic pulsars carried out by XMM-Newton, Chandra and RXTE in the period 1997-2014. In this work, we use the data from 53 high-mass Be/X-ray binaries in the Small Magellanic Cloud to demonstrate that the distribution of spin-period derivatives versus spin periods of spinning-down pulsars is not at all different from that of the accreting spinning-up pulsars. The inescapable conclusion is that the up and down samples were drawn from the same continuous parent population; therefore, Be/X-ray pulsars that are spinning down over periods spanning 18 yr are, in fact, accreting from retrograde discs. The presence of prograde and retrograde discs in roughly equal numbers supports a new evolutionary scenario for Be/X-ray pulsars in their spin period-period derivative diagram.

  2. Powerful chemical technique. [CSIR uses new x-ray diffractometer for structural chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The CSIR's National Chemical Research Laboratory (NCRL) is now using one of the most powerful techniques available to determine the structure of molecules. It has recently acquired a Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometer. This powerful method provides the only means of determining the structure of certain compounds. NCRL scientists often carry out structure determinations to find out the relative or absolute stereochemistry of molecules. This is important when correlating physiological activity and structure, information which is necessary for synthesizing medicines with specific characteristics.

  3. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases z-accelerator x-ray power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40{+-}20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the {open_quotes}plasma shell{close_quotes} regime, where the plasmas generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array.

  4. Characterization of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for high-resolution spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering measurements in shock-compressed experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Lee, H. J.; Zastrau, U.

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed, designed and built a dual-channel x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for spectrally- and spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) measurements in the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This spectrometer employs two spherically-bent germanium (Ge) 220 crystals, which are combined to form a large aperture dispersive element with a spectral bandwidth of 300 eV that enables both the elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering peaks to be simultaneously measured. The apparatus and its characterization are described. A resolving power of 1900 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of 12 μm was achieved in calibration tests. For XRTS measurements, a narrow-bandwidth (ΔE/Ecarbon plasma produced in shock-compressed samples of different forms of carbon. Preliminary results of the scattering experiments from Pyrolytic Graphite samples that illustrate the utility of the instrument are presented.

  5. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-Ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon R.; Bailey, Catherine N.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Chervenak, Jay A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Daniel P.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, Jack E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall K.

    2010-01-01

    High spectral resolution, high cadence, imaging x-ray spectroscopy has the potential to revolutionize the study of the solar corona. To that end we have been developing transition-edge-sensor (TES) based x-ray micro calorimeter arrays for future solar physics missions where imaging and high energy resolution spectroscopy will enable previously impossible studies of the dynamics and energetics of the solar corona. The characteristics of these x-ray microcalorimeters are significantly different from conventional micro calorimeters developed for astrophysics because they need to accommodate much higher count rates (300-1000 cps) while maintaining high energy resolution of less than 4 eV FWHM in the X-ray energy band of 0.2-10 keV. The other main difference is a smaller pixel size (less than 75 x 75 square microns) than is typical for x-ray micro calorimeters in order to provide angular resolution less than 1 arcsecond. We have achieved at energy resolution of 2.15 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 12 x 12 square micron TES sensor and 34 x 34 x 9.1 micron gold absorber, and a resolution of 2.30 eV at 6 keV in a pixel with a 35 x 35 micron TES and a 57 x 57 x 9.1 micron gold absorber. This performance has been achieved in pixels that are fabricated directly onto solid substrates, ie. they are not supported by silicon nitride membranes. We present the results from these detectors, the expected performance at high count-rates, and prospects for the use of this technology for future Solar missions.

  6. Integration of flat panel X-ray detector for high resolution diagnostic medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Woo; Yun, Min-Seok; Kim, Yoon-Suk; Oh, Kyung-Min; Shin, Jung-Wook; Nam, Kyung-Tae; Nam, Sang-Hee

    2011-05-01

    In these days, flat panel X-ray image detectors have shown their potential for replacing traditional screen-film systems. To detect the X-ray photon energy, there are two main methods known as a direct method and an indirect method. The X-rays are converted immediately into electrical signal with the direct method. The indirect method has two conversion steps: the scintillator absorbs the X-rays and converts them to visible light. And then the visible light is converted to electrical signal (e.g. by photodiodes). In this work, the flat panel digital X-ray image detector based on direct method with a high atomic number material was designed and evaluated. The high atomic number material for X-ray conversion is deposited by a rubbing method with about 300 μm. The rubbing method is similar to the screen printing method. It consists of two elements: the screen and the squeegee. The method uses a proper stiff bar stretched tightly over a frame made of wood or metal. Proper tension is essential for proper laminated structure. The detector prototype has 139 μm pixel pitch, total 1280×1536 pixels and 86% fill factor. Twelve readout ICs are installed on digital X-ray detector and simultaneously operated to reach short readout time. The electronics integrated: the preamplifier to amplify generated signal, the Analog to Digital converter and the source of bias voltage (1 V/μm). The system board and interface use an NI-camera program. Finally, we achieved images from this flat panel X-ray image detector.

  7. Manufacturing and testing of X-ray imaging components with high precision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jia-sheng; WU Xü

    2005-01-01

    In the latest 20 years, X-ray imaging technology has developed rapidly in order to meet the needs of X-ray photo-etching,spatial exploration technology, high-energy physics, procedure diagnosis of ICF,etc. Since refractive indices of materials in the X-ray region are lower than 1, and X-ray is strongly absorbed by materials, the characteristics of X-ray increase greatly difficulty to obtain X-ray image. Conventional imaging methods are hardly suitable to X-ray range. In general, grazing reflective imaging and coding aperture imaging methods have been adopted more and more.We have designed a non-coaxial grazing reflective X-ray microscope which is composed of four spherical mirrors, in order to satisfy the requirement of the diagnosis of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The four mirrors have the same radius of curvature. The radius of each mirror is 29 000 mm and the aperture is 30 mm×15 mm. Allowable tolerance of the radius is ≤0.2% and one of surface roughness (rms) is ≤0.6 nm. Evidently it is very difficult to fabricate and test such mirrors. In order to obtain eligible mirrors, we choose 18 mirror roughcasts and array them on a round disk according to format. The combined manufacturing method can ensure high accordant quality. The fabricated mirrors are tested by both templet and double round aperture methods. Radius errors of the mirrors is about 53 mm. The surface roughness (rms) of the mirrors is inspected by the relative interferometric equipment (WYKO) and atomic force microscope. Before and after coating the measured surface roughness is averagely 0.52 nm and 0.4 nm, respectively.

  8. Parsec-scale X-ray Flows in High-mass Star-forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Townsley, L K; Montmerle, T; Broos, P; Chu, Y H; Garmire, G; Getman, K

    2004-01-01

    We present Chandra/ACIS images of several high-mass star-forming regions. The massive stellar clusters powering these HII regions are resolved at the arcsecond level into hundreds of stellar sources, similar to those seen in closer young stellar clusters. However, we also detect diffuse X-ray emission on parsec scales that is spatially and spectrally distinct from the point source population. For nearby regions (e.g. M17 and Rosette) the emission is soft, with plasma temperatures less than 10 million degrees, in contrast to what is seen in more distant complexes (e.g. RCW49, W51). This extended emission most likely arises from the fast O-star winds thermalized either by wind-wind collisions or by a termination shock against the surrounding media. We have established that only a small portion of the wind energy and mass appears in the observed diffuse X-ray plasma; in the blister HII regions, we suspect that most of it flows without cooling into the low-density interstellar medium through blow-outs or fissures...

  9. Can the anomalous X-ray pulsars be powered by accretion?

    CERN Document Server

    Li, X D

    1999-01-01

    The nature of the 5-12 s "anomalous" X-ray pulsars remains a mystery. Among the models that have been proposed to explain the properties of AXPs, the most likely ones are: (1) isolated accreting neutron stars evolved from the Thorne-\\.{Z}ytkow objects due to complete spiral-in during the common envelope evolution of high-mass X-ray binaries, and (2) magnetars, which are neutron stars with ultra-high ($\\sim 10^{14}-10^{15}$ G) surface magnetic fields. We have critically examined the predicted change of neutron star's spin in the accretion model, and found that it is unable to account for the steady spin-down observed in AXPs. A simple analysis also shows that any accretion disk around an isolated neutron star has extremely limited lifetime. A more promising explanation for such objects is the magnetar model.

  10. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Piston, K; Felker, B; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10(17). We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  11. Interstellar dust grain composition from high-resolution X-ray absorption edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Lia

    2016-06-01

    X-ray light is sufficient to excite electrons from n=1 (K-shell) and n=2 (L-shell) energy levels of neutral interstellar metals, causing a sharp increase in the absorption cross-section. Near the ionization energy, the shape of the photoelectric absorption edge depends strongly on whether the atom is isolated or bound in molecules or minerals (dust). With high resolution X-ray spectroscopy, we can directly measure the state of metals and the mineral composition of dust in the interstellar medium. In addition, the scattering contribution to the X-ray extinction cross-section can be used to gauge grain size, shape, and filling factor. In order to fully take advantage of major advances in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy, lab measurements of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) from suspected interstellar minerals are required. Optical constants derived from the absorption measurements can be used with Mie scattering or anomalous diffraction theory in order to model the full extinction cross-sections from the interstellar medium. Much like quasar spectra are used to probe other intergalactic gas, absorption spectroscopy of Galactic X-ray binaries and bright stars will yield key insights to the mineralogy and evolution of dust grains in the Milky Way.

  12. Observation of solar high energy gamma and X-ray emission and solar energetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    We considered 18 solar flares observed between June 2010 and July 2012, in which high energy >100 MeV {\\gamma}-emission was registered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard FermiGRO. We examined for these {\\gamma}-events soft X-ray observations by GOES, hard X-ray observations by the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the SPectrometer aboard INTEGRAL (ACS SPI) and the Gamma-Ray burst Monitor (GBM) aboard FermiGRO. Hard X-ray and {\\pi}0-decay {\\gamma}-ray emissions are used as tracers of electron and proton acceleration, respectively. Bursts of hard X-ray were observed by ACS SPI during impulsive phase of 13 events. Bursts of hard X-ray >100 keV were not found during time intervals, when prolonged hard {\\gamma}-emission was registered by LAT/FermiGRO. Those events showing prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission not accompanied by >100 keV hard X-ray emission are interpreted as an indication of either different acceleration processes for protons and electrons or as the presence of a proton population accelerated du...

  13. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  14. On the power-law distributions of X-ray fluxes from solar flares observed with GOES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Ping; Feng, Li; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Si-Ming; Gan, Wei-Qun

    2016-10-01

    The power-law frequency distributions of the peak flux of solar flare X-ray emission have been studied extensively and attributed to a system having self-organized criticality (SOC). In this paper, we first show that, so long as the shape of the normalized light curve is not correlated with the peak flux, the flux histogram of solar flares also follows a power-law distribution with the same spectral index as the power-law frequency distribution of the peak flux, which may partially explain why power-law distributions are ubiquitous in the Universe. We then show that the spectral indexes of the histograms of soft X-ray fluxes observed by GOES satellites in two different energy channels are different: the higher energy channel has a harder distribution than the lower energy channel, which challenges the universal power-law distribution predicted by SOC models and implies a very soft distribution of thermal energy content of plasmas probed by the GOES satellites. The temperature (T) distribution, on the other hand, approaches a power-law distribution with an index of 2 for high values of T. Hence the application of SOC models to the statistical properties of solar flares needs to be revisited.

  15. High-Mass X-ray binaries in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Haberl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The last comprehensive catalogue of high-mass X-ray binaries in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) was published about 10 years ago. Since then new such systems were discovered, mainly by X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton. For the majority of the proposed HMXBs in the SMC no X-ray pulsations were discovered yet and unless other properties of the X-ray source and/or the optical counterpart confirm their HMXB nature, they remain only candidate HMXBs. From a literature search we collect a catalogue of 148 confirmed and candidate HMXBs in the SMC and investigate their properties to shed light on their real nature. Based on the sample of well established HMXBs (the pulsars), we investigate which observed properties are most appropriate for a reliable classification. Using spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-ray sources and colour-magnitude diagrams from the optical to the infrared of their likely counterparts and taking into account the uncertainty in the X-ray position we define different le...

  16. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettenbacher, Thomas; Ennemoser, Sybille; Weirich, Harald [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ulmer, Hanno [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Hartig, Frank; Klotz, Werner; Herold, Manfred [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2008-03-15

    The aim was to compare X-ray and ultrasound (US) in diagnosing gout. In a prospective study, 105 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of gout underwent conventional X-ray und high-resolution US in order to help in arriving at a definite diagnosis. X-ray findings suggestive of gout included soft-tissue opacifications with densities between soft tissue and bone, articular and periarticular bone erosions, and osteophytes at the margins of opacifications or erosions. US findings suggestive of gout included bright stippled foci and hyperechoic soft-tissue areas. Fifty-five patients had a definite diagnosis of gout (102 involved sites), 31 patients were diagnosed as having another disease (59 involved sites), and 19 patients were excluded from the study because a definite diagnosis could not be established. X-ray suggested gout with a sensitivity of 31% (32/102) and a specificity of 93% (55/59), whereas US suggested gout with a sensitivity of 96% (98/102) and a specificity of 73% (43/59). US was much more sensitive than conventional X-ray but less specific. Our data show that US often provided additional diagnostic information in patients with clinical suspicion of gout when laboratory findings and X-ray results were negative or inconclusive and should therefore be used in these cases. (orig.)

  17. A broadband x-ray imaging spectroscopy with high-angular resolution: the FORCE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koji; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Okajima, Takashi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Matsumoto, Hironori; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Zhang, William W.

    2016-07-01

    We are proposing FORCE (Focusing On Relativistic universe and Cosmic Evolution) as a future Japan-lead Xray observatory to be launched in the mid 2020s. Hitomi (ASTRO-H) possesses a suite of sensitive instruments enabling the highest energy-resolution spectroscopy in soft X-ray band, a broadband X-ray imaging spectroscopy in soft and hard X-ray bands, and further high energy coverage up to soft gamma-ray band. FORCE is the direct successor to the broadband X-ray imaging spectroscopy aspect of Hitomi (ASTRO-H) with significantly higher angular resolution. The current design of FORCE defines energy band pass of 1-80 keV with angular resolution of black holes" in various mass-scales: "buried supermassive black holes (SMBHs)" (> 104 M⊙) residing in the center of galaxies in a cosmological distance, "intermediate-mass black holes" (102-104 M⊙) acting as the possible seeds from which SMBHs grow, and "orphan stellar-mass black holes" (mirror and wide-band X-ray detector. The focal length is currently planned to be 10 m. The silicon mirror with multi-layer coating is our primary choice to achieve lightweight, good angular optics. The detector is a descendant of hard X-ray imager onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H) replacing its silicon strip detector with SOI-CMOS silicon pixel detector, allowing an extension of the low energy threshold down to 1 keV or even less.

  18. Radio emission from the high-mass X-ray binary BP Cru: first detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pestalozzi, M; Hobbs, G; Lopez-Sanchez, A R

    2009-01-01

    BP Cru is a well known high-mass X-ray binary composed of a late B hypergiant (Wray 977) and a neutron star, also observed as the X-ray pulsar GX 301-2. No information about emission from BP Cru in other bands than X-rays and optical has been reported to date in the literature, though massive X-ray binaries containing black holes can have radio emission from a jet. In order to assess the presence of a radio jet, we searched for radio emission towards BP Cru using the Australia Compact Array Telescope during a survey for radio emission from Be/X-ray transients. We probed the 41.5d orbit of BP Cru with the Australia Telescope Compact Array not only close to periastron but also close to apastron. BP Cru was clearly detected in our data on 4, possibly 6, of 12 occasions at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz. Our data suggest that the spectral index of the radio emission is modulated either by the X-ray flux or the orbital phase of the system. We propose that the radio emission of BP Cru probably arises from two components: a persis...

  19. Preheating of the early universe by radiation from high-mass X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, S. Yu.; Khabibullin, I. I.

    2017-04-01

    Using a reliablymeasured intrinsic (i.e., corrected for absorption effects) present-day luminosity function of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) in the 0.25-2 keV energy band per unit star formation rate, we estimate the preheating of the early Universe by soft X-rays from such systems. We find that X-ray irradiation, mainly executed by ultraluminous and supersoft ultraluminous X-ray sources with luminosity L X > 1039 erg s-1, could significantly heat ( T > T CMB, where T CMB is the temperature of the cosmic microwave background) the intergalactic medium by z 10 if the specific X-ray emissivity of the young stellar population in the early Universe was an order of magnitude higher than at the present epoch (which is possible due to the low metallicity of the first galaxies) and the soft X-ray emission from HMXBs did not suffer strong absorption within their galaxies. This makes it possible to observe the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen in emission from redshifts z < 10.

  20. Cellulose/inorganic-composite fibers for producing textile fabrics of high X-ray absorption properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, Karoline; Giebing, Christina; Askani, Antonia [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Saxray GmbH, Maria-Reiche-Str. 1, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Krieg, Marcus [TITK, Thüringisches Institut für Textil- und Kunststoff-Forschung e.V., Breitscheidstraße 97, 07407 Rudolstadt (Germany); Kyosev, Yordan; Weide, Thomas [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany); Mahltig, Boris, E-mail: Boris.Mahltig@hs-niederrhein.de [FTB, Hochschule Niederrhein – University of Applied Science, Faculty of Textile and Clothing Technology, Webschulstr. 31, 41065 Mönchengladbach (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Common textile materials as cotton or polyester do not possess reliable X-ray absorption properties. This is due to their morphology and chemical composition in particular. Common fibers are built up from organic polymers containing mainly the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These “light” elements only have low X-ray absorption coefficients. In contrast, inorganic materials composed of “heavy” elements with high atomic numbers, e.g. barium or bismuth, exhibit X-ray absorption coefficients higher by up to two orders of magnitude. To obtain a flexible yarn with high X-ray absorption properties both these materials, the organic polymer and the inorganic X-ray absorber, are combined to an inorganic/organic composite fiber material. Hence, as the organic component cellulose from modified Lyocell-process is used as carrier fiber and blended with inorganic absorber particles of low toxicity and high absorption coefficients, as bariumsulphate, bariumtitanate or bismuthoxide. A content of inorganic absorber particles equally distributed in the whole fiber of up to 20% is achieved. The composite fibers are produced as staple or filament fibers and processed to multifilament or staple fiber yarns. The staple fiber yarns are rotor-spinned to increase the comfort of the subsequent textile material. Several woven fabrics, considering multilayer structure and different warp/weft density, are developed. The energy dependent X-ray shielding properties are determined in dependence on the different yarn compositions, yarn types and structural parameters of the woven fabrics. As a result, a production process of textile materials with comfortable and dedicated X-ray absorption properties is established. It offers a promising opportunity for manufacturing of specialized textiles, working clothes or uniforms applicable for medicine, air craft and security personal, mining as well as for innovative composite materials. - Highlights: • Preparation of cellulosic

  1. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of

  2. The chemical sensitivity of X-ray spectroscopy: high energy resolution XANES versus X-ray emission spectroscopy of substituted ferrocenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Andrew J; Bauer, Matthias; Jacob, Christoph R

    2013-06-07

    X-ray spectroscopy at the metal K-edge is an important tool for understanding catalytic processes and provides insight into the geometric and electronic structures of transition metal complexes. In particular, X-ray emission-based methods such as high-energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (V2C-XES) hold the promise of providing increased chemical sensitivity compared to conventional X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Here, we explore the ability of HERFD-XANES and V2C-XES spectroscopy to distinguish substitutions beyond the directly coordinated atoms for the example of ferrocene and selected ferrocene derivatives. The experimental spectra are assigned and interpreted through the use of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that while the pre-edge peaks in the HERFD-XANES spectra are affected by substituents at the cyclopentadienyl ring containing π-bonds [A. J. Atkins, Ch. R. Jacob and M. Bauer, Chem.-Eur. J., 2012, 18, 7021], the V2C-XES spectra are virtually unchanged. The pre-edge in HERFD-XANES probes the weak transition to unoccupied metal d-orbitals, while the V2C-XES spectra are determined by dipole-allowed transitions from occupied ligand orbitals to the 1s core hole. The latter turn out to be less sensitive to changes beyond the first coordination shell.

  3. Characterization of metallic nanoparticles by high-resolution X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Timna-Josua

    2012-03-15

    In almost all areas of technology, metallic nanoparticles are of interest due to their special thermal, electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Their special properties are mainly due to their small size which implies the relevance of quantum effects as well as the significance of the surface: For 2 nm nanoparticles, the surface-to-volume ratio is already 1:1. However, the identification of surface-to-volume interactions - that are responsible for the new properties - is a difficult task due to the small size that inhibits a lot of 'standard' techniques to be applicable. Here X-ray absorption/emission spectroscopy (XAS/XES) is a favorable tool for the characterization of nanoparticles, independent on size, degree of crystallinity and shape/condition of the surface. Using XAS, a tempered nanosized Co{sub 3}Pt/C catalyst have been investigated. Its outstanding oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) properties in a fuel cell could be related to a lowered Pt 5d-band center connected to a tightened Pt-Pt bonding distance, leading to a weakening of the oxygen adsorption strength so that the ORR may proceed faster. One drawback remains, however, as the properties found by (standard) XAS are summed up for different chemical environments of the chosen element. Thus, no distinction can be made between, e.g., the pure metal in a nanoparticles' interior and the ligated metal in the outer shells or surface. Here, high-resolution fluorescence-detected XAS (HRFD-XAS) provides additional opportunities as, due to its chemical sensitivity, it leads to site-selective XAS. For a system of 6 nm sized Co nanoparticles, build up of a metallic core surrounded by a protecting shell, that resulted from the 'smooth oxidation' process, this technique of site-selective XAS was proven to be applicable. For the first time, the interior and outer shell of a metallic nanoparticle could be characterized separately. In particular, the Co-hcp phase could be determined for the

  4. High-Performance X-ray Detection in a New Analytical Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, C. E.; Goldstein, J. I.; Williams, D. B.; Ackland, D. W.; vonHarrach, S.; Nicholls, A. W.; Statham, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray detection by energy-dispersive spectrometry in the analytical electron microscope (AEM) is often limited by low collected X-ray intensity (P), modest peak-to-background (P/B) ratios, and limitations on total counting time (tau) due to specimen drift and contamination. A new AFM has been designed with maximization of P. P/B, and tau as the primary considerations. Maximization of P has been accomplished by employing a field-emission electron gun, X-ray detectors with high collection angles, high-speed beam blanking to allow only one photon into the detector at a time, and simultaneous collection from two detectors. P/B has been maximized by reducing extraneous background signals generated at the specimen holder, the polepieces and the detector collimator. The maximum practical tau has been increased by reducing specimen contamination and employing electronic drift correction. Performance improvments have been measured using the NIST standard Cr thin film. The 0-3 steradian solid angle of X-ray collection is the highest value available. The beam blanking scheme for X-ray detection provides 3-4 times greater throughput of X-rays at high count rates into a recorded spectrum than normal systems employing pulse-pileup rejection circuits. Simultaneous X-ray collection from two detectors allows the highest X-ray intensity yet recorded to be collected from the NIST Cr thin film. The measured P/B of 6300 is the highest level recorded for an AEM. In addition to collected X-ray intensity (cps/nA) and P/B measured on the standard Cr film, the product of these can be used as a figure-of-merit to evaluate instruments. Estimated minimum mass fraction (MMF) for Cr measured on the standard NIST Cr thin film is also proposed as a figure-of-merit for comparing X-ray detection in AEMs. Determinations here of the MMF of Cr detectable show at least a threefold improvement over previous instruments.

  5. Investigating the suitability of GaAs:Cr material for high flux X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Bell, S. J.; Duarte, D. D.; French, M. J.; Hart, M.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Wilson, M. D.; Kachkanov, V.; Lozinskaya, A. D.; Novikov, V. A.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A.; Zarubin, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-insulating wafers of GaAs material with a thickness of 500μm have been compensated with chromium by Tomsk State University. Initial measurements have shown the material to have high resistivity (3 × 109Ωcm) and tests with pixel detectors on a 250 μm pitch produced uniform spectroscopic performance across an 80 × 80 pixel array. At present, there is a lack of detectors that are capable of operating at high X-ray fluxes (> 108 photons s-1 mm-2) in the energy range 5-50 keV. Under these conditions, the poor stopping power of silicon, as well as issues with radiation hardness, severely degrade the performance of traditional detectors. While high-Z materials such as CdTe and CdZnTe may have much greater stopping power, the formation of space charge within these detectors degrades detector performance. Initial measurements made with GaAs:Cr detectors suggest that many of its material properties make it suitable for these challenging conditions. In this paper the radiation hardness of the GaAs:Cr material has been measured on the B16 beam line at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron. Small pixel detectors were bonded to the STFC Hexitec ASIC and were irradiated with 3 × 108 photons s-1 mm-2 monochromatic 12 keV X-rays up to a maximum dose of 0.6 MGy. Measurements of the spectroscopic performance before and after irradiation have been used to assess the extent of the radiation damage.

  6. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  7. Long-term optical variability of high-mass X-ray binaries. II. Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, P.; Nersesian, A.; Zezas, A.; Gkouvelis, L.; Coe, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High-mass X-ray binaries are bright X-ray sources. The high-energy emission is caused by the accretion of matter from the massive companion onto a neutron star. The accreting material comes from either the strong stellar wind in binaries with supergiant companions or the cirscumstellar disk in Be/X-ray binaries. In either case, the Hα line stands out as the main source of information about the state of the accreting material. Aims: We present the results of our monitoring program to study the long-term variability of the Hα line in high-mass X-ray binaries. Our aim is to characterise the optical variability timescales and study the interaction between the neutron star and the accreting material. Methods: We fitted the Hα line with Gaussian profiles and obtained the line parameters and equivalent width. The peak separation in split profiles was used to determine the disk velocity law and estimate the disk radius. The relative intensity of the two peaks (V/R ratio) allowed us to investigate the distribution of gas particles in the disk. The equivalent width was used to characterise the degree of variability of the systems. We also studied the variability of the Hα line in correlation with the X-ray activity. Results: Our results can be summarised as follows: i) we find that Be/X-ray binaries with narrow orbits are more variable than systems with long orbital periods; ii) we show that a Keplerian distribution of gas particles provides a good description of the disks in Be/X-ray binaries, as it does in classical Be stars; iii) a decrease in the Hα equivalent width is generally observed after major X-ray outbursts; iv) we confirm that the Hα equivalent width correlates with disk radius; v) while systems with supergiant companions display multi-structured profiles, most of the Be/X-ray binaries show, at some epoch, double-peak asymmetric profiles, which indicates that density inhomogeneities is a common property in the disk of Be/X-ray binaries; vi) the

  8. High resolution x-ray microtomography of biological samples: Requirements and strategies for satisfying them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, B.W. Jr. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rothman, S.S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    High resolution x-ray microscopy has been made possible in recent years primarily by two new technologies: microfabricated diffractive lenses for soft x-rays with about 30-50 nm resolution, and high brightness synchrotron x-ray sources. X-ray microscopy occupies a special niche in the array of biological microscopic imaging methods. It extends the capabilities of existing techniques mainly in two areas: a previously unachievable combination of sub-visible resolution and multi-micrometer sample size, and new contrast mechanisms. Because of the soft x-ray wavelengths used in biological imaging (about 1-4 nm), XM is intermediate in resolution between visible light and electron microscopies. Similarly, the penetration depth of soft x-rays in biological materials is such that the ideal sample thickness for XM falls in the range of 0.25 - 10 {mu}m, between that of VLM and EM. XM is therefore valuable for imaging of intermediate level ultrastructure, requiring sub-visible resolutions, in intact cells and subcellular organelles, without artifacts produced by thin sectioning. Many of the contrast producing and sample preparation techniques developed for VLM and EM also work well with XM. These include, for example, molecule specific staining by antibodies with heavy metal or fluorescent labels attached, and sectioning of both frozen and plastic embedded tissue. However, there is also a contrast mechanism unique to XM that exists naturally because a number of elemental absorption edges lie in the wavelength range used. In particular, between the oxygen and carbon absorption edges (2.3 and 4.4 nm wavelength), organic molecules absorb photons much more strongly than does water, permitting element-specific imaging of cellular structure in aqueous media, with no artifically introduced contrast agents. For three-dimensional imaging applications requiring the capabilities of XM, an obvious extension of the technique would therefore be computerized x-ray microtomography (XMT).

  9. Prospects for laser spectroscopy of highly charged ions with high-harmonic XUV and soft x-ray sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rothhardt, J.; Hädrich, S.; Demmler, S.; Krebs, M.; Winters, Danyal; Kühl, Thomas; Stöhlker, Thomas; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present novel high photon flux XUV and soft x-ray sources based on high harmonic generation (HHG). The sources employ femtosecond fiber lasers, which can be operated at very high (MHz) repetition rate and average power (>100 W). HHG with such lasers results in similar to 10(13) photons s(-1) within a single harmonic line at similar to 40 nm (similar to 30 eV) wavelength, a photon flux comparable to what is typically available at synchrotron beam lines. In addition, resonant enhancement of ...

  10. Refractive X-ray lens for high pressure experiments at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Ohishi, Y; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T; Shimomura, O

    2001-01-01

    A stacked compound refractive X-ray lens was designed to produce an efficiently focused (phi (cursive,open) Greek<0.1 mm) beam for high-pressure experiments at SPring-8. High-pressure X-ray diffraction requires an intense, high-energy and monochromatic X-ray beam in order to penetrate the absorptive window of a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Our lens, producing a focal spot of 120x275 mu m sup 2 and a peak gain of 12, is well matched to these requirements. It is composed of many plastic chips made by molding, which allows many identical chips to be made precisely. Other advantages of this lens include high throughput, simple energy tunability and easy installation.

  11. Refractive X-ray lens for high pressure experiments at SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Y. E-mail: ohishi@spring8.or.jp; Baron, A.Q.R.; Ishii, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimomura, O

    2001-07-21

    A stacked compound refractive X-ray lens was designed to produce an efficiently focused (phi (cursive,open) Greek<0.1 mm) beam for high-pressure experiments at SPring-8. High-pressure X-ray diffraction requires an intense, high-energy and monochromatic X-ray beam in order to penetrate the absorptive window of a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Our lens, producing a focal spot of 120x275 {mu}m{sup 2} and a peak gain of 12, is well matched to these requirements. It is composed of many plastic chips made by molding, which allows many identical chips to be made precisely. Other advantages of this lens include high throughput, simple energy tunability and easy installation.

  12. A high time resolution x-ray diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Ami M.; Lee, John David; Almagri, Abdulgadar F.

    2015-07-01

    A new high time resolution x-ray detector has been installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) to make measurements around sawtooth events. The detector system is comprised of a silicon avalanche photodiode, a 20 ns Gaussian shaping amplifier, and a 500 MHz digitizer with 14-bit sampling resolution. The fast shaping time diminishes the need to restrict the amount of x-ray flux reaching the detector, limiting the system dead-time. With a much higher time resolution than systems currently in use in high temperature plasma physics experiments, this new detector has the versatility to be used in a variety of discharges with varying flux and the ability to study dynamics on both slow and fast time scales. This paper discusses the new fast x-ray detector recently installed on MST and the improved time resolution capabilities compared to the existing soft and hard x-ray diagnostics. In addition to the detector hardware, improvements to the detector calibration and x-ray pulse identification software, such as additional fitting parameters and a more sophisticated fitting routine are discussed. Finally, initial data taken in both high confinement and standard reversed-field pinch plasma discharges are compared.

  13. High Resolution Triple Axis X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of II-VI Semiconductor Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, H. M.; Matyi, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research program is to develop methods of structural analysis based on high resolution triple axis X-ray diffractometry (HRTXD) and to carry out detailed studies of defect distributions in crystals grown in both microgravity and ground-based environments. HRTXD represents a modification of the widely used double axis X-ray rocking curve method for the characterization of grown-in defects in nearly perfect crystals. In a double axis rocking curve experiment, the sample is illuminated by a monochromatic X-ray beam and the diffracted intensity is recorded by a fixed, wide-open detector. The intensity diffracted by the sample is then monitored as the sample is rotated through the Bragg reflection condition. The breadth of the peak, which is often reported as the full angular width at half the maximum intensity (FWHM), is used as an indicator of the amount of defects in the sample. This work has shown that high resolution triple axis X-ray diffraction is an effective tool for characterizing the defect structure in semiconductor crystals, particularly at high defect densities. Additionally, the technique is complimentary to X-ray topography for defect characterization in crystals.

  14. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm(-1) spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm(-1) are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10(12) photons s(-1) in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  15. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd' ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-02-12

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm-1spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm-1 are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s-1 in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  16. Energy resolving power of transition-edge X-ray microcalorimeters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and device physics of an X-ray microcalorimeter. This is a device for measuring the energy of X-rays. The microcalorimeter measures the temperature increase that is the result of the absorption of an X-ray photon. Combined into an array, the microcalorimeter can

  17. Evidence for Accretion High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of the Classical T Tauri Star TW Hydrae

    CERN Document Server

    Kästner, J H; Schulz, N S; Canizares, C R; Weintraub, D A; Kastner, Joel H.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Canizares, Claude R.; Weintraub, David A.

    2002-01-01

    We present high resolution X-ray spectra of the X-ray bright classical T Tauri star, TW Hydrae, covering the wavelength range of 1.5-25 AA. The differential emission measure derived from fluxes of temperature-sensitive emission lines shows a plasma with a sharply peaked temperature distribution, peaking at log T = 6.5. Abundance anomalies are apparent, with iron very deficient relative to oxygen, while neon is enhanced relative to oxygen. Density-sensitive line ratios of Ne IX and O VII indicate densities near log n_e = 13. A flare with rapid (~1 ks) rise time was detected during our 48 ksec observation; however, based on analysis of the emission-line spectrum during quiescent and flaring states, the derived plasma parameters do not appear strongly time-dependent. The inferred plasma temperature distribution and densities are consistent with a model in which the bulk of the X-ray emission from TW Hya is generated via mass accretion from its circumstellar disk. Assuming accretion powers the X-ray emission, our...

  18. X-ray Power and Energy output of Z-Machine Dynamic Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzorek, G.; Tierney, T.; Watt, R.

    2006-10-01

    Los Alamos performs radiation flow experiments at the Z-machine in order to verify their modelling codes. Critical input to these codes is the actual radiation power profile which flows into the experiment. Our standard diagnostic suite consists of X-ray Diodes (XRD), silicon photodiodes, and nickel thin film bolometers. Custom written computer software examines the raw data to determine the data quality, folds in detector spectral response, calculates a multi-detector spectral unfold, and yields an equivalent Planckian temperature profile. Sets of diagnostics view the dynamic hohlraum from the side, top axial anode side, and bottom axial cathode side. Results to date yield some interesting conclusions: Correlation between the various diagnostic views seems tenuous at best. Identical nickel foil bolometers usually agree within 10%. At low bolometer-foil temperature increases the bolometers agree with integrated XRD power unfolds but diverge at higher temperature increases. For identically filtered X-ray diodes the integrated response of photocathodes may vary an factor of two. XRD's usually unfold to yield a Planckian-like spectrum. Top axial measurements consistently yield higher temperatures than bottom axial diagnostics. In our presentation we will compare the diagnostic techniques, analysis, and results to establish drive conditions for our experiments.

  19. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  20. High-energy neutrino fluxes from AGN populations inferred from X-ray surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsen, Idunn B; On, Alvina Y L; Saxton, Curtis J

    2015-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos and photons are complementary messengers, probing violent astrophysical processes and structural evolution of the Universe. X-ray and neutrino observations jointly constrain conditions in active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets: their baryonic and leptonic contents, and particle production efficiency. Testing two standard neutrino production models for local source Cen A \\citep{KT2008,BB2009}, we calculate the high-energy neutrino spectra of single AGN sources and derive the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected for the current epoch. Assuming that accretion determines both X-rays and particle creation, our parametric scaling relations predict neutrino yield in various AGN classes. We derive redshift-dependent number densities of each class, from {\\it Chandra} and {\\it Swift}/BAT X-ray luminosity functions \\citep{SGB2008,ACS2009}. We integrate the neutrino spectrum expected from the cumulative history of AGN (correcting for cosmological and source effects, e.g. jet orientation and beaming). B...

  1. High Mass X-ray Binaries: Progenitors of double neutron star systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chaty, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    In this review I briefly describe the nature of the three kinds of High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs), accreting through: (i) Be circumstellar disc, (ii) supergiant stellar wind, and (iii) Roche lobe filling supergiants. A previously unknown population of HMXBs hosting supergiant stars has been revealed in the last years, with multi-wavelength campaigns including high energy (INTEGRAL, Swift, XMM, Chandra) and optical/infrared (mainly ESO) observations. This population is divided between obscured supergiant HMXBs, and supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs), characterized by short and intense X-ray flares. I discuss the characteristics of these types of supergiant HMXBs, propose a scenario describing the properties of these high-energy sources, and finally show how the observations can constrain the accretion models (e.g. clumpy winds, magneto-centrifugal barrier, transitory accretion disc, etc). Because they are the likely progenitors of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), and also of double neutron star systems,...

  2. Cryogenic x-ray diffraction microscopy utilizing high-pressure cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Enju; Chushkin, Yuriy; van der Linden, Peter; Kim, Chae Un; Zontone, Federico; Carpentier, Philippe; Gruner, Sol M; Pernot, Petra

    2014-10-01

    We present cryo x-ray diffraction microscopy of high-pressure-cryofixed bacteria and report high-convergence imaging with multiple image reconstructions. Hydrated D. radiodurans cells were cryofixed at 200 MPa pressure into ∼10-μm-thick water layers and their unstained, hydrated cellular environments were imaged by phasing diffraction patterns, reaching sub-30-nm resolutions with hard x-rays. Comparisons were made with conventional ambient-pressure-cryofixed samples, with respect to both coherent small-angle x-ray scattering and the image reconstruction. The results show a correlation between the level of background ice signal and phasing convergence, suggesting that phasing difficulties with frozen-hydrated specimens may be caused by high-background ice scattering.

  3. Discovery of very high energy gamma-rays associated with an X-ray binary

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Aye, K M; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Berghaus, P; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Bussons-Gordo, J; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fleury, P; Fontaine, G; Fuchs, Y; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Khelifi, B; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Leroy, N; Lohse, T; Marcowith, A; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Sauge, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Theoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J

    2005-01-01

    X-ray binaries are composed of a normal star in orbit around a neutron star or stellar-mass black hole. Radio and X-ray observations have led to the presumption that some X-ray binaries called microquasars behave as scaled down active galactic nuclei. Microquasars have resolved radio emission that is thought to arise from a relativistic outflow akin to active galactic nuclei jets, in which particles can be accelerated to large energies. Very high energy gamma-rays produced by the interactions of these particles have been observed from several active galactic nuclei. Using the High Energy Stereoscopic System, we find evidence for gamma-ray emission >100 GeV from a candidate microquasar, LS 5039, showing that particles are also accelerated to very high energies in these systems.

  4. High-energy synchrotron X-ray radiography of shock-compressed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This presentation will discuss the development and application of a high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray imaging method to study shock-compressed, high-Z samples at Beamline I12 at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, UK). Shock waves are driven into materials using a portable, single-stage gas gun designed by the Institute of Shock Physics. Following plate impact, material deformation is probed in-situ by white-beam X-ray radiography and complimentary velocimetry diagnostics. The high energies, large beam size (13 x 13 mm), and appreciable sample volumes (~ 1 cm3) viable for study at Beamline I12 compliment existing in-house pulsed X-ray capabilities and studies at the Dynamic Compression Sector. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  5. Laser Produced X-Ray for High Resolution Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    technique has been used to fabricate surface acoustic wave devices , bubble domain devices , pn diodes, bipolar transistors, and MOS transistors. The basic...0008 0012 Q016 Q020 Q024 00S 0 Centimeters - (a) Time =33.4 Picoseconds 8orVelocity 4 5 cm //sec 4keV -- Rerad ioted power =8.6 % 16X10 rCritical Ref

  6. INTEGRAL high-energy monitoring of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, G.; Bazzano, A.; Martínez Núñez, S.; Stratta, G.; Tarana, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.

    2007-09-01

    KS 1741-293, discovered in 1989 by the X-ray camera TTM on the Kvant module of the Mir space station and identified as an X-ray burster, had not been detected in the hard X-ray band until the advent of the INTEGRAL observatory. Moreover, this source has recently been the object of scientific discussion, being also associated with a nearby extended radio source that in principle could be the supernova remnant produced by the accretion-induced collapse in the binary system. Our long-term monitoring with INTEGRAL, covering the period from 2003 February to 2005 May, confirms that KS 1741-293 is transient in the soft and hard X-ray bands. When the source is active, from a simultaneous JEM-X and IBIS data analysis, we provide a wide-band spectrum from 5 to 100 keV, which can be fitted by a two-component model: a multiple blackbody for the soft emission and a Comptonized or a cut-off power-law model for the hard component. Finally, by the detection of two X-ray bursters with JEM-X, we confirm the bursting nature of KS 1741-293, including this source in the class of hard-tailed X-ray bursters. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), the Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA. E-mail: giovanni.decesare@iasf-roma.inaf.it ‡ INAF personnel resident at ASDC.

  7. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Bursting Pulsar GRO J1744-28

    CERN Document Server

    Degenaar, N; Harrison, F A; Kennea, J A; Kouveliotou, C; Younes, G

    2014-01-01

    The bursting pulsar GRO J1744-28 is a Galactic low-mass X-ray binary that distinguishes itself by displaying type-II X-ray bursts: brief, bright flashes of X-ray emission that likely arise from spasmodic accretion. Combined with its coherent 2.1 Hz X-ray pulsations and relatively high estimated magnetic field, it is a particularly interesting source to study the physics of accretion flows around neutron stars. Here we report on Chandra/HETG observations obtained near the peak of its bright 2014 accretion outburst. Spectral analysis suggests the presence of a broad iron emission line centered at E_l ~ 6.7 keV. Fits with a disk reflection model yield an inclination angle of i ~ 52 degrees and an inner disk radius of R_in ~ 85 GM/c^2, which is much further out than typically found for neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. Assuming that the disk is truncated at the magnetospheric radius of the neutron star, we estimate a magnetic field strength of B ~ (2-6)E10 G. Furthermore, we identify an absorption feature nea...

  8. 25 Tesla pulsed-high-magnetic-field system for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, M., E-mail: mhaya@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Narumi, Y.; Nojiri, H. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakamura, T.; Hirono, T.; Kinoshita, T. [JASRI/SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kodama, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nara National College of Technology, Nara 639-1080 (Japan); Kindo, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We have developed a 25 T pulsed magnetic field system for soft X-ray MCD. {yields} The new capacitor bank can generate a field in the bipolar mode. {yields} We measured the Soft X-ray MCD of paramagnetic Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 25 T. - Abstract: We have developed a 25 T pulsed high magnetic field system for soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism: XMCD. The ultra-high vacuum chamber with a pulse magnet coil is installed. By using a newly developed bipolar capacitor bank, the XMCD of paramagnetic Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the M{sub 5} and the M{sub 4} edges was clearly observed at low temperatures. The present system is capable of measuring XMCD of field induced moments in various compounds including paramagnets and antiferromagnets.

  9. X-ray Spectroscopy of High-Z Elements on Nike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.; Ralchenko, Yu.

    2013-10-01

    Survey X-ray spectrometer covering a spectral range from 0.5 to 19.5 angstroms has been added to the spectroscopic suite of Nike diagnostics. That allows simultaneous observation of both M- and N- spectra of W, Ta and Au with high spectral resolution. Low energy test shots confirmed strong presence of 3-4 transitions of Ni-like W, Ta and Au with X-ray energies as high as 3.5 keV when above mentioned elements were used as the targets. In our continuous effort to support DOE-NNSA's inertial fusion program, the future campaign will cover a wide range of plasma conditions that result in relatively energetic X-ray production. Eventually, absolutely calibrated spectrometers of similar geometry will be fielded at NIF in cooperation with NIF diagnostic group. Work supported by US DOE, Defense Programs.

  10. Efficient Pumping Schemes for High Average Brightness Collisional X-ray Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, R; Dunn, J; Shlyaptsev, V N; Smith, R F; Patel, P K; Price, D F

    2003-10-07

    Advances in transient collisional x-ray lasers have been demonstrated over the last 5 years as a technique for achieving tabletop soft x-ray lasers using 2-10 J of laser pump energy. The high peak brightness of these sources operating in the high output saturation regime, in the range of 10{sup 24}-10{sup 25} ph. mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} s-1 (0.1% BW){sup -1}, is ideal for many applications requiring high photon fluence in a single short burst. However, the pump energy required for these x-ray lasers is still relatively high and limits the x-ray laser repetition rate to 1 shot every few minutes. Higher repetition rate collisional schemes have been reported and show some promise for high output in the future. We report a novel technique for enhancing the coupling efficiency of the laser pump into the gain medium that could lead to enhanced x-ray inversion with a factor of ten reduction in the drive energy. This has been applied to the collisional excitation scheme for Ni-like Mo at 18.9 nm and x-ray laser output has been demonstrated. Preliminary results show lasing on a single shot of the optical laser operating at 10 Hz and with 70 mJ in the short pulse. Such a proposed source would have higher average brightness, {approx}10{sup 14} ph. mm{sup -2} mrad{sup -2} s{sup -1} (0.1% BW){sup -1}, than present bending magnet 3rd generation synchrotron sources operating at the same spectral range.

  11. Chandra Reveals Twin X-ray Jets in the Powerful FR-II Radio Galaxy 3C353

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; Stawarz, L.; Harris, D.E.; Siemiginowska, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Swain, M.R.; Hardcastle, M.J.; Goodger, J.L.; Iwasawa, K.; Edwards, P.G.

    2008-06-13

    We report X-ray imaging of the powerful FR II radio galaxy 3C 353 using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. 3C 353's two 4-inch wide and 2-feet long jets allow us to study in detail the internal structure of the large-scale relativistic outflows at both radio and X-ray photon energies with the sub-arcsecond spatial resolution provided by the VLA and Chandra instruments. In a 90 ks Chandra observation, we have detected X-ray emission from most radio structures in 3C 353, including the nucleus, the jet and the counterjet, the terminal jet regions (hotspots), and one radio lobe. We show that the detection of the X-ray emission associated with the radio knots and counterknots, which is most likely non-thermal in origin, puts several crucial constraints on the X-ray emission mechanisms in powerful large-scale jets of quasars and FR II sources. In particular, we show that this detection is inconsistent with the inverse-Compton model proposed in the literature, and instead implies a synchrotron origin of the X-ray jet photons. We also find that the width of the X-ray counterjet is possibly narrower than that measured in radio bands, that the radio-to-X-ray flux ratio decreases systematically downstream along the jets, and that there are substantial (kpc-scale) offsets between the positions of the X-ray and radio intensity maxima within each knot, whose magnitudes increase away from the nucleus. We discuss all these findings in the wider context of the physics of extragalactic jets, proposing some particular though not definitive solutions or interpretations for each problem. In general, we find that the synchrotron X-ray emission of extragalactic large-scale jets is not only shaped by the global hydrodynamical configuration of the outflows, but is also likely to be very sensitive to the microscopic parameters of the jet plasma. A complete, self-consistent model for the X-ray emission of extragalactic jets still remains elusive.

  12. X-ray constraints on the fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei at high accretion luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakis, A.; Salvato, M.; Liu, Z.; Buchner, J.; Brandt, W. N.; Ananna, T. Tasnim; Schulze, A.; Shen, Yue; LaMassa, S.; Nandra, K.; Merloni, A.; McGreer, I. D.

    2017-08-01

    The wide-area XMM-XXL X-ray survey is used to explore the fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high accretion luminosities, LX(2-10 keV) ≳ 1044 erg s - 1, and out to redshift z ≈ 1.5. The sample covers an area of about 14 deg2 and provides constraints on the space density of powerful AGNs over a wide range of neutral hydrogen column densities extending beyond the Compton-thick limit, NH ≈ 1024 cm - 2. The fraction of obscured Compton-thin (NH = 1022-1024 cm - 2) AGNs is estimated to be ≈0.35 for luminosities LX(2-10 keV) > 1044 erg s - 1, independent of redshift. For less luminous sources, the fraction of obscured Compton-thin AGNs increases from 0.45 ± 0.10 at z = 0.25 to 0.75 ± 0.05 at z = 1.25. Studies that select AGNs in the infrared via template fits to the observed spectral energy distribution of extragalactic sources estimate space densities at high accretion luminosities consistent with the XMM-XXL constraints. There is no evidence for a large population of AGNs (e.g. heavily obscured) identified in the infrared and missed at X-ray wavelengths. We further explore the mid-infrared colours of XMM-XXL AGNs as a function of accretion luminosity, column density and redshift. The fraction of XMM-XXL sources that lie within the mid-infrared colour wedges defined in the literature to select AGNs is primarily a function of redshift. This fraction increases from about 20-30 per cent at z = 0.25 to about 50-70 per cent at z = 1.5.

  13. Validation of the uncertainty budget for soft X-ray radiant power measurement using a cryogenic radiometer

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Scholze, F; Thornagel, R; Ulm, G

    2002-01-01

    The cryogenic radiometer SYRES, a thermal detector based on the electrical substitution principle, has been used as the primary detector standard for radiant power measurement in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges. In order to investigate the possibility of radiant energy being deposited in its absorber cavity without being transformed into heat when detecting soft X-rays, SYRES has been directly compared with the electron storage ring BESSY 1, a primary radiometric source standard of calculable spectral radiant power. To this end, the integral radiant power emitted by the storage ring,into a solid angle defined by a high-precision aperture was measured with SYRES. The experiments were conducted at two nominal energies of the circulating electrons, 800 MeV and 340 MeV, to study the influence of the different spectral distributions of the synchrotron radiation. For the original graphite-coated cavity absorber, significant discrepancies were found which could be traced back to th...

  14. Bifurcation timescales in power spectra of black hole binaries and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For black hole binaries(BHBs) and active galactic nuclei(AGNs),bifurcation timescales(BTs) Δtb exist,below which time-domain power is significantly higher than the corresponding Fourier power.Quasi-periodic oscillations(QPOs) are removed from the Fourier spectra of BHBs.A relationship between BT,black hole mass and bolometric luminosity is derived.Strong anti-correlation between BT and luminosity of Cyg X-1 is found.After removing the QPOs,BTs are also obtained for two ultraluminous X-ray sources(ULXs),M82 X-1 and NGC5408 X-1.The results support that they harbor intermediate mass black holes(IMBHs).

  15. Imaging in 3D under pressure: a decade of high-pressure X-ray microtomography development at GSECARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tony; Wang, Yanbin; Rivers, Mark L.

    2016-12-01

    The high-pressure X-ray microtomography (HPXMT) apparatus has been operating at the GeoSoilEnviroCARS (GSECARS) bending magnet beamline at the Advanced Photon Source since 2005. By combining the powerful synchrotron X-ray source and fast switching between white (for X-ray diffraction) and monochromatic (for absorption imaging) modes, this technique provides the high-pressure community with a unique opportunity to image the three-dimensional volume, texture, and microstructure of materials under high pressure and temperature. The ability to shear the sample with unlimited strain by twisting the two opposed anvils in the apparatus allows shear deformation studies under extreme pressure and temperature to be performed. HPXMT is a powerful tool for studying the physical properties of both crystalline and non-crystalline materials under high pressure and high temperature. Over the past 10 years, continuous effort has been put into technical development, modifications to improve the overall performance, and additional probing techniques to meet users' needs. Here, we present an up-to-date report on the HPXMT system, a brief review of some of its many exciting scientific applications, and a discussion of future developments.

  16. Fine-pitch glass GEM for high-resolution X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T.; Mitsuya, Y.; Toyokawa, H.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a fine-pitch glass gas electron multiplier (G-GEM) for high-resolution X-ray imaging. The fine-pitch G-GEM is made of a 400 μm thick photo-etchable glass substrate with 150 μm pitch holes. It is fabricated using the same wet etching technique as that for the standard G-GEM. In this work, we present the experimental results obtained with a single fine-pitch G-GEM with a 50 × 50 mm2 effective area. We recorded an energy resolution of 16.2% and gas gain up to 5,500 when the detector was irradiated with 5.9 keV X-rays. We present a 50 × 50 mm2 X-ray radiograph image acquired with a scintillation gas and optical readout system.

  17. Crystal optics for precision x-ray spectroscopy on highly charged ions—conception and proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, H. F.; Gassner, T.; Trassinelli, M.; Heß, R.; Spillmann, U.; Banaś, D.; Blumenhagen, K.-H.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Chen, W.; Dimopoulou, Chr; Förster, E.; Grisenti, R. E.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Indelicato, P.; Jagodzinski, P.; Kämpfer, T.; Kozhuharov, Chr; Lestinsky, M.; Liesen, D.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Loetzsch, R.; Manil, B.; Märtin, R.; Nolden, F.; Petridis, N.; Sanjari, M. S.; Schulze, K. S.; Schwemlein, M.; Simionovici, A.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th; Szabo, C. I.; Trotsenko, S.; Uschmann, I.; Weber, G.; Wehrhan, O.; Winckler, N.; Winters, D. F. A.; Winters, N.; Ziegler, E.

    2015-07-01

    The experimental investigation of quantum-electrodydamic contributions to the binding energies of inner shells of highly charged heavy ions requires an accurate spectroscopy in the region of hard x-rays suitable at a limited source strength. For this purpose the focusing compensated asymmetric Laue crystal optics has been developed and a twin-spectrometer assembly has been built and commissioned at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum Darmstadt. We characterize the crystal optics and demonstrate the usefulness of the instrumentation for accurate spectroscopy of both stationary and fast moving x-ray sources. The experimental procedures discussed here may also be applied for other spectroscopic studies where a transition from conventional germanium x-ray detectors to crystal spectrometers seems too demanding because of low source intensity.

  18. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-charged heavy ions at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumberidze, A. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France)], E-mail: a.gumberidze@gsi.de; Stoehlker, Th. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitt Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Beyer, H.F.; Bosch, F.; Braeuning-Demian, A.; Hagmann, S.; Kozhuharov, C.; Kuehl, Th.; Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Indelicato, P. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Quint, W. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbh, 64291 GSI-Darmstadt (Germany); Schuch, R. [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Warczak, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland)

    2009-01-15

    In the current contribution, we give an overview of the envisioned X-ray spectroscopy program within the atomic physics research collaboration SPARC (Stored Particle Atomic Research Collaboration) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). These activities comprise, among others, the investigation of relativistic collision dynamics, electron correlation in the presence of strong fields, the test of Quantum Electrodynamics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields, and ideas to test the predictions of fundamental theories besides Quantum Electrodynamics. The state of the art X-ray spectroscopy will be of key importance for realization of these challenging goals. The world-wide unique experimental conditions and opportunities offered by the future FAIR facility will be combined with advanced X-ray detection devices, i.e. large-area, segmented solid-state detectors, high-resolution crystal spectrometers, calorimetric detectors etc.

  19. Thermometric- and Acoustic-Based Beam Power Monitor for Ultra-Bright X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentsen, Gregory; /Rochester U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A design for an average beam power monitor for ultra-bright X-ray sources is proposed that makes simultaneous use of calorimetry and radiation acoustics. Radiation incident on a solid target will induce heating and ultrasonic vibrations, both of which may be measured to give a fairly precise value of the beam power. The monitor is intended for measuring ultra-bright Free-Electron Laser (FEL) X-ray beams, for which traditional monitoring technologies such as photo-diodes or scintillators are unsuitable. The monitor consists of a Boron Carbide (B{sub 4}C) target designed to absorb most of the incident beam's energy. Resistance temperature detectors (RTD) and piezoelectric actuators are mounted on the outward faces of the target to measure the temperature changes and ultrasonic vibrations induced by the incident beam. The design was tested using an optical pulsed beam (780 nm, 120 and 360 Hz) from a Ti:sapphire oscillator at several energies between 0.8 and 2.6 mJ. The RTDs measured an increase in temperature of about 10 K over a period of several minutes. The piezoelectric sensors recorded ringing acoustic oscillations at 580 {+-} 40 kHz. Most importantly, the amplitude of the acoustic signals was observed to scale linearly with beam power up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. Above this pulse energy, the vibrational signals became nonlinear. Several causes for this nonlinearity are discussed, including amplifier saturation and piezoelectric saturation. Despite this nonlinearity, these measurements demonstrate the feasibility of such a beam power measurement device. The advantage of two distinct measurements (acoustic and thermometric) provides a useful method of calibration that is unavailable to current LCLS diagnostics tools.

  20. Optical and X-ray Behavior of the High Mass X-ray Transient A0535+26/HDE245770 in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, F.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Bruni, I.; Corfini, G.; Martinelli, F.; Rossi, C.

    2015-03-01

    The optical behavior of the Be star in the high-mass X-ray transient A0535+26/HDE245770 shows that at periastron the luminosity is typically enhanced by 0.02 mag to a few tenths mag, and the X-ray outburst occurs eight days after the periastron. Indeed, at the periastron an increase of the mass flux occurs. This sort of flush reaches the external part of the temporary accretion disk around the neutron star and moves to the hot central parts of the accretion disk and the neutron star's surface. The time necessary for this process is dependent on the turbulent viscosity in the accretion disk. In this paper we will show the behavior of this system in optical band around the predicted periastron passages in 2014, by using the ephemeris - JDopt-outb = JD0(2 444 944)±n(111.0±0.4) days - that we used to schedule our spectroscopic and photometric optical observations. Spectroscopic unusual activity detected in the Balmer lines and the enhancement in the emission in B, V, and R bands around the 106th periastron passage, and in V-band around the 108th periastron passage after the "zero event" 811205-E at JD 2 444 944, and the subsequent X-ray events definitively demonstrate the existence of a ≍8-day delay between optical and X-ray flares.

  1. Toward Fast, Low-noise, Low-power, Small Pixel Digital CCDs for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, Mark W.; Burke, Barry; Cooper, Michael; Foster, Richard; Grant, Catherine E.; LaMarr, Beverly; Malonis, Andrew; Miller, Eric D.; Prigozhin, Gregory; Schuette, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Future X-ray missions such as Lynx will require large-format imaging detectors with spectroscopic performance at least as good as the best current-generation devices but with much higher readout rates. We have been investigating a detector architecture under development at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, called the Digital CCD, for use in such missions. The Digital CCD is envisioned as a CMOS-compatible detector integrated with parallel CMOS signal processing chains. The combination of fast, low noise CCD amplifiers with highly parallel signal processing offers the high frame-rate required. The CMOS-compatibility of the CCD provides low-power charge transfer.Here we report on the X-ray spectral response of a CMOS-compatible test CCD read at 2.5 MHz (about 25 times faster than the CCDs operating on Chandra ACIS), using transfer clock levels of only +-1 V (power per unit area less than 25 times that of ACIS CCDs). The 8-micron pixels of this device are one third the size of those on Chandra ACIS. We compare charge splitting in this detector with that observed in larger-pixel detectors, and we briefly discuss the implications of the small-pixel, deep-depletion detector configurations required by Lynx.

  2. The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR) high-energy X-ray mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) mission, launched on 2012 June 13, is the first focusing high-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the ~10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X...

  3. An advanced high resolution x-ray imager for laser-plasma interaction observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennetiere D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here the latest results obtained with our high resolution broadband X-ray microscope. These results, both spatial and spectral, were obtained in several facilities such as Berlin's synchrotron Bessy II and LULI's laser ELFIE 100TW. The results show clearly the opportunity in high resolution microscopy that offer mirror based diagnostics.

  4. Assessment of a New High-Performance Small-Animal X-Ray Tomograph

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new X-ray cone-beam tomograph for in vivo small-animal imaging using a flat panel detector (CMOS technology with a microcolumnar CsI scintillator plate) and a microfocus X-ray source. The geometrical configuration was designed to achieve a spatial resolution of about 12 lpmm with a field of view appropriate for laboratory rodents. In order to achieve high performance with regard to per-animal screening time and cost, the acquisition software takes advantage of the highest ...

  5. X-ray characterization of surfaces irradiated with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, J.P. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Ion Surface Advanced Processes (ISAP) muE., 2 Square Francois Couperin, 92160 Antony (France)], E-mail: jpbriand920@aol.com; Benhachoum, M. [Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    Highly charged ions (HCI) approaching, touching or penetrating dielectric surfaces extract many electrons of the solid leading to the formation of permanent surface modifications. The ions which capture the electrons in their outermost shells form hollow atoms which emit X-rays during their decay to the ground state. In this paper one presents experiments showing that these X-rays) allow diagnosing the electric nature of the surfaces. HCI while modifying the structure of surfaces may then also be used to diagnose these changes on line or off line.

  6. Application of X-ray microscopy in food science investigation of high pressure affected bacterial spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönch, Susanne; Heinz, Volker; Guttmann, Peter; Knorr, Dietrich

    2000-05-01

    Using the Göttingen transmission X-ray microscope at BESSY the effect of different pressure and temperature levels during the high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment was investigated. At 150 MPa and temperatures up to 50 °C the triggering of germination was observed by standard microbiological methods with Bacillus subtilis spores. Increasing the temperature to 70 °C at the same pressure level killed the spores without any indication of germination. By X-ray microscopy images it could be shown that the typical disintegration of the protoplast is inhibited. This suggests that the enzymic reaction pathway is possibly affected under specific pressure temperature conditions.

  7. Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Akio, E-mail: akio.yoneyama.bu@hitachi.com; Baba, Rika [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [Institute of Materials Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry Showa University, Ota-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, Tosu, Saga (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.

  8. Laboratory simulation of cometary X-rays using a high-resolution microcalorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: beiersdorfer@llnl.gov; Chen, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Boyce, K.R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brown, G.V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kahn, S.M. [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    X-ray emission following charge exchange has been studied at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II using a high-resolution microcalorimeter. The measured spectra include the K-shell emission from hydrogenlike and heliumlike C, N, O, and Ne needed for simulations of cometary x-ray emission. A comparison of the spectra produced in the interaction of O{sup 8+} with N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is presented that illustrates the dependence of the observed spectrum on the interaction gas.

  9. Laboratory simulation of cometary x rays using a high-resolution microcalorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Kahn, S M

    2005-01-01

    X-ray emission following charge exchange has been studied on the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II using a high-resolution microcalorimeter. The measured spectra include the K-shell emission from hydrogenlike and heliumlike C, N, O, and Ne needed for simulations of cometary x-ray emission. A comparison of the spectra produced in the interaction of O8+ with N2 and CH4 is presented that illustrates the dependence of the observed spectrum on the interaction gas.

  10. Transmission diffraction-tomography system using a high-energy X-ray tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, D J; Jenneson, P M; Crook, R; Vincent, S M

    2010-01-01

    A high-energy bench-top energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) system for 3-dimensional mapping of the crystalline structure and phase transformations in steel is described, for which preliminary data and system development are presented here. The use of precision tungsten slit screens with up to 225 keV X-rays allows for diffraction through samples of 304 L austenitic stainless steel of thickness 3-10 mm, while sample positioning is carried out with a precision goniometer and translation stage system.

  11. Development of the super high angular resolution principle for X-ray imaging *

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhang; Shuang-Nan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Development of the Super High Angular Resolution Principle (SHARP)for coded-mask X-ray imaging is presented. We prove that SHARP can be considered as a generalized coded mask imaging method with a coding pattern comprised of diffraction-interference fringes in the mask pattern. The angular resolution of SHARP can be improved by detecting the fringes more precisely than the mask's element size,i.e. by using a detector with a pixel size smaller than the mask's element size. The proposed mission SHARP-X for solar X-ray observations is also briefly discussed.

  12. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  13. High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Nanocrystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, B.; Stelmakh, S.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Werner, S.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Application of in situ high pressure powder diffraction technique for examination of specific structural properties of nanocrystals based on the experimental data of SiC nanocrystalline powders of 2 to 30 nrn diameter in diameter is presented. Limitations and capabilities of the experimental techniques themselves and methods of diffraction data elaboration applied to nanocrystals with very small dimensions (nanocrystalline powders under pressure. We offer a tentative interpretation of the distribution of macro- and micro-strains in nanoparticles of different grain size.

  14. High-energy X-ray diffraction using the Pixium 4700 flat-panel detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J E; Drakopoulos, M

    2009-07-01

    The Pixium 4700 detector represents a significant step forward in detector technology for high-energy X-ray diffraction. The detector design is based on digital flat-panel technology, combining an amorphous Si panel with a CsI scintillator. The detector has a useful pixel array of 1910 x 2480 pixels with a pixel size of 154 microm x 154 microm, and thus it covers an effective area of 294 mm x 379 mm. Designed for medical imaging, the detector has good efficiency at high X-ray energies. Furthermore, it is capable of acquiring sequences of images at 7.5 frames per second in full image mode, and up to 60 frames per second in binned region of interest modes. Here, the basic properties of this detector applied to high-energy X-ray diffraction are presented. Quantitative comparisons with a widespread high-energy detector, the MAR345 image plate scanner, are shown. Other properties of the Pixium 4700 detector, including a narrow point-spread function and distortion-free image, allows for the acquisition of high-quality diffraction data at high X-ray energies. In addition, high frame rates and shutterless operation open new experimental possibilities. Also provided are the necessary data for the correction of images collected using the Pixium 4700 for diffraction purposes.

  15. High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Nanocrystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, B.; Stel'makh, S.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Palosz, W.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental evidence obtained for a variety of nanocrystalline materials suggest that the crystallographic structure of a very small size particle deviates from that in the bulk crystals. In this paper we show the effect of the surface of nanocrystals on their structure by the analysis of generation and distribution of macro- and micro-strains at high pressures and their dependence on the grain size in nanocrystalline powders of Sic. We studied the structure of Sic nanocrystals by in-situ high-pressure powder diffraction technique using synchrotron and neutron sources and hydrostatic or isostatic pressure conditions. The diffraction measurements were done in HASYLAB at DESY using a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) in the energy dispersive geometry in the diffraction vector range up to 3.5 - 4/A and under pressures up to 50 GPa at room temperature. In-situ high pressure neutron diffraction measurements were done at LANSCE in Los Alamos National Laboratory using the HIPD and HIPPO diffractometers with the Paris-Edinburgh and TAP-98 cells, respectively, in the diffraction vector range up to 26 Examination of the response of the material to external stresses requires nonstandard methodology of the materials characterization and description. Although every diffraction pattern contains a complete information on macro- and micro-strains, a high pressure experiment can reveal only those factors which contribute to the characteristic diffraction patterns of the crystalline phases present in the sample. The elastic properties of powders with the grain size from several nm to micrometers were examined using three methodologies: (l), the analysis of positions and widths of individual Bragg reflections (used for calculating macro- and micro-strains generated during densification) [I], (2). the analysis of the dependence of the experimental apparent lattice parameter, alp, on the diffraction vector Q [2], and (3), the atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) technique [3]. The results

  16. A high-repetition rate scheme for synchrotron-based picosecond laser pump/x-ray probe experiments on chemical and biological systems in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Frederico A; Milne, Christopher J; Amarasinghe, Dimali C V; Rittmann-Frank, Mercedes Hannelore; van der Veen, Renske M; Reinhard, Marco; Pham, Van-Thai; Karlsson, Susanne; Johnson, Steven L; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Huthwelker, Thomas; Janousch, Markus; van Mourik, Frank; Abela, Rafael; Chergui, Majed

    2011-06-01

    We present the extension of time-resolved optical pump/x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probe experiments towards data collection at MHz repetition rates. The use of a high-power picosecond laser operating at an integer fraction of the repetition rate of the storage ring allows exploitation of up to two orders of magnitude more x-ray photons than in previous schemes based on the use of kHz lasers. Consequently, we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in the signal-to-noise of time-resolved XAS of molecular systems in solution. This makes it possible to investigate highly dilute samples at concentrations approaching physiological conditions for biological systems. The simplicity and compactness of the scheme allows for straightforward implementation at any synchrotron beamline and for a wide range of x-ray probe techniques, such as time-resolved diffraction or x-ray emission studies.

  17. High resolution x-ray CMT: Reconstruction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.K.

    1997-02-01

    This paper qualitatively discusses the primary characteristics of methods for reconstructing tomographic images from a set of projections. These reconstruction methods can be categorized as either {open_quotes}analytic{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}iterative{close_quotes} techniques. Analytic algorithms are derived from the formal inversion of equations describing the imaging process, while iterative algorithms incorporate a model of the imaging process and provide a mechanism to iteratively improve image estimates. Analytic reconstruction algorithms are typically computationally more efficient than iterative methods; however, analytic algorithms are available for a relatively limited set of imaging geometries and situations. Thus, the framework of iterative reconstruction methods is better suited for high accuracy, tomographic reconstruction codes.

  18. Microcalorimetry for High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-03

    Magnetic Microcalorimeters (MMCs) are gamma-ray detectors with an energy resolution 10x higher than high-purity germanium detectors. They can increase the accuracy of non-destructive analysis of nuclear materials, enable the detection of new isotopes (e.g. Pu-242 of U-236), and improve nuclear data in cases where Ge detectors are limited by line overlap. MMCs consist of a magnetic sensor operated at temperatures below 50 mK, and they infer gamma-ray energies from the change in magnetization due to the temperature increase after gamma-ray absorption. The goal of this project is to further increase the energy resolution and sensitivity of MMC gamma detectors.

  19. High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Nanocrystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, B.; Stelmakh, S.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Werner, S.; Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Application of in situ high pressure powder diffraction technique for examination of specific structural properties of nanocrystals based on the experimental data of SiC nanocrystalline powders of 2 to 30 nrn diameter in diameter is presented. Limitations and capabilities of the experimental techniques themselves and methods of diffraction data elaboration applied to nanocrystals with very small dimensions (< 30 nm) are discussed. It is shown that due to the complex structure, constituting a two-phase, core/surface shell system, no unique lattice parameter value and, consequently, no unique compressibility coefficient can satisfactorily describe the behavior of nanocrystalline powders under pressure. We offer a tentative interpretation of the distribution of macro- and micro-strains in nanoparticles of different grain size.

  20. High-pressure X-ray diffraction studies of potassium chlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Bhattacharya, Neelanjan (UNLV)

    2012-03-15

    Two static high-pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of potassium chlorate have been performed at pressures of up to {approx}14.3 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at ambient temperature using the 16 ID-B undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source for the X-ray source. The first experiment was conducted to ascertain decomposition rates of potassium chlorate as a function of pressure. Below 2 GPa, the sample was observed to decompose rapidly in the presence of the X-ray beam and release oxygen. Above 2 GPa (near the phase I phase II transition), the decomposition rate dramatically slowed so that good quality XRD patterns could be acquired. This suggests a phase-dependent decomposition rate. In the second study, X-ray diffraction spectra were collected at pressures from 2 to 14.3 GPa by aligning virgin portions of the sample into the focused X-ray beam at each pressure. The results suggest the co-existence of mixed monoclinic (I) and rhombohedral (II) phases of potassium chlorate near 2 GPa. At pressures beyond 4 GPa, the XRD patterns show a very good fit to KClO{sub 3} in the rhombohedral phase with space group R3m, in agreement with earlier studies. No further phase transitions were observed with pressure. Decompression of the sample to ambient pressure indicated mixed phases I and II coupled with a small amount of synchrotron X-ray-induced decomposition product. The equation of state within this pressure regime has been determined.

  1. A gas-tight Cu K alpha x-ray transparent reaction chamber for high-temperature x-ray diffraction analyses of halide gas/solid reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shian, Samuel; Sandhage, Kenneth H

    2009-11-01

    An externally heated, x-ray transparent reaction chamber has been developed to enable the dynamic high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) analysis of a gas/solid [TiF(4)(g)/SiO(2)(s)] reaction involving a halide gas reactant formed at elevated temperatures (up to 350 degrees C) from a condensed source (TiF(4) powder) sealed within the chamber. The reaction chamber possessed x-ray transparent windows comprised of a thin (13 microm) internal layer of Al foil and a thicker (125 microm) external Kapton film. After sealing the SiO(2) specimens (diatom frustules or Stober spheres) above TiF(4) powder within the reaction chamber, the chamber was heated to a temperature in the range of 160-350 degrees C to allow for internal generation of TiF(4)(g). The TiF(4)(g) underwent a metathetic reaction with the SiO(2) specimen to yield a TiOF(2)(s) product. HTXRD analysis, using Cu K alpha x rays passed through the Kapton/Al windows of the chamber, was used to track the extent of SiO(2) consumption and/or TiOF(2) formation with time. The Al foil inner layer of the windows protected the Kapton film from chemical attack by TiF(4)(g), whereas the thicker, more transparent Kapton film provided the mechanical strength needed to contain this gas. By selecting an appropriate combination of x-ray transparent materials to endow such composite windows with the required thermal, chemical, and mechanical performance, this inexpensive reaction chamber design may be applied to the HTXRD analyses of a variety of gas/solid reactions.

  2. Relativistically Self-Channeled Femtosecond Terawatt Lasers for High-Field Physics and X-Ray Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.B.; Boyer, K.; Cameron, S.M.; Luk, T.S.; McPherson, A.; Nelson, T.; Rhodes, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    Optical channeling or refractive guiding processes involving the nonlinear interaction of intense femtosecond optical pulses with matter in the self-focussing regime has created exciting opportunities for next-generation laser plasma-based x-ray sources and directed energy applications. This fundamentally new form of extended paraxial electromagnetic propagation in nonlinear dispersive media such as underdense plasma is attributed to the interplay between normal optical diffraction and intensity-dependent nonlinear focussing and refraction contributions in the dielectric response. Superposition of these mechanisms on the intrinsic index profile acts to confine the propagating energy in a dynamic self-guiding longitudinal waveguide structure which is stable for power transmission and robust compression. The laser-driven channels are hypothesized to support a degree of solitonic transport behavior, simultaneously stable in the space and time domains (group velocity dispersion balances self-phase modulation), and are believed to be self-compensating for diffraction and dispersion over many Rayleigh lengths in contrast with the defining characteristics of conventional diffractive imaging and beamforming. By combining concentrated power deposition with well-ordered spatial localization, this phenomena will also create new possibilities for production and regulation of physical interactions, including electron beams, enhanced material coupling, and self-modulated plasma wakefields, over extended gain distances with unprecedented energy densities. Harmonious combination of short-pulse x-ray production with plasma channeling resulting from a relativistic charge displacement nonlinearity mechanism in the terawatt regime (10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) has been shown to generate high-field conditions conducive to efficient multi-kilovolt x-ray amplification and peak spectral brightness. Channeled optical propagation with intense short-pulse lasers is expected to impact several

  3. Soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars as highly magnetized white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility that soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are powered by highly magnetized white dwarfs (B-WDs). We take a sample of SGRs and AXPs and provide the possible parameter space in mass, radius, and surface magnetic field based on their observed properties (period and its derivative) and the assumption that these sources obey the mass-radius relation derived for the B-WDs. The radius and magnetic field of B-WDs are adequate to explain energies in SGRs/AXPs as the rotationally powered energy. In addition, B-WDs also adequately explain the perplexing radio transient GCRT J1745-3009 as a white dwarf pulsar. Note that the radius and magnetic fields of B-WDs are neither extreme (unlike of highly magnetized neutron stars) nor ordinary (unlike of magnetized white dwarfs, yet following the Chandrasekhar's mass-radius relation (C-WDs)). In order to explain SGRs/AXPs, while the highly magnetized neutron stars require an extra, observationally not well established yet, ...

  4. Soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars as highly magnetized white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Rao, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the possibility that soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are powered by highly magnetized white dwarfs (B-WDs). We take a sample of SGRs and AXPs and provide the possible parameter space in mass, radius, and surface magnetic field based on their observed properties (period and its derivative) and the assumption that these sources obey the mass-radius relation derived for the B-WDs. The radius and magnetic field of B-WDs are adequate to explain energies in SGRs/AXPs as the rotationally powered energy. In addition, B-WDs also adequately explain the perplexing radio transient GCRT J1745-3009 as a white dwarf pulsar. Note that the radius and magnetic fields of B-WDs are neither extreme (unlike of highly magnetized neutron stars) nor ordinary (unlike of magnetized white dwarfs, yet following the Chandrasekhar's mass-radius relation (C-WDs)). In order to explain SGRs/AXPs, while the highly magnetized neutron stars require an extra, observationally not well established yet, source of energy, the C-WDs predict large ultra-violet luminosity which is observationally constrained from a strict upper limit. Finally, we provide a set of basic differences between the magnetar and B-WD hypotheses for SGRs/AXPs.

  5. Constraining omega from X-ray properties of clusters of galaxies at high redshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadat, R.; Blanchard, A.; Oukbir, J.

    1997-01-01

    Properties of high redshift clusters are a fundamental source of information for cosmology. It has been shown by Oukbir and Blanchard (1997) that the combined knowledge of the redshift distribution of X-ray clusters of galaxies and the luminosity-temperature correlation, L-X - T-X, provides a pow...

  6. Winds in the AGN environment : new perspectives from high resolution X-ray spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Gesu, L.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, winds were recognized as an important ingredient in the AGN picture. Outflows of photoionized gas, which produce blueshifted absorption features detectable in the X-ray and in the UV band, are present in about 50% of Seyfert 1 galaxies. Combining observations at high spectral resolu

  7. Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Gao

    2006-05-12

    The primary objective of the project was to develop a novel dual-optic x-ray fluorescence instrument capable of doing radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford Site.

  8. High resolution X-ray scattering studies of substrates and multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland

    1988-01-01

    High resolution X-ray scattering measurements on multilayer substrates and surfaces are reviewed. It is shown that the usual substrates of float glass and Si-wafers are dominated by large scale figure error, whereas samples of super polished SiC substrates are comparable in flatness and roughness...

  9. High-mass X-ray binaries and OB runaway stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaper, L.; van der Meer, A.; Tijani, A.H.; Allen, C.; Scarfe, C.

    2004-01-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) represent an important phase in the evolution of massive binary systems and provide fundamental information on the properties of the OB-star primaries and their compact secondaries (neutron star, black hole). Recent observations indicate that the neutron stars in som

  10. High Pressure X-ray Absorption Studies on Correlated-Electron Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Andrew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-26

    This project used high pressure to alter the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions in rare earth and actinide compounds. Knowledge of these properties is the starting points for a first-principles understanding of electronic and electronically related macroscopic properties. The research focused on a systematic study of x-ray absorption measurements on rare earth and actinide compounds.

  11. Windowless microfluidic platform based on capillary burst valves for high intensity x-ray measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Enevoldsen, Nikolaj Brandt;

    2009-01-01

    We propose and describe a microfluidic system for high intensity x-ray measurements. The required open access to a microfluidic channel is provided by an out-of-plane capillary burst valve (CBV). The functionality of the out-of-plane CBV is characterized with respect to the diameter of the window...

  12. High-speed X-ray imaging of a ball impacting on loose sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.; Mudde, R.F.; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2015-01-01

    When a ball is dropped in fine very loose sand, a splash and subsequently a jet are observed above the bed, followed by a granular eruption. To directly and quantitatively determine what happens inside the sand bed, high-speed X-ray tomography measurements are carried out in a custom-made set-up

  13. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S G; Barty, C P J; Betts, S M; Brown, W J; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D N; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Kuba, J; LaSage, G P; Rosenzweig, J B; Slaughter, D R; Springer, P T; Tremaine, A M

    2003-07-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10{sup 20} photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}. Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations.

  14. High-pressure X-ray diffraction study of bulk- and nanocrystalline GaN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, J.E.; Jakobsen, J.M.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2003-01-01

    Bulk- and nanocrystalline GaN have been studied by high-pressure energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction. Pressure-induced structural phase transitions from the wurtzite to the NaCl phase were observed in both materials. The transition pressure was found to be 40 GPa for the bulk-crystalline GaN, while...

  15. Highly absorbed X-ray binaries in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Novara, G; Mereghetti, S; Haberl, F; Coe, M; Filipovic, M; Udalski, A; Paizis, A; Pietsch, W; Sturm, R; Gilfanov, M; Tiengo, A; Payne, J; Smits, D; De Horta, A

    2011-01-01

    Many of the high mass X-ray binaries (HMXRBs) discovered in recent years in our Galaxy are characterized by a high absorption, most likely intrinsic to the system, which hampers their detection at the softest X-ray energies. We have undertaken a search for highly-absorbed X-ray sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with a systematic analysis of 62 XMM-Newton SMC observations. We obtained a sample of 30 sources showing evidence for an equivalent hydrogen column density larger than 3x10^23 cm^-2. Five of these sources are clearly identified as HMXRBs: four were already known (including three X-ray pulsars) and one, XMM J005605.8-720012, reported here for the first time. For the latter, we present optical spectroscopy confirming the association with a Be star in the SMC. The other sources in our sample have optical counterparts fainter than magnitude ~16 in the V band, and many of them have possible NIR counterparts consistent with highly reddened early type stars in the SMC. While their number is broadly ...

  16. Massive Stars and Their Compact Remnants in High-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaper, L.; van der Meer, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) a massive star interacts with a neutron-star or black-hole companion in various ways. The gravitational interaction enables the measurement of fundamental parameters such as the mass of both binary components, providing important constraints on the evolutionary his

  17. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Robert K.

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  18. High-Resolution Chandra X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Sigma Orionis Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, S L; Cohen, D H; Gagné, M; Owocki, S P; Townsend, R D

    2008-01-01

    We present results of a 90 ksec Chandra X-ray observation of the young sigma Orionis cluster (age ~3 Myr) obtained with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer. We use the high resolution grating spectrum and moderate resolution CCD spectrum of the massive central star sigma Ori AB (O9.5V + B0.5V) to test wind shock theories of X-ray emission and also analyze the high spatial resolution zero-order ACIS-S image of the central cluster region. Chandra detected 42 X-ray sources on the primary CCD (ACIS-S3). All but five have near-IR or optical counterparts and about one-fourth are variable. Notable high-mass stellar detections are sigma Ori AB, the magnetic B star sigma Ori E, and the B5V binary HD 37525. Most of the other detections have properties consistent with lower mass K or M-type stars. We present the first X-ray spectrum of the unusual infrared source IRS1 located 3.3 arc-sec north of sigma Ori AB, which is likely an embedded T Tauri star whose disk/envelope is being photoevaporated by sigma Or...

  19. High-brightness beamline for x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Jones, G. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Lindle, D.W. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, high flux, and high brightness at the sample. When completed later this year, it will be the first ALS monochromatic hard x-ray beamline, and its brightness will be an order of magnitude higher than presently available in this energy range. In addition, it will provide flux and resolution comparable to any other beamline now in operation. To achieve these goals, two technical improvements, relative to existing x-ray beamlines, were incorporated. First, a somewhat novel optical design for x-rays, in which matched toroidal mirrors are positioned before and after the double-crystal monochromator, was adopted. This configuration allows for high resolution by passing a collimated beam through the monochromator, and for high brightness by focusing the ALS source on the sample with unit magnification. Second, a new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator based on the design used at NSLS beamline X-24A was developed. The measured mechanical precision of this new monochromator shows significant improvement over existing designs, without using positional feedback available with piezoelectric devices. Such precision is essential because of the high brightness of the radiation and the long distance (12 m) from the source (sample) to the collimating (focusing) mirror. This combination of features will provide a bright, high resolution, and stable x-ray beam for use in the x-ray spectroscopy program at the ALS.

  20. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF) using the high flux SAXS camera

    CERN Document Server

    Wobrauschek, P; Pepponi, G; Bergmann, A; Glatter, O

    2002-01-01

    Combining the high photon flux from a rotating anode X-ray tube with an X-ray optical component to focus and monochromatize the X-ray beam is the most promising instrumentation for best detection limits in the modern XRF laboratory. This is realized by using the design of a high flux SAXS camera in combination with a 4 kW high brilliant rotating Cu anode X-ray tube with a graded elliptically bent multilayer and including a new designed module for excitation in total reflection geometry within the beam path. The system can be evacuated thus reducing absorption and scattering of air and removing the argon peak in the spectra. Another novelty is the use of a Peltier cooled drift detector with an energy resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV and 5 mm sup 2 area. For Co detection limits of about 300 fg determined by a single element standard have been achieved. Testing a real sample NIST 1643d led to detection limits in the range of 300 ng/l for the medium Z.

  1. On the use of CCD area detectors for high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenter, P; Catalano, J G; Park, C; Zhang, Z

    2006-07-01

    The use and application of charge coupled device (CCD) area detectors for high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity is discussed. Direct comparison of high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity data measured with CCD area detectors and traditional X-ray scintillator ('point') detectors demonstrates that the use of CCD detectors leads to a substantial (approximately 30-fold) reduction in data acquisition rates because of the elimination of the need to scan the sample to distinguish signal from background. The angular resolution with a CCD detector is also improved by a factor of approximately 3. The ability to probe the large dynamic range inherent to high-resolution X-ray reflectivity data in the specular reflection geometry was demonstrated with measurements of the orthoclase (001)- and alpha-Al2O3 (012)-water interfaces, with measured reflectivity signals varying by a factor of approximately 10(6) without the use of any beam attenuators. Statistical errors in the reflectivity signal are also derived and directly compared with the repeatability of the measurements.

  2. High Angular Resolution and Lightweight X-Ray Optics for Astronomical Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Evans, T. C.; Hong, M.; Jones, W. D.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; McClelland, R. S.; ODell, S. L.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray optics with both high angular resolution and lightweight is essential for further progress in x-ray astronomy. High angular resolution is important in avoiding source confusion and reducing background to enable the observation of the most distant objects of the early Universe. It is also important in enabling the use of gratings to achieve high spectral resolution to study, among other things, the myriad plasmas that exist in planetary, stellar, galactic environments, as well as interplanetary, inter-stellar, and inter-galactic media. Lightweight is important for further increase in effective photon collection area, because x-ray observations must take place on space platforms and the amount of mass that can be launched into space has always been very limited and is expected to continue to be very limited. This paper describes an x-ray optics development program and reports on its status that meets these two requirements. The objective of this program is to enable Explorer type missions in the near term and to enable flagship missions in the long term.

  3. Fast electron slowing-down and diffusion in a high temperature coronal X-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, R K; Kontar, E P; Helander, P; Galloway, Ross K.; Kinnon, Alexander L. Mac; Kontar, Eduard P.; Helander, Per

    2005-01-01

    Finite thermal velocity modifications to electron slowing-down rates may be important for the deduction of solar flare total electron energy. Here we treat both slowing-down and velocity diffusion of electrons in the corona at flare temperatures, for the case of a simple, spatially homogeneous source. Including velocity diffusion yields a consistent treatment of both `accelerated' and `thermal' electrons. It also emphasises that one may not invoke finite thermal velocity target effects on electron lifetimes without simultaneously treating the contribution to the observed X-ray spectrum from thermal electrons. We present model calculations of the X-ray spectra resulting from injection of a power-law energy distribution of electrons into a source with finite temperature. Reducing the power-law distribution low-energy cutoff to lower and lower energies only increases the relative magnitude of the thermal component of the spectrum, because the lowest energy electrons simply join the background thermal distributio...

  4. A multiplexed high-resolution imaging spectrometer for resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Tony; Chuang, Yi De; Voronov, Dmitriy L; Padmore, Howard A

    2014-07-01

    The optical design of a two-dimensional imaging soft X-ray spectrometer is described. A monochromator will produce a dispersed spectrum in a narrow vertical illuminated stripe (∼2 µm wide by ∼2 mm tall) on a sample. The spectrometer will use inelastically scattered X-rays to image the extended field on the sample in the incident photon energy direction (vertical), resolving the incident photon energy. At the same time it will image and disperse the scattered photons in the orthogonal (horizontal) direction, resolving the scattered photon energy. The principal challenge is to design a system that images from the flat-field illumination of the sample to the flat field of the detector and to achieve sufficiently high spectral resolution. This spectrometer provides a completely parallel resonant inelastic X-ray scattering measurement at high spectral resolution (∼30,000) over the energy bandwidth (∼5 eV) of a soft X-ray absorption resonance.

  5. Large area high-resolution CCD-based X-ray detector for macromolecular crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Pokric, M; Jorden, A R; Cox, M P; Marshall, A; Long, P G; Moon, K; Jerram, P A; Pool, P; Nave, C; Derbyshire, G E; Helliwell, J R

    2002-01-01

    An X-ray detector system for macromolecular crystallography based on a large area charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor has been developed as part of a large research and development programme for advanced X-ray sensor technology, funded by industry and the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) in the UK. The prototype detector consists of two large area three-sides buttable charge-coupled devices (CCD 46-62 EEV), where the single CCD area is 55.3 mmx41.5 mm. Overall detector imaging area is easily extendable to 85 mmx110 mm. The detector consists of an optically coupled X-ray sensitive phosphor, skewed fibre-optic studs and CCDs. The crystallographic measurement requirements at synchrotron sources are met through a high spatial resolution (2048x1536 pixel array), high dynamic range (approx 10 sup 5), a fast readout (approx 1 s), low noise (<10e sup -) and much reduced parallax error. Additionally, the prototype detector system has been optimised by increasing its efficiency at low X-ray ene...

  6. What is the nature of the high energy X-ray sources in the galaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuturilo, Sophie; Tomsick, John; Clavel, Maica; Lansbury, George B.

    2017-01-01

    Finding sources of high energy “hard” X-rays allow us to probe the most extreme conditions in the Universe. Such sources include accreting black holes and neutron stars, where we find the strongest gravitational and magnetic fields, as well as pulsars and supernova remnants, where particles are accelerated to produce the hard X-rays. Over the past decade, the INTEGRAL satellite ahs been discovering new high energy sources, and this has allowed us to understand the population of bright hard X-ray sources. Over the past few years, the NuSTAR satellite, with much better sensitivity than INTEGRAL, has been allowing us to find even more hard X-ray sources, and we will present results from studies of sources discovered in the NuSTAR serendipitous source survey. We analyzed seven different potential sources looking for counterparts using NuSTAR, Chandra and ground based optical/NIR observations. Of the seven, two have confirmed counterparts and five need either an optical/NIR detection or further spectroscopy.

  7. Modelling the energy dependencies of high-frequency QPO in black hole X-ray binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Zycki, P T; Sobolewska, M A

    2007-01-01

    We model energy dependencies of the quasi periodic oscillations (QPO) in the model of disc epicyclic motions, with X-ray modulation caused by varying relativistic effects. The model was proposed to explain the high frequency QPO observed in X-ray binaries. We consider two specific scenarios for the geometry of accretion flow and spectral formation. Firstly, a standard cold accretion disc with an active X-ray emitting corona is assumed to oscillate. Secondly, only a hot X-ray emitting accretion flow oscillates, while the cold disc is absent at the QPO radius. We find that the QPO spectra are generally similar to the spectrum of radiation emitted at the QPO radius, and they are broadened by the relativistic effects. In particular, the QPO spectrum contains the disc component in the oscillating disc with a corona scenario. We also review the available data on energy dependencies of high frequency QPO, and we point out that they appear to lack the disc component in their energy spectra. This would suggest the hot...

  8. Focusing polycapillary to reduce parasitic scattering for inelastic x-ray measurements at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.

    2015-07-01

    The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation.

  9. Fabrication of high resolution and lightweight monocrystalline silicon x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Kolos, Linette D.; Mazzarella, James R.; McKeon, Kevin P.; Zhang, William W.

    2015-09-01

    Monocrystalline silicon as an x-ray mirror substrate material promises significant improvements over the x- ray mirror technologies used to date, since it is mechanically stiff, stress-free, highly thermally conductive, and widely commercially available. Producing highly accurate and lightweight x-ray mirrors from monocrystalline silicon requires a unique and specialized manufacturing process capable of producing mirrors quickly and cost effectively. The identification, development, and testing of this process is the focus of the work described in this proceeding. Monocrystalline silicon blocks were obtained, and a variety of processes (wire electro-discharge machining, etching, polishing) were applied to generate an accurate and stress-free cylindrical or Wolter-I mirror surface. The mirror surface is then sliced off at a thickness of mirror segment with mirror production process requires ~2 days to produce a mirror segment and is easily integrated into a cost-reducing parallel processing scheme. Presently, there is strong evidence that the mirror production process described in this paper will meet the stringent requirements of future x-ray missions.

  10. High-resolution spectroscopic diagnostics of very high-temperature plasmas in the hard x-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, K

    1999-12-06

    Motivated by the need for establishing a reliable database useful for the application of x-ray spectroscopic tools for the diagnostic of very high temperature plasmas, high-resolution crystal spectrometer measurements have been performed investigating the characteristic K-shell radiation of highly charged krypton and xenon. The measurements, which have been performed at the Electron-Beam-Ion-Trap (EBIT) facility of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, include the investigation of the n = 2 {yields} 1 transitions in heliumlike krypton (Kr{sup 34+}) and innershell excited lithiumlike krypton (Kr{sup 33+}) utilizing a conventional reflection-type crystal spectrometer of von Hamos geometry. The electron-excitation-energy selective measurements map the contribution of the dielectronic recombination lines providing the means of accurate interpretation of the line profiles of the characteristic K{alpha} x-ray emission of plasmas. The high-resolution measurements of the n = 2 {yields} 1 transitions in heliumlike xenon (Xe{sup 52+}) and hydrogenlike xenon (Xe{sup 53+}) were based on a new transmission-type crystal spectrometer of DuMond geometry. The resolving power of the developed spectrometer was sufficient for charge state specific observation allowing the determination of the electron-impact excitation cross section for the hydrogen- and heliumlike K{alpha} transitions. The disagreement with theoretically predicted values is a measure of the magnitude of the Breit interaction for the highly charged high-Z ions.

  11. High-resolution X-ray diffraction imaging of non-Bragg diffracting materials using phase retrieval X-ray diffractometry (PRXRD) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikulin, A.Y.; Darahanau, A.V.; Horney, R.; Ishikawa, T

    2004-06-15

    An X-ray diffraction technique has recently been developed and successfully applied to comprehensively, including both phase and amplitude contrast, map the complex refractive index of non-crystalline materials with submicron spatial resolution. The methodology is based on the measurement of a high angular resolution X-ray Fraunhofer diffraction pattern with further application of the phase-retrieval formalism using a logarithmic dispersion relation. The technique is reviewed from the perspective of its ability to deliver ultra-high, order of several nanometres, spatial resolution and to uniquely determine both the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index of the material under analysis. Potential niche of practical applications is discussed in terms of the spatial resolution and field of view achievable by the method.

  12. Filamentation effect in a gas attenuator for high-repetition-rate X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yiping; Krzywinski, Jacek; Schafer, Donald W.; Ortiz, Eliazar; Rowen, Michael; Raubenheimer, Tor O.

    2016-01-01

    A sustained filamentation or density depression phenomenon in an argon gas attenuator servicing a high-repetition femtosecond X-ray free-electron laser has been studied using a finite-difference method applied to the thermal diffusion equation for an ideal gas. A steady-state solution was obtained by assuming continuous-wave input of an equivalent time-averaged beam power and that the pressure of the entire gas volume has reached equilibrium. Both radial and axial temperature/density gradients were found and describable as filamentation or density depression previously reported for a femtosecond optical laser of similar attributes. The effect exhibits complex dependence on the input power, the desired attenuation, and the geometries of the beam and the attenuator. Time-dependent simulations were carried out to further elucidate the evolution of the temperature/density gradients in between pulses, from which the actual attenuation received by any given pulse can be properly calculated.

  13. MAX200x: In-situ X-ray Measurements at High Pressure and High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathe, C.; Mueller, H. J.; Wehber, M.; Lauterjung, J.; Schilling, F. R.

    2009-05-01

    Twenty years ago geoscientists from all over the world launched in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments under extreme pressure and temperature conditions at synchrotron beamlines. One of the first apparatus was installed at HASYLAB, MAX80, a single-stage multi-anvil system. MAX80 allows in-situ diffraction studies in conjunction with the simultaneous measurement of elastic properties up to 12 GPa and 1600 K. This very successful experiment, unique in Europe, is operated by Helmholtz Centre Potsdam and is used by more than twenty groups from different countries every year. Experiments for both, applied and basic research are conducted, ranging from life-sciences, chemistry, physics, over material sciences to geosciences. Today new materials and the use of high brilliant synchrotron sources allow constructing double-stage multi-anvil systems for X-ray diffraction to reach much higher pressures. The newly designed high-flux hard wiggler (HARWI-II) beamline is an ideal X-ray source for this kind of experiments. As only the uppermost few kilometres of the Earth (less than 0.1% of its radius) are accessible for direct observations (e.g. deep drilling), sophisticated techniques are required to observe and to understand the processes in the deep interior of our planet. In-situ studies are an excellent tool to investigate ongoing geodynamic processes within the laboratory. One of the fundamental regions to study geodynamic processes seems to be the so-called transition zone, the boundary between upper and lower Earth's mantle between 410 and 670 km depth. Mineral reactions, phase transitions, as wheel as fluid rock interaction in this area might have the potential to strongly influence and control the dynamic motions within our whole planet. Around 25 GPa and 2 000 K are required to simulate these processes in the laboratory. The new MAX200x will be an excellent tool for these ambitious experiments.

  14. Characterization of neutron yield and x-ray spectra of a High Flux Neutron Generator (HFNG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamani, Nnaemeka; HFNG Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The High Flux Neutron Generator (HFNG) is a DD plasma-based source, with a self-loading target intended for fundamental science and engineering applications, including 40 Ar/39 Ar geochronology, neutron cross section measurements, and radiation hardness testing of electronics. Our first estimate of the neutron yield, based on the population of the 4.486 hour 115 In isomer gave a neutron yield of the order 108 n/sec; optimization is ongoing to achieve the design target of 1011 n/sec. Preliminary x-ray spectra showed prominent energy peaks which are likely due to atomic line-emission from back-streaming electrons accelerated up to 100 keV impinging on various components of the HFNG chamber. Our x-ray and neutron diagnostics will aid us as we continue to evolve the design to suppress back-streaming electrons, necessary to achieve higher plasma beam currents, and thus higher neutron flux. This talk will focus on the characterization of the neutron yield and x-ray spectra during our tests. A collimation system is being installed near one of the chamber ports for improved observation of the x-ray spectra. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. EAR-0960138, U.S. DOE LBNL Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, U.S. DOE LLNL Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and the UC Office of the President Award 12-LR-238745.

  15. Polarization in CdTe radiation detectors at high X-ray photon fluxes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Jan; Dědič, Václav; Pekárek, Jakub; Belas, Eduard; Touš, Jan

    2016-09-01

    In this contribution we show an improvement of a spectroscopic response of CZT X-ray detector operating at high fluxes of X-ray tube by simultaneous infrared light illumination with a wavelength of 1200 nm. CZT detectors usually suffer from a polarization effect while their internal electric field can be strongly deformed due to a trapping of photogenerated holes. We describe a mechanism of an optically induced depolarization peaking at photon energy of about 1 eV ( 1240 nm) due to an optical transition of electrons from the valence band to the deep level. The depolarization effect is accompanied by a decrease of the detector current which results in a lower noise entering the preamplifier of detector readout circuit. We have observed that it is possible to restore originally distorted X-ray spectra using additional 1200 nm LED illumination with a photon flux of 10^16 cm^-2s^-1 at approximately two times higher X-ray flux than without LED. The number of detected counts was in the range of 10^5-10^6mm^2s^-1. The restoration of the spectrum by continuous infrared light is accompanied by decrease of dark current. We explain this effect by light induced changes of profile of the electric filed that leads to decrease of the electron current injected from the cathode.

  16. Discovery of a high confidence soft lag from an X-ray flare of Markarian 421

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We present the X-ray variability properties of the X-ray and TeV bright blazar Mrk 421 with a-60 ks long XMM-Newton observation performed on November 9-10,2005.The source experienced a pronounced flare,of which the inter-band time lags were determined with a very high confidence level.The soft(0.6-0.8 keV) X-ray variations lagged the hard(4-10 keV) ones by 1.09+0.11-0.12 ks,and the soft lag increases with increasing difference in the photon energy.The energy-dependent soft lags can be well fitted with the difference of the energy-dependent cooling timescales of the relativistic electron distribution responsible for the observed X-ray emission,which constrains the magnetic field strength and Doppler factor of the emitting region to be Bδ 1/3-1.78 Gauss.

  17. High Dynamic Range X-ray Detector Pixel Architectures Utilizing Charge Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Joel T; Philipp, Hugh T; Becker, Julian; Chamberlain, Darol; Purohit, Prafull; Tate, Mark W; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-01-01

    Several charge integrating CMOS pixel front-ends utilizing charge removal techniques have been fabricated to extend dynamic range for x-ray diffraction applications at synchrotron sources and x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The pixels described herein build on the Mixed Mode Pixel Array Detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging. These new pixels boast several orders of magnitude improvement in maximum flux over the MM-PAD, which is capable of measuring a sustained flux in excess of 10$^{8}$ x-rays/pixel/second while maintaining sensitivity to smaller signals, down to single x-rays. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the front-end amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is thereby shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to t...

  18. The role of metallicity in high mass X-ray binaries in galaxy formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Artale, M C; Tissera, P B

    2014-01-01

    Context: Recent theoretical works claim that high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) could have been important sources of energy feedback into the interstellar and intergalactic media, playing a major role in the reionization epoch. A metallicity dependence of the production rate or luminosity of the sources is a key ingredient generally assumed but not yet probed. Aims: Our goal is to explore the relation between the X-ray luminosity (Lx) and star formation rate of galaxies as a possible tracer of a metallicity dependence of the production rates and/or X-ray luminosities of HMXBs. Methods: We developed a model to estimate the Lx of star forming galaxies based on stellar evolution models which include metallicity dependences. We applied our X-ray binary models to galaxies selected from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations which include chemical evolution of the stellar populations in a self-consistent way. Results: Our models successfully reproduce the dispersion in the observed relations as an outcome of the com...

  19. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey II: X-ray Emission and High Ionization Optical Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Berney, Simon; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Schawinski, Kevin; Balokovic, Mislav; Crenshaw, D Michael; Fischer, Travis; Gehrels, Neil; Harrison, Fiona; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ichikawa, Kohei; Mushotzky, Richard; Oh, Kyuseok; Stern, Daniel; Treister, Ezequiel; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between X-ray and optical line emission in 340 nearby AGN selected above 10 keV using Swift BAT. We find a weak correlation between the extinction corrected [O III] and hard X-ray luminosity (14-195 keV) with a [OIII] large scatter (R_Pear = 0.64, sigma = 0.62 dex) and a similarly large scatter with the intrinsic 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosities (RPear=0.63, sigma = 0.63 dex). Correlations of the hard X-ray fluxes with the fluxes of high-ionization narrow lines ([O III], He II, [Ne III] and [Ne V]) are not significantly better than with the low ionization lines (Halpha, [SII]). Factors like obscuration or physical slit size are not found to be a significant part of the large scatter. In contrast, the optical emission lines show much better correlations with each other (sigma = 0.3 dex) than with the X-ray flux. The inherent large scatter questions the common usage of narrow emission lines as AGN bolometric luminosity indicators and suggests that other issues such as geometrical...

  20. Detecting Relativistic X-ray Jets in High-Redshift Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    McKeough, Kathryn; Cheung, C C; Stawarz, Lukasz; Kashyap, Vinay L; Stein, Nathan; Stampoulis, Vasileios; van Dyk, David A; Wardle, J F C; Lee, N P; Harris, D E; Schwartz, D A; Donato, Davide; Maraschi, Laura; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray images of a sample of 11 quasars that are known to contain kiloparsec scale radio jets. The sample consists of five high-redshift (z >= 3.6) flat-spectrum radio quasars, and six intermediate redshift (2.1 < z < 2.9) quasars. The dataset includes four sources with integrated steep radio spectra and seven with flat radio spectra. A total of 25 radio jet features are present in this sample. We apply a Bayesian multi-scale image reconstruction method to detect and measure the X-ray emission from the jets. We compute deviations from a baseline model that does not include the jet, and compare observed X-ray images with those computed with simulated images where no jet features exist. This allows us to compute p-value upper bounds on the significance that an X- ray jet is detected in a pre-determined region of interest. We detected 12 of the features unambiguously, and an additional 6 marginally. We also find residual emission in the cores of 3 quasars and in the background of 1 quasar...

  1. High proper motion X-ray binaries from the Yale Southern Proper Motion Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Maccarone, Thomas J; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the results of cross-correlating catalogs of bright X-ray binaries with the Yale Southern Proper Motion catalog (version 4.0). Several objects already known to have large proper motions from Hipparcos are recovered. Two additional objects are found which show substantial proper motions, both of which are unusual in their X-ray properties. One is IGR J17544-2619, one of the supergiant fast X-ray transients. Assuming the quoted distances in the literature for this source of about 3 kpc are correct, this system has a peculiar velocity of about 275 km/sec -- greater than the velocity of a Keplerian orbit at its location of the Galaxy, and in line with the expectations formed from suggestions that the supergiant fast X-ray transients should be highly eccentric. We discuss the possibility that these objects may help explain the existence of short gamma-ray bursts outside the central regions of galaxies. The other is the source 2A~1822-371, which is a member of the small class of objects which are low mas...

  2. High Resolution X-ray Imaging of Supernova Remnant 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, C -Y; Murray, S S; Slane, P O; Park, S; Staveley-Smith, L; Manchester, R N; Burrows, D N

    2009-01-01

    We report observations of the remnant of Supernova 1987A with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. A direct image from the HRC resolves the annular structure of the X-ray remnant, confirming the morphology previously inferred by deconvolution of lower resolution data from the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. Detailed spatial modeling shows that the a thin ring plus a thin shell gives statistically the best description of the overall remnant structure, and suggests an outer radius 0.96" +/- 0.05" +/- 0.03" for the X-ray-emitting region, with the two uncertainties corresponding to the statistical and systematic errors, respectively. This is very similar to the radius determined by a similar modeling technique for the radio shell at a comparable epoch, in contrast to previous claims that the remnant is 10-15% smaller at X-rays than in the radio band. The HRC observations put a flux limit of 0.010 cts/s (99% confidence level, 0.08-10 keV range) on any compact source at the rem...

  3. High-Resolution X-Ray Imaging of Supernova Remnant 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C.-Y.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murray, S. S.; Slane, P. O.; Park, S.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Manchester, R. N.; Burrows, D. N.

    2009-11-01

    We report observations of the remnant of supernova 1987A with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. A direct image from the HRC resolves the annular structure of the X-ray remnant, confirming the morphology previously inferred by deconvolution of lower resolution data from the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. Detailed spatial modeling shows that a thin ring plus a thin shell gives statistically the best description of the overall remnant structure, and suggests an outer radius of 0farcs96 ± 0farcs05 ± 0farcs03 for the X-ray-emitting region, with the two uncertainties corresponding to the statistical and systematic errors, respectively. This is very similar to the radius determined by a similar modeling technique for the radio shell at a comparable epoch, in contrast to previous claims that the remnant is 10%-15% smaller at X-rays than in the radio band. The HRC observations put a flux limit of 0.010 counts s-1 (99% confidence level, 0.08-10 keV range) on any compact source at the remnant center. Assuming the same foreground neutral hydrogen column density as toward the remnant, this allows us to rule out an unobscured neutron star with surface temperature T ∞ > 2.5 MK observed at infinity, a bright pulsar wind nebula or a magnetar.

  4. Development of an ultra high-precision x-ray telescope with an adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Shunji; Takano, Haruko; Saitoh, Harue; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Suga, Kazuharu; Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki

    2003-06-01

    We are developing an ultra high precision Soft X-ray telescope. The design of the telescope is a normal incident one for 13.5 nm band using Mo/Si multilayers. Two ideas are introduced. One is the optical measurement system in order to monitor the prevision of the optics system. The other is the adaptive optics system with a deformable mirror. Using an x-ray optical separation filter, we can always monitor the deformation of the optics by optical light. With this information, we can control the deformable mirror to compensate the system deformation as a closed loop system. We confirmed that the absolute precision of the wave front sensor was less than 3 nm rms. The preicison of the deformable mirror was roughly 5 nm rms. The shape of the primary mirror was an off-axis paraboloide with an effective diameter of 80mm. This primary mirror was coated by Mo/Si multilayers. The reflectivity of the primary mirror at 13.5 nm was rnaging from 30 to 50%. The x-ray optical separation filter was made from Zr with a thicknness of ~170nm. The transmission of the filter for low energy x-ray was measured and was roughly 50% at 13.5nm.

  5. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) High-Energy X-ray Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Craig, Willliam W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Zhang, William W.; Boggs, Steven E.; Stern, Daniel; Cook, W. Rick; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; hide

    2013-01-01

    High-energy X-ray telescope in orbit. NuSTAR operates in the band from 3 to 79 keV, extending the sensitivity of focusing far beyond the 10 keV high-energy cutoff achieved by all previous X-ray satellites. The inherently low background associated with concentrating the X-ray light enables NuSTAR to probe the hard X-ray sky with a more than 100-fold improvement in sensitivity over the collimated or coded mask instruments that have operated in this bandpass. Using its unprecedented combination of sensitivity and spatial and spectral resolution, NuSTAR will pursue five primary scientific objectives: (1) probe obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity out to thepeak epoch of galaxy assembly in the universe (at z 2) by surveying selected regions of the sky; (2) study the population of hard X-ray-emitting compact objects in the Galaxy by mapping the central regions of the Milky Way; (3) study the non-thermal radiation in young supernova remnants, both the hard X-ray continuum and the emission from the radioactive element 44Ti; (4) observe blazars contemporaneously with ground-based radio, optical, and TeV telescopes, as well as with Fermi and Swift, to constrain the structure of AGN jets; and (5) observe line and continuum emission from core-collapse supernovae in the Local Group, and from nearby Type Ia events, to constrain explosion models. During its baseline two-year mission, NuSTAR will also undertake a broad program of targeted observations. The observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing-incidence X-ray telescopes pointed at celestial targets by a three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Deployed into a 600 km, near-circular, 6 inclination orbit, the observatory has now completed commissioning, and is performing consistent with pre-launch expectations. NuSTAR is now executing its primary science mission, and with an expected orbit lifetime of 10 yr, we anticipate proposing a guest investigator program, to begin in late 2014.

  6. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  7. HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE BURSTING PULSAR GRO J1744-28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kennea, J. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, ZP12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Younes, G., E-mail: degenaar@umich.edu [Universities Space Research Association, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 450, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The bursting pulsar GRO J1744-28 is a Galactic low-mass X-ray binary that distinguishes itself by displaying type-II X-ray bursts: brief, bright flashes of X-ray emission that likely arise from spasmodic accretion. Combined with its coherent 2.1 Hz X-ray pulsations and relatively high estimated magnetic field, it is a particularly interesting source to study the physics of accretion flows around neutron stars. Here we report on Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating observations obtained near the peak of its bright 2014 accretion outburst. Spectral analysis suggests the presence of a broad iron emission line centered at E {sub l} ≅ 6.7 keV. Fits with a disk reflection model yield an inclination angle of i ≅ 52° and an inner disk radius of R {sub in} ≅ 85 GM/c {sup 2}, which is much further out than typically found for neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. Assuming that the disk is truncated at the magnetospheric radius of the neutron star, we estimate a magnetic field strength of B ≅ (2-6) × 10{sup 10} G. Furthermore, we identify an absorption feature near ≅ 6.85 keV that could correspond to blue-shifted Fe XXV and point to a fast disk wind with an outflow velocity of v {sub out} ≅ (7.5-8.2) × 10{sup 3} km s{sup –1} (≅ 0.025c-0.027c). If the covering fraction and filling factor are large, this wind could be energetically important and perhaps account for the fact that the companion star lost significant mass while the magnetic field of the neutron star remained strong.

  8. High-speed X-ray imaging pixel array detector for synchrotron bunch isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu; Tate, Mark W.; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S.; Weiss, Joel T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    A high-speed pixel array detector for time-resolved X-ray imaging at synchrotrons has been developed. The ability to isolate single synchrotron bunches makes it ideal for time-resolved dynamical studies. A wide-dynamic-range imaging X-ray detector designed for recording successive frames at rates up to 10 MHz is described. X-ray imaging with frame rates of up to 6.5 MHz have been experimentally verified. The pixel design allows for up to 8–12 frames to be stored internally at high speed before readout, which occurs at a 1 kHz frame rate. An additional mode of operation allows the integration capacitors to be re-addressed repeatedly before readout which can enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of cyclical processes. This detector, along with modern storage ring sources which provide short (10–100 ps) and intense X-ray pulses at megahertz rates, opens new avenues for the study of rapid structural changes in materials. The detector consists of hybridized modules, each of which is comprised of a 500 µm-thick silicon X-ray sensor solder bump-bonded, pixel by pixel, to an application-specific integrated circuit. The format of each module is 128 × 128 pixels with a pixel pitch of 150 µm. In the prototype detector described here, the three-side buttable modules are tiled in a 3 × 2 array with a full format of 256 × 384 pixels. The characteristics, operation, testing and application of the detector are detailed.

  9. High-resolution X-ray microdiffraction analysis of natural teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jing; Zhang, Linling; Zou, Ling; Liao, Yunmao; Li, Jiyao; Xiao, Liying; Li, Wei, E-mail: leewei2000@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, People’s Republic of (China)

    2008-05-01

    In situ microzone X-ray diffraction analysis of natural teeth is presented. From our experiment, layer orientation and continuous crystal variations in teeth could be conveniently studied using fast online measurements by high-resolution X-ray microdiffraction equipment. The main component of natural teeth was determined many years ago as calcium phosphate, mostly in the form of hydroxyapatite with different crystallites. In the past, the method used in tooth crystal investigation has been mainly powder X-ray diffraction analysis, but this method has its drawbacks, i.e. the destruction of the natural tooth structure and the difficulty in examining the preferred orientation in different layers of the tooth. During the last century, microzone X-ray diffraction on the tooth surface was carried out, but, as the technology was less sophisticated, the results obtained were not very detailed. The newly developed microdiffraction equipment permits analysis of the microzone of teeth in situ. To test this new microdiffraction equipment, microdiffraction analysis of one natural healthy deciduous molar tooth and one carious deciduous molar tooth has been performed, using a Bruker D8 instrument. Phase analysis of the two teeth was performed; the crystal size at six test points in the natural healthy tooth was calculated by reflection (211), and the crystal preferred orientation of reflection (300) and reflection (002) at six test points in the natural healthy tooth were compared. The results showed that the tooth was a kind of biological mixed crystal composed of several crystal phases, the main crystal phase being hydroxyapatite. The crystal size grew larger going from the dentin to the enamel. The crystal preferred orientation mainly existed in the enamel, especially in the reflection (002). From our experiment, layer orientation and continuous crystal variations in teeth could be conveniently studied using fast online measurements by high-resolution X-ray microdiffraction

  10. High pressure and high temperature in situ X-ray diffraction studies in the Paris-Edinburgh cell using a laboratory X-ray source†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulemonde, Pierre; Goujon, Céline; Laversenne, Laetitia; Bordet, Pierre; Bruyère, Rémy; Legendre, Murielle; Leynaud, Olivier; Prat, Alain; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    We have developed a new laboratory experimental set-up to study in situ the pressure-temperature phase diagram of a given pure element or compound, its associated phase transitions, or the chemical reactions involved at high pressure and high temperature (HP-HT) between different solids and liquids. This new tool allows laboratory studies before conducting further detailed experiments using more brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources or before kinetic studies. This device uses the diffraction of X-rays produced by a quasi-monochromatic micro-beam source operating at the silver radiation (λ(Ag)Kα 1, 2≈0.56 Å). The experimental set-up is based on a VX Paris-Edinburgh cell equipped with tungsten carbide or sintered diamond anvils and uses standard B-epoxy 5 or 7 mm gaskets. The diffracted signal coming from the compressed (and heated) sample is collected on an image plate. The pressure and temperature calibrations were performed by diffraction, using conventional calibrants (BN, NaCl and MgO) for determination of the pressure, and by crossing isochores of BN, NaCl, Cu or Au for the determination of the temperature. The first examples of studies performed with this new laboratory set-up are presented in the article: determination of the melting point of germanium and magnesium under HP-HT, synthesis of MgB2 or C-diamond and partial study of the P, T phase diagram of MgH2.

  11. Knowledge of the power of an X-ray equipment; Conhecimento da potencia de um equipamento de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Vitor Moura de; Andrade, Lucio das Chagas de; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme Pereira, E-mail: vmoura@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    After we raise a power response curve on the load for the X-ray equipment, we define the region of trial operation and compared with the theoretical, and thus conclude that it is very important for operation of the X-ray equipment, it may set the amount of dose that patients receive in a future exhibition and operating threshold, so that the equipment is not extrapolated and may suffer damage. For the same rating there is a difference of 0.99% between readings found in the same power operation. (author)

  12. X-ray time lags from a pivoting power law in black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körding, E.; Falcke, H.D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Most black hole candidate X-ray binaries show Fourier time lags between softer and harder X-rays. The hard photons seem to arrive up to a few ms after the soft for a given Fourier frequency of the perturbation. The energy dependence of the time lags has a roughly logarithmic behavior. Up to now most

  13. Time-resolved and in-situ X-ray scattering methods beyond photoactivation: Utilizing high-flux X-ray sources for the study of ubiquitous non-photoactive proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Techert, Simone

    2016-01-01

    X-ray scattering technique, comprising of small-angle/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques is increasingly used to characterize the structure and interactions of biological macromolecules and their complexes in solution. It is a method of choice to characterize the flexible, partially folded and unfolded protein systems. X-ray scattering is the last resort for proteins that cannot be investigated by crystallography or NMR and acts as a complementary technique with different biophysical techniques to answer challenging scientific questions. The marriage of the X-ray scattering technique with the fourth dimension "time" yields structural dynamics and kinetics information for protein motions in hierarchical timescales from picoseconds to days. The arrival of the high-flux X-ray beam at third generation synchrotron sources, exceptional X-ray optics, state-of-the-art detectors, upgradation of X-ray scattering beamlines with microfluidics devices and advanced X-ray scattering data analysis procedures are the important reasons behind the shining years of X-ray scattering technique. The best days of the X-ray scattering technique are on the horizon with the advent of the nanofocus X-ray scattering beamlines and fourth generation X-ray lightsources, i.e., free electron lasers (XFELs). Complementary to the photon-triggered time-resolved X-ray scattering techniques, we will present an overview of the time-resolved and in-situ X-ray scattering techniques for structural dynamics of ubiquitous non-photoactive proteins.

  14. Pulsed x-ray imaging of high-density objects using a ten picosecond high-intensity laser driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, D. R.; Brenner, C. M.; Armstrong, C.; Wilson, L. A.; Clarke, R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Haddock, D.; Higginson, A.; McClymont, A.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Murphy, C.; Notley, M.; Oliver, P.; Allott, R.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Kar, S.; McKenna, P.; Neely, D.

    2016-10-01

    Point-like sources of X-rays that are pulsed (sub nanosecond), high energy (up to several MeV) and bright are very promising for industrial and security applications where imaging through large and dense objects is required. Highly penetrating X-rays can be produced by electrons that have been accelerated by a high intensity laser pulse incident onto a thin solid target. We have used a pulse length of 10ps to accelerate electrons to create a bright x-ray source. The bremsstrahlung temperature was measured for a laser intensity from 8.5-12×1018 W/cm2. These x-rays have sequentially been used to image high density materials using image plate and a pixelated scintillator system.

  15. X-Ray Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band soft X-ray polarimeters based on Bragg reflection. Developments in scintillator and solid-state hard X-ray detectors facilitate construction of both modular, large area Compton scattering polarimeters and compact devices suitable for use with focusing X-ray telescopes.

  16. X-ray Spectroscopy and Diffraction at HPCAT - An Integrated High Pressure Synchrotron Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Hemley, R. J.; Hausermann, D.; Hu, M.; Meng, Y.; Somayazulu, M.

    2002-05-01

    High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) is a new facility dedicated for high-pressure research using the high-energy synchrotron beams at the Advanced Photon Source for in-situ investigations of crystallographic, elastic, rheologic, electronic, and magnetic properties of solids, liquids, and amorphous materials at high P and simultaneous high T or cryogenic T. The HPCAT high-brilliance undulator beamline is optimized for a full range of high-pressure x-ray spectroscopy. For instance, nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measures phonon densities of state of Fe-containing samples that yield valuable information on acoustic wave velocity, elasticity, elastic anisotropy, and thermodynamic quantities (vibrational energy, heat capacity, entropy, Debye temperature, and Gr\\x81neisen parameter) of materials at high pressures. Nuclear resonant x-ray forward scattering measures M”ssbauer spectra in the time domain that yield information on magnetism, site occupancy, oxidation states, and the Lamb-M”ssbauer coefficient of Fe. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering measures element-specific electronic transitions. The medium-resolution (10-100 meV) non-resonant x-ray inelastic scattering measures electronic energies and dispersions that yield information on plasmons, excitons, electronic band structures, and chemical bondings, and high-resolution (<10 meV) inelastic scattering measures phonon dispersions that yield information on acoustic wave velocity and elasticity as a function of crystallographic orientation. X-ray emission spectroscopy yields information on valence electrons and spin states of d-electrons. A diamond branch monochromator diverts a full-intensity undulator monochromatic beam at energies up to 35 keV for full-time x-ray diffraction studies of crystallography, phase transitions, and equations of state in a side station without affecting the simultaneous operation of the main undualtor beamline. The HPCAT bending-magnet beamline is divided into two

  17. X-ray polarimetry and new prospects in high-energy astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, C.

    2016-07-01

    Polarimetry is universally recognized as one of the new frontiers in X-ray astrophysics. It is a powerful tool to investigate a variety of astrophysical processes, as well as a mean to study fundamental physics in space. A renewed interest is testified by dedicated missions approved for phase A by ESA and NASA. The main advance is the availability of a gas pixel detector that is able to add polarization measurement to imaging and spectroscopy, and can be used at the focus of a conventional X-ray optics. The detector exploits the photoelectric effect in gas and a finely segmented ASIC as a collecting anode. In this work I will describe in detail the experimental technique and the detector concept, and illustrate the scientific prospects of these new missions.

  18. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II; Geloni, Gianluca; Madsen, Anders [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd' ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup -1} spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup -1} are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10{sup 12} ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  19. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Chubar, Oleg; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2015-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6~meV and 0.25~nm$^{-1}$ spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1~meV and 0.02~nm$^{-1}$ are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about $7\\times 10^{12}$~ph/s in a $90$-$\\mu$e...

  20. High-brightness X-ray free-electron laser with an optical undulator by pulse shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Liang, Jinyang; Hei, Dongwei; Becker, Michael F; Tang, Kelei; Feng, Yiping; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Pellegrini, Claudio; Wu, Juhao

    2013-12-30

    A normal-incident flattop laser with a tapered end is proposed as an optical undulator to achieve a high-gain and high-brightness X-ray free electron laser (FEL). The synchronic interaction of an electron bunch with the normal incident laser is realized by tilting the laser pulse front. The intensity of the flattop laser is kept constant during the interaction time of the electron bunch and the laser along the focal plane of a cylindrical lens. Optical shaping to generate the desired flattop pulse with a tapered end from an original Gaussian pulse distribution is designed and simulated. The flattop laser with a tapered end can enhance the X-ray FEL beyond the exponential growth saturation power by one order to reach 1 Gigawatt as compared to that without a tapered end. The peak brightness can reach 1030 photons/mm2/mrad2/s/0.1% bandwidth, more than 10 orders brighter than the conventional incoherent Thompson Scattering X-ray source.

  1. X-Ray Fluctuation Power Spectral Densities of Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, A.; Edelson, R.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; George, I. M.; Griffiths, R. E.; Kaspi, S.; Lawrence, A.; McHandy, I.; Nandra, K.

    2003-01-01

    By combining complementary monitoring observations spanning long, medium and short time scales, we have constructed power spectral densities (PSDs) of six Seyfert 1 galaxies. These PSDs span approx. greater than 4 orders of magnitude in temporal frequency, sampling variations on time scales ranging from tens of minutes to over a year. In at least four cases, the PSD shows a "break," a significant departure from a power law, typically on time scales of order a few days. This is similar to the behavior of Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs), lower mass compact systems with breaks on time scales of seconds. NGC 3783 shows tentative evidence for a doubly-broken power law, a feature that until now has only been seen in the (much better-defined) PSDs of low-state XRBs. It is also interesting that (when one previously-observed object is added to make a small sample of seven), an apparently significant correlation is seen between the break time scale T and the putative black hole mass M(sub BH), while none is seen between break time scale and luminosity. The data are consistent with the linear relation T = M(sub BH) /10(exp 6.5) solar mass; extrapolation over 6-7 orders of magnitude is in reasonable agreement with XRBs. All of this strengthens the case for a physical similarity between Seyfert 1s and XRBs.

  2. Characterization of coplanar grid CZT detectors with highly collimated x-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Gabriella A.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Wright, Gomez W.; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Siddons, D. P.; James, Ralph B.

    2004-10-01

    CdZnTe detectors demonstrated great potentials for detection of gamma radiation. However, energy resolution of CdZnTe detectors is significantly affected by uncollected holes which have low mobility and short lifetime. To overcome this deleterious effects upon energy resolution special detector designs have to be implemented. The most practical of them are the small pixel effect device, the co-planar grid device, and the virtual Frisch-grid device. We routinely use a highly collimated high-intensity X-ray beams provided by National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study of CdZnTe material and performances of the different types of devices on the micron-scale. This powerful tool allows us to evaluate electronic properties of the material, device performance, uniformity of the detector responses, effects related to the device's contact pattern and electric field distribution, etc. In particular, in this paper we present new results obtained from the performance studies of 15 x 15 x 7.5 mm3 coplanar-grid devices coupled to readout ASIC. We observed the effect of the strip contacts comprising the grids on the energy resolution of the coplanar-grid device.

  3. High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Oliver; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Welgand, M.; Umbach, E.; Bar, M.; Heske, C.; Denlinger, J.; Chuang, Y.-D.; McKinney, W.; Hussain, Z.; Gullikson, E.; Jones, M.; Batson, P.; Nelles, B.; Follath, R.

    2009-06-11

    We present a variable line-space grating spectrometer for soft s-rays that coverst the photon energy range between 130 and 650 eV. The optical design is based on the Hettrick-Underwood principle and tailored to synchrotron-based studies of radiation-sensitive biological samples. The spectrometer is able to record the entire spectral range in one shot, i.e., without any mechanical motion, at a resolving power of 1200 or better. Despite is slitless design, such a resolving power can be achieved for a source spot as large as (30 x 3000) micrometers squared, which is important for keeping beam damage effects in radiation-sensitive samples low. The high spectrometer efficiency allows recording of comprehensive two-dimensional resonant inelastic soft x-ray scatters (RIXS) maps with good statistics within several minutes. This is exemplarily demonstrated for a RIXS map of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, which was taken with 10 min.

  4. High-resolution x-ray diffraction investigations of highly mismatched II-VI quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, T.; Leonardi, K.; Stockmann, A.; Selke, H.; Heinke, H.; Hommel, D.

    1999-05-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to systematically investigate CdSe and ZnTe quantum wells one to three monolayers thick sandwiched between a ZnSe buffer and cap layer grown at different substrate temperatures. For comparison high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements were performed which were evaluated by digital analysis of lattice images. The x-ray diffraction profiles show typically two main layer peaks. Their intensity ratio depends critically on the quantum well thickness and varies only weakly with the thickness of the ZnSe layers. The total Cd or Te content determined from comparisons of experimental and simulated (004) icons/Journals/Common/omega" ALT="omega" ALIGN="TOP"/>-2icons/Journals/Common/theta" ALT="theta" ALIGN="TOP"/> scans is well confirmed by the results from digital analysis of HRTEM lattice images. For quantum well thicknesses larger than 1.5 (ZnTe) or 2.0 (CdSe) monolayers, no simulation parameters could be found to achieve good agreement between theoretical and measured diffraction profiles. This transition is more clearly visible in diffraction profiles of asymmetrical reflections. By HRTEM measurements, this could be correlated to the occurrence of stacking faults at these thicknesses. The formation of quantum islands detected by HRTEM was not reflected in the HRXRD icons/Journals/Common/omega" ALT="omega" ALIGN="TOP"/>-2icons/Journals/Common/theta" ALT="theta" ALIGN="TOP"/> scans.

  5. Observation of material, thickness, and bremsstrahlung x-ray intensity dependent effects in moderate and high Z targets in a gamma and x-ray LIDAR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Laubach, Mitchell A.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-06-01

    A high energy gamma and x-ray LIDAR system consisting of a fast pulse ( 50 ps, FWHM) LINAC and a Cherenkov detection system was used to investigate response differences among materials, their thicknesses, and bremsstrahlung x-ray intensities. The energies and pulse width of electrons used to produce bremsstrahlung x-rays were set at 20 or 40 MeV and 50 ps FWHM duration, respectively. The Cherenkov detector was built with a fused silica glass optically coupled to a 51 mm fast timing photomultiplier tube, which has an intrinsic energy threshold of 340.7 keV for Compton backscattered gammas. Such a fast detection system yields a coincidence resolving time of 93 ps FWHM, which is equivalent to a depth resolving capability of about 3 cm FWHM. The thicknesses of iron and lead targets were varied from 1 in. to 7 in. with a step of 1 in., and the thicknesses of DU were varied from 1/3 in. to 1 in. with a step of 1/3 in. The experimental results show that iron targets tend to produce a factor of five less observed x-rays and gammas, with less energetic photoelectron frequency distributions, compared with DU and lead targets for the same beam intensity and target thicknesses. Additionally, the self-shielding effect causes the lead to yield more gammas than the DU considering the experimental observation point. For the setup used in this study, a charge per pulse in the range of 1-2.5 nC yields the best resolving capability between the DU and lead targets.

  6. Calculations and surface quality measurements of high-asymmetry angle x-ray crystal monochromators for advanced x-ray imaging and metrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zápražný, Zdenko; Korytár, Dušan; Jergel, Matej; Šiffalovič, Peter; Dobročka, Edmund; Vagovič, Patrik; Ferrari, Claudio; Mikulík, Petr; Demydenko, Maksym; Mikloška, Marek

    2015-03-01

    We present the numerical optimization and the technological development progress of x-ray optics based on asymmetric germanium crystals. We show the results of several basic calculations of diffraction properties of germanium x-ray crystal monochromators and of an analyzer-based imaging method for various asymmetry factors using an x-ray energy range from 8 to 20 keV. The important parameter of highly asymmetric monochromators as image magnifiers or compressors is the crystal surface quality. We have applied several crystal surface finishing methods, including advanced nanomachining using single-point diamond turning (SPDT), conventional mechanical lapping, chemical polishing, and chemomechanical polishing, and we have evaluated these methods by means of atomic force microscopy, diffractometry, reciprocal space mapping, and others. Our goal is to exclude the chemical etching methods as the final processing technique because it causes surface undulations. The aim is to implement very precise deterministic methods with a control of surface roughness down to 0.1 nm. The smallest roughness (˜0.3 nm), best planarity, and absence of the subsurface damage were observed for the sample which was machined using an SPDT with a feed rate of 1 mm/min and was consequently polished using a fine polishing 15-min process with a solution containing SiO2 nanoparticles (20 nm).

  7. Complementing high-throughput X-ray powder diffraction data with quantum-chemical calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; van de Streek, Jacco; Rantanen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput crystallisation and characterisation platforms provide an efficient means to carry out solid-form screening during the pre-formulation phase. To determine the crystal structures of identified new solid phases, however, usually requires independent crystallisation trials to produce...... single crystals or bulk samples of sufficient quantity to carry out high-quality X-ray diffraction measurements. This process could be made more efficient by a robust procedure for crystal structure determination directly from high-throughput X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data. Quantum......-chemical calculations based on dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) have now become feasible for typical small organic molecules used as active pharmaceutical ingredients. We demonstrate how these calculations can be applied to complement high-throughput XRPD data by determining the crystal structure...

  8. The high energy X-ray spectrum of 4U 1700-37 observed from OSO 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, J. F.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Maurer, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    The most intense hard X-ray source in the confused region in Scorpius has been identified as 4U 1700-37 (=HD 153919). Observations extending over three binary periods in 1978 September were carried out with the high-energy X-ray spectrometer on OSO 8. The 3.4 day modulation is seen above 20 keV with the intensity during eclipse being consistent with zero flux. The photonumber spectrum from 20 to 150 keV is well represented by a single power law with a photonumber spectral index of -2.77 + or - 0.35 or by a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT = 27 (+15, -7)keV. The counting rate above 20 keV outside of eclipse shows no evidence for the 96.8 minute X-ray modulation previously reported at lower energies. Despite the difficulties that exist in reconciling both the lack of periodic modulation in the emitted X-radiation and the orbital dynamics of the system with our currently accepted theories of the evolution and physical properties of neutron stars, the observed properties of 4U 1700-37 are all consistent with the source being a spherically accreting neutron star rather than a black hole.

  9. High energy x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for high-throughput analysis of composition spread thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, John M; Dale, Darren; Kazimirov, Alexander; DiSalvo, Francis J; van Dover, R Bruce

    2009-12-01

    High-throughput crystallography is an important tool in materials research, particularly for the rapid assessment of structure-property relationships. We present a technique for simultaneous acquisition of diffraction images and fluorescence spectra on a continuous composition spread thin film using a 60 keV x-ray source. Subsequent noninteractive data processing provides maps of the diffraction profiles, thin film fiber texture, and composition. Even for highly textured films, our diffraction technique provides detection of diffraction from each family of Bragg reflections, which affords direct comparison of the measured profiles with powder patterns of known phases. These techniques are important for high throughput combinatorial studies as they provide structure and composition maps which may be correlated with performance trends within an inorganic library.

  10. High-Energy X-rays from J174545.5-285829, the Cannonball: a Candidate Pulsar Wind Nebula Associated with Sgr a East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Perez, Kerstin M.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    We report the unambiguous detection of non-thermal X-ray emission up to 30 keV from the Cannonball, a few arcsecond long diffuse X-ray feature near the Galactic Center, using the NuSTAR X-ray observatory. The Cannonball is a high-velocity (v(proj) approximately 500 km s(exp -1)) pulsar candidate with a cometary pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located approximately 2' north-east from Sgr A*, just outside the radio shell of the supernova remnant Sagittarius A (Sgr A) East. Its non-thermal X-ray spectrum, measured up to 30 keV, is well characterized by a Gamma is approximately 1.6 power law, typical of a PWN, and has an X-ray luminosity of L(3-30 keV) = 1.3 × 10(exp 34) erg s(exp -1). The spectral and spatial results derived from X-ray and radio data strongly suggest a runaway neutron star born in the Sgr A East supernova event. We do not find any pulsed signal from the Cannonball. The NuSTAR observations allow us to deduce the PWN magnetic field and show that it is consistent with the lower limit obtained from radio observations.

  11. High-Energy X-rays from J174545.5-285829, the Cannonball: A Candidate Pulsar Wind Nebula Associated with Sgr A East

    CERN Document Server

    Nynka, Melania; Mori, Kaya; Baganoff, Frederick K; Bauer, Franz E; Boggs, Steven E; Craig, William W; Christensen, Finn E; Gotthelf, Eric V; Harrison, Fiona A; Hong, Jaesub; Perez, Kerstin M; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W

    2013-01-01

    We report the unambiguous detection of non-thermal X-ray emission up to 30 keV from the Cannonball, a few-arcsecond long diffuse X-ray feature near the Galactic Center, using the NuSTAR X-ray observatory. The Cannonball is a high-velocity (vproj~500 km/s) pulsar candidate with a cometary pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located ~2' north-east from Sgr A*, just outside the radio shell of the supernova remnant Sagittarius A (Sgr A) East. Its non-thermal X-ray spectrum, measured up to 30 keV, is well characterized by a Gamma~1.6 power-law, typical of a PWN, and has an X-ray luminosity of L(3-30 keV)=1.3e34 erg/s. The spectral and spatial results derived from X-ray and radio data strongly suggest a runaway neutron star born in the Sgr A East supernova event. We do not find any pulsed signal from the Cannonball. The NuSTAR observations allow us to deduce the PWN magnetic field and show that it is consistent with the lower limit obtained from radio observations.

  12. Soft x-ray laser spectroscopy on trapped highly charged ions at FLASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, S W; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Brenner, G; Mäckel, V; Mokler, P H; Treusch, R; Kuhlmann, M; Yurkov, M V; Feldhaus, J; Schneider, J R; Wellhöfer, M; Martins, M; Wurth, W; Ullrich, J

    2007-05-04

    In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate high-resolution resonant laser excitation in the soft x-ray region at 48.6 eV of the 2 (2)S(1/2) to 2 (2)P(1/2) transition of Li-like Fe23+ ions trapped in an electron beam ion trap by using ultrabrilliant light from Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). High precision spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions at this and upcoming x-ray lasers with an expected accuracy gain up to a factor of a thousand, become possible with our technique, thus potentially yielding fundamental insights, e.g., into basic aspects of QED.

  13. Development of high pressure apparatus for X-ray microtomography at SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urakawa, S [Department of Earth Sciences, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Terasaki, H P [Department of Earth and Planetary Materials Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Funakoshi, K; Uesugi, K [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Yamamoto, S, E-mail: urakawa@cc.okayama-u.ac.j [RD Support Co., Ltd., 2-12-15-402, Nishigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 141-0031 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    A new high-pressure apparatus has been developed for studies of synchrotron radiation-based X-ray microtomography at SPring-8 of Japan. The high pressure tomography apparatus at SPring-8 is a compact hydraulic press with a 0.8 MN capacity and is equipped with an opposed anvil device. It has two wide windows for X-ray access with a 160-degree opening in the equatorial plane to the compression axis. Radiographs are acquired over 180 degree rotation for reconstruction of 3D image, in which some shadows occur, because the press frame blocks a 20-degree angular region. 3D tomography image computed from radiographs obtained using the high pressure tomography apparatus has a reasonably good quality enough to measure physical properties of materials.

  14. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Terrill, Nick J.; Rogers, Sarah E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M.

    2010-06-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  15. Small-angle X-ray scattering at the ESRF high-brillance beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesecke, P.; Diat, O. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 -Grenoble (France)

    1997-10-01

    The high-brilliance beamline (BL4/ID2) at the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble has been constructed with the emphasis on time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering and macromolecular crystallography. It has been open to users for two years. The beamline has opened up new areas in small-angle scattering research, facilitating (a) small-angle crystallography on structures with unit cells of several hundredths of nanometres, (b) overlap with the light scattering range for the study of optical systems, (c) high photon flux for time-resolved experiments and (d) a high spatial coherence allowing submicrometre imaging with X-rays. The set-up and the detector system of the small-angle scattering station are presented. A method for obtaining absolute scattering intensities is described. The parasitic background at the station is discussed in terms of absolute scattering intensities. (orig.). 22 refs.

  16. Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Nicholas J; Gauthe, Beatrice L L E; Terrill, Nick J; Rogers, Sarah E; Templer, Richard H; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M

    2010-06-01

    A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

  17. Alternative Optimizations of X-ray TES Arrays: Soft X-rays, High Count Rates, and Mixed-Pixel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, C. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Brown, A.-D.; Chervenak, J. A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Smith, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) for imaging spectroscopy telescopes such as the XMS on Constellation-X. While our primary focus has been on arrays that meet the XMS requirements (of which, foremost, is an energy resolution of 2.5 eV at 6 keV and a bandpass from approx. 0.3 keV to 12 keV), we have also investigated other optimizations that might be used to extend the XMS capabilities. In one of these optimizations, improved resolution below 1 keV is achieved by reducing the heat capacity. Such pixels can be based on our XMS-style TES's with the separate absorbers omitted. These pixels can added to an array with broadband response either as a separate array or interspersed, depending on other factors that include telescope design and science requirements. In one version of this approach, we have designed and fabricated a composite array of low-energy and broad-band pixels to provide high spectral resolving power over a broader energy bandpass than could be obtained with a single TES design. The array consists of alternating pixels with and without overhanging absorbers. To explore optimizations for higher count rates, we are also optimizing the design and operating temperature of pixels that are coupled to a solid substrate. We will present the performance of these variations and discuss other optimizations that could be used to enhance the XMS or enable other astrophysics experiments.

  18. The search for low-luminosity high-mass X-ray binaries and the study of X-ray populations in the Galactic disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, Francesca; Tomsick, John; Bodaghee, Arash; Rahoui, Farid; Krivonos, Roman; Corral-Santana, Jesus; An, Hongjun; Bauer, Franz E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Stern, Daniel; NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), which consist of a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) accreting material from a massive stellar companion, provide valuable insights into the evolution of massive stars and the merger rates of NS/NS, NS/BH, and BH/BH binaries whose gravitational wave signatures will soon be detectable by facilities such as Advanced-LIGO. INTEGRAL discoveries of new classes of lower-luminosity HMXBs, some highly obscured and some showing extreme transient activity, as well as the recent discovery of the very quiescent and only known Be-BH binary, have considerably changed our understanding of clumping in massive stellar winds and the relative importance of different binary evolutionary channels. In order to better characterize the low-luminosity HMXB population, we have performed a survey of a square degree region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm with Chandra and NuSTAR. These surveys, combined with optical and infrared spectroscopic follow-up of the counterparts of hard X-ray sources, have yielded three HMXB candidates to date. Future radial-velocity follow-up of these candidates, as well as other Be HMXB candidates from the NuSTAR serendipitous survey, will help determine whether these sources truly are HMXBs and, if so, constrain the mass of the compact object in these systems. If confirmed, these HMXB candidates could extend our measurement of the HMXB luminosity function by about two orders of magnitude and provide important constraints on massive binary evolutionary models. In addition, the colliding wind binaries and pulsar wind nebulae discovered in the Norma X-ray survey will help shed light on other aspects of massive stellar evolution and massive stellar remnants. Finally, these surveys provide the opportunity to compare the hard X-ray populations in the Galactic disk and the Galactic Center. While the dominant hard X-ray populations in both of these Galactic regions appear to be cataclysmic variables (CVs), those in the Norma

  19. INTEGRAL high energy monitoring of the X-ray burster KS 1741-293

    CERN Document Server

    De Cesare, G; Nunez, S Martinez; Stratta, G; Tarana, A; De Santo, M; Ubertini, P

    2007-01-01

    KS 1741-293, discovered in 1989 by the X-ray camera TTM in the Kvant module of the Mir space station and identified as an X-ray burster, has not been detected in the hard X band until the advent of the INTEGRAL observatory. Moreover this source has been recently object of scientific discussion, being also associated to a nearby extended radio source that in principle could be the supernova remnant produced by the accretion induced collapse in the binary system. Our long term monitoring with INTEGRAL, covering the period from February 2003 to May 2005, confirms that KS 1741-293 is transient in soft and hard X band. When the source is active, from a simultaneous JEM-X and IBIS data analysis, we provide a wide band spectrum from 5 to 100 keV, that can be fit by a two component model, a multiple blackbody for the soft emission and a Comptonized or a cut-off power law model for the hard component. Finally, by the detection of two X-ray bursters with JEM-X, we confirm the bursting nature of KS 1741-293, including t...

  20. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X.; Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M.; Tomita, H.; Yoshihara, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-09-01

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  1. High energy X-ray photon counting imaging using linear accelerator and silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y., E-mail: cycjty@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimazoe, K.; Yan, X. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, O.; Ishikura, T. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Fuji, Hino, Tokyo 191-8502 (Japan); Fujiwara, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Uesaka, M.; Ohno, M. [Nuclear Professional School, the University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Tomita, H. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshihara, Y. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Bioengineering, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    A photon counting imaging detector system for high energy X-rays is developed for on-site non-destructive testing of thick objects. One-dimensional silicon strip (1 mm pitch) detectors are stacked to form a two-dimensional edge-on module. Each detector is connected to a 48-channel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The threshold-triggered events are recorded by a field programmable gate array based counter in each channel. The detector prototype is tested using 950 kV linear accelerator X-rays. The fast CR shaper (300 ns pulse width) of the ASIC makes it possible to deal with the high instant count rate during the 2 μs beam pulse. The preliminary imaging results of several metal and concrete samples are demonstrated.

  2. Study of high resolution x-ray spectrometer concepts for NIF experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Gao, L.; Maddox, J.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Coppari, F.; Ma, T.; Nora, R.; Scott, H.; Schneider, M.; Mancini, R.

    2015-11-01

    Options have been investigated for DIM-insertable (Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator) high resolution (E/ ΔE ~ 3000 - 5000) Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometers for experiments on the NIF. Of interest are time integrated Cu K- and Ta L-edge absorption spectra and time resolved Kr He- β emission from compressed symcaps for inference of electron temperature from dielectronic satellites and electron density from Stark broadening. Cylindrical and conical von Hamos, Johann, and advanced high throughput designs have been studied. Predicted x-ray intensities, spectrometer throughputs, spectral resolution, and spatial focusing properties, as well as lab evaluations of some spectrometer candidates will be presented. Performed under the auspices of the US DOE by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. [Computation of the cross-sectional area of the cable in the power circuit of the X-ray machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xin-min; Feng, Da-yu

    2007-01-01

    The source impedance of the power circuit in the x-ray machine is analyzed in the paper and based on the voltage drop generated by the impedance, the cross-sectional area of the cable is calculated. In the end, the cross-sectional areas of the cables, corresponding to their respective distances between the transformers and the switchboards are given.

  4. Implementation of digital multiplexing for high resolution X-ray detector arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Swetadri Vasan, S N; Titus, A H; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2012-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate for the first time the use of the novel Multiple Module Multiplexer (MMMIC) for a 2×2 array of new electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) based x-ray detectors. It is highly desirable for x-ray imaging systems to have larger fields of view (FOV) extensible in two directions yet to still be capable of doing high resolution imaging over regions-of-interest (ROI). The MMMIC achieves these goals by acquiring and multiplexing data from an array of imaging modules thereby enabling a larger FOV, and at the same time allowing high resolution ROI imaging through selection of a subset of modules in the array. MMMIC also supports different binning modes. This paper describes how a specific two stage configuration connecting three identical MMMICs is used to acquire and multiplex data from a 2×2 array of EMCCD based detectors. The first stage contains two MMMICs wherein each MMMIC is getting data from two EMCCD detectors. The multiplexed data from these MMMICs is then forwarded to the second stage MMMIC in the similar fashion. The second stage that has only one MMMIC gives the final 12 bit multiplexed data from four modules. This data is then sent over a high speed Camera Link interface to the image processing computer. X-ray images taken through the 2×2 array of EMCCD based detectors using this two stage configuration of MMMICs are shown successfully demonstrating the concept.

  5. Dose estimation and shielding calculation for X-ray hazard at high intensity laser facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; James, C. Liu; Sayed, H. Rokni; Michael, B. Woods; Li, Jun-Li

    2014-12-01

    An ionizing radiation hazard produced from the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets has been observed. Laser-plasma interactions create “hot” electrons, which generate bremsstrahlung X-rays when they interact with ions in the target. However, up to now only limited studies have been conducted on this laser-induced radiological protection issue. In this paper, the physical process and characteristics of the interaction between high intensity lasers and solid targets are analyzed. The parameters of the radiation sources are discussed, including the energy conversion efficiency from laser to hot electrons, hot electron energy spectrum and electron temperature, and the bremsstrahlung X-ray energy spectrum produced by hot electrons. Based on this information, the X-ray dose generated with high-Z targets for laser intensities between 1014 and 1020 W/cm2 is estimated. The shielding effects of common shielding items such as the glass view port, aluminum chamber wall and concrete wall are also studied using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. This study provides a reference for the dose estimation and the shielding design of high intensity laser facilities.

  6. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  7. A High Precision, Optical Polarimeter to Measure Inclinations of High Mass X-Ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J

    2008-01-01

    We present commissioning data for the POLISH instrument obtained on the Hale 5-m telescope. The goal of this high precision polarimeter is to constrain orbital inclination of high mass X-ray binaries and to therefore obtain independent mass estimates for their black hole companions. We have obtained photon shot noise limited precision on standard stars, and we have measured the polarization of bright stars at the part per million level on a nightly basis. Systematic effects have been reduced to less than 1% of the measured polarization for polarized sources and to the part per million level for weakly polarized sources. The high sensitivity of this instrument to asymmetry suggests that valuable contributions will be made in many other fields, including studies of extrasolar planets, debris disks, and stellar astrophysics.

  8. High resolution Si(Li) X-ray spectrometer with high throughput rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacso, J.; Kalinka, G.; Kertesz, Zs.; Kovacs, P.; Lakatos, T. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia Atommag Kutato Intezete, Debrecen)

    1982-06-01

    The paper presents the description of a modern Si(Li) X-ray spectrometer developed in ATOMKI. The Si(Li) detectors are single-grooved with an active area of 20-50 mm/sup 2/. The Be window is coated with a special protective layer against corrosion. A small getter-ion pump maintains the high vacuum in the cryostat chamber. The preamplifier employs pulsed drain feedback; in its first stage selected, teflon-encapsulated field effect transistors are used. The analogue signal processor is direct coupled and employs time variant pulse shaping. This construction provides high resolution (150-170 eV), high throughput rate, excellent stability, effective pile-up elimination, accurate live-time correction and simplicity in the applications. The live-time correction is performed by a random pulse generator, its average frequency is stabilized and the corresponding peak appears at zero energy in the spectra.

  9. Residual stress measurement with high energy x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winholtz, R. A.; Haeffner, D. R.; Green, R.E.L.; Varma, R.; Hammond, D.

    2000-03-02

    Preliminary measurements with high energy x-rays from the SRI CAT 1-ID beam line at the Advanced Photon show great promise for the measurement of stress and strain using diffraction. Comparisons are made with neutron measurements. Measurements of strains in a 2 mm thick 304 stainless steel weld show that excellent strain and spatial resolutions are possible. With 200 {micro}m slits, strain resolutions of 1 x 10{sup {minus}5} were achieved.

  10. High temperature monitoring of silicon carbide ceramics by confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • X-ray scattering was used for monitoring oxidation situation of SiC ceramics. • A calibration curve was obtained. • The confocal X-ray scattering technology was based on polycapillary X-ray optics. • The variations of contents of components of SiC ceramics were obtained. - Abstract: In the present work, we presented an alternative method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics at various high temperatures in air by measuring the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratios (I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra}) and effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) of SiC ceramics with the confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. A calibration curve of the relationship between I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra} and Z{sub eff} was established by using a set of 8 SiC calibration samples. The sensitivity of this approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished samples of Z{sub eff} differing from each other by only 0.01. The linear relationship between the variation of Z{sub eff} and the variations of contents of C, Si and O of SiC ceramics were found, and the corresponding calculation model of the relationship between the ΔZ and the ΔC{sub C}, ΔC{sub Si}, and ΔC{sub O} were established. The variation of contents of components of the tested SiC ceramics after oxidation at high temperature was quantitatively calculated based on the model. It was shown that the results of contents of carbon, silicon and oxygen obtained by this method were in good agreement with the results obtained by XPS, giving values of relative deviation less than 1%. It was concluded that the practicality of this proposed method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of SiC ceramics at high temperatures was acceptable.

  11. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Doolittle, L.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Ryne, R.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Wells, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zolotorev, M.; Zholents, A.

    2011-06-01

    We report on on-going studies of a superconducting CW linac driver intended to support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-rays spectrum. We present a pointdesign for a 1.8 GeV machine tuned for 300 pC bunches and delivering low-emittance, low-energy spread beams as needed for the SASE and seeded beamlines.

  12. Development of high resolution x-ray spectrometers for the investigation of bioinorganic chemistry in metalloproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Owen Byron

    We have built an X-ray spectrometer for synchrotron-based high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy. The spectrometer uses four 9-pixel arrays of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) as sensors. They infer the energy of an absorbed X-ray from a temporary increase in tunneling current. The STJs are operated in a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that uses liquid nitrogen and helium for precooling to 77 K and 4.2 K, and gallium gadolinium garnet and iron ammonium sulfate to attain a base temperature below 0.1 K. The sensors are held at the end of a 40-cm-long cold finger within ˜1 cm of a sample located inside the vacuum chamber of a synchrotron beam line end station. The spectrometer has an energy resolution between 10 eV and 20 eV FWHM below 1 keV, can be operated at rates up to ˜106 counts/s. STJ spectrometers are suited for chemical analysis of dilute samples by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in cases where conventional germanium detectors do not have enough energy resolution. We have used this STJ spectrometer at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron for spectroscopy on the lower energy X-ray absorption edges of the elements Mo, S, Fe and N. These elements play an important role in biological nitrogen fixation at the metalloprotein nitrogenase, and we have examined if STJ spectrometers can be used to provide new insights into some of the open questions regarding the reaction mechanism of this protein. We have taken X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) and extended fine structure spectra (EXAFS) of an Fe 6N(CO)15-compound containing a single N atom inside a cluster of six Fe atoms, as postulated to exist inside the Fe-S cluster of the FeMo-cofactor (FeMo-co) in nitrogenase. The STJ detector has enabled the first-ever extended range EXAFS scans on nitrogen through the oxygen K-edge, enabling a comparison with N EXAFS on FeMo-co. We have taken iron L23-edge spectra of the Fe-S cluster in FeMo-co, which can be

  13. The deepest X-ray view of high-redshift galaxies: constraints on low-rate black-hole accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Vito, Fabio; Vignali, Cristian; Brandt, William N; Comastri, Andrea; Yang, Guang; Lehmer, Bret D; Luo, Bin; Basu-Zych, Antara; Bauer, Franz E; Cappelluti, Nico; Koekemoer, Anton; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Paolillo, Maurizio; Ranalli, Piero; Shemmer, Ohad; Trump, Jonathan; Wang, Junxian; Xue, Yongquan

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the 7 Ms \\textit{Chandra} observations in the \\chandra\\,Deep Field-South (\\mbox{CDF-S}), the deepest X-ray survey to date, coupled with CANDELS/GOODS-S data, to measure the total X-ray emission arising from 2076 galaxies at $3.5\\leq z 3.7\\sigma$) X-ray emission from massive galaxies at $z\\approx4$. We also report the detection of massive galaxies at $z\\approx5$ at a $99.7\\%$ confidence level ($2.7\\sigma$), the highest significance ever obtained for X-ray emission from galaxies at such high redshifts. No significant signal is detected from galaxies at even higher redshifts. The stacking results place constraints on the BHAD associated with the known high-redshift galaxy samples, as well as on the SFRD at high redshift, assuming a range of prescriptions for X-ray emission due to X- ray binaries. We find that the X-ray emission from our sample is likely dominated by processes related to star formation. Our results show that low-rate mass accretion onto SMBHs in individually X-ray-undetected galaxies i...

  14. High resolution X-ray spherically bent crystal spectrometer for laser-produced plasma diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shali Xiao; Hongjian Wang; Jun Shi; Changhuan Tang; Shenye Liu

    2009-01-01

    A new high spectral resolution crystal spectrometer is designed to measure very low emissive X-ray spectra of laser-produced plasma in 0.5 - 0.9 nm range. A large open aperture (30 x 20 (mm)) mica (002) spherically bent crystal with curvature radius R = 380 mm is used as dispersive and focusing element. The imaging plate is employed to obtain high spectral resolution with effective area of 30 x 80 (mm). The long designed path of the X-ray spectrometer beam is 980 mm from the source to the detector via the crystal. Experiment is carried out at a 20-J laser facility. X-ray spectra in an absolute intensity scale is obtained from Al laser produced plasmas created by laser energy of 6.78 J. Samples of spectra obtained with spectral resolution of up to E/鈻矱 ~ 1500 are presented. The results clearly show that the device is good to diagnose laser high-density plasmas.

  15. The effects of dust scattering on high-resolution X-ray absorption edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, L.; García, J.; Wilms, J.; Baganoff, F.

    2016-06-01

    High energy studies of astrophysical dust complement observations of dusty interstellar gas at other wavelengths. With high resolution X-ray spectroscopy, dust scattering significantly enhances the total extinction optical depth and alters the shape of photoelectric absorption edges. This effect is modulated by the dust grain size distribution, spatial location along the line of sight, and the imaging resolution of the X-ray telescope. At soft energies, the spectrum of scattered light is likely to have significant features at the 0.3 keV (C-K), 0.5 keV (O-K), and 0.7 keV (Fe-L) photoelectric absorption edges. This direct probe of ISM dust grain elements will be important for (i) understanding the relative abundances of graphitic grains or PAHs versus silicates, and (ii) measuring the depletion of gas phase elements into solid form. We focus in particular on the Fe-L edge, fitting a template for the total extinction to the high resolution spectrum of three X-ray binaries from the Chandra archive: GX 9+9, XTE J1817-330, and Cyg X-1. We discuss ways in which spectroscopy with XMM can yield insight into dust obscured objects such as stars, binaries, AGN, and foreground quasar absorption line systems.

  16. Dental x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... X-rays are a form of high energy electromagnetic radiation. The x-rays penetrate the body to form ... for detecting cavities, unless the decay is very advanced and deep. Many ... The amount of radiation given off during the procedure is less than ...

  17. X-ray Emission Induced by Interaction of Highly Charged Ions with Solid Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoYongtao; XiaoGuoqing; ZhangXiaoan; YangZhihu; ChenXimeng; ZhangYanping

    2003-01-01

    The X-rays with energy from 1 keV to 60 keV in the interaction of highly charged ions (HCI) with a variety of solid surfaces were investigated at the research platform for atomic physics with the electron cyclone resonance (ECR) ion resource at IMP. We altered the projectile kinetic energy from 150 keV to about 400 keV. The X-ray excited by the projectile with the surface is shown in Fig.l, and a threshold of the projectile kinetic energy for this excitation is observed. Combining the colliding theory of classic electrodynamics with the concept of quantized orbits, we crudely give this threshold energy Tm as follows,

  18. A new solid-conversion gas detector for high energy X-ray industrial computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ri-feng; CHEN Wei-min; DUAN Xiao-jiao

    2011-01-01

    A new type of solid-conversion gas detector is investigated for high energy X-ray industrial computed tomography(H ECT).The conversion efficiency is calculated by using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code on the Linux platform to simulate the transport process of photons and electrons in the detector.The simulation results show that the conversion efficiency could be more than 65%,if the X-ray beam width is less than about 0.2 mm,and a tungsten slab with 0.2 mum thickness and 30 mm length is employed as a radiation conversion medium.Meanwhile the results indicate that this new detector has higher conversion efficiency as well as less volume.Theoretically this new kind of detector could take place of the traditional scintillation detector for HECT.

  19. A study on materials of steels by high brightness X-ray

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuzaki, K; Umezawa, O; Hara, T; Takahashi, T; Omura, T; Hayakawa, M; Yamauchi, Y

    2001-01-01

    As the survey study on materials analysis of steels using high brightness X-ray, under aiming to clarify direct experimental facts on deformations, failure phenomena, and metal textures forming at interior portions of bulk materials, feasibility on materials research and development using SPring-8 was surveyed. Its concrete items were summarized to fields shown as follows: 1) acquirement of foundation on synchrotron X-ray, 2) visualization of cracks and artificial cracks in metal bulk samples by using refraction imaging (point light source topography), 3) visualization of the second phase in the metal bulk samples by using refraction imaging, and 4) speciation of carbon elements in steel cords by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Together with clarifying problems more and more by the survey and some experiments, subjects and understandings vacantly considered at standpoints of materials researchers could be arranged and defined. (G.K.)

  20. Application of a new-structure polycapillary x-ray optics in high pressure XAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Lin, Xiaoyan; Chen, Dongliang; Liu, Shigang; He, Jinlong; Zhao, Weilin; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Yude

    2014-10-01

    New-structure polycapillary x-ray optics for high pressure x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) absorption spectroscopy using the diamond anvil cells (DAC) method are applied in synchrotron radiation analysis. The optics are composed of a solid glass fiber in the center and surrounded by a hollow glass capillary array. They can restrain the higher harmonic of incident synchrotron radiation and obtain smooth and clear XAFS spectra. At the biological macromolecule station in the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), a method of aligning these optics was developed and the transmission efficiency for both fundamental and higher harmonic waves investigated. The XAFS spectra of topological insulator material of Bi2Se3 were obtained by combining the optics.

  1. High-Resolution X-Ray Scattering Topography Using Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaura, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Kii, Hideki

    1994-02-01

    Although spatial resolution is the most essential factor determining the function of X-ray topography, it has not been improved in 30 years in spite of increasing requirements for highly-resolvable topography in materials science. X-ray scattering topography using a microbeam is a method capable of overcoming this resolution problem. Because the maximum resolution of an apparatus using a sealed-off tube is limited to 20 µ m, we designed and constructed scattering topography equipment using a synchrotron radiation microbeam. In the experiment, the slit system forms the microbeam 7 µ m in diameter. We observed a cellulose distribution in bamboo as a testing material. When the scanning step was 2 µ m, we attained spatial resolution less than 5 µ m.

  2. High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Abdali, S.; Hornstrup, Allan

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in the possible use of Ir as the reflecting surface in X-ray telescope programs. An X-ray study of such surfaces produced by sputtering of Ir on highly polished Zerodur flats is presented here. The study was performed using Fe K(alpha) 1 (6.......404 Kev) and Cu K(alpha) 1 (8.048 keV) and includes measurement of total external reflection and scattering. The scattering measurement was made with three different instruments arrangements; one employed a 1D position sensitive detector for low resolution studies giving approximately 30 arcsec resolution...... (FWHM), and the other two arrangements employed channel cut crystals providing resolutions (FWHM) of 5 arcsec and 1 arcsec, respectively at Cu K(alpha) 1. The reflectivity study revealed a very close correspondence with a theoretical model based on recently published optical constants. This important...

  3. The high optical polarization in the Be/X-ray binary EXO 2030+375

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, P; Papadakis, I; Kylafis, N; Tassis, K

    2014-01-01

    Polarization in classical Be stars results from Thomson scattering of the unpolarized light from the Be star in the circumstellar disc. Theory and observations agree that the maximum degree of polarization from isolated Be stars is < 4%. We report on the first optical polarimetric observations of the Be/X-ray binary EXO\\,2030+375. We find that the optical (R band) light is strongly linearly polarized with a degee of polarization of 19%, the highest ever measured either in a classical or Be/X-ray binary. We argue that the interstellar medium cannot account for this high polarization degree and that a substantial amount must be intrinsic to the source. We propose that it may result from the alignment of non-spherical ferromagnetic grains in the Be star disc due to the strong neutron star magnetic field.

  4. High-resolution x-ray scatter and reflectivity study of sputtered IR surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Abdali, S.; Hornstrup, Allan

    1993-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in the possible use of Ir as the reflecting surface in X-ray telescope programs. An X-ray study of such surfaces produced by sputtering of Ir on highly polished Zerodur flats is presented here. The study was performed using Fe K(alpha) 1 (6.......404 Kev) and Cu K(alpha) 1 (8.048 keV) and includes measurement of total external reflection and scattering. The scattering measurement was made with three different instruments arrangements; one employed a 1D position sensitive detector for low resolution studies giving approximately 30 arcsec resolution...... (FWHM), and the other two arrangements employed channel cut crystals providing resolutions (FWHM) of 5 arcsec and 1 arcsec, respectively at Cu K(alpha) 1. The reflectivity study revealed a very close correspondence with a theoretical model based on recently published optical constants. This important...

  5. Soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS): the high-resolution cryogenic spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kelley, Richard L.; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Bialas, Thomas; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Canavan, Edgar; Chiao, Meng; Costantini, Elisa; den Herder, Jan-Willem; de Vries, Cor; DiPirro, Michael J.; Eckart, Megan E.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Haas, Daniel; Hoshino, Akio; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kimball, Mark; Kitamoto, Shunji; Konami, Saori; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; Miko, Joseph; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Masahide; Noda, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Mina; Ohashi, Takaya; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ota, Naomi; Paltani, Stéphane; Porter, F. Scott; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Yoichi; Sawada, Makoto; Seta, Hiromi; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Shirron, Peter J.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Terada, Yukikatsu; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Yamada, Shinya; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.

    2014-07-01

    We present the development status of the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the ASTRO-H mission. The SXS provides the capability of high energy-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of a FWHM energy resolution of operated at 50 mK. The SXS microcalorimeter subsystem is being developed in an EM-FM approach. The EM SXS cryostat was developed and fully tested and, although the design was generally confirmed, several anomalies and problems were found. Among them is the interference of the detector with the micro-vibrations from the mechanical coolers, which is the most difficult one to solve. We have pursued three different countermeasures and two of them seem to be effective. So far we have obtained energy resolutions satisfying the requirement with the FM cryostat.

  6. Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opachich, Y. P.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Chen, N.; Feng, J.; Gopal, A.; Hatch, B.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Huffman, E.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S. R.; Udin, S.

    2016-11-01

    We have designed and fabricated a structured streak camera photocathode to provide enhanced efficiency for high energy X-rays (1-12 keV). This gold coated photocathode was tested in a streak camera and compared side by side against a conventional flat thin film photocathode. Results show that the measured electron yield enhancement at energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV scales well with predictions, and that the total enhancement can be more than 3×. The spatial resolution of the streak camera does not show degradation in the structured region. We predict that the temporal resolution of the detector will also not be affected as it is currently dominated by the slit width. This demonstration with Au motivates exploration of comparable enhancements with CsI and may revolutionize X-ray streak camera photocathode design.

  7. Highly Ionized Absorption in the X-ray Spectrum of Cyg X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, H L; Fang, T; Cui, W; Canizares, C R; Miller, J M; Lewin, W H G

    2001-01-01

    Using the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS), we have found significant absorption features in the X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 taken in the continuous clocking mode. These features include resonance lines of He-like ions of S, Si, and Mg; the Ly alpha lines of H-like S, Si, Mg, and Ne; and several lower ionization lines of Fe XX, XXII, and XXIV. Preliminary analysis shows that the lines are resolved in many cases, giving line widths of order 300 km/s and are redshifted by 460 +/- 10 km/s. These features are interpreted in the context of an accreting stellar wind model that is ionized by the X-ray source. In addition, there are clear absorption features due to neutral Mg, Fe, and O in the interstellar medium.

  8. Timing of the first eclipsing accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, D; Patruno, A; Watts, A; Linares, M; Degenaar, N; Kalamkar, M; van der Klis, M; Rea, N; Casella, P; Padilla, M Armas; Kaur, R; Yang, Y J; Soleri, P; Wijnands, R

    2010-01-01

    We report on the timing analysis of the first eclipsing accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP): SWIFT J1749.4-2807. The neutron star rotates at a frequency of ~517.9 Hz and is in a binary system with an orbital period of 8.8 hrs and a projected semi-major axis of ~1.90 lt-s. Based on the mass function and the eclipse half-angle, we constrain the inclination of the system to be between ~76 and ~80 deg. This is to date the tightest constraint on the orbital inclination of any AMXP. We also estimate the mass of the companion to be in the 0.6-0.8 Msun range. As in other AMXPs, the pulse profile shows harmonic content up to the 3rd overtone. However, this is the first AMXP to show a 1st overtone with rms amplitudes between 5 and 25%, which is the strongest ever seen, and which can be more than two times stronger than the fundamental. The fact that SWIFT J1749.4-2807 is an eclipsing system which shows uncommonly strong harmonic content suggests that it might be the best source to date to set constraints ...

  9. Highly multiplexible thermal kinetic inductance detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbricht, Gerhard, E-mail: ulbricht@physics.ucsb.edu; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Szypryt, Paul; Walter, Alex B.; Bockstiegel, Clint [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Bumble, Bruce [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    For X-ray imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution over a large field of view is often as important as high energy resolution, but current X-ray detectors do not provide both in the same device. Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors (TKIDs) are being developed as they offer a feasible way to combine the energy resolution of transition edge sensors with pixel counts approaching CCDs and thus promise significant improvements for many X-ray spectroscopy applications. TKIDs are a variation of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) and share their multiplexibility: working MKID arrays with 2024 pixels have recently been demonstrated and much bigger arrays are under development. In this work, we present a TKID prototype, which is able to achieve an energy resolution of 75 eV at 5.9 keV, even though its general design still has to be optimized. We further describe TKID fabrication, characterization, multiplexing, and working principle and demonstrate the necessity of a data fitting algorithm in order to extract photon energies. With further design optimizations, we expect to be able to improve our TKID energy resolution to less than 10 eV at 5.9 keV.

  10. A scientific case for future X-ray Astronomy: Galaxy Clusters at high redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Tozzi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies at high redshift (z>1) are vitally important to understand the evolution of the large scale structure of the Universe, the processes shaping galaxy populations and the cycle of the cosmic baryons, and to constrain cosmological parameters. After 13 years of operation of the Chandra and XMM-Newton satellites, the discovery and characterization of distant X-ray clusters is proceeding at a slow pace, due to the low solid angle covered so far, and the time-expensive observations needed to physically characterize their intracluster medium (ICM). At present, we know that at z>1 many massive clusters are fully virialized, their ICM is already enriched with metals, strong cool cores are already in place, and significant star formation is ongoing in their most massive galaxies, at least at z>1.4. Clearly, the assembly of a large and well characterized sample of high-z X-ray clusters is a major goal for the future. We argue that the only means to achieve this is a survey-optimized X-ray mission capa...

  11. Highly Multiplexible Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors for X-Ray Imaging Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ulbricht, Gerhard; Szypryt, Paul; Walter, Alex B; Bockstiegel, Clint; Bumble, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    For X-ray imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution over a large field of view is often as important as high energy resolution, but current X-ray detectors do not provide both in the same device. Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors (TKIDs) are being developed as they offer a feasible way to combine the energy resolution of transition edge sensors with pixel counts approaching CCDs and thus promise significant improvements for many X-ray spectroscopy applications. TKIDs are a variation of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) and share their multiplexibility: working MKID arrays with 2024 pixels have recently been demonstrated and much bigger arrays are under development. In this work, we present our first working TKID prototypes which are able to achieve an energy resolution of 75 eV at 5.9 keV, even though their general design still has to be optimized. We further describe TKID fabrication, characterization, multiplexing and working principle and demonstrate the necessity of a data fitting algo...

  12. High-resolution x-ray computed tomography to understand ruminant phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeur, Loic; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution X-ray computed tomography has become a vital technique to study fossils down to the true micrometer level. Paleontological research requires the non-destructive analysis of internal structures of fossil specimens. We show how X-ray computed tomography enables us to visualize the inner ear of extinct and extant ruminants without skull destruction. The inner ear, a sensory organ for hearing and balance has a rather complex three-dimensional morphology and thus provides relevant phylogenetical information what has been to date essentially shown in primates. We made visible the inner ears of a set of living and fossil ruminants using the phoenix x-ray nanotom®m (GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies GmbH). Because of the high absorbing objects a tungsten target was used and the experiments were performed with maximum accelerating voltage of 180 kV and a beam current of 30 μA. Possible stem ruminants of the living families are known in the fossil record but extreme morphological convergences in external structures such as teeth is a strong limitation to our understanding of the evolutionary history of this economically important group of animals. We thus investigate the inner ear to assess its phylogenetical potential for ruminants and our first results show strong family-level morphological differences.

  13. Application of soft X-ray lasers for probing high density plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, L.B.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Cauble, R. [and others

    1996-08-01

    The reliability and characteristics of collisionally pumped soft x-ray lasers make them ideal for a wide variety of plasma diagnostics. These systems now operate over a wavelength range extending from 35 to 400 {Angstrom} and have output energies as high as 10 mJ in 150 ps pulses. The beam divergence of these lasers is less than 15 mrad and they have a typical linewidth of {Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approximately} 10{sup -4} making them the brightest xuv sources available. In this paper we will describe the use of x-ray lasers to probe high density plasmas using a variety of diagnostic techniques. Using an x-ray laser and a multilayer mirror imaging system we have studied hydrodynamic imprinting of laser speckle pattern on directly driven thin foils with 1-2 {mu}m spatial resolution. Taking advantage of recently developed multilayer beamsplitters we have constructed and used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer operating at 155 {Angstrom} to probe 1-3 mm size laser produced plasmas with peak electron densities of 4 x 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. A comparison of our results with computer simulations will be presented.

  14. The High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Detector Planes for the MIRAX Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Barbara H G; Allen, Branden; Hong, Jaesub; Barthelmy, Scott; Braga, Joao; D'Amico, Flavio; Rothschild, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The MIRAX X-ray observatory, the first Brazilian-led astrophysics space mission, is designed to perform an unprecedented wide-field, wide-band hard X-ray (5-200 keV) survey of Galactic X-ray transient sources. In the current configuration, MIRAX will carry a set of four coded-mask telescopes with high spatial resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector planes, each one consisting of an array of 64 closely tiled CZT pixelated detectors. Taken together, the four telescopes will have a total detection area of 959 cm^2, a large field of view (60x60 degrees FWHM), high angular resolution for this energy range (6 arcmin) and very good spectral resolution (~2 keV @ 60 keV). A stratospheric balloon-borne prototype of one of the MIRAX telescopes has been developed, tested and flown by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) as part of the ProtoEXIST program. In this paper we show results of validation and calibration tests with individual CZT detectors of the ProtoEXIST second generation experiment ...

  15. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  16. XMM-Newton observations of four high mass X-ray binaries and IGR J17348-2045

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzo, E; Ferrigno, C; Falanga, M; Campana, S; Paltani, S; Stella, L; Walter, R

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the XMM-Newton observations of five hard X-ray emitters: IGR J08262-3736, IGR J17354-3255, IGR J16328-4726, SAX J1818.6-1703, and IGR J17348-2045. The first source is a confirmed supergiant high mass X-ray binary, the following two are candidates supergiant fast X-ray transients, SAX J1818.6-1703 is a confirmed supergiant fast X-ray transient and IGR J17348-2045 is one of the still unidentified objects discovered with INTEGRAL. The XMM-Newton observations permitted the first detailed soft X-ray spectral and timing study of IGR J08262-3736 and provided further support in favor of the association of IGR J17354-3255 and IGR J16328-4726 with the supergiant fast X-ray transients. SAX J1818.6-1703 was not detected by XMM-Newton, thus supporting the idea that this source reaches its lowest X-ray luminosity (~10^32 erg/s) around apastron. For IGR J17348-2045 we identified for the first time the soft X-ray counterpart and proposed the association with a close-by radio object, suggestive of an...

  17. Preliminary test results of a new high-energy-resolution silicon and CdZnTe pixel detectors for application to x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkov, V. V.; Hamilton, William J.; Hurley, Kevin; Maeding, Dale G.; Ogelman, Hakki; Paulos, Robert J.; Puetter, Richard C.; Tumer, Tumay O.; Zweerink, Jeffrey

    1999-10-01

    New, high spatial resolution CdZnTe (CZT) and silicon (Si) pixel detectors are highly suitable for x-ray astronomy. These detectors are planned for use in wide field of view, imaging x-ray, and low energy gamma-ray all-sky monitor (AXGAM) in a future space mission. The high stopping power of CZT detectors combined with low-noise front-end readout makes possible an order of magnitude improvement in spatial and energy resolution in x-ray detection. The AXGAM instrument will be built in the form of a fine coded aperture placed over two-dimensional, high spatial resolution and low energy threshold CZT pixel detector array. The preliminary result of CZT and silicon pixel detector test with low-noise readout electronics system are presented. These detectors may also be used with or without modification for medical and industrial imaging.

  18. Simulations of in situ x-ray diffraction from uniaxially compressed highly textured polycrystalline targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonegle, David, E-mail: d.mcgonegle1@physics.ox.ac.uk; Wark, Justin S.; Higginbotham, Andrew [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Milathianaki, Despina [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Remington, Bruce A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    A growing number of shock compression experiments, especially those involving laser compression, are taking advantage of in situ x-ray diffraction as a tool to interrogate structure and microstructure evolution. Although these experiments are becoming increasingly sophisticated, there has been little work on exploiting the textured nature of polycrystalline targets to gain information on sample response. Here, we describe how to generate simulated x-ray diffraction patterns from materials with an arbitrary texture function subject to a general deformation gradient. We will present simulations of Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction from highly textured polycrystalline targets that have been subjected to uniaxial compression, as may occur under planar shock conditions. In particular, we study samples with a fibre texture, and find that the azimuthal dependence of the diffraction patterns contains information that, in principle, affords discrimination between a number of similar shock-deformation mechanisms. For certain cases, we compare our method with results obtained by taking the Fourier transform of the atomic positions calculated by classical molecular dynamics simulations. Illustrative results are presented for the shock-induced α–ϵ phase transition in iron, the α–ω transition in titanium and deformation due to twinning in tantalum that is initially preferentially textured along [001] and [011]. The simulations are relevant to experiments that can now be performed using 4th generation light sources, where single-shot x-ray diffraction patterns from crystals compressed via laser-ablation can be obtained on timescales shorter than a phonon period.

  19. Bystander effect between zebrafish embryos in vivo induced by high-dose X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, V W Y; Ng, C Y P; Kobayashi, A; Konishi, T; Suya, N; Ishikawa, T; Cheng, S H; Yu, K N

    2013-06-18

    We employed embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, for our studies on the in vivo bystander effect between embryos irradiated with high-dose X-rays and naive unirradiated embryos. The effects on the naive whole embryos were studied through quantification of apoptotic signals at 25 h post fertilization (hpf) through the terminal dUTP transferase-mediated nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay followed by counting the stained cells under a microscope. We report data showing that embryos at 5 hpf subjected to a 4-Gy X-ray irradiation could release a stress signal into the medium, which could induce a bystander effect in partnered naive embryos sharing the same medium. We further demonstrated that this bystander effect (induced through partnering) could be successfully suppressed through the addition of the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) into the medium but not through the addition of the CO liberator tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3). This shows that NO was involved in the bystander response between zebrafish embryos induced through X-ray irradiation. We also report data showing that the bystander effect could be successfully induced in naive embryos by introducing them into the irradiated embryo conditioned medium (IECM) alone, i.e., without partnering with the irradiated embryos. The IECM was harvested from the medium that had conditioned the zebrafish embryos irradiated at 5 hpf with 4-Gy X-ray until the irradiated embryos developed into 29 hpf. NO released from the irradiated embryos was unlikely to be involved in the bystander effect induced through the IECM because of the short life of NO. We further revealed that this bystander effect (induced through IECM) was rapidly abolished through diluting the IECM by a factor of 2× or greater, which agreed with the proposal that the bystander effect was an on/off response with a threshold.

  20. Effective attenuation lengths for photoelectrons emitted by high-energy laboratory X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, A., E-mail: ajablonski@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Powell, C.J. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effective attenuation lengths (EALs) for high kinetic energy photoelectrons. • Weak influence of the non-dipole approximation on the EAL. • New analytical algorithm for calculating the effective attenuation length. - Abstract: We report calculations of effective attenuation lengths (EALs) for Si 2s{sub 1/2}, Cu 2p{sub 3/2}, Ag 3d{sub 5/2}, and Au 4f{sub 7/2} photoelectrons excited by Mg Kα, Al Kα, Zr Lα, and Ti Kα X-rays, where the photoelectron energies ranged from 321 eV to 4.426 keV. These EALs, appropriate for determining overlayer-film thicknesses, were calculated from the transport-approximation formalism and from Monte Carlo simulations using photoionization cross sections from the dipole and non-dipole approximations. Satisfactory consistency was found between EALs determined from the TA formalism and from MC simulations, while differences between EALs for Au 4f{sub 7/2} photoelectrons from the dipole and non-dipole approximations were between 1% (for Mg and Al Kα X-rays) and 2.5% (for Ti Kα X-rays) for photoelectron emission angles less than 50°. As in past work for electron energies less than 2 keV, we found a simple linear relation between the ratio of the average EAL (for emission angles less than 50°) to the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) and the single-scattering albedo, a function of the IMFP and the transport mean free path. The root-mean-square difference between our average EALs and those from the linear expression was 1.44%. This expression should be useful in determinations of film thicknesses by XPS with unpolarized X-rays for photoelectron energies up to about 5 keV.